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Sample records for cancer effects modified

  1. Biocompatible APTES-PEG modified magnetite nanoparticles: effective carriers of antineoplastic agents to ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Amaneh; Ahmadian, Shahin; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed; Shahzad, Sughra

    2014-05-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles are particularly attractive for drug delivery applications because of their size-dependent superparamagnetism, low toxicity, and biocompatibility with cells and tissues. Surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles with biocompatible polymers is potentially beneficial to prepare biodegradable nanocomposite-based drug delivery agents for in vivo and in vitro applications. In the present study, the bare (10 nm) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-(3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) (PA) modified (17 nm) superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) were synthesized by coprecipitation method. The anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), were separately encapsulated into the synthesized polymeric nanocomposites for localized targeting of human ovarian cancer in vitro. Surface morphology analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed a slight increase in particle size (27 ± 0.7 and 30 ± 0.45 nm) with drug loading capacities of 70 and 61.5 % and release capabilities of 90 and 93 % for the DOX- and PTX-AP-SPIO NPs, respectively (p drugs (p drug delivery proved to be effective enough in order to treat deadly solid tumor of ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    variants and cancer risk in Mendelian cancer syndromes. Curr Opin Genet Dev 20: 299–307. S0959-437X(10)00044-4 [pii];10.1016/j.gde.2010.03.010 [doi]. 3...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0341 TITLE: Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Fergus J. Couch, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...DATE AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 15MAY2010 - 14MAY2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian

  3. Effects of capsid-modified oncolytic adenoviruses and their combinations with gemcitabine or silica gel on pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Lotta; Parviainen, Suvi; Pisto, Tommi; Koskinen, Mika; Jokinen, Mika; Kiviluoto, Tuula; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Jalonen, Harry; Koski, Anniina; Kangasniemi, Anna; Kanerva, Anna; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli

    2012-07-01

    Conventional cancer treatments often have little impact on the course of advanced pancreatic cancer. Although cancer gene therapy with adenoviruses is a promising developmental approach, the primary receptor is poorly expressed in pancreatic cancers which might compromise efficacy and thus targeting to other receptors could be beneficial. Extended stealth delivery, combination with standard chemotherapy or circumvention of host antiadenoviral immune response might improve efficacy further. In this work, capsid-modified adenoviruses were studied for transduction of cell lines and clinical normal and tumor tissue samples. The respective oncolytic viruses were tested for oncolytic activity in vitro and in vivo. Survival was studied in a peritoneally disseminated pancreas cancer model, with or without concurrent gemcitabine while silica implants were utilized for extended intraperitoneal virus delivery. Immunocompetent mice and Syrian hamsters were used to study the effect of silica mediated delivery on antiviral immune responses and subsequent in vivo gene delivery. Capsid modifications selectively enhanced gene transfer to malignant pancreatic cancer cell lines and clinical samples. The respective oncolytic viruses resulted in increased cell killing in vitro, which translated into a survival benefit in mice. Early proinfammatory cytokine responses and formation of antiviral neutralizing antibodies was partially avoided with silica implants. The implant also shielded the virus from pre-existing neutralizing antibodies, while increasing the pancreas/liver gene delivery ratio six-fold. In conclusion, capsid modified adenoviruses would be useful for testing in pancreatic cancer trials. Silica implants might increase the safety and efficacy of the approach.

  4. Modifying Effects of IL-6 Polymorphisms on Body Size–Associated Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L.; Curtin, Karen; Sweeney, Carol; Wolff, Roger K.; Baumgartner, Richard N.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Byers, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Objective The association between obesity and breast cancer risk is complex. We examined whether the association between body size and breast cancer risk is modified by interleukin-6 (IL6) genotype. Methods and Procedures Five polymorphisms in the IL-6 gene (rs1800797/-596A>G, rs1800796/-572G>C, rs1800795/-174G>C, rs2069832/IVS2G>A, and rs2069849 exon 5 C>T) were studied. We investigated IL6 genotypes and haplotypes with indicators of body size among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic/American Indian (AI) breast cancer cases and controls living in the Southwestern United States. Results We observed lower mean levels of BMI among NHW women who carried one or two copies of the GGCAC haplotype (in order: rs1800797, rs1800796, rs1800795, rs2069832, and rs2069849; P trend 0.02). This haplotype, with an estimated frequency of 43% in NHW study controls, was considerably less common in Hispanic/AI controls (19%). We did not detect significant interactions between IL6 genotypes or haplotypes and BMI categorized as low/normal (C genotype for breast cancer risk. These associations were restricted to postmenopausal NHW women. Among women without recent hormone exposure, those with a WHR >0.9 and the rs1800795 GG genotype had a greater than threefold increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratios (ORs) 3.22, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.27, 817) when compared with women with a WHR <0.8 and the rs1800795 GG genotype (P interaction 0.01). Discussion These data suggest that IL-6 genotypes may influence breast cancer risk in conjunction with central adiposity. PMID:18239642

  5. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Hua-Feng Pan; Gui-Lan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy.Method:A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases), then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after surgery; when the drainage volume≤ 20 mL, 24 h after surgery, removed the drainage tubes, to record the drainage days, total cases who occured subcutaneous hydrops and all adverse events after surgery. Results:Study group: the first 3 d of daily drainage volume declined quickly, and were accordingly less than that in control group; and≤ 50 mL/24 h on the third day. Drainage total days median (4 d) were less than that in control group (7 d); subcutaneous hydrops occurrence rate was only 2%, which wasgreatly lower than that in control group (14%), statistics difference had significance. Through the comparison between study group and control group, this surgical method improvement will not bring any surgical safety problems, such as hematoma, wound infection, skin flap necrosis and upper limb LOM etc. Only extended the surgical time slightly. While in control group, drainage tubes fell into the dead space or were blocked frequently, then induced hydrops; but in study group, due to the suture of latissimus dorsi leading edge and chestwall, dead space disappeared at this spot, drainage tube were not blocked any more.Conclusion: In mastectomy and axillary lymph dissection, due to axillary dissection, ligation might lead to open lymphatic tissue, added that suture fixed latissimus dorsi leading edge and skin flap leading to disappeared dead space, compared with traditional surgical method, this improved surgical method could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of hydrops. Daily drainage volume

  6. Relevant reduction effect with a modified thermoplastic mask of rotational error for glottic cancer in IMRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hong; Jung, Joo-Young; Cho, Kwang Hwan; Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Bae, Sun Hyun; Moon, Seong Kwon; Kim, Yong Ho; Choe, Bo-Young; Suh, Tae Suk

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the glottis rotational error (GRE) by using a thermoplastic mask for patients with the glottic cancer undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We selected 20 patients with glottic cancer who had received IMRT by using the tomotherapy. The image modalities with both kilovoltage computed tomography (planning kVCT) and megavoltage CT (daily MVCT) images were used for evaluating the error. Six anatomical landmarks in the image were defined to evaluate a correlation between the absolute GRE (°) and the length of contact with the underlying skin of the patient by the mask (mask, mm). We also statistically analyzed the results by using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and a linear regression analysis ( P correlation ( P < 0.01). We found a statistical significance for each parameter in the linear regression analysis (mask versus absolute roll: P = 0.004 [ P < 0.05]; mask versus 3D-error: P = 0.000 [ P < 0.05]). The range of the 3D-errors with contact by the mask was from 1.2% - 39.7% between the maximumand no-contact case in this study. A thermoplastic mask with a tight, increased contact area may possibly contribute to the uncertainty of the reproducibility as a variation of the absolute GRE. Thus, we suggest that a modified mask, such as one that covers only the glottis area, can significantly reduce the patients' setup errors during the treatment.

  7. Effects of chemically modified nanostructured PLGA on functioning of lung and breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lijuan Zhang,1 Thomas J Webster21Department of Chemistry, 2School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USABackground: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanotopographies with alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption on the functioning of healthy and cancerous lung and breast cells, including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, which promotes tumor angiogenesis and secretion.Methods: We used a well established cast-mold technique to create nanoscale surface features on PLGA. Some of the nanomodified PLGA films were then exposed to alginate and chitosan. Surface roughness and the presence of protein was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Surface energy was quantified by contact angle measurement.Results: Nanostructured PLGA surfaces with 23 nm features decreased synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells compared with conventional PLGA. Preadsorbing alginate further decreased cancer cell function, with nanostructured PLGA preadsorbed with alginate achieving the greatest decrease in synthesis of VEGF in both lung and breast cancer cells. In contrast, compared with nonmodified smooth PLGA, healthy cell functions were either not altered (ie, breast or were enhanced (ie, lung by use of nanostructured features and alginate or chitosan protein preadsorption.Conclusion: Using this technique, we developed surface nanometric roughness and modification of surface chemistry that could selectively decrease breast and lung cancer cell functioning without the need for chemotherapeutics. This technique requires further study in a wide range of anticancer and regenerative medicine applications.Keywords: breast, lung, cancer, nanotechnology, alginate, chitosan

  8. Common genetic polymorphisms modify the effect of smoking on absolute risk of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Rothman, Nathaniel; Figueroa, Jonine D; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Han, Summer S; Baris, Dalsu; Jacobs, Eric J; Malats, Nuria; De Vivo, Immaculata; Albanes, Demetrius; Purdue, Mark P; Sharma, Sapna; Fu, Yi-Ping; Kogevinas, Manolis; Wang, Zhaoming; Tang, Wei; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Johnson, Alison; Schwenn, Molly; Karagas, Margaret R; Schned, Alan; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Gapstur, Susan M; Thun, Michael; Diver, William Ryan; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hunter, David J; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria Teresa; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdett, Laurie; Jacobs, Kevin B; Yeager, Meredith; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Chanock, Stephen J; Silverman, Debra T; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2013-04-01

    Bladder cancer results from the combined effects of environmental and genetic factors, smoking being the strongest risk factor. Evaluating absolute risks resulting from the joint effects of smoking and genetic factors is critical to assess the public health relevance of genetic information. Analyses included up to 3,942 cases and 5,680 controls of European background in seven studies. We tested for multiplicative and additive interactions between smoking and 12 susceptibility loci, individually and combined as a polygenic risk score (PRS). Thirty-year absolute risks and risk differences by levels of the PRS were estimated for U.S. males aged 50 years. Six of 12 variants showed significant additive gene-environment interactions, most notably NAT2 (P = 7 × 10(-4)) and UGT1A6 (P = 8 × 10(-4)). The 30-year absolute risk of bladder cancer in U.S. males was 6.2% for all current smokers. This risk ranged from 2.9% for current smokers in the lowest quartile of the PRS to 9.9% for current smokers in the upper quartile. Risk difference estimates indicated that 8,200 cases would be prevented if elimination of smoking occurred in 100,000 men in the upper PRS quartile compared with 2,000 cases prevented by a similar effort in the lowest PRS quartile (P(additive) = 1 × 10(-4)). Thus, the potential impact of eliminating smoking on the number of bladder cancer cases prevented is larger for individuals at higher than lower genetic risk. Our findings could have implications for targeted prevention strategies. However, other smoking-related diseases, as well as practical and ethical considerations, need to be considered before any recommendations could be made. ©2012 AACR.

  9. Anticancer Effects of the Nitric Oxide-Modified Saquinavir Derivative Saquinavir-NO against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rothweiler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir shows anticancer activity. Although its nitric oxide-modified derivative saquinavir-NO (saq-NO was less toxic to normal cells, it exerted stronger inhibition of B16 melanoma growth in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice than saquinavir did. Saq-NO has been shown to block proliferation, upregulate p53 expression, and promote differentiation of C6 glioma and B16 cells. The anticancer activity of substances is frequently hampered by cancer cell chemoresistance mechanisms. Therefore, we here investigated the roles of p53 and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1 in cancer cell sensitivity to saq-NO to get more information about the potential of saq-NO as anticancer drug. Saq-NO exerted anticancer effects in lower concentrations than saquinavir in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Neither p53 mutation or depletion nor expression of P-gp, MRP1, or BCRP1 affected anticancer activity of saq-NO or saquinavir. Moreover, saq-NO sensitized P-gp-, MRP1-, or BCRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy. Saq-NO induced enhanced sensitization of P-gp- or MRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy compared with saquinavir, whereas both substances similarly sensitized BCRP1-expressing cells. Washout kinetics and ABC transporter ATPase activities demonstrated that saq-NO is a substrate of P-gp as well as of MRP1. These data support the further investigation of saq-NO as an anticancer drug, especially in multidrug-resistant tumors.

  10. Preparation of RGD-modified Long Circulating Liposome Loading Matrine, and its in vitro Anti-cancer Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Liu, Li-ming Ruan, Wei-wei Mao, Jin-Qiang Wang, You-qing Shen, Mei-hua Sui

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To prepare RGD-modified long circulating liposome (LCL loading matrine (RGD-M-LCL to improve the tumor-targeting and efficacy of matrine. Methods: LCL which was prepared with HSPC, cholesterol, DSPE-PEG2000 and DSPE-PEG-MAL was modified with an RGD motif confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The encapsulation efficiency of RGD-M-LCL was also detected by HPLC. MTT assay was used to examine the effects of RGD-M-LCL on the proliferation of Bcap-37, HT-29 and A375 cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells and morphological changes in Bcap-37 cells treated with RGD-M-LCL were detected by Annexin-V-FITC/PI affinity assay and observed under light microscope, respectively. Results: Spherical or oval single-chamber particles of uniform sizes with little agglutination or adhesion were observed under transmission electronic microscope. The RGD motif was successfully coupled to the DSPE-PEG-MAL on liposomes, as confirmed by HPLC. An encapsulation efficiency of 83.13% was obtained when the drug-lipid molar ratio was 0.1, and the encapsulation efficiency was negatively related to the drug-lipid ratio in the range of 0.1~0.4, and to the duration of storage. We found that, compared with free matrine, RGD-M-LCL had much stronger in vitro activity, leading to anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against cancer cells (P<0.01. Conclusion: RGD-M-LCL, a novel delivery system for anti-cancer drugs, was successfully prepared, and we demonstrated that the use of this material could augment the effects of matrine on cancer cells in vitro.

  11. High fat mixed lipid diet modifies protective effects of exercise on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perše, M; Injac, R; Štrukelj, B; Cerar, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term swimming exercise in conjunction with a high fat mixed lipid (HFML) diet on colon cancer (CC) development and lipid peroxidation in the large bowel. We used forty male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into one control group and four cancer groups: sedentary and swimming groups fed a standard diet (LFCO) and sedentary and swimming groups fed an HFML diet. Corticosterone was determined during the experiment. After 6 months of swimming, the rats were sacrificed and blood, heart, liver, muscle and large bowel were taken for determining the activity of serum enzymes, antioxidant capacity and CC development. The results demonstrate that exercise has a protective role in CC development. Attenuated development of CC and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the large bowel of exercised rats show that one of the protective effects of exercise on developing CC is induction of oxidative stress. However, in terms of the combined effects of dietary fat and exercise, our results indicate that the protective role of exercise on CC development is significantly depressed by an HFML diet. An HFML diet significantly reduced the protective influence of exercise on colon carcinogenesis in rats and affected the degree of peroxidation in the large bowel during exercise, as well as concentrations of serum enzymes (LDH, α-HBDH, CK, ALT and AST). Our results indicate that an HFML diet, which reflects the composition of a Western style diet, is a significant modifier of the protective effects of exercise on CC development in rats.

  12. Chromatin-modifying proteins in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Cathrine K; Jensen, Klaus T; Lund, Anders Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Chromatin-modifying proteins mold the genome into areas that are accessible for transcriptional activity and areas that are transcriptionally silent. This epigenetic gene regulation allows for different transcriptional programs to be conducted in different cell types at different timepoints......-despite the fact that all cells in the organism contain the same genetic information. A large amount of data gathered over the last decades has demonstrated that deregulation of chromatin-modifying proteins is etiologically involved in the development and progression of cancer. Here we discuss how epigenetic...... alterations influence cancer development and review known cancer-associated alterations in chromatin-modifying proteins....

  13. Gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Thompson, T C

    2008-05-01

    There is a critical need to develop new and effective cancer therapies that target bone, the primary metastatic site for prostate cancer and other malignancies. Among the various therapeutic approaches being considered for this application, gene-modified cell-based therapies may have specific advantages. Gene-modified cell therapy uses gene transfer and cell-based technologies in a complementary fashion to chaperone appropriate gene expression cassettes to active sites of tumor growth. In this paper, we briefly review potential cell vehicles for this approach and discuss relevant gene therapy strategies for prostate cancer. We further discuss selected studies that led to the conceptual development and preclinical testing of IL-12 gene-modified bone marrow cell therapy for prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss future directions in the development of gene-modified cell therapy for metastatic prostate cancer, including the need to identify and test novel therapeutic genes such as GLIPR1.

  14. "Nail" and "comb" effects of cholesterol modified NIPAm oligomers on cancer targeting liposomes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Wengang

    2014-01-01

    Thermosensitive liposomes are a promising approach to controlled release and reduced drug cytotoxicity. Low molecular weight N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) oligomers (NOs) with different architectures (main chain NOs (MCNOs) and side chain NOs (SCNOs)) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and radical polymerization and then separately used to prepare thermosensitive liposomes. A more controlled and enhanced release was observed for both NO liposomes compared to pristine ones. Two release mechanisms depending on the oligomer architecture, namely "nail" for MCNOs and "comb" for SCNOs, are proposed. In addition to thermosensitivity, the cancer targeting property of NO liposomes was achieved by further biotinylation of the delivery system. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Inhibitory effect of 2 '-o-methoxyethyl-modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A on SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yi-bing; WEN Ze-qing; ZHAO Xing-bo; YAN Lei; ZHANG Chun-hua; WANG Fei

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancers are often at an advanced stage at diagnosis because early detection is difficult. The poor prognosis of ovarian cancers highlights the crucial need to develop better therapeutic agents and strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of a new modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells.Methods Antisense oligonucleotides targeting VEGF-A was designed, synthesized and transfected into SKOV3ovarian cancer cells. Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR were used to analyze the inhibitory effects of antisense oligonucleotides on VEGF-A protein and mRNA expression. Transwell matrix assay was used to detect cell migration inhibition.Results The antisense oligonucleotides targeting VEGF-A significantly decreased VEGF-A protein and mRNA expression and inhibited cell migration in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells.Conclusions This new modified antisense oligonucleotides targeting VEGF-A can decrease VEGF-A expression and inhibit cell migration in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. This new oligonucleotides may be a promising therapeutic agent for ovarian cancers.

  16. The Indications and Clinical Curative Effects of Modified Neck Dissection in Head and Neck Cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuohaoWu; WeiweiUu; FujinChen; ZongyuanZeng; HaoLi; MingSong; MaowenWei; QuanZhang; AnkuiYang; WenkuanChen

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Functional neck dissection was first described by Bocca and Pignataro in 1967. It has been used in clinical practice for years, but remains controversial among neck-surgery experts. This study was designed to evaluate indications and curative effects of functional-neck dissection (FND). METHODS One hundred and fifty-two cases which underwent FND were reviewed with an analysis of pathological specimens and follow-up datas. RESULTS The series of FND included 20 cases of tongue carcinoma, 23 cases of larynx carcinoma, 96 cases of thyroid papillary adenocarcinoma, 9 cases of follicular adenocarcinoma and 4 cases of medullary adenocarcinoma; the five-year recurrence rate for tongue carcinoma was 12.5%, 14.3%, 40.0% and for a larynx carcinoma was 20.0%, 16.7%, 50.0% in N0 stage, N1 stage, N2a stage, respectively. The 5-year recurrence rate of thyroid papillary adenocarcinoma was 6.5%, 7.1% in N1a, N1b, respectively. CONCLUSION Functional neck dissection is indicated in early and low malignant head and neck neoplasms and results in satisfactory curative effects.

  17. Biological Response Modifier in Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ronghua; Luo, Feifei; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Luman; Yang, Jiao; Deng, Yuting; Huang, Enyu; Qian, Jiawen; Lu, Zhou; Jiang, Xuechao; Zhang, Dan; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-01-01

    Biological response modifiers (BRMs) emerge as a lay of new compounds or approaches used in improving cancer immunotherapy. Evidences highlight that cytokines, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, and noncoding RNAs are of crucial roles in modulating antitumor immune response and cancer-related chronic inflammation, and BRMs based on them have been explored. In particular, besides some cytokines like IFN-α and IL-2, several Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists like BCG, MPL, and imiquimod are also licensed to be used in patients with several malignancies nowadays, and the first artificial small noncoding RNA (microRNA) mimic, MXR34, has entered phase I clinical study against liver cancer, implying their potential application in cancer therapy. According to amounts of original data, this chapter will review the regulatory roles of TLR signaling, some noncoding RNAs, and several key cytokines in cancer and cancer-related immune response, as well as the clinical cases in cancer therapy based on them.

  18. 改性甘薯果胶对癌细胞增殖的影响%Effects of Modified Sweet Potato Pectins on the Proliferation of Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕燕; 木泰华; 张苗

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨pH改性和热改性甘薯果胶对结肠癌细胞HT-29、乳腺癌细胞Bcap-37和肝癌细胞SMMC7721增殖的影响.[方法]分别对改性前后甘薯果胶的半乳糖醛酸含量、酯化度、分子量、微观结构及癌细胞增殖抑制活性进行测定.[结果]果胶改性后半乳糖醛酸含量显著提高(P<0.05),而酯化度和分子量降低,微观结构发生明显变化.未改性、pH改性和热改性甘薯果胶对3种癌细胞均有抑制作用,并呈浓度和时间依赖性;改性后甘薯果胶对3种癌细胞增殖抑制效果均有显著提高(P<0.05),且改性甘薯果胶对HT-29和Bcap-37的抑制效果更显著.[结论]改性甘薯果胶对HT-29和Bcap-37的增殖抑制效果较好,具有潜在的抗结肠癌和乳腺癌作用.%[Objective ] Effects of pH-modified and heat-treated sweet potato pectins on proliferation of human colon cancer cell HT-29, human breast cancer cell Bcap-37 and human hepatoma cancer cell SMMC-7721 were investigated. [Method] The galacturonic acid content, degree of estenfication (DE), molecular weight, microstmcture and activity of cancer cell proliferation inhibition of pectins (natural, pH-modified and heat-treated pectins) were determined, respectively. [ Result] Modification increased galacturonic acid content of sweet potato pectin, whereas decreased its DE and molecular weight significantly (P<0.05). The microstructures of modified pectins were obviously different from microstructure of natural pectin. Natural and modified sweet potato pectins could inhibit the proliferation of three types of cancer cells in time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the inhibitory effect of modified sweet potato pectins on three types of cancer cells increased significantly compared to natural pectin (P<0.05). Furthermore, the proliferation-inhibitory effects of modified pectins on HT-29 and Bcap-37 were better than that of modified pectins on SMMC-7721. [Conclusion] Proliferation of HT

  19. Magnetic-composite-modified polycrystalline silicon nanowire field-effect transistor for vascular endothelial growth factor detection and cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Yang, Fu-Liang; Liu, Yin-Chih; Chen, Min-Cheng; Tsai, Rung-Ywan; Yang, Hung-Wei; Lin, Chia-Yi; Lin, Chu-Chi; Wu, Tzong-Shoon; Tu, Yi-Ming; Xiao, Min-Cong; Ho, Chia-Hua; Huang, Chien-Chao; Lai, Chao-Sung; Hua, Mu-Yi

    2014-10-01

    This study proposes a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) biosensor for diagnosing various stages of cervical carcinoma. In addition, VEGF concentrations at various stages of cancer therapy are determined and compared to data obtained by computed tomography (CT) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). The increase in VEGF concentrations during operations offers useful insight into dosage timing during cancer therapy. This biosensor uses Avastin as the biorecognition element for the potential cancer biomarker VEGF and is based on a n-type polycrystalline silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (poly-SiNW-FET). Magnetic nanoparticles with poly[aniline-co-N-(1-one-butyric acid) aniline]-Fe3O4 (SPAnH-Fe3O4) shell-core structures are used as carriers for Avastin loading and provide rapid purification due to their magnetic properties, which prevent the loss of bioactivity; furthermore, the high surface area of these structures increases the quantity of Avastin immobilized. Average concentrations in human blood for species that interfere with detection specificity are also evaluated. The detection range of the biosensor for serum samples covers the results expected from both healthy individuals and cancer patients.

  20. Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0470 TITLE: Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donato F...Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk Ges Gestational Exposure as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk tational Exposure...as Epigenetic Modifier of Breast Cancer Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0470 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  1. DNA repair single-nucleotide polymorphisms in colorectal cancer and their role as modifiers of the effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol in the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mariana C; Conti, David V; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Corral, Román; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yu, Mimi C

    2007-11-01

    Recently, we reported that among Singapore Chinese, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were independent risk factors for colorectal cancer. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol use are plausible colorectal cancer risk factors, partly due to their ability to induce mutations in the colorectal lumen. In the present study, we investigated the role in colorectal cancer of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in five DNA repair genes: XRCC1 (Arg(194)Trp and Arg(399)Gln), PARP (Val(762)Ala, Lys(940)Arg), XPD (Asp(312)Asn, Lys(751)Gln), OGG1 (Ser(326)Cys), and MGMT (Leu(84)Phe). We conducted this study within the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older Singapore Chinese men and women enrolled between 1993 and 1998. Our study included 1,176 controls and 310 cases (180 colon and 130 rectum cancer). We observed a positive association between the PARP codon 940 Lys/Arg and Arg/Arg genotypes and colorectal cancer risk [odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-3.1], and an inverse association between the MGMT codon 84 Leu/Phe or Phe/Phe genotypes and colon cancer risk (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9), but not rectal cancer (test of heterogeneity by tumor site, P=0.027). We observed evidence that XRCC1 may modify the effects of smoking (interaction P=0.012). The effect of smoking among carriers of the Arg(194)-Gln(399) haplotype was OR=0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.1), whereas, among carriers of the Trp(194)-Arg(399) haplotype, it was OR=1.6 (95% CI, 1.1-2.5). We also observed a nonstatistically significant modification of XRCC1 on the effects of alcohol (P=0.245). Whereas alcohol had no effect among carriers of the codon 194 Arg/Arg (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.6-1.7) or Arg/Trp genotypes (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-1.9), there was a positive association among carriers of the Trp/Trp genotype (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.0-8.1). Our results support a role for reactive oxygen species as relevant genotoxins that may account for the effects of both smoking

  2. Glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan nanoparticles enhanced the effect of 5-fluorouracil in murine liver cancer model via regulatory T-cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mingrong Cheng,1,2,* Hongzhi Xu,3,* Yong Wang,4,* Houxiang Chen,5 Bing He,3 Xiaoyan Gao,6 Yingchun Li,2 Jiang Han,1 Zhiping Zhang1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Endoscopy, Pudong New Area District Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Fifth People’s Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 5Zhejiang Huafon Fiber Research Institute, Zhejiang Huafon Spandex Co, Ltd, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China; 6Department of Plastic Surgery, Pudong New Area District Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Modified chitosan nanoparticles are a promising platform for drug, such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, gene, and vaccine delivery. Here, we used chitosan and hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule glycyrrhetinic acid (GA to synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (GA-CTS. The synthetic product was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. By combining GA-CTS and 5-FU, we obtained a GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle, with a particle size of 193.7 nm, drug loading of 1.56%, and a polydispersity index of 0.003. The GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle provided a sustained-release system comprising three distinct phases of quick, steady, and slow release. In vitro data indicated that it had a dose- and time-dependent anticancer effect. The effective drug exposure time against hepatic cancer cells was increased in comparison with that observed with 5-FU. In vivo studies on an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model demonstrated that GA-CTS/5-FU significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation, resulting in increased survival time. The antitumor mechanisms for GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle were possibly associated with an increased expression of regulatory T

  3. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  4. Magainin II modified polydiacetylene micelles for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Danling; Zou, Rongfeng; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Ben; Yao, Defan; Jiang, Juanjuan; Wu, Junchen; Tian, He

    2014-11-01

    Polydiacetylene (PDA) micelles have been widely used to deliver anticancer drugs in the treatment of a variety of tumours and for imaging living cells. In this study, we developed an effective strategy to directly conjugate magainin II (MGN-II) to the surface of PDA micelles using a fluorescent dye. These stable and well-defined PDA micelles had high cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines, and were able to reduce the tumour size in mice. The modified PDA micelles improved the anticancer effects of MGN-II in the A549 cell line only at a concentration of 16.0 μg mL-1 (IC50). In addition, following irradiation with UV light at 254 nm, the PDA micelles gave rise to an energy transfer from the fluorescent dye to the backbone of PDA micelles to enhance the imaging of living cells. Our results demonstrate that modified PDA micelles can not only be used in the treatment of tumors in vitro and in vivo in a simple and directed way, but also offer a new platform for designing functional liposomes to act as anticancer agents.Polydiacetylene (PDA) micelles have been widely used to deliver anticancer drugs in the treatment of a variety of tumours and for imaging living cells. In this study, we developed an effective strategy to directly conjugate magainin II (MGN-II) to the surface of PDA micelles using a fluorescent dye. These stable and well-defined PDA micelles had high cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines, and were able to reduce the tumour size in mice. The modified PDA micelles improved the anticancer effects of MGN-II in the A549 cell line only at a concentration of 16.0 μg mL-1 (IC50). In addition, following irradiation with UV light at 254 nm, the PDA micelles gave rise to an energy transfer from the fluorescent dye to the backbone of PDA micelles to enhance the imaging of living cells. Our results demonstrate that modified PDA micelles can not only be used in the treatment of tumors in vitro and in vivo in a simple and directed way, but also offer a new platform for

  5. In vitro cytotoxic effects of modified zinc oxide quantum dots on breast cancer cell lines (MCF7), colon cancer cell lines (HT29) and various fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhroueian, Zahra; Dehshiri, Alireza Mozafari; Katouzian, Fatemeh; Esmaeilzadeh, Pegah

    2014-07-01

    An important ideal objective of this study was to perform surface functionalization of fine (1-3 nm) ZnO quantum dot nanoparticles (QD NPs) in order to inhibit decomposition and agglomeration of nanoparticles in aqueous media. Polymers, oily herbal fatty acids, PEG (polyethylene glycol), and organosilanes are the main reagents used in these reactions, because they are completely soluble in water, and can be used as biological probes in nanomedicine. Vegetable fatty acid-capped ZnO (QD NPs) was fabricated by dissolving at a suitable pH after sol-gel method in the presence of nonionic surfactants as efficient templates with a particular HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) value (9.7 and 8.2). In the present research, we focused on the cellular toxicity of fine zinc oxide QD NPs containing particular blue fluorescence for targeted delivery of MCF7 and HT29 cancer cell lines. The IC50 values were determined as 10.66 and 5.75 µg/ml for MCF7 and HT29, respectively. These findings showed that ZnO QDs have low toxicity in normal cells (MDBK) and can display potential application in cancer chemotherapy in the near future. These properties could result in the generation of a promising candidate in the field of nanobiomedicine. The robust-engineered ZnO QD NPs showed their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and also different fungi such as Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis, compared with the standard antibiotic agents like Gentamicin and Clotrimazol.

  6. Photothermal effects of immunologically modified carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Ryan T.; Henderson, Brock; Goddard, Jessica; Tan, Yongqiang; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes have a great potential in the biomedical applications. To use carbon nanotubes in the treatment of cancer, we synthesized an immunologically modified single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) using a novel immunomodifier, glycated chitosan (GC), as an effective surfactant for SWNT. This new composition SWNT-GC was stable due to the strong non-covalent binding between SWNT and GC. The structure of SWNT-GC is presented in this report. The photothermal effect of SWNT-GC was investigated under irradiation of a near-infrared laser. SWNT-GC retained the optical properties of SWNT and the immunological properties of GC. Specifically, the SWNT-GC could selectively absorb a 980-nm light and induce desirable thermal effects in tissue culture and in animals. It could also induce tumor cell destruction, controlled by the laser settings and the doses of SWNT and GC. Laser+SWNT-GC treatment could also induce strong expression of heat shock proteins on the surface of tumor cells. This immunologically modified carbon nanotube could be used for selective photothermal interactions in noninvasive tumor treatment.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of selective neck dissection versus modified radical neck dissection for treating metastases in patients with oral cavity cancer: A modelling study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, T.M.; Patel, S.; Takes, R.P.; Merkx, T.; Rovers, M.; Grutters, J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Choosing between a more or less extensive neck dissection implies a tradeoff between survival, quality of life, and costs. The purpose of this study was to determine if selective neck dissection (level I-III or I-IV) is cost-effective compared with modified radical neck dissection (level

  8. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  9. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  10. Does obesity modify prostate cancer detection in a European cohort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Bonet, Angeles; Morales-Palacios, Nelson; Barrionuevo-Gonzalez, Marta; Ortega-Polledo, Luis-Enrique; Ortiz-Vico, Francisco-Javier; Sanchez-Chapado, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To investigate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) accuracy and digital rectal examination (DRE) accuracy in detecting prostate cancer according to body mass index (BMI) in Spanish men with an indication of the first prostate biopsy. We reviewed the clinical and histopathological data of 1,319 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy. The patients were categorised according to the BMI as follows: obese). Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to assess PSA accuracy and DRE accuracy by calculating the area under the curve. The obesity rate of the cohort was 14%. PSA accuracy for predicting prostate cancer in each BMI category was 0.52, 0.58 and 0.62, respectively (p = 0.01). After stratification by DRE findings, there was no difference in the performance accuracy of PSA in predicting the presence of cancer across BMI groups in abnormal DRE (p = 0.90). Serum PSA, DRE and BMI were strong predictors of prostate cancer diagnosis (odds ratio 1.07, 2.02 and 1.4, respectively; p prostate cancer twice. With the addition of BMI to the model, the area under the curve of the combined PSA and DRE for diagnosing prostate cancer improved from 0.60 to 0.63. The predictive value of PSA in predicting prostate cancer is not poorer in the obese population and the predictive value of an abnormal DRE in cancer detection is significantly modified by the patient's BMI.

  11. Specific internalization and synergistic anticancer effect of docetaxel-encapsulated chitosan-modified polymeric nanocarriers: a novel approach in cancer chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Shalini; Gupta, Pramod K.; Konwar, Rituraj; Chourasia, Manish K.

    2013-09-01

    Nanocarriers can be surface engineered to increase endocytosis for applications in delivery of chemotherapeutics. This study investigated the chitosan (CS)-mediated effects on the anticancer efficacy and uptake of docetaxel-loaded nanometric particles (negatively charged poly lactic- co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (-18.4 ± 2.57 mV, 162 ± 6.34 nm), poorly endocytosed by the MCF-7 cells, were subjected to surface modification with CS. It demonstrated significant increase (>5-fold) in intracellular uptake as well as antitumor efficacy of modified nanoparticles (NPs) that explicate the possibility of saccharide marker-mediated tumor targeting along with synergism via proapoptotic effect of CS. Additionally, high positivity of optimized tailored nanocarrier (+23.3 ± 2.02 mV, 242.8 ± 9.42 nm) may have accounted for the increased adsorption-mediated endocytosis, preferably toward tumor cells with negative potential. Developed drug carrier system showed high stability in human blood which is in compliance with mucoadhesive property of CS. Transmission electron microscopy technique was applied to observe shape and morphological features of NPs. Furthermore, in vivo tissue toxicity study revealed safe use of drug at 20 mg/kg dose in nanoparticulate form. Moreover, the enhanced in vitro uptake of these NPs and their cytotoxicity against the tumor cells along with synergistic effect of CS clearly suggest that CS-modified carrier system is a promising candidate for preclinical studies to achieve wider anti-tumor therapeutic window and lower side effects.

  12. The Effects of Pre Modified Input, Interactionally Modified Input, and Modified Output on EFL Learners' Comprehension of New Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Zinat; Pazhakh, AbdolReza

    2012-01-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effects of premodified input, interactionally modified input and modified output on 80 EFL learners' comprehension of new words. The subjects were randomly assigned into four groups of pre modified input, interactionally modified input, modified output and unmodified (control) groups. Each group…

  13. Specific internalization and synergistic anticancer effect of docetaxel-encapsulated chitosan-modified polymeric nanocarriers: a novel approach in cancer chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asthana, Shalini; Gupta, Pramod K. [CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Pharmaceutics Division (India); Konwar, Rituraj [CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Endocrinology Division (India); Chourasia, Manish K., E-mail: manish_chourasia@cdri.res.in [CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Pharmaceutics Division (India)

    2013-09-15

    Nanocarriers can be surface engineered to increase endocytosis for applications in delivery of chemotherapeutics. This study investigated the chitosan (CS)-mediated effects on the anticancer efficacy and uptake of docetaxel-loaded nanometric particles (<250 nm) by MCF-7 tumor cells. Herein, negatively charged poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (-18.4 {+-} 2.57 mV, 162 {+-} 6.34 nm), poorly endocytosed by the MCF-7 cells, were subjected to surface modification with CS. It demonstrated significant increase (>5-fold) in intracellular uptake as well as antitumor efficacy of modified nanoparticles (NPs) that explicate the possibility of saccharide marker-mediated tumor targeting along with synergism via proapoptotic effect of CS. Additionally, high positivity of optimized tailored nanocarrier (+23.3 {+-} 2.02 mV, 242.8 {+-} 9.42 nm) may have accounted for the increased adsorption-mediated endocytosis, preferably toward tumor cells with negative potential. Developed drug carrier system showed high stability in human blood which is in compliance with mucoadhesive property of CS. Transmission electron microscopy technique was applied to observe shape and morphological features of NPs. Furthermore, in vivo tissue toxicity study revealed safe use of drug at 20 mg/kg dose in nanoparticulate form. Moreover, the enhanced in vitro uptake of these NPs and their cytotoxicity against the tumor cells along with synergistic effect of CS clearly suggest that CS-modified carrier system is a promising candidate for preclinical studies to achieve wider anti-tumor therapeutic window and lower side effects.

  14. Risk of cause-specific death in individuals with cancer - modifying role diabetes, statins, and metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Jari; Niskanen, Leo; Auvinen, Anssi

    2017-08-25

    Both diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases and they frequently occur in the same patients. We investigated the all-cause and cause-specific mortality dynamics in relation to baseline DM, statin use, and metformin use. The study population consisted of 39,900 incident cancer cases from Finland, 19,822 patients were free of DM at the start of follow-up, and 20,078 had DM. Mortality from all causes, and cancer, cardiovascular (CVD) and other causes was analysed using Poisson regression model with the following variables: sex, age, DM, statin and metformin usage in baseline, cancer type and stage, and calendar period. Statin usage was associated with a reduced cancer-specific mortality with incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.69-0.74), IRR for CVD mortality was 0.95 (0.88-1.02), and for other causes 0.64 (0.56-0.74). In a sub-population of DM patients, IRR for metformin in all-cause mortality was 0.74 (0.71-0.78), in cancer mortality 0.75 (0.72-0.79), in CVD mortality 0.75 (0.68-0.83), and other causes 0.68 (0.60-0.78). In conclusion, our register-based study of survival after cancer diagnosis showed that patients with diabetes had substantially poorer outcome in all measures. An association between baseline statin usage and lower all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality was modified by cancer type. The effect of statin use was largest for breast and colorectal cancer. Metformin usage in a subpopulation of oral antidiabetic users was in general associated with lower mortality, but this association was modified by cancer type. The association was strongest for liver, colorectal, and breast cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Anti-cancer activities of pH- or heat-modified pectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eLeclere

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite enormous efforts that have been made in the search for novel drugs and treatments, cancer continues to be a major public health problem. Moreover, the emergence of resistance to cancer chemotherapy often prevents complete remission. Researchers have thus turned to natural products mainly from plant origin to circumvent resistance. Pectin and pH- or heat-modified pectin have demonstrated chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against some aggressive and recurrent cancers. The focus of this review is to describe how pectin and modified pectin display these activities and what are the possible underlying mechanisms. The failure of conventional chemotherapy to reduce mortality as well as serious side effects makes natural products, such as pectin-derived products, ideal candidates for exerting synergism in combination with conventional anticancer drugs.

  16. A polyethylenimine-modified carboxyl-poly(styrene/acrylamide copolymer nanosphere for co-delivering of CpG and TGF-β receptor I inhibitor with remarkable additive tumor regression effect against liver cancer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang SY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shuyan Liang,* Jun Hu,* Yuanyuan Xie, Qing Zhou, Yanhong Zhu, Xiangliang Yang National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Cancer immunotherapy based on nanodelivery systems has shown potential for treatment of various malignancies, owing to the benefits of tumor targeting of nanoparticles. However, induction of a potent T-cell immune response against tumors still remains a challenge. In this study, polyethylenimine-modified carboxyl-styrene/acrylamide (PS copolymer nanospheres were developed as a delivery system of unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β receptor I inhibitors for cancer immunotherapy. TGF-β receptor I inhibitors (LY2157299, LY were encapsulated to the PS via hydrophobic interaction, while CpG oligodeoxynucleotides were loaded onto the PS through electrostatic interaction. Compared to the control group, tumor inhibition in the PS-LY/CpG group was up to 99.7% without noticeable toxicity. The tumor regression may be attributed to T-cell activation and amplification in mouse models. The results highlight the additive effect of CpG and TGF-β receptor I inhibitors co-delivered in cancer immunotherapy. Keywords: CpG, TGF-β receptor I inhibitor, Pst-AAm copolymer nanosphere, immunotherapy

  17. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via an interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Ellen G; Colquhoun, Ian J; Chau, Hoa K; Hotchkiss, Arland T; Waldron, Keith W; Morris, Victor J; Belshaw, Nigel J

    2016-01-20

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts have been compared. Pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp only weakly affected the viability of colon cancer cells. Alkali treatment increased the anti-cancer effect of sugar beet pectin via an induction of apoptosis. Alkali treatment decreased the degree of esterification (DE) and increased the ratio of rhamnogalacturonan I (RGI) to homogalacturonan. Low DE per se did not play a significant role in the anti-cancer activity. However, the enzymatic removal of galactose and, to a lesser extent, arabinose from the pectin decreased the effect on cancer cells indicating that the neutral sugar-containing RGI regions are important for pectin bioactivity.

  18. Impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on outcomes after breast cancer diagnosis: the Setouchi Breast Cancer Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naruto; Akiyama, Ichiro; Ishihara, Setsuko; Ishibe, Youichi; Kawasaki, Kensuke; Saito, Makoto; Shien, Tadahiko; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Hara, Fumikata; Mizoo, Taeko; Mizota, Yuri; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohsumi, Shozo; Doihara, Hiroyoshi

    2015-06-01

    The primary purpose of this large cohort study is to investigate the effects on breast cancer outcomes of modifiable lifestyle factors after breast cancer diagnosis. These factors include physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and weight gain after diagnosis, alternative medicine and dietary factors. Women diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer are eligible for participation to this study. Lifestyle, use of alternative medicine, psychosocial factors, reproductive factors and health-related quality of life will be assessed using a questionnaire at the time of breast cancer diagnosis (baseline), and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years after diagnosis. Clinical information and breast cancer outcomes will be obtained from a breast cancer database. The primary endpoint will be disease-free survival. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, health-related quality of life, breast cancer-related symptoms and adverse events. Patient recruitment commenced in February 2013. Enrollment of 2000 breast cancer patients is planned during the 5-year recruitment period. The concept of the study is described in this article.

  19. Critical dose and toxicity index of organs at risk in radiotherapy: Analyzing the calculated effects of modified dose fractionation in non–small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, Piernicola, E-mail: ppiern@libero.it [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Service of Medical Physics, Scientific Institute of Tumours of Romagna I.R.S.T., Meldola (Italy); Caivano, Rocchina [Service of Medical Physics, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Fiorentino, Alba [U.O. of Radiotherapy, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Nappi, Antonio [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy); Salvatore, Marco [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Storto, Giovanni [U.O. of Nuclear Medicine, I.R.C.C.S. Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B., Rionero in Vulture (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    To increase the efficacy of radiotherapy for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many schemes of dose fractionation were assessed by a new “toxicity index” (I), which allows one to choose the fractionation schedules that produce less toxic treatments. Thirty-two patients affected by non resectable NSCLC were treated by standard 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) with a strategy of limited treated volume. Computed tomography datasets were employed to re plan by simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The dose distributions from plans were used to test various schemes of dose fractionation, in 3DCRT as well as in IMRT, by transforming the dose-volume histogram (DVH) into a biological equivalent DVH (BDVH) and by varying the overall treatment time. The BDVHs were obtained through the toxicity index, which was defined for each of the organs at risk (OAR) by a linear quadratic model keeping an equivalent radiobiological effect on the target volume. The less toxic fractionation consisted in a severe/moderate hyper fractionation for the volume including the primary tumor and lymph nodes, followed by a hypofractionation for the reduced volume of the primary tumor. The 3DCRT and IMRT resulted, respectively, in 4.7% and 4.3% of dose sparing for the spinal cord, without significant changes for the combined-lungs toxicity (p < 0.001). Schedules with reduced overall treatment time (accelerated fractionations) led to a 12.5% dose sparing for the spinal cord (7.5% in IMRT), 8.3% dose sparing for V{sub 20} in the combined lungs (5.5% in IMRT), and also significant dose sparing for all the other OARs (p < 0.001). The toxicity index allows to choose fractionation schedules with reduced toxicity for all the OARs and equivalent radiobiological effect for the tumor in 3DCRT, as well as in IMRT, treatments of NSCLC.

  20. SU-E-T-79: A Study of the Effect of Clinical Tumor Volume Displacement On the Dosage of Post Modified Radical Mastectomy Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Plans for Left-Sided Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W; Ma, C; Li, D; Wu, F [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the effect of clinical tumor volume (CTV) displacement on the dosage of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for left-sided breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy. Methods: We created 2 sets of IMRT plans based on PTV0.5 and PTV0.7 (with CTV displacement of 0.5cm and 0.7cm respectively) for each of the ten consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients after modified radical mastectomy, and compared the difference in PTV coverage and organ at risk (OAR) sparing between the two groups. And then, we compared the difference in PTV coverage in IMRT plans based on PTV0.5 between the group with properly estimated CTV displacement (presuming the actual CTV displacement was 0.5cm) and the one with underestimated CTV displacement (presuming the actual CTV displacement was 0.7cm). The difference in results between the corresponding two groups was compared using paired-sample t-test. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: IMRT plans derived from PTV0.5 had more homogenous PTV coverage, and less heart, left lung, right breast, right lung, left humeral head and B-P radiation exposure, as well as less total Mu as compared with the ones stemmed from PTV0.7 (all p<0.05). IMRT plans with appropriate estimation of CTV displacement had better PTV coverage compared with the ones with underestimated CTV displacement (all p<0.01). Conclusion: The IMRT plans with smaller CTV displacement in post modified radical mastectomy radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer has dosimetrical advantages over the ones with larger CTV displacement. Underestimation of CTV displacement can lead to significant reduction of PTV coverage. Individually quantifying and minimizing CTV displacement can significantly improve PTV coverage and OAR (including heart and left lung) sparing. This work was supported by the Medical Scientific Research Foundation of Guangdong Procvince (A2014455 to Changchun Ma)

  1. The Effect of Modified Weiling Decoction (

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Dun

    2001-01-01

    From February 1995 to March 1999, compared by 108 patients treated by western medicine, 120 patients suffering from chronic eczema on their hands have been treated by the authors with modified Weiling Decoction (WLD) and the therapeutical effects observed. The results are reported as follows.

  2. The fractions of cancer attributable to modifiable factors: A global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David C; Wilson, Louise F

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide, the burden of cancer is rising, stimulating efforts to develop strategies to control these diseases. Primary prevention, a key control strategy, aims to reduce cancer incidence through programs directed towards reducing population exposure to known causal factors. Before enacting such strategies, it is necessary to estimate the likely effect on cancer incidence if exposures to known causal factors were reduced or eliminated. The population attributable fraction (PAF) is the epidemiological measure which quantifies this potential reduction in incidence. We surveyed the literature to document and summarise the proportions of cancers across the globe attributable to modifiable causes, specifically tobacco smoke, alcohol, overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and dietary factors (insufficient fruit, non-starchy vegetables and fibre; red/processed meat; salt). In total, we identified 55 articles that presented PAF estimates for one or more causes. Information coverage was not uniform, with many articles reporting cancer PAFs due to overweight/obesity, alcohol and tobacco, but fewer reporting PAFs for dietary factors or solar UV radiation. At all cancer sites attributable to tobacco and alcohol, median PAFs were markedly lower for women than men. Smoking contributed to very high median PAFs (>50%) for cancers of the lung and larynx. Median PAFs for men, attributable to alcohol, were high (25-50%) for cancers of the oesophagus, oral cavity/pharynx, larynx and liver. For cancers causally associated with overweight/obesity, high median PAFs were reported for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (men 29%, women 37%), gallbladder (men 11%, women 42%) and endometrium (36%). The cancer PAF literature is growing rapidly. Repeating this survey in the future should lead to more precise estimates of the potentially preventable fractions of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Modified Nottingham Prognostic Index for Breast Cancer Patients Diagnosed in Denmark 1978-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Væth, Michael;

    2001-01-01

    Stage of disease is a predictor of breast cancer survival. We used data from the Danish Cancer Register amd the Daniish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group to study stage distribution in 0-69-years-old Danish breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1978-1994. We constructed a modified Nottingham Prognostic...

  4. 乳腺癌改良根治术与保乳手术的疗效对照分析%the Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Modified Radical Mastectomy of Breast Cancer with Breast Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

     Objective To analysis of the modified radical mastectomy of breast cancer with the breast surgery treatment for early breast cancer clinical curative effect. Methods To the 88 cases of patients with early-stage breast cancer data to carry on the analysis, it will be randomly divided into the milk in the surgical group, and improved the 44 cases, comparative analysis of two groups of operation condition, and were followed up for 3 years to explore the survival rate. Results Compared with improved group, the milk of the surgical patients operation time, intraoperative incision length and amount of bleeding, length of hospital stay were significantly superior to to improve group, after statistics processing differences are significant (P0.05).Conclusions Compared with improved group, the breast surgery patients more easily, and the wound is small, the quality of life is high, is the preferred method of treatment of early breast cancer.%  目的分析乳腺癌改良根治术与保乳手术治疗早期乳腺癌的临床疗效。方法对本院收治的88例早期乳腺癌患者资料进行分析,将其随机分为保乳手术组与改良组,各44例,对照分析两组手术情况,并随访探讨5年的生存率。结果与改良组相比,保乳手术组患者的手术时间、切口长度以及术中出血量、住院时间均要显著优于改良组,差异经统计学处理有显著意义(P<0.05),但术后并发症、生存率以及转移、复发率方面比较,差异无显著性(P>0.05).结论与改良组相比,保乳手术更易于患者接受,且创伤小,生活质量高,是治疗早期乳腺癌的首选方法。

  5. Late radiation side effects, cosmetic outcomes and pain in breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Risk-modifying factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hille-Betz, Ursula; Soergel, Philipp; Kundu, Sudip; Klapdor, Ruediger; Hillemanns, Peter [Hannover Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hannover (Germany); Vaske, Bernhard [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics, Hannover (Germany); Bremer, Michael; Henkenberens, Christoph [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology and Special Oncology, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this work was to identify parameters influencing the risk of late radiation side effects, fair or poor cosmetic outcomes (COs) and pain in breast cancer patients after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between 2006 and 2013, 159 patients were treated at the Hannover Medical School. Physician-rated toxicity according to the LENT-SOMA criteria, CO and pain were assessed by multivariate analysis. LENT-SOMA grade 1-4 toxicity was observed as follows: fibrosis 10.7 %, telangiectasia 1.2 %, arm oedema 8.8 % and breast oedema 5.0 %. In addition, 15.1 % of patients reported moderate or severe breast pain, and 21.4 % complained about moderate or severe pain in the arm or shoulder. In multivariate analysis, axillary clearing (AC) was significantly associated with lymphoedema of the arm [odds ratio (OR) 4.37, p = 0.011, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.4-13.58]. Breast oedema was also highly associated with AC (OR 10.59, p = 0.004, 95 % CI 2.1-53.36), a ptosis grade 2/3 or pseudoptosis and a bra size ≥ cup C (OR 5.34, p = 0.029, 95 % CI 1.2-24.12). A ptosis grade 2/3 or pseudoptosis and a bra size ≥ cup C were the parameters significantly associated with an unfavourable CO (OR 3.19, p = 0.019, 95 % CI 1.2-8.4). Concerning chronic breast pain, we found a trend related to the prescribed radiation dose including boost (OR 1.077, p = 0.060, 95 % CI 0.997-1.164). Chronic shoulder or arm pain was statistically significantly associated with lymphoedema of the arm (OR 3.9, p = 0.027, 95 % CI 1.17-13.5). Chronic arm and breast oedema were significantly influenced by the extent of surgery (AC). Ptotic and large breasts were significantly associated with unfavourable COs and chronic breast oedema. Late toxicities exclusive breast pain were not associated with radiotherapy parameters. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Parameter zu identifizieren, die Spaetschaeden nach Radiotherapie, ein unguenstiges

  6. CANCER METASTASIS DIRECTLY ERADICATED BY TARGETED THERAPY WITHA MODIFIED SALMONELLA TYPHYMURIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Ming ZHAO; Yamauchi, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Norio; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Katsuro; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is the life-threatening aspect of cancer and is usually resistant to standard treatment. We report here a targeted therapy strategy for cancer metastasis using a modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium. The genetically modified strain of S. typhimurium is auxotrophic for the amino acids arginine and leucine. These mutations preclude growth in normal tissue but do not reduce bacterial virulence in tumor cells. The tumor-targeting strain of S. typhimurium, termed A1-R and ex...

  7. Effective potential evaluations in a modified PQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabo Montes de Oca, A.; Martinez-Pedrera, D. [International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Group of Theoretical Physics, La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-08-15

    A procedure discussed in a previous work for properly defining the Feynman diagrams at any number of loops in a modified version of PQCD, is employed here to evaluate some zero- and one-loop corrections to the effective potential, as functions of the gluon and quark condensate parameters. The calculated terms indicate an instability of massless QCD under the development of quark condensates even in the absence of the gluon one. Therefore, a mechanism is suggested for the dynamical generation of quark masses and condensates. The absence of indications coming from lattice calculations to this possibility could be determined by the current limitations in treating fermion determinants. (orig.)

  8. Overview of gene therapy clinical progress including cancer treatment with gene-modified T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Malcolm K; Okur, Fatma V

    2009-01-01

    It is now twenty years since the first legal gene transfer studies were approved, and there has been considerable disappointment in the slow rate of progress that followed the initial studies. Gradually, however, as the limitations of available vectors are acknowledged and overcome, and with advances in our understanding of the molecular and cell biology of genetic diseases and of cancer, unequivocal successes are now being reported. In this paper we describe the remaining major roadblocks to successful gene therapy and outline approaches to overcome them. We also illustrate how genetically modified immune system cells are already being used for the effective treatment of hematological and other malignancies, and how these approaches are being modified so that they can be effective in treating a broader range of malignancies.

  9. p53 status as effect modifier of the association between pre-treatment fasting glucose and breast cancer outcomes in non diabetic, HER2 positive patients treated with trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vici, Patrizia; Sperati, Francesca; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Melucci, Elisa; Di Benedetto, Anna; Di Lauro, Luigi; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Terrenato, Irene; Esposito, Luca; Iannuzzi, Carmelina Antonella; Pasquale, Raffaella; Botti, Claudio; Fuhrman, Barbara; Giordano, Antonio; Mottolese, Marcella; Barba, Maddalena

    2014-11-15

    Mounting evidence supports the role of p53 in metabolic processes involved in breast carcinogenesis. We investigated whether p53 status affects the association of pre-treatment fasting glucose with treatment outcomes in 106 non diabetic, HER2 positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab. p53 status was validated against gene sequencing of selected codons in 49 patients. The Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test were used to compare survival by categories of fasting glucose in the overall population and separate settings. Cox models included age and body mass index. Direct sequencing confirmed the lack of mutations in 73.7% of p53 negative patients and their presence in 53.3% of p53 positive cases. At 66 months, 88.3% of patients with glucose ≤ 89.0 mg/dl (median value) did not experiment disease progression compared with 70.0% in the highest category (p=0.034), with glucose being an independent predictor (p=0.046). Stratified analysis confirmed this association in p53 negative patients only (p=0.01). In the early setting, data suggested longer disease free survival in p53 negative patients in the lowest glucose category (p=0.053). In our study, p53 status acted as effect modifier of the investigated association. This may help differentiate target sub-groups and affect outcomes interpretation in similarly characterized patients.

  10. Genome-wide DNA methylation modified by soy phytoestrogens: role for epigenetic therapeutics in prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Ngollo, Marjolaine; Adjakly, Mawussi; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Judes, Gaëlle; Lebert, André; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Penault-LLorca, Frédérique; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    In prostate cancer, DNA methylation is significantly associated with tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. Previous studies have suggested that soy phytoestrogens might regulate DNA methylation at individual candidate gene loci and that they play a crucial role as potential therapeutic agents for prostate cancer. The purpose of our study was to examine the modulation effects of phytoestrogens on a genome-wide scale in regards to DNA methylation in prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cell lines DU-145 and LNCaP were treated with 40 μM of genistein and 110 μM of daidzein. DNMT inhibitor 5-azacytidine (2 μM) and the methylating agent budesonide (2 μM) were used to compare their demethylation/methylation effects with phytoestrogens. The regulatory effects of phytoestrogens on DNA methylation were analyzed by using a methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation method coupled with Human DNA Methylation Microarrays (MeDIP-chip). We observed that the methylation profiles of 58 genes were altered by genistein and daidzein treatments in DU-145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In addition, the methylation frequencies of the MAD1L1, TRAF7, KDM4B, and hTERT genes were remarkably modified by genistein treatment. Our results suggest that the modulation effects of phytoestrogens on DNA methylation essentially lead to inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Genome-wide methylation profiling reported here suggests that epigenetic regulation mechanisms and, by extension, epigenetics-driven novel therapeutic candidates warrant further consideration in future "omics" studies of prostate cancer.

  11. Hyaluronan-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for bimodal breast cancer imaging and photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Meng; Fu, Chao-Ping; Fang, Jin-Zhi; Xu, Xiang-Dong; Wei, Xin-Hua; Tang, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Xin-Qing; Zhang, Li-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Theranostic nanoparticles with both imaging and therapeutic abilities are highly promising in successful diagnosis and treatment of the most devastating cancers. In this study, the dual-modal imaging and photothermal effect of hyaluronan (HA)-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-SPIONs), which was developed in a previous study, were investigated for CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing breast cancer in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Heat is found to be rapidly generated by near-infrared laser range irradiation of HA-SPIONs. When incubated with CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro, HA-SPIONs exhibited significant specific cellular uptake and specific accumulation confirmed by Prussian blue staining. The in vitro and in vivo results of magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal ablation demonstrated that HA-SPIONs exhibited significant negative contrast enhancement on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal effect targeted CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing breast cancer. All these results indicated that HA-SPIONs have great potential for effective diagnosis and treatment of cancer. PMID:28096667

  12. Does obesity modify prostate cancer detection in a European cohort?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angeles Sanchis-Bonet; Nelson Morales-Palacios; Marta Barrionuevo-Gonzalez; Luis-Enrique Ortega-Polledo; Francisco-Javier Ortiz-Vico; Manuel Sanchez-Chapado

    2017-01-01

    ...: prostate-specific antigen obesity digital rectal examination biopsy prostatic neoplasms INTRODUCTION Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed solid cancer in men, with 220,800 estimated new...

  13. Safety of total laparoscopic modified radical hysterectomy with or without lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Kitagawa

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Total laparoscopic modified radical hysterectomy is safe and feasible for the treatment of early stage endometrial cancer. This procedure can be an alternative to total laparoscopic hysterectomy, especially when the uterus must be removed completely.

  14. 改良式空肠造瘘管在食管癌术后营养支持中的应用效果%Application effect of modified jejunum fistula in nutritional support after esophageal cancer operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭孟刚; 周海宁; 李丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨改良式空肠造瘘管在食管癌术后营养支持中的应用效果。方法将80例食管癌患者随机分为两组,即空肠造瘘管组(观察组)、鼻十二指肠管组(对照组),观察两组患者的术后营养管相关并发症及术后至下床活动时间。结果观察组鼻黏膜出血或溃疡、脱管、堵管及营养液经胃管反流等营养管相关并发症发生率明显低于鼻十二指肠管组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组术后下床活动时间为(5.0±1.78)d,短于对照组的(8.2±1.00)d,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用空肠造瘘管进行食管癌术后营养支持安全可行,可改善患者的营养状况,降低术后并发症发生率,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To investigate the application effect of modified jejunum fistula in nutritional support after esophageal cancer operation. Methods 80 patients with esophageal cancer were randomly divided into the two groups [the observation group(the jejunal fistula group) and the control group (the nose duodenal tube group)].The tube related complications and the postoperative time to ambulation in the two group were compared. Results The incidence rate of the tube related complications of the observation group such as nasal mucosal bleeding or ulcer,off tube,blocking pipe and nutrient solution reflux by stomach tube were significantly lower than that of the control group(P<0.05).The postoperative time to ambulation of the observation group was shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Enteral nutrition support through jejunal fistula can improve the nutritional status of patients,reduce the incidence rate of postoperative complications,and it is worthy of clinical promotion and application.

  15. BYSTANDERS, ADAPTIVE RESPONSES AND GENOMIC INSTABILITY - POTENTIAL MODIFIERS OF LOW-DOSE CANCER RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystanders, Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability -Potential Modifiers ofLow-DoseCancer Responses.There has been a concerted effort in the field of radiation biology to better understand cellularresponses that could have an impact on the estin1ation of cancer...

  16. BYSTANDERS, ADAPTIVE RESPONSES AND GENOMIC INSTABILITY - POTENTIAL MODIFIERS OF LOW-DOSE CANCER RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystanders, Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability -Potential Modifiers ofLow-DoseCancer Responses.There has been a concerted effort in the field of radiation biology to better understand cellularresponses that could have an impact on the estin1ation of cancer...

  17. IMMUNOTHERAPY OF SPONTANEOUS METASTATIC LUNG CANCER WITH TUMOR ANTIGEN-PULSED, INTERLEUKIN-12 GENE-MODIFIED DENDRITIC CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉泉; 修清玉; 颜泽敏; 罗文侗

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the treatment of spontaneous metastatic lung cancer by tumor antigen-pulsed, interleukin-12 (IL-12) gene-modified dendritic cells (DC). Methods:The spontaneous metastatic lung cancer model, prepared by injection of the 3LL Lewis lung cancer cells into the footpads of C57BL/6 mice, was treated by subcutaneous vaccination with tumor antigen peptide mut1-pulsed, IL-12 gene-modified dendritic cells (DC-IL-12/mut1) derived from the normal bone morrow. After treatment, the lung weight, the number of lung metastatic nodes and the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice were observed, and the NK and CTL activity were determined respectively. The mice were divided into 8 groups with 12 mice in each group. Results: Compared with mice treated with mut1-pulsed, control LacZ gene modified DC and untreated DC, tumor-bearing mice treated with DC-IL-12/mut1 had the lightest lung weights (P<0.01), the least lung metastatic node number (P<0.01), the longest survival time (P<0.01), also with the induction of potent CTL activity (P<0.01) and NK activity (P<0.01). Conclusion: Tumor antigen-pulsed, IL-12 gene-modified dendritic cells have significant therapeutic effects on the spontaneous metastatic lung cancer, providing a new approach to treatment of lung tumors.

  18. A modified method by differential adhesion for enrichment of bladder cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tong Zhu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: In a previous study the vaccine was effective against bladder cancer in a mouse model. However, a small portion of tumors regrew because the vaccine could not eliminate bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs. In this study, we showed a modified method for the isolation of bladder CSCs using a combination of differential adhesion method and serum-free culture medium (SFM method. Materials and Methods: Trypsin-resistant cells and trypsin-sensitive cells were isolated from MB49, EJ and 5637 cells by a combination of differential adhesion method and SFM method. The CSCs characterizations of trypsin-resistant cells were verified by the flow cytometry, the western blotting, the quantitative polymerase chain reaction, the resistance to chemotherapy assay, the transwell assay, and the tumor xenograft formation assay. Results: Trypsin-resistant cells were isolated and identified in CSCs characters, with high expression of CSCs markers, higher resistance to chemotherapy, greater migration in vitro, and stronger tumorigenicity in vivo. Conclusion: Trypsin-resistant cells displayed specific CSCs properties. Our study showed trypsin-resistant cells were isolated successfully with a modified method using a combination of differential adhesion method and SFM method.

  19. Effects of SBS Content on the Performance of Modified Asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Chuanyi; Li, Ning; Zhao, Wei; Cai, Chuanfeng

    2017-06-01

    The effects of different dosage SBS (Styrene-butadiene-styrene) modifiers on the properties of asphalt were compared and analyzed from the temperature sensitivity, high temperature performance and low temperature performance of modified asphalt. The results show that with the increase of the content of SBS modifier, the softening point and kinematic viscosity of SBS modified asphalt are increased and the high temperature performance is improved. The low temperature ductility is improved; the penetration of modified asphalt is reduced, the temperature sensitivity of the asphalt is reduced. However, when the content of modifier is more than 4%, the penetration index of SBS modified asphalt decreases linearly with the increase of the content of modifier, and the temperature sensitivity increases. The engineering application should be determined according to the specific technical requirements.

  20. 改良根治术与保乳手术治疗早期乳腺癌的近远期疗效比较%Short term and long term effect comparison of modified radical mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery in early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the short term and long term effect comparison of breast - conserving surgery and modified radical mastectomy in early breast cancer. Methods The data of 120 cases of early breast cancer who underwent operation were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into modified radical mastectomy group ( n - 52 ) and breast - conserving surgery group ( n - 68 ). Operative effect, 1 year and 5 year survival rate, local recurrence rate, metastasis rate and life quality were compared between two groups. Results Operation time, intra-operative blood loss and hospital stay in breast - conserving surgery were much less than those in modified radical mastectomy ( P 0. 05 ); SF -36 scores of breast - conserving surgery 5 years after operation were much higher than modified radical mastectomy ( P 0.05);术后5年,保乳手术组SF-36各项评分显著高于改良手术组(P<0.05).结论 保乳手术与改良根治术治疗早期乳腺癌疗效确切,但保乳手术对患者损伤小、恢复快,术后患者生活质量高.

  1. 西妥昔单抗联合FOLFIRI方案治疗晚期胃癌的疗效观察%Effects of Cetuximab Combined with Modified FOLFIRI on Advanced Gastric Cancer in Second-line Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓清明; 李登进; 张林

    2012-01-01

    To observe the effects of Cetuximab combined with modified FOLFIRI on advanced gastric cancer in second-line treatment and evaluate its efficacy and adverse reactions,and to investigate the relationship between its efficacy and prognosis.Methods:Tumor lesions and adverse reactions were observed every 2 cycles of treatment,and the progress of tumor and survival were followed up.Tumor remission assessment were performed in accordance with Response Evaluation Criteria in solid Tumors (RECIST) and the adverse event were classified according to the Common adverse events evaluation criteria version 3.0 (NCI a CTCAE3.0) by National Cancer Institute.Calculate the tumor remission rate,median time to progression and median overall survival.Results:Among the 38 patients who completed at least 2 cycles of treatment and received efficacy evaluation,one case was observed in complete remission (CR),accounting for 0.03%; 13 cases were in partial remission (PR),accounting for 34.00%; the overall remission rate (ORR =CR + PR) was 37.00%.20 cases were in status of stable disease (SD),accounting for 53.00%; disease control rate (Disease Control Rate,DCR =CR + PR + SD) was 89.00%.Disease progression (PD) was occurred in 4 cases,accounting for 11.00%.The overall safety is good,for no case of treatment-related death occurred.The Ⅲ / Ⅳ neutropenia incidence was 52.5%,incidence of febrile due to particle missing 13.1%,incidence ofⅢ / Ⅳ degree severe anemia 29.5%,incidence ofⅢ / Ⅳ degree ofthrombocytopenia decline 8.2%.Ⅲ / Ⅳ degree of non-hematologic toxicity included nausea (8.2%),vomiting (6.6%),stomatitis (1.6%),diarrhea (6.6%),infection (4.9%),fatigue (4.9%),ileus (6.6 %),elevated aminotransferases (1.6%),allergic reactions (1.6%) and rash (9.8%).Conclusion:This study showed that Cetuximab combined with modified FOLFIRI is a safe and effective program in second-line treatment of advanced gastric cancer patients.It is required to

  2. [Can new molecular profiles in epithelial ovarian cancer modify therapeutics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, V; Rousselin, A; Delplanque, S; Pinsard, M; Henno, S; Foucher, F; Levêque, J; de la Motte Rouge, T

    2017-02-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) affects 4500 women a year in France, with a survival of 30% at 5 years. Treatment is based on extensive surgery and chemotherapy. Around 15% of EOCs are due to genetic mutation predisposition essentially with mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Four histological subtypes are described (serous, endometrioid, and mucinous cells to clear), corresponding to different carcinogenesis and distinct molecular mutations. High-grade serous EOCs have a mutation of the BRCA genes in 20-30% of cases. This mutation causes a deficit of repair by homologous recombination of DNA in case of double strand break, allowing greater sensitivity to platinum salts and the use of PARP inhibitors, a protein involved in the repair of single-strand breaks of DNA. PARP inhibitors have shown efficacy in patients mutated BRCA but this effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in patients without congenital mutation, but with acquired BRCAness profile EOC. The BRCAness profile is defined by a tumor having a defect in DNA repair counterpart (not limited to BRCA mutation). Molecular definition of BRCAness is still not consensual but is necessary for the use of PARP inhibitors. Gene expression analyses have identified four subgroups of high-grade serous CEO: mesenchymal, proliferative, differentiated and immunoreactive. These four subtypes, not mutually exclusive, although correlated with prognosis, are not yet used in clinical routine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The tumor-to-breast volume ratio (TBR) predicts cancer-specific survival in breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiahuai; Ye, Feng; Huang, Xiaojia; Li, Shuaijie; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women globally, and tumor size measured as the largest diameter of the tumor focus is currently used in tumor-lymph node-metastasis (TNM) staging for prognosis and treatment decisions. The present study utilized the tumor-to-breast volume ratio (TBR) to evaluate the relative tumor size and determined the prognostic impact of TBR on survival in patients with breast cancer. Two thousand twenty-five consecutive breast cancer patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy between January 2002 and December 2008 at Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center were enrolled in this retrospective study. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to assess the prognostic effect of TBR on cancer-specific survival (CSS), and univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed to identify independent prognostic factors. The optimal cutoff value of TBR was determined to be 1.70 %, and 1473 and 552 patients were categorized to low-TBR and high-TBR groups, respectively. In the whole patient cohort, CSS was significantly shorter in the high-TBR group (110.2 vs 128.5 months, P breast cancer patients (hazard ratio (HR) 1.489, 95 % CI 1.130-1.961, P = 0.005). High TBR was independently associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. This variable may serve as a valuable parameter to predict the outcomes of breast cancer.

  4. Hyaluronan-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for bimodal breast cancer imaging and photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rui-Meng Yang,1,* Chao-Ping Fu,2,* Jin-Zhi Fang,1 Xiang-Dong Xu,1 Xin-Hua Wei,1 Wen-Jie Tang,1 Xin-Qing Jiang,1 Li-Ming Zhang2 1Department of Radiology, Guangzhou First People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, 2School of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Theranostic nanoparticles with both imaging and therapeutic abilities are highly promising in successful diagnosis and treatment of the most devastating cancers. In this study, the dual-modal imaging and photothermal effect of hyaluronan (HA-modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (HA-SPIONs, which was developed in a previous study, were investigated for CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing breast cancer in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Heat is found to be rapidly generated by near-infrared laser range irradiation of HA-SPIONs. When incubated with CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro, HA-SPIONs exhibited significant specific cellular uptake and specific accumulation confirmed by Prussian blue staining. The in vitro and in vivo results of magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal ablation demonstrated that HA-SPIONs exhibited significant negative contrast enhancement on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and photothermal effect targeted CD44 HA receptor-overexpressing breast cancer. All these results indicated that HA-SPIONs have great potential for effective diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles, surface functionalization, bioactive glycosaminoglycan, magnetic resonance imaging, cellular uptake, breast carcinoma

  5. Cisplatin Loaded Hyaluronic Acid Modified TiO2 Nanoparticles for Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enling Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel tumor-targeting titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles modified with hyaluronic acid (HA were developed to explore the feasibility of exploiting the pH-responsive drug release property of TiO2 and the tumor-targeting ability of HA to construct a tumor-targeting cisplatin (CDDP delivery system (HA-TiO2 for potential neoadjuvant chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. The experimental results indicated that CDDP release from the HA-TiO2 nanoparticles was significantly accelerated by decreasing pH from 7.4 to 5.0, which is of particular benefit to cancer therapy. CDDP-loaded HA-TiO2 nanoparticles increased the accumulation of CDDP in A2780 ovarian cancer cells via HA-mediated endocytosis and exhibited superior anticancer activity in vitro. In vivo real-time imaging assay revealed that HA-TiO2 nanoparticles possessed preferable tumor-targeting ability which might potentially minimize the toxic side effects of CDDP in clinical application.

  6. The effect of lifestyle factors on gynaecological cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Rieck, Gudrun; Fiander, Alison

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;Alcohol Drinking;complications;Contraceptives,Oral,Hormonal;Diet;etiology;Estrogen Replacement Therapy;Evaluation;Exercise;Female;Genital Neoplasms,Female;Humans;Life Style;lifestyle modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Obesity;prevention & control;Papillomaviridae;Papillomavirus Infections;Reproductive History;Risk Factors;Smoking;Wales. Several lifestyle factors affect a woman's risk of gynaecological cancer and-potentially-can be modified to ...

  7. Elimination of progressive mammary cancer by repeated administrations of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globerson-Levin, Anat; Waks, Tova; Eshhar, Zelig

    2014-05-01

    Continuous oncogenic processes that generate cancer require an on-going treatment approach to eliminate the transformed cells, and prevent their further development. Here, we studied the ability of T cells expressing a chimeric antibody-based receptor (CAR) to offer a therapeutic benefit for breast cancer induced by erbB-2. We tested CAR-modified T cells (T-bodies) specific to erbB-2 for their antitumor potential in a mouse model overexpressing a human erbB-2 transgene that develops mammary tumors. Comparing the antitumor reactivity of CAR-modified T cells under various therapeutic settings, either prophylactic, prior to tumor development, or therapeutically. We found that repeated administration of CAR-modified T cells is required to eliminate spontaneously developing mammary cancer. Systemic, as well as intratumoral administered CAR-modified T cells accumulated at tumor sites and eventually eliminated the malignant cells. Interestingly, within a few weeks after a single CAR T cells' administration, and rejection of primary lesion, tumors usually relapsed both in treated mammary gland and at remote sites; however, repeated injections of CAR-modified T cells were able to control the secondary tumors. Since spontaneous tumors can arise repeatedly, especially in the case of syndromes characterized by specific susceptibility to cancer, multiple administrations of CAR-modified T cells can serve to control relapsing disease.

  8. Novel therapeutic approaches for various cancer types using a modified sleeping beauty-based gene delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, In-Sun; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Pyo

    2014-01-01

    Successful gene therapy largely depends on the selective introduction of therapeutic genes into the appropriate target cancer cells. One of the most effective and promising approaches for targeting tumor tissue during gene delivery is the use of viral vectors, which allow for high efficiency gene delivery. However, the use of viral vectors is not without risks and safety concerns, such as toxicities, a host immune response towards the viral antigens or potential viral recombination into the host's chromosome; these risks limit the clinical application of viral vectors. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based system is an attractive, non-viral alternative to viral delivery systems. SB may be less immunogenic than the viral vector system due to its lack of viral sequences. The SB-based gene delivery system can stably integrate into the host cell genome to produce the therapeutic gene product over the lifetime of a cell. However, when compared to viral vectors, the non-viral SB-based gene delivery system still has limited therapeutic efficacy due to the lack of long-lasting gene expression potential and tumor cell specific gene transfer ability. These limitations could be overcome by modifying the SB system through the introduction of the hTERT promoter and the SV40 enhancer. In this study, a modified SB delivery system, under control of the hTERT promoter in conjunction with the SV40 enhancer, was able to successfully transfer the suicide gene (HSV-TK) into multiple types of cancer cells. The modified SB transfected cancer cells exhibited a significantly increased cancer cell specific death rate. These data suggest that our modified SB-based gene delivery system can be used as a safe and efficient tool for cancer cell specific therapeutic gene transfer and stable long-term expression.

  9. Detection of cancer cells using a peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2013-01-01

    by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modification of the graphene electrode with peptide nanotube–folic acid led to an increase in the current signal....... The human cervical cancer cells were bound to the modified electrode through the folic acid–folate receptor interaction. Cyclic voltammograms in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3/4 as a redox species demonstrated that the binding of the folate receptor from human cervical cancer cells to the peptide nanotube...

  10. Genetically modified T cells in cancer therapy: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Sharpe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tumours use many strategies to evade the host immune response, including downregulation or weak immunogenicity of target antigens and creation of an immune-suppressive tumour environment. T cells play a key role in cell-mediated immunity and, recently, strategies to genetically modify T cells either through altering the specificity of the T cell receptor (TCR or through introducing antibody-like recognition in chimeric antigen receptors (CARs have made substantial advances. The potential of these approaches has been demonstrated in particular by the successful use of genetically modified T cells to treat B cell haematological malignancies in clinical trials. This clinical success is reflected in the growing number of strategic partnerships in this area that have attracted a high level of investment and involve large pharmaceutical organisations. Although our understanding of the factors that influence the safety and efficacy of these therapies has increased, challenges for bringing genetically modified T-cell immunotherapy to many patients with different tumour types remain. These challenges range from the selection of antigen targets and dealing with regulatory and safety issues to successfully navigating the routes to commercial development. However, the encouraging clinical data, the progress in the scientific understanding of tumour immunology and the improvements in the manufacture of cell products are all advancing the clinical translation of these important cellular immunotherapies.

  11. Prostate volume modifies the association between obesity and prostate cancer or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Motley, Saundra S; Wills, Marcia; Cookson, Michael S; Concepcion, Raoul S; Eckstein, Charles W; Chang, Sam S; Smith, Joseph A

    2007-05-01

    The relationship between obesity and prostate cancer remains unclear. We investigated the effect of prostate volume on the obesity and prostate cancer association. With a multi-centered, rapid-recruitment protocol, weight and body size measurements were collected prior to diagnosis, and medical charts were reviewed for pathology results (n = 420 controls, 119 high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) cases, and 286 cancer cases (41% Gleason > 6). In multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for age, PSA levels and history, DRE results, and number of cores at biopsy, the association between BMI and cancer was restricted to men with a smaller prostate volume (volume or = 30) = 2.17 (1.09, 4.32), p (trend) = 0.02; volume > or = 40 cm(3): OR(BMI > or = 30) = 0.77 (0.34, 1.77), p (trend) = 0.17; p (interaction) = 0.03). Similarly, the WHR and PIN association was significantly modified by prostate volume (volume or = 40 m(3): OR((WHR: T3 vs. T1)) = 0.63 (0.32, 1.23) (p (trend) = 0.17); p (interaction) prostate volume acts as a modifier, and BMI and WHR are significantly associated with prostate cancer or PIN, respectively, in the absence of biopsy sampling error derived from obesity-related prostate enlargement.

  12. Binding of circulating autoantibodies in breast cancer to native and peroxynitrite-modified RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheereen TARANNUM; Zarina ARIF; Khursheed ALAM

    2013-01-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a powerful oxidant and nitrosative agent and has in vivo existence.The half life of ONOO-at physiological pH is less than 1 s.It can react with nucleic acids,proteins,lipoproteins,saccharides,cardiolipin,etc.,and can modify their native structures.Action of ONOO-,synthesized in the authors' laboratory by a rapid quenched flow process,on structural changes of commercially available RNA was studied by ultraviolet (UV),fluorescence,and agarose gel electrophoresis.Compared to native RNA,the ONOO--modified RNA showed hyperchromicity at 260 nm.Furthermore,the ethidium bromide (EtBr) assisted emission intensities of ONOO--modified RNA samples were found to be lower than the emission intensity of native RNA-EtBr complex.Agarose gel electrophoresis of ONOO--modified RNA showed a gradual decrease in band intensities compared to native RNA,an observation clearly due to the poor intercalation of EtBr with ONOO--modified RNA.Native and ONOO--modified RNA samples were used as an antigen to detect autoantibodies in sera of patients with clinically defined breast cancer.Both direct binding and inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the prevalence of native and 0.8 mmol/L ONOO--modified RNA specific autoantibodies in breast cancer patients.Moreover,the progressive retardation in the mobility of immune complexes formed with native or 0.8 mmol/L ONOO--modified RNA and affinity purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) from sera of breast cancer patients supports the findings of the direct binding and inhibition ELISAs.The peroxynitrite treatment to RNA at a higher concentration appears to have damaged or destroyed the typical epitopes on RNA and thus there was a sharp decrease in autoantibodies binding to 1.4 mmol/L ONOO--modified RNA.It may be interpreted that cellular nitrosative stress can modify and confer immunogenicity on RNA molecules.Higher concentrations of nitrogen reactive species can be detrimental to RNA.However,the emergence of

  13. Breast cancer risk and 6q22.33: combined results from Breast Cancer Association Consortium and Consortium of Investigators on Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kirchhoff

    Full Text Available Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341 was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC. In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA. Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.023. There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs among studies (I(2 = 49.3%; p = <0.004. In CIMBA, we observed an inverse association with the minor allele of rs2180341 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele OR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.80-1.00, p = 0.048, indicating a potential protective effect of this allele. These data suggest that that 6q22.33 confers a weak effect on breast cancer risk.

  14. Passive smoking and cooking oil fumes (COF) may modify the association between tea consumption and oral cancer in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa; He, Baochang; Hu, Zhijian; Huang, Jiangfeng; Liu, Fangping; Yan, Lingjun; Lin, Zheng; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Lin, Lisong; Zhang, Zuofeng; Cai, Lin

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the confounding effects of passive smoking and COF exposure on association between tea and oral cancer in Chinese women. A case-control study including 207 female oral cancer cases and 480 age-matched controls was performed in Fujian, China. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The effects of tea consumption on oral cancer were, respectively, adjusted for Model-1 and Model-2 using logistic regression analysis. Model-1 did not adjusted for passive smoking and COF; Model-2 included the variables in Model-1, passive smoking and COF. Tea consumption was associated with a decreased risk of oral cancer in females: The OR was 0.498 (95 % CI 0.312-0.795) for Model-1 and 0.565 (95 % CI 0.352-0.907) for Model-2. The ORs for all the categories of tea consumption estimated by Model-2 were slightly higher than Model-1. When stratified by passive smoking, the statistically significant association between tea drinking and oral cancer was only emerged in non-passive smoking women. Stratification by COF found tea drinking was still associated with a decreased risk of oral cancer for women who have light-COF exposure, but an increased risk for those who subjected to heavy exposure. A negative, multiplicative interaction was found between tea consumption and COF exposure for oral cancer, but not found between tea consumption and passive smoking. Tea consumption reduces the risk of oral cancer in Chinese women, but this effect is modified by the carcinogenic effects of passive smoking and COF exposure.

  15. Gene-modified hematopoietic stem cells for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sarah; De Oliveira, Satiro N

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of available cancer immunotherapies has resulted in favorable early outcomes. Specifically the use of gene therapy to introduce chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and T cell receptors (TCRs) in T cells creates new immunotherapy options for patients. While showing early success with these approaches, limitations remain that can be overcome by the use of modification of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to express CARs and TCRs. With modern gene therapy technologies, increased safety and control of the modification of the HSCs can be achieved through the use of a suicide gene.

  16. Population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle factors and breast cancer in New Zealand women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J; Richardson, A; Frampton, C

    2013-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed invasive cancer in New Zealand women and modifiable lifestyle risk factors may contribute to this. To estimate population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle factors and breast cancer in New Zealand. Estimates of the magnitude of the impact of modifiable lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer (relative risks and odds ratios obtained from published epidemiological studies) and the prevalence of exposure in New Zealand were used to calculate the population attributable risk percent (PAR%) for each risk factor. The PAR% show the relative importance of these considered risk factors and give an indication of the potential impact of reducing the prevalence of these lifestyle risk factors on the incidence of breast cancer in New Zealand. Six modifiable lifestyle factors were identified for breast cancer. These were obesity, lack of physical activity, high alcohol intake, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and delayed first birth. The PAR% for these risk factors ranged from 1% for delayed first birth to 10% for obesity (16% for Maori women and 17% for Pacific women). The most important primary preventive strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer in New Zealand are lifestyle changes to reduce obesity, promoting regular physical activity (which may in turn reduce the prevalence of obesity), reducing HRT use and avoiding high alcohol intake. Strategies that encourage regular physical activity and reduce obesity could also have other benefits, such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Polyaniline modified flexible conducting paper for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Sen, Anindita; Kumar, Suveen; Augustine, Shine; Yadav, Birendra K.; Mishra, Sandeep; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2016-05-01

    We report results of studies relating to the fabrication of a flexible, disposable, and label free biosensing platform for detection of the cancer biomarker (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). Polyaniline (PANI) has been electrochemically deposited over gold sputtered paper (Au@paper) for covalent immobilization of monoclonal carcinoembryonic antibodies (anti-CEA). The bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been used for blocking nonspecific binding sites at the anti-CEA conjugated PANI/Au@Paper. The PANI/Au@Paper, anti-CEA/PANI/Au@Paper, and BSA/anti-CEA/PANI/Au@Paper platforms have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance techniques. The results of the electrochemical response studies indicate that this BSA/anti-CEA/PANI/Au@paper electrode has sensitivity of 13.9 μA ng-1 ml cm2, shelf life of 22 days, and can be used to estimate CEA in the range of 2-20 ng ml-1. This paper sensor has been validated by detection of CEA in serum samples of cancer patients via immunoassay technique.

  18. Polyaniline modified flexible conducting paper for cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Sen, Anindita; Kumar, Suveen; Augustine, Shine; Malhotra, Bansi D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [Nanobioelectronics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Delhi 110042 (India); Yadav, Birendra K. [Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Rohini, Delhi 110085 (India); Mishra, Sandeep [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-05-16

    We report results of studies relating to the fabrication of a flexible, disposable, and label free biosensing platform for detection of the cancer biomarker (carcinoembryonic antigen, CEA). Polyaniline (PANI) has been electrochemically deposited over gold sputtered paper (Au@paper) for covalent immobilization of monoclonal carcinoembryonic antibodies (anti-CEA). The bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been used for blocking nonspecific binding sites at the anti-CEA conjugated PANI/Au@Paper. The PANI/Au@Paper, anti-CEA/PANI/Au@Paper, and BSA/anti-CEA/PANI/Au@Paper platforms have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, chronoamperometry, and electrochemical impedance techniques. The results of the electrochemical response studies indicate that this BSA/anti-CEA/PANI/Au@paper electrode has sensitivity of 13.9 μA ng{sup −1} ml cm{sup 2}, shelf life of 22 days, and can be used to estimate CEA in the range of 2–20 ng ml{sup −1}. This paper sensor has been validated by detection of CEA in serum samples of cancer patients via immunoassay technique.

  19. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC-associated breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muranen, Taru A; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations that confers a two- to threefold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion...

  20. Detection of cancer cells using a peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preparation of a graphene electrode modified with a new conjugate of peptide nanotubes and folic acid for the selective detection of human cervical cancer cells over-expressing folate receptors. The functionalization of peptide nanotubes with folic acid was confirmed by...

  1. Genetic modifiers of menopausal hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Anja; Hein, Rebecca; Lindström, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Women using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) are at increased risk of developing breast cancer (BC). To detect genetic modifiers of the association between current use of MHT and BC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide case-only studies followed by replication in 11 case...

  2. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts h...

  3. Preferential recognition of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal modified DNA in the cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohammad; Shahab, Uzma; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Ahmad, Saheem

    2017-01-20

    The structural perturbations in DNA molecule may be caused by a break in a strand, a missing base from the backbone, or a chemically changed base. These alterations in DNA that occurs naturally can result from metabolic or hydrolytic processes. DNA damage plays a major role in the mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, aging and various other patho-physiological conditions. DNA damage can be induced through hydrolysis, exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive carbonyl metabolites including 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). 4-HNE is an important lipid peroxidation product which has been implicated in the mutagenesis and carcinogenesis processes. The present study examines to probe the presence of auto-antibodies against 4-hydroxynonenal damaged DNA (HNE-DNA) in various cancer subjects. In this study, the purified calf thymus DNA was damaged by the action of 4-HNE. The DNA was incubated with 4-HNE for 24 h at 37°C temperature. The binding characteristics of cancer auto-antibodies were assessed by direct binding and competitive inhibition ELISA. DNA modifications produced hyperchromicity in UV spectrum and decreased fluorescence intensity. Cancer sera exhibited enhanced binding with the 4-HNE modified calf thymus DNA as compared to its native conformer. The 4-HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the auto-antibody induction in cancer patients. The HNE modified DNA presents unique epitopes which may be one of the factors for the autoantibody induction in cancer patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chemically modified field effect transistors with nitrite or fluoride selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, Martijn M.G.; Snellink-Ruël, Bianca H.M.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1998-01-01

    Polysiloxanes with different types of polar substituents are excellent membrane materials for nitrite and fluoride selective chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs). Nitrite selectivity has been introduced by incorporation of a cobalt porphyrin into the membrane; fluoride selectivity

  5. Chemically modified field effect transistors with nitrite or fluoride selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Ruel, Bianca H.M.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    Polysiloxanes with different types of polar substituents are excellent membrane materials for nitrite and fluoride selective chemically modified field effect transistors (CHEMFETs). Nitrite selectivity has been introduced by incorporation of a cobalt porphyrin into the membrane; fluoride selectivity

  6. Effect of Activebag® Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-11-30

    Nov 30, 2014 ... weight was 635g and modified atmosphere packaging had a remarkable effect on cumulative weight loss with ... utilizes unique antimicrobial materials that preserves ..... preservation by MAP storage observed in the present.

  7. Breast Cancer and Modifiable Lifestyle Factors in Argentinean Women: Addressing Missing Data in a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquet, Julia Becaria; Tumas, Natalia; Osella, Alberto Ruben; Tanzi, Matteo; Franco, Isabella; Diaz, Maria Del Pilar

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have evidenced the effect of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet, breastfeeding and nutritional status on breast cancer risk. However, none have addressed the missing data problem in nutritional epidemiologic research in South America. Missing data is a frequent problem in breast cancer studies and epidemiological settings in general. Estimates of effect obtained from these studies may be biased, if no appropriate method for handling missing data is applied. We performed Multiple Imputation for missing values on covariates in a breast cancer case-control study of Córdoba (Argentina) to optimize risk estimates. Data was obtained from a breast cancer case control study from 2008 to 2015 (318 cases, 526 controls). Complete case analysis and multiple imputation using chained equations were the methods applied to estimate the effects of a Traditional dietary pattern and other recognized factors associated with breast cancer. Physical activity and socioeconomic status were imputed. Logistic regression models were performed. When complete case analysis was performed only 31% of women were considered. Although a positive association of Traditional dietary pattern and breast cancer was observed from both approaches (complete case analysis OR=1.3, 95%CI=1.0-1.7; multiple imputation OR=1.4, 95%CI=1.2-1.7), effects of other covariates, like BMI and breastfeeding, were only identified when multiple imputation was considered. A Traditional dietary pattern, BMI and breastfeeding are associated with the occurrence of breast cancer in this Argentinean population when multiple imputation is appropriately performed. Multiple Imputation is suggested in Latin America’s epidemiologic studies to optimize effect estimates in the future. PMID:27892664

  8. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V. Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D. P.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Singer, Christian F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additio

  9. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Pankratz, V.S.; Fredericksen, Z.; Tarrell, R.; Karaus, M.; McGuffog, L.; Pharaoh, P.D.; Ponder, B.A.J.; Dunning, A.M.; Peock, S.; Cook, M.; Oliver, C.; Frost, D.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Mazoyer, S.; Houdayer, C.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Hooning, M.J.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Spurdle, A.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Singer, C.F.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.; Dressler, C.; Fink, A.; Szabo, C.I.; Zikan, M.; Foretova, L.; Claes, K.; Thomas, G.; Hoover, R.N.; Hunter, D.J.; Chanock, S.J.; Easton, D.F.; Antoniou, A.C.; Couch, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additio

  10. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC associated breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranen, Taru A.; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans; Verhoef, Senno; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Schoemaker, Minouk; Swerdlow, Anthony; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hillemans, Peter; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W.M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; John, Esther M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations conferring a 2–3 fold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion. We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Methods With genotype data of 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77 common variants in terms of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and pairwise interaction. Results The PRS conferred an odds ratio (OR) of 1.59 [95% CI 1.21–2.09] per standard deviation for BC for CHEK2*1100delC carriers and 1.58 [1.55–1.62] for non-carriers. No evidence for deviation from the multiplicative model was found. The OR for the highest quintile of the PRS was 2.03 [0.86–4.78] for CHEK2*1100delC carriers placing them to the high risk category according to UK NICE guidelines. OR for the lowest quintile was 0.52 [0.16–1.74], indicating life-time risk close to population average. Conclusion Our results confirm the multiplicative nature of risk effects conferred by CHEK2*1100delC and the common susceptibility variants. Furthermore, the PRS could identify the carriers at a high life-time risk for clinical actions. PMID:27711073

  11. Application of wavelet transformation and adaptive neighborhood based modified backpropagation (ANMBP) for classification of brain cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdiningsih, Indah; Zaman, Badrus; Nuqoba, Barry

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents classification of brain cancer using wavelet transformation and Adaptive Neighborhood Based Modified Backpropagation (ANMBP). Three stages of the processes, namely features extraction, features reduction, and classification process. Wavelet transformation is used for feature extraction and ANMBP is used for classification process. The result of features extraction is feature vectors. Features reduction used 100 energy values per feature and 10 energy values per feature. Classifications of brain cancer are normal, alzheimer, glioma, and carcinoma. Based on simulation results, 10 energy values per feature can be used to classify brain cancer correctly. The correct classification rate of proposed system is 95 %. This research demonstrated that wavelet transformation can be used for features extraction and ANMBP can be used for classification of brain cancer.

  12. Modified Transverse Thoracosternotomy and Cost-Effective Reinforced Sternal Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joseph; Sonett, Joshua R; D'Ovidio, Frank

    2015-12-01

    The bilateral transverse thoracosternotomy clamshell incision provides excellent exposure to the mediastinal structures in double lung transplantation. The use of a modified transverse sternotomy and a figure of 8 configuration with one monofilament metal wire, along with two longitudinal wires across the sternal division, results in greater stability and equally distributed oblique tension. Our described technique was more cost effective and resulted in no incidence of dehiscence. We present our experience using a modified transverse sternotomy and reinforced sternal closure method.

  13. Metabolic signature of breast cancer cell line MCF-7: profiling of modified nucleosides via LC-IT MS coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleiter Christoph H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer, like other diseases accompanied by strong metabolic disorders, shows characteristic effects on cell turnover rate, activity of modifying enzymes and DNA/RNA modifications, resulting also in elevated amounts of excreted modified nucleosides. For a better understanding of the impaired RNA metabolism in breast cancer cells, we screened these metabolites in the cell culture supernatants of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and compared it to the human mammary epithelial cells MCF-10A. The nucleosides were isolated and analyzed via 2D-chromatographic techniques: In the first dimension by cis-diol specific boronate affinity extraction and subsequently by reversed phase chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer. Results Besides the determination of ribonucleosides, additional compounds with cis-diol structure, deriving from cross-linked biochemical pathways, like purine-, histidine- and polyamine metabolism were detected. In total, 36 metabolites were identified by comparison of fragmentation patterns and retention time. Relation to the internal standard isoguanosine yielded normalized area ratios for each identified compound and enabled a semi-quantitative metabolic signature of both analyzed cell lines. 13 of the identified 26 modified ribonucleosides were elevated in the cell culture supernatants of MCF-7 cells, with 5-methyluridine, N2,N2,7-trimethylguanosine, N6-methyl-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine and 3-(3-aminocarboxypropyl-uridine showing the most significant differences. 1-ribosylimidazole-4-acetic acid, a histamine metabolite, was solely found in the supernatants of MCF-10A cells, whereas 1-ribosyl-4-carboxamido-5-aminoimidazole and S-adenosylmethionine occurred only in supernatants of MCF-7 cells. Conclusion The obtained results are discussed against the background of pathological changes in cell metabolism, resulting in new perspectives for modified nucleosides and related metabolites as possible

  14. Effects of Soybean Oil Modified Cellulose Fibril and Organosilane Modified Cellulose Fibril on Crystallization of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarit Thanomchat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil modified cellulose fibril (Oil-g-CF and organosilane modified cellulose fibril (Silane-g-CF were prepared using maleinized soybean oil and hexadecyltrimethoxysilane, respectively. Thus obtained modified cellulose fibril was added to polypropylene by a simple melt mixing on a hotplate. PP/modified CF composites with 4.0 wt% filler content were prepared. The composites were subject to a polarized optical microscope to investigate particle dispersion, supramolecular morphology, and crystallization behavior. It was found that Silane-g-CF exhibited smaller particle sizes with better particle distribution when compared to Oil-g-CF. In addition, the etched composite samples unveiled an increase in a number of spherulite crystals as well as a decrease in the spherulite size. The nonisothermal crystallization study of composites revealed that both Oil-g-CF and Silane-g-CF were capable of nucleating PP by facilitating faster crystallization process and raising the number of spherulites. The DSC results indicated that Silane-g-CF was able to perform a more effective nucleation than Oil-g-CF, judged by a higher crystallization temperature. Moreover, PP composites containing Oil-g-CF and Silane-g-CF had higher crystallinity by 7% and 10%, for the first and the latter, respectively, when compared to neat PP.

  15. Involvement of epigenetic modifiers in the pathogenesis of testicular dysgenesis and germ cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Andreas C.; Almstrup, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer manifests mainly in young adults as a seminoma or non-seminoma. The solid tumors are preceded by the presence of a non-invasive precursor cell, the carcinoma in situ cell (CIS), which shows great similarity to fetal germ cells. It is therefore hypothesized that the CIS...... of epigenetic modifiers with a focus on jumonji C enzymes in the development of testicular dysgenesis and germ cell cancer in men....... cell is a fetal germ cell that has been arrested during development due to testicular dysgenesis. CIS cells retain a fetal and open chromatin structure, and recently several epigenetic modifiers have been suggested to be involved in testicular dysgenesis in mice. We here review the possible involvement...

  16. Effect of Diabetes and Obesity on Disparities in Prostate Cancer Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0503 TITLE: Effect of Diabetes and Obesity on Disparities in Prostate Cancer Outcomes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bettina F...Effect of Diabetes and Obesity on Disparities in Prostate Cancer Outcomes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0503 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT... prostate cancer related death by identifying potential modifiable factors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer , disparities, VHA and VACCR data, obesity

  17. Modified methylene blue injection improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Zheng, Zongheng; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in rectal cancer plays an important role in accurate staging and prognosis, which depends on adequate lymph node harvest. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the feasibility and survival benefit of improving lymph node harvest by a modified method with methylene blue injection in rectal cancer specimens. One hundred and thirty-one patients with rectal cancer were randomly assigned to the control group in which lymph nodes were harvested by palpation and sight, or to the methylene blue group using a modified method of injection into the superior rectal artery with methylene blue. Analysis of clinicopathologic records, including a long-term follow-up, was performed. In the methylene blue group, 678 lymph nodes were harvested by simple palpation and sight. Methylene blue injection added 853 lymph nodes to the total harvest as well as 32 additional metastatic lymph nodes, causing a shift to node-positive stage in four patients. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.7 ± 3.4 in the control group and 23.2 ± 4.7 in the methylene blue group, respectively. The harvest of small lymph nodes (methylene blue group. The modified method of injection with methylene blue had no impact on overall survival. The modified method with methylene blue injection improved lymph node harvest in rectal cancer, especially small node and metastatic node retrieval, which provided more accurate staging. However, it was not associated with overall survival. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Prime Incision and Modified Moving Window: A Minimally Invasive Access for Breast Cancer Surgical Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    E. Bromberg, Silvio; Giordano, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Conservative surgical treatment has been the treatment of choice for early breast cancer. It allows feasible oncological treatment with a satisfactory cosmetic approach and fast recovery. However, in some cases mastectomy is necessary. This study proposes a surgical approach with only one surgical access through the same incision, which is in line with precepts mentioned above. It is called the prime incision and modified moving window techniques. METHODS Thirty one patients with a...

  19. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigating Cancer Care > Side Effects > Lymphedema Request Permissions Lymphedema Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 05/ ... years after cancer treatment has ended. Symptoms of lymphedema People with lymphedema in their arm or leg ...

  20. Assessing absolute changes in breast cancer risk due to modifiable risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quante, Anne S; Herz, Julia; Whittemore, Alice S; Fischer, Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-07-01

    Clinical risk assessment involves absolute risk measures, but information on modifying risk and preventing cancer is often communicated in relative terms. To illustrate the potential impact of risk factor modification in model-based risk assessment, we evaluated the performance of the IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, with and without current body mass index (BMI), for predicting future breast cancer occurrence in a prospective cohort of 665 postmenopausal women. Overall, IBIS's accuracy (overall agreement between observed and assigned risks) and discrimination (AUC concordance between assigned risks and outcomes) were similar with and without the BMI information. However, in women with BMI > 25 kg/m(2), adding BMI information improved discrimination (AUC = 63.9 % and 61.4 % with and without BMI, P risk difference for a woman with high (27 kg/m(2)) versus low (21 kg/m(2)) BMI was only 0.3 % for a woman with neither affected first-degree relatives nor BRCA1 mutation, compared to 4.5 % for a mutation carrier with three such relatives. This contrast illustrates the value of using information on modifiable risk factors in risk assessment and in sharing information with patients of their absolute risks with and without modifiable risk factors.

  1. Effectiveness of permethrin standard and modified methods in scabies treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleha Sungkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permethrin is the drug of choice for scabies with side effects such as erythema, pain, itching and prickling sensation. Whole-body (standard topical application of permethrin causes discomfort; thus, modified application of permethrin to the lesion only, followed with baths twice daily using soap was proposed. The objective of the study is to know the effectiveness of standard against lesion-only application of permethrin in scabies treatment.Methods: An experimental study was conducted in pesantren in East Jakarta and data was collected in May-July 2012. Diagnosis of scabies was made through anamnesis and skin examination. Subjects positive for scabies were divided into three groups: one standard method group (whole-body topical application and two modified groups (lesion-only application followed by the use of regular soap and antiseptic soap group. The three groups were evaluated weekly for three consecutive weeks. Data was processed using SPSS 20 and analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test.Results: Total of 94 subjects was scabies positive (prevalence 50% but only 69 subjects were randomly picked to be analyzed. The cure rate at the end of week III of the standard method group was 95.7%, modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 91.3%, and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 78.3% (p = 0.163. The recurrence rate of standard treatment was 8.7%,  modified treatment followed by the use of regular soap was 13% and modified treatment followed by the use of antiseptic soap was 26.1% (p = 0.250.Conclusion: The standard scabies treatment was as effective as the modified scabies treatment.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Polyethyleneimine Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Arabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles with polymeric coating have great significance in drug delivery purpose. We intended to prepare a modified amphiphilic polymer with targeting susceptibility to reduce side effects to normal cells. In this study polyethyleneimine (PEI as a polycationic polymer reacted with sebacoyl chloride to make a new amphiphilic polymer and folic acid as a targeting agent to reduce cytotoxicity of polymer and increase specific entrance of nanoparticles to cancerous cells. The obtained polymer (PEI-Sb-FA was then coated on magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs to stabilize them. The core-shell nanoparticles were characterized by different methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. Curcumin was finally loaded on PEI-Sb-FA-MNPs and the release behavior was studied in different pH. Curcumin loading of 28.2% was obtained and released drug in acidic pH = 4.5 was more than pH = 7.4, showing drug release sensitivity toward pH of media.

  3. Shielding effectiveness of original and modified building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Frenzel

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the determination of the shielding effectiveness of building materials used for office, factory and government buildings. Besides the examination of standard materials, measurements were also performed on modified materials, e.g. ferro concrete with enhanced shielding effectiveness due to a changed mixture or structure of the reinforcement. The measurements of original and modified materials were carried out in a fully anechoic room (FAR according to IEEE 299-1997 from 80 MHz up to 10 GHz.

  4. Does calcium in drinking water modify the association between nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Pei-Shih; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether calcium (Ca) levels in drinking water modified the effects of nitrate on colon cancer risk. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from colon cancer and exposure to nitrate in drinking water in Taiwan. All colon cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and Ca in drinking water have been collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's NO(3)-N and Ca exposure via drinking water. We observed evidence of an interaction between drinking water NO(3)-N and Ca intake via drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca intake from drinking water on the association between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of colon cancer mortality.

  5. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-01

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards `chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  6. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-09

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards 'chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  7. Modified Weekly Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy Is Acceptable in Postoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Ju Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Triweekly cisplatin-based postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT has high intolerance and toxicities in locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC. We evaluated the effect of a modified weekly cisplatin-based chemotherapy in postoperative CCRT. Methods. A total of 117 patients with LAHNC were enrolled between December 2007 and December 2012. Survival, compliance/adverse events, and independent prognostic factors were analyzed. Results. Median follow-up time was 30.0 (3.1–73.0 months. Most patients completed the entire course of postoperative CCRT (radiotherapy ≥ 60 Gy, 94.9%; ≥6 times weekly chemotherapy, 75.2%. Only 17.1% patients required hospital admission. The most common adverse effect was grade 3/4 mucositis (28.2%. No patient died due to protocol-related adverse effects. Multivariate analysis revealed the following independent prognostic factors: oropharyngeal cancer, extracapsular spread, and total radiation dose. Two-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 70.9% and 79.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Modified weekly cisplatin-based chemotherapy is an acceptable regimen in postoperative CCRT for LAHNC.

  8. Antibacterial effect of silver nanofilm modified stainless steel surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F.; Kennedy, J.; Dhillon, M.; Flint, S.

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria can attach to stainless steel surfaces, resulting in the colonization of the surface known as biofilms. The release of bacteria from biofilms can cause contamination of food such as dairy products in manufacturing plants. This study aimed to modify stainless steel surfaces with silver nanofilms and to examine the antibacterial effectiveness of the modified surface. Ion implantation was applied to produce silver nanofilms on stainless steel surfaces. 35 keV Ag ions were implanted with various fluences of 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 ions•cm-2 at room temperature. Representative atomic force microscopy characterizations of the modified stainless steel are presented. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry spectra revealed the implanted atoms were located in the near-surface region. Both unmodified and modified stainless steel coupons were then exposed to two types of bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Streptococcus thermophilus, to determine the effect of the surface modification on bacterial attachment and biofilm development. The silver modified coupon surface fluoresced red over most of the surface area implying that most bacteria on coupon surface were dead. This study indicates that the silver nanofilm fabricated by the ion implantation method is a promising way of reducing the attachment of bacteria and delay biofilm formation.

  9. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Patrick V.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.

    2014-08-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of Un

  10. WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence and breast cancer incidence among postmenopausal women with and without non-modifiable risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah J O; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Lazovich, DeAnn; Robien, Kim

    2016-06-01

    Taller height, family history of breast cancer, greater number of years of potential fertility and nulliparity are established non-modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Greater adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) diet, physical activity and body weight recommendations has previously been shown to be associated with lower breast cancer risk. However, no prior studies have evaluated whether women with non-modifiable risk factors receive similar benefits from recommendation adherence compared to women without these risk factors. In the Iowa Women's Health Study prospective cohort, we investigated whether associations of WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence differed by the presence/absence of non-modifiable breast cancer risk factors. Baseline (1986) questionnaire data from 36,626 postmenopausal women were used to create adherence scores for the WCRF/AICR recommendations (maximum score = 8.0). Overall and single recommendation adherence in relation to breast cancer risk (n = 3,189 cases) across levels of non-modifiable risk factors were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. Mean adherence score was 5.0 points (range: 0.5-8.0). Higher adherence scores (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.67-0.87), and adherence to the individual recommendations for body weight and alcohol intake were associated with a lower breast cancer incidence. While not statistically significant among women with more non-modifiable risk factors (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.36-1.63), hazard ratios were comparable to women with the no non-modifiable risk factors (score ≥ 6.0 vs. ≤ 3.5, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.49-0.93) (p-interaction = 0.57). WCRF/AICR recommendation adherence is associated with lower breast cancer risk, regardless of non-modifiable risk factor status.

  11. Effect of the modified nerve-sparing technique in open antegrade radical prostatectomy for 30 patients with prostate cancer%改良的保留神经根治性前列腺癌切除术30例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱再生; 付强; 徐礼臻; 罗荣利; 张春霆; 刘全启; 陈良佑

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨改良的保留神经根治性前列腺癌切除术的临床疗效.方法 30例前列腺癌患者采用改良根治性保留神经的前列腺切除术.改良的关键点:采用注水分离前列腺周围筋膜的方法,将Veil保留神经技术应用于开放手术中(即改良Veil保留神经技术);扩大分区(9区5组)盆腔淋巴结清扫;完整保留膀胱颈;集束捆扎背深静脉复合体;跳针套叠技术行膀胱与尿道的吻合.术后行控尿及勃起功能国际问卷-5(IIEF-5)随访.结果 患者平均年龄62岁,前列腺特异性抗原(PSA)水平平均11.9 ng/ml,手术时间平均150 min(75~240 min),术中出血量平均350 ml(100~1 600 ml),术前IIEF-5评分平均为21分,病理分期pT18例、pT2a 15例、pT2b4例、pT3a 3例.Gleason评分5分2例、6分7例、7分20例、8分1例.手术切缘阳性4例,其中2例为T2期,占T2期的10.5%(2/19),2例为T3期.无围手术期严重并发症.平均随访19个月(6-48个月),术后1个月完全控尿27例(90%),3个月达100%.术后3个月和6个月IIEF-5评分分别为13、19分,分别恢复到术前水平的40%和70%.结论 对选择性的前列腺癌患者,改良的保留神经根治性前列腺切除术较完整保留了前列腺周围所有的筋膜神经,使术后控尿及性功能得到早期、快速恢复,切缘阳性发生率低,疗效可靠.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of the modified nerve-sparing open antegrade retropubic radical prostatectomy (MNS-ORP).Methods MNS-ORPs were performed in 30 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.The modified technique included: endopelvic fascia was not incised, the prostate capsule was freed laterally from surrounding fasciae and dorsally;using the method of separating the peripheral fascia of the prostate, the Veil technique was applied to the open operation, that is, the modified Veil perserving nerve technology;pelvic lymph node dissections (9 regions and 5 groups) were extended;bladder neck

  12. Metallicity effects on the modified wind momentum of CSPN

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, W J; Costa, R D D

    2008-01-01

    Recent investigations on the central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) indicate that the masses based on model atmospheres can be much larger than the masses derived from theoretical mass-luminosity relations. Also, the dispersion in the relation between the modified wind momentum and the luminosity depends on the mass spread of the CSPN, and is larger than observed in massive hot stars. Since the wind characteristics probably depend on the metallicity, we analyze the effects on the modified wind momentum by considering the dispersion in this quantity caused by the stellar metallicity. Our CSPN masses are based on a relation between the core mass and the nebular abundances. We conclude that these masses agree with the known mass distribution both for CSPN and white dwarfs, and that the spread in the modified wind momentum can be explained by the observed metallicity variations.

  13. Breast cancer surgery effect over professional activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Dias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is responsible for 25% of all cancers and is the most prevalent in the female population. Due to treatment advances and early diagnoses, survival rates have improved, however this condition impacts work absenteeism due to the productive age of these women. The main factors responsible for work absenteeism are physical complications due to surgical treatment. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surgical breast cancer treatments on occupation, to characterize the degree of work absenteeism and to investigate the type of relation between surgical technique and absenteeism’s main causes. Method: Cross-sectional study with 74 women diagnosed with breast cancer. A semi-structured interview was used to collect information regarding surgical and clinical aspects, sociodemographic data, work behavior and physical therapy treatments. The data was organized on Microsoft Excel and analyzed by frequency and chi-squared test. The significance level considered was p ≤ 0.05. Results: Breast cancer was most common on the left side (51%, Madden modified radical mastectomy was the most common (50% and lymph node resection was present in 93.2% of cases. The most frequent post-surgery complications were pain, problems with scarring, sensitivity alterations, ROM limitation, lymphedema and seroma. Only 58% of women were treated with physical therapy and 60% withdrew from professional activities, 23% abandoned work, 26% changed their work role and 14% retired due to the disease. Conclusion: The present study suggests the existence of a direct relation between treatment and work absenteeism.

  14. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Patrick V; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2014-09-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA(+)) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA(+) nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA(+) relies on the capability of the conjugated HA(+) to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA(+)-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.

  15. Identification of a BRCA2-Specific Modifier Locus at 6p24 Related to Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Vijai, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation...

  16. Green tea’s effects in the breast cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pardos-Sevilla

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals like catechins from green tea might modify the epigenome and transcirptome of tumoral cells. The objective of the present review is to retrospectively evaluate literature examining the mechanisms throughout the green tea could exert a protective effect on breast cancer risk. In this work, more than 100 articles published during the last 15 years that relate tea consumption and breast cancer prevalence and development have been analysed. Green tea polyphenols can reduce risk of breast cancer throughout the inhibition of estrogenic and chemotoxic activity in liver, stimulation of metabolic pathway of glutathione conjugation, improvement of the metabolic syndrome, as well as control of immune system regulation, oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Although in vitro and animal studies show the potential ability of green tea polyphenols to act against breast cancer, the lack of experiments in humans, are the major factors in limiting us to conduct dietary recommendations based on scientific evidence for the management of patients with breast cancer.

  17. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Barbany Bustinza, Gisela; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J.J.P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Basil, Jack B.; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77–0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription. PMID:21890493

  18. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yuan C; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated wit...

  19. Toxicity during l-LV/5FU adjuvant chemotherapy as a modified RPMI regimen for patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Tsukasa; Takifuji, Katsunari; Arii, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Shozo; Matsuda, Kenji; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Tominaga, Toshiji; Oku, Yoshimasa; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2005-08-01

    l-leucovorin (LV)/5-fluorouracil (5FU) may play an important role, as an adjuvant chemotherapy, in improving the survival of patients with stage III colorectal cancer. However, severe toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agent could be fatal. Adverse effects, including bone marrow suppression, liver damage, renal damage, and glucose tolerance, were evaluated daily during 3 courses of l-LV/5FU-modified RPMI regimen adjuvant chemotherapy for 22 patients with stage III colorectal cancer. Decrease in the serum levels of neutrophils and platelets occurred in the 1st course, which became more obvious after three or four administrations of l-LV/5FU in the 1st course. Furthermore, serum levels of leukocytes, neutrophils, and platelets on the re-start day of this chemotherapy after 2-week intervals were lower than those on the start day of this chemotherapy. In the evaluation of liver damage, renal damage, and glucose tolerance; serum alanine aminotransferase level in the 2nd course, serum total bilirubin (T.Bil) level in the 1st course, and serum creatinine level in the 1st course deteriorated during the course. T.Bil levels on the re-start day of this chemotherapy after 2-week intervals were especially high compared to that on the start day. The more courses of this chemotherapy we perform, the more attention we must pay to bone marrow suppression and hyperbilirubinemia. Thus, we clarified the attentive point of side effect of l-LV/5FU adjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal cancer.

  20. Small ubiquitin-like modifier protein-specific protease 1 and prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zuo; Jin-Ke Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO) modification is a highly dynamic process,catalyzed by SUMO-specific activating (E1),conjugating (E2) and ligating (E3) enzymes,and reversed by a family of SUMO-specific proteases (SENPs).There are six members of the human SENP family,and each SENP has different cellular locations and substrate specificities.However,the precise roles of SENPs in cellular processes have not been elucidated to date.This brief review will focus on recent advances pertaining to the identified targets of SENP 1 and its potential role in prostate cancer.

  1. Comparative histopathological characterization of prostate cancer in Saudi patients by conventional and 2005 ISUP modified gleason systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Suhaibani, Entissar Sulaiman; Kizilbash, Nadeem Abbas; Al Beladi, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the characterization of prostate cancer using the conventional and 2005 ISUP modified Gleason systems. The study employed samples from 40 prostate cancer patients with resection, biopsy and RP materials. The majority of cases (95%) comprised adenocarcinoma of the prostate with a modified combined Gleason score of 7 in 20 of the cases (50%). Upgrading of Gleason scores to a score of 7 occurred in more than 45% of the cases. The study successfully showed that by the use of the 2005 ISUP modified Gleason system, score 6 cancers decreased from 25% to 17.5% of cases, whereas score 7 cancers increased from 45% to 50%.

  2. Population attributable risk of breast cancer in white women associated with immediately modifiable risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Sally L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy (EPRT, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and breast-feeding duration differ from other factors associated with breast cancer in being immediately modifiable by the individual, thereby representing attractive targets for future breast cancer prevention efforts. To justify such efforts, it is vital to quantify the potential population-level impacts on breast cancer considering population variations in behavior prevalence, risk estimate, and baseline incidence. Methods For each of these four factors, we calculated population attributable risk percents (PARs using population-based survey (2001 and cancer registry data (1998–2002 for 41 subpopulations of white, non-Hispanic California women aged 40–79 years, and ranges of relative risk (RR estimates from the literature. Results Using a single RR estimate, subpopulation PARs ranged from 2.5% to 5.6% for hormone use, from 0.0% to 6.1% for recent consumption of >= 2 alcoholic drinks daily, and 4.6% to 11.0% for physical inactivity. Using a range of RR estimates, PARs were 2–11% for EPRT use, 1–20% for alcohol consumption and 2–15% for physical inactivity. Subpopulation data were unavailable for breastfeeding, but PARs using published RR estimates ranged from 2% to 11% for lifetime breastfeeding >= 31 months. Thus, of 13,019 breast cancers diagnosed annually in California, as many as 1,432 attributable to EPRT use, 2,604 attributable to alcohol consumption, 1,953 attributable to physical inactivity, and 1,432 attributable to never breastfeeding might be avoidable. Conclusion The relatively feasible lifestyle changes of discontinuing EPRT use, reducing alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, and lengthening breastfeeding duration could lower population breast cancer incidence substantially.

  3. [Reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect using modified bilobed flap after resection of skin cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bin; Abass, Keremu; Hu, Mei; Yin, Xiaopeng; Hu, Lulu; Lin, Zhaoquan; Gong, Zhongcheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the clinical application of the modified bilobed flap in the reconstruction of zygomatic-facial massive defect after resection of skin cancer. Between August 2009 and October 2011, 15 patients with skin cancer in the zygomatic-facial region underwent defect reconstruction using modified bilobed flaps after surgical removal. There were 12 males and 3 females, aged 52-78 years (mean, 64.1 years). The disease duration was 1-14 months (mean, 4.6 months). Among the patients, there were 11 cases of basal cell carcinoma and 4 cases of squamous cell carcinoma; 1 patient had infection and the others had no skin ulceration; and tumor involved the skin layer in all patients. According to TNM staging, 13 cases were rated as T2N0M2 and 2 cases as T3N0M3. The defect size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm after cancer resection. The modified bilobed flaps consisting of pre-auricular flap and post-auricular flap was used to repair the defect after cancer resection. The size ranged from 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 4.0 cm of the first flap and from 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm to 5.0 cm x 3.0 cm of the second flap. Partial incision dehiscence occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; the flaps survived and incision healed primarily in the other cases. Fourteen patients were followed up 12-24 months (mean, 18.7 months). No recurrence was found, and the patients had no obvious face asymmetry or skin scar with normal closure of eyelid and facial nerve function. At last follow-up, the results were very satisfactory in 5 cases, satisfactory in 7 cases, generally satisfactory in 1 case, and dissatisfactory in 1 case. The pre- and post-auricular bilobed flaps could be used to reconstruct the massive defects in the zygomatic-facial region after resection of skin cancer.

  4. The Low Chamber Pancreatic Cancer Cells Had Stem-Like Characteristics in Modified Transwell System: Is It a Novel Method to Identify and Enrich Cancer Stem-Like Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs or cancer-initiating cells (CICs play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, chemoresistance, and recurrence. It is important to construct an effective method to identify and isolate CSCs for biotherapy of cancer. During the past years, many researchers had paid more attention to it; however, this method was still on seeking. Therefore, compared to the former methods that were used to isolate the cancer stem cell, in the present study, we tried to use modified transwell system to isolate and enrich CSCs from human pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1. Our results clearly showed that the lower chamber cells in modified transwell system were easily forming spheres; furthermore, these spheres expressed high levels of stem cell markers (CD133/CD44/CD24/Oct-4/ESA and exhibited chemoresistance, underwent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT, and possessed the properties of self-renewal in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Therefore, we speculated that modified transwell assay system, as a rapid and effective method, can be used to isolate and enrich CSCs.

  5. 改良埋入式注射泵联合硬膜外自控镇痛在晚期癌痛的疗效观察%Analgesic effect of Modified Embedded Injection Pump Combined with Patient-controlled Epidural Analgesia Pump with Late Cancer Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何敏琪; 周瑞仁

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察改良埋入式注射泵联合硬膜外自控镇痛(PCEA)对晚期癌痛患者的镇痛效果.方法 晚期癌痛患者25例,用改良埋入式注射泵植入皮下疏松结缔组织连接大容量镇痛泵持续注药止痛.药物配方:0.125%盐酸罗哌卡因、0.0002%芬太尼、0.0125%地塞米松、0.003%氟哌啶,流量1 ml/h-1,PCA 0.5 ml/30 min-1.结果 25例患者治疗前后VAS评分比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),镇痛满意程度优良率84%~96%,患者生命体征稳定.结论 改良埋入式注射泵联合硬膜外自控镇痛术治疗于晚期癌痛安全有效.%Objective To observe the analgesia effect of modified embedded injection pump combined with patient-controlled epidural analgesia in 25 patients with late cancer pain. Methods Modified embedded injection pump ,which implanted under the skin loose connective tissue connect big capacity analgesia pump continue inject drugs to reduce pain. Drug composition: 0. 125% ropivacaine, 0. 0002% fentanyl, 0. 0125% dexamethasone, and 0. 0125% droperidol. The continuous was 1 ml per hour,0.5 ml per 30 minutes, respectively. Results The VAS scores before and after treatment were significantly different( P< 0.05 ). The good or excellent rate was 84% - 96%for satisfaction degree evaluation. Patient's vital signs were stability. Conclusion Modified embedded injection pump combined with patient-controlled epidural analgesia provide a safe and effective method for late cancer pain treatment.

  6. Can selenium be a modifier of cancer risk in CHEK2 mutation carriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Satish; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for humans, playing an important role in various major metabolic pathways. Selenium helps to protect the body from the poisonous effects of heavy metals and other harmful substances. Medical studies have provided evidence of selenium supplementation in preventing certain cancers. Low and too high selenium (Se) status correlates with increased risk of e.g. lung, larynx, colorectal and prostate cancers. A higher level of selenium and supplementation with selenium has been shown to be associated with substantially reduced cancer mortality. Selenium exerts its biological roles through selenoproteins, which are involved in oxidoreductions, redox signalling, antioxidant defence, thyroid hormone metabolism and immune responses. Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) is an important signal transducer of cellular responses to DNA damage and acts as a tumour suppressor gene. Mutations in the CHEK2 gene have been shown to be associated with increased risks of several cancers. Four common mutations in CHEK2 gene (1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, del5395 and I157T) have been identified in the Polish population. Studies have provided evidence that CHEK2-truncating and/or missense mutations are associated with increased risk of breast, prostate, thyroid, colon and kidney cancers. The variability in penetrance and cancer expression in CHEK2 mutation carriers can probably be explained by the influence of other genetic or environmental factors. One of the possible candidates is Se, which together with genetic variations in selenoprotein genes may influence susceptibility to cancer risk.

  7. Detection of Serum DNA in Cancer Patients by Modified Methylation Specific PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYUongchang; SUNJunning; 等

    2002-01-01

    Ojbective To search for circulating DNA as a biomarker for the cancer burden of patients[1].Methods Methylation specific PCR(MSP),according to Herman et al,was used to identify this epigenetic modification of DNA from serum and tissue of 111 patients with different cancers.In parallel the mutant K-ras gene was analyzed in 55 cases for comparison.Results Methylation of the p16 gene was found in serum or cancer tissue in about 50% of patients with a statistically significant difference Results Methylation of the p16 gene was found in serum or cancer tissue in about 50% of patients with a statistically significant difference to healthy controls(P<0.05).There was no difference between the DNA from the tumor and from the neighboring normal tissue or from sereum in early cancer.The positivity rate increased with progression of the tumor.20 days after the operation methylated DNA nearly disappeared.The positivity rate for mutant K-ras was only 30% and thus much lower than that of methlated DNA.The combination of the two markers increased the positivity rate of tumors by 13%.Conclusion The detection of methylation of the p16 gene by MSP combined with mutant K-ras is serum of cancer patients would be a very effective method to estimate the cancer burden.

  8. New, expanded, and modified use of approved antineoplastic agents in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Maurie

    2007-02-01

    Over the past several years, clinical research efforts in ovarian cancer employing a number of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antineoplastic agents have permitted the development of approaches that both improve the effectiveness and decrease the toxicities of systemic therapy of ovarian cancer. These initiatives, including prospective trials and retrospective examinations of large clinical experience, have involved agents previously approved by the FDA for use in ovarian cancer (e.g., cisplatin, paclitaxel, topotecan, and liposomal doxorubicin) and the development of new strategies for drugs approved for other malignant conditions (e.g., gemcitabine, docetaxel, etoposide, irinotecan, vinorelbine, and bevacizumab). It can be anticipated that future studies involving novel approved agents will further expand the oncologist's weapons against ovarian cancer.

  9. Physical Activity and Gastrointestinal Cancers: Primary and Tertiary Preventive Effects and Possible Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Steindorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cancers account for 37% of all cancer deaths worldwide, underlining the need to further investigate modifiable factors for gastrointestinal cancer risk and prognosis. This review summarizes the corresponding evidence for physical activity (PA, including, briefly, possible biological mechanisms. Despite high public health relevance, there is still a scarcity of studies, especially for tertiary prevention. Besides the convincing evidence of beneficial effects of PA on colon cancer risk, clear risk reduction for gastroesophageal cancer was identified, as well as weak indications for pancreatic cancer. Inverse associations were observed for liver cancer, yet based on few studies. Only for rectal cancer, PA appeared to be not associated with cancer risk. With regard to cancer-specific mortality of the general population, published data were rare but indicated suggestive evidence of protective effects for colon and liver cancer, and to a lesser extent for rectal and gastroesophageal cancer. Studies in cancer patients on cancer-specific and total mortality were published for colorectal cancer only, providing good evidence of inverse associations with post-diagnosis PA. Overall, evidence of associations of PA with gastrointestinal cancer risk and progression is promising but still limited. However, the already available knowledge further underlines the importance of PA to combat cancer.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Modified Radical Mastectomy and Breast Conserving Surgery for Breast Cancer%乳腺癌行改良根治术与保乳根治术治疗的效果对照评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳军

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究乳腺癌行改良根治术与保乳根治术治疗的效果。方法研究资料来源于我院2010年2月~2011年2月收治的乳腺癌患者65例,根据随机数字表法,分为两组,保乳根治组和改良根治组。改良根治组采取改良根治术;保乳根治组采取保乳根治术治疗。就两组患者操作时间、切口长度、失血量、术后生存质量和手术优良率、5年生存率进行比较。结果保乳根治组手术优良率高于改良根治组,P<0.05。保乳根治组5年生存率和改良根治组比较差异无统计学意义, P>0.05。保乳根治组患者操作时间、切口长度、失血量均低于改良根治组,而术后生存质量高于改良根治组,P<0.05。结论乳腺癌行改良根治术与保乳根治术均有一定效果,均可提升患者远期生存率,但相对来说,保乳根治术操作更简单,创伤更小,有利于患者术后生存质量的提升。%Objective To study the effect of modiifed radical mastectomy and breast conserving surgery for breast cancer. Methods 65 cases of breast cancer were treated in our hospital from February 2010 to February 2011. According to the random number table method, groups were divided into two groups. Modified radical mastectomy, modified radical mastectomy, radical mastectomy and radical mastectomy. The operation time, incision length, blood loss, postoperative quality of life, excellent rate of operation and 5 year survival rate were compared between the two groups. Results The good rate of the radical mastectomy group was higher than that of the modified radical mastectomy group, P0.05. The operation time, incision length, blood loss were lower in the patients with radical mastectomy than in the modified radical mastectomy group, but the quality of life was higher than that of the modiifed radical mastectomy group, P<0.05. Conclusion Breast cancer underwent modiifed radical radical surgery and breast conserving

  11. Effects of Breast Cancer and Mastectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breast cancer on fibrinolytic activity and the effect of mastectomy on fibrinolysis in African women. Sixty histowpatholically proven ..... in tumor tissue: Implications for cancer therapy. ... British Journal of Surgery 1992; 29; 711 716. Ingram GIC.

  12. Constitutively activated PI3K accelerates tumor initiation and modifies histopathology of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, M R; Marotti, J D; Allegrezza, M J; Rutkowski, M; Conejo-Garcia, J R; Fiering, S

    2016-10-31

    The gene encoding phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit α-isoform (PIK3CA, p110α) is frequently activated by mutation in human cancers. Based on detection in some breast cancer precursors, PIK3CA mutations have been proposed to have a role in tumor initiation. To investigate this hypothesis, we generated a novel mouse model with a Cre-recombinase regulated allele of p110α (myristoylated-p110α, myr-p110α) along with p53(fl/fl) deletion and Kras(G12D) also regulated by Cre-recombinase. After instillation of adenovirus-expressing Cre-recombinase into mammary ducts, we found that myr-p110α accelerated breast tumor initiation in a copy number-dependent manner. Breast tumors induced by p53(fl/fl);Kras(G12D) with no or one copy of myr-p110α had predominantly sarcomatoid features, whereas two copies of myr-p110α resulted in tumors with a carcinoma phenotype. This novel model provides experimental support for importance of active p110α in breast tumor initiation, and shows that the amount of PI3K activity can affect the rate of tumor initiation and modify the histological phenotype of breast cancer.

  13. Effect of breast-conserving therapy and modified radical mastectomy on the quality of life and sexual function of patients with breast cancer%保乳与改良根治术对乳腺癌患者生存质量和性功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宏斌; 林志雄; 蒋忠祥

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较保乳手术与改良根治术对早期乳腺癌生存质量和性功能的影响.方法 回顾分析70例Ⅰ、Ⅱ期乳腺癌患者临床资料,根据患者手术方式分为保乳手术组(BCT组)和改良根治术组(MRM组),比较两组患者术后生存质量和性功能的差异.结果 BCT组术后的生理状况、情感状况和附加的关注评分显著低于MRM组(P < 0.05),而社会/家庭状况、功能状况、性期望、性欲激起、性高潮和满意度评分显著高于MRM组(P < 0.05、P < 0.01);BCT组患者术后生存质量和性功能显著优于MRM组(P < 0.05、P < 0.01).结论 保乳手术较改良根治术更能改善早期乳腺癌患者的生存质量和性功能.%Objective To compare the effects of breast-conserving therapy (BCT) and modified radical mastectomy (MRM) on quality of life and sexual function of early-stage breast cancer. Methods The clinical data of 70 cases with breast cancer of I , II stage was analyzed retrospectively, and the patients were divided into BCT group and MRM group according to their surgery method. The postoperative quality of life and sexual function of the two groups were compared. Results The physical well-being, emotional well-being and additional concerns in BCT group were significantly lower than MRM group (P < 0.05), while the social/family well-being, functional well-being, sexual expectation, sexual excitation, orgasm and degree of satisfaction were higher than MRM group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The postoperative quality of life and sexual function of BCT group were significantly better than MRM group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Conclusion Breast-conserving therapy can refine quality of life and sexual function for breast cancer much better than modified radical mastectomy.

  14. Unintended effects in genetically modified crops: revealed by metabolomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischer, Heiko; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2006-03-01

    In Europe the commercialization of food derived from genetically modified plants has been slow because of the complex regulatory process and the concerns of consumers. Risk assessment is focused on potential adverse effects on humans and the environment, which could result from unintended effects of genetic modifications: unintended effects are connected to changes in metabolite levels in the plants. One of the major challenges is how to analyze the overall metabolite composition of GM plants in comparison to conventional cultivars, and one possible solution is offered by metabolomics. The ultimate aim of metabolomics is the identification and quantification of all small molecules in an organism; however, a single method enabling complete metabolome analysis does not exist. Given a comprehensive extraction method, a hierarchical strategy--starting with global fingerprinting and followed by complementary profiling attempts--is the most logical and economic approach to detect unintended effects in GM crops.

  15. The granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor surface modified MB49 bladder cancer stem cells vaccine against metastatic bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-tong Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The MB49 bladder cancer cell vaccine was effective against bladder cancer in the mice model in previous studies. However, part of the tumors regrew as the vaccine could not eliminate the cancer stem cells (CSCs. MB49 bladder cancer stem cells (MCSCs were isolated by a combination of the limited dilution method and the serum free culture medium method. MCSCs possessed higher expression of CD133, CD44, OCT4, NANOG, and ABCG2, the ability of differentiation, higher proliferative abilities, lower susceptibility to chemotherapy, greater migration in vitro, and stronger tumorigenic abilities in vivo. Then streptavidin–mouse granulocyte macrophage–colony stimulating factor (SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine was prepared. SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine extended the survival of the mice and inhibited the growth of tumor in protective, therapeutic, memorial and specific immune response experiments. The level of immunoglobulin G and the ratio of dendritic cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were highest in the experimental group when compared to those in other four control groups, as well as for the cytotoxicity assay. We demonstrated that SA–mGM–CSF MCSCs vaccine induces an antitumor immune response to metastatic bladder cancer.

  16. Climate Effects of Cloud Modified CCN-Cloud Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. R., Jr.; Hudson, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play an important role in the climate system through the indirect aerosol effect (IAE). IAE is one of the least understood aspects of the climate system as many cloud processes are complicated. Many studies of aerosol-cloud interaction involve CCN interaction with cloud droplet concentrations (Nc), cloud microphysics, and radiative properties. However, fewer studies investigate how cloud processes modify CCN. Upon evaporation from non-precipitating clouds, CCN distributions develop bimodal shaped distributions (Hoppel et al. 1986). Activated CCN participate in cloud processing that is either chemical: aqueous oxidation; or physical: Brownian scavenging, collision and coalescence. Chemical processing does not change CCN concentration (NCCN) but reduces critical supersaturations (Sc; larger size) (Feingold and Kreidenweis, 2000) while physical processing reduces NCCN and Sc. These processes create the minima in the bimodal CCN distributions (Hudson et al., 2015). Updraft velocity (W) and NCCN are major factors on how these modified CCN distributions affect clouds. Panel a shows two nearby CCN distributions in the MArine Stratus/stratocumulus Experiment (MASE), which have similar concentrations, but the bimodal one (red) has been modified by cloud processing. In a simplified cloud droplet model, the modified CCN then produces higher Nc (panel b) and smaller droplet mean diameters (MD; panel c) when compared to the unmodified CCN (black) for W lower than 50 cm/s. The better CCN (lower Sc) increase competition among droplets reducing MD and droplet distribution spread (σ) which acts to reduce drizzle. Competition is created by limited available condensate due to lower S created by the low W (50 cm/s) typical of cumuli, Ncis reduced and MD is increased from the modified CCN distribution (panels b & c). Here, CCN cloud processing increases MD and σ leading to increased drizzle. Improved climate prediction requires a better understanding

  17. Traumatic Neuroma in a Breast Cancer Patient After Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Kim, Tae Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ku Sang [Dept. of Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Hyunee [Dept. of Pathology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Traumatic neuromas are rare benign lesions that develop from non-neoplastic proliferation of axons, schwann cells, and fibroblasts at the proximal end of transected or injured nerves as a result of trauma or surgery. We present the case of a traumatic neuroma in a 47-year-old female who was treated with a right modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer 14 years ago. Ultrasound examination revealed an oval-shaped hypoechoic nodule at the 9-O'clock position in the right chest wall. Color Doppler imaging showed no increased blood flow and a positron emission tomography-computed tomography examination revealed no fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in this nodule. The typical histologic findings were present.

  18. Dark energy or modified gravity? An effective field theory approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon; Flanagan, Éanna É. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Park, Minjoon [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Watson, Scott, E-mail: jkb84@cornell.edu, E-mail: eef3@cornell.edu, E-mail: minjoonp@physics.umass.edu, E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We take an Effective Field Theory (EFT) approach to unifying existing proposals for the origin of cosmic acceleration and its connection to cosmological observations. Building on earlier work where EFT methods were used with observations to constrain the background evolution, we extend this program to the level of the EFT of the cosmological perturbations — following the example from the EFT of Inflation. Within this framework, we construct the general theory around an assumed background which will typically be chosen to mimic ΛCDM, and identify the parameters of interest for constraining dark energy and modified gravity models with observations. We discuss the similarities to the EFT of Inflation, but we also identify a number of subtleties including the relationship between the scalar perturbations and the Goldstone boson of the spontaneously broken time translations. We present formulae that relate the parameters of the fundamental Lagrangian to the speed of sound, anisotropic shear stress, effective Newtonian constant, and Caldwell's varpi parameter, emphasizing the connection to observations. It is anticipated that this framework will be of use in constraining individual models, as well as for placing model-independent constraints on dark energy and modified gravity model building.

  19. [Effect of KI modified clay on elemental mercury removal efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo-Xiong; Chen, Jian-Hong; Cai, Ji; He, Chuan; Li, Zhuo

    2014-08-01

    Adsorption tests of elemental mercury were carried out by using KI modified clay (bentonite) in simulated flue gas under different conditions. Brunauer-Emett-Teller measurement (BET), Fourier Transform Infraredspectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used to analyze the physical and chemical properties of the materials. Compared with the original bentonite, Hg(0) removal efficiency and Hg(0) adsorption capacity were drastically improved by the KI treatment. The experiment results also indicated that temperature could enhance the property of Hg(0) adsorption. Chemical adsorption was the dominant part in the process of Hg(0) adsorption. O2 was a beneficial factor for Hg(0) adsorption. SO2 was found to have a slight promotional effect on Hg(0) adsorption. The existence of H2O exhibited a dramatic inhibitory effect on Hg(0) adsorption.

  20. Targeted and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin to cancer cells using multifunctional dendrimer-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shihui; Liu, Hui; Cai, Hongdong; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2013-09-01

    We report the use of multifunctional dendrimer-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for targeted and pH-responsive delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and folic acid (FA) were covalently linked to acid-treated MWCNTs, followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines to neutralize the positive surface potential. The formed multifunctional MWCNTs (MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA) were characterized via different techniques. Then, the MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA was used to load DOX for targeted and pH-responsive delivery to cancer cells overexpressing high-affinity folic acid receptors (FAR). We showed that the MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA enabled a high drug payload and encapsulation efficiency both up to 97.8% and the formed DOX/MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA complexes displayed a pH-responsive release property with fast DOX release under acidic environment and slow release at physiological pH conditions. Importantly, the DOX/MWCNT/G5.NHAc-FI-FA complexes displayed effective therapeutic efficacy, similar to that of free DOX, and were able to target to cancer cells overexpressing high-affinity FAR and effectively inhibit the growth of the cancer cells. The synthesized multifunctional dendrimer-modified MWCNTs may be used as a targeted and pH-responsive delivery system for targeting therapy of different types of cancer cells.

  1. Satisfactory surgical outcome of T2 gastric cancer after modified D2 lymphadenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shupeng; Wu, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaona; Ding, Xuewei; Liang, Han

    2017-04-01

    Though D2 lymphadenectomy has been increasingly regarded as standard surgical procedure for advanced gastric cancer (GC), the modified D2 (D1 + 7, 8a and 9) lymphadenectomy may be more suitable than D2 dissection for T2 stage GC. The purpose of this study is to elucidate whether the surgical outcome of modified D2 lymphadenectomy was comparable to that of standard D2 dissection in T2 stage GC patients. A retrospective cohort study with 77 cases and 77 controls matched for baseline characteristics was conducted. Patients were categorized into two groups according to the extent of lymphadenectomy: the modified D2 group (mD2) and the standard D2 group (D2). Surgical outcome and recurrence date were compared between the two groups. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 71.4% for patients accepted mD2 lymphadenectomy and 70.1% for those accepted standard D2, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that curability, tumor size, TNM stage and postoperative complications were independently prognostic factors for T2 stage GC patients. Patients in the mD2 group tended to have less intraoperative blood loss (P=0.001) and shorter operation time (PD2 group. While there were no significant differences in recurrence rate and types, especially lymph node recurrence, between the two groups. The surgical outcome of mD2 lymphadenectomy was equal to that of standard D2, and the use of mD2 instead of standard D2 can be a better option for T2 stage GC.

  2. Anti-gastric cancer active immunity induced by FasL/B7-1 gene-modified tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Ying Zheng; De-Chun Li; Zhi-De Zhang; Jun Zhao; Jin-Feng Ge

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against gastric cancer cells induced by FasL/B7-1 (FB-11) gene-modified tumor cells, and to explore whether co-expression of FasL and B7-1 in SGC-7901 tumor cells could initiate synergistic antitumor effect. METHODS: FasL and B7-1 genes were transfected into human SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells with adenovirus vectors. The positive clones were selected by G418. FasL and B7-1 genes were detected by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Abdominal infiltrating lymphocytes and sensitized spleen cells were obtained from mice that were immunized with SGC-7901/FB-11 or wild type SGC-7901 cells intraperitoneally, and cytotoxicity of these CTLs against tumor cells was determined by MTT assay. RESULTS: Flow cytometry and RT-PCR showed that FasL and B7-1 genes were highly expressed. FasL and B7-1 transfected cancer cells had a high apoptosis index. DNA laddering suggested that FasL and B7-1 genes induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. FasL+/B7-1+SGC-7901 cells (SGC-7901/FB-11) were inoculated subcutaneously in the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice and then decreased their tumorigenicity greatly (z = 2.15-46.10, P<0.01). SGC- 7901/FB-11 cell-sensitized mice obtained protective immune activity against the rechallenge of wild type SGC 7901 cells (z = 2.06-44.30, P<0.05). The cytotoxicity of CTLs induced by SGC-7901/FB-11 cells against SGC-7901 was significantly higher than that of CTLs activated by wild-type SGC-7901 cells (84.1±2.4% vs30.5±2.3%,P<0.05).CONCLUSION: FasL and B7-1 genes can effectively promote the activity of CTLs against gastric cancer cells. FasL/B7-1 molecules play an important role in CTL cytotoxicity.

  3. [Construction of biotin-modified polymeric micelles for pancreatic cancer targeted photodynamic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chun-yue; Long, Ying-ying; Liu, Sha; Chen, Zhang-bao; Li, Chong

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we explored the feasibility of biotin-mediated modified polymeric micelles for pancreatic cancer targeted photodynamic therapy. Poly (ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (mPEG2000-DSPE) served as the drug-loaded material, biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (Biotin-PEG3400-DSPE) as the functional material and the polymeric micelles were prepared by a thin-film hydration method. The targeting capability of micelles was investigated by cell uptake assay in vitro and fluorescence imaging in vivo and the amounts of Biotin-PEG-DSPE were optimized accordingly. Hypocrellin B (HB), a novel photosensitizer was then encapsulated in biotinylated polymeric micelles and the anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated systemically in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that micelles with 5 mol % Biotin-PEG-DSPE demonstrated the best targeting capability than those with 20 mol % or 0.5 mol % of corresponding materials. This formulation has a small particle size [mean diameter of (36.74 ± 2.16) nm] with a homogeneous distribution and high encapsulation efficiency (80.06 ± 0.19) %. The following pharmacodynamics assays showed that the biotinylated micelles significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of HB against tumor cells in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo, suggesting a promising potential of this formulation for treatment of pancreatic cancer, especially those poorly permeable, or insensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  4. Dietary fat-dependent transcriptional architecture and copy number alterations associated with modifiers of mammary cancer metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan A; Merrill, Michele La; Hunter, Kent W

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease resulting from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among environmental factors, body composition and intake of specific dietary components like total fat are associated with increased incidence of breast cancer and metastasis. We previously showed...... detected metastasis modifiers were identified. Additional analyses, such as eQTL by dietary fat interaction analysis, causality and database evaluations, helped to further refine the candidate loci to produce an enriched list of genes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of metastatic mammary cancer...

  5. Evaluation of Rint1 as a modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterpohl, Karla L.; Gould, Karen A.

    2017-01-01

    The Rad50 Interacting Protein 1 (Rint1) influences cellular homeostasis through maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and centrosome integrity and regulation of vesicle transport, autophagy and the G2/M checkpoint. Rint1 has been postulated to function as a tumor suppressor as well as an oncogene, with its role depending perhaps upon the precise cellular and/or experimental context. In humans, heterozygosity for germline missense variants in RINT1 have, in some studies, been associated with increased risk of both breast and Lynch syndrome type cancers. However, it is not known if these germline variants represent loss of function alleles or gain of function alleles. Based upon these findings, as well as our initial consideration of Rint1 as a potential candidate for Mom5, a genetic modifier of intestinal tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice, we sought to explicitly examine the impact of Rint1 on tumorigenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. However, heterozygosity for a knockout of Rint1 had no impact on tumorigenesis in Rint1+/-; ApcMin/+ mice. Likewise, we found no evidence to suggest that the remaining Rint1 allele was lost somatically in intestinal tumors in ApcMin/+ mice. Interestingly, in contrast to what has been observed in Rint1+/- mice on a mixed genetic background, Rint1+/- mice on a pure C57BL/6J background did not show spontaneous tumor development. We also evaluated colorectal cancer data available in the COSMIC and ONCOMINE databases and found that RINT1 overexpression, as well as the presence of somatic missense mutations in RINT1 were associated with colorectal cancer development. In vitro evaluation of two missense variants in RINT1 suggested that such variants do have the potential to impact RINT1 function. PMID:28264000

  6. 乳腺癌改良根治术后早期应用弹力袖套防治患肢水肿的疗效观察%Clinical Observation on the Prevention and Therapeutic Effect of Bethca in Early Upper Limb Edema After Modified Radical Mastectomy in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巧刿; 全舒萍; 黄晓群; 屈淑娥

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨乳腺癌改良根治术后早期应用弹力袖套对防治患肢水肿的效果.[方法]对照组69例,术后按常规进行患肢功能锻炼;试验组72例,术后在进行常规患肢功能锻炼的基础上应用弹力袖套束缚患肢.观察并比较两组患者患肢水肿发生及患肢功能恢复情况.[结果]随访1个月后,试验组患肢水肿发生率(23.6%)显著低于对照组(43.5%)(P<0.05),随访2个月后两组患者在患肢功能恢复方面,差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]乳腺癌改良根治术后常规功能锻炼的基础上早期应用弹力袖套,对于防治患肢水肿效果显著,且患肢功能恢复良好,值得在临床实践中推广.%[Purpose] To investigate the prevention and therapeutic effect of bethca in early upper limb edema after modified radical mastectomy in patients with breast cancer.[Methods] Sixty-nine patients of control group received routine upper limb functional training postoperative,while 72 patients of test group received bethca bondage based on the routine upper limb functional training. The incidence of upper limb edema and recovery of limb function were observed and compared. [Results] The incidence of upper limb edema in test group (23.6%) was significantly lower than that in control group (43.5%) (P<0.05). The excellent rate of recovery of limb function was significantly higher in test group than that in control group after 2 months follow-up (P<0.05). [Conclusion ] The method of bethca bondage the upper limb based on the routine functional training postoperative is useful for prevention and treatment for early upper limb edema after modified radical mastectomy in patients with breast cancer.

  7. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk inBRCA1andBRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Peterlongo (Paolo); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); A. Rudolph (Anja); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); J. Simard (Jacques); P. Soucy (Penny); R. Eeles (Rosalind); D.F. Easton (Douglas); U. Hamann (Ute); S. Wilkening (Stefan); B. Chen (Bowang); M.A. Rookus (Matti); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka K.); F.H. Van Der Baan (Frederieke H.); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); L.C. Walker (Logan); F. Lose (Felicity); A.-T. Maia (Ana-Teresa); M. Montagna (Marco); L. Matricardi (Laura); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Jakubowska (Anna); E.B.G. Garcia; O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); R.L. Nussbaum (Robert L.); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); B.K. Arun (Banu); B. Karlan; S. Orsulic (Sandra); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); W.K. Chung (Wendy K.); A. Miron (Alexander); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); Y.C. Ding (Yuan Chun); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); A.-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); L. Jønson (Lars); A. Osorio (Ana); C. Martínez-Bouzas (Cristina); J. Benítez (Javier); E.E. Conway (Edye E.); K.R. Blazer (Kathleen R.); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (Daniela); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); M. Barile (Monica); F. Ficarazzi (Filomena); F. Mariette (F.); S. Fortuzzi (S.); A. Viel (Alessandra); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); L. Papi (Laura); A. Martayan (Aline); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); P. Radice (Paolo); A. Vratimos (Athanassios); F. Fostira (Florentia); J. Garber (Judy); A. Donaldson (Alan); C. Brewer (Carole); C. Foo (Claire); D.G. Evans (Gareth); D. Frost (Debra); D. Eccles (Diana); A. Brady (A.); J. Cook (Jackie); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); L. Adlard; J. Barwell (Julian); L.J. Walker (Lisa); L. Izatt (Louise); L. Side (Lucy); M.J. Kennedy (John); M.T. Rogers (Mark); M.E. Porteous (Mary); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); R. Platte (Radka); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); S. Hodgson (Shirley); S.D. Ellis (Steve); T. Cole (Trevor); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); T. Van Maerken (Tom); A. Meindl (Alfons); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); C. Sutter (Christian); C. Engel (Christoph); D. Niederacher (Dieter); D. Steinemann (Doris); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); K. Kast (Karin); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); B. Bressac-de Paillerets (Brigitte); B. Buecher (Bruno); C.D. Delnatte (Capucine); C. Houdayer (Claude); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); F. Damiola (Francesca); I. Coupier (Isabelle); L. Barjhoux (Laure); L. Vénat-Bouvet (Laurence); L. Golmard (Lisa); N. Boutry-Kryza (N.); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); O. Caron (Olivier); P. Pujol (Pascal); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); M. Belotti (Muriel); M. Piedmonte (Marion); M.L. Friedlander (Michael L.); G. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L.J. Copeland (Larry J.); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); P. Perez-Segura (Pedro); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); N. Hoogerbrugqe (N.); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); H.C. van Doorn (Helena); J.M. Collee (Margriet); E. Olah; O. Díez (Orland); I. Blanco (Ignacio); C. Lazaro (Conxi); J. Brunet (Joan); L. Feliubadaló (L.); C. Cybulski (Cezary); J. Gronwald (Jacek); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); G. Sukiennicki (Grzegorz); A. Arason (Adalgeir); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); P.J. Teixeira; C. Olswold (Curtis); F.J. Couch (Fergus); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); X. Wang (X.); C. Szabo (Csilla); K. Offit (Kenneth); M. Corines (Marina); L. Jacobs (Lauren); M.E. Robson (Mark E.); L. Zhang (Lingling); V. Joseph (Vijai); A. Berger (Andreas); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D.G. Kaulich (Daphne Gschwantler); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; C. Phelan (Catherine); M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); G. Rennert (Gad); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.E. Toland (Amanda); A. Bojesen (Anders); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); M. Thomassen (Mads); U.B. Jensen; Y. Laitman (Yael); J. Rantala (Johanna); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); M.S. Askmalm (Marie); Å. Borg (Åke); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); L. McGuffog (Lesley); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); S. Healey (Sue); A. Lee (Andrew); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul D.P.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); E. Friedman (Eitan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying

  8. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterlongo, P.; Chang-Claude, J.; Moysich, K.B.; Rudolph, A.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Simard, J.; Soucy, P.; Eeles, R.A.; Easton, D.F.; Hamann, U.; Wilkening, S.; Chen, B.; Rookus, M.A.; Schmidt, M.K.; Baan, F.H. van der; Spurdle, A.B.; Walker, L.C.; Lose, F.; Maia, A.T.; Montagna, M.; Matricardi, L.; Lubinski, J.; Jakubowska, A.; Garcia, E.B.; Olopade, O.I.; Nussbaum, R.L.; Nathanson, K.L.; Domchek, S.M.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Arun, B.K.; Karlan, B.Y.; Orsulic, S.; Lester, J.; Chung, W.K.; Miron, A.; Southey, M.C.; Goldgar, D.E.; Buys, S.S.; Janavicius, R.; Dorfling, C.M.; Rensburg, E.J. van; Ding, Y.C.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Hansen, T.V.; Gerdes, A.M.; Ejlertsen, B.; Jonson, L.; Osorio, A.; Martinez-Bouzas, C.; Benitez, J.; Conway, E.E.; Blazer, K.R.; Weitzel, J.N.; Manoukian, S.; Peissel, B.; Zaffaroni, D.; Scuvera, G.; Barile, M.; Ficarazzi, F.; Mariette, F.; Fortuzzi, S.; Viel, A.; Giannini, G.; Papi, L.; Martayan, A.; Tibiletti, M.G.; Radice, P.; Vratimos, A.; Fostira, F.; Garber, J.E.; Donaldson, A.; Brewer, C.; Foo, C.; Evans, D.G.; Frost, D.; Eccles, D.; Brady, A.; Cook, J.; Tischkowitz, M.; Adlard, J.; Barwell, J.; Walker, L.; Izatt, L.; Side, L.E.; Kennedy, M.J.; Rogers, M.T.; Porteous, M.E.; Morrison, P.J.; Platte, R.; Davidson, R.; Hodgson, S.V.; Ellis, S.; Cole, T.; Godwin, A.K.; Claes, K.; Maerken, T. Van; Meindl, A.; Gehrig, A.; Sutter, C.; Engel, C.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In thi

  9. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In ...

  10. Routine modified D2 lymphadenectomy performance in pT1-T2N0 gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Griniatsos; Hara Gakiopoulou; Eugenia Yiannakopoulou; Nikoletta Dimitriou; Gerasimos Douridas; Afrodite Nonni; Theodoros Liakakos; Evangelos Felekouras

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate routine modified D2 lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer, based on immunohistochemically detected skip micrometastases in level Ⅱ lymph nodes.METHODS: Among 95 gastric cancer patients who were routinely submitted to curative modified D2 lymphadenectomy, from January 2004 to December 2008, 32 were classified as pN0. All level Ⅰ lymph nodes of these 32 patients were submitted to immunohistochemistry for micrometastases detection.Patients in whom micrometastases were detected in the level Ⅰ lymph node stations ( n = 4) were excluded from further analysis. The level Ⅱ lymph nodes of the remaining 28 patients were studied immunohistochemically for micrometastases detection and constitute the material of the present study.RESULTS: Skip micrometastases in the level Ⅱ lymph nodes were detected in 14% (4 out of 28) of the patients.The incidence was further increased to 17% (4 out of 24) in the subgroup of T12 gastric cancer patients. All micrometastases were detected in the No. 7 lymph node station. Thus, the disease was upstaged from stage ⅠA to ⅠB in one patient and from stage ⅠB to Ⅱ in three patients.CONCLUSION: In gastric cancer, true R0 resection may not be achieved without modified D2 lymphadenectomy.Until D2+/D3 lymphadenectomy becomes standard,modified D2 lymphadenectomy should be performed routinely.

  11. Candidate Genetic Modifiers for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, MarjankaK.; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jonson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martinez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J.; de la Hoya, Miguel; Perez Segura, Pedro; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collee, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Ake; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Ligtenberg, Jakobus J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In thi

  12. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Rudolph, Anja; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hamann, Ute; Wilkening, Stefan; Chen, Bowang; Rookus, Matti A.; Schmidt, Marjanka K; van der Baan, Frederieke H.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Walker, Logan C.; Lose, Felicity; Maia, Ana-Teresa; Montagna, Marco; Matricardi, Laura; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra; Lester, Jenny; Chung, Wendy K.; Miron, Alex; Southey, Melissa C.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jønson, Lars; Osorio, Ana; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Benitez, Javier; Conway, Edye E.; Blazer, Kathleen R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Barile, Monica; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Mariette, Frederique; Fortuzzi, Stefano; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Martayan, Aline; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Radice, Paolo; Vratimos, Athanassios; Fostira, Florentia; Garber, Judy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth R.; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Brady, Angela; Cook, Jackie; Tischkowitz, Marc; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Ellis, Steve; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Delnatte, Capucine; Houdayer, Claude; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Damiola, Francesca; Coupier, Isabelle; Barjhoux, Laure; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Golmard, Lisa; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Belotti, Muriel; Piedmonte, Marion; Friedlander, Michael L.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Copeland, Larry J; de la Hoya, Miguel; Segura, Pedro Perez; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; van Os, Theo A.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P.G.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; van Doorn, Helena C.; Collée, J. Margriet; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Cybulski, Cezary; Gronwald, Jacek; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Arason, Adalgeir; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Olswold, Curtis; Couch, Fergus J.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Wang, Xianshu; Szabo, Csilla I.; Offit, Kenneth; Corines, Marina; Jacobs, Lauren; Robson, Mark E.; Zhang, Liying; Joseph, Vijai; Berger, Andreas; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Andrulis, Irene L.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Laitman, Yael; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Borg, Åke; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Friedman, Eitan

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and non-genetic modifying factors. In this study we evaluated the putative role of variants in many candidate modifier genes. Methods Genotyping data from 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers, for known variants (n=3,248) located within or around 445 candidate genes, were available through the iCOGS custom-designed array. Breast and ovarian cancer association analysis was performed within a retrospective cohort approach. Results The observed p-values of association ranged between 0.005-1.000. None of the variants was significantly associated with breast or ovarian cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, after multiple testing adjustments. Conclusion There is little evidence that any of the evaluated candidate variants act as modifiers of breast and/or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Impact Genome-wide association studies have been more successful at identifying genetic modifiers of BRCA1/2 penetrance than candidate gene studies. PMID:25336561

  13. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk inBRCA1andBRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Peterlongo (Paolo); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); A. Rudolph (Anja); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); J. Simard (Jacques); P. Soucy (Penny); R. Eeles (Rosalind); D.F. Easton (Douglas); U. Hamann (Ute); S. Wilkening (Stefan); B. Chen (Bowang); M.A. Rookus (Matti); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka K.); F.H. Van Der Baan (Frederieke H.); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); L.C. Walker (Logan); F. Lose (Felicity); A.-T. Maia (Ana-Teresa); M. Montagna (Marco); L. Matricardi (Laura); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Jakubowska (Anna); E.B.G. Garcia; O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); R.L. Nussbaum (Robert L.); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); B.K. Arun (Banu); B. Karlan; S. Orsulic (Sandra); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); W.K. Chung (Wendy K.); A. Miron (Alexander); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); Y.C. Ding (Yuan Chun); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); A.-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); L. Jønson (Lars); A. Osorio (Ana); C. Martínez-Bouzas (Cristina); J. Benítez (Javier); E.E. Conway (Edye E.); K.R. Blazer (Kathleen R.); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (Daniela); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); M. Barile (Monica); F. Ficarazzi (Filomena); F. Mariette (F.); S. Fortuzzi (S.); A. Viel (Alessandra); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); L. Papi (Laura); A. Martayan (Aline); M.G. Tibiletti (Maria Grazia); P. Radice (Paolo); A. Vratimos (Athanassios); F. Fostira (Florentia); J. Garber (Judy); A. Donaldson (Alan); C. Brewer (Carole); C. Foo (Claire); D.G. Evans (Gareth); D. Frost (Debra); D. Eccles (Diana); A. Brady (A.); J. Cook (Jackie); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); L. Adlard; J. Barwell (Julian); L.J. Walker (Lisa); L. Izatt (Louise); L. Side (Lucy); M.J. Kennedy (John); M.T. Rogers (Mark); M.E. Porteous (Mary); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); R. Platte (Radka); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); S. Hodgson (Shirley); S.D. Ellis (Steve); T. Cole (Trevor); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); T. Van Maerken (Tom); A. Meindl (Alfons); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); C. Sutter (Christian); C. Engel (Christoph); D. Niederacher (Dieter); D. Steinemann (Doris); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); K. Kast (Karin); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); B. Bressac-de Paillerets (Brigitte); B. Buecher (Bruno); C.D. Delnatte (Capucine); C. Houdayer (Claude); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); F. Damiola (Francesca); I. Coupier (Isabelle); L. Barjhoux (Laure); L. Vénat-Bouvet (Laurence); L. Golmard (Lisa); N. Boutry-Kryza (N.); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); O. Caron (Olivier); P. Pujol (Pascal); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); M. Belotti (Muriel); M. Piedmonte (Marion); M.L. Friedlander (Michael L.); G. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L.J. Copeland (Larry J.); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); P. Perez-Segura (Pedro); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); N. Hoogerbrugqe (N.); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); H.C. van Doorn (Helena); J.M. Collee (Margriet); E. Olah; O. Díez (Orland); I. Blanco (Ignacio); C. Lazaro (Conxi); J. Brunet (Joan); L. Feliubadaló (L.); C. Cybulski (Cezary); J. Gronwald (Jacek); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); G. Sukiennicki (Grzegorz); A. Arason (Adalgeir); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); P.J. Teixeira; C. Olswold (Curtis); F.J. Couch (Fergus); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); X. Wang (X.); C. Szabo (Csilla); K. Offit (Kenneth); M. Corines (Marina); L. Jacobs (Lauren); M.E. Robson (Mark E.); L. Zhang (Lingling); V. Joseph (Vijai); A. Berger (Andreas); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D.G. Kaulich (Daphne Gschwantler); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; C. Phelan (Catherine); M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); G. Rennert (Gad); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); A.E. Toland (Amanda); A. Bojesen (Anders); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); M. Thomassen (Mads); U.B. Jensen; Y. Laitman (Yael); J. Rantala (Johanna); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); M.S. Askmalm (Marie); Å. Borg (Åke); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); L. McGuffog (Lesley); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); S. Healey (Sue); A. Lee (Andrew); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul D.P.); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); E. Friedman (Eitan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying fac

  14. Improved Anticancer Photothermal Therapy Using the Bystander Effect Enhanced by Antiarrhythmic Peptide Conjugated Dopamine-Modified Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiantao; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Yang, Lingyan; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chen, Liliang; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Guan-Wen; Yan, Junyan; Sawettanun, Saranta; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Despite tremendous efforts toward developing novel near-infrared (NIR)-absorbing nanomaterials, improvement in therapeutic efficiency remains a formidable challenge in photothermal cancer therapy. This study aims to synthesize a specific peptide conjugated polydopamine-modified reduced graphene oxide (pDA/rGO) nanocomposite that promotes the bystander effect to facilitate cancer treatment using NIR-activated photothermal therapy. To prepare a nanoplatform capable of promoting the bystander effect in cancer cells, we immobilized antiarrhythmic peptide 10 (AAP10) on the surface of dopamine-modified rGO (AAP10-pDA/rGO). Our AAP10-pDA/rGO could promote the bystander effect by increasing the expression of connexin 43 protein in MCF-7 breast-cancer cells. Because of its tremendous ability to absorb NIR absorption, AAP10-pDA/rGO offers a high photothermal effect under NIR irradiation. This leads to a massive death of MCF-7 cells via the bystander effect. Using tumor-bearing mice as the model, it is found that NIR radiation effectively ablates breast tumor in the presence of AAP10-pDA/rGO and inhibits tumor growth by ≈100%. Therefore, this research integrates the bystander and photothermal effects into a single nanoplatform in order to facilitate an efficient photothermal therapy. Furthermore, our AAP10-pDA/rGO, which exhibits both hyperthermia and the bystander effect, can prevent breast-cancer recurrence and, therefore, has great potential for future clinical and research applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Common variants associated with breast cancer in genome-wide association studies are modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, V Shane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Tarrell, Robert; Karaus, Mary; McGuffog, Lesley; Pharaoh, Paul D P; Ponder, Bruce A J; Dunning, Alison M; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Houdayer, Claude; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hooning, Maartje J; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J; Spurdle, Amanda; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Singer, Christian F; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Dressler, Catherina; Fink, Anneliese; Szabo, Csilla I; Zikan, Michal; Foretova, Lenka; Claes, Kathleen; Thomas, Gilles; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Chanock, Stephen J; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J

    2010-07-15

    Recent studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that significantly modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Since these risk modifiers were originally identified as genetic risk factors for breast cancer in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), additional risk modifiers for BRCA1 and BRCA2 may be identified from promising signals discovered in breast cancer GWAS. A total of 350 SNPs identified as candidate breast cancer risk factors (P CAMK1D displayed the strongest associations in BRCA1 carriers (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.69-0.90, P(trend) = 3.6 x 10(-4) and HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.41, P(trend) = 4.2 x 10(-4)), whereas rs9393597 in LOC134997 and rs12652447 in FBXL7 showed the strongest associations in BRCA2 carriers (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.25-1.92, P(trend) = 6 x 10(-5) and HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.16-1.62, P(trend) = 1.7 x 10(-4)). The magnitude and direction of the associations were consistent with the original GWAS. In subsequent risk assessment studies, the loci appeared to interact multiplicatively for breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Promising candidate SNPs from GWAS were identified as modifiers of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. Upon further validation, these SNPs together with other genetic and environmental factors may improve breast cancer risk assessment in these populations.

  16. Effect of age on the relationship of occupational social class with prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases. A population-based cross-sectional study from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer - Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Phyo K; Luben, Robert N; Welch, Ailsa A; Bingham, Sheila A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on cardiovascular risk profile in different socioeconomic status were focused on younger populations and many of them have not been able to take into account age and sex differences. To investigate the relationship of occupational social class with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular diseases in younger (or=65 years) men and women. A population-based-cross sectional study was conducted in a general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom. Participants were 23,085 men and women aged 40-79 years, recruited from general practice age-sex registers as part of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk). The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases were examined. The prevalence of smoking was significantly higher in those in manual social classes particularly in the younger (social classes were more likely to be smokers compared to older women in the same social class. Being in manual social classes was associated with higher cholesterol levels in women but lower cholesterol levels in men. Manual social class was associated with higher physical activity in those younger than 65 years but this association was reversed in those 65 years or older. Occupational social class is differently related to cardiovascular risk factors in individuals depending on their age and sex. This may reflect differences in behavior at work and leisure, which vary by sex and pre- and postretirement. Interventions to promote health and reduce social inequalities need to take age and gender into account. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Can vitamin A modify the activity of docetaxel in MCF-7 breast cancer cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Lemancewicz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Docetaxel is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast cancer. On the other hand, the vitamin A family compounds play the essential roles in many biological processes in mammary gland. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of all-trans retinol, carotenoids (beta-carotene, lycopene and retinoids (9-cis, 13-cis and all-trans retinoic acid on the activity of docetaxel and to compare these effects with the estradiol and tamoxifen actions on human ER(+ MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The evaluation was based on [3H] thymidine incorporation and the proliferative activity of PCNA and Ki 67 positive cells. In our study, the incorporation of [3H] thymidine into cancer cells was inhibited to 50% by 0.2, 0.5 and 1 microM of docetaxel in the 24-hour culture and addition of estradiol (0.001 microM didn't influence the results. However, addition of tamoxifen caused a statistically significant decrease of the percentage of the proliferating cells in the culture medium with 0.2 and 0.5 microM of docetaxel (38.99 +/- 2.84%, p<0.01 and 40.67 +/- 5.62%, p<0.01 in comparison to the docetaxel only group. The above-mentioned observations were also confirmed with the use of the immunohistochemical investigations. Among the examined vitamin A family compounds, the simultaneous application of beta-carotene (0.1 microM and docetaxel (0.2 microM resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of proliferating cells (40.25 +/- 14.62%, p<0.01. Lycopene (0.1 microM, which stimulates the growth of breast cancer cells in a 24-hour culture, had an inhibitory effect (42.97 +/- 9.58%, p<0.01 when combined with docetaxel (0.2 microM. Although, beta-carotene and lycopene belong to the different chemical groups, they surprisingly had a similar inhibitory influence on both growth and proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells when combined with docetaxel. The application of docetaxel either with beta-carotene or

  18. Effects of Nanoparticles on Properties of Modified Polyimide Epoxy Adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BA De-ma; MA Shi-ning; QIAO Yu-lin; ZHANG Shi-tang

    2004-01-01

    Polyimide modified epoxy adhesive(J-27H)/nano-SiOx and nano-Al2 O3 nanocomposite were prepared by ball milling treating method. Differential Scanning Calorimetry(DSC)was used to study effects of nanoparticles on curing speed of nanocomposited adhesive, and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was utilized to analyze the glass transition temperature.Results showed a increase in curing speed of nanocomposites in comparision with the neat J-27H, the curing speed of SiOx/J -27H nanocompositeis higher than Al2O3/J-27H nanocomposite. The curing speed of 6wt% SiOx/ J-27H nanocomposite is six times that of neat J-27H. Glass transition temperature measured for SiOx/ J-27H nanocomposite showed a slight increase compared to the neat J-27H.

  19. Photocatalytic effect of nature and modified V-bearing rutile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Anhuai; GUO Yanjun; LIU Juan; LIU Fei; WANG Changqiu; LI Ning; LI Qiaorong

    2004-01-01

    A natural rutile TiO2, which displays photocatalysis on degrading halohydrocarbon pollutants, was reported. The rutile contains up to 1.22% V2O5 (weight percent). Substitutions of Ti by V, as well as Fe, Cu and Zn, result in lattice distortions and defects. Grinding, heating and quenching modify the surface characteristics of rutile, and consequently increase its photoactivity. It is found that the heating and quenching treatments enhance visible-light absorption of rutile, especially at 1000 and 1100 ℃. Ground rutile is effective to degrade tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene. While, heating at 1000 ℃, and quenching at 1000 and 1100 ℃ distinctly improve degradation rate of samples. The special properties of the natural rutile have particular capabilities in photocatalytic oxidation, especially in degradation of halohydrocarbons.

  20. A prospective investigation of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene carriers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Jacintha

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The lifetime risk of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 12.5%. For women who carry the deleterious mutation in either of the BRCA genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer is significantly increased. In recent years there has been increased penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated breast cancer, prompting investigation into the role of modifiable risk fac...

  1. Modifier effects between regulatory and protein-coding variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antigone S Dimas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide associations have shown a lot of promise in dissecting the genetics of complex traits in humans with single variants, yet a large fraction of the genetic effects is still unaccounted for. Analyzing genetic interactions between variants (epistasis is one of the potential ways forward. We investigated the abundance and functional impact of a specific type of epistasis, namely the interaction between regulatory and protein-coding variants. Using genotype and gene expression data from the 210 unrelated individuals of the original four HapMap populations, we have explored the combined effects of regulatory and protein-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. We predict that about 18% (1,502 out of 8,233 nsSNPs of protein-coding variants are differentially expressed among individuals and demonstrate that regulatory variants can modify the functional effect of a coding variant in cis. Furthermore, we show that such interactions in cis can affect the expression of downstream targets of the gene containing the protein-coding SNP. In this way, a cis interaction between regulatory and protein-coding variants has a trans impact on gene expression. Given the abundance of both types of variants in human populations, we propose that joint consideration of regulatory and protein-coding variants may reveal additional genetic effects underlying complex traits and disease and may shed light on causes of differential penetrance of known disease variants.

  2. Modifier effects between regulatory and protein-coding variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Antigone S; Stranger, Barbara E; Beazley, Claude; Finn, Robert D; Ingle, Catherine E; Forrest, Matthew S; Ritchie, Matthew E; Deloukas, Panos; Tavaré, Simon; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T

    2008-10-01

    Genome-wide associations have shown a lot of promise in dissecting the genetics of complex traits in humans with single variants, yet a large fraction of the genetic effects is still unaccounted for. Analyzing genetic interactions between variants (epistasis) is one of the potential ways forward. We investigated the abundance and functional impact of a specific type of epistasis, namely the interaction between regulatory and protein-coding variants. Using genotype and gene expression data from the 210 unrelated individuals of the original four HapMap populations, we have explored the combined effects of regulatory and protein-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We predict that about 18% (1,502 out of 8,233 nsSNPs) of protein-coding variants are differentially expressed among individuals and demonstrate that regulatory variants can modify the functional effect of a coding variant in cis. Furthermore, we show that such interactions in cis can affect the expression of downstream targets of the gene containing the protein-coding SNP. In this way, a cis interaction between regulatory and protein-coding variants has a trans impact on gene expression. Given the abundance of both types of variants in human populations, we propose that joint consideration of regulatory and protein-coding variants may reveal additional genetic effects underlying complex traits and disease and may shed light on causes of differential penetrance of known disease variants.

  3. Effect of breast-conserving surgery with modified radical mastectomy on the quality of life in patients with early-stage breast cancer%保乳手术与改良根治术对早期乳腺癌患者生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易瑛; 蒋雪梅; 雷海; 罗雪

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of breast-conserving surgery with modified radical mastectomy on the quality of life of early-stage breast cancer patients. Methods From January 2013 to January 2015, a retrospective analysis of early-stage breast cancer patients( 276 cases) in our hospital, including 138 cases of breast-conserving surgery group, 138 cases of modified radi-cal mastectomy group. The patients’ satisfaction, self-rating depression scale ( SDS) and self-rating anxiety scale ( SAS) were used to evaluate the impact of the quality of life for breast cancer patients in two groups. Rosenberg self-esteem scale ( SES) , family cohesion adaptability scale, quality of life measurement table ( FA CT-B) were used to perform the questionnaire analysis. Results The SAS and SDS scores of breast-conserving surgery group was lower than those of the modified radical mastectomy group with significant statis-tical difference ( P<0. 05) . The patients’ satisfaction in the breast-conserving surgery group was higher than that in the radical mastecto-my group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0. 05) . The measurement results of SES, FA CT-B in the breast-conser-ving surgery group was improved compared with the modified radical mastectomy group( P<0. 05) . Family cohesion and adaptability in the breast-conserving surgery group were better than those in the modified radical mastectomy group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0. 05) . Conclusion The implementation of breast-conserving surgery care can improve the quality of life in patients with early-stage breast cancer, relieve patients’ psychological and physical discomfort, and promote the rehabilitation of patients.%目的:探讨保乳手术与改良根治术对早期乳腺癌患者生活质量的影响。方法回顾性分析2013年1月至2015年1月在本院确诊住院治疗的早期乳腺癌患者276例,其中保乳手术组138例,改良根治术组138例。采用

  4. Efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with modified FOLFOX7 regimen on the treatment of advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun; CHEN Ren-xiong; ZHANG Jing; CAI Jun; MENG Hua; WU Guo-cong; ZHANG Zhong-tao; WANG Yu; WANG Kang-li

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of malignant tumors in China and East Asia and has the highest mortality rate of the malignant gastrointestinal tumors.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a systemic or local chemotherapy that is given prior to the local treatment of malignant tumors.Neoadjuvant therapy is currently showing some positive prospects; however,its clinical effects remain controversial.In this study,we used the modified FOLFO×7 (mFOLFO×7) regimen as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen.Perioperative clinical and pathological efficacy,toxicity,effects of surgery,postoperative observation,and prognosis were studied to investigate its clinical efficacy and safety.Methods Eighty patients with advanced gastric cancer were treated in our surgery department from 2005 to 2009; 38 of these patients received mFOLFO×7 neoadjuvant chemotherapy,the other 42 patients assigned to the control group.The perioperative effects of mFOLFO×7 chemotherapy,including clinical effects and toxicity,were observed in each patient.Results After mFOLFO×7 chemotherapy,clinical and pathologic stages decreased in 21.1% and 36.8% of the patients,respectively,but the results were not statistically significant (P=0.129).The clinical response rate was 50% (19/38).Toxicity was mild; most adverse events were grade I or ll and involved no severe infections or deaths.Compared with the control group,the radical resection rate increased (92.1% vs.85.7%; P=0.437); surgical effects were completed without an increased incidence of perioperative complications.The 1-,2-,and 3-year survival rates were 78.70%,57.40%,and 51.66%,respectively,in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and 78.57%,56.87%,and 43.16%,respectively,in the control group.Conclusions The mFOLFO×7 regimen was very effective and well-tolerated as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.However,the 1-,2-,and 3-year survival rates in the mFOLFO×7 group were not significantly

  5. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  6. Physical exercise : effects in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise plays an important role in cancer prevention as well as in the prevention and treatment of cancer related fatigue during and after treatment. Some of these effects are presented in the thesis of M.J. Velthuis. In Part I effects of physical exercise on anthropometric measurements ar

  7. Modified naphthalene diimide as a suitable tetraplex DNA ligand: application to cancer diagnosis and anti-cancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Shigeori

    2017-07-01

    It is known that naphthalene diimide carrying two substituents binds to DNA duplex with threading intercalation. Naphthalene diimide carrying ferrocene moieties, ferrocenylnaphthalene diimide (FND), formed a stable complex with DNA duplex and an electrochemical gene detection was achieved with current signal generated from FND bound to the DNA duplex between target DNA and DNA probe immobilized electrode. FND couldn't bind to the mismatched and its surrounding region of DNA duplex and thus FND was applied to the precision detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the improved discrimination ability between fully matched and mismatched DNA hybrids and multi-electrode chip. Some of FND derivatives bound to telomere DNA tetraplex stronger than to DNA duplex and was applied to cancer diagnosis as a measure of the elongated telomere DNA with telomerase as a suitable maker of cancer. Furthermore, cyclic naphthalene diimides realized the extremely high preference for DNA tetraplex over DNA duplex. Such molecules will open an effective anti-cancer drug based on telomerase specific inhibitor.

  8. Effect of Layered Double Hydroxides on Ultraviolet Aging Resistance of SBS Modifi ed Bitumen Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Song; YU Jianying; XUE Lihui; SUN Yubin; XIE Dong

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymer modified bitumen was prepared by melt blending. The effect of LDHs on the ultraviolet (UV) aging behavior of SBS modifi ed bitumen was investigated. The changes of chemical structures of modifi ed bitumen before and after UV aging were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that LDHs obviously reduce the variation of softening point and low temperaturefl exibility of SBS modifi ed bitumen under different UV radiation intensities, which indicates that the UV aging resistance performance of SBS modifi ed bitumen is improved effectively by LDHs. Compared with SBS modifi ed bitumen, the changes of carbonyl, sulfoxide and butadienyl of LDHs/SBS modified bitumen decrease significantly after UV aging according to FTIR analysis, demonstrating that the oxidation and degradation reactions of SBS modifi ed bitumen were restrained effectively by adding LDHs.

  9. Interleukin-2 administration after modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer therapy increases peripheral regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunli; Zhou, Lei; Sun, Bei; Li, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Kaiming; Wu, Yuhui; Ouyang, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) deaths are a major concern worldwide, and modified radical mastectomy (MRM) still represents a primary therapeutic strategy. Post-surgery administration of interleukin (IL)-2 for BC therapy has been implemented in China recently. Although its impact on regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been documented in some cancer types, such as melanoma, the IL-2-mediated changes in the Treg composition after MRM in BC treatment remain unknown. As registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 34 newly diagnosed BC patients, aged 20-65 years, were enrolled in this trial. Patients were randomized to the IL-2-treated group (n=15) and the untreated control group (n=19). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated at time points of pre-operation (PreOP) and post-operation Day 1 (POD1), POD3, and POD7. Cells were subjected to flow cytometric assays to identify CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) Tregs, as well as real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of FOXP3 expression. We found that the surgery caused a significant decrease in the percentage of Tregs on POD1, followed by a significant increase characterized by a peak value on POD7 with a more than 18% increase relative to the Pre-OP levels. We observed that the Treg percentages in the IL-2-treated group were significantly greater than those in the control group on POD3 and POD7, whereas no such statistical difference was observed on POD1. The FOXP3 expression analysis revealed consistent trends as observed by flow cytometry. Post-operative administration of IL-2 amplifies the surgery-induced augmentation of both Tregs and FOXP3 expression in BC therapy.

  10. Study on effective modifiers for damaging salts in mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Rodgriguez-Navarro

    2014-01-01

    The use of crystallization modifiers for the prevention or mitigation of salt crystallization damage has recently received a lot of research interest in the field of building conservation. However, the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in a lime-based mortar, is still a very new field of

  11. Study on effective modifiers for damaging salts in mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granneman, S.J.C.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Lubelli, B.; Van Hees, R.P.J.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of crystallization modifiers for the prevention or mitigation of salt crystallization damage has recently received a lot of research interest in the field of building conservation. However, the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in a lime-based mortar, is still a very new field of resear

  12. The Effect of Random Voids in the Modified Gurson Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Huiyang; Yazzie, Kyle; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Jiang, Hanqing

    2012-02-01

    The porous plasticity model (usually referred to as the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model or modified Gurson model) has been widely used in the study of microvoid-induced ductile fracture. In this paper, we studied the effects of random voids on the porous plasticity model. Finite-element simulations were conducted to study a copper/tin/copper joint bar under uniaxial tension using the commercial finite-element package ABAQUS. A randomly distributed initial void volume fraction with different types of distribution was introduced, and the effects of this randomness on the crack path and macroscopic stress-strain behavior were studied. It was found that consideration of the random voids is able to capture more detailed and localized deformation features, such as different crack paths and different ultimate tensile strengths, and meanwhile does not change the macroscopic stress-strain behavior. It seems that the random voids are able to qualitatively explain the scattered observations in experiments while keeping the macroscopic measurements consistent.

  13. Alcohol use and drunk driving: the modifying effect of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moan, Inger Synnøve; Norström, Thor; Storvoll, Elisabet E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to examine how an increase in the frequency of heavy drinking episodes affects the incidence of drunk driving and (b) to examine whether the effect of alcohol use on drunk driving is contingent on impulsivity. Two waves of the Young in Norway Longitudinal Study were applied (N = 2,603; response rate: 67%), when the respondents were on average 17 (1994) and 28 (2005) years of age. Measurements consisted of self-reported heavy episodic drinking, drunk driving, and impulsivity. The first difference method was applied to estimate the association between heavy episodic drinking and drunk driving. This means that changes in the frequency of drunk driving were regressed on changes in the frequency of drinking. In this way, the effects of time-invariant confounders were eliminated. The results showed that every additional episode of heavy drinking was associated with a 2.6% increase in the frequency of drunk driving. The increase for males was significantly higher than among females. The analyses supported the hypothesis that impulsivity modifies the association between alcohol use and drunk driving. The association between drinking and drunk driving is significantly stronger among those with a high score on impulsivity compared with those who have a low score.

  14. 乳腺癌保留皮肤改良根治并即刻假体再造与传统改良根治术的疗效比较%Comparison of therapeutic effects of immediate implanting breast reconstruction after skin sparing mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy on breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全红; 李杰; 刘军; 李发成; 蒋宏传

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the therapy efficiency of immediate implanting breast reconstruction after skin sparing mastectomy and modified radical mastectomy in breast cancer. Methods The data of 530 female patients with early of stage 0 to Ⅲ a breast cancer was retrospectively analyzed, from January 2004 to Decembet 2008. Among the patients,91 patients operated with skin sparing mastectomy and immediate implanting breast reconstruction ( Group of immediate implanting reconstruction), and 439 patients were with modified radical mastectomy (Group of modified radical mastectomy ). By comparing complications, local recurrence, distant metastases and mortality rates between the two groups, the research was done to evaluate the therapy efficiency. Results In the group of immediate implanting reconstruction,84 patients completed follow-up with the median follow-up time of 35 months ( 14-72 months) while the local recurring rate was 2. 4%, distant metastasis rate was 8. 3% and mortality rate was 6. 0%. In the group of modified radical mastectomy, 398 patients completed follow-up with the median follow-up time of 36 months ( 12-74 months) while the local recurring rate was 3.3%, distant metastasis rate was 9. 5% and mortality rate was 6. 5%. Therefore there was no obvious statistic difference between the two groups in local recurring rate, distant metastasis rate and mortality rate (P > 0. 05 ). Evaluation of aesthetic results was done in the 84 patients after immediate implanting reconstruction for 12 months which was 93% as good or excellent by surgeons while 87% by patients. Surgeons and patients were both satisfied with the breast appearance. Conclusions For patients with early stage breast cancer, combining standard postoperative therapy, skin sparing mastectomy and immediate implanting reconstruction could achieve the same effect as the traditional modified radical mastectomy, while reconstruction would bring about better appearance and higher quality of life.%目的

  15. Food effect on bioavailability of modified-release trimetazidine tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Latif; Unal, Durisehvar Ozer; Erol, Dilek

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate a food effect on the bio-availability of modified-release (MR) trimetazidine tablets in 36 healthy volunteers. Trimetazidine, an anti-ischemic drug, protects the myocardial cell from the harmful effects of ischemia. The authors investigated the effect of being under a fasting or fed state at the time of drug intake on the bioavailability of trimetazidine 35-mg MR tablets in a randomized, open-label, crossover, 2-arm, 4-period, 2-sequence bioequivalence study design with a 14-day washout period. Plasma concentration of trimetazidine was assayed in timed samples with a validated high- performance liquid chromatography/mass selective detector that had a lower limit of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL. Test and reference formulations gave a mean trimetazidine C(max) of 63.26 ng/mL and 69.18 ng/mL for the fasting state and 64.19 ng/mL and 63.11 ng/mL for the fed state, respectively. The AUC(0-tlast) mean of trimetazidine was 726.31 ng·h/mL and 733.01 ng·h/mL for the fasting state and 706.40 ng·h/mL and 691.40 ng·h/mL for the fed state for test/reference formulations. There were no significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the 2 formulations and the fasting/fed states. The authors showed that there is no food effect and no need for a 4-period study to evaluate the bioequivalence of trimetazidine MR tablets.

  16. Photodynamic therapeutic effect of iminodiacetic acid modified tetraphenylporphyrin in mice bearing H22 liver cancer%亚氨基二乙酸修饰四苯基卟啉光敏剂介导的光动力疗法对H22肝癌小鼠体内抗肿瘤作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪阁; 郭江红; 杨晓姣; 刘天军

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价本实验室自行合成的亚氨基二乙酸修饰四苯基卟啉光敏剂的理化性质及对H22小鼠肝癌的光动力治疗作用.方法 采用紫外分光光度法测定亚氨基二乙酸修饰四苯基卟啉光敏剂的紫外吸收光谱、脂水分配系数和单线态氧产率;以肝癌H22小鼠为研究对象,随机分为空白对照组、光照组、光敏剂组、光动力治疗1次组和光动力治疗2次组,考察亚氨基二乙酸修饰四苯基卟啉光敏剂介导的光动力疗法(PDT)对实体瘤的抑制率和荷瘤动物免疫机能的影响.结果 亚氨基二乙酸修饰四苯基卟啉光敏剂在650 nm波长处存在紫外吸收,脂水分配系数和单线态氧产率分别为2.30和0.52;单纯激光照射和单纯给予亚氨基二乙酸修饰四苯基卟啉光敏剂对肝癌H22小鼠无治疗作用(P>0.05),而亚氨基二乙酸修饰四苯基卟啉光敏剂介导的光动力疗法对小鼠肝癌H22的生长具有极其显著的抑制作用(P<0.001),光动力治疗2次组肿瘤抑制率高达95.15%.各治疗组对荷瘤小鼠的体质量增长、肝、脾、肺、胸腺指数几乎无影响.结论 亚氨基二乙酸修饰四苯基卟啉光敏剂单线态氧产率高、两亲性好,介导的PDT抗肿瘤活性强,适合作为光动力抗肿瘤候选新药进行开发.%Objective To explore the physical/chemical properties and effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of iminodiacetic acid modified tetraphenylporphyrin on mice bearing H22 liver cancer.Methods The UV absorbance spectrum,singlet oxygen yield and lipid-water partition coefficient were measured by UV spectrophotometry.Mice bearing H22 liver cancer as animal model were divided into control group (no drug,no light),light treated group (no drug,only light),drug treated group (only drug,no light),experimental once group (with drug and light,once) and experimental twice group (with drug and light,twice,PDT twice).Tumor inhibition rate and index of liver

  17. Lung cancer biomarkers for the assessment of modified risk tobacco products: an oxidative stress perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Frazer J; Luettich, Karsta; Gregg, Evan O

    2013-05-01

    Manufacturers have developed prototype cigarettes yielding reduced levels of some tobacco smoke toxicants, when tested using laboratory machine smoking under standardised conditions. For the scientific assessment of modified risk tobacco products, tests that offer objective, reproducible data, which can be obtained in a much shorter time than the requirements of conventional epidemiology are needed. In this review, we consider whether biomarkers of biological effect related to oxidative stress can be used in this role. Based on published data, urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine, thymidine glycol, F2-isoprostanes, serum dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbic acid ratio and carotenoid concentrations show promise, while 4-hydroxynonenal requires further qualification.

  18. Effects of Using Modified Items to Test Students with Persistent Academic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Beddow, Peter A.; Kurz, Alexander; Compton, Elizabeth; McGrath, Dawn; Bruen, Charles; Hinton, Kent; Palmer, Porter; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Bolt, Daniel; Roach, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using modified items in achievement tests to enhance accessibility. An experiment determined whether tests composed of modified items would reduce the performance gap between students eligible for an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) and students not eligible, and the…

  19. Effects of Using Modified Items to Test Students with Persistent Academic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Beddow, Peter A.; Kurz, Alexander; Compton, Elizabeth; McGrath, Dawn; Bruen, Charles; Hinton, Kent; Palmer, Porter; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Bolt, Daniel; Roach, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using modified items in achievement tests to enhance accessibility. An experiment determined whether tests composed of modified items would reduce the performance gap between students eligible for an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS) and students not eligible, and the…

  20. [Assessment of Cachexia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on a Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Saijoh, Satoshi; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsumasa; Nomoto, Yukio; Matsui, Takamichi; Tada, Yasuhiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients who died of head and neck squamous cell caricinoma regarding the process and duration of cachexia using the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS). The patients were classified as having cachexia when the serum albumin level was less than 3.5 mg/dL and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level was more than 0.5 mg/dL. The number of patients with cachexia was eight (8%) at the first visit and 50 (93%) at the time of death. In the 50 patients, the median and average time of having cachexia was 59 and 95 days, respectively. Thirty-two of the 50 patients (64%) died within three months after the presence of cachexia was confirmed. In this study, the time of having cachexia was so short, then the policy of care should be converted from aggressive into supportive in patients classified as having cachexia. mGPS would be an accurate assessment tool for cachexia and ascertain the end stage of head and neck cancer patients.

  1. Lifestyle and cancer: effect of parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-12-01

    According to previous studies, divorced individuals have increased risks of cancers related to alcohol and tobacco consumption and sexual habits, but the increases are balanced with decreased risks of many common cancers. In the present study, cancer risks were analyzed for 0-70-year-old offspring of divorced parents, on the basis the Swedish Family-Cancer Database with cancer data from the years 1958 to 2002. We calculated standardized incidence ratios for cancer among offspring of divorced parents (19,000 cancer patients) and compared them with offspring of stably married parents (121,000 cancer patients). Standardized incidence ratios were adjusted for many factors, including socio-economic status. Offspring of divorced parents were divided into groups depending on whether their mothers, fathers or both had had children with different partners. Offspring of divorced parents had an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract, esophageal, anal, pancreatic, lung and cervical cancers. Decreased risks were noted for Hodgkin's disease and bone cancer. For Hodgkin's disease, the data suggest protective effects through early exposure to childhood pathogens but for bone cancer mechanisms remain to be established. The overall cancer risk for offspring of divorced parents was at or above unity. The results show that offspring of divorced parents have increased cancer risks at tobacco-related, alcohol-related and sex-related sites, in analogy to their parent, but they lack decreased risks at common sites, experienced by their parents. Divorce is becoming increasingly common in many countries and any deviant cancer patterns among offspring of divorced parents will have an impact on the population risk.

  2. Generation of more effective cancer vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoglio, Daniela; Traverso, Paolo; Parodi, Alessia; Kalli, Francesca; Zanetti, Maurizio; Filaci, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Cancer vaccines represent a promising therapeutic approach for which prime time is imminent. However, clinical efficacy must be improved in order for cancer vaccines to become a valid alternative or complement to traditional cancer treatments. Considerable efforts have been undertaken so far to better understand the fundamental requirements for clinically-effective cancer vaccines. Recent data emphasize that important requirements, among others, are (1) the use of multi-epitope immunogens, possibly deriving from different tumor antigens; (2) the selection of effective adjuvants; (3) the association of cancer vaccines with agents able to counteract the regulatory milieu present in the tumor microenvironment; and (4) the need to choose the definitive formulation and regimen of a vaccine after accurate preliminary tests comparing different antigen formulations. The first requirement deals with issues related to HLA restriction of tumor antigen presentation, as well as usefulness of tumor antigen spreading and counteraction of immune escape phenomena, linked to tumor antigen down-modulation, for an effective anti-cancer immune response. The second point underscores the necessity of optimal activation of innate immunity to achieve an efficient adaptive anti-cancer immune response. The third point focuses on the importance to inhibit subsets of regulatory cells. The last requirement stresses the concept that the regimen and formulation of the vaccine impacts profoundly on cancer vaccine efficacy. A new generation of cancer vaccines, provided with both immunological and clinical efficacy, will hopefully soon address these requirements. PMID:23978951

  3. Identification of a BRCA2-specific modifier locus at 6p24 related to breast cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia M Gaudet

    Full Text Available Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS. To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.90, P = 3.9 × 10(-8. This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for

  4. Effects of a modified maxillary orthopaedic splint: a cephalometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, O; Yücel-Eroğlu, E

    1996-06-01

    Taking the presence of an interplay between the vertical and sagittal components of craniofacial development into consideration, the beneficial therapeutic potential impacts of controlling vertical development on the correction of Class II discrepancies has been previously investigated. In the present study, a modified maxillary orthopaedic splint combined with an anterior high-pull headgear was used for early correction of the vertical and consequently sagittal dentoskeletal discrepancy as the initial stage of treatment. The aim was to evaluate its effects on the maxillary and mandibular dentoskeletal development, as well as rotational growth pattern. In order to compare with and distinguish from the uninterrupted growth changes, a control group was formed by matching each one of the control subjects to a subject in the treatment group according to certain criteria. The initial and second standardized lateral cephalograms of each subject was evaluated by means of an adopted and biologically more substantial cephalometric analysis. Evaluation of the changes induced by the splint in comparison with the uninterrupted growth changes revealed that the splint had both orthopaedic and orthodontic effects on the growth pattern of the dentoskeletal structures. There seemed to exist a relationship between the direction of total mandibular and maxillary rotations. In addition, it was believed that in order to cause a forward mandibular rotation, i.e. to change the rotational mandibular growth pattern from a backward into a forward direction, the posterior vertical maxillary development should be restrained, but anterior vertical maxillary development should be relatively more restrained or reversed and, thereby, the rotational growth pattern of the maxilla should be changed from a backward into a forward direction. Moreover, the bite block effect of the splint seemed to cause a favourable change in the condylar growth direction from a backward to an upward direction.

  5. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the consortium of investigators of modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Osorio (Ana); R.L. Milne (Roger); G. Pita (G.); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); T. Heikinen (Tuomas); J. Simard (Jacques); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); J. Beesley (Jonathan); X.C. Chen (X. C.); S. Healey (Sue); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (Xing); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); M. Barile (Monica); A. Viel (Alessandra); L. Tizzoni (Laura); C. Szabo (Csilla); L. Foretova (Lenka); M. Zikan (Michal); K. Claes (Kathleen); M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); G. Rennert (Gad); F. Lejbkowicz (Flavio); O. Barnett-Griness (Ofra); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); N. Weerasooriya (Nayana); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); M. Thomassen (Mads); D. Cruger (Dorthe); M.A. Caligo (Maria); E. Friedman (Eitan); B. Kaufman (Bella); Y. Laitman (Yael); S. Cohen (Shimrit); T. Kontorovich (Tair); R. Gershoni-Baruch; E. Dagan (Efrat); H. Jernström (H.); M.S. Askmalm (Marie); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); B. Malmer (Beatrice); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); J. Brunet (Joan); T. Ramon Y Cajal; D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); U. Hamann (Ute); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); S. Verhoef; E.B.G. Garcíla (E.B. Gómez); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); D.F. Easton (Douglas); S. Peock (Susan); M. Cook (Margaret); C.T. Oliver (Clare); D. Frost (Debra); C. Luccarini (Craig); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); R. Eeles (Rosalind); G. Pichert (Gabriella); J. Cook (Jackie); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); F. Douglas (Fiona); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); L. Barjhoux (Laure); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); V. Moncoutier (Virginie); S. Giraud (Sophie); C. Cassini (C.); L. Faivre (Laurence); F. Révillion (Françoise); J.-P. Peyrat; D.W. Muller (Danièle); J.P. Fricker (Jean Pierre); H. Lynch (Henry); E.M. John (Esther); S.S. Buys (Saundra); M.B. Daly (Mary); J.L. Hopper (John); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); A. Miron (Alexander); Y. Yassin (Yosuf); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); D. Gschwantler-Kaulich (Daphne); G. Pfeiler (Georg); E. Spiess (Eberhard); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); T. Kircchoff (Tomas); K. Offit (Kenneth); K. Kosarin (Kristi); M. Piedmonte (Marion); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); K. Wakeley (Katie); J.F. Boggess (John); J. Basil (Jack); P.E. Schwartz (Peter); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); C. Casella (Cinzia); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); A. Allavena (Anna); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Versmold (Beatrix); C. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Niederacher (Dieter); H. Deiler (H.); B. Fiebig (Britta); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); D. Schaefer (D.); U.G. Froster (U.); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); L. McGuffog (Lesley); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); P. Radice (Paolo); J. Benítez (Javier)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods:

  6. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the consortium of investigators of modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Osorio (Ana); R.L. Milne (Roger); G. Pita (G.); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); T. Heikinen (Tuomas); J. Simard (Jacques); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); J. Beesley (Jonathan); X.C. Chen (X. C.); S. Healey (Sue); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (Xing); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); M. Barile (Monica); A. Viel (Alessandra); L. Tizzoni (Laura); C. Szabo (Csilla); L. Foretova (Lenka); M. Zikan (Michal); K. Claes (Kathleen); M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); G. Rennert (Gad); F. Lejbkowicz (Flavio); O. Barnett-Griness (Ofra); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); N. Weerasooriya (Nayana); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); M. Thomassen (Mads); D. Cruger (Dorthe); M.A. Caligo (Maria); E. Friedman (Eitan); B. Kaufman (Bella); Y. Laitman (Yael); S. Cohen (Shimrit); T. Kontorovich (Tair); R. Gershoni-Baruch; E. Dagan (Efrat); H. Jernström (H.); M.S. Askmalm (Marie); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); B. Malmer (Beatrice); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); J. Brunet (Joan); T. Ramon Y Cajal; D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); U. Hamann (Ute); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); S. Verhoef; E.B.G. Garcíla (E.B. Gómez); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); D.F. Easton (Douglas); S. Peock (Susan); M. Cook (Margaret); C.T. Oliver (Clare); D. Frost (Debra); C. Luccarini (Craig); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); R. Eeles (Rosalind); G. Pichert (Gabriella); J. Cook (Jackie); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); F. Douglas (Fiona); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); L. Barjhoux (Laure); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); V. Moncoutier (Virginie); S. Giraud (Sophie); C. Cassini (C.); L. Faivre (Laurence); F. Révillion (Françoise); J.-P. Peyrat; D.W. Muller (Danièle); J.P. Fricker (Jean Pierre); H. Lynch (Henry); E.M. John (Esther); S.S. Buys (Saundra); M.B. Daly (Mary); J.L. Hopper (John); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); A. Miron (Alexander); Y. Yassin (Yosuf); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); D. Gschwantler-Kaulich (Daphne); G. Pfeiler (Georg); E. Spiess (Eberhard); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); T. Kircchoff (Tomas); K. Offit (Kenneth); K. Kosarin (Kristi); M. Piedmonte (Marion); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); K. Wakeley (Katie); J.F. Boggess (John); J. Basil (Jack); P.E. Schwartz (Peter); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); C. Casella (Cinzia); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); A. Allavena (Anna); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Versmold (Beatrix); C. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Niederacher (Dieter); H. Deiler (H.); B. Fiebig (Britta); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); D. Schaefer (D.); U.G. Froster (U.); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); L. McGuffog (Lesley); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); P. Radice (Paolo); J. Benítez (Javier)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods:

  7. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R.L.; Pita, G.

    2009-01-01

    genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach. RESULTS: We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk...

  8. Effects of cancer treatment on reproduction and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Janice S; Case, Allison M

    2002-08-01

    (1) To review the effects of cancer treatment on reproduction and fertility in both women and men and (2) to review current and new techniques that could be used to preserve fertility and hormone production in women who have undergone cancer treatment. Entries to MEDLINE and CANCERLIT through to October 2001 were searched for evidence relevant to this article. This document is primarily based on large retrospective cohort series and case reports, as no randomized trials were available. The first part of this review article focuses on the effects of radiation and chemotherapy on reproductive function and innovative medical and surgical techniques employed to minimize these effects. The second part of this article describes conservative methods of managing cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancer for women who wish to preserve their fertility. Over the last decade, there has been a trend toward trying to preserve reproductive function in young patients with malignancy. Information acquired over the last century on the reproductive effects of radiation and chemo-therapy has enabled us to tailor our treatment of various malignancies affecting young patients. As we learn more about the biology and clinical behaviour of gynaecologic malignancies, we are able to modify surgical management to preserve fertility in select cases. All of these trends are in keeping with our goal to optimize quality of life in cancer care without compromising safety or survival.

  9. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  10. EGF-modified mPEG-PLGA-PLL nanoparticle for delivering doxorubicin combined with Bcl-2 siRNA as a potential treatment strategy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Wang, Qi; Qin, Liubing; Fu, Hao; Fang, Yiwei; Han, Baoshan; Duan, Yourong

    2016-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used as carriers to deliver siRNA and chemotherapeutic agents. Bcl-2 siRNA has been widely used to induce cancer cell apoptosis, and doxorubicin (Dox) can destroy cancer cells by binding with cancer cell DNA. To investigate the therapeutic effect on lung cancer of simultaneously delivering Dox and Bcl-2-siRNA using epidermal growth factor (EGF) modified monomethoxy (polyethylene glycol)-poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide)-poly(L-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-PLL, PEAL) NPs (EGF-PEAL). EGF-PEAL NPs were characterized with respect to size, zeta potential and morphology. Cytotoxicity and drug (or siRNA) loading capacity of EGF-PEAL NPs were analyzed. Cellular uptake, drug release profile, cell killing effects of Dox and Bcl-2-siRNA-loaded EGF-PEAL NPs were assessed. Biodistribution and therapeutic effects of Dox and Bcl-2-siRNA EGF-PEAL NPs were evaluated in H1299 tumor-bearing mice. EGF-PEAL NPs or PEAL NPs had nearly negligible cytotoxicity toward H1299 cells. Dox and Bcl-2-siRNA gradually released from EGF-PEAL NPs and exhibited sustained release patterns. Dox and Bcl-2-siRNA-loaded NPs were taken up by cells and induced the apoptosis of H1299 cells more effectively than using Dox or Bcl-2 siRNA alone. With the intravenous injection of PEAL NPs into H1299 xenografted mice, we found that combination treatment suppressed lung cancer growth and reduced Bcl-2 expression in tumor tissue, and EGF-PEAL NPs concentrated in lung tumor much more than non-targeted PEAL NPs. We conclude that co-delivery of Dox and Bcl-2-siRNA by tumor-targeted EGF-PEAL NPs could significantly inhibit lung cancer growth.

  11. Modifiable Risk of Breast Cancer in Northeast Iran: Hope for the Future. A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motie, Mohammad R.; Besharat, Sima; Torkjazi, Reza; Shojaa, Mahdieh; Besharat, Mahsa; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Besharat, Saba; Fateme, Arab Ameri

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Its prevalence is increasing annually by 2%. The determination of modifiable risk factors has been the subject of various studies. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of breast cancer in women in Golestan Province. Patients and Methods This case-control study was conducted among women with breast cancer recorded in the cancer registry system between 2004 and 2006 (n = 134), and their age-matched healthy neighbors (n = 133). Data were statistically analyzed. Results Age at marriage, menarche and pregnancy, breast feeding, positive family history, marital status, and educational level were not significantly correlated with risk of breast cancer, but age at menopause (< 46.6 years) was significantly correlated (95% confidence interval 1.15–7.37; p = 0.021). Live births, still births, and infant deaths were not significantly different between the 2 groups. For other variables, such as smoking history, no odds ratio was calculated. Conclusion Results show that there is no significant correlation between variables and risk of breast cancer in our population, except for age at menopause. A large cohort study is recommended. PMID:22419899

  12. Modified partially wide tangents technique in post-mastectomy radiotherapy for patients with left-sided breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; CHEN Jia-yi; HU Wei-gang; GUO Xiao-mao

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of internal mammary nodes (IMN) irradiation for breast cancer patients after mastectomy remains controversial. This study aimed to compare different techniques for radiation of the chest wall (CW) and IMN post-mastectomy for left-breast cancer patients in terms of dose homogeneity within planning target volume (PTV) and dose to critical structures.Methods Thirty patients underwent CT simulation, while CW, IMN, left lung, heart and contralateral breast were contoured. Three three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) techniques, namely, standard tangents, partially wide tangents (PWT), and modified PWT techniques plus intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique have been used to radiate CW and IMN. In addition to the target coverage and dose homogeneity, we also evaluated the dose to the critical structures including heart, left lung and contralateral breast.Results All three 3D-CRT techniques provided satisfactory coverage regarding total PTV. The PWT and the modified PWT gave better coverage of IMN PTV with V47.5 of (96.83±4.56)% and (95.19±3.90)% compared to standard tangents ((88.16±7.77)%), P <0.05. The standard tangents also contributed the biggest IMN VD105%, VD110%, VD115% and VD120%. The lowest mean dose of the heart was achieved by the modified PWT ((8.47±2.30) Gy), compared with PWT ((11.97±3.54)Gy) and standard tangents ((11.18±2.53) Gy). The mean dose of lung and contralateral breast with the modified PWT was significantly lower than those with PWT. Comparing IMRT with the modified PWT, both techniques provided satisfactory coverage. The conformity indexes (CI) with IMRT (CI1: 0.71±0.02; CI2: 0.64±0.02) were better than those with the modified PWT (CI1: 0.50±0.02; CI2: 0.45±0.02). The mean dose, V5, V10 and V5-10 of heart and left lung with the modified PWT were significantly lower than those with the IMRT. The mean dose and VD2% of contralateral breast with the modified PWT were not significantly different

  13. Semisynthesis of SY-1 for investigation of breast cancer stem cell selectivity of C-ring-modified salinomycin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoli; Borgström, Björn; Månsson, Linda; Persson, Lo; Oredsson, Stina; Hegardt, Cecilia; Strand, Daniel

    2014-07-18

    Salinomycin, a naturally occurring polyether ionophore was recently found to selectively reduce the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells, a phenotype associated with breast cancer stem cells. Subsequent studies from our group showed that chemical modification of the allylic C20 hydroxyl of salinomycin, located at the C-ring, can enhance the activity of derivatives against breast cancer cells over 5-fold compared to the native structure. Access to C-ring-modified salinomycin analogues is thus of interest from both a mechanistic and a synthetic perspective. Here, we report efficient strategies for gram scale synthesis of the natural product SY-1 (20-deoxy salinomycin), and a saturated analogue, 18,19-dihydro SY-1, for a comparative in vitro investigation of the biological profiles of these compounds with that of salinomycin. Across several assays, the deoxygenated structures required higher concentrations to elicit similar cellular responses to that of salinomycin. Similarly to salinomycin, SY-1 or 18,19-dihydro SY-1 treatment was found to reduce the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells with essentially complete selectivity up to ∼IC25. Importantly, the proportion of CD44(+)/CD24(-) cells showed a pronounced U-shaped dose response curve for salinomycin and its derivatives, but not for paclitaxel. The concentration for maximum response in this assay followed differences in IC50 for salinomycin and its analogues, which emphasizes the importance of taking concentration dependence into account when comparing effects on the CD44(+)/CD24(-) phenotype. Small differences in the global conformation within the triad of compounds investigated together with differences in activity across assays emphasize the importance of substitution at C20 for the activity of salinomycin and its derivatives.

  14. A modified sentinel node and occult lesion localization (SNOLL) technique in non-palpable breast cancer: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Follacchio, Giulia Anna; Monteleone, Francesco; Anibaldi, Paolo; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Iacobelli, Silvia; Merola, Raffaele; D’Orazi, Valerio; Monti, Massimo; Pasta, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background The spread of mammographic screening programs has allowed an increasing amount of early breast cancer diagnosis. A modern approach to non-palpable breast lesions requires an accurate intraoperative localization, in order to achieve a complete surgical resection. In addiction, the assessment of lymph node status is mandatory as it represents a major prognostic factor in these patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of a modified technical approach using a sing...

  15. Modified Blalock clamp: a single-hand autostatic device for pulmonary vessel occlusion during lung cancer resection

    OpenAIRE

    Petrella, Francesco; Solli, Piergiorgio; Borri, Alessandro; Spaggiari, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Vascular clamping during lung cancer resection may be difficult in patients with short vessels or large neoplasms preventing adequate and safe exposure. In addition, the physiological vicinity of some vessels to rigid structures like the bronchi may interfere with ideal clamp positioning even in ordinary procedures. We have modified the original Blalock clamp to facilitate the control of pulmonary vessels and physiologically compress the vessel walls, thereby allowing optimal vascular resecti...

  16. Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two

  17. Comparative effectiveness in esophagogastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Lawrence M; Belotte, Jim; Munshi, Hidayatullah G; Bentrem, David J

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) continues to have a dismal prognosis, with the incidence of esophageal cancer increasing in the United States. Although radical resection was initially the primary treatment for this disease process, systemic chemotherapy and radiation have been shown to play a role in prolonging survival in most patient populations. This chapter explores the evidence that guides treatment for esophageal and GEJ cancer today. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy were introduced as treatment modalities for esophageal and GEJ cancers when it became evident that surgical therapy alone provided poor long-term survival rates. A variety of treatment strategies have been explored including preoperative (neoadjuvant) and postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy, with and without radiation. The evidence suggests that neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy provides better outcomes compared to surgery alone for esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancers. Studies indicate a trend towards improved survival when neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is compared to chemotherapy alone. When patients have undergone resection with node-positive disease without receiving neoadjuvant therapy, some form of adjuvant treatment is recommended. This chapter also explores the surgical management of esophageal, GEJ, and gastric cancers including the extent of the gastric lymph node dissection. It also includes a discussion about adherence to national guidelines in terms of gastric cancer treatment and esophageal and gastric lymph node examinations.

  18. Clinical outcome analysis of 98 elderly women with early-stage breast cancer undergoing modified radical mastectomy or simple mastectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhilong Jia; Baoxia Su

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to analyze the clinical results and prognosis for early elderly patients after surgery and to explore the rational treatment. Methods: Between January 1992 and December 2008, 98 early elderly breast cancer patients aged ≥ 65 years were treated with surgery, of which 52 patients received modified radical mastectomy and 46 patients received simple mastectomy. Results: Sixty-four (65.3%) patients had comorbidities including coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, etc. After a median follow up of 56 months (21 to 280 months), the 5-year cumulative survival rate of breast modified radical mastectomy group and mastectomy group were 84.0% and 82.7%, separately (P = 0.653). The 5-year recurrence rate were 3.8% and 8.1%, separately (P = 0.504). Conclusion: The simple mastectomy is suitable for the treatment of early elderly breast cancer patients for its lower complication and recurrence rate. Early old women with breast cancer may be safely treated by simple mastectomy. Our findings suggest that modified radical mastectomy does not significantly increase the overall survival.

  19. Platelet effects on ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ashley; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Growing understanding of the role of thrombocytosis, high platelet turnover, and the presence of activated platelets in the circulation in cancer progression and metastasis has brought megakaryocytes into focus. Platelet biology is essential to hemostasis, vascular integrity, angiogenesis, inflammation, innate immunity, wound healing, and cancer biology. However, before megakaryocyte/platelet-directed therapies can be considered for clinical use, understanding of the mechanism and biology of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in malignancy is required. Here, we provide an overview of the clinical implications, biological significance, and mechanisms of paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in the context of ovarian cancer. PMID:25023353

  20. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  1. Effect of One versus Two Drain Insertion on Postoperative Seroma Formation after Modified Radical Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farzaneh ebrahimifard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modified radical mastectomy (MRM is still one of globally accepted surgical techniques for breast cancer and in some selected patient is the gold standard type of surgery. The most frequent complication of this procedure is seroma under skin flaps or in the axilla as reported as much as 30% in some studies. The use of closed suction drainage system to reduce the incidence of this complication has been routinely accepted by surgeons; however, length of catheter stay and the number of catheters inserted in the wound are still controversial. The present study compares the results of single versus double drain insertion in patients undergoing MRM for breast cancer.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 100 women with breast cancer who were candidate for MRM surgery during 2007-2010 referred to Modarres hospital, Tehran, Iran as a randomized group matched controlled trial.Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, BMI, and tumor weight (P=0.406 (Table 1. Similarly, the difference between the two groups was insignificant in tumor size (T and number of lymph nodes involved (P=0.145. There was no significant difference between the two groups in timing of axillary drain removal (P=0.064. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in mean aspirated fluid (P=0.071 and mean aspirated sera (P=0.484 after removal of drains.Conclusion: This study revealed one drain insertion in MRM surgery is as effective as two drain and probably less morbidity and cost.

  2. Effective Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Using Modified Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mun-Seon; Vijayarangamuthu, K; Han, EunJi; Jeon, Ki-Joon

    2016-05-01

    We report an economical and eco-friendly way to remove the heavy metal pollutant using modified clay. The modification of clay was done by calcining the natural clay from Kyushu region in Japan. Further, the removal efficiency for various pH and contact time was evaluated. The morphology of the clays was studied using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural and chemical analyses of modified clay were done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and Energy dispersion analysis (EDAX) to understand the properties related to the removal of heavy metal pollutant. Further, we studied the absorption efficiency of clay for various pH and contacting time using Ni polluted water. The modified clays show better removal efficiency for all pH with different saturation time. The adsorption follows pseudo-second order kinetics and the adsorption capacity of modified clay is 1.5 times larger than that of natural clay. The increase in the adsorption efficiency of modified clay was correlated to the increase in hematite phase along with increase in surface area due to surface morphological changes.

  3. Cancer associated aberrant protein O-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing, and presentation on MHC class I and II molecules. The effect of GalNAc O-glycosylation was monitored with a model system based on ovalbumin (OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides (+/- glycosylation loaded onto dendritic cells co-cultured with IL-2 secreting OVA peptide-specific T cell hybridomas. To evaluate the in vivo response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-γ release, and antibody induction. GalNAc-glycosylation promoted presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class II molecules and the MUC1 antigen elicited specific Ab production and T cell proliferation in both Balb/c and HLA-A2 transgenic mice. In contrast, GalNAc-glycosylation inhibited the presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class I and abolished MUC1 specific CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. GalNAc glycosylation of MUC1 antigen therefore facilitates uptake, MHC class II presentation, and antibody response but might block the antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells.

  4. A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; McGuffog, Lesley; Tarrell, Robert; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Morrison, Jonathan; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Lesnick, Timothy; Ghoussaini, Maya; Barrowdale, Daniel; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Chu, Carol; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Houdayer, Claude; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Giraud, Sophie; Lasset, Christine; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G.; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Goldgar, David E.; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Blum, Joanne L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Blank, Stephanie V.; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Vijai, Joseph; Gaudet, Mia M.; Altshuler, David; Guiducci, Candace; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Radice, Paolo; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Singer, Christian F.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Guidugli, Lucia; Lindor, Noralane M.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Garber, Judy; Ramus, Susan J.; Gayther, Simon A.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Stephen; Szabo, Csilla I.; Benitez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Caligo, Maria A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Hamann, Ute; Godwin, Andrew K.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Tung, Nadine; Toland, Amanda E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Olopade, Olofunmilayo; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Brauch, Hiltrud; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Miron, Penelope; Gerty, Sue M.; Tapper, William; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Fountzilas, George; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Lambrechts, Diether; Paridaens, Robert; Ruediger, Thomas; Foersti, Asta; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkaes, Katri; Diasio, Robert B.; Lee, Adam M.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette; Vachon, Celine; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Dunning, Alison; Pharoah, Paul P. D.; Offit, Kenneth; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2010-01-01

    Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagnosi

  5. A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S;

    2010-01-01

    Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagn...

  6. Effect of ageing on rheological properties of storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Yu, Jianying; Wu, Shaopeng

    2010-10-15

    Oxidative ageing as an inevitable process in practical road paving has a great effect on the properties of polymer-modified asphalts (PMAs). In this article, the effect of short-term and long-term oxidative ageing on the rheological, physical properties and the morphology of the styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)- and storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts was studied, respectively. The analysis on the rheological and physical properties of the PMAs before and after ageing showed the two major effects of ageing. On one hand, ageing prompted the degradation of polymer and increased the viscous behaviour of the modified binders, on the other, ageing changed the asphalt compositions and improved the elastic behaviour of the modified binders. The final performance of the aged binders depended on the combined effect. After ageing, the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts showed an obvious viscous behaviour compare with the SBS-modified asphalts and this led to an improved low-temperature creep property. The rutting resistance of the SBS-modified asphalts declined by the addition of sulfur due to the structural instability of the SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts. The rheological properties of the modified binders before and after ageing also depended strongly on the structural characteristics of SBS. The observation by using optical microscopy showed the compatibility between asphalt and SBS was improved with further ageing, especially for the storage-stable SBS/sulfur-modified asphalts.

  7. Nanoparticle Design Strategies for Effective Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpurisiva, Praveena; Gad, Aniket; Piel, Brandon; Jadia, Rahul; Rai, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly evolving and paradigm shifting treatment modality that adds a strong tool to the collective cancer treatment arsenal. It can be effective even for late stage diagnoses and has already received clinical approval. Tumors are known to not only avoid immune surveillance but also exploit the immune system to continue local tumor growth and metastasis. Because of this, most immunotherapies, particularly those directed against solid cancers, have thus far only benefited a small minority of patients. Early clinical substantiation lends weight to the claim that cancer immunotherapies, which are adaptive and enduring treatment methods, generate much more sustained and robust anticancer effects when they are effectively formulated in nanoparticles or scaffolds than when they are administered as free drugs. Engineering cancer immunotherapies using nanomaterials is, therefore, a very promising area worthy of further consideration and investigation. This review focuses on the recent advances in cancer immunoengineering using nanoparticles for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of a diverse range of immunotherapies. The delivery of immunostimulatory agents to antitumor immune cells, such as dendritic or antigen presenting cells, may be a far more efficient tactic to eradicate tumors than delivery of conventional chemotherapeutic and cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In addition to its immense therapeutic potential, immunoengineering using nanoparticles also provides a valuable tool for unearthing and understanding the basics of tumor biology. Recent research using nanoparticles for cancer immunotherapy has demonstrated the advantage of physicochemical manipulation in improving the delivery of immunostimulatory agents. In vivo studies have tested a range of particle sizes, mostly less than 300 nm, and particles with both positive and negative zeta potentials for various applications. Material composition and surface modifications have been shown to

  8. Probiotics modify human intestinal mucosa-associated microbiota in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiguang; Guo, Bomin; Gao, Renyuan; Zhu, Qingchao; Wu, Wen; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-10-01

    Studies using animal models have demonstrated that probiotics may have a beneficial role in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the underlying mechanism of the beneficial effects of interventional probiotic treatment on gut microbiota has remained elusive. In the present study, pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was conducted in order to determine the extent to which probiotics alter the microbiota. The observations of the present study indicated that the microbial structure of cancerous tissue differed significantly from that of healthy individuals and that the CRC microbiota exhibited lower diversity. It was indicated that interventional treatment with probiotics increased the density and diversity of mucosal microbes, and altered the mucosa‑associated microbiota. Pyrosequencing demonstrated that probiotics significantly reduced (5‑fold) the abundance of a bacterial taxon assigned to the genus Fusobacterium, which had been previously suggested to be a contributing factor to increase tumorigenesis. Accordingly, interventional probiotic therapy is suggested to be able to improve the composition of the mucosal microbial flora and significantly reduce the abundance of mucosa-associated pathogens in patients with CRC.

  9. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerard, Valerie A

    2011-11-10

    Abstract Background Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs) which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA). Results The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. Conclusions The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2) of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  10. Modifiable risk factors for adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy among breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob Arriola, Kimberly R; Mason, Tamara A; Bannon, Kari Ann; Holmes, Carol; Powell, Cecil Lamonte; Horne, Kandra; O'Regan, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality are declining due to improvements in early detection and treatment. One advance in treatment is the development of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) for women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Despite strong evidence linking AET to better health outcomes, AET adherence continues to be suboptimal. This study tests the hypothesis that patient beliefs about medication mediate the relationship between frequency of physician communication and AET adherence. This cross-sectional study utilizes data from patient self-report and medical chart abstraction (N=200). Survey measures included frequency of physician communication, patient beliefs about medicine, AET adherence, and demographic characteristics. Necessity beliefs mediated the relationship between frequency of physician communication and medication adherence (necessity beliefs β=.18, p.05). There was no evidence of medication concerns mediating the relationship between frequency of physician communication and medication adherence. More frequent physician communication that shapes what patients believe about AET importance may be associated with greater AET adherence; however, frequent physician communication that shapes patient concerns about side effects may not be associated with greater AET adherence. Research is needed to enhance understanding of the type of physician communication that is most consistently associated with patient beliefs about medication and AET adherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface modified multifunctional nanomedicines for simultaneous imaging and therapy of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To date, a growing number of advanced anticancer nanomedicines (e.g., Doxil®, Lipoxal®, DepoCyte® have entered into different phases of clinical trials. However, most of these medicaments fail to differentiate between diseased and normal cells. They also do not have capability of real time monitoring of disease status trough on-demand imaging/sensing of target molecule(s. Multifunctional nanomedicines and theranostics can resolve such limitations, while formulation of these advanced seamless systems appear to involve various sophisticated process, exploiting several bioconjugations. Methods:Recent works upon multifunctional nanomedicines for simultaneous imaging and therapy of cancer have been systematically reviewed, focusing on surface modification and application of advanced nanobiomaterials.Results: Ultimate therapy of malignancies, as complex systems, demands implementation of seamless nanosystems (NSs that can specifically target the cancerous cells and smartly deliver the anticancer agent(s into the desired target site. Engineering of such NSs requires in-situ coordination of various technologies (e.g., synthesis, surface modification and bioconjugation in order to achieve improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics outcomes.Conclusion: Seamless multimodal NSs have potential to simultaneously target and monitor the tumor cells through homing and imaging/sensing devices and deliver the therapeutic agents. However, to achieve superior pharmacokinetics with maximal efficacy and minimal side effects, these advanced NSs need to become much more intelligent to sense the disease condition and liberate therapeutics on demand.

  12. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Valérie A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA. Results The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. Conclusions The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2 of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  13. Recent trends in targeted therapy of cancer using graphene oxide-modified multifunctional nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmanian, Nazanin; Eskandani, Morteza; Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2017-03-01

    Rapid progresses in nanotechnology fields have led us to use a number of advanced nanomaterials (NMs) for engineering smart multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs)/nanosystems (NSs) for targeted diagnosis and therapy of various diseases including different types of malignancies. For the effective therapy of any type of solid tumor, the treatment modality should ideally solely target the aberrant cancerous cells/tissue with no/trivial impacts on the healthy cells. One approach to achieve such unprecedented impacts can be fulfilled through the use of seamless multimodal NPs/NSs with photoacoustic properties that can be achieved using advanced NMs such as graphene oxide (GO). It is considered as one of the most promising materials that have been used in the development of various NPs/NSs. GO-based targeted NSs can be engineered as programmable drug delivery systems (DDSs) to perform on-demand chemotherapy combined with photonic energy for photothermal therapy (PTT) or photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the current review, we provide important insights on the GO-based NSs and discuss their potentials for the photodynamic/photothermal ablation of cancer in combination with anticancer agents.

  14. Monodisperse magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles modified with water soluble polymers for the diagnosis of breast cancer by MRI method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezayan, Ali Hossein; Mousavi, Majid; Kheirjou, Somayyeh; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mohammadnejad, Javad

    2016-12-01

    In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. To enhance the biocompatibility and colloidal stability of the synthesized nanoparticles, they were modified with carboxyl functionalized PEG via dopamine (DPA) linker. Both modified and unmodified Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibited super paramagnetic behavior (particle size below 20 nm). The saturation magnetization (Ms) of PEGdiacid-modified Fe3O4 was 45 emu/g, which was less than the unmodified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (70 emu/g). This difference indicated that PEGdiacid polymer was immobilized on the surface of Fe3O4 nanoparticles successfully. To evaluate the efficiency of the resulting nanoparticles as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), different concentration of MNPs and different value of echo time TE were investigated. The results showed that by increasing the concentration of the nanoparticles, transverse relaxation time (T2) decreased, which subsequently resulted in MR signal enhancement. T2-weighted MR images of the different concentration of MNPs in different value of echo time TE indicated that MR signal intensity increased with increase in TE value up to 66 and then remained constant. The cytotoxicity effect of the modified and unmodified nanoparticles was evaluated in three different concentrations (12, 60 and 312 mg l-1) on MDA-MB-231 cancer cells for 24 and 48 h. In both tested time (24 and 48 h) for all three samples, the modified nanoparticles had long life time than unmodified nanoparticles. Cellular uptake of modified MNPs was 80% and reduced to 9% by the unmodified MNPs.

  15. Modified Ureterosigmoidostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To introduce an operation procedure and evaluate the coutinence diversion results of the modified ureterosigmoidostomy after radical cystectomy. Methods Fourteen cases of bladder cancer or prostate carcinoma were operated on with modified Sigma pouch from Feb, 1998 to Dec, 1999. A longitudinal incision about 25 cm on the sigmoid uall was done to form a low pressure pouch. The vertex of the new pouch was fixed to sacrum. Both ends of ureters were anastomosed side to side and to form a big nipple and inserted into the top of pouch for 2 to 3 centimeters. Results It took about sixty five minutes to create a new low pressure pouch after radical cystectomy. Early complication of was found in two cases postoperatively, and cured with temporary colonostomy. Hydronephrosis and hypokalemia in one patient were cured by percutaneous anterograde ureter dilatation with balloon and oral replacement of potassium salt. All patients displayed urinary continence. No symptomatic renal infection or hypercholoraemic acidosis occurred. Conclusion Modified ureterosigmoidostomy is a safe procedure of urinary diversion and provides a big volume, low intravesical pressure pouch. The patients are free from the troublesome urine-bag, intermittert catheterization , and upper urinary tracts are protected effectively. The quality of life is satisfied.

  16. Comparison of the clinical effect of breast-conserving surgery and modified radical mastectomy in the treatment of early breast cancer%保乳手术与改良根治术治疗早期乳腺癌的临床效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢莉

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较保乳手术与改良根治术治疗早期乳腺癌的临床疗效及对患者生活质量的影响.方法 将78例早期乳腺癌患者按照随机数字表法分为两组,每组各39例,其中对照组采取改良根治术,观察组实施保乳手术,比较两组临床疗效、手术情况及生活质量评分.结果 观察组手术时间、术中出血量、切口长度及平均住院时间分别为(60.23±5.21) min、(44.73±4.22) mL、(4.72±1.02)cm和(9.52±0.86)d,均显著少于对照组(t=7.88、8.32、8.89、6.42,均P<0.05);观察组术后躯体因子、精神因子、心理因子及社会因子等方面评分分别为(67.44±3.87)分、(48.64±3.73)分、(117.34±8.33)分和(61.56±5.32)分,均显著高于对照组(=5.43、5.87、6.29、7.11,均P<0.05);两组术后3年局部复发、远处转移及生存率比较差异均无统计学意义(x2=1.22、1.09、1.29,均P>0.05).结论 保乳手术治疗早期乳腺癌效果显著,具有创伤小、出血少和美容效果好的优势,可作为早期乳腺癌治疗的首选方法,值得临床进一步推广和应用.%Objective To compare the clinical efficacy of breast-conserving surgery and modified radical mastectomy for early breast cancer and their influence on quality of life.Methods 78 patients with early stage breast cancer were divided into two groups by random number table,and 39 cases in each group.The control group was given modified radical mastectomy,while the observation group was given breast-conserving surgery.The clinical efficacy,surgical conditions and quality of life scores were compared between the two groups.Results The operative time,blood loss,incision length and the average hospital stay of the observation group were (60.23 ± 5.21)min,(44.73 ± 4.22) mL,(4.72 ± 1.02) cm and (9.52 ± 0.86) d,which were significantly lower than those of the control group(t =7.88,8.32,8.89,6.42,all P < 0.05).The postoperative physical factors,mental factors,psychological factors and

  17. Effect of new adjuvant chemotherapy combined with reserving nipple and areola breast modified radical mastectomy on breast retention beauty effect and immune function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Lin Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of new adjuvant chemotherapy combined with reserving nipple and areola breast modified radical mastectomy on breast retention beauty effect and immune function.Methods:110 cases patients with breast cancer were enrolled and randomly divided into observation group and control group. Observation group received reserving nipple and areola breast modified radical mastectomy, control group received conventional modified radical mastectomy. Then cosmetic effect, quality of life and negative emotion and immune function were compared.Results:(1) Cosmetic effects: Cosmetic effect of the observation group was significantly better than that of the control group (92.73%vs. 58.18%). (2) Negative emotions: AMA, HAMD, SAS, SDS scores of the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group; (3) Immune function: CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells of the observation group were significantly higher than those of control group; CD8+ T cells were significantly lower than those of control group. (4) Life quality and negative emotions: life quality score and HAMA score, HAMD score, SAS score, SDS score of the observation group were lower than those of control group.Conclusion: Reserving nipple and areola breast modified radical mastectomy helps to improve cosmetic effect, alleviate negative mood, enhance immune function, and improve patients’ life quality.

  18. Genotoxic effect of N-hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl on human DNA: implications in bladder cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Shahab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The interaction of environmental chemicals and their metabolites with biological macromolecules can result in cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 4-Aminobiphenyl (4-ABP and several other related arylamines have been shown to be causally involved in the induction of human urinary bladder cancers. The genotoxic and the carcinogenic effects of 4-ABP are exhibited only when it is metabolically converted to a reactive electrophile, the aryl nitrenium ions, which subsequently binds to DNA and induce lesions. Although several studies have reported the formation of 4-ABP-DNA adducts, no extensive work has been done to investigate the immunogenicity of 4-ABP-modified DNA and its possible involvement in the generation of antibodies in bladder cancer patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human DNA was modified by N-hydroxy-4-acetylaminobiphenyl (N-OH-AABP, a reactive metabolite of 4-ABP. Structural perturbations in the N-OH-AABP modified DNA were assessed by ultraviolet, fluorescence, and circular dichroic spectroscopy as well as by agarose gel electrophoresis. Genotoxicity of N-OH-AABP modified DNA was ascertained by comet assay. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of native and modified DNA samples confirmed the formation of N-(deoxyguanosine-8-yl-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-4ABP in the N-OH-AABP damaged DNA. The experimentally induced antibodies against N-OH-AABP-modified DNA exhibited much better recognition of the DNA isolated from bladder cancer patients as compared to the DNA obtained from healthy individuals in competitive binding ELISA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work shows epitope sharing between the DNA isolated from bladder cancer patients and the N-OH-AABP-modified DNA implicating the role of 4-ABP metabolites in the DNA damage and neo-antigenic epitope generation that could lead to the induction of antibodies in bladder cancer patients.

  19. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  20. Interobserver agreement of gleason score and modified gleason score in needle biopsy and in surgical specimen of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G. Veloso

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gleason score, which has a high interobserver variability, is used to classify prostate cancer. The most recent consensus valued the tertiary Gleason pattern and recommended its use in the final score of needle biopsies (modified Gleason score. This pattern is considered to be of high prognostic value in surgical specimens. This study emphasized the evaluation of the modified score agreement in needle biopsies and in surgical specimen, as well as the interobserver variability of this score MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three pathologists evaluated the slides of needle biopsies and surgical specimens of 110 patients, reporting primary, secondary and tertiary Gleason patterns and after that, traditional and modified Gleason scores were calculated. Kappa test (K assessed the interobserver agreement and the agreement between the traditional and modified scores of the biopsy and of the surgical specimen RESULTS: Interobserver agreement in the biopsy was K = 0.36 and K = 0.35, and in the surgical specimen it was K = 0.46 and K = 0.36, for the traditional and modified scores, respectively. The tertiary Gleason grade was found in 8%, 0% and 2% of the biopsies and in 8%, 0% and 13% of the surgical specimens, according to observers 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When evaluating the agreement of the traditional and modified Gleason scores in needle biopsy with both scores of the surgical specimen, a similar agreement was found through Kappa CONCLUSION: Contrary to what was expected, the modified Gleason score was not superior in the agreement between the biopsy score and the specimen, or in interobserver reproducibility, in this study.

  1. SULT1A1 rs9282861 polymorphism-a potential modifier of efficacy of the systemic adjuvant therapy in breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengström Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1 participates in the elimination of 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OH-TAM, which is one of the major active metabolites of tamoxifen (TAM. Homozygous SULT1A1 variant allele genotype has been associated with lower catalytic activity and thermostability of the enzyme. Previous clinical studies suggest that the SULT1A1 rs9282861 polymorphism may influence the survival of breast cancer patients treated with TAM in the adjuvant setting. We investigated the effect of rs9282861 genotypes on the survival of Finnish breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy or TAM. Methods The rs9282861 genotypes of 412 Finnish breast cancer patients with early breast cancer were identified by using PCR-RFLP method. Seventy six patients were treated with adjuvant cyclophosphamide based chemotherapy only, 65 patients received adjuvant TAM, and four patients were treated with both adjuvant chemotherapy and TAM. Overall long-term survival (OS, breast cancer specific survival (BCSS, and relapse-free survival (RFS by rs9282861 genotypes were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results The multivariate analysis of 145 patients receiving either adjuvant TAM or chemotherapy showed a statistically significantly improved OS in patients with the rs9282861 homozygous variant AA genotype (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29-0.88, P = 0.015. In the separate analyses of patients receiving only chemotherapy or adjuvant TAM, there were no statistically significant differences in survival. Conclusions In this prospective study, we observed a previously unreported association between the SULT1A1 rs9282861 genotype and OS of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy or TAM. This novel finding suggests that the rs9282861 polymorphism modifies the long-term clinical outcome of patients receiving adjuvant TAM or chemotherapy.

  2. Effects of immediate modified feeding on infantile gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoghton, M A; Mittal, N K; Sandhu, B K; Mahdi, G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of infants who are dehydrated as a result of acute gastroenteritis is to administer oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Traditionally, food has been withdrawn for 24-48 h, but there is no conclusive evidence that this is of any real benefit to the patient. Immediate modified feeding, in which an infant on ORT is not starved but administered a limited diet, may have benefits in the treatment of gastroenteritis, especially in children who are nutritionally compromised...

  3. Effects of immediate modified feeding on infantile gastroenteritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoghton, M A; Mittal, N K; Sandhu, B. K.; Mahdi, G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of infants who are dehydrated as a result of acute gastroenteritis is to administer oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Traditionally, food has been withdrawn for 24-48 h, but there is no conclusive evidence that this is of any real benefit to the patient. Immediate modified feeding, in which an infant on ORT is not starved but administered a limited diet, may have benefits in the treatment of gastroenteritis, especially in children who are nutritionally compromised...

  4. Lycopene intake and prostate cancer risk : Effect modification by plasma antioxidants and the XRCC1 genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M.; Ward, Kevin C.; Terry, Paul D.; van Gils, Carla H.; Taylor, Jack A.; Mandel, Jack S.

    2006-01-01

    Lycopene has been associated with reduced prostate cancer risk, although the results ofepidemiological studies have varied We hypothesize that an effect of lycopene may be modified by XRCC1 genotype and other antioxidants. We used a food-frequency questionnaire to assess lycopene intake in a case-co

  5. Effect of Modifying Prosthetic Socket Base Materials by Adding Nanodiamonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The curing process of prosthetic socket base materials requires attention owing to a series of associated problems that are yet to be addressed and solved. However, to date, few relevant studies have been reported. In this paper, nanodiamonds modified with a silane coupling agent were dispersed into a prosthetic socket base material, and the performance of the modified base materials was investigated. Adding a predetermined amount of nanodiamonds to the prosthetic socket base material increased the glass transition temperature, improved the mechanical properties of the cured base material, and reduced the influence of the volatile gas formed during the curing process on the environment. With increasing nanodiamond contents, the glass transition temperature increased and the mechanical properties improved slightly. Owing to the high thermal conductivity of the nanodiamonds, the localized heat, as a result of the curing process, could be dissipated and released. Thus, adding nanodiamonds led to a more uniform temperature field forming in the curing system. This improved the curing process and reduced the formation of volatile monomers, thereby decreasing the adverse impact of the generated volatile gases on the environment. All of these provide a potential strategy for modifying prosthetic socket base materials.

  6. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, E.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, J

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ...

  7. Factors influencing and modifying the decision to pursue genetic testing for skin cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Alexander L; Jaju, Prajakta D; Li, Shufeng; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y

    2017-05-01

    Across cancers, the decision to pursue genetic testing is influenced more by subjective than objective factors. However, skin cancer, which is more prevalent, visual, and multifactorial than many other malignancies, may offer different motivations for pursuing such testing. The primary objective was to determine factors influencing the decision to receive genetic testing for skin cancer risk. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of priming with health questions on the decision to receive testing. We distributed anonymous online surveys through ResearchMatch.org to assess participant health, demographics, motivations, and interest in pursuing genetic testing for skin cancer risk. Two surveys with identical questions but different question ordering were used to assess the secondary objective. We received 3783 responses (64% response rate), and 85.8% desired testing. Subjective factors, including curiosity, perceptions of skin cancer, and anxiety, were the most statistically significant determinants of the decision to pursue testing (P skin cancer (odds ratio 0.5, P = .01). Age and family history of skin cancer did not influence this decision. Participants increasingly chose testing if first queried about health behaviors (P skin cancer is primarily determined by subjective factors, such as anxiety and curiosity. Health factors, including skin cancer history, also influenced decision-making. Priming with consideration of objective health factors can increase the desire to pursue testing. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effects may thus be due to other factors in addition to the investigated intervention – i.e. due to effect modifiers. Such effect modifiers need to be identified and assessed in terms of potential impact o...

  9. Effect modifiers in intervention research at hospitals in three Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Winkel, Jørgen; Edwards, Kasper; Jarebrant, Caroline; Birgisdóttir, Birna Dröfn; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Gunnarsdóttir, Sigrún; Harlin, Ulrika; Ulin, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:The impact of ergonomic interventions may be offset by other changes at the work place, primarily rationalizations. These have previously been shown to imply a dominant negative effect on health and risk factors, thus causing effect modification (Westgaard & Winkel 2011). The present paper aims to present assessment of potential effect modifiers in intervention studies at hospital wards in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden.Material and methods:The effect modifiers were assessed by ...

  10. Finasteride modifies the relation between serum C-peptide and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhouser, Marian L.; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan; Goodman, Phyllis; Hoque, Ashraful; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Hsing, Ann W.; Albanes, Demetrius; Parnes, Howard L.; Pollak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperinsulinemia and obesity-related metabolic disturbances are common and have been associated with increased cancer risk and poor prognosis. METHODS Data are from a case-control study within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a randomized, placebo-controlled trial testing finasteride vs. placebo for primary prevention of prostate cancer. Cases (n=1803) and controls (n= 1797) were matched on age, PCPT treatment arm, and family history of prostate cancer; controls included all eligible non-whites. Outcomes were biopsy-determined. Baseline bloods were assayed for serum C-peptide (marker of insulin secretion) and leptin (an adipokine) using ELISA. Logistic regression calculated odds ratios for total prostate cancer and polytomous logistic regression calculated odds ratios for low-grade (Gleason prostate cancer (Gleason ≥ 7) (multivariate-adjusted OR= 1.88, 95%CI 1.19-2.97, p trend = 0.004). When C-peptide was modeled as a continuous variable, every unit increase in [log(C-peptide)], resulted in a 39% increased risk of high-grade disease (p=0.01). In contrast, there was no significant relationship between C-peptide and high-grade prostate cancer among men receiving finasteride. Leptin was not independently associated with high-grade prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS These results support findings from other observational studies that high serum C-peptide and insulin-resistance, but not leptin, are associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Our novel finding is that the C-peptide-associated risk was attenuated by use of finasteride. PMID:20179296

  11. Effects of poling process on KNN-modified piezoceramic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rubio, F.; Romero, J. J.; Ochoa Guerrero, Diego A.; García García, José Eduardo; Pérez Pérez, Rafael; Fernández, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition near room temperature in the poling process of KNN-modified piezoceramics was studied. Poling temperatures of 25° and 120°C were used. The percentage of 90° domains reorientation induced by poling was evaluated trough X-ray diffraction analysis. The improvement of the piezoelectric properties when the poling temperature was 25°C could not be explained by the reorientation of 90° domains alone. Raman spectroscopy evidenced that t...

  12. Validation study of the modified injection technique for internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong BB

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bin-Bin Cong,1,2,* Xiao-Shan Cao,1,2,* Peng-Fei Qiu,1 Yan-Bing Liu,1 Tong Zhao,1 Peng Chen,1 Chun-Jian Wang,1 Zhao-Peng Zhang,1 Xiao Sun,1 Yong-Sheng Wang1 1Breast Cancer Center, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 2School of Medicine and Life Sciences, Jinan University-Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: According to the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern, a modified radiotracer injection technique (periareolar intraparenchyma, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance was established. To verify the accuracy of the hypothesis and validate the modified radiotracer injection technique and to observe whether the lymphatic drainage of the whole breast parenchyma could reach to the same IM-SLN, different tracers were injected into different locations of the breast. The validation study results showed that the correlation and the agreement of the radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer are significant (case-base, rs =0.808, P<0.001; Kappa =0.79, P<0.001. It proved that the lymphatic drainage from different location of the breast (the primary tumor, the subareolar plexus reached the same IM-SLNs and the hypothesis of IM-SLN lymphatic drainage pattern (ie, IM-SLN receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. In other words, it validated the accuracy of our modified radiotracer injection technique. Keywords: breast cancer, internal mammary, sentinel lymph node biopsy, visualization rate

  13. A modified delta-shaped gastroduodenostomy in totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a safe and feasible technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Huang

    Full Text Available The present study introduced a modified delta-shaped gastroduodenostomy (DSG technique and assessed the safety, feasibility and clinical results of this procedure in patients undergoing totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG for gastric cancer (GC.A total of 102 patients with distal GC undergoing TLDG with modified DSG between January 2013 and December 2013 were enrolled. A retrospective study was performed using a prospectively maintained comprehensive database to evaluate the results of the procedure. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to estimate the predictive factors for postoperative morbidity.The mean operation time was 150.6±30.2 min, the mean anastomosis time was 12.2±4.2 min, the mean blood loss was 48.2±33.2 ml, and the mean times to first flatus, fluid diet, soft diet and postoperative hospital stay were 3.8±1.3 days, 5.0±1.0 days, 7.4±2.1 days and 12.0±6.5 days, respectively. Two patients with minor anastomotic leakage after surgery were managed conservatively; no patient experienced any complications around the anastomosis, such as anastomotic stricture or anastomotic hemorrhage. Univariate analysis showed that age, gastric cancer with hemorrhage and cardiovascular disease combined were significant factors that affected postoperative morbidity (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis found that gastric cancer with hemorrhage was the independent risk factor for the postoperative morbidity (P = 0.042. At a median follow-up of 7 months, no patients had died or experienced recurrent or metastatic disease.The modified DSG was technically safe and feasible, with acceptable surgical outcomes, in patients undergoing TLDG for GC, and this procedure may be promising in these patients.

  14. Cancer and Stroma-Targeted Immunotherapy with a Genetically Modified DC Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    of Defense (DOD) Breast Cancer Research Program (BCRP) Era of Hope Meeting, August 2-5, 2011. Orlando Marriott World Center Hotel , Orlando, FL. 2... Marriott World Center Hotel , Orlando, FL. 2. Publication: Kakarla S, Song XT, Gottschalk S. Cancer-associated fibroblasts as targets for

  15. Polymorphisms in the XRCC1 gene modify survival of bladder cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacerdote, C.; Guarrera, S.; Ricceri, F.; Pardini, B.; Polidoro, S.; Allione, A.; Critelli, R.; Russo, A.; Andrew, A.S.; Ye, Y.; Wu, X.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Bosio, A.; Casetta, G.; Cucchiarale, G.; Destefanis, P.; Gontero, P.; Rolle, L.; Zitella, A.; Fontana, D.; Vineis, P.; Matullo, G.

    2013-01-01

    Survival of bladder cancer patients depends on several factors including disease stage and grade at diagnosis, age, health status of the patient and the applied treatment. Several studies investigated the role of DNA repair genetic variants in cancer susceptibility, but only few studies investigated

  16. Targeting Cancer Metabolism - Revisiting the Warburg Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quangdon; Lee, Hyunji; Park, Jisoo; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Park, Jongsun

    2016-01-01

    After more than half of century since the Warburg effect was described, this atypical metabolism has been standing true for almost every type of cancer, exhibiting higher glycolysis and lactate metabolism and defective mitochondrial ATP production. This phenomenon had attracted many scientists to the problem of elucidating the mechanism of, and reason for, this effect. Several models based on oncogenic studies have been proposed, such as the accumulation of mitochondrial gene mutations, the switch from oxidative phosphorylation respiration to glycolysis, the enhancement of lactate metabolism, and the alteration of glycolytic genes. Whether the Warburg phenomenon is the consequence of genetic dysregulation in cancer or the cause of cancer remains unknown. Moreover, the exact reasons and physiological values of this peculiar metabolism in cancer remain unclear. Although there are some pharmacological compounds, such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, dichloroacetic acid, and 3-bromopyruvate, therapeutic strategies, including diet, have been developed based on targeting the Warburg effect. In this review, we will revisit the Warburg effect to determine how much scientists currently understand about this phenomenon and how we can treat the cancer based on targeting metabolism. PMID:27437085

  17. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G;

    2009-01-01

    Background:In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.Methods:We have...... genotyped rs744154 in 9408 BRCA1 and 5632 BRCA2 mutation carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) and assessed its association with breast cancer risk using a retrospective weighted cohort approach.Results:We found no evidence of association with breast cancer risk...... for BRCA1 (per-allele HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.04, P=0.5) or BRCA2 (per-allele HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06, P=0.5) mutation carriers.Conclusion:This SNP is not a significant modifier of breast cancer risk for mutation carriers, though weak associations cannot be ruled out.British Journal of Cancer advance...

  18. Comparison of quality of life of Turkish breast cancer patients receiving breast conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acil, Hande; Cavdar, Ikbal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in quality of life in patients who received breast conserving surgery (BCS) or modified radical mastectomy (MRM) for breast cancer. A total of 100 women with breast cancer who underwent either BCS or MRM between September 2011 and April 2012 at a private health center and completed their chemotherapy and radiation therapy cycles were included in the study. To assess the quality of life, we used a demographic questionnaire, the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Quality of Life assessment in Breast Cancer (EORTC QLQ-BR23). Using QLQ-C30, we found that patients who underwent BCS had better functional status and fewer symptoms than patients who underwent MRM. In QLQ-BR23, independent factors improving the functional scales were BCS, higher level of education and marital status (married); independent factors improving symptoms were BCS, higher level of education, younger age and low and normal body mass index (BMI). In QLQ-C30, independent factors affecting the functional and symptom scales were only BCS and higher level of education. We determined that patients who received BCS had better functional status and less frequent symptoms than patients who underwent MRM.

  19. Multifunctional hyaluronic acid modified graphene oxide loaded with mitoxantrone for overcoming drug resistance in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lin; Feng, Qianhua; Wang, Yating; Yang, Xiaomin; Ren, Junxiao; Shi, Yuyang; Shan, Xiaoning; Yuan, Yujie; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional nanosheets (HA-GO/Pluronic) with targeted chemo-photothermal properties were successfully developed for controlled delivery of mitoxantrone (MIT) to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR). In vitro release profiles displayed that both an acidic environment and a NIR laser could trigger and accelerate the release of a drug, which ensured nanosheets were stable in blood circulation and released MIT within tumor cells under laser irradiation. HA-GO/Pluronic nanosheets were taken up into MCF-7/ADR cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, which further facilitated escapement of P-gp efflux. Compared with MIT solution, MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic showed greater cytotoxicity and increase in cellular MIT accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest studies also revealed that MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic was more potent than MIT/GO/Pluronic and MIT solution. The anticancer efficacy in vivo was evaluated in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR-bearing mice, and inhibition of tumors by MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic with NIR laser irradiation was the most effective among all MIT formulations. In summary, the MIT/HA-GO/Pluronic system had striking functions such as P-gp reversible inhibitor and anticancer efficacy, and could present a promising platform for drug-resistant cancer treatment.

  20. DNA methylation modifies the association between obesity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Lauren E; Chen, Jia; Cho, Yoon Hee; Khankari, Nikhil K; Bradshaw, Patrick T; White, Alexandra J; Garbowski, Gail; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying the poor breast cancer prognosis among obese women are unresolved. DNA methylation levels are linked to obesity and to breast cancer survival. We hypothesized that obesity may work in conjunction with the epigenome to alter prognosis. Using a population-based sample of women diagnosed with first primary breast cancer, we examined modification of the obesity-mortality association by DNA methylation. In-person interviews were conducted approximately 3 months after diagnosis. Weight and height were assessed [to estimate body mass index (BMI)], and blood samples collected. Promoter methylation of 13 breast cancer-related genes was assessed in archived tumor by methylation-specific PCR and Methyl Light. Global methylation in white blood cell DNA was assessed by analysis of long interspersed elements-1 (LINE-1) and with the luminometric methylation assay (LUMA). Vital status among 1308 patients (with any methylation biomarker and complete BMI assessment) was determined after approximately 15 years of follow-up (N = 194/441 deaths due to breast cancer-specific/all-cause mortality). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using two-sided p values of 0.05. Breast cancer-specific mortality was higher among obese (BMI ≥ 30) patients with promoter methylation in APC (HR = 2.47; 95 % CI = 1.43-4.27) and TWIST1 (HR = 4.25; 95 % CI = 1.43-12.70) in breast cancer tissue. Estimates were similar, but less pronounced, for all-cause mortality. Increased all-cause (HR = 1.81; 95 % CI = 1.19-2.74) and breast cancer-specific (HR = 2.61; 95 % CI = 1.45-4.69) mortality was observed among obese patients with the lowest LUMA levels. The poor breast cancer prognosis associated with obesity may depend on methylation profiles, which warrants further investigation.

  1. Cancer associated aberrant protein o-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Petersen, Cecilie; Lavrsen, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing...... response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB)-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D)2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic) mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-¿ release, and antibody induction. Gal...

  2. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  3. Effect of Modified Polymer on Crack Resistance of Mortar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At present, the basic technical principle in China is to adopt polymers to modifying the properties of mortar so as to improve the crack-resistance of construction structures and to strengthen their water-resisting and climate-resisting properties as well. However, how polymer acts on anti-crack mortar is short of systematic research. Theoretical exposition of polymer mortar is basically explained by Ohama Model, which is cement slaking and polymer coating are carried on together and mutually-cross web structure interweaved with liquid and polymer coating. But anti-crack mortar has its own special characteristics because of fewer polymers mixed in it and its high viscosity. So this paper is to showing how different polymers affect its crack-resistance cannot be reflected from this theory. Vinyl-acetate ethylene (VAC/E) has been selected as representation of polymerization, whose property is modified by compounding it from some inorganic components, such as talc, CaCO3 and so on. And then the mechanics property and shrinkage of anti-crack polymer mortar is tested when different amount of polymers is added as admixture of mortar. The result indicates that, the working performance and mechanics property of the polymer mortar are worse mixed VAC/E only. It basically meets the demands for mechanics strength and working performance when mixed both VAC/E and CaCO3. While it achieves much better mechanical property and working performance than the two former when mixed VAC/E,talc and CaCO3; the result of corresponding scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of sample indicates that the internal result of the polymer mortar, compared with classical Ohama Model, has a particularity that its structure is formed by polymer coating instead of filling up the intervals among cement grains.

  4. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  5. Effect of Meridian Massage for Cancer Related Fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In sook Jeoung; Hwa-Seung Yoo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of meridian massage in lessening the fatigue and improving both physical and mental quality of life of cancer patients. Settings and design: This study was conducted at the East-West Cancer Center at Daejeon University; Using a single-arm, waiting list and non-treatment control research design, we compared the results of control group and to that of the experimental group. Materials and methods: From July 2, 2007 to July 28, 2007, eighteen eligible cancer patients were recruited to participate in the experiment. Modified Chalder Fatigue Scale (CFS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and active oxygen level were measured before and after treatment for both control and experimental groups. Lying on their back or stomach inside a room with a temperature of 18-2℃2, the patients received 30 minutes of meridian massages mainly around the trapezius muscles 5 times a week.Statistical analysis used: Data analysis was carried out using independent t-test, paired t-test and One-way ANOVA.Results: Data analysis of modified CFS showed statistically significant results for all groups between before and after treatment. Within CFS, results of physical and psychological analysis showed significant results for all groups except before and after no treatment and secondary treatment. In the analysis of VAS, the experimental group showed a greater decrease in score compared to that of the control group and the average difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Although the results were not statistically significant (P>0.05), active oxygen levels for the control group showed little difference before and after no treatment (331.11 and 330.78, respectively) while the experimental group observed a decrease in active oxygen level before and after treatment (327.28 and 314.11, respectively). Conclusion: In conclusion, patients who received meridian massage showed decreased cancer related fatigue scores compared to the

  6. Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Risk Factors Among White Women in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Paige; Barrdahl, Myrto; Joshi, Amit D;

    2016-01-01

    Importance: An improved model for risk stratification can be useful for guiding public health strategies of breast cancer prevention. Objective: To evaluate combined risk stratification utility of common low penetrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidemiologic risk factors. Design, ...

  7. Soy food consumption in relation to breast cancer modified by menopause status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong YANG; Bin ZHANG; Shaoping YANG; Dan ZHANG; Yukai DU

    2008-01-01

    It has been found that lifestyle and diet are associated with the development of cancers. The mortality of breast cancer in Wuhan city is increasing, according to the statistics of recent years. This case control study was aimed to provide data for alimentary therapeutics for breast carcinomas. It included a case group (n = 196) and an age frequency-matched control group (n = 202). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain information on usual food consumption. The results indicate that intake of soy foods more than 5 times per week was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, especially in premenopausal women. The adjusted OR was 0.294 [95% CI was (0.158-0.546), P = 0.000]. Our results indicate that alimentary therapeutics for breast cancer can be adjusted by status of menopause.

  8. [Downstaging after neoadjuvant therapy for rectal cancer modifies the planned original surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutari, F; Tramutola, G; Morlino, A; Rossi, M T; Manzione, L; Rosati, G; Sopranzi, A

    2008-01-01

    Cancer of the rectum has been for more years burdened with a heavy rate of local relapse about 30%. The introduction of total meso-rectum excision has reduced the rate of up to 5-8%. Later more studies proved how the preoperative radiotherapy was able to reduce the rate of local relapse. The Authors introduce studies about downstaging after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer and discuss about their own series from 2005 to 2007.

  9. β-Diketone modified trastuzumab: a next-generation of Herceptin for resistant breast cancer cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianguo; Pu, Jun; Lu, Xiaozhao; Fu, Haiyan; Wei, Mengying; Yang, Guodong

    2012-11-01

    Despite the initial efficacy of trastuzumab (commercially named Herceptin), acquired resistance in a majority of patients remains the biggest hurdle in breast cancer therapy. Recently, the Scripps Research Institute developed a method termed "instant immunity", in which antibodies (chemical programmed antibody) are rapidly induced by chemicals like β-diketone. When β-diketone is chemically linked to peptides specifically targeting cancer cells, the instant chemical programmed antibody would clear the cancer cells through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-directed cytotoxicity (CDC). This novel strategy has a super advantage over passive immunization or immunization with recombinant or vectored vaccines because it induces a universal immune response and memory. Theoretically, combination of the cancer cell specific recognition advantage of trastuzumab and cancerous cell clearance of active immunization would be an option for trastuzumab resistant patients, which harbors both the advantages of cancer specific targeting of trastuzumab and active immunization of the "instant immunity", implicating a better clinical outcome. Further studies are needed to verify our hypothesis, which is worth validating.

  10. Genetic mapping in mice identifies DMBT1 as a candidate modifier of mammary tumors and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Anneke C; Hill, Linda Z; Roberts, Amy L

    2007-01-01

    Low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility alleles seem to play a significant role in breast cancer risk but are difficult to identify in human cohorts. A genetic screen of 176 N2 backcross progeny of two Trp53(+/-) strains, BALB/c and C57BL/6, which differ in their susceptibility to mammary...... tumors, identified a modifier of mammary tumor susceptibility in an approximately 25-Mb interval on mouse chromosome 7 (designated SuprMam1). Relative to heterozygotes, homozygosity for BALB/c alleles of SuprMam1 significantly decreased mammary tumor latency from 70.7 to 61.1 weeks and increased risk...... twofold (P = 0.002). Dmbt1 (deleted in malignant brain tumors 1) was identified as a candidate modifier gene within the SuprMam1 interval because it was differentially expressed in mammary tissues from BALB/c-Trp53(+/-) and C57BL/6-Trp53(+/-) mice. Dmbt1 mRNA and protein was reduced in mammary glands...

  11. 75 FR 4877 - In the Matter of Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Gamma Nuclear Radiology; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Beta Gamma Nuclear Radiology (BGNR) (Licensee) is the holder of medical License No. 52-25542-01, issued by the U.S...

  12. CHEMICALLY MODIFIED FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS - POTENTIOMETRIC AG+ SELECTIVITY OF PVC MEMBRANES BASED ON MACROCYCLIC THIOETHERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRZOZKA, Z; COBBEN, PLHM; REINHOUDT, DN; EDEMA, JJH; KELLOGG, RM

    1993-01-01

    A chemically modified field-effect transistor (CHEMFET) with satisfactory Ag+ selectivity is described. The potentiometric Ag+ selectivities of CHEMFETs with plasticized PVC membranes based on macrocyclic thioethers have been determined. All the macrocyclic thioethers tested showed silver response a

  13. Modifying Effects of Fungal and Herb Metabolites on Azoxymethane‐induced Intestinal Carcinogenesis in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoshimi, Naoki; Wang, Aijin; Morishita, Yukio; Tanaka, Takuji; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Kawai, Kiyoshi; Yamahara, Joji; Mori, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    Modifying effects of a fungal product, flavoglaucin, and four plant‐derived chemicals, shikonin, gingerol, oleanolic acid and paeoniflorin, on intestinal carcinogenesis were examined in a rat model using azoxymethane (AOM...

  14. Observation of curative effect of modified canalith reposition on 48 cases with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAN Jun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the canalith repositioning maneuver in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. Methods The modified Epley procedure, Semont maneuver and Barbecue maneuver were applied in 48 cases of BPPV. Followed for one year, the curative effects were observed. Results After treatment in modified canalith reposition, the recovery rate was 89.58% , and effective rate was 100% . Followed for one year, the recurrence rate was 6.25% . Conclusion Modified canalith reposition for BPPV has no contraindications, and no special adverse reactions. It is simple and can fastly relieve symptoms. The cost and recurrence rate are low. It is suitable for clinical application.

  15. Effects of Thermal Fluctuations on the Thermodynamics of Modified Hayward Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Pourhassan, Behnam; Debnath, Ujjal

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a modified Hayward black hole. These thermal fluctuations will produce correction terms for various thermodynamic quantities like entropy, pressure, inner energy and specific heats. We also investigate the effect of these correction terms on the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we study the phase transition for the modified Hayward black hole. It is demonstrated that the modified Hayward black hole is stable even after the thermal fluctuations are taken into account, as long as the event horizon is larger than a certain critical value.

  16. Effects of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of modified Hayward black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhassan, Behnam [Damghan University, School of Physics, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Debnath, Ujjal [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Mathematics, Howrah (India)

    2016-03-15

    In this work, we analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of a modified Hayward black hole. These thermal fluctuations will produce correction terms for various thermodynamical quantities like entropy, pressure, internal energy, and specific heats. We also investigate the effect of these correction terms on the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we study the phase transition for the modified Hayward black hole. It is demonstrated that the modified Hayward black hole is stable even after the thermal fluctuations are taken into account, as long as the event horizon is larger than a certain critical value. (orig.)

  17. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  18. HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL MODIFIERS FOR PRODUCTION OF CONCRETES WITH PRE-SET PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the application of industrial by-products and recycled materials. Waterproofing admixtures improve the structure and the properties of the cement stone. Development and preparation of highly effective waterproofing modifiers of durable effect, as well as development of the process procedure parameters, including mixing, activation, heat treatment, etc. are to be implemented. The composition of waterproofing modifiers is to be fine-tuned to synergize the behaviour of var...

  19. [A Case of Advanced Rectal Cancer Resected Successfully after Induction Chemotherapy with Modified FOLFOX6 plus Panitumumab].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Yoshimi; Uchima, Yasutake; Kawamura, Minori; Takeda, Osami; Hanno, Hajime; Takayanagi, Shigenori; Hirooka, Tomoomi; Dozaiku, Toshio; Hirooka, Takashi; Aomatsu, Naoki; Hirakawa, Toshiki; Iwauchi, Takehiko; Nishii, Takafumi; Morimoto, Junya; Nakazawa, Kazunori; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of advanced colon cancer that was effectively treated with mFOLFOX6 plus panitumumab combination chemotherapy. The patient was a 54-year-old man who had type 2 colon cancer of the rectum. An abdominal CT scan demonstrated rectal cancer with bulky lymph node metastasis and 1 hepatic node (rectal cancer SI [bladder retroperitoneum], N2M0H1P0, cStage IV). He was treated with mFOLFOX6 plus panitumumab as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After 4 courses of chemotherapy, CT revealed that the primary lesion and regional metastatic lymph nodes had reduced in size (rectal cancer A, N1H1P0M0, cStage IV). Anterior rectal resection with D3 nodal dissection and left lateral segmentectomy of the liver was performed. The histological diagnosis was tubular adenocarcinoma (tub2-1), int, INF a, pMP, ly0, v0, pDM0, pPM0, R0. He was treated with 4 courses of mFOLFOX6 after surgery. The patient has been in good health without a recurrence for 2 years and 5 months after surgery. This case suggests that induction chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 plus panitumumab is a potentially effective regimen for advanced colon cancer.

  20. Modified radical mastectomy sparing one or both pectoral muscles in the treatment of breast cancer: intra and postoperative complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffo Freitas-Júnior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Modified radical mastectomy is widely utilized in breast cancer treatment. However, no prospective comparison has yet been made between the Madden technique (preservation of the pectoralis minor muscle and the Patey technique (resection of this muscle. The aim of this work was to compare these two modified radical mastectomy techniques, by analyzing their degrees of difficulty and complications. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized trial at the Breast Unit of Hospital Araújo Jorge, Goiás; and Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Goiás. METHODS: 430 patients with breast cancer with an indication for modified radical mastectomy were included in the program, of whom 426 patients were available for analysis (225 allocated to Patey and 201 to Madden. The chi-squared and Student t tests were used for analysis. RESULTS: The patients’ demographics were well balanced between the two groups. The mean duration of the surgical procedures was 105 (± 29.9 and 102 minutes (± 33, for the Patey and Madden groups, respectively (p = 0.6. Hospitalization duration was 2.3 days for both groups. The mean number of lymph nodes resected was 20.3 (± 7.6 for Patey and 19.8 (± 8.1 for Madden (p = 0.5. There were no differences in terms of vascular or nerve sections, hematomas or infections. The surgeons reported the same degree of difficulty for the two methods. CONCLUSION: The removal of the pectoralis minor muscle did not influence any of the variables studied. Therefore, either technique can be performed, at the surgeon’s discretion.

  1. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  2. Current concepts in cancer: effects of cancer and cancer treatment on the nutrition of the host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, G.; Donaldson, S.S.

    1979-06-28

    The growth of cancer in man leads to destruction of tissues and alterations of functions. The consequences of this process, culminating in overt cachexia and death, are so varied that cancer has replaced syphilis as the great imitator. Many of the manifestations of cachexia (weakness, anorexia, depletion and translocation of host component, and loss of immunocompetence) resemble malnutrition and are accountable for, in many patients, by poor nutritional intake, neoplastic invasion of the gastrointestinal tract or creation by the tumor of abnormal routes through which nutrients can be lost. The development of cachexia, nevertheless, bears no simple relation to caloric intake, tumor burden, tumor cell type or anatomic site of involvement. Indeed, it has long been apparent that, in many patients succumbing to cancer, if the same lesions were composed of scar tissue rather than neoplastic cells, the affected individuals might not only be alive but in reasonably good health. Distant metabolic effects of cancers have therefore come into focus, are well documented and are known collectively as paraneoplastic syndromes. They imply release by the tumor of chemically identifiable toxic mediators. Recently, a third mechanism has been recognized as an important determinant of cachexia and malnutrition: cancer treatment. As our tools have become more powerful and our philosophies more agressive,the effects of therapy on normal cell populations have become visible. The present paper discusses the most important manifestations of cachexia that resemble malnutrition. Technics of nutritional assessment and intervention that have proved successful in patients with cancer are also briefly discussed.

  3. Effects of modifying agents on surface modifications of magnesium oxide whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Liu, Bei; Yang, Jinjun; Jia, Junping; You, Chen; Chen, Minfang

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the MgO whiskers have been treated by several modifying agents including the mixture of DL-malic acid oligo-L-lactide (g), aluminate coupling agent (Al) and stearic acid (Sa). The morphologies, covering quantity, compositions and components of the whiskers before and after the modifications were investigated by SEM, TG, XRD and FT-IR, respectively. Comparisons have been made on the morphologies of modified whiskers by different modifiers tailoring. The results show that the MgO whiskers treated by stearic acid have superior performance to the others, especially in terms of uniform dispersion. In contrast, both the mixture of DL-malic acid oligo-L-lactide and aluminate coupling agent have the negative effects on whiskers' dispersibility. FT-IR reveals that the chemical bonds were formed between the whiskers and each modifying agent and the XRD testing demonstrate that the crystal structures of the modified whiskers were well maintained without significant change.

  4. Captopril-polyethyleneimine conjugate modified gold nanoparticles for co-delivery of drug and gene in anti-angiogenesis breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manhong; Li, Yong; Huang, Xiaohui; Lu, Xizhi

    2015-01-01

    Captopril-polyethyleneimine (CP) containing low molecular weight polyethyleneimine and anti-angiogenesis drug captopril conjugated via an amide bond was fabricated to modify gold nanoparticles and complex with siRNA to construct siRNA/CP/GNP complexes for the co-delivery of drug and siRNA in anti-angiogenesis breast cancer therapy. The self-assembled siRNA/CP/GNP complexes exhibited desirable and homogenous particle size, reasonable positive charges and condensation ability, and effective gene-silencing property in vitro. In addition, siRNA/CP/GNP complexes co-delivering captopril and siRNA achieved combined angiogenesis suppression by more effectively downregulating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA and protein via different pathways in vitro, as compared to mono-delivery systems. In vivo investigation on nude mice bearing MDA-MB435 tumor xenografts revealed that siRNA/CP/GNP complexes possessed satisfying tumor homing ability and strong antitumor activity. These findings suggested that siRNA/CP/GNP complexes could be an ideal system for simultaneous transfer of drug and siRNA, which might be a new promising strategy for effective breast cancer therapy.

  5. Co-delivery of Doxorubicin Encapsulated PLGA Nanoparticles and Bcl-xL shRNA Using Alkyl-Modified PEI into Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimian, Mahboubeh; Taghavi, Sahar; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hashemi, Maryam

    2017-02-24

    In recent years, much effort has been focused on an appropriate combination of chemotherapeutic drugs and nucleic acids to exploit additive or synergistic therapeutic effects and overcome many obstacles such as the reduction of side effects and drug resistance. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) has designed to allow the production of small interfering RNA (siRNA) within the cells and offer long-lasting silencing of target genes. In this study, alkyl-modified polyethylenimine (PEI 10 kD) was used for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) encapsulated into poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) and Bcl-xL shRNA (one class of molecules that block apoptosis of tumor cells) into breast cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that modification of PEI with alkyl chain could enhance the induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by suppression of Bcl-xL gene using Bcl-xL shRNA more than PEI alone. On the other hand, DOX encapsulated into PLGA had more synergistic effect with shRNA in comparison with DOX alone. In conclusion, combination of PLGA-DOX NPs and alkyl-PEI/shRNA complexes may have promising applications in breast cancer therapy.

  6. Long-term health effects among testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashibe, Mia; Abdelaziz, Sarah; Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Fraser, Alison; Boucher, Kenneth M; Smith, Ken; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Rowe, Kerry; Rowley, Braden; Daurelle, Micky; Holton, Avery E; VanDerslice, James; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bishoff, Jay; Lowrance, Will; Stroup, Antoinette

    2016-12-01

    Testicular cancer is diagnosed at a young age and survival rates are high; thus, the long-term effects of cancer treatment need to be assessed. Our objectives are to estimate the incidence rates and determinants of late effects in testicular cancer survivors. We conducted a population-based cohort study of testicular cancer survivors, diagnosed 1991-2007, followed up for a median of 10 years. We identified 785 testicular cancer patients who survived ≥5 years and 3323 men free of cancer for the comparison group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to compare the hazard ratio between the cases and the comparison group and for internal analysis among case patients. Testicular cancer survivors experienced a 24 % increase in risk of long-term health effects >5 years after diagnosis. The overall incidence rate of late effects among testicular cancer survivors was 66.3 per 1000 person years. Higher risks were observed among testicular cancer survivors for hypercholesterolemia, infertility, and orchitis. Chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection appeared to increase the risk of late effects. Being obese prior to cancer diagnosis appeared to be the strongest factor associated with late effects. Testicular cancer survivors were more likely to develop chronic health conditions when compared to cancer-free men. While the late effects risk was increased among testicular cancer survivors, the incidence rates of late effects after cancer diagnosis was fairly low.

  7. Cyclodextrin-Modified Porous Silicon Nanoparticles for Efficient Sustained Drug Delivery and Proliferation Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alexandra; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Almeida, Sérgio; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-10-21

    Over the past decade, the potential of polymeric structures has been investigated to overcome many limitations related to nanosized drug carriers by modulating their toxicity, cellular interactions, stability, and drug-release kinetics. In this study, we have developed a successful nanocomposite consisting of undecylenic acid modified thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles (UnTHCPSi NPs) loaded with an anticancer drug, sorafenib, and surface-conjugated with heptakis(6-amino-6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin (HABCD) to show the impact of the surface polymeric functionalization on the physical and biological properties of the drug-loaded nanoparticles. Cytocompatibility studies showed that the UnTHCPSi-HABCD NPs were not toxic to breast cancer cells. HABCD also enhanced the suspensibility and both the colloidal and plasma stabilities of the UnTHCPSi NPs. UnTHCPSi-HABCD NPs showed a significantly increased interaction with breast cancer cells compared to bare NPs and also sustained the drug release. Furthermore, the sorafenib-loaded UnTHCPSi-HABCD NPs efficiently inhibited cell proliferation of the breast cancer cells.

  8. The modified high-density survival assay is the useful tool to predict the effectiveness of fractionated radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Mori, Miyuki; Oikawa, Toshiyuki; Shimura, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Yosuke; Mori, Shiro; Ohkubo, Yasuhito; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The high-density survival (HDS) assay was originally elaborated to assess cancer cell responses to therapeutic agents under the influence of intercellular communication. Here, we simplified the original HDS assay and studied its applicability for the detection of cellular radioresistance. We have recently defined clinically relevant radioresistant (CRR) cells, which continue to proliferate with daily exposure to 2 gray (Gy) of X-rays for more than 30 days in vitro. We established human CRR cell lines, HepG2-8960-R from HepG2, and SAS-R1 and -R2 from SAS, respectively. In an attempt to apply the HDS assay to detect radioresistance with clinical relevance, we simplified the original HDS assay by scoring the total number of surviving cells after exposure to X-rays. The modified HDS assay successfully detected radioresistance with clinical relevance. The modified HDS assay detected CRR phenotype, which is not always detectable by clonogenic assay. Therefore, we believe that the modified HDS assay presented in this study is a powerful tool to predict the effectiveness of fractionated radiotherapy against malignant tumors.

  9. Association of tobacco and alcohol use with earlier development of colorectal cancer: should we modify screening guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acott, Alison A; Theus, Sue A; Marchant-Miros, Kathyrn E; Mancino, Anne T

    2008-12-01

    Current guidelines recommend initial colorectal cancer screening at age 50 years for average-risk patients. Alcohol and tobacco use can be associated with earlier onset of colorectal cancer. We hypothesized an earlier age at diagnosis and/or more advanced stage in patients with these habits. We queried our tumor registry for colorectal cancer diagnosed between January 1997 and December 2006. Data were analyzed to evaluate effects of alcohol and tobacco use. Of 335 colorectal cancer patients, 81% used tobacco, 51% used alcohol, 45% used both, and 14% used neither. Current tobacco and alcohol use were associated with younger ages at onset of colorectal cancer. Thirteen of 332 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer before age 50 years. All had exposure to alcohol and tobacco. Fifty-four percent (7/13) of these patients presented at stage 3/4 compared with 34% of the overall population. Modification of screening guidelines to include these habits as "high-risk" factors may be indicated.

  10. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...... instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation...... carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence...

  11. Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I

    2004-01-01

    The commercialisation of GM crops in Europe is practically non-existent at the present time. The European Commission has instigated changes to the regulatory process to address the concerns of consumers and member states and to pave the way for removing the current moratorium. With regard...... to the safety of GM crops and products, the current risk assessment process pays particular attention to potential adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment. This document deals with the concept of unintended effects in GM crops and products, i.e. effects that go beyond that of the original...

  12. Toxicity and therapy of cisplatin-loaded EGF modified mPEG-PLGA-PLL nanoparticles for SKOV3 cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfei; Liu, Peifeng; Qiu, Lihua; Sun, Ying; Zhu, Mingjie; Gu, Liying; Di, Wen; Duan, Yourong

    2013-05-01

    Construction on the nanoparticles with lower toxicity and specific tumor targeting properties is challenging and requires careful design of composition, size, physicochemical properties tailored for the nanoparticles. Here the epidermal growth factor (EGF) modified methoxy polyethylene glycol-polylactic-co-glycolic acid-polylysine (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) encapsulated cisplatin (CDDP) nanoparticles (CDDP-NPs-EGF) was prepared to for solving the toxicity of CDDP and improving therapeutic efficiency. The remarkable features of CDDP-NPs-EGF are increasing cytotoxicity that attribute to effective cell cycle arrest and high cell apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, the CDDP-NPs-EGF change drug distribution, decrease the nephrotoxicity of CDDP and improve significantly therapeutic efficiency without inducing obvious system toxicity, verifying its key role of the CDDP-NPs-EGF in lowering drug toxicity and enhancing the antitumor efficiency for SKOV3 cancer in mice. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  14. [Modifying effect of nitrites on pulmonary blastogenesis and viral leukogenesis in mice: role of nitric oxide and dioxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'nitskiĭ, A P; Reutov, V P; Ryzhova, N I; Kolpakova, A S; Deriagina, V P; Nekrasova, E A; Savluchinskaia, L A; Travkin, A G

    2000-01-01

    The long-term effects of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) on carcinogenesis induced by urethane (total dose 1.0 mg/g body weight) in low-grade cancer F1 (C57BLxCBA) and high-grade A/Snell mice and on viral (Rausher leukemia virus) leukomogenesis in Balb/c mice. The murine intake of NaNO2 with water (50 mg/l) causes a statistically significant increase in the number of adenomas in the lung. Examining the mechanism of conversion of NO2- to NO led to the assumption that the free radical compounds NO and NO2 are involved in the potentiating action of NO2 on blastomogenesis. The use of the oxidant emoxypine (3-hydroxypyridine) confirmed the above. The role of NO and NO2 in the intracellular processes under the modifying effects of nitrites and nitrates on blastomogenesis is analyzed.

  15. Unintended effects and their detection in genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, F; Chesson, A; Colquhoun, I; Constable, A; Davies, H V; Engel, K H; Gatehouse, A M R; Kärenlampi, S; Kok, E J; Leguay, J-J; Lehesranta, S; Noteborn, H P J M; Pedersen, J; Smith, M

    2004-07-01

    The commercialisation of GM crops in Europe is practically non-existent at the present time. The European Commission has instigated changes to the regulatory process to address the concerns of consumers and member states and to pave the way for removing the current moratorium. With regard to the safety of GM crops and products, the current risk assessment process pays particular attention to potential adverse effects on human and animal health and the environment. This document deals with the concept of unintended effects in GM crops and products, i.e. effects that go beyond that of the original modification and that might impact primarily on health. The document first deals with the potential for unintended effects caused by the processes of transgene insertion (DNA rearrangements) and makes comparisons with genetic recombination events and DNA rearrangements in traditional breeding. The document then focuses on the potential value of evolving "profiling" or "omics" technologies as non-targeted, unbiased approaches, to detect unintended effects. These technologies include metabolomics (parallel analysis of a range of primary and secondary metabolites), proteomics (analysis of polypeptide complement) and transcriptomics (parallel analysis of gene expression). The technologies are described, together with their current limitations. Importantly, the significance of unintended effects on consumer health are discussed and conclusions and recommendations presented on the various approaches outlined.

  16. Modifiable barriers to cervical cancer screening adherence among working women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Rocha, Georgina Mayela Nuñez; Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Baraniuk, Sarah; Day, R Sue

    2010-07-01

    To determine predictors of adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines among women working in Monterrey, Mexico. Cases (n = 94) were sexually active female store clerks working in Monterrey, Mexico, aged 18-64, who were not adherent to Official Mexican Standard cervical cancer screening guidelines; controls (n = 135) were adherent to guidelines. The outcome of interest was adherence to cervical cancer screening services according to national screening guidelines. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed knowledge factors and perceptions associated with adherence. Having no or inaccurate knowledge of screening guidelines (odds ratio [OR] 11.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 4.3-28.5) and no knowledge of Pap examination utility (OR 6.8, 95% CI 1.0-46.4) were associated with screening guideline nonadherence. Perceptions of fear/embarrassment (OR 16.2, 95% CI 5.1-51.5) and lower levels of spousal/partner acceptance (OR 5.8, 95% CI 1.3-25.3) of the Pap examination were associated with screening guideline nonadherence. Results were adjusted for age at initiation of sexual activity, civil status, level of education, use of family planning/birth control, and income. Identification of knowledge factors and perceptions that predict screening guideline adherence can inform population-specific recommendations to increase screening and reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality among employed Mexican women.

  17. Comparison of modified radical cystectomy with traditional in bladder cancer patients with comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    KHOJITOEV SANJAR VALIRAKHIMOVICH; TILLYASHAYKHOV MIRZAGOLIB NIGMATOVICH; ABDURAKHMONOV DONIYOR KOMILJONOVICH

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzed 65 cases of bladder cancer who undergone traditional and extraperitoneal radical cystectomy with ureterocutaneostomy. Patients included the study had a number of complications and comorbidities that limited volume of surgery. Radical cystectomy with extraperitoneal access objectively shorter. Postoperative rehabilitation faster, it decrease the risks associated with surgical interventions in the peritoneal cavity.

  18. Heat-modified citrus pectin induces apoptosis-like cell death and autophagy in HepG2 and A549 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Leclere

    Full Text Available Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs from classical apoptosis because no DNA cleavage was observed. In addition, Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not influence the observed cell death in HepG2 cells but appeared to be partly protective in A549 cells, indicating that heat-modified citrus pectin might induce caspase-independent cell death. An increase in the abundance of the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Light Chain 3 (LC3 protein and a decrease in p62 protein abundance were observed in both cell types when incubated in the presence of heat-modified citrus pectin. These results indicate the activation of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that autophagy has been revealed in cells incubated in the presence of a modified form of pectin. This autophagy activation appears to be protective, at least for A549 cells, because its inhibition with 3-methyladenine increased the observed modified pectin-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms the potential of modified pectin to improve chemotherapeutic cancer treatments.

  19. Heat-Modified Citrus Pectin Induces Apoptosis-Like Cell Death and Autophagy in HepG2 and A549 Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclere, Lionel; Fransolet, Maude; Cote, Francois; Cambier, Pierre; Arnould, Thierry; Van Cutsem, Pierre; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is still one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and finding new treatments remains a major challenge. Previous studies showed that modified forms of pectin, a complex polysaccharide present in the primary plant cell wall, possess anticancer properties. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of modified pectin and the pathways involved are unclear. Here, we show that citrus pectin modified by heat treatment induced cell death in HepG2 and A549 cells. The induced cell death differs from classical apoptosis because no DNA cleavage was observed. In addition, Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor, did not influence the observed cell death in HepG2 cells but appeared to be partly protective in A549 cells, indicating that heat-modified citrus pectin might induce caspase-independent cell death. An increase in the abundance of the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated Light Chain 3 (LC3) protein and a decrease in p62 protein abundance were observed in both cell types when incubated in the presence of heat-modified citrus pectin. These results indicate the activation of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first time that autophagy has been revealed in cells incubated in the presence of a modified form of pectin. This autophagy activation appears to be protective, at least for A549 cells, because its inhibition with 3-methyladenine increased the observed modified pectin-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms the potential of modified pectin to improve chemotherapeutic cancer treatments. PMID:25794149

  20. Identifying opportunities for nature engagement in cancer care practice and design: protocol for four-round modified electronic Delphi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Sarahg; O'Callaghan, Clare C; Schofield, Penelope

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Opportunities to engage with nature have shown relevance in experiences of health and recovery of patients with cancer and are attracting interest in cancer care practice and design. Such healthcare innovations can widen the horizon of possible supportive care solutions but require deliberate and rigorous investigation to ensure responsible action is taken and wastage avoided. This protocol outlines a study designed to solicit knowledge from relevant experts drawn from a range of healthcare practitioners, management representatives, designers and researchers to explore levels of opinion consensus for determining opportunities for, and barriers to, providing helpful nature engagement in cancer care settings. Methods and analysis A 4-round modified electronic Delphi methodology will be used to conduct a structured, iterative feedback process for querying and synthesising expert opinion. Round 1 administers an open-ended questionnaire to a panel of selected, relevant experts who will consider the own recommendations of patients with cancer for nature engagement (drawn from a preceding investigation) before contributing salient issues (items) with relevance to the topic. Round 2 circulates anonymised summaries of responses back to the experts who verify and, if they wish, reconsider their own responses. Rounds 3 and 4 determine and rank experts' top 10 items using a 10-point Likert-type scale. Descriptive statistics (median and mean scores) will be calculated to indicate the items' relative importance. Levels of consensus will be explored with consensus defined as 75% agreement. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was obtained from the Institution's Human Research Ethics Committee (blinded for review). It is anticipated that the results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented in a variety of forums. PMID:28274965

  1. INVESTIGATING EFFECTS OF AMINE BASED MODIFIER ON RECYCLED ASPHALT SHINGLES BLENDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of Amine based modifier on rheological characteristics of particle filled viscous medium such as asphalt binder in presence of Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS). In this study, virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22), three different percentages (20, 30 and 40%) of tear-off shingles and modifiers; Rediset, Evotherm and Bio-binder were used. The tear-off shingles acquired from local reroofing company in Greensboro, North Carolina; were finely ...

  2. polypropylene-modified kaolinite composites: effect of chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meziane O, Bensedira A, Guessoum M and Haddaoui N

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... Research Article ... variety of applications, including packaging, textiles, reusable containers of ..... C, with a residual mass around 5.5 %, which is .... [8] Frost R L, Kristof J, Horvath E, and Kloprogge J T. Effect of Water on the ...

  3. Reference field effect transistor based on chemically modified ISFETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skowronska-Ptasinska, Maria; Wal, van der Peter D.; Berg, van den Albert; Bergveld, Piet; Sudhölter, Ernst J.R.; Reinhoudt, David N.

    1990-01-01

    Different hydrophobic polymers were used for chemical modification of ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) in order to prepare a reference FET (REFET). Chemical attachment of the polymer to the ISFET gate results in a long lifetime of the device. Properties of polyacrylate (polyACE) REFET

  4. A novel class of mitochondria-targeted soft electrophiles modifies mitochondrial proteins and inhibits mitochondrial metabolism in breast cancer cells through redox mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K Vayalil

    Full Text Available Despite advances in screening and treatment over the past several years, breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. A major goal in breast cancer treatment is to develop safe and clinically useful therapeutic agents that will prevent the recurrence of breast cancers after front-line therapeutics have failed. Ideally, these agents would have relatively low toxicity against normal cells, and will specifically inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Our group and others have previously demonstrated that breast cancer cells exhibit increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption compared with non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. This suggests that it may be possible to deliver redox active compounds to the mitochondria to selectively inhibit cancer cell metabolism. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, a series of mitochondria-targeted soft electrophiles (MTSEs has been designed which selectively accumulate within the mitochondria of highly energetic breast cancer cells and modify mitochondrial proteins. A prototype MTSE, IBTP, significantly inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in decreased breast cancer cell proliferation, cell attachment, and migration in vitro. These results suggest MTSEs may represent a novel class of anti-cancer agents that prevent cancer cell growth by modification of specific mitochondrial proteins.

  5. Anti-epidermal or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor as first-line metastatic colorectal cancer in modified Glasgow prognostic score 2' patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dréanic, Johann; Dhooge, Marion; Barret, Maximilien; Brezault, Catherine; Mir, Olivier; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Background In metastatic colorectal cancer, the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) has been approved as an independent prognostic indicator of survival. No data existed on poor prognosis patients treated with molecular-targeted agents. Methods From January 2007 to February 2012, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and poor predictive survival score (mGPS = 2), treated with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in addition to an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or anti-vas...

  6. Is the effect of surface modifying molecules on antibacterial activity universal for a given material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Alexander; Liu, Fangzhou; Leung, Yu Hang; Ma, Angel P. Y.; Djurišić, Aleksandra B.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Chan, Wai Kin; Lee, Hung Kay

    2014-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of nanomaterials is strongly dependent on their properties, and their stability and toxicity can be varied using surface coatings. We investigated the effect of different surface modifying molecules on the antibacterial properties of two ZnO nanoparticle samples. We found that the starting surface properties of the nanoparticles have significant effects on the attachment of the surface modifying molecules and consequent antibacterial activity. Two out of five investigated surface modifying molecules not only had a significant difference in the magnitude of their effect on different nanoparticles, but also resulted in the opposite effects on two ZnO nanoparticle samples (an enhancement of antibacterial activity for one and a reduction of antibacterial activity for the other ZnO sample). This indicates that no general rule on the effect of a specific molecule on the toxicity of a metal oxide nanoparticle can be derived without knowing the nanoparticle properties, due to the fact that surface modifier attachment onto the surface is affected by the initial surface properties.Antibacterial activity of nanomaterials is strongly dependent on their properties, and their stability and toxicity can be varied using surface coatings. We investigated the effect of different surface modifying molecules on the antibacterial properties of two ZnO nanoparticle samples. We found that the starting surface properties of the nanoparticles have significant effects on the attachment of the surface modifying molecules and consequent antibacterial activity. Two out of five investigated surface modifying molecules not only had a significant difference in the magnitude of their effect on different nanoparticles, but also resulted in the opposite effects on two ZnO nanoparticle samples (an enhancement of antibacterial activity for one and a reduction of antibacterial activity for the other ZnO sample). This indicates that no general rule on the effect of a specific

  7. Effects on electrochemical performances for host material caused by structure change of modifying material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yantao; Zhou, Enlou; Song, Dawei; Shi, Xixi; Wang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Jian; Zhang, Lianqi

    2014-09-01

    High ionic conductive lithium niobium oxides were selected as the modifying material to investigate the effects on the electrochemical performances for host material LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 caused by the structure change of the modifying material at various calcination temperatures and modifying amounts. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the structure of the modifying material was single LiNbO3 phase after being calcined at 500 °C and changed to LiNbO3-Li3NbO4 mixture phases at 600 and 700 °C, and further changed to single Li3NbO4 phase at 800 °C. Electrochemical tests displayed that both LiNbO3 and Li3NbO4 phases of modifying material could contribute to the improvement of the cycle performances for the host material, but the improvement degree of Li3NbO4 phase was more evident. The cycle performances and high rate performances of the modified host material (calcined at 700 °C) electrodes were improved with the right modifying amount.

  8. Modifiable risk factors and survival in women diagnosed with primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy, and physical activity on all-cause mortality among 528 Danish women diagnosed with primary breast cancer. Participants were women enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Prospective...... self-reported exposure information was collected from four points of follow-up in 1976-1978, 1981-1983, 1991-1994, and 2001-2003. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, disease stage, adjuvant treatment, menopausal status, parity, alcohol.......11-2.99) were significantly associated with decreased survival after breast cancer diagnosis. A moderate alcohol intake of 1-6 units/week (0.85; 0.64-1.12), 7-14 units/week (0.77; 0.56-1.08), and treatment with hormone replacement therapy (0.79; 0.59-1.05) were less than 1, but not statistically significantly...

  9. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuyper, L

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of modified atmosphere packaging in combination with the addition of calcium hypochlorite on the atmosphere composition, colour and microbial quality of mushrooms was investigated. A modified atmosphere which slowed down discolouration...

  10. Short-Term Aging Effect on Properties of Sustainable Pavement Asphalts Modified by Waste Rubber and Diatomite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanbing Liu; Liuxu Fu; Yubo Jiao; Jinglin Tao; Xianqiang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Waste utilization has gained more and more interest. In this study, crumb rubber and diatomite were used to modify asphalt binder and the short-term aging effects on the properties of modified asphalts were evaluated...

  11. A modified hTERT promoter-directed oncolytic adenovirus replication with concurrent inhibition of TGFbeta signaling for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z; Robbins, J S; Pister, A; Zafar, M B; Zhang, Z-W; Gupta, J; Lee, K J; Newman, K; Neuman, K; Yun, C-O; Guise, T; Seth, P

    2010-04-01

    We were interested in developing oncolytic adenoviral vectors that can be administered systemically for the treatment of breast cancer. To restrict viral replication in breast tumor cells, we constructed mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc, a 01/07-based adenoviral vector expressing the soluble form of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) receptor II fused with the human Fc IgG1 (sTGFbetaRIIFc) gene, in which viral replication is under the control of a modified human telomerase reverse transcriptase (mhTERT) promoter. In addition, mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc-mediated sTGFbetaRIIFc production targets the TGFbeta pathway known to contribute to the tumor progression of breast cancer metastasis. We chose to use the mhTERT promoter because it was found to be relatively more active (approximately 20 times) in breast cancer cells compared with normal human cells. We showed that infection of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells for 48 h with mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc produced high levels of sTGFbetaRIIFc (greater than 1 microg ml(-1)) in the medium. Breast cancer cells produced nearly a 6000-fold increase in viral titers during the 48 h infection period. However, mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc replication was attenuated in normal cells. Infection of breast cancer cells with a replication-deficient virus Ad(E1(-)).sTbetaRFc also produced high levels of sTGFbetaRIIFc, but under these conditions, no detectable viral replication was observed. Adenoviral-mediated production of sTGFbetaRIIFc was shown to bind with TGFbeta-1, and to abolish the effects of TGFbeta-1 on downstream SMAD-3 phosphorylation. The administration of mhTERTAd.sTbetaRFc intravenously into MDA-MB-231 human xenograft-bearing mice resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth and production of sTGFbetaRIIFc in the blood. Conversely, intravenous injection of Ad(E1(-)).sTbetaRFc did not show a significant inhibition of tumor growth, but resulted in sTGFbetaRIIFc in the blood, suggesting that viral replication along with s

  12. A modified hTERT Promoter-directed Oncolytic Adenovirus Replication with Concurrent Inhibition of TGFβ Signaling for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zebin; Robbins, John S.; Pister, Amanda; Zafar, M. Behzad; Zhang, Zhen-Wei; Gupta, Janhavi; Lee, K. Jessica; Neuman, Kam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Guise, Theresa; Seth, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Our laboratory is interested to develop oncolytic adenoviral vectors that can be administered systemically for the treatment of breast cancer. To restrict viral replication in breast tumor cells, we have constructed mhTERTAd.sTβRFc, a 01/07 based adenoviral vector expressing the soluble form of TGFβ receptor II fused with human Fc IgG1 (sTGFβRIIFc) gene, in which viral replication is under the control of modified human telomerase reverse transcriptase (mhTERT) promoter. In addition, mhTERTAd.sTβRFc-mediated sTGFβRIIFc production would target growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway known to contribute to the tumor progression breast cancer metastasis. We chose to use mhTERT promoter because it was found to be relatively more active (approximately 20-times) in breast cancer cells compared to normal human cells. We showed that infection of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells for 48 hrs with mhTERTAd.sTβRFc produced high levels of sTGFβRIIFc (greater than 1 μg/ml) in the medium. Breast cancer cells produced nearly 6,000-fold increase in the viral titers during 48 hrs infection period. However, mhTERTAd.sTβRFc replication was attenuated in normal cells. Infection of breast cancer cells with a replication deficient virus Ad(E1-).sTβRFc also produced high levels of sTGFβRIIFc, but under these conditions no detectable viral replication was observed. Adenoviral-mediated production of sTGFβRIIFc was shown to bind with TGFβ-1, and abolished the effects of TGFβ-1 on downstream SMAD-3 phosphorylation. The administration of mhTERTAd.sTβRFc intravenously into MDA-MB-231 human xenograft bearing mice resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth, and production of sTGFβRIIFc in the blood. On the other hand, intravenous injection of Ad(E1-).sTβRFc did not exhibit significant inhibition of the tumor growth, but resulted in the sTGFβRIIFc in the blood, suggesting that viral replication along with sTGFβRIIFc protein production play a critical role in inducing

  13. Effect of NS-398 on colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qing Jia; Ning Zhong; Li-Hui Han; Jing-Hua Wang; Ming Yan; Fan-Li Meng; Shang-Zhong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of NS-398, a selective cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on invasion of colon cancer cell line HT-29 in vitro and to explore its mechanisms.METHODS: Invasive behaviors of the malignant colon cancer cell line HT-29 were investigated in this study.Expressions of COX-2 and CD44v6 in HT-29 cells were detected by flow cytometry. Cellular survival rate was determined by MTT assay. The invasive capacity was quantified by a modified Boyden chamber model. Alterations of cytoskeleton component F-actin were observed by confocal laser scanning microscope.RESULTS: Flow cytometry analysis showed that COX-2was highly expressed in HT-29 cells. The invasive capability of HT-29 cells could be greatly inhibited by NS-398 at the experimental concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μmol/L with an inhibitory rate of 22.74%, 42.35% and 58.61% (P<0.01),respectively. MTT assay showed that NS-398 at the experimental concentrations had no significant influence on cellular viability, indicating that such anti-invasive effects had no relationship with cytotoxicity. F-actin was mainly distributed around nuclei forming annular structure in HT-29cells. After exposure to NS-398 of 10 μmol/L, the annular structure around nuclei disappeared and the fluorescence intensity of F-actin decreased obviously. Treatment with NS-398 could down-regulate the expression of CD44v6 as well.CONCLUSION: NS-398 has anti-invasive effects on colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro, which may be mediated by a novel mechanism of disruption of cytoskeleton. Downregulation of CD44v6 expression may be related to alterations of cytoskeleton.

  14. Does modifying personal responsibility moderate the mental contamination effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tinisha S; Simonds, Laura M

    2017-12-01

    Mental contamination is the psychological sense of internal dirtiness that arises in the absence of physical contact with a perceived contaminant. Mental contamination can be evoked through imagining perpetrating a moral transgression. This study experimentally evoked mental contamination by asking men to imagine perpetrating a non-consensual kiss. It explored whether reducing sense of personal responsibility for the kiss moderated the mental contamination effect. Male students (N = 60) imagined giving either a consensual or non-consensual kiss. Personal responsibility for the kiss was manipulated in one of two non-consensual kiss conditions by way of the inclusion of social influence information. Feelings of mental contamination were assessed by self-report and through a behavioural index. Mental contamination was successfully induced in the two non-consensual kiss conditions. There was evidence to support the hypothesis that reducing personal responsibility might moderate specific components of mental contamination (shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse). The effect of responsibility modification was evident in the self-report measures, but not in the behavioural index. The sample comprised male university students which limits generalizability of the findings. The behavioural assessment of mental contamination was limited to a proxy measure. Imagined moral violations are associated with increases in indices of mental contamination. Further research should investigate whether feelings of shame, dirtiness and urge to cleanse are particularly responsive to responsibility modifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of standard and modified gravity on interplanetary ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigate the impact on the two-body range by several Newtonian and non-Newtonian dynamical effects for some Earth-planet pairs in view of the expected cm-level accuracy in future planned or proposed interplanetary ranging operations. The general relativistic gravitomagnetic Lense-Thirring effect should be modeled and solved-for in future, accurate ranging tests of Newtonian and post-Newtonian gravity because it falls within their measurability domain. It could a-priori "imprint" the determination of some of the target parameters of the tests considered. Moreover, the ring of the minor asteroids, Ceres, Pallas, Vesta and the Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) act as sources of non-negligible systematic uncertainty on the larger gravitoelectric post-Newtonian signals from which it is intended to determine the parameters \\gamma and \\beta of the Parameterized Post Newtonian (PPN) formalism with very high precision (orders of magnitude better than the current 10^-4-10^-5 levels). Also other putative,...

  16. Effect of citalopram in the modified forced swim test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuśmider, Maciej; Solich, Joanna; Pałach, Paulina; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of citalopram (7.5 and 15 mg/kg) in the modified forced swim test (FST) in Wistar rats, in comparison to the effect of desipramine at the same doses. The citalopram at both doses increased swimming behavior, at the cost of climbing and immobility. The administration of desipramine increased climbing behavior while immobility counts were decreased. The modified FST is indeed more sensitive than the conventional FST in describing precisely the behavioral effects of antidepressant drugs, allowing to roughly estimate the contribution of individual neurotransmitter system to the mechanism of action of the studied drug.

  17. Evaluation of a Modified Italian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire for Individuals with Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Teresa; Roncoroni, Leda; Lombardo, Vincenza; Tomba, Carolina; Elli, Luca; Sieri, Sabina; Grioni, Sara; Bardella, Maria T; Agostoni, Carlo; Doneda, Luisa; Brighenti, Furio; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2016-11-01

    To date, it is unclear whether individuals with celiac disease following a gluten-free (GF) diet for several years have adequate intake of all recommended nutrients. Lack of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for individuals with celiac disease could be partly responsible for this still-debated issue. The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of a modified European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) FFQ in estimating nutrient and food intake in a celiac population. In a cross-sectional study, the dietary habits of individuals with celiac disease were reported using a modified Italian EPIC FFQ and were compared to a 7-day weighed food record as a reference method. A total of 200 individuals with histologically confirmed celiac disease were enrolled in the study between October 2012 and August 2014 at the Center for Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease (Milan, Italy). Nutrient and food category intake were calculated by 7-day weighed food record using an Italian food database integrated with the nutrient composition of 60 GF foods and the modified EPIC FFQ, in which 24 foods were substituted with GF foods comparable for energy and carbohydrate content. An evaluation of the modified FFQ compared to 7-day weighed food record in assessing the reported intake of nutrient and food groups was conducted using Spearman's correlation coefficients and weighted κ. One hundred individuals completed the study. The Spearman's correlation coefficients of FFQ and 7-day weighed food record ranged from .13 to .73 for nutrients and from .23 to .75 for food groups. A moderate agreement, which was defined as a weighted κ value of .40 to .60, was obtained for 30% of the analyzed nutrients, and 40% of the nutrients showed values between .30 and .40. The weighted κ exceeded .40 for 60% of the 15 analyzed food groups. The modified EPIC FFQ demonstrated moderate congruence with a weighed food record in ranking individuals by dietary intakes

  18. Coffee Polyphenols Change the Expression of STAT5B and ATF-2 Modifying Cyclin D1 Levels in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Oleaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of its chemopreventive effects remain unknown. Objective. To identify differentially expressed genes upon incubation of HT29 colon cancer cells with instant caffeinated coffee (ICC or caffeic acid (CA using whole-genome microarrays. Results. ICC incubation of HT29 cells caused the overexpression of 57 genes and the underexpression of 161, while CA incubation induced the overexpression of 12 genes and the underexpression of 32. Using Venn-Diagrams, we built a list of five overexpressed genes and twelve underexpressed genes in common between the two experimental conditions. This list was used to generate a biological association network in which STAT5B and ATF-2 appeared as highly interconnected nodes. STAT5B overexpression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. For ATF-2, the changes in mRNA levels were confirmed for both ICC and CA, whereas the decrease in protein levels was only observed in CA-treated cells. The levels of cyclin D1, a target gene for both STAT5B and ATF-2, were downregulated by CA in colon cancer cells and by ICC and CA in breast cancer cells. Conclusions. Coffee polyphenols are able to affect cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells through the modulation of STAT5B and ATF-2.

  19. Coffee polyphenols change the expression of STAT5B and ATF-2 modifying cyclin D1 levels in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J; Noé, Véronique; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of its chemopreventive effects remain unknown. To identify differentially expressed genes upon incubation of HT29 colon cancer cells with instant caffeinated coffee (ICC) or caffeic acid (CA) using whole-genome microarrays. ICC incubation of HT29 cells caused the overexpression of 57 genes and the underexpression of 161, while CA incubation induced the overexpression of 12 genes and the underexpression of 32. Using Venn-Diagrams, we built a list of five overexpressed genes and twelve underexpressed genes in common between the two experimental conditions. This list was used to generate a biological association network in which STAT5B and ATF-2 appeared as highly interconnected nodes. STAT5B overexpression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. For ATF-2, the changes in mRNA levels were confirmed for both ICC and CA, whereas the decrease in protein levels was only observed in CA-treated cells. The levels of cyclin D1, a target gene for both STAT5B and ATF-2, were downregulated by CA in colon cancer cells and by ICC and CA in breast cancer cells. Coffee polyphenols are able to affect cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells through the modulation of STAT5B and ATF-2.

  20. Mechanistic Effects of Calcitriol in Cancer Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides its classical biological effects on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, has a broad variety of actions including anticancer effects that are mediated either transcriptionally and/or via non-genomic pathways. In the context of cancer, calcitriol regulates the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, promotes cell differentiation and acts as anti-inflammatory factor within the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we address the different mechanisms of action involved in the antineoplastic effects of calcitriol.

  1. Thermoradiotheraphy of cancer: an effective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard C. van Rhoon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia (HT means using controlled temperatures of 40-45°C for cancer treatment. HT is applied with differentmethods e.g. superficial-HT, locoregional deep-HT, interstitial-HT, intracavity-HT, and whole body-HT. HT can apply indifferent tumor sites such as breast cancer, melanoma, head and neck, cervix cancer, and glioblastoma. The Literature suggests that addition of HT to radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or both, will result better tumor response rate, local control, and survival rate; without increasing toxicity. HT can also improve palliative effects in patient. In recent years, due to substantial technical improvements made in achieving selected increaseof temperatures in superficial and deep-seated tumors,thermometry, and treatment planning; HT is becoming moreclinically accepted in Europe and the USA. HT, as an adjunctcancer treatment modality, is certainly a promising approach;however, it is not well known yet worldwide. Therefore, itseems there is need to know more about that. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the application of HT combined with conventional cancer treatment modalities,mainly radiotherapy. The article also introduces mechanism of HT, heating delivery modes, thermometry, and it summarizes results of randomized trials from Western research groups.

  2. Synthesis of Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Modified Chitosan 5-Fluorouracil Nanoparticles and Its Inhibition of Liver Cancer Characteristics in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle drug delivery (NDDS is a novel system in which the drugs are delivered to the site of action by small particles in the nanometer range. Natural or synthetic polymers are used as vectors in NDDS, as they provide targeted, sustained release and biodegradability. Here, we used the chitosan and hepatoma cell-specific binding molecule, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA, to synthesize glycyrrhetinic acid-modified chitosan (GA-CTS. The synthetic product was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR. By combining GA-CTS and 5-FU (5-fluorouracil, we obtained a GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle, with a particle size of 217.2 nm, a drug loading of 1.56% and a polydispersity index of 0.003. The GA-CTS/5-FU nanoparticle provided a sustained release system comprising three distinct phases of quick, steady and slow release. We demonstrated that the nanoparticle accumulated in the liver. In vitro data indicated that it had a dose- and time-dependent anti-cancer effect. The effective drug exposure time against hepatic cancer cells was increased in comparison with that observed with 5-FU. Additionally, GA-CTS/5-FU significantly inhibited the growth of drug-resistant hepatoma, which may compensate for the drug-resistance of 5-FU. In vivo studies on an orthotropic liver cancer mouse model demonstrated that GA-CTS/5-FU significantly inhibited tumor growth, resulting in increased survival time.

  3. Morphological Effect of Non-targeted Biomolecule-Modified MNPs on Reticuloendothelial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Cheng, Dengfeng; Xiu, Yan; Shi, Hongcheng

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with special morphology were commonly used as biomaterials, while morphological effects of non-targeted biomolecule-modified MNPs on biological behaviors were still unclear. In this research, spherical and rod-like Fe3O4 in a comparable size were synthesized and then surface-modified by bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model of non-targeted biomolecule-modified MNPs. Morphological effects were featured by TEM and quantification of in vitro phagocytic uptake, as well as the in vivo quantification of particles in reticuloendothelial system (RES)-related organs of normal Kunming mice. For these non-targeted BSA-modified MNPs, intracellular distributions were the same, but the rod-like MNPs were more likely to be uptake by macrophages; furthermore, the BSA-modified MNPs gathered in RES-related organs soon after intravenous injection, but the rod-like ones were expelled from the lung more quickly and expelled from the spleen more slowly. These preliminary results may be referable if MNPs or other similar biomolecule-modified nanoparticles were used.

  4. Effects of Diatomite and SBS on Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt mixture is susceptible to moisture damage under the effect of freeze-thaw (F-T cycles. In this paper, crumb rubber (CR was used to modify stone mastic asphalt (SMA and the effects of diatomite and styrene butadiene styrene (SBS on antifreezing performances of crumb rubber modified SMA (CRSMA were investigated. Regression analysis and modified grey model (MGM were used to construct the prediction models for properties of modified mixtures. CRSMA, CR and diatomite modified SMA (CRDSMA, and CR and SBS modified SMA (CRSSMA were prepared in laboratory, respectively. Process of F-T cycles was designed. Air void, indirect tensile strength (ITS, and indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM were measured to evaluate the antifreezing performances of CRSMA, CRDSMA, and CRSSMA. Results indicate that air voids increase with the increasing of F-T cycles. ITS and ITSM all decrease with the increasing of F-T cycles. The addition of diatomite and SBS can reduce the air void and improve the ITS and ITSM of CRSMA. CRSSMA presents the lowest air void, highest tensile strength, and largest stiffness modulus, which reveals that CRSSMA has the best F-T resistance among three different kinds of mixtures. Moreover, MGM (1, 2 models present more favorable accuracy in prediction of air void and ITS compared with regression ones.

  5. A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor–negative breast cancer in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; McGuffog, Lesley; Tarrell, Robert; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Morrison, Jonathan; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Lesnick, Timothy; Ghoussaini, Maya; Barrowdale, Daniel; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagnosis over age 35. We took forward 96 SNPs for replication in another 5,986 BRCA1 carriers (2,974 individuals with breast cancer and 3,012 unaffected individuals). Five SNPs on 19p13 were associated wi...

  6. Antioxidative effect of folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari; Prasad; Chakraborty; Santanu; Kar; Mahapatra; Sumanta; Kumar; Sahu; Panchanan; Pramanik; Somenath; Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potency of carboxymethyl chitosan-2,2’ ethylenedioxy bisethylamine-folate(CMC-EDBE-FA) on tissue injury,antioxidant status and glutathione system in tissue mitochondria and serum against nicotine-induced oxidative stress in mice.Methods: CMC-EDBE-FA was prepared on basis of carboxymethyl chitosan tagged with folic acid by covalently linkage through 2,2’ ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine.Animals were divided into four groups,i.e.,control,nicotine(1 mg/kg bw/day),CMC-EDBE-FA(1 mg/kg bw/day) and nicotine(1 mg/kg bw/day) and CMC-EDBE-FA(1 mg/kg bw/day) for 7 days.Levels of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione level,antioxidant enzyme status and DNA damage were observed and compared.Results:The significantly increase of lipid peroxidation,oxidized glutathione levels and DNA damage was observed in nicotine treated group as compared with control group;those were significantly reduced in CMC-EDBE-FA supplemented group.Moreover,significantly reduced antioxidant status in nicotine treated group was effectively ameliorated by the supplementation of CMC-EDBE-FA.Only CMC-EDBE-FA treated groups showed no significant change as compared with control group;rather than it repairs the tissue damage of nicotine treated group.Conclusions:These findings suggest that CMC-EDBE-FA is non-toxic and ameliorates nicotine-induced toxicity.

  7. Antioxidative effect of folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty; Santanu Kar Mahapatra; Sumanta Kumar Sahu; Panchanan Pramanik; Somenath Roy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potency of carboxymethyl chitosan-2, 2’ ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine-folate (CMC-EDBE-FA) on tissue injury, antioxidant status and glutathione system in tissue mitochondria and serum against nicotine-induced oxidative stress in mice. Methods:CMC-EDBE-FA was prepared on basis of carboxymethyl chitosan tagged with folic acid by covalently linkage through 2, 2’ ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine. Animals were divided into four groups, i.e., control, nicotine (1 mg/kg bw/day), CMC-EDBE-FA (1 mg/kg bw/day) and nicotine (1 mg/kg bw/day) and CMC-EDBE-FA (1 mg/kg bw/day) for 7 days. Levels of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione level, antioxidant enzyme status and DNA damage were observed and compared. Results: The significantly increase of lipid peroxidation, oxidized glutathione levels and DNA damage was observed in nicotine treated group as compared with control group; those were significantly reduced in CMC-EDBE-FA supplemented group. Moreover, significantly reduced antioxidant status in nicotine treated group was effectively ameliorated by the supplementation of CMC-EDBE-FA. Only CMC-EDBE-FA treated groups showed no significant change as compared with control group; rather than it repairs the tissue damage of nicotine treated group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CMC-EDBE-FA is non-toxic and ameliorates nicotine-induced toxicity.

  8. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162473.html Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery ... 9, 2016 FRIDAY, Dec. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Strength training might benefit breast cancer survivors who've undergone ...

  9. Evaluation of effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from indoor and outdoor gamma dose rate of university of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, ... In addition, the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) calculated for indoor exposure ranges ...

  10. Assessing the treatment effects in apraxia of speech : introduction and evaluation of the Modified Diadochokinesis Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, Joost; Jonkers, Roel; Boonstra, Anne M.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The number of reliable and valid instruments to measure the effects of therapy in apraxia of speech (AoS) is limited. Aims: To evaluate the newly developed Modified Diadochokinesis Test (MDT), which is a task to assess the effects of rate and rhythm therapies for AoS in a multiple

  11. HIGHLY EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL MODIFIERS FOR PRODUCTION OF CONCRETES WITH PRE-SET PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya Vladimirovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the application of industrial by-products and recycled materials. Waterproofing admixtures improve the structure and the properties of the cement stone. Development and preparation of highly effective waterproofing modifiers of durable effect, as well as development of the process procedure parameters, including mixing, activation, heat treatment, etc. are to be implemented. The composition of waterproofing modifiers is to be fine-tuned to synergize the behaviour of various ingredients of cement systems to assure the substantial improvement of their strength, freeze- and corrosion resistance. Multi-functional waterproofing admixtures were used to produce highly effective modified concretes. The key idea of the new method of modifying cement-based building materials is that the waterproofing admixture concentration is to exceed 10% of the weight of the binding agent within the per-unit weight of the cement stone, given that its strength does not deteriorate. GKM-type modifier coupled with organo-mineral waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M may be recommended for mass use in the manufacturing of hydraulic concrete and reinforced concrete products. Overview of their practical implementation has proven that waterproofing modifier GKM-S, if coupled with waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M, improves the corrosion control inside the cement stone and makes it possible to manufacture durable concrete and reinforced concrete products that demonstrate pre-set physical and processing behaviour. Comprehensive concrete modification by modifier GKM-S and waterproofing admixture concentration agent GT-M may be regarded as one of the most ambitious methods of production of highly effective waterproof concretes.

  12. Selective effects of a fiber chimeric conditionally replicative adenovirus armed with hep27 gene on renal cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Wenshun; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Liantao; Liu, Junjie; Zheng, Junnian

    2016-06-02

    ASBTARCT Adenoviruses mediated cancer gene therapies are widely investigated and show a promising effect on cancer treatment. However, efficient gene transfer varies among different cancer cell lines based on the expression of coxsakie adenovirus receptor (CAR). Hep27, a member of dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, can bind to Mdm2, resulting in the attenuation of Mdm2-mediated p53 degradation. Here we constructed a fiber chimeric adenovirus carrying hep27 gene (F5/35-ZD55-Hep27), in which the fiber protein of 5-serotype adenovirus (Ad5) was substituted by that of 35-serotype adenovirus (Ad35), aiming to facilitate the infection for renal cancer cells and develop the role of hep27 in cancer therapy. We evaluated the CAR and CD46 (a membrane cofactor protein for Ad35) expression in four kinds of renal cancer cells and assessed the relationship between receptors and infection efficiency. 5/35 fiber-modified adenovirus had a much promising infectivity compared with Ad5-based vector in renal cancer cells. F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 had enhanced antitumor activity against human renal cancer cells compared to the other groups. Further, hep27 mediated p53 and cleaved-PARP upregulation and mdm2 downregulation was involved and caused increased apoptosis. Moreover, F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 significantly suppressed tumor growth in subcutaneous renal cancer cell xenograft models. Our data demonstrated that 5/35 fiber-modified adenovirus F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 transferred into renal cancers efficiently and increased p53 to induce cancer cell apoptosis. Thus 5/35 fiber-modified adenoviral vector F5/35-ZD55-Hep27 might a promising vector and antitumor reagent for renal cancer gene therapy.

  13. New Strategies in Engineering T-cell Receptor Gene-Modified T cells to More Effectively Target Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas M; Stromnes, Ingunn M; Chapuis, Aude G; Greenberg, Philip D

    2015-12-01

    The immune system, T cells in particular, have the ability to target and destroy malignant cells. However, antitumor immune responses induced from the endogenous T-cell repertoire are often insufficient for the eradication of established tumors, as illustrated by the failure of cancer vaccination strategies or checkpoint blockade for most tumors. Genetic modification of T cells to express a defined T-cell receptor (TCR) can provide the means to rapidly generate large numbers of tumor-reactive T cells capable of targeting tumor cells in vivo. However, cell-intrinsic factors as well as immunosuppressive factors in the tumor microenvironment can limit the function of such gene-modified T cells. New strategies currently being developed are refining and enhancing this approach, resulting in cellular therapies that more effectively target tumors and that are less susceptible to tumor immune evasion.

  14. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia; Zhang, Yu Zhi; Minamidate, Ai; Caley, Matthew P; McCarthy, Afshan; Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine T; Gaughan, Luke; Darby, Steven; Robson, Craig; Mauri, Francesco; Waxman, Jonathan; Sturge, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major components, collagen IV and laminin. We used this model to demonstrate that antibody targeted blockade of CTLD2, the second of eight C-type lectin-like domains in Endo180 (CD280, CLEC13E, KIAA0709, MRC2, TEM9, uPARAP) that can recognize glycosylated collagens, reversed actinomyosin-based contractility [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE-modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180(Δ) (Ex2-6/) (Δ) (Ex2-6) mice, with constitutively exposed CTLD2 and decreased survival of men with early (non-invasive) prostate cancer with high epithelial Endo180 expression and levels of AGE. These findings indicate that AGE-dependent modification of the basal lamina induces invasive behaviour in non-transformed PECs via a molecular mechanism linked to cancer progression. This study provides a rationale for targeting CTLD2 in Endo180 in prostate cancer and other pathologies in which increased basal lamina thickness and tissue stiffness are driving factors. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons

  15. Effect of type and loading of surface-modifying agent on mechanical properties of modified geothermal scale powder/stereolithography polymer composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilendo, A. C.; Pajarito, B. B.

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of stearic acid (SA), glycerol monostearate (GMS) and 3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TSPM) at varied loadings on the hardness and flexural properties of modified geothermal scale powder (GSP)/stereolithography (SLA) polymer composite. TSPM-modified GSP/SLA composite has the highest value of hardness due to increased filler dispersion and crystallinity. Hardness of GSP/SLA composite increases with loading of surface-modifying agent due to increase filler dispersion. Pronounced effect of surface modification to flexural modulus is observed. While low loading of SA and GMS leads to reduction of flexural modulus, increasing loading enhances the said property. Further increase of SA deteriorates the property. TSPM-modified GSP enhances the modulus due to increased crystalline phase of the system owing to TSPM copolymerization. Likewise, addition of SA and GMS increases flexural strength due to efficient reduction of filler agglomerates. However, unreacted TSPM produces weak interfaces and poor adhesion between GSP and SLA matrix.

  16. Efficient CD44-targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of breast cancer cells using hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified MnFe2O4 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taeksu; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jaemin; Kang, Byunghoon; Choi, Jihye; Park, Hyo Seon; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2013-04-01

    Targeted molecular imaging with hyaluronic acid (HA) has been highlighted in the diagnosis and treatment of CD44-overexpressing cancer. CD44, a receptor for HA, is closely related to the growth of cancer including proliferation, metastasis, invasion, and angiogenesis. For the efficient detection of CD44, we fabricated a few kinds of HA-modified MnFe2O4 nanocrystals (MNCs) to serve as specific magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents (HA-MRCAs) and compared physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, and the CD44 targeting efficiency. Hydrophobic MNCs were efficiently phase-transferred using aminated polysorbate 80 (P80) synthesized by introducing spermine molecules on the hydroxyl groups of P80. Subsequently, a few kinds of HA-MRCAs were fabricated, conjugating different ratios of HA on the equal amount of phase-transferred MNCs. The optimized conjugation ratio of HA against magnetic content was identified to exhibit not only effective CD44 finding ability but also high cell viability through in vitro experiments. The results of this study demonstrate that the suggested HA-MRCA shows strong potential to be used for accurate tumor diagnosis.

  17. pH-Sensitive Delivery Vehicle Based on Folic Acid-Conjugated Polydopamine-Modified Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles for Targeted Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Nie, Junpeng; Xu, Lv; Liang, Chaoyu; Peng, Yunmei; Liu, Gan; Wang, Teng; Mei, Lin; Huang, Laiqiang; Zeng, Xiaowei

    2017-06-07

    In this study, we introduced a targeting polymer poly(ethylene glycol)-folic acid (PEG-FA) on the surface of polydopamine (PDA)-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) to develop the novel nanoparticles (NPs) MSNs@PDA-PEG-FA, which were employed as a drug delivery system loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug for cervical cancer therapy. The chemical structure and properties of these NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N2 adsorption/desorption, dynamic light scattering-autosizer, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The pH-sensitive PDA coating served as a gatekeeper. The in vitro drug release experiments showed pH-dependent and sustained drug release profiles that could enhance the therapeutic anticancer effect and minimize potential damage to normal cells due to the acidic microenvironment of the tumor. These MSNs@PDA-PEG-FA achieved significantly high targeting efficiency, which was demonstrated by the in vitro cellular uptake and cellular targeting assay. Compared with that of free DOX and DOX-loaded NPs without the folic targeting ligand, the FA-targeted NPs exhibited higher antitumor efficacy in vivo, implying that they are a highly promising potential carrier for cancer treatments.

  18. Do psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarsbech, Pernille U.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Rikke Voss;

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate whether work unit-levels of psychosocial working conditions modify the effect of depressive symptoms on risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: A total of 5,416 Danish female eldercare workers from 309 work units were surveyed...... using questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and psychosocial working conditions. LTSA was derived from a national register. We aggregated scores of psychosocial working conditions to the work unit-level and conducted multi-level Poisson regression analyses. Results: Depressive symptoms......, but not psychosocial working conditions, predicted LTSA. Psychosocial working conditions did not statistically significantly modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. Conclusions: Psychosocial working conditions did not modify the effect of depressive symptoms on LTSA. The results, however, need...

  19. The Significance of PSA Modified Parameters (F/T)/PSAD for Diagnosing Prostatic Cancer in the Grey Zone of 4~10 ng/ml

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the diagnostic value of modified prostate specific antigen (PSA) parameters in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCA)when the serum PSA is in a grey zone of 4~10 ng/ml.METHODS The results of serum PSA determinations of the patients receiving a transrectal ultrasound- guided multiphase prostatic biopsy, were retrospectively analyzed. In the 88 patients with a serum PSA value of 4-10 ng/ml, the final diagnosis of PCA was made in 21, and that of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in 67 patients. The percentage of the free-serum PSA ([FPSA]/total-serum PSA [TPSA], F/T), PSA density (PSAD) and the sensitivity and specificity of the new PSA modified parameter (F/T)/PSAD in diagnosing PCA, within a set threshold value, was compared.RESULTS In the 88 patients with serum PSA in the grey zone of 4.0-10.0 ng/ml, there was no significant difference in comparing the TPSA between the 21 PCA patients and 67 BPH patients (P>0.05). However,there was a significant difference in the value of modified PSA parameters,such as F/T, PSAD and (F/T)/PSAD, between the PCA and the BPH groups (P<0.001). As the cut off point-value of the F/T, PSAD and (F/T)/PSAD was set at 0.16, 0.15 and 0.8, the diagnostic sensitivity for PCA was 66.7%,76.2% and 85.7%, and the specificity was 41.8%, 43.3% and 68.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity comparing the modified parameters for diagnosing PCA (P>0.05), whereas an overt predominance was present in the specificity of (F/T)/PSAD for PCA diagnosis (P<0.05).CONCLUSION In the serum PSA grey zone of 4-10 ng/ml, a modified PSA parameter can improve the PCA diagnostic accuracy rate. With a considerably high sensitivity, application of the (F/T)/PSAD may effectively enhance the diagnostic specificity, which is superior to the F/T and PSAD,and can be expected to be one of the new indices derived from the PSA.

  20. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Ake; Karlsson, Per; Askmalm, Marie Stenmark; Bustinza, Gisela Barbany; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J. J. P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, Francois; de Paillerets, Brigitte Bressac; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Basil, Jack B.; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly in

  1. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...

  2. Clinical correlative study on early detection of oral cancer and precancerous lesions by modified oral brush biopsy and cytology followed by histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that modified oral brush biopsy has higher efficacy than routine cytology and can be used as a potentially practical oral cancer screening tool in resource challenged settings. However, clinical judgment is of prime importance. Immediate biopsy is mandatory in highly suspicious lesions proposed under the diagnostic criteria of "clinically diagnosed carcinoma in situ".

  3. Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded polydopamine-modified TPGS-PLA nanoparticles as a targeted drug delivery system for the treatment of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dunwan; Tao, Wei; Zhang, Hongling; Liu, Gan; Wang, Teng; Zhang, Linhua; Zeng, Xiaowei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine-based surface modification is a simple way to functionalize polymeric nanoparticle (NP) surfaces with ligands and/or additional polymeric layers. In this work, we developed DTX-loaded formulations using polydopamine-modified NPs synthesized using D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-poly(lactide) (pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs). To target liver cancer cells, galactosamine was conjugated on the prepared NPs (Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs) to enhance the delivery of DTX via ligand-mediated endocytosis. The size and morphology of pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs and Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs changed obviously compared with TPGS-PLA/NPs. In vitro studies showed that TPGS-PLA/NPs, pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs and Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs had similar release profiles of DTX. Both confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometric results showed that coumarin 6-loaded Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs had the highest cellular uptake efficiency in liver cancer cell line HepG2. Moreover, DTX-loaded Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells more potently than TPGS-PLA/NPs, pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs, and a clinically available DTX formulation (Taxotere®). The in vivo biodistribution experiments show that the Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs are specifically targeted to the tumor. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-tumor effects study showed that injecting DTX-loaded Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs reduced the tumor size most significantly on hepatoma-bearing nude mice. These results suggest that Gal-pD-TPGS-PLA/NPs prepared in the study specifically interacted with the hepatocellular carcinoma cells through ligand-receptor recognition and they may be used as a potentially eligible drug delivery system targeting liver cancers. Polydopamine-based surface modification is a simple way to functionalize polymeric nanoparticle surfaces with ligands and/or additional polymeric layers. In this work, we developed docetaxel (DTX)-loaded formulations using polydopamine-modified NPs synthesized from D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate

  4. Effectiveness of a modified administration protocol for the medical treatment of canine pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contri, Alberto; Gloria, Alessia; Carluccio, Augusto; Pantaleo, Stefania; Robbe, Domenico

    2015-03-01

    Pyometra is one of the most common diseases in intact bitches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified aglepristone protocol for the medical treatment of pyometra in the bitch. Of these, 73 bitches affected by pyometra of different breeds and age (2-14 years old) were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to a control group (CTG - 26 bitches) treated with classical protocol (aglepristone at 0, 1 and 6 days - day 0 = day of the diagnosis) and a modified treated group (MTG - 47 bitches) treated with a different administration protocol (aglepristone at 0, 2, 5 and 8 days). The classical protocol with the anti-progestagen aglepristone was effective in 88.5 % (23/26) of CTG bitches while the modified protocol was effective in all (47/47) of MTG bitches. One of the 23 CTG bitches received a further administration on day 14, which resolved the pyometra, while in the three cases of CTG bitches, in which the treatment was ineffective, an ovariohysterectomy was carried out. The modified protocol showed a success rate of 100 %, compared with the classical protocol proposed in the literature, and no recurrence of the disease was recorded in the 24 months follow up. After treatment, the oestrus onset was earlier than expected (interoestrus of 128 ± 32 days). In this study, the modified treatment protocol showed high efficacy and lack of recurrence within 24 months, suggesting a complete recovery of reproductive function in the bitch, with a normal fertility.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on the corrosion resistance of modified aluminum-magnesium alloys in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Z.; Aleem, A.

    1993-10-01

    Study of modified Al-2.5Mg alloys containing chromium, silica, iron, and manganese in various tempers (O, H-18, T-4, T-6, T-18, and H-34) has shown that their corrosion resistance is significantly altered by thermomechanical treatment and the beneficial effect of chromium on microstructural changes. Modified binary Al-2.5Mg alloys in the T-6 and T-4 tempers exhibit a higher resistance to corrosion in Arabian Gulf water than H-34 tempers due to the beneficial effect of chromium on microstructural changes.

  6. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  7. Cancer preventive effects of flavonoids--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Marchand, Loïc

    2002-08-01

    A cancer protective effect from plant-derived foods has been found with uncommon consistency in epidemiologic studies. However, it has been difficult to identify specific components responsible for this effect. Many phytochemicals have been shown to be biologically active and they may interact to protect against cancer. In recent years, experimental studies have provided growing evidence for the beneficial action of flavonoids on multiple cancer-related biological pathways (carcinogen bioactivation, cell-signaling, cell cycle regulation, angiogenesis, oxidative stress, inflammation). Although the epidemiologic data on flavonoids and cancer are still limited and conflicting, some protective associations have been suggested for flavonoid-rich foods (soy and premenopausal breast cancer; green tea and stomach cancer; onion and lung cancer). This review focuses on the biological effects of the main flavonoids, as well as the epidemiologic evidence that support their potential cancer protective properties.

  8. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  9. Mammary renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in rats with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Carrera, Maria; Ramírez-Expósito, Maria Jesus; Mayas, Maria Dolores; García, Maria Jesus; Martínez-Martos, Jose Manuel

    2010-12-01

    Angiotensin II in particular and/or the local renin-angiotensin system in general could have an important role in epithelial tissue growth and modelling; therefore, it is possible that it may be involved in breast cancer. In this sense, previous works of our group showed a predominating role of angiotensin II in tumoral tissue obtained from women with breast cancer. However, although classically angiotensin II has been considered the main effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system cascade, several of its catabolism products such as angiotensin III and angiotensin IV also possess biological functions. These peptides are formed through the activity of several proteolytic regulatory enzymes of the aminopeptidase type, also called angiotensinases. The aim of this work was to analyse several specific angiotensinase activities involved in the renin-angiotensin system cascade in mammary tissue from control rats and from rats with mammary tumours induced by N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU), which may reflect the functional status of their target peptides under the specific conditions brought about by the tumoural process. The results show that soluble and membrane-bound specific aspartyl aminopeptidase activities and membrane-bound glutamyl aminopeptidase activity increased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated animals and soluble aminopeptidase N and aminopeptidase B activities significantly decreased in mammary tissue from NMU-treated rats. These changes support the existence of a local mammary renin-angiotensin system and that this system and its putative functions in breast tissue could be altered by the tumour process, in which we suggest a predominant role of angiotensin III. All described data about the renin-angiotensin system in mammary tissue support the idea that it must be involved in normal breast tissue functions, and its disruption could be involved in one or more steps of the carcinogenesis process.

  10. Effect modifiers in intervention research at hospitals in three Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Jørgen; Edwards, Kasper; Jarebrant, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    3-6 participants representing all occupational groups in the investigated organization. The group is asked to write down significant changes at the workplace during the investigated period. The method also includes a semi-qualitative assessment of the potential Work Environment (WE) impact of each...... paper aims to present assessment of potential effect modifiers in intervention studies at hospital wards in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. Material and methods: The effect modifiers were assessed by a newly developed method (the EMA method; Edwards & Winkel 2016). It is a type of group interview including...... Mapping) (6 wards) or the ErgoVSM method (Jarebrant et al, 2010) where additional focus is on ergonomic issues (7 wards). Results: In total 120 interventions were implemented. However, 322 significant modifiers were assessed to have occurred during the intervention period. Of these, 120 were assessed...

  11. Grape seed extracts modify the outcome of oxaliplatin in colon cancer cells by interfering with cellular mechanisms of drug cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Letizia; Iacobazzi, Rosa Maria; Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Bergamini, Carlo; Denora, Nunzio; Crupi, Pasquale; Antonacci, Donato; Mangia, Anita; Simone, Giovanni; Silvestris, Nicola; Azzariti, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    Grape seed extracts are commonly utilized as dietary supplements for their antioxidant properties, even from cancer patients. However, whether these natural extracts interfere with chemotherapeutics utilized in colon cancer treatment is still poorly investigated. The cytotoxicity of extracts from Italia and Palieri cultivars either alone or in combination with oxaliplatin was evaluated in colon cancer cells. Grape seed extracts displayed anti-proliferative activity depending on the concentration utilized through apoptosis induction. In combination, they affected the activation of Erk1/2 and counteracted the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis, the DNA damage and the generation of ROS induced by oxaliplatin. Noteworthy grape seed extracts strongly enhanced the uptake of oxaliplatin into all cells, by affecting the cell transport system of platinum. The addition of these natural extracts to oxaliplatin strongly reduced the cellular response to oxaliplatin and allowed a huge accumulation of platinum into cells. Here, we shed light on the chemical biology underlying the combination of grape seed extracts and oxaliplatin, demonstrating that they might be detrimental to oxaliplatin effectiveness in colon cancer therapy.

  12. Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, S W; Pusztai, A

    1999-10-16

    Diets containing genetically modified (GM) potatoes expressing the lectin Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) had variable effects on different parts of the rat gastrointestinal tract. Some effects, such as the proliferation of the gastric mucosa, were mainly due to the expression of the GNA transgene. However, other parts of the construct or the genetic transformation (or both) could also have contributed to the overall biological effects of the GNA-GM potatoes, particularly on the small intestine and caecum.

  13. Long-term effect of resistant starch on cancer risk in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathers, John C; Movahedi, Mohammad; Macrae, Finlay

    2012-01-01

    have been done. We assessed the effect of resistant starch on the incidence of colorectal cancer. METHODS: In the CAPP2 study, individuals with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned in a two-by-two factorial design to receive 600 mg aspirin or aspirin placebo or 30 g resistant starch or starch placebo......=0·95). No information on adverse events was gathered during post-intervention follow-up. INTERPRETATION: Resistant starch had no detectable effect on cancer development in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer. Dietary supplementation with resistant starch does not emulate the apparently...... protective effect of diets rich in dietary fibre against colorectal cancer. FUNDING: European Union, Cancer Research UK, Bayer Corporation, National Starch and Chemical Co, UK Medical Research Council, Newcastle Hospitals Trustees, Cancer Council of Victoria Australia, THRIPP South Africa, The Finnish Cancer...

  14. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan and chlorhexidine-cetrimide-modified glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan (CH modified glass ionomer cement (GIC (10% v/v, chlorhexidine-cetrimide (CHX-CT modified GIC (2.5/2.5% w/w and conventional GIC. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty healthy children of age 7–12 years were selected and randomly assigned to class A and B for in vivo analysis. Slabs of CH modified GIC (Group II along with slabs of conventional GIC (Group I, control were cemented on buccal surfaces of maxillary molars (split-mouth technique for class A children. Similarly, slabs of CHX-CT modified GIC (Group III were cemented against control (Group I, control in class B children. Slabs were assessed after 48 h for microbial load of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus (LB on mitis salivarius-bacitracin and Man Rogosa Sharpe agar media, respectively. Agar diffusion test was done to access the antibacterial effect of each group against Streptococcus muatns and LB. Slabs and cylinders of GICs were made for in vitro evaluation of compressive and flexure strength in each group. Results: Comparison was done by nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis analysis followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test. Categorical groups were compared by Chi-square test. The increase in antibacterial activity (Group II > III > I (P I > III were observed. Conclusions: In the view of findings, it is concluded that CH modified GIC would be effective in inhibiting the bacteria associated with dental caries along with improved physical properties when compared with CHX-CT modified GIC and conventional GIC.

  16. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising med

  17. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  18. The Effect of a Modified Moore Method on Attitudes and Beliefs in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brad; Cooper, Thomas E.; Briggs, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a study on the effects of teaching with a Modified Moore Method (MMM), a survey containing 20 items from Schoenfeld's (1989) investigation of attitudes and beliefs about mathematics was administered to students in undergraduate precalculus classes. The study included one section of precalculus taught with an MMM, a student-centered and…

  19. Vitamin D: direct effects of vitamin D metabolites on bone: lessons from genetically modified mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisman, J.A.; Bouillon, R.

    2014-01-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system has clear beneficial effects on bone as demonstrated by prevention of rickets in children and by reducing the risk of osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults or elderly subjects. Depending on the design of the study of genetically modified animals, however, 1,25(OH)2D a

  20. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising

  1. Vitamin D: direct effects of vitamin D metabolites on bone: lessons from genetically modified mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisman, J.A.; Bouillon, R.

    2014-01-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system has clear beneficial effects on bone as demonstrated by prevention of rickets in children and by reducing the risk of osteomalacia or osteoporosis in adults or elderly subjects. Depending on the design of the study of genetically modified animals, however, 1,25(OH)2D a

  2. Effect of Shear and Bulk Viscosities on Interacting Modified Chaplygin Gas Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, J.; Pourhassan, B.; Amani, Ali R.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we study interacting modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) which has shear and bulk viscosities. We consider sign-changeable interaction between MCG and matter, then investigate the effects of shear and bulk viscosities on the cosmological parameters such as energy, density, Hubble expansion parameter, scale factor and deceleration parameter.

  3. CFD Study on Effective Wake of Conventional and Tip-modified Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, K. W.; Andersen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    by integrating velocity fields at a section 40% of the propeller radius upstream from the propeller plane in self-propulsion simulations. The difference of effective wake fraction from integrating velocity fields between tip-modified and conventional propellers is less than 1%. Based on the open-water simulation...

  4. Effectiveness of indometacin to prevent ovulation in modified natural-cycle IVF : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken-Zijlstra, T. M.; Haadsma, M. L.; Hammer, C.; Burgerhof, J. G. M.; Pelinck, M. J.; Simons, A. H. M.; van Echten-Arends, J.; Arts, J. G. E. M.; Land, J. A.; Groen, H.; Hoek, A.

    2013-01-01

    Modified natural-cycle IVF has a lower pregnancy rate per started cycle as compared with IVF with ovarian stimulation due to, for example, premature ovulation. Indometacin administered before ovulation prevents follicle rupture. Therefore, addition of indometacin may improve the effectiveness of mod

  5. The Effectiveness of Parental Communication in Modifying the Relation between Food Advertising and Children's Consumption Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer…

  6. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladics, G.S.; Bartholomaeus, A.; Bregitzer, P.; Doerrer, N.G.; Gray, A.; Holzhauzer, T.; Jordan, M.; Keese, P.; Kok, E.J.; Macdonald, P.; Parrott, W.; Privalle, L.; Raybould, A.; Rhee, S.Y.; Rice, E.; Romeis, J.; Vaughn, J.; Wal, J.M.; Glenn, K.

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled “Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants” was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 s

  7. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  8. Effects of cyclodextrin glycosiltransferase modified starch and cyclodextrins on plasma glucose and lipids metabolism in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential functional and nutritional benefits of granular starch treated with cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) and the released cyclodextrins (CDs) were explored in in vivo studies. The metabolic effects of diets in the C57BL/6J mouse containing native and enzymatically modified corn st...

  9. The Effect of a Modified Moore Method on Attitudes and Beliefs in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brad; Cooper, Thomas E.; Briggs, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a study on the effects of teaching with a Modified Moore Method (MMM), a survey containing 20 items from Schoenfeld's (1989) investigation of attitudes and beliefs about mathematics was administered to students in undergraduate precalculus classes. The study included one section of precalculus taught with an MMM, a student-centered and…

  10. Effects of genetically modified plants on microbial communities and processes in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, M.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The development and use of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has been a topic of considerable public debate in recent years. GMPs hold great promise for improving agricultural output, but the potential for unwanted effects of GMP use is still not fully understood. The majority of studies addressing

  11. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  12. The effect of impact modifier and of nucleating agent on the radiation tolerance of polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Dongyuan (Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China)); Czvikovszky, T.; Dobo, J.; Somogyi, A. (Research Inst. for the Plastics Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1990-01-01

    The effect of two types of additives was investigated with respect to the oxidative post-irradiation stability of polypropylene: SBS thermoplastic rubbers as impact modifiers and benzoic acid as nucleating agent. Testing was performed by ultimate deformation on bending. The thermoplastic rubber additive increased the post-irradiation stability of polypropylene substantially. (author).

  13. The Effectiveness of Parental Communication in Modifying the Relation between Food Advertising and Children's Consumption Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer…

  14. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  15. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  16. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of zinc finger protein 131 potentiates its negative effect on estrogen signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yohan; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2012-05-18

    Like ubiquitin, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) covalently attaches to specific target proteins and modulates their functional properties, including subcellular localization, protein dimerization, DNA binding, and transactivation of transcription factors. Diverse transcriptional co-regulator complexes regulate the ability of estrogen receptors to respond to positive and negative acting hormones. Zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) is poorly characterized but may act as a repressor of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-mediated trans-activation. Here, we identify ZNF131 as a target for SUMO modification and as a substrate for the SUMO E3 ligase human polycomb protein 2 (hPc2). We report that the SUMO-interacting motif 1 (SIM1) and the C-box of hPc2 are critical regions required for ZNF131 SUMOylation and define the ZNF131 SUMOylation site as lysine 567. We further show that SUMO modification potentiates the negative effect of ZNF131 on estrogen signaling and consequently attenuates estrogen-induced cell growth in a breast cancer cell line. Our findings suggest that SUMOylation is a novel regulator of ZNF131 action in estrogen signaling and breast cancer cell proliferation.

  17. The effect of effective microorganisms (EM on EBPR in modified contact stabilization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Rashed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive phosphorus can cause eutrophication in water bodies and needs to be reduced in most wastewaters before discharge to receiving waters. The enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR process has been shown to be an economical and environmentally compatible method for reducing phosphorus from wastewaters. The experiment has been performed in order to investigate the effect of using effective microorganisms (EM as an application of Enhanced Biological Phosphorous Removal (EBPR in modified contact stabilization activated sludge system by using contact tank as a phosphorus uptake zone and using thickener tank as a phosphorus release zone. The study involved the construction of a pilot plant which was setup in the Quhafa Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP, Al Fayoum, Egypt. Then the uptake and release of total phosphorus were determined through two batch tests using sludge samples from thickener and stabilization tanks. Results showed the removal efficiencies of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5 and total phosphorus (TP of this pilot plant were 93%, 93% and 90%, respectively. On the other hand the results of batch tests showed that the reason for high ability of phosphorus removal by this pilot plant is related to the high performance of microorganisms for phosphorus accumulation. Finally providing activated EM to the anaerobic zone was to improve fermentation by achieving the enhancement of the performance of phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs and then increase phosphorous release resulting in the decrease of the average effluent phosphorus concentration.

  18. Effect of drying temperatures on physical characteristics of sorghum flour modified with lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Astuti, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Different drying temperatures produce different starch structure, while the remains of lactic acid in sorghum grain might continue starch modification during drying. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drying temperatures (40, 50, 60° C) on physical characteristics of sorghum flour modified with lactic acid. Higher drying temperatures produced sorghum flour, with higher viscosity and swelling power, but lower whiteness and solubility. Modified sorghum flour showed higher value than the unmodified flour at all characteristics. Infrared spectroscopy showed that modification shifted absorption peak from 1,334 cm-1 to 1,373 cm-1, but there was no difference between samples dried at different temperatures.

  19. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Liu; Shaopeng Wu; Gang Liu; Liping Li

    2015-01-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an ultravioletlight (UV)-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs) were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotome...

  20. Ion-Conserving Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Theory Considering a Steric Effect in an Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    The modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (MPNP) and modified Poisson-Boltzmann (MPB) equations are well known as fundamental equations that consider a steric effect, which prevents unphysical ion concentrations. However, it is unclear whether they are equivalent or not. To clarify this problem, we propose an improved free energy formulation that considers a steric limit with an ion-conserving condition and successfully derive the ion-conserving modified Poisson-Boltzmann (IC-MPB) equations that are equivalent to the MPNP equations. Furthermore, we numerically examine the equivalence by comparing between the IC-MPB solutions obtained by the Newton method and the steady MPNP solutions obtained by the finite-element finite-volume method. A surprising aspect of our finding is that the MPB solutions are much different from the MPNP (IC-MPB) solutions in a confined space. We consider that our findings will significantly contribute to understanding the surface science between solids and liquids.

  1. Anthracycline Drugs on Modified Surface of Quercetin-Loaded Polymer Nanoparticles: A Dual Drug Delivery Model for Cancer Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabita Saha

    Full Text Available Polymer nanoparticles are vehicles used for delivery of hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs, like doxorubicin, paclitaxel or chemopreventors like quercetin (Q. The present study deals with the synthesis and characterisation of nano formulations (NFs from Q loaded PLGA (poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nano particles (NPs by surface modification. The surface of Q-loaded (NPs is modified by coating with biopolymers like bovine serum albumin (BSA or histones (His. Conventional chemotherapeutic drugs adriamycin (ADR and mitoxantrone (MTX are bound to BSA and His respectively before being coated on Q-loaded NPs to nano formulate NF1 and NF2 respectively. The sizes of these NFs are in the range 400-500 nm as ascertained by SEM and DLS measurements. Encapsulation of Q in polymer NPs is confirmed from shifts in FT-IR, TGA and DSC traces of Q-loaded NPs compared to native PLGA and Q. Surface modification in NFs is evidenced by three distinct regions in their TEM images; the core, polymer capsule and the coated surface. Negative zeta potential of Q-loaded NPs shifted to positive potential on surface modification in NF1 and NF2. In vitro release of Q from the NFs lasted up to twenty days with an early burst release. NF2 is better formulation than NF1 as loading of MTX is 85% compared to 23% loading of ADR. Such NFs are expected to overcome multi-drug resistance (MDR by reaching and treating the target cancerous cells by virtue of size, charge and retention.

  2. The effect of a modified meat product on nutritional status in institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriain, M J; Ibáñez, F C; Baleztena, J; Oria, E

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the inclusion of a new modified meat product as a dietary supplement has a positive influence on the nutritional status and blood lipid profile of institutionalized elderly subjects. A sample population of elderly people living in institutions (9 men and 29 women aged 68-97 years) completed a crossover study with two dietary supplements. Nutritionally complete diets differed only in food supplementation, first, with a standard meat product and, subsequently, with a modified meat product. Venous blood samples were taken prior to each of the three phases of the study: the basal phase, during which participants followed their normal, controlled diet; a control phase (3 days per week for 3 weeks), during which the subjects' normal diet was supplemented with 50 g of the standard product; and an experimental phase (3 days per week for 3 weeks), when the normal diet was supplemented with 50 g of the modified product. Nutritional intervention did not influence hematological parameters or serum lipids. The modified meat product altered blood concentrations of urea, creatinine, GOT, transferrin, iron, and retinol-binding protein. Consumption of both the standard and the modified products contributes to maintaining the individuals' nutritional status and equalizes nutritional status across the study population with no effect on blood lipid profiles. Despite the limitations of the experiment, the introduction of dietary supplements in meat products significantly increased plasma iron levels in this elderly sample.

  3. Effects of thermal-oxidative aging on rheological properties of montmorillonite modified bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯鹏程; 余剑英; 王骁; 陶园园

    2008-01-01

    Organic montmorillonite(OMMT) modified bitumen nanocomposites was prepared by melt blending.The effects of thin-film oven test(TFOT) and pressure ageing vessel(PAV) on rheological properties of pristine bitumen and OMMT modified bitumen were investigated by dynamic shear rheometer(DSR).The results show that complex modulus(G*) increases,phase angle(δ) decreases and rutting factor(G*/sin δ) is enhanced for the pristine bitumen after TFOT,whereas G*,δ and G*/sin δ of OMMT modified bitumen have a little change before and after TFOT.Besides,the pristine bitumen exhibits a large increase of G* and a great decrease of δ after PAV aging.However,the changes in G* and δ of OMMT modified bitumen are small before and after PAV.Compared with the pristine bitumen,OMMT modified bitumen presents a lower fatigue factor(G*sin δ) after PAV.As a consequence,resistance to thermal-oxidative aging of bitumen is remarkably improved due to the introduction of OMMT.

  4. Effects of n-3 PUFAs on breast cancer cells through their incorporation in plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berra Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PUFAs are important molecules for membrane order and function; they can modify inflammation-inducible cytokines production, eicosanoid production, plasma triacylglycerol synthesis and gene expression. Recent studies suggest that n-3 PUFAs can be cancer chemopreventive, chemosuppressive and auxiliary agents for cancer therapy. N-3 PUFAs could alter cancer growth influencing cell replication, cell cycle, and cell death. The question that remains to be answered is how n-3 PUFAs can affect so many physiological processes. We hypothesize that n-3 PUFAs alter membrane stability, modifying cellular signalling in breast cancer cells. Methods Two lines of human breast cancer cells characterized by different expression of ER and EGFR receptors were treated with AA, EPA or DHA. We have used the MTT viability test and expression of apoptotic markers to evaluate the effect of PUFAs on cancer growth. Phospholipids were analysed by HPLC/GC, to assess n-3 incorporation into the cell membrane. Results We have observed that EPA and DHA induce cell apoptosis, a reduction of cell viability and the expression of Bcl2 and procaspase-8. Moreover, DHA slightly reduces the concentration of EGFR but EPA has no effect. Both EPA and DHA reduce the activation of EGFR. N-3 fatty acids are partially metabolized in both cell lines; AA is integrated without being further metabolized. We have analysed the fatty acid pattern in membrane phospholipids where they are incorporated with different degrees of specificity. N-3 PUFAs influence the n-6 content and vice versa. Conclusions Our results indicate that n-3 PUFA feeding might induce modifications of breast cancer membrane structure that increases the degree of fatty acid unsaturation. This paper underlines the importance of nutritional factors on health maintenance and on disease prevention.

  5. Impact of a modified Broviac maintenance care bundle on bloodstream infections in paediatric cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Laux, Carolin; Graf, Norbert; Simon, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Background: During intensive chemotherapy, bloodstream infection (BSI) represents an important complication in paediatric cancer patients. Most patients carry a long-term central venous access device (CVAD). Improved maintenance care of these vascular catheters may decrease the risk of BSI. Methods: Intervention study (adapted CVAD prevention protocol) with two observation periods (P1: 09-2009 until 05-2011; P2: 09-2011 until 05-2013); prospective surveillance of all laboratory confirmed BSIs. In P2, ready to use sterile NaCl 0.9% syringes were used for CVAD flushing and octenidine/isopropanol for the disinfection of catheter hubs and 3-way stopcocks. Results: During P1, 84 patients were included versus 81 patients during P2. There were no significant differences between the two patient populations in terms of median age, gender, underlying malignancy or disease status (first illness or relapse). Nearly all CVADs were Broviac catheters. The median duration from implantation to removal of the CVAD was 192 days (Inter-quartile-range (IQR); 110–288 days) in P1 and 191 days (IQR; 103–270 days) in P2. 28 BSI were diagnosed in 22 patients in P1 (26% of all patients experienced at least one BSI) and 15 BSI in 12 patients in P2 (15% of all patients). The corresponding results for incidence density (ID) were 0.44 (CI95 0.29–0.62) for P1 vs. 0.34 (0.19–0.53) BSI per 100 inpatient days for P2 and for incidence rate (IR) 7.76 (5.16–10.86) in P1 vs. 4.75 (2.66–7.43) BSI per 1,000 inpatient CVAD utilization days. In P1, 9 BSI were caused by CoNS vs. only 2 in P2 (IR 2.49; CI95 0.17–4.17 vs. 0.63; CI95 0.08–1.72). In P1 two BSI (7%) lead to early removal of the device. During P2 one CVAD was prematurely removed due to a Broviac-related BSI (6.7%). Conclusion: The preventive protocol investigated in this study led to a reduction of BSI in paediatric cancer patients. This result was clinically relevant but – due to insufficient power in a single centre observation

  6. Impact of a modified Broviac maintenance care bundle on bloodstream infections in paediatric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtwängler, Rhoikos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: During intensive chemotherapy, bloodstream infection (BSI represents an important complication in paediatric cancer patients. Most patients carry a long-term central venous access device (CVAD. Improved maintenance care of these vascular catheters may decrease the risk of BSI.Methods: Intervention study (adapted CVAD prevention protocol with two observation periods (P1: 09-2009 until 05-2011; P2: 09-2011 until 05-2013; prospective surveillance of all laboratory confirmed BSIs. In P2, ready to use sterile NaCl 0.9% syringes were used for CVAD flushing and octenidine/isopropanol for the disinfection of catheter hubs and 3-way stopcocks. Results: During P1, 84 patients were included versus 81 patients during P2. There were no significant differences between the two patient populations in terms of median age, gender, underlying malignancy or disease status (first illness or relapse. Nearly all CVADs were Broviac catheters. The median duration from implantation to removal of the CVAD was 192 days (Inter-quartile-range (IQR; 110–288 days in P1 and 191 days (IQR; 103–270 days in P2. 28 BSI were diagnosed in 22 patients in P1 (26% of all patients experienced at least one BSI and 15 BSI in 12 patients in P2 (15% of all patients. The corresponding results for incidence density (ID were 0.44 (CI95 0.29–0.62 for P1 vs. 0.34 (0.19–0.53 BSI per 100 inpatient days for P2 and for incidence rate (IR 7.76 (5.16–10.86 in P1 vs. 4.75 (2.66–7.43 BSI per 1,000 inpatient CVAD utilization days. In P1, 9 BSI were caused by CoNS vs. only 2 in P2 (IR 2.49; CI95 0.17–4.17 vs. 0.63; CI95 0.08–1.72. In P1 two BSI (7% lead to early removal of the device. During P2 one CVAD was prematurely removed due to a Broviac-related BSI (6.7%.Conclusion: The preventive protocol investigated in this study led to a reduction of BSI in paediatric cancer patients. This result was clinically relevant but – due to insufficient power in a single centre observation

  7. Genetic analysis of the GRIK2 modifier effect in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Richard H

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Huntington's disease (HD, age at neurological onset is inversely correlated with the length of the CAG trinucleotide repeat mutation, but can be modified by genetic factors beyond the HD gene. Association of a relatively infrequent 16 TAA allele of a trinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the GRIK2 3'UTR with earlier than expected age at neurological onset has been suggested to reflect linkage disequilibrium with a functional polymorphism in GRIK2 or an adjacent gene. Results We have tested this hypothesis by sequencing all GRIK2 exons, the exon-flanking sequences and 3'UTR in several individuals who were crucial to demonstrating the modifier effect, as they showed much earlier age at neurological onset than would be expected from the length of their HD CAG mutation. Though ten known SNPs were detected, no sequence variants were found in coding or adjacent sequence that could explain the modifier effect by linkage disequilibrium with the 16 TAA allele. Haplotype analysis using microsatellites, known SNPs and new variants discovered in the 3'UTR argues against a common ancestral origin for the 16 TAA repeat alleles in these individuals. Conclusion These data suggest that the modifier effect is actually due to the TAA repeat itself, possibly via a functional consequence on the GRIK2 mRNA.

  8. Effect of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching on hamstring muscle flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hashim; Iqbal, Amir; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of present study was to compare the effectiveness of modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-five male subjects with hamstring tightness were included in this study. The subjects were randomly placed into three groups: the modified hold-relax stretching, static stretching and control groups. The modified hold-relax stretching group performed 7 seconds of isometric contraction and then relaxed for 5 seconds, and this was repeated five times daily for five consecutive days. The static stretching group received 10 minutes of static stretching with the help of a pulley and weight system for five consecutive days. The control group received only moist heat for 20 minutes for five consecutive days. A baseline reading of passive knee extension (PKE) was taken prior to the intervention; rest measurements were taken immediate post intervention on day 1, day 3, day 5, and after a 1 week follow-up, i.e., at the 12th day. [Results] On comparing the baseline readings of passive knee extension (PKE), there was no difference noted between the three groups. On comparing the posttest readings on day 5 between the 3 groups, a significant difference was noted. However, post hoc analysis revealed an insignificant difference between the modified hold-relax stretching and static stretching groups. There was a significant difference between the static stretching and control groups and between the modified hold-relax stretching and control groups. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that both the modified hold-relax stretching technique and static stretching are equally effective, as there was no significant difference in improving the hamstring muscle flexibility between the two groups.

  9. Cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M Y; Su, C

    2001-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have broad therapeutic effects, including anticancer activity, in both clinical practice and laboratory animal models. The mechanism for these effects remains unknown. The hypothesis that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer preventive effect at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis was studied. Our preliminary data indicated that 10% Tahitian Noni Liquid Dietary Supplement or Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ), made from Morinda citrifolia fruit by Morinda Inc, in drinking water for one week was able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The levels of DMBA-DNA adducts were reduced by 30% in the heart, 41% in the lung, 42% in the liver, and 80% in the kidney of female SD rats. Even more dramatic results were obtained in male C57 BL-6 mice: 10% TNJ was able to reduce DMBA-DNA adduct formation by 60% in the heart, 50% in the lung, 70% in the liver, and 90% in the kidney. In order to explore the mechanism of this preventive effect, the antioxidant activity of TNJ was examined in vitro by lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) and tetrazolium nitroblue (TNB) assays. In the LPO assay, LPO oxidizes leucomethylene blue to methylene blue in the presence of hemoglobin. The resultant blue color was quantified at 660 nm spectrophotometrically. In the TNB assay, superoxide anion radicals (SAR) reduce TNB into formazan blue that was also measured by absorption at 602 nm. TNJ showed a dose-dependent inhibition of both LPO and SAR in our system. The antioxidant activity of TNJ was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder (GSP), and pycnogenol (PYC) at the daily dose per serving level recommended by U.S.RDAs or manufacturers. The results suggest that prevention of carcinogen-DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity of TNJ may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia.

  10. Cancer stage, comorbidity, and socioeconomic differences in the effect of cancer on labour market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielen, Karsten; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Andersen, Ingelise

    2015-01-01

    Registry to follow 7372 women aged 30-60, who were in the labour force when diagnosed with breast cancer in 2000-06 and survived at least three years. Controls were 213,276 women without breast cancer. Inequalities in employment outlook were estimated as interaction effects in linear regression between...... employment, and a considerable amount of the educational effect is mediated by comorbidity and pre-cancer labour market participation and income. CONCLUSION: The result of the study is negative in the sense that the stronger effect of breast cancer on employment among low-educated compared to highly educated...... educational attainment and disease on employment. RESULTS: There is significant interaction between education and breast cancer, but it is only marginally affected by including stage and comorbidity in the regression models. Education, breast cancer stage, and comorbidity all have strong effects on later...

  11. Synergistic Effect of SH003 and Doxorubicin in Triple-negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang-Mi; Kim, Ah Jeong; Choi, Youn Kyung; Shin, Young Cheol; Cho, Sung-Gook; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly aggressive, resulting in poor prognosis. Chemotherapy of TNBC relies on anti-cancer agents with strong cytotoxicity, but it causes several side effects with recurrence. While combinational approaches of chemotherapeutics have been highlighted as a new treatment strategy for TNBC to reduce side effects, combinations of anti-cancer agents with herbal medicines have not been reported. We recently reported that newly modified traditional Chinese medicine named SH003 inhibited TNBC growth. Considering a combinational strategy for TNBC treatment, we further studied synergistic effects of SH003 with various anti-cancer drugs in TNBC treatment. Here, we demonstrate that SH003 shows a synergistic effect with doxorubicin on TNBC treatment. Our in vitro cell viability assays revealed that SH003 and doxorubicin showed a synergistic effect in the well-defined TNBC cell line, MDA-MB-231. Moreover, we found that the combinational treatment caused Caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. Our in vivo mouse xenograft tumor growth assays confirmed that combinational treatment of SH003 with doxorubicin repressed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth with no weight loss. Therefore, we conclude that the combinational treatment of SH003 with doxorubicin shows the synergism in TNBC treatment, and suggest that SH003 can be used together with conventional anti-cancer drugs in chemotherapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. 改良根治性颈清在甲状腺癌中的应用%The Use of Modified Radical Neck Dissection in Thyroid Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可敬

    2001-01-01

    在甲状腺癌的治疗中,改良根治性颈清术比传统根治性颈清术能保留较多的功能,又不影响肿瘤的根治。它适用于甲状腺髓样癌、分化性甲状腺癌及部分甲状腺微小癌,而对未分化癌是否有必要尚有争议。%In the treatment of thyroid cancer, modified radical neck dissection(MRND) can offer much function than traditional radical neck dissection (RND) do, and it doesn't affect the radical operation. MRND is suitable for medullary cancer, differentiated cancer and some microcarci noma of thyroid, but MRND for undifferentiated thyroid cancer is controversial.

  13. Surgical treatment of larynx T1N0M0 cancer - partial laryngectomy modified Majer-Piquet's intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khujadze, M; Vashakidze, N; Kuliashvili, G; Khelashvili, B

    2013-04-01

    The increase of general radiation background in Georgia and some national characteristics such as spicy dishes, high level of alcohol and cigarette consumption, emotional, loud way of speaking result in a high percentage of people suffering from larynx malignant tumor. As generally known, the majority of larynx cancer cases represent surgical indications and only a small percentage submit to radio or chemotherapy. Since the beginning of the previous century, laryngologists have been intensely thinking about maintaining the larynx itself when giving surgical treatment. With this article we aim to introduce you to one of surgical techniques often applied in France. The method is Pr. B. Guerrier's modification of Majer-Piquet's cricohyoidoepiglotopexy, which is very popular in Europe. This consists in reconstructive operation maintaining cricoid cartilage and epiglottis with larynx's pexy when resecting partially. In cases of exact indications the, Majet-Piquet's modified operation provides a perfect: opportunity both to achieve the desirable outcome and maintain the main functions of larynx vocal, swallowing and breathing with a relatively less invasive surgical interference.

  14. Impact of modified radical mastectomy on health-related quality of life in women with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Negin; Soltanipour, Sohail; Talei, Abdolrasol

    2012-08-01

    Systematic reviews favor a better body image and sexual activity in patients who have undergone conservative breast surgery (BCS) compared to modified radical mastectomy (MRM). In those patients with the same survival, MRM remains the surgical choice among both surgeons and patients in Iran as well as in many other countries. This cross-sectional study focuses on health-related quality of life in early stage breast cancer patients following BCS and MRM. From all post-op patients who referred to the Motahari Clinic, Shiraz, Iran, we used a convenient sampling method to select 160 MRM patients and 127 who underwent BCS. Translated copies of the EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3) and the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaires, in addition to a third questionnaire which was customized and prepared for this study, were completed by the patients under our supervision The two groups were compared by a multivariate method (Hotelling's trace test) after controlling for variables with unequal values such as disease stage, hormonal and radiotherapy treatments, and patients' role in the choice of surgery. We noted a significant difference (P quality of life.

  15. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with the use of a modified uterine manipulator for the management of stage IB1 cervix cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton-Romero, J C; Anaya-Prado, R; Rodriguez-Garcia, H A; Mejia-Romo, F; De-Los-Rios, P E; Cortez-Martinez, G; Delgado-Ramirez, R; Quijano, F

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively collected data on all patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer, who underwent total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with the use of a modified uterine manipulator. From January 2000 to December 2005, 54 patients met the study criteria. The mean age was 41.8 +/- 7.47 years. Average BMI (kg/m(2)) was 27.38 +/- 3.13. Squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were found in 88.88% and 11.11% of the cases, respectively. The average surgical time was 265 +/- 70.8 min. The mean estimated blood loss was 276.11 +/- 123.03 ml. The average patient lymph node count was 19.64 +/- 5.08. Positive malignant lymph nodes were identified in 11.11% of the cases. Surgical margins were free of disease in all patients. The mean hospital stay was 1.5 +/- 1 days. There was no mortality. Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy can be considered a safe alternative to laparotomy. The use of a uterine manipulator does not pose an increased surgical risk and allows for a simpler and more feasible procedure.

  16. Effects of modified LDL and HDL on retinal pigment epithelial cells: a role in diabetic retinopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Wu, M; Fu, D; Yang, S; Chen, J; Wilson, K; Lyons, T J

    2013-10-01

    Blood-retina barrier leakage in diabetes results in extravasation of plasma lipoproteins. Intra-retinal modified LDLs have been implicated in diabetic retinopathy (DR), but their effects on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and the added effects of extravasated modified HDLs are unknown. In human retinas from individuals with and without diabetes and DR, immunohistochemistry was used to detect ApoB, ApoA1 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers. In cell culture, human RPE cells were treated with native LDL (N-LDL) or heavily-oxidised glycated LDL (HOG-LDL) with or without pretreatment with native HDL (N-HDL) or heavily-oxidised glycated HDL (HOG-HDL). Cell viability, oxidative stress, ER stress, apoptosis and autophagy were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, dichlorofluorescein assay, western blotting, immunofluorescence and TUNEL assay. In separate experiments, RPE cells were treated with lipid oxidation products, 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC, 5-40 μmol/l) or 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, 5-80 μmol/l), with or without pretreatment with N-HDL or HOG-HDL. ApoB, ApoA1 staining and RPE ER stress were increased in the presence of DR. HOG-LDL but not N-LDL significantly decreased RPE cell viability and increased reactive oxygen species generation, ER stress, apoptosis and autophagy. Similarly, 4-HNE and 7-KC decreased viability and induced ER stress. Pretreatment with N-HDL mitigated these effects, whereas HOG-HDL was less effective by most, but not all, measures. In DR, extravascular modified LDL may promote RPE injury through oxidative stress, ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis. N-HDL has protective effects, but HOG-HDL is less effective. Extravasation and modification of HDL may modulate the injurious effects of extravasated modified LDL on the retinal pigment epithelium.

  17. Modifying the Functional Movement Screen Deep Squat Test: The Effect of Foot and Arm Positional Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Danny J; Rynders, Zach G; Trudeau, Tyler R

    2016-04-01

    The functional movement screen (FMS) was developed as an evaluation tool for assessing the fundamental movement patterns believed to be prerequisites for functional activity. However, some of the FMS component movements, such as the deep overhead squat test (DST), likely represent novel motor challenges on which poor performance might reflect inexperience with the task rather than a movement impairment. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of positional variations on DST scores in a population of young, healthy adults. We hypothesized that self-selecting foot positioning, removal of an overhead component, or changing both aspects of the DST would result in improvement in FMS scores. Twenty healthy subjects completed 4 squatting conditions in a counterbalanced sequence to eliminate carry over effects: DST, modified squat with hands at chest level and feet in the DST position (DSTO), modified squat with arms in the DST position and self-selected foot placement (DSTF), and modified squat with hands at chest level and self-selected foot placement (DSTB). A Friedman's analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-ranks' post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between all squat conditions (p = 0.036), between DSTB-DST groups (p DST groups (p = 0.004), and DSTO-DSTB groups (p = 0.046). Each modified squat condition had an average score higher than the DST. These findings suggest that the FMS DST might underestimate an individual's ability to squat during functional tasks that involve self-selected foot and arm placement.

  18. Early Detection Of Breast Cancer using Post-Translationally Modified Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Pounds, and R.C. Zangar Smoking and COPD have Opposite Effects on 3-Nitrotyrosine in Plasma Proteins Environmental Health Perspectives, 2011, 119...halotyrosine levels correlated (r2 ~ 0.5) with exercise -induced bronchoconstriction measures of asthma, but the eosinophil counts did not. CONCLUSIONS: We

  19. Knowledge of reproductive system cancers, their treatments and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Ogah, Imhokhai; Wassersug, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We explored, via an online questionnaire, knowledge of breast and reproductive system cancers in patients and non-patients who access the internet for information on these diseases. We compared that knowledge to the attention the diseases have received in medical research and on the Internet. Data were collected from 690 respondents (37 % male, 63 % female) about their knowledge of prevalence, lethality, treatments and side effects of testicular, prostate, breast, uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers. Most males, but only half of the female participants, were patients themselves. Although participants showed better knowledge of cancers specific to their own sex, both sexes felt familiar with breast cancer and less aware of other cancers. Women were as aware as men of side effects of treatments for male reproductive cancers. Sex differences in awareness appear to reflect different attitudes towards illness, bias toward females as caregivers, and the disproportionate media attention given to breast cancer.

  20. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    of the literature revealed lack of or poor consideration of effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. We present a method that has been developed over the course of several years parallel to intervention studies in healthcare. Material and methods: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3...... intervention(s) or other causes (“the effect modifiers”) and their impact on the work environment. Following the workshop, events are entered into a database and reassessed by triangulation based on scientific evidence, researcher knowledge, reading the transcribed audio recorded workshop and other local...... sources. Conclusion: The EMA method seems to offer a feasible procedure to obtain significant knowledge on potential effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. However, further development and validation is suggested....

  1. Effects of fractal surface on rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of modified brown coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifang Gao; Shuquan Zhu; Mingdong Zheng; Zhaojin Wu; Huihong Lu; Weiming Liu

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the effects of surface fractal structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of raw brown coal and three modified coal water slurries (CWSs). The results show that the fractal structures and physicochemical properties of samples are dependent on various modification processes. The apparent viscosities of the coal water slurries increase with increasing surface fractal dimensions (D), especially with decreasing shear rates. Fur-thermore, it has been proved that the ignition temperatures and apparent activation energies of modified CWSs are lower than that of raw coal water slurry. Compared with the traditional qualitative analysis of the effect of pore structures on CWSs properties, D can more efficiently indicate the quantificational effect of pore structures on the rheological behavior and combustion kinetics of CWSs.

  2. Gravitational effective action and entanglement entropy in UV modified theories with and without Lorentz symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, Dmitry, E-mail: nesterov@lpi.r [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)] [Theory Department, Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow, Russia, 119991 (Russian Federation); Solodukhin, Sergey N., E-mail: Sergey.Solodukhin@lmpt.univ-tours.f [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique, Universite Francois-Rabelais Tours, Federation Denis Poisson - CNRS, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2011-01-11

    We calculate parameters in the low energy gravitational effective action and the entanglement entropy in a wide class of theories characterized by improved ultraviolet (UV) behavior. These include (i) local and non-local Lorentz invariant theories in which inverse propagator is modified by higher-derivative terms and (ii) theories described by non-Lorentz invariant Lifshitz type field operators. We demonstrate that the induced cosmological constant, gravitational couplings and the entropy are sensitive to the way the theory is modified in UV. For non-Lorentz invariant theories the induced gravitational effective action is of the Horava-Lifshitz type. We show that under certain conditions imposed on the dimension of the Lifshitz operator the couplings of the extrinsic curvature terms in the effective action are UV finite. Throughout the paper we systematically exploit the heat kernel method appropriately generalized for the class of theories under consideration.

  3. Clinical multi-omics strategies for the effective cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Woo, Sang Myung; Myung, Jae Kyung

    2017-08-15

    Cancer is a global health issue as a multi-factorial complex disease, and early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are required for more effective cancer management. With the development of systemic analytical -omics strategies, the therapeutic approach and study of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and cancer progression have moved from hypothesis-driven targeted investigations to data-driven untargeted investigations focusing on the integrated diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer in individual patients. Predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM) is a promising new approach to reduce the burden of cancer and facilitate more accurate prognosis, diagnosis, as well as effective treatment. Here we review the fundamentals of, and new developments in, -omics technologies, together with the key role of a variety of practical -omics strategies in PPPM for cancer treatment and diagnosis. In this review, a comprehensive and critical overview of the systematic strategy for predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM) for cancer disease was described in a view of cancer prognostic prediction, diagnostics, and prevention as well as cancer therapy and drug responses. We have discussed multi-dimensional data obtained from various resources and integration of multisciplinary -omics strategies with computational method which could contribute the more effective PPPM for cancer. This review has provided the novel insights of the current applications of each and combined -omics technologies, which showed their powerful potential for the establishment of PPPM for cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of gene modified mesenchymal stem cells overexpression human receptor activity modified protein 1 on inflammation and cardiac repair in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵然尊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) overexpressing human receptor activity modified protein 1(hRAMP1) by adenovirus vector on infarction related inflammation and cardiac repair in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction(MI)

  5. Opposite effects of microchimerism on breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Biggar, Robert J; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    was to determine whether the lower concentrations predate cancer diagnosis, and whether a possible beneficial effect was specific to breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-cohort study of 50-64-year-old Danish women enrolled in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Blood samples and questionnaire...... of male microchimerism was strongly associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer and also the increased risk of developing colon cancer. Confirmatory findings based on an improved study design, failure to identify important confounders and the strength of the associations lead us to believe...

  6. The possible effect of diazepam on cancer development and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrobin, D F; Trosko, J E

    1981-01-01

    Diazepam has the characteristics of a tumour promoter in a number of in vitro systems. The effect is apparent at concentrations of diazepam which are clinically relevant. Diazepam also accelerated tumour growth in two different experimental animal cancers. Tranquillizer use was found to be greater in women with metastatic breast cancer at the time of diagnosis than in those without metastases. Further evaluation of the possible effects of diazepam and related drugs on human and animal cancers is urgently required.

  7. Effects of an AMPS-modifi ed Polyacrylic Acid Superplasticizer on the Performance of Concrete Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Baofan

    2015-01-01

    A self-made 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propylene sulfonic (AMPS)-modified polyacrylic acid superplasticizer and two other commercially available superplasticizers with different molecular structures are used in this study to investigate the effect of an AMPS-modifi ed polyacrylic acid superplasticizer on the properties of concrete materials. In the experiments, initial and 1.5 h slumps over time after admixtion are determined by adding different dosages of three superplasticizers into the premixed concrete to characterize the slump loss resistance of the premixed concrete. The water-reducing rates of three different types of concrete are determined to characterize the water-reducing capacity of the concrete with each superplasticizer. The 3, 7 and 28 d compressive strength is determined to characterize the mechanical properties of the concrete with each superplasticizer. In the meanwhile, 1, 1.5 and 2.0 h slump loss rates over time after admixtion are determined by adding different dosages of the three superplasticizers into the high-performance concrete (HPC) to characterize the slump loss resistance of HPC. The 7, 28, 60 and 90 d compressive strength is determined to characterize the compressive properties of HPC with each superplasticizer. The dry shrinkage rates of three different types of HPC are determined with each superplasticizer. Electricfl ux after standard curing for 56 d and chloride ion diffusion coeffi cient after curing for 28 d of HPC are determined to characterize the impermeability of HPC with each superplasticizer. The cross-section was examined using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) system. Results demonstrate that the AMPS-modifi ed polyacrylic acid superplasticizer has better water-reducing effect and slump than the two commercially available polyacrylic acid superplasticizers. The AMPS-modifi ed polyacrylic acid superplasticizer also shows signifi cant improvement of the compressive strength, especially in comprehensive performance of HPC. In

  8. 乳腺癌改良根治术后胸壁放射治疗的研究进展%Research Progression in Chest Wall Radiotherapy after Modified Radical Mastectomy for Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林菲; 谢作飘; 张芬(综述); 杨毅(审校)

    2016-01-01

    乳腺癌改良根治术后有较高的胸壁复发率,术后胸壁放疗是进一步减少局部复发最直接和最有效的方法。随着放疗设备更新和放疗技术的不断进步,乳腺癌改良根治术后胸壁的放射治疗技术也日趋完善。文章就近年来乳腺癌改良根治术后胸壁的放射治疗进展作综述。%There is a high chest wall recurrence rate after the modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer.Postoperative chest wall radiotherapy is considered to be the most direct and effec-tive method for further reducing the local recurrence.With the renewal of radiotherapy equipment and the continuous progress of radiotherapy technique,the chest wall radiotherapy after the modi-fied radical mastectomy has been increasingly improved.This paper reviews the research progress in chest wall radiotherapy after the modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer.

  9. Effects of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness among Nursing Students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakci, Hulya; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Yildirim, Nuriye; Ozturk, Ozlem; Topan, Aysel Kose; Tasdemir, Nurten

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and leading cause of death worldwide, including in Turkey. High perceptions of cancer fatalism are associated with lower rates of participation in screening for breast cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among nursing students in Turkey. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at three universities in the Western Black Sea region. The sample was composed of 838 nursing students. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory (PFI) and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS). Breast cancer fatalism perception of the students was at a low level. It was determined that students' seriousness perception was moderate, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions were high, and BSE barriers and sensitivity perceptions were low. In addition, it was determined that students awareness of breast cancer was affected by breast cancer fatalism, class level, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having breast examination by a healthcare professional within the last year and their health beliefs. In promoting breast cancer early diagnosis behaviour, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the students and to arrange training programs for this purpose.

  10. Flame retardancy effect of surface-modified metal hydroxides on linear low density polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Metal hydroxides (MAH) consisting of magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide with a mass ratio of 1:2 were surface-modified by γ-diethoxyphosphorous ester propyldiethoxymethylsilane,boric acid and diphenylsilanediol in xylene under dibutyl tin dilaurate catalyst at 140 ℃.Phosphorus,silicon and boron elements covalently bonded to metal hydroxide particles were detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.The degradation behavior of the surface-modified MAH was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis.The results show that linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) composite,filled with 50% (mass fraction) of MAH modified by 5.0% (mass fraction) of modifiers,passes the V-O rating of UL-94 test and shows the limited oxygen index of 34%,and its heat release rate and average effective heat combustion in a cone calorimeter measurement decrease obviously;The mechanical properties of MAH can be improved by surface-modification.The uniform dispersion of particles and strong interfacial bonding between particles and matrix are obtained.

  11. Effects of modified clay on cysts of Scrippsiella trochoidea for harmful algal bloom control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifu; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Cao, Xihua; Han, Xiaotian

    2014-11-01

    We present results on the effect of modified clay on cyst formation of Scrippsiella trochoidea in harmful algal bloom (HAB). Modified clay (in concentration of 0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 g/L) were added to cultures, and observations were made on cysts of S. trochoidea under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that the removal rate of algal cells reached 97.7% at the clay concentration of 1.0 g/L. The cyst formation rate increased from 4.6% to 24.6% when the concentration of clay was increased from 0 to 1.0 g/L. Two cyst metamorphs were observed: spinal calcareous cysts and smooth noncalcareous ones. The proportion of the spinal cysts decreased from 76.9% to 24.1% when clay concentration increased from 0 to 1.0 g/L. In addition, modified clay affected cyst germination. The germination rate decreased with the increases in the clay concentrations. Non-calcareous cysts had a lower germination rate with a longer germination time. We conclude that modified clay could depress algal cell multiplication and promote formation of temporal cysts of S. trochoidea, which may help in controlling HAB outbreaks.

  12. [Effect of surface modified nano-diamond on viscosity of dental adhesives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juan; Liang, Jie; Hu, Ai-yun; Liu, Xue-heng

    2012-06-01

    Different surface modified ultrafine-diamond (UFD) was added into dental adhesives as filler ,then the influence of dental adhesive properties was observed. The main matrix of dental adhesive was high polymer resin. Different content of non-modified UFD(n-UFD) or modified UFD(m-UFD) were added into dental adhesives, then the viscosity of materials were measured. The data was processed with SPSS17.0 software package. The viscosity of dental adhesives was decreased when the proportion of UFD was less than 0.1wt%, especially when it was 0.1wt%; but was significantly improved when the proportion was more than 0.1wt%. The effect of UFD and surface-modified UFD on the viscosity was significantly different. The results show that silane coupling was chemically-grafted on the surface of UFD, the dispersion and stability of UFD in ethanol was improved; And a quantity of UFD with special content could reduce the viscosity of dental adhesives and improve the flowability obviously. The m-UFD was superior to n-UFD.

  13. Modified Hodge Test: A Simple and Effective Test for Detection of Carbapenemase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Malik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Resistance among bacterial isolates is the leading cause of increased mortality and morbidity worldwide. Carbapenems once thought to be effective are becoming ineffective mostly due to the emergence of carbapenemase. This study was designed to determine in vitro efficacy of Modified Hodge test for detection of carbapenemase production in Gram negative rods.Material and Methods: The study was done in the Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi Pakistan from January 2010 to December 2010. A total of 200 Gram negative rods from different clinical samples were taken. Those isolates which showed intermediate or susceptible zones i.e 16mm-21mm on disc diffusion were included in the study. These isolates were then subjected to Modified Hodge test.Result: Out of 200 isolates, 138 (69% were positive for carbapenemase production by Modified Hodge test. Out of 138 MHT positive organisms, the frequency of E. coli was 38%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (17%, Acinetobacter baumannii (12%, Citrobacter diversus (2% and Enterobacter agglomerans (1.4%.Conclusion: Modified Hodge test is a simple test which can be performed in the routine lab for detection of carbapenemases in isolates showing intermediate or sensitive zone diameter on disc diffusion.

  14. Harberger-Laursen-Metzler Effect with Modified Becker-Mulligan Preference by Dynamic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Shan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of terms-of-trade shocks on the spending and current account where households with the modified Becker-Mulligan endogenous time preference maximize their utility over an infinite planning period. Our results show that, with the modified Becker-Mulligan preference, the effect of the deterioration in terms of trade on the current account depends on people’s characters. However, with the second preference we have considered, the deterioration in terms of trade will result in a current account deficit, which is the same as Obstfeld (1982, where households with Uzawa endogenous time preference are considered; deterioration in terms of trade leads to a decline in the current account. These theoretical results are consistent with the empirical evidence by numerical simulations.

  15. Effect of Reprocessing and Accelerated Weathering on Impact-Modified Recycled Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V.; Mohanty, Smita; Biswal, Manoranjan; Nayak, Sanjay K.

    2015-12-01

    Recovery of recycled polycarbonate, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, high-impact polystyrene, and its blends from waste electrical and electronic equipment plastics products properties were enhanced by the addition of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier. The optimized blend formulation was processed through five cycles, at processing temperature, 220-240 °C and accelerated weathering up to 700 h. Moreover, the effect of reprocessing and accelerated weathering in the physical properties of the modified blends was investigated by mechanical, thermal, rheological, and morphological studies. The results show that in each reprocessing cycle, the tensile strength and impact strength decreased significantly and the similar behavior has been observed from accelerated weathering. Subsequently, the viscosity decreases and this decrease becomes the effect of thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. This can be correlated with FTIR analysis.

  16. Discriminating thermal effect in nonlinear-ellipse-rotation-modified Z-scan measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Bo; Shi, Shuo; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2011-06-01

    We report that a modified Z-scan method by nonlinear ellipse rotation (NER) can be used to discriminate true nonlinear refraction from thermal effect in the transient regime and steady state. The combination of Z-scan and NER allows us to measure the third-order nonlinear susceptibility component without the influence of thermal-optical nonlinearity. The experimental results of pure CS(2) and CS(2) solutions of nigrosine verify that the transient thermal effect can be successfully eliminated from the NER-modified Z-scan measurements. This method is also extended to the case in which thermal-optical nonlinearities depend on a high repetition rate of femtosecond laser pulses for the N,N-dimethylmethanamide solutions of graphene oxide. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. The effect of long-term oxidation on the rheological properties of polymer modified asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonghong Ruan; Richard R. Davison; Charles J. Glover [Texas A & M University, College Station, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2003-10-01

    The effect of long-term aging on rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders was studied. Modifiers included diblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene) rubber, triblock poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene), and tire rubber. Asphalt aging was carried out either at 60{sup o}C in a controlled environmental room or at 100{sup o}C in a pressure aging vessel (AASHTO Provisional Standards, 1993). Both dynamic shear properties and extensional properties were investigated. Polymer modification resulted in increased asphalt complex modulus at high temperatures, decreased asphalt complex modulus at low temperatures, broadened relaxation spectra, and improved ductility. Oxidative aging decreased asphalt temperature susceptibility, damaged the polymer network in binders, further broadened the relaxation spectrum, and diminished polymer effectiveness in improving asphalt ductility. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. The effect of IPS-modified, an early intervention for people with mood and anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Lone; Bech, Per; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and affective disorders can be disabling and have a major impact on the ability to work. In Denmark, people with a mental disorder, and mainly non-psychotic disorders, represent a substantial and increasing part of those receiving disability pensions. Previous studies have indicated...... that Individual Placement and Support (IPS) has a positive effect on employment when provided to people with severe mental illness. This modified IPS intervention is aimed at supporting people with recently diagnosed anxiety or affective disorders in regaining their ability to work and facilitate their return...... to work or education.Aim: To investigate whether an early modified IPS intervention has an effect on employment and education when provided to people with recently diagnosed anxiety or affective disorders in a Danish context.Methods/design: The trial is a randomised, assessor-blinded, clinical superiority...

  19. The stress response to surgery: release mechanisms and the modifying effect of pain relief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1989-01-01

    This short review updates information on the release mechanisms of the systemic response to surgical injury and the modifying effect of pain relief. Initiation of the response is primarily due to afferent nerve impulses combined with release of humoral substances (such as prostaglandins, kinins...... in releasing the classical endocrine catabolic response, while humoral factors are important for the hyperthermic response, changes in coagulation and fibrinolysis immunofunction, and capillary permeability. The modifying effect of pain relief on the surgical stress response is dependent upon the technique...... on the stress response. In summary, pain alleviation itself may not necessarily lead to an important modification of the stress response, and a combined approach with inhibition of the neural and humoral release mechanisms is necessary for a pronounced inhibition or prevention of the response to surgical injury....

  20. Synthetic Lethality Screen Identifies RPS6KA2 as Modifier of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Milosevic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a high degree of resistance to chemotherapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibition using the small-molecule inhibitor erlotinib was shown to provide a small survival benefit in a subgroup of patients. To identify kinases whose inhibition acts synergistically with erlotinib, we employed a kinome-wide small-interfering RNA (siRNA-based loss-of-function screen in the presence of erlotinib. Of 779 tested kinases, we identified several targets whose inhibition acted synergistically lethal with EGFR inhibition by erlotinib, among them the S6 kinase ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (RPS6KA2/ribosomal S6 kinase 3. Activated RPS6KA2 was expressed in approximately 40% of 123 human pancreatic cancer tissues. RPS6KA2 was shown to act downstream of EGFR/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK signaling and was activated by EGF independently of the presence of KRAS mutations. Knockdown of RPS6KA2 by siRNA led to increased apoptosis only in the presence of erlotinib, whereas RPS6KA2 activation or overexpression rescued from erlotinib- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. This effect was at least in part mediated by downstream activation of ribosomal protein S6. Genetic as well as pharmacological inhibition of RPS6KA2 by the inhibitor BI-D1870 acted synergistically with erlotinib. By applying this synergistic lethality screen using a kinome-wide RNA interference-library approach, we identified RPS6KA2 as potential drug target whose inhibition synergistically enhanced the effect of erlotinib on tumor cell survival. This kinase therefore represents a promising drug candidate suitable for the development of novel inhibitors for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  1. Effectiveness of surface protection for resin-modified glass-ionomer materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, APG; Serra, MC; Paulillo, LAMS; Rodrigues, AL

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various surface treatments for resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative materials by determining dye uptake spectrophotometrically. Method and materials: Two hundred twenty-four specimens, 4.1 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm thick, were made of 3 materials: Vitremer, Fuji II LC, and Photac-Fil Aplicap. Specimens were divided into 15 groups. The positive and negative control specimens remained unprotected, while the experiment...

  2. Age: An effect modifier of the association between allergic rhinitis and Otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Rachel E; Veling, Maria; Shin, Jennifer J

    2016-07-01

    1) To determine whether there is a significant relationship between allergic rhinitis and otitis media with effusion (OME), Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD), or tympanic membrane retraction (TMR) in children in a nationally representative population; and 2) to determine whether age is an effect modifier of any such association because this hypothesis has yet to be tested. Retrospective analysis of cross-sectional national databases with limited potential for referral bias. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2005-2010. Univariate, multivariate, stratified, and subgroup analyses were performed as defined a priori. The primary outcomes were OME, ETD, or TMR; the primary predictor variable was allergic rhinitis, with age evaluated as an effect modifier. Data representing 1,491,045,375 pediatric visits were examined and demonstrated that age was an effect modifier of the assessed association. More specifically, in children 6 years of age or older, the presence of allergic rhinitis significantly increased the odds of OME, ETD, or TMR (odds ratio [OR] 4.20; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.17, 8.09; P < 0.001), whereas in children less than 6 years of age there was no significant association (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.53, 2.46; P = 0.745). Age is an effect modifier of the association between allergic rhinitis and OME; a significant relationship is observed in children 6 years of age and older, whereas there is no significant association in younger children. 2c. Laryngoscope, 126:1687-1692, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Exchange bias effect modified asymmetric magnetization reversal in Ni/YMnO3 multiferroic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Junlu; Zheng, Dongxing; Li, Dong; Jin, Chao; Li, Peng; Feng, Liefeng; Bai, Haili

    2016-04-01

    Exchange bias (EB) effect modified asymmetric magnetization reversal in Ni/YMnO3 multiferroic bilayers was investigated by combining anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) with free energy methods. The promotion and inhibition effects of EB field on magnetization rotation result in the asymmetry of magnetization reversal. The AMR curves exhibit shape transition from arc-like to sin2θH-dependence with increasing external fields due to the competition between Zeeman energy and interfacial coupling energy. The phase shift and asymmetric behaviors become weak as the EB field decreases. Our work suggests that controlling the EB effect can be an alternative way to manipulate the magnetization reversal in exchange biased systems.

  4. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT.

  5. The NSL chromatin-modifying complex subunit KANSL2 regulates cancer stem-like properties in glioblastoma that contribute to tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra-Solari, Nazarena; Belforte, Fiorella S.; Canedo, Lucía; Videla-Richardson, Guillermo A.; Espinosa, Joaquín M.; Rossi, Mario; Serna, Eva; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Martinetto, Horacio; Sevlever, Gustavo; Perez-Castro, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    KANSL2 is an integral subunit of the Non-Specific Lethal (NSL) chromatin-modifying complex which contributes to epigenetic programs in embryonic stem cells. In this study, we report a role for KANSL2 in regulation of stemness in glioblastoma (GBM), which is characterized by heterogeneous tumor stem-like cells associated with therapy resistance and disease relapse. KANSL2 expression is upregulated in cancer cells, mainly at perivascular regions of tumors. RNAi-mediated silencing of KANSL2 in GBM cells impairs their tumorigenic capacity in mouse xenograft models. In clinical specimens, we found that expression levels of KANSL2 correlate with stemness markers in GBM stem-like cell populations. Mechanistic investigations showed that KANSL2 regulates cell self-renewal, which correlates with effects on expression of the stemness transcription factor POU5F1. RNAi-mediated silencing of POU5F1 reduced KANSL2 levels, linking these two genes to stemness control in GBM cells. Together, our findings indicate that KANSL2 acts to regulate the stem cell population in GBM, defining it as a candidate GBM biomarker for clinical use. PMID:27406830

  6. Cadmium modifies the cell cycle and apoptotic profiles of human breast cancer cells treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asara, Yolande; Marchal, Juan A; Carrasco, Esther; Boulaiz, Houria; Solinas, Giuliana; Bandiera, Pasquale; Garcia, Maria A; Farace, Cristiano; Montella, Andrea; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-08-12

    Industrialisation, the proximity of factories to cities, and human work activities have led to a disproportionate use of substances containing heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), which may have deleterious effects on human health. Carcinogenic effects of Cd and its relationship with breast cancer, among other tumours, have been reported. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug used to treat solid tumours of the colon, breast, stomach, liver, and pancreas. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of Cd on cell cycle, apoptosis, and gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with 5-FU. Cd altered the cell cycle profile, and its effects were greater when used either alone or in combination with 5-FU compared with 5-FU alone. Cd significantly suppressed apoptosis of MCF-7 cells pre-treated with 5-FU. Regarding gene and protein expression, bcl2 expression was mainly upregulated by all treatments involving Cd. The expression of caspase 8 and caspase 9 was decreased by most of the treatments and at all times evaluated. C-myc expression was increased by all treatments involving Cd, especially 5-FU plus Cd at the half time of treatment. Cd plus 5-FU decreased cyclin D1 and increased cyclin A1 expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that exposure to Cd blocks the anticancer effects of 5-FU in MCF-7 cells. These results could have important clinical implications in patients treated with 5-FU-based therapies and who are exposed to high levels of Cd.

  7. Cadmium Modifies the Cell Cycle and Apoptotic Profiles of Human Breast Cancer Cells Treated with 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Madeddu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Industrialisation, the proximity of factories to cities, and human work activities have led to a disproportionate use of substances containing heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd, which may have deleterious effects on human health. Carcinogenic effects of Cd and its relationship with breast cancer, among other tumours, have been reported. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU is a fluoropyrimidine anticancer drug used to treat solid tumours of the colon, breast, stomach, liver, and pancreas. The purpose of this work was to study the effects of Cd on cell cycle, apoptosis, and gene and protein expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with 5-FU. Cd altered the cell cycle profile, and its effects were greater when used either alone or in combination with 5-FU compared with 5-FU alone. Cd significantly suppressed apoptosis of MCF-7 cells pre-treated with 5-FU. Regarding gene and protein expression, bcl2 expression was mainly upregulated by all treatments involving Cd. The expression of caspase 8 and caspase 9 was decreased by most of the treatments and at all times evaluated. C-myc expression was increased by all treatments involving Cd, especially 5-FU plus Cd at the half time of treatment. Cd plus 5-FU decreased cyclin D1 and increased cyclin A1 expression. In conclusion, our results indicate that exposure to Cd blocks the anticancer effects of 5-FU in MCF-7 cells. These results could have important clinical implications in patients treated with 5-FU-based therapies and who are exposed to high levels of Cd.

  8. Half versus full vacuum suction drainage after modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer- a prospective randomized clinical trial[ISRCTN24484328

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh JP

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suction drains are routinely used after modified radical mastectomy and are an important factor contributing to increased hospital stay as the patients are often discharged only after their removal. Amongst various factors that influence the amount of postoperative drainage, the negative suction pressure applied to the drain has been reported to be of great significance. While a high negative suction pressure is expected to drain the collection and reduce the dead space promptly, it may also prevent the leaking lymphatics from closing and lead to increased drainage from the wound. Against this background a prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare the amount and duration of drainage between a half negative suction and full vacuum suction drainage in patients following modified radical mastectomy. The associated postoperative morbidity was also compared between the two groups. Methods 85 FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology proven cases of locally advanced breast cancer were randomized. (Using randomly ordered sealed envelops, which were opened immediately before the closure of the wound in to 50 patients with full vacuum suction (pressure = 700 g/m2 and 35 cases in to half vacuum suction drainage (pressure = 350 g/m2 groups. The two groups were comparable in respect of age, weight, and technique of operation and extent of axillary dissection. Surgery was performed by the same surgical team comprising of five surgeons (two senior and three resident surgeons using a standardized technique with electrocautery. External compression dressing was provided over the axilla for first 48 hrs and following that patients were encouraged to do active and passive shoulder exercises. The outcomes measured were postoperative morbidity and the length of hospital stay. Statistical methods used: Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10 and group characteristics were compared using student t-test. Results

  9. Half versus full vacuum suction drainage after modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer- a prospective randomized clinical trial[ISRCTN24484328].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintamani; Singhal, Vinay; Singh, Jp; Bansal, Anju; Saxena, Sunita

    2005-01-27

    Suction drains are routinely used after modified radical mastectomy and are an important factor contributing to increased hospital stay as the patients are often discharged only after their removal. Amongst various factors that influence the amount of postoperative drainage, the negative suction pressure applied to the drain has been reported to be of great significance. While a high negative suction pressure is expected to drain the collection and reduce the dead space promptly, it may also prevent the leaking lymphatics from closing and lead to increased drainage from the wound. Against this background a prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare the amount and duration of drainage between a half negative suction and full vacuum suction drainage in patients following modified radical mastectomy. The associated postoperative morbidity was also compared between the two groups. 85 FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology) proven cases of locally advanced breast cancer were randomized. (Using randomly ordered sealed envelops, which were opened immediately before the closure of the wound) in to 50 patients with full vacuum suction (pressure = 700 g/m2) and 35 cases in to half vacuum suction drainage (pressure = 350 g/m2) groups. The two groups were comparable in respect of age, weight, and technique of operation and extent of axillary dissection. Surgery was performed by the same surgical team comprising of five surgeons (two senior and three resident surgeons) using a standardized technique with electrocautery. External compression dressing was provided over the axilla for first 48 hrs and following that patients were encouraged to do active and passive shoulder exercises. The outcomes measured were postoperative morbidity and the length of hospital stay. Statistical methods used: Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10 and group characteristics were compared using student t-test. Half vacuum suction drains were removed earlier than

  10. INVESTIGATING EFFECTS OF AMINE BASED MODIFIER ON RECYCLED ASPHALT SHINGLES BLENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Sedhay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of Amine based modifier on rheological characteristics of particle filled viscous medium such as asphalt binder in presence of Recycled Asphalt Shingles (RAS. In this study, virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22, three different percentages (20, 30 and 40% of tear-off shingles and modifiers; Rediset, Evotherm and Bio-binder were used. The tear-off shingles acquired from local reroofing company in Greensboro, North Carolina; were finely grinded (85% passing of sieve # 200. The virgin binder and different percentages of RAS were then blended at 180°C using shearing speed of 400 rpm. Following that themixture was blended with 1.5% of Rediset, 0.5% of Evotherm and 5% of bio-binder. The properties of the blended binder were studied using the Rotational Viscometer (RV equipped with two different spindle types:- One was Smooth Cylindrical spindle (SC4-27D and the other one was Vane spindle (V 73. The analysis showed that the viscosity was increased with increasing the RAS percentage. Furthermore, the viscosity measured by vane spindle was continuously higher than the value measured by smooth spindle; however the difference between the two measurements reduced as the blending were improved using modifiers. Moreover, temperature found to be the main contributor to reduction of the viscosity in both spindles cases. In addition the coefficient of variation was significantly lower in the case of vane spindle, indicating that the vane spindle could be more appropriate in measuring viscosity of particle filled viscous medium such as RAS asphalt. Based on the experimental result an empirical index called blending index was introduced in this study to measure the blending behavior and status for modified mixtures. As expected it was found that the blending index increases as the temperature and rotational speed increases. In other word, higher temperature and shearing rate could enhance blending resulting

  11. Evaluation of the radio modifier effect of propolis on chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60-CO; Avaliacao do efeito radiomodificador da propolis em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO-K1) e em celulas tumorais de prostata (PC3), irradiadas com CO-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Geyza Spigoti

    2011-07-01

    In the last decades, it has been given a great interest to investigations concerning natural, effective, nontoxic compounds with radioprotective potential together with the increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them propolis, a resinous compound produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been considered quite promising, since it presents several advantageous biological characteristics, i. e., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and also free radical scavenging action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation. For this purpose, three interlinked parameters were analyzed: micronucleus induction, cell viability and clonogenic death. The choice of these parameters was justified by their biological significance, in addition to the fact that they are readily observable and measurable in irradiated cells. The cytogenetic data obtained showed a radioprotective effect of propolis (5-100 {mu}g/ml) in the induction of DNA damage for both cell lines, irradiated with doses of 1 - 4 Gy. The cytotoxicity assay, however, showed a prominent antiproliferative effect of propolis (50 - 400{mu}/ml) in PC3 cells irradiated with 5 G{gamma}. The survival curves obtained were adequately fitted by a linear-quadratic model, where the {alpha} coefficient was higher in CHO-K1 cells. Concerning the clonogenic capacity, PC3 cells were more radiosensitive than CHO-K1 cells at the higher doses of the survival curve. Propolis at the concentrations of 30 - 100 {mu}g/ml, did not influence the clonogenic potential of PC3 cells, since the survival curves, associated or not with propolis, were found similar, although the combined treatment in CHO-K1 cells exhibited a stimulating proliferative effect. The data

  12. Effect of thioperamide on modified forced swimming test-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd; Pillai, K K; Vohora, Divya

    2005-10-01

    This study was designed i) to investigate the role of histamine H3-receptor ligands on mouse modified forced swimming test, a method that distinguishes the catecholaminergic behaviour with that of serotonergic compounds and ii) to evaluate the role of free radicals in mediation of such effects. Swiss strain albino mice were treated with different doses of histamine H3-receptor antagonist thioperamide (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally) and agonist (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (5 microg intracerebroventricularly). The climbing, swimming and immobility times were recorded for 6 min. Immediately after modified forced swimming test, the animals were sacrificed and parameters of oxidative stress were assessed in the brain by measuring the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) and catalase levels. Thioperamide (7.5 and 15 mg/kg intraperitoneally) dose-dependently decreased immobility time and increased swimming time but not climbing time. The behaviour of mice treated with (R)-alpha-methylhistamine was similar to that of control mice. A significant reduction in GSH and an increase in catalase levels were observed in brains of mice exposed to modified forced swimming test. Thioperamide pretreatment dose-dependently reversed such an alteration in oxidative stress parameters. (R)-alpha-methylhistamine caused a reversal of altered catalase but not GSH levels. Thioperamide shows antidepressant effects in the modified forced swimming test and causes a reversal of the test-induced oxidative stress indicating its antioxidant potential. The antidepressant effect of thioperamide appears to be mediated via serotonergic and/or antioxidant mechanisms.

  13. Analysis of Dysphagia Patterns Using a Modified Barium Swallowing Test Following Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Yoon; Kim, Bo Hwan; Park, Young Hak

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate specific dysphagia patterns and to identify the factors affecting dysphagia, especially aspiration, following treatment of head and neck cancer. A retrospective analysis of 57 patients was performed. Dysphagia was evaluated using a modified barium swallow (MBS) test. The MBS results were rated on the 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) and swallowing performance status (SPS) score. Reduced base of the tongue (BOT) retraction (64.9%), reduced laryngeal elevation (57.9%), and cricopharyngeus (CP) dysfunction (47.4%) were found. Reduced BOT retraction was correlated with clinical stage (p=0.011) and treatment modality (p=0.001). Aspiration in 42.1% and penetration in 33.3% of patients were observed. Twenty-four patients had PAS values over 6, implying aspiration. Forty-one patients had a SPS score of more than 3, 25 patients had a score greater than 5, and 13 patients had a SPS score of more than 7. Aspiration was found more often in patients with penetration (p=0.002) and in older patients (p=0.026). In older patients, abnormal swallowing caused aspiration even in those with a SPS score of more than 3, irrespective of stage or treatment, contrary to younger patients. Tube feeders (n=20) exhibited older age (65.0%), dysphagia/aspiration related structures (DARS) primaries (75.0%), higher stage disease (66.7%), and a history of radiotherapy (68.8%). Reduced BOT retraction was the most common dysphagia pattern and was correlated with clinical stage and treatment regimens including radiotherapy. Aspiration was more frequent in patients who had penetration and in older patients. In contrast to younger patients, older patients showed greater risk of aspiration even with a single abnormal swallowing irrespective of stage or treatment.

  14. Skin Cancer Risk Is Modified by KIR/HLA Interactions That Influence the Activation of Natural Killer Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineretsky, Karin A; Karagas, Margaret R; Christensen, Brock C; Kuriger-Laber, Jacquelyn K; Perry, Ann E; Storm, Craig A; Nelson, Heather H

    2016-01-15

    Natural killer (NK)-cell phenotype is partially mediated through binding of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) with HLA class I ligands. The KIR gene family is highly polymorphic and not well captured by standard genome-wide association study approaches. Here, we tested the hypothesis that variations in KIR gene content combined with HLA class I ligand status is associated with keratinocyte skin cancers using a population-based study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We conducted an interaction analysis of KIR gene content variation and HLA-B (Bw4 vs. Bw6) and HLA-C (C1 vs. C2). KIR centromeric B haplotype was associated with significant risk of multiple BCC tumors (OR, 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-5.21), and there was a significant interaction between HLA-C and the activating gene KIR2DS3 for BCC (Pinteraction = 0.005). Furthermore, there was significant interaction between HLA-B and telomeric KIR B haplotype (containing the activating genes KIR3DS1 and KIR2DS1) as well as HLA-B and the activating KIR gene KIR2DS5 (Pinteraction 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). Similar but greatly attenuated associations were observed for SCC. Moreover, previous in vitro models demonstrated that p53 is required for upregulation of NK ligands, and accordingly, we observed there was a strong association between the KIR B haplotype and p53 alteration in BCC tumors, with a higher likelihood that KIR B carriers harbor abnormal p53 (P KIR and HLA modify risks of BCC and SCC and that KIR encoded by the B genes provides selective pressure for altered p53 in BCC tumors.

  15. Ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO nanorods-seed layer effect and metal oxide modifying layer effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pt/ZnO nanorod (NR and Pt/modified ZnO NR Schottky barrier ultraviolet (UV photodetectors (PDs were prepared with different seed layers and metal oxide modifying layer materials. In this paper, we discussed the effect of metal oxide modifying layer on the performance of UV PDs pre- and post-deposition annealing at 300°C, respectively. For Schottky barrier UV PDs with different seed layers, the MgZnO seed layer-PDs without metal oxide coating showed bigger responsivity and larger detectivity (Dλ* than those of PDs with ZnO seed layer, and the reason was illustrated through energy band theory and the electron transport mechanism. Also the ratio of D254* to D546* was calculated above 8 × 102 for all PDs, which demonstrated that our PDs showed high selectivity for detecting UV light with less influence of light with long wavelength.

  16. Ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO nanorods-seed layer effect and metal oxide modifying layer effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai; Fang, Guojia; Liu, Nishuang; Zhao, Xingzhong

    2011-02-15

    Pt/ZnO nanorod (NR) and Pt/modified ZnO NR Schottky barrier ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors (PDs) were prepared with different seed layers and metal oxide modifying layer materials. In this paper, we discussed the effect of metal oxide modifying layer on the performance of UV PDs pre- and post-deposition annealing at 300°C, respectively. For Schottky barrier UV PDs with different seed layers, the MgZnO seed layer-PDs without metal oxide coating showed bigger responsivity and larger detectivity (Dλ*) than those of PDs with ZnO seed layer, and the reason was illustrated through energy band theory and the electron transport mechanism. Also the ratio of D254* to D546* was calculated above 8 × 102 for all PDs, which demonstrated that our PDs showed high selectivity for detecting UV light with less influence of light with long wavelength.

  17. Integrative Review: Effects of Music on Cancer Pain in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, AnnMarie; Keithley, Joyce K

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the literature for music's effect on adult cancer pain.
. An electronic literature search from 1986-2014 was conducted to evaluate the effects of quantitative music among adults with cancer pain in settings including homes, hospitals, and palliative care units. Databases used were PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scopus.
 The study designs, methods, measures, outcomes, and limitations were evaluated independently by the primary author and verified by the second author. The primary outcome measure of interest was the effect of music in cancer pain. Of 82 studies, 5 of them--totaling 248 participants--met eligibility criteria. Review of findings suggests a paucity of innovative approaches for using music to mitigate cancer pain among adults. Psychological outcomes, anxiety, depression, and mood were understudied. Advanced pain, multiple cancer types, and lack of racial diversity characterize the samples.
 Modern treatments for cancer have improved survival rates; however, patients often experience tumor- and treatment-related pain. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic methods may minimize cancer pain. The use of music as an adjunct to pain medication requires additional studies, particularly on mechanisms of its effect on pain among diverse, large samples with multiple cancer pain types. A limitation of this review is the small number of available studies to date. The evidence for music therapy in the management of pain is limited. Integrative methods using music may represent an important intervention that nurses may be able to suggest as an inexpensive, nontoxic, and readily available intervention for potentially minimizing cancer pain.

  18. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan;

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2...... mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively......, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream...

  19. Antitumor Effects of Laminaria Extract Fucoxanthin on Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChengHan Mei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC is the most common type. Marine plants provide rich resources for anticancer drug discovery. Fucoxanthin (FX, a Laminaria japonica extract, has attracted great research interest for its antitumor activities. Accumulating evidence suggests anti-proliferative effects of FX on many cancer cell lines including NSCLCs, but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we confirmed molecular mechanisms and in vivo anti-lung cancer effect of FX at the first time. Flow cytometry, real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that FX arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis by modulating expression of p53, p21, Fas, PUMA, Bcl-2 and caspase-3/8. These results show that FX is a potent marine drug for human non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

  20. Combined effects of antioxidant vitamin and NOS3 genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee

    2012-02-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that there is wide heterogeneity in genetic predisposition to breast cancer and that breast cancer risk is determined by interactive effect between genetic and environmental factors. We investigated the combined effects of antioxidant vitamin intake and NOS3 genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk in a Korean population (Seoul Breast Cancer Study). Histologically confirmed breast cancer cases (n = 512) and age, menopause status-matched controls (n = 512) with no present or previous history of cancer were recruited from several teaching hospitals in Seoul during 2001-2003. Two genetic polymorphisms of NOS3 (298G > T and -786 T > C) were assessed by single base extension assays. No overall association between the individual NOS3 genotypes or diplotypes and breast cancer risk was found, although the difference between cases and controls in the frequency of the NOS3 894 G > T polymorphism showed borderline significance (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.52-1.06). There was no significant difference in energy intake or the intake of antioxidant vitamins between cases and controls, with the exception of vitamin E (OR = 0.49 lowest vs. highest quartile, P(trend) NOS3 -786 T > C or 894 G > T genetic polymorphisms on breast cancer risk. Although a multiplicative interaction was not observed, the protective effect of β-carotene intake on breast cancer risk was observed predominantly in individuals with the TG:TG diplotype of NOS3 (OR = 0.68) but not observed with others diplotype. An inverse association between vitamin E intake and breast cancer risk was observed for individuals with the NOS3 786 TC + TT genotype and the NOS3 894 GG genotype. In addition, folic acid had a protective effect in the NOS3 786 TT and NOS3 894 GT + TT genotype. Our results suggest that intake of antioxidant vitamins might modify the association between genetic polymorphisms of NOS3 and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and

  1. Effects of modified Pilates on variability of inter-joint coordination during walking in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sukhoon; Kim, Joo Nyeon; Lim, Hee Sung

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of an 8-week modified Pilates program on the variability of inter-joint coordination in the elderly during walking. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly participants with no recent history of orthopedic abnormalities (age, 67.9 ± 2.7 years; height, 163.7 ± 8.9 cm; weight, 67.1 ± 11.6 kg) were recruited for this study and randomly allocated to a modified Pilates exercise group or a control group. Three-dimensional motion analysis was performed on both groups to evaluate the effects of the Pilates exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the joint variability of the ankle, knee, and hip joints between the groups, both before training and after training. However, there was a significant increase in the hip-knee deviation phase value in the exercise group after the program was completed, and this increase was also significant when compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated that an 8-week modified Pilates exercise program can have a positive impact on the gait of elderly participants, potentially by enhancing neuromuscular adjustment, which may have positive implications for reducing their fall risk.

  2. The Effectiveness of Modified Vertical Dome Division Technique in Reducing Nasal Tip Projection in Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rafatbakhs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The technique of vertical dome division or tip defining, involves incising the lateral crura and vestibular skin at or lateral to the dome or tip defining point. The incision divides the lower lateral cartilage into a lateral segment and a medial segment, which are advanced anteriorly and sutured together to increase tip projection. The present study aimed at assessing a new vertical dome division, which is a modified version of vertical dome technique to decrease nasal tip projection, and increase or decrease nasal tip rotation and other tip deformities. Methods: The medical files of patients undergone rhinoplasty from 2003 to 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The files were selected from a computerized rhinoplasty database of patients, who had been operated using a modified vertical dome technique and followed-up for one year or more after the surgery. Results: A total of 3756 patients were operated. Complications related to the nasal tip such as bossae, bifidity, persistent tip projection or tip asymmetry was seen in 81 patients (2.1%. Revisions for tip-related problems were performed in 42 patients (1.1%. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the modified vertical dome technique is an effective method for nasal tip deprojection and narrowing via an open approach. The length of follow-up and the large sample size support effectiveness of the technique

  3. Clinical Efficacy of Breast-Conserving Surgery and Modified Radical Mastectomy in the Treatment of Early Breast Cancer%保乳手术与改良根治术临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩广林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of breast-conserving surgery and modified radical mastectomy in the treatment of early breast cancer. MethodsWe divided 70 patients into two groups, the observation group used breast-conserving surgery, and control group used modified radical mastectomy. compared the effect between two groups.ResultsThe operation time, hospitalization time and complication rate of observation group were significantly lower than control group(P<0.05).Conclusion The effect of breast conserving surgery for early breast cancer is ideal.%目的:探讨保乳术与改良根治术治疗早期乳腺癌的效果。方法随机将70例早期乳腺癌患者平均分为两组,观察组行保乳术,对照组行改良根治术。比较两组临床疗效。结果观察组手术时间、住院时间及并发症发生率等低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论保乳手术治疗早期乳腺癌效果理想。

  4. Natural Product Shows Effectiveness in Combating Colorectal Cancer | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    An herbal extract used for centuries to prevent heart disease has now been shown to be effective against colorectal cancer when tested in laboratory cell cultures. Scientists from NCI at Frederick found that the natural extract cryptotanshinone (CPT) stops the uncontrolled cell growth characteristic of cancer by interfering with a protein that has been implicated in several cancers, including those of the colon and rectum. The results appear in the journal Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry.

  5. A multidimensional cancer rehabilitation program for cancer survivors - Effectiveness on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E; Hoekstra-Weebers, J; Grol, B; Otter, R; Arendzen, HJ; Postema, K; Sanderman, R; van der Schans, C

    Objective: A multidimensional rehabilitation program for cancer survivors was developed to overcome cancer-related problems and to improve quality of life. The two purposes of the study were to describe the effectiveness of the program and to obtain information about patient preferences for multi or

  6. A multidimensional cancer rehabilitation program for cancer survivors - Effectiveness on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E; Hoekstra-Weebers, J; Grol, B; Otter, R; Arendzen, HJ; Postema, K; Sanderman, R; van der Schans, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A multidimensional rehabilitation program for cancer survivors was developed to overcome cancer-related problems and to improve quality of life. The two purposes of the study were to describe the effectiveness of the program and to obtain information about patient preferences for multi or

  7. A multidimensional cancer rehabilitation program for cancer survivors - Effectiveness on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E; Hoekstra-Weebers, J; Grol, B; Otter, R; Arendzen, HJ; Postema, K; Sanderman, R; van der Schans, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A multidimensional rehabilitation program for cancer survivors was developed to overcome cancer-related problems and to improve quality of life. The two purposes of the study were to describe the effectiveness of the program and to obtain information about patient preferences for multi or

  8. KAT6A, a Chromatin Modifier from the 8p11-p12 Amplicon is a Candidate Oncogene in Luminal Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Turner-Ivey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The chromosome 8p11-p12 amplicon is present in 12% to 15% of breast cancers, resulting in an increase in copy number and expression of several chromatin modifiers in these tumors, including KAT6A. Previous analyses in SUM-52 breast cancer cells showed amplification and overexpression of KAT6A, and subsequent RNAi screening identified KAT6A as a potential driving oncogene. KAT6A is a histone acetyltransferase previously identified as a fusion partner with CREB binding protein in acute myeloid leukemia. Knockdown of KAT6A in SUM-52 cells, a luminal breast cancer cell line harboring the amplicon, resulted in reduced growth rate compared to non-silencing controls and profound loss of clonogenic capacity both in mono-layer and in soft agar. The normal cell line MCF10A, however, did not exhibit slower growth with knockdown of KAT6A. SUM-52 cells with KAT6A knockdown formed fewer mammospheres in culture compared to controls, suggesting a possible role for KAT6A in self-renewal. Previous data from our laboratory identified FGFR2 as a driving oncogene in SUM-52 cells. The colony forming efficiency of SUM-52 KAT6A knockdown cells in the presence of FGFR inhibition was significantly reduced compared to cells with KAT6A knockdown only. These data suggest that KAT6A may be a novel oncogene in breast cancers bearing the 8p11-p12 amplicon. While there are other putative oncogenes in the amplicon, the identification of KAT6A as a driving oncogene suggests that chromatin-modifying enzymes are a key class of oncogenes in these cancers, and play an important role in the selection of this amplicon in luminal B breast cancers.

  9. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  10. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer ... voice. Puffy face. Muscle and joint aches and stiffness. Constipation . Menstrual periods that are heavier than normal. ...

  11. Synergistic anti-cancer effect of phenformin and oxamate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Keith Miskimins

    Full Text Available Phenformin (phenethylbiguanide; an anti-diabetic agent plus oxamate [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH inhibitor] was tested as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic combination. In in vitro studies, phenformin was more potent than metformin, another biguanide, recently recognized to have anti-cancer effects, in promoting cancer cell death in the range of 25 times to 15 million times in various cancer cell lines. The anti-cancer effect of phenformin was related to complex I inhibition in the mitochondria and subsequent overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Addition of oxamate inhibited LDH activity and lactate production by cells, which is a major side effect of biguanides, and induced more rapid cancer cell death by decreasing ATP production and accelerating ROS production. Phenformin plus oxamate was more effective than phenformin combined with LDH knockdown. In a syngeneic mouse model, phenformin with oxamate increased tumor apoptosis, reduced tumor size and (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared to control. We conclude that phenformin is more cytotoxic towards cancer cells than metformin. Furthermore, phenformin and oxamate have synergistic anti-cancer effects through simultaneous inhibition of complex I in the mitochondria and LDH in the cytosol, respectively.

  12. Graphene-containing carbon aerogel prepared using polyethyleneimine (PEl)-modified graphene oxide (GO) for supercapacitor: effect of polyethyleneimine-modified GO content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Joongwon; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Lee, Eo Jin; Yi, Jongheop; Song, In Kyu

    2014-11-01

    Graphene-containing carbon aerogel was prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) method using polyethyleneimine (PEL)-modified chemically exfoliated graphene oxide (GO), and its electrochemical performance as an electrode for supercapacitor was examined. The effect of PEI-modified GO content on the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of graphene-containing carbon aerogel was investigated. For comparison, graphene-free carbon aerogel was also prepared. Among the samples, graphene-containing carbon aerogel prepared using 45 wt% PEI-modified GO solution (CA(45PG)) showed the highest BET surface area (784 m2/g) and the largest pore volume (1.71 cm3/g) with well-developed porous structure. Electrochemical properties of graphene-containing carbon aerogel and graphene-free carbon aerogel electrodes were measured by cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge test, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Various electrochemical measurements revealed that CA(45PG) showed the highest specific capacitance (261 F/g), the lowest equivalent series resistance (0.16 Ω), and superior capacitive behavior. It is concluded that PEI-modified GO content served as an important factor determining the physicochemical properties and supercapacitive electrochemical performance of graphene-containing carbon aerogel.

  13. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Ross, Eric A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J; Greene, Mark H; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.

  14. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arun, Banu K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cohn, David E.; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldgar, David E.; Hake, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ong, Kai-ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ross, Eric A.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J.; Greene, Mark H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10−16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10−6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  15. Genetic basis and detection of unintended effects in genetically modified crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Bregitzer, Phil; Doerrer, Nancy G; Gray, Alan; Holzhauser, Thomas; Jordan, Mark; Keese, Paul; Kok, Esther; Macdonald, Phil; Parrott, Wayne; Privalle, Laura; Raybould, Alan; Rhee, Seung Yon; Rice, Elena; Romeis, Jörg; Vaughn, Justin; Wal, Jean-Michel; Glenn, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    In January 2014, an international meeting sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency titled "Genetic Basis of Unintended Effects in Modified Plants" was held in Ottawa, Canada, bringing together over 75 scientists from academia, government, and the agro-biotech industry. The objectives of the meeting were to explore current knowledge and identify areas requiring further study on unintended effects in plants and to discuss how this information can inform and improve genetically modified (GM) crop risk assessments. The meeting featured presentations on the molecular basis of plant genome variability in general, unintended changes at the molecular and phenotypic levels, and the development and use of hypothesis-driven evaluations of unintended effects in assessing conventional and GM crops. The development and role of emerging "omics" technologies in the assessment of unintended effects was also discussed. Several themes recurred in a number of talks; for example, a common observation was that no system for genetic modification, including conventional methods of plant breeding, is without unintended effects. Another common observation was that "unintended" does not necessarily mean "harmful". This paper summarizes key points from the information presented at the meeting to provide readers with current viewpoints on these topics.

  16. Possible altitudinal, latitudinal and directional dependence of relativistic Sagnac effect in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Daiki; Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Toward a test of parity violation in a gravity theory, possible effects of Chern-Simons (CS) gravity on an interferometer have been recently discussed. Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication [Okawara, Yamada and Asada, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 231101 (2012)], we study possible altitudinal and directional dependence of relativistic Sagnac effect in CS modified gravity. We compare the CS effects on Sagnac interferometers with the general relativistic Lense-Thirring (LT) effects. Numerical calculations show that the eastbound Sagnac interferometer might be preferred for testing CS separately, because LT effects on this interferometer cancel out. The size of the phase shift induced in the CS model might have an oscillatory dependence also on the altitude of the interferometer through the CS mass parameter $m_{CS}$. Therefore, the international space station site as well as a ground-based experiment is also discussed.

  17. Effect of obesity on survival of women with breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protani, Melinda; Coory, Michael; Martin, Jennifer H

    2010-10-01

    no evidence that weight loss after diagnosis improves survival. Consequently, there is currently no reason to place the additional burden of weight loss on women already burdened with a diagnosis of cancer. Further research should concentrate on assessing whether factors such as diabetes or type of chemotherapy modify the obesity effect and on understanding the causal mechanism, in particular the role of relative under-dosing.

  18. Clinical effectiveness of modified sequential organ failure assessment scoring system for predicting ICU indexing scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Babamohamadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to recognize the severity of the disease in those who their survival depend entirely on admission to the intensive care unit, is very valuable clinically. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of modified sequential organ failure assessment (MSOFA scale to predict mortality and length of stay in intensive care unit patients respectively. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted on hospital records of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. All patients’ records who admitted to the intensive care unit of Kowsar Hospital, Semnan city (the capital of the province, Iran, in 2015 considered as the sample. Collecting data were done during 4 weeks in April and May 2016. The data collection tool was a demographic questionnaire and modified sequential organ failure assessment scale. Exclusion criteria included discharge in the first 24 hours after admission, the patient died a few hours after admission and incomplete information to complete the modified sequential organ failure assessment form. Results: The study of 105 patients' records of the intensive care unit showed that 45.7% of patients were died, 15.2% and 39% were discharged and moved to other wards respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve showed that this criterion had moderate sensitivity and specificity for prediction of mortality and length of stay in ICU patients (Area=0.635, CI= 0.527-0.743 and each unit increase in modified sequential organ failure assessment score is accompanied by increasing 32 percent chance of death (OR=1.325; 95% CI:1.129,1.555; P= 0.001(. Also each unit increase in modified sequential organ failure assessment (MSOFA score accompanied by increasing 19% length of stay in ICU (OR=1.191; 95% CI: 1.034, 1.371; P= 0.015(. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the modified sequential organ failure assessment scale is not

  19. 比较保乳术与改良根治术对早期乳腺癌患者临床疗效及生活质量的影响%Comparing Confirmed Breast Augmentation and Modified Radical Clinical Curative Effect and Quality of Life in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国超; 徐丽娜; 王伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:对比分析保乳术与改良根治术对早期乳腺癌患者的临床疗效,研究两种手术治疗方式对患者生活质量的影响。方法以我院近期收治的86例早期乳腺癌患者为研究对象,均经B超检查、钼靶等确诊为早期乳腺癌。TNM分期为乳腺癌I期或IIa期。保乳术组采用保乳术治疗,改良组采用改良根治术治疗,每组各有患者43例。对比分析两组患者的生活质量,并根据患者的不良反应、远处转移、5年生存率、美观效果、局部复发等指标评价临床治疗效果。结果保乳术组的生活质量显著高于改良组,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05),而保乳术组的术后并发症更少、乳房美观效果更佳,与改良组相比差异具有统计学意义(P0.05), less postoperative complications and keep breast augmentation group, beautiful breast effect much better, compared with the improved group differences statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). Conclusion The breast augmentation is not only a good clinical therapeutic effect of modiifed radical, also can reduce the postoperative complications, improve the aesthetic effect and quality of life. Therefore, compared with modiifed radical breast surgery for early breast cancer patients more applicable.

  20. Effects of modified {beta}-cyclodextrin on thermal stability and conformation of lysozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Tadashi, E-mail: kamiyama@chem.kindai.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Satoh, Megumi; Tateishi, Takahiro; Nojiri, Tomoaki; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Kimura, Takayoshi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of cyclodextrin on stability and conformation of lysozyme were clarified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CD influences the hydrophobic interaction of lysozyme by the inclusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CD relatively destabilized the folded state by stabilizing the unfolded state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The destabilization depends on the concentration and the substituent of CD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conformation of lysozyme was more spread at unfolded state by inclusion of CD. - Abstract: Effects of cyclic oligosaccharide cyclodextrin (CD) on stability and conformation of lysozyme were clarified thermodynamically and rheologically by DSC, viscosity, and circular dichroism measurements. The modified {beta}-CD relatively destabilized the folded state of lysozyme by stabilizing the unfolded state due to inclusion of hydrophobic part into the hydrophobic interior of CD. The order of higher destabilization effect was acetyl-{beta}-CD > methyl-{beta}-CD > hydroxypropyl-{beta}-CD. Apparent number of bound CD to unfolded state for methyl-, hydroxypropyl-, and acetyl-{beta}-CD is 6.7 {+-} 0.7, 4.2 {+-} 1.1, and 18.6 {+-} 4.3 and the binding constant is 5.5 {+-} 0.8, 6.7 {+-} 2.4, and 4.4 {+-} 1.2 L mol{sup -1}, respectively. The viscosity for unfolded state was increased with an increase in the each modified {beta}-CD concentration, suggesting that the inclusion of CD on a part of hydrophobic core at unfolded state leads to break the hydrophobic core, then lysozyme would be more spread structure. The substituent of CD can accelerate instability by directly breaking hydrogen bond and/or can restrain instability by increase in hydrophobic interaction. The fact that the each modified CDs has different destabilization effect shows a possibility to control the stability of protein by the substitution of CD.

  1. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultravioletlight (UV-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry to reveal the mechanisms of action for LDHs and bitumen. The results showed that within the UV spectra (220–400 nm, the reflectance of Zn-Al-LDHs was larger than that of Mg-Al-LDHs. These two LDHs have different influences on the performance of bitumen. Mg-Al-LDHs had a more obvious influence on the physical and dynamic rheological properties of bitumen than Zn-Al-LDHs. Zn-Al-LDHs improved the UV-aging resistance of bitumen more. The reason can be that the reflectance of the Zn-Al-LDHs to the UV light is larger than that of the Mg-Al-LDHs. The Zn-Al-LDH-modified bitumen had more potential to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service life of asphalt pavement.

  2. Effect of Fluoride-containing Mouthrinses on the Translucence of Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso Garcia

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the effect of different fluoride-containing mouthrinses on the translucence of resin-modified glass ionomer cements, as a function of the restorative material used, the fluoride-containing solution employed and the time of immersion. Disks were prepared (10 mm × 2 mm with the modified glass ionomer cements Vitremer (3M and Fuji II LC (GC Co., and immersed in three fluoride-containing solutions: Fluordent Reach (Johnson & Johnson, Fluorgard (Colgate-Palmolive and Oral B (Gillette do Brasil Ltda. Translucence was measured with electrophoresis equipment (JOUAN after different immersion times. The results obtained were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test, and a statistically significant decrease was observed in the translucence of the materials after immersion in the fluoride-containing solutions. Fuji II LC demonstrated the lowest alteration in translucence, independently of the solution employed. Fluorgard was the fluoride-containing mouthrinse that promoted the highest alteration. It can be concluded that the fluoride-containing mouthrinses influenced the translucence of the resin-modified glass ionomer cements.

  3. Effects of Polyethyleneimine on the Sonochemical Synthesis of Gadolinium Ion-Modified ZnO Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seok Cheol; Yun, Won Suk; Sohn, Sang Ho

    2015-01-01

    We prepared gadolinium (Gd) ion-modified ZnO nanorods by a sonochemical decomposition of zinc acetate dehydrate and gadolinium acetate hydrate precursor solutions with and without polyethyleneimine (PEI). We investigated the effects of PEI on the sonochemical synthesis of ZnO nanorods with and without Gd ion modifications. In the case of nascent ZnO nanorods, PEI in the precursor solutions can prohibit radial growth but allow axial growth, resulting in changes in the degree of preferred crystal orientations, and in the PL properties of the resulting nanorods. In the case of Gd ion-modified ZnO nanorods, we observed that the ZnO nanorods, fabricated sonochemically in the precursor solutions with PEI, exhibited a peak broadening of the ZnO(002) crystal plane and decreasing crystal orientation with respect to the c plane. We note that PEI can negatively affect the crystal orientation and crystallinity of Gd ion-modified ZnO nanorods, even though it cannot affect the lattice constant.

  4. Students with Cancer: Presenting Issues and Effective Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Melissa M.; Bray, Melissa A.; Maykel, Cheryl; Cross, Karen; Shankar, Nilani L.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2016-01-01

    Practitioners working with children diagnosed with cancer in the school environment must consider several facets in order to effectively work with the child and family. The remission rate for children with cancer is relatively high, so one must consider whether the child is anticipating treatment, actively in treatment, or posttreatment when one…

  5. Students with Cancer: Presenting Issues and Effective Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Melissa M.; Bray, Melissa A.; Maykel, Cheryl; Cross, Karen; Shankar, Nilani L.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2016-01-01

    Practitioners working with children diagnosed with cancer in the school environment must consider several facets in order to effectively work with the child and family. The remission rate for children with cancer is relatively high, so one must consider whether the child is anticipating treatment, actively in treatment, or posttreatment when one…

  6. Enhanced Acoustic Black Hole effect in beams with a modified thickness profile and extended platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liling; Cheng, Li

    2017-03-01

    The phenomenon of Acoustics Black Hole (ABH) benefits from the bending wave propagating properties inside a thin-walled structure with power-law thickness variation to achieve zero reflection when the structural thickness approaches zero in the ideal scenario. However, manufacturing an ideally tailored power-law profile of a structure with embedded ABH feature can hardly be achieved in practice. Past research showed that the inevitable truncation at the wedge tip of the structure can significantly weaken the expected ABH effect by creating wave reflections. On the premise of the minimum achievable truncation thickness by the current manufacturing technology, exploring ways to ensure and achieve better ABH effect becomes important. In this paper, we investigate this issue by using a previously developed wavelet-decomposed semi-analytical model on an Euler-Bernoulli beam with a modified power-law profile and an extended platform of constant thickness. Through comparisons with the conventional ABH profile in terms of system loss factor and energy distribution, numerical results show that the modified thickness profile brings about a systematic increase in the ABH effect at mid-to-high frequencies, especially when the truncation thickness is small and the profile parameter m is large. The use of an extended platform further increases the ABH effect to broader the frequency band whilst providing rooms for catering particular low frequency applications.

  7. Beyond Warburg effect – dual metabolic nature of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiansheng; Wu, Hao; Dai, Chunyan; Pan, Qiangrong; Ding, Zonghui; Hu, Danqing; Ji, Bingyan; Luo, Yan; Hu, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Warburg effect is a dominant phenotype of most cancer cells. Here we show that this phenotype depends on its environment. When cancer cells are under regular culture condition, they show Warburg effect; whereas under lactic acidosis, they show a nonglycolytic phenotype, characterized by a high ratio of oxygen consumption rate over glycolytic rate, negligible lactate production and efficient incorporation of glucose carbon(s) into cellular mass. These two metabolic modes are intimately interrelated, for Warburg effect generates lactic acidosis that promotes a transition to a nonglycolytic mode. This dual metabolic nature confers growth advantage to cancer cells adapting to ever changing microenvironment. PMID:24820099

  8. IL-18基因修饰人脐带间充质干细胞对乳腺癌细胞系增殖的影响%Effect of interleukin-18 gene modified human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on proliferation of breast cancer cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙苏园; 柳晓义; 姜丹丹; 吕志栋; 李福年

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ( HUMSCs ) strain transfected with interleukin-18 ( IL-18 ) gene and examine its effects on the proliferation of breast cancer cell ( MCF-7 ).Methods HUMSCs were isolated and cultured.And the lentivirus-IL-18 vector containing human IL-18 gene was constructed and transfected into HUMSCs.The expressions of IL-18 gene mRNA and protein were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) and Western blot.After co-culturing for 1,3,5 days,Transwell and cell counting kit-8(CCK-8)assays were performed on MCF-7 to plot the cell growth curve.Results IL-18-HUMSCs could stably express of IL-18 gene and inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells.The IL-18 mRNA relative expression amounts were 1.40 ±0.21 for experimental group ( IL-18-HUMSCs ) , 0.59 ±0.09 for negative control group ( NV-HUMSCs) and 0.71 ±0.05 for blank control group ( HUMSCs ).As compared with control group , the difference was statistically significant ( F=31.81,P=0.001).The relative expressions of IL-18 protein were 1.54 ±0.27 for experimental group ( IL-18-HUMSCs ) , 0.57 ±0.04 for negative control group ( NV-HUMSCs) and 0.59 ±0.23 for blank control group ( HUMSCs ).As compared with control group , the difference was statistically significant ( F =22.32, P =0.002 ).After co-culturing for 5 days, the cellular proliferation was significantly inhibited.Conclusion IL-18 gene has been successfully transfected into HUMSCs and has a stable expression.And IL-18-HUMSCs can effectively inhibit the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro.%目的:建立携带白细胞介素18(IL-18)基因人脐带间充质干细胞(HUMSCs)株并探讨其对乳腺癌细胞增殖的影响。方法分离培养HUMSCs,慢病毒介导IL-18基因转染HUMSCs建立携带 IL-18基因人脐带间充质干细胞( IL-18-HUMSCs )株,半定量 RT-PCR 及 Western 印迹检测IL-18m

  9. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis. A Systematic Review Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Benucci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost effectiveness of treatments that have changed the “natural history” of a chronic progressive disease needs to be evaluated over the long term. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs are the standard treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and should be started as early as possible. A number of studies have shown that they are effective in improving disease activity and function, and in joint damage. Our review was focused on revision and critical evaluation of the studies including the literature on cost effectiveness of DMARDs (cyclosporine A, sulphasalazine, leflunomide, and methotrexate. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR recommendations showed that traditional DMARDs are cost effective at the time of disease onset. They are less expensive than biological DMARDs and can be useful in controlling disease activity in early RA.

  10. Potent antitumor effect elicited by gp96-peptide complexes pulsed by dendritic cell on mice of H22 liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei; CAO Chun-xia; CHU Yong-lie; LIU Qing-guang; YU Liang; PAN Cheng-en

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To improve DC-based tumor vaccination, we studied whether dendritic cells (DCs) which cocultured with H22 liver cancer cells-derived heat shock protein (HSP) glycoprotein 96(gp96) affect the T cell-activating potential in vitro and the induction of tumor immunity in vivo. Methods: Maturation of murine bone marrow-derived DC was induced by GM-CSF plus IL-4, which mimiced the immunostimulatory effect of DC. Cocultured DC and gp96-peptide complexes were used to vaccine H22liver cancer cells of mice. Using murine models we compared the immunogenecity of DC modified by gp96-peptides complexes derived from murine liver cancer cells alone or inactive tumor cells. To verify the specificity of the vaccine, in vitro assays were executed. Serum cytokine levels were quantified to explore the supposed pathway of DC modified by gp96 peptide complexes and its effect on antitumor immune response.Results: DC modified by gp96-peptide complexes can activate spleen lymphocyte and the latter can specifically kill H22 cells but not Ehrilich ascites carcinoma cells. Modified DC can induce potent tumor-antigenspecific immune response, augment the proliferation of Th1 cells, and inhibit tumor growth. Conclusion:In this study, we have developed a novel DC-mediated tumor vaccine by combing the gp96 antigenic peptides complexes and inducing immune response against specific tumor cells. gp96 can be identified as a potent DC activator.

  11. Dithiolethione modified valproate and diclofenac increase E-cadherin expression and decrease proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Terry W.; Switzer, Christopher; Santana-Flores, Wilmarie; Ridnour, Lisa A.; Berna, Marc; Thill, Michelle; Jensen, Robert T.; Sparatore, Anna; Del Soldato, Piero; Yeh, Grace C; Roberts, David D.; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Wink, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of dithiolethione-modified valproate, diclofenac and sulindac on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were investigated. Sulfur(S)-valproate and S-diclofenac at 1 μg/ml concentrations significantly reduced prostaglandin (PG)E2 levels in NSCLC cell lines A549 and NCI-H1299 as did the COX-2 inhibitor DuP-697. In vitro, S-valproate, S-diclofenac and S-sulindac half-maximally inhibited the clonal growth of NCI-H1299 cells at 6, 6 and 15 μg/ml, respectively. Using the MTT assay, 10 μg/ml S-valproate, NO-aspirin and Cay10404, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, but not SC-560, a selective COX-1 inhibitor, inhibited the growth of A549 cells. In vivo, 18 mg/kg i.p. of S-valproate and S-diclofenac, but not S-sulindac, significantly inhibited A549 or NCI-H1299 xenograft proliferation in nude mice, but had no effect on the nude mouse body weight. The mechanism by which S-valproate and S-diclofenac inhibited the growth of NSCLC cells was investigated. Nitric oxide-aspirin but not S-valproate caused apoptosis of NSCLC cells. By Western blot, S-valproate and S-diclofenac increased E-cadherin but reduced vimentin and ZEB1 (a transcriptional suppressor of E-cadherin) protein expression in NSCLC cells. Because S-valproate and S-diclofenac inhibit the growth of NSCLC cells and reduce PGE2 levels, they may prove beneficial in the chemoprevention and/or therapy of NSCLC, PMID:19628293

  12. Antitumor effects of interleukin-18 gene-modified hepatocyte cell line on implanted liver carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷建杭; 张立煌; 姚航平; 曹雪涛

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antitumor effects of intrasplenically transplanted interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene-modified hepatocytes on murine implanted liver carcinoma.Methods Embryonic murine hepatocyte cell line (BNL-CL2) was transfected with a recombinant adenovirus encoding IL-18 and used as delivery cells for IL-18 gene transfer. Two cell lines, BNL-LacZ and BNL-CL2, were used as controls. One week after intrasplenic injection of C26 cells (colon carcinoma line), tumor-bearing syngeneic mice underwent the intrasplenic transplantation of IL-18 gene-modified hepatocyte cell line and were divided into treatment group (BNL IL-18) and control groups (BNL-LacZ and BNL-CL2 ). Two weeks later, the serum levels of IL-18, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) in the implanted liver carcinoma-bearing mice were assayed, the cytotoxicity of murine splenic cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) was measured, and the morphology of the hepatic tumors was studied to evaluate the antitumor effects of the approach. Results In the treatment group, the serum levels of IL-18, IFN-γ, TNF-α and NO increased significantly. The splenic CTL activity increased markedly (P<0.01) , accompanied by a substantial decrease in tumor volume and the percentage of tumor area and prolonged survival of liver carcinomo-being mice.Conclusions In vivo IL-18 expression by ex vivo manipulated cells with IL-18 recombinant adenovirus is able to exert potent antitumor effects by inducing a predominantly T-cell-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response. Intrasplenic transplantation of adenovirus-mediated IL-18 gene-modified hepatocytes could be used as a targeting treatment for implanted liver carcinoma.

  13. Effect of rhamnolipids on initial attachment of bacteria on glass and octadecyltrichlorosilane-modified glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodagari, Maysam; Wang, Hua; Newby, Bi-min Zhang; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial attachment on solid surfaces has various implications in environmental, industrial and medical applications. In this study, the effects of rhamnolipid biosurfactants on initial attachment of bacteria on hydrophilic glass and hydrophobic octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) modified glass were evaluated under continuous-flow conditions. The bacteria investigated were three Gram-negative species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas putida, and Escherichia coli, and two Gram-positive species Staphylcoccus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis. Rhamnolipids, at 10 and 200 mg/l, significantly reduced the attachment of all but S. epidermidis on both glass and OTS-modified glass. For S. epidermidis rhamnolipids reduced the attachment on OTS-modified glass but not on glass. Studies were further done to identify the mechanism(s) by which rhamnolipids reduced the cell attachment. The following potential properties of rhamnolipids were investigated: inhibition of microbial growth, change of cell surface hydrophobicity, easier detachment of cells already attached to substratum, and modification of substratum surface properties. Results showed that rhamnolipids were ineffective for the latter two effects. Rhamnolipids, up to 200mg/l, inhibited the growth of B. subtilis, S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa PAO1 but not the growth of E. coli, P. putida and P. aeruginosa E0340. Also, rhamnolipids tended to increase the hydrophobicity of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and E. coli, decrease the hydrophobicity of P. putida and S. epidermidis, and have no clear effect on the hydrophobicity of B. subtillis. These trends however did not correlate with the observed trend of cell attachment reduction. The responsible mechanism(s) remained unknown.

  14. ROLE OF COLPOSCOPY USING MODIFIED REID’S INDEX IN SCREENING OF CERVICAL CANCER IN WOMEN WITH ABNORMAL CERVIX ON NAKED EYE EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Colposcopy using Modified Reid's Index as a screening tool in cervical cancer in women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination . METHODS: This observational study was carried out in Government medical college, Aurangabad from June 2011 to May 2013 . Total 392 women with abnormal cervix on naked eye examination of underwent colposcopy and diagnosis was made on the basis of Modified R eid’s Index. Colposcope directed biopsies were obtained from the abnormal areas. In women with normal colposcopic findings four quadrant biopsies from squamo - columnar junction were taken .Eight women were excluded from analysis owing to unsatisfactory colp oscopy. Results of colposcopy were validated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value in diagnosing histopathologically confirmed lesions which served as gold standard. RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of colposcopy in all grades of lesions is around 90% or more, touching 100% in high order of histological lesions.Overall specificity is also high.It does have an excellent negative predictive value but comparatively lower positive predictive value especially in high order lesions with fair degree of accuracy in all grades of lesions in the hands of an experienced operator. CONCLUSION: Colposcopy using Modified Reid’s Index with high sensitivity and specificity is a good screening tool for cervical cancer

  15. Effectiveness of tocilizumab with and without synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabay, Cem; Riek, Myriam; Hetland, Merete Lund;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of tocilizumab (TCZ) with and without synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (sDMARDs) in a large observational study. METHODS: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with TCZ who had a baseline visit and information on concomitant sDMARDs were...... of treatment initiation. The change of disease activity assessed by CDAI as well as the likelihood to be in remission were not significantly different whether TCZ was used as monotherapy or in combination with sDMARDs in a covariate-adjusted analysis. Estimates for unadjusted median TCZ retention were 2...

  16. Solution of Excited Non-Linear Oscillators under Damping Effects Using the Modified Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Abdelhafez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modified differential transform method (MDTM, Laplace transform and Padé approximants are used to investigate a semi-analytic form of solutions of nonlinear oscillators in a large time domain. Forced Duffing and forced van der Pol oscillators under damping effect are studied to investigate semi-analytic forms of solutions. Moreover, solutions of the suggested nonlinear oscillators are obtained using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method. A comparison of the result by the numerical Runge-Kutta fourth-order accuracy method is compared with the result by the MDTM and plotted in a long time domain.

  17. The effects of shelf life on the compressive strength of resin-modified glass ionomer cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajong, K. H.; Damiyanti, M.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    Resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) is a restoration material composed of powder and liquid whose stability is affected by its shelf life. This is an issue that has not been taken into consideration by customers or sellers. To observe the effects of shelf life on the compressive strength of RMGIC, 30 cylindrical (d = 4mm and t = 6mm) specimens of RMGIC (Fuji II LC, GC, Tokyo, Japan) were divided into three groups with different storage times and their compressive strength was tested with a universal testing machine. Results were statistically analyzed with the one-way ANOVA test. There were significant differences (pvalue along with the duration of storage time.

  18. Modifiable temporal unit problem (MTUP and its effect on space-time cluster detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When analytical techniques are used to understand and analyse geographical events, adjustments to the datasets (e.g. aggregation, zoning, segmentation etc. in both the spatial and temporal dimensions are often carried out for various reasons. The 'Modifiable Areal Unit Problem' (MAUP, which is a consequence of adjustments in the spatial dimension, has been widely researched. However, its temporal counterpart is generally ignored, especially in space-time analysis. METHODS: In analogy to MAUP, the Modifiable Temporal Unit Problem (MTUP is defined as consisting of three temporal effects (aggregation, segmentation and boundary. The effects of MTUP on the detection of space-time clusters of crime datasets of Central London are examined using Space-Time Scan Statistics (STSS. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The case study reveals that MTUP has significant effects on the space-time clusters detected. The attributes of the clusters, i.e. temporal duration, spatial extent (size and significance value (p-value, vary as the aggregation, segmentation and boundaries of the datasets change. Aggregation could be used to find the significant clusters much more quickly than at lower scales; segmentation could be used to understand the cyclic patterns of crime types. The consistencies of the clusters appearing at different temporal scales could help in identifying strong or 'true' clusters.

  19. Effect of Charge and Hydrophobicity on Adsorption of Modified Starches on Polyester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu; Moulee; Kumar

    1999-12-15

    Polyester fabric (poly(ethylene terephthalate)) is a hydrophobic polymer. Its hydrophobic nature can be a disadvantage for certain applications like dyeing, finishing, detergency, etc. Physical or chemical modification of the polyester to make it more hydrophilic is therefore desirable for certain performance characteristics. Surface modification of polyester to make it hydrophilic can be achieved by adsorbing polymers on the polyester surface. Starch is a commonly available, hydrophilic polymer used in many textile applications that can be used to modify polyester. However, it needs to be chemically modified so that it can adsorb on the polyester fabric and physically modify the fabric characteristics. The polymers used in this study are two different modified starches-cationic and anionic starches and mixtures of the two. The adsorption kinetics on a polyester substrate was studied. The effect of charge and hydrophobicity on adsorption was investigated. Cationic starches were shown to readily adsorb on polyester and this was attributed to electrostatic interactions. Hydrophobic substituents on the cationic moiety resulted in increased adsorption. This was attributed to the weak hydrophobic interaction between the polymer chains which could result in a more coiled polymer conformation. It is hypothesized that more starch molecules are required for surface coverage of the polyester, resulting in an increase in adsorption. Anionic starch was adsorbed on the substrate but at a slower rate than the cationic starches. It is likely that there is a H bonding between acid groups on the starch and the ester groups of the polyester. However, the anionic starch is desorbed when the polyester is placed in an aqueous medium. When a blend of cationic starch and anionic starch was used, a low concentration of anionic starch was seen to increase adsorption, indicating that the polyelectrolyte complex itself may be adsorbing on the substrate. Further increases cause a decrease in

  20. Effect of Modified Shaker Exercise on the Amplitude and Duration of Swallowing Sounds: Evidence from Cervical Auscultation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonia Babu; Radish Kumar Balasubramaniam; Ancy Varghese

    2017-01-01

    .... However, there is no experimental evidence for the same. Thus, the present study examined the effect of modified Shaker exercise on the amplitude and duration of pharyngeal muscle contraction using cervical auscultation. Design...

  1. LATE MODIFYING IS AN EFFECTIVE WAY OF THE CAST IRON CRYSTALLIZATION CONTROL AT PRODUCTION OF THIN-WALLED CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Korolev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that application of special modifiers allowed to carry out effective late graphitizing modification, which provided elimination of border chill in thin castings of complex configuration in terms of mass production.

  2. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancer-related distress in Danish breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Christensen, Søren; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis

    2013-01-01

    ), and negative (37-item Profile of Moods State) and positive mood (Passive Positive Mood Scale) were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months post-intervention. Choice of writing topic (cancer versus other), alexithymia (20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale), and social constraints (Social Constraints Scale) were......Objective: To examine the effects of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood in women treated for early stage breast cancer. Methods: A nationwide sample of 507 Danish women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer...... were randomly assigned to three 20-min home-based writing exercises, one week apart, focusing on either emotional disclosure (EWI group) or a non-emotional topic (control group). Cancer-related distress [Impact of Event Scale (IES)], depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—Short Form...

  3. Obesity as an effect modifier of the risk of death in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Holly; Dugas, Lara; Shoham, David

    2013-11-01

    In the general population, obesity is associated with increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), especially if obesity occurs during young adulthood. Obesity is also associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality in the general population. However, observational studies which focused on populations with ESRD have demonstrated a more indirect association between body mass index and mortality, and this association has been termed paradoxical. Some have questioned whether the association between obesity and mortality is modified by ESRD. In this review, we discuss effect modification and interaction and factors that may lead to an assumption of effect modification when we observe decreased mortality among obese adults with ESRD. We show that assumptions of the existence of effect modification may be incorrect when the analysis is conditioned on a particular disease state that is influenced by obesity.

  4. Early Life and Environmental Risk Factors Modify the Effect of Acculturation on Hispanic Children's Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Payan, Paola; Grineski, Sara E; Collins, Timothy W

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation tends to erode Hispanic immigrants' initial health advantage. Using a more nuanced conceptualization of acculturation than previous studies, we explore the associations between acculturation and Hispanic children's asthma. Data came from an observational mail survey of caretakers of Hispanic schoolchildren in El Paso, Texas (N = 1,513). Results from generalized linear models (GzLMs) demonstrate that acculturation was a significant positive predictor of asthma. The addition of interaction terms revealed that prenatal smoking, low birth weight, breastfeeding, and pest exposure significantly modified the effect of acculturation on asthma. Results suggest that although higher levels of acculturation were detrimental overall, the effects were not equally damaging for all Hispanic children. Findings foster an understanding of how the effect of acculturation on Hispanic children's asthma is intensified or attenuated by distinct individual-level risk factors.

  5. The effect of cyclic hardening on fatigue properties of modified asphalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of cyclic hardening is observed in fatigue tests of modified asphalt controlled by low strain/stress level and it is not clear how the phenomenon affects the fatigue properties of binders. The special time weep tests were performed to investigate the point. Tests results indicate that the cyclic hardening is caused by the rearrangement of molecules in binders, and it can make the inner structure of binders getting stable and increase the fatigue properties of asphalt binders. But fatigue damage occurs when fatigue tests start, no matter the phenomenon of cyclic hardening happens or not. If the controlled load is low, the effect of rearrangement of molecules on material is beyond the effect of fatigue damage so that the cyclic hardening can be observed. When the load conditions get worse, the effect of slight fatigue damages produced in hardening stage will show.

  6. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    Purpose: Intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects on risk factor, health and/or performance. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled laboratory environment. Effects may thus....... Methodology: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3-6 employees representing the occupational groups in the investigated organization. With reference to the investigated period they are asked to recall important changes/events in and around the organization; 1) in general, 2) in work...... validation is needed. Implications: Using the EMA-method seems to facilitate proper inference regarding the impact of a workplace intervention. Originality: The EMA-method is a novel and systematic approach to estimate potential effect modifiers....

  7. The effectiveness of parental communication in modifying the relation between food advertising and children's consumption behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijzen, Moniek

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of various types of parental communication in modifying children's responses to television food advertising. In a combined diary-survey study among 234 parents of 4- to 12-year-old children, I investigated how different styles of advertising mediation (active vs. restrictive) and consumer communication (concept-oriented vs. socio-oriented) moderated the relation between children's advertising exposure and their consumption of advertised energy-dense food products. Interaction analysis in regression showed that active advertising mediation (i.e. explaining the purpose and nature of advertising), and socio-oriented consumer communication (i.e. emphasizing control and restrictions) significantly reduced the impact of advertising on children's food consumption. Parental restrictions of advertising exposure were only effective among younger children (<8). These results suggest that critical discussion about advertising and rule making about consumption are most effective in countering the impact of food advertising.

  8. Microbiological effects of an antiseptic mouthrinse in irradiated cancer patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lanzós, Isabel; Herrera, David; Santos, Sagrario; O'Connor, Ana; Peña, Carmen; Lanzós, Eduardo; Sanz, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    To assess the microbiological effects of an antiseptic, non-alcohol based mouth-rinse containing chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride, in patients undergoing radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer...

  9. Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug Study shows that normal symptoms of menopause ... therapy, could be a useful approach in encouraging adherence," Sestak said. "This is particularly important for women ...

  10. Natural Product Shows Effectiveness in Combating Colorectal Cancer | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    An herbal extract used for centuries to prevent heart disease has now been shown to be effective against colorectal cancer when tested in laboratory cell cultures. From left to right: Weidong Li, principal investigator, China Academy of Chinese Medic

  11. Multi-mutational model for cancer based on age-time patterns of radiation effects: 2. Biological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.; Pierce, P.A.

    1997-09-04

    Biological properties of relevance when modeling cancers induced in the atom bomb survivors include the wide distribution of the induced cancers across all organs, their biological indistinguishability from background cancers, their rates being proportional to background cancer rates, their rates steadily increasing over at least 50 years as the survivors age, and their radiation dose response being linear. We have successfully described this array of properties with a modified Armitage-Doll model using 5 to 6 somatic mutations, no intermediate growth, and the dose-related replacement of any one of these time-driven mutations by a radiation-induced mutation. Such a model is contrasted to prevailing models that use fewer mutations combined with intervening growth. While the rationale and effectiveness of our model is compelling for carcinogenesis in the atom bomb survivors, the lack of a promotional component may limit the generality of the model for other types of human carcinogenesis.

  12. Effect of Different Organic Modifiers on the Tensile Properties of PVC/EVA/Montmorillonite Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Ying WAN; Yong ZHANG; Yin Xi ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Poly (vinyl chloride)/ethylene-vinyl acetate/montmorillonite (PVC/EVA/OMMT) composites were prepared by melt blending method. Two kinds of montmorillonites were organically modified by trimethyloctadecyl ammonium and dimethyl bis (hydrogenated tallow) ammonium, respectively. The morphology and tensile properties of the resultant composites were discussed in terms of the modifier type and OMMT content. The PVC/EVA/OMMT composites have intercalated structure, which is independent of the polarity of the modifiers, while the tensile properties show strong dependence on the modifier type. The OMMT modified by polar modifier gives higher tensile ductile and strength of PVC/EVA/OMMT composites.

  13. Body mass index modifies the relationship between γ-H2AX, a DNA damage biomarker, and pathological complete response in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Maddalena; Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Di Lauro, Luigi; Sergi, Domenico; Di Benedetto, Anna; Ercolani, Cristiana; Sperati, Francesca; Terrenato, Irene; Botti, Claudio; Mentuccia, Lucia; Iezzi, Laura; Gamucci, Teresa; Natoli, Clara; Vitale, Ilio; Mottolese, Marcella; De Maria, Ruggero; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2017-02-06

    concerning the potential role of BMI as effect modifier of the relationship between DDR-related biomarkers and clinical outcomes in TNBC.

  14. Effect of Fuel Fraction on Small Modified CANDLE Burn-up Based Gas Cooled Fast Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khairurrijal, Asiah, Nur; Shafii, M. Ali

    2010-12-01

    A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE Burn-up has been performed. The objective of this research is to get optimal design parameters of such type reactors. The parameters of nuclear design including the critical condition, conversion ratio, and burn-up level were compared. These parameters are calculated by variation in the fuel fraction 47.5% up to 70%. Two dimensional full core multi groups diffusion calculations was performed by CITATION code. Group constant preparations are performed by using SRAC code system with JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. In this design the reactor cores with cylindrical cell two dimensional R-Z core models are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The placement of fuel in core arranged so that the result of plutonium from natural uranium can be utilized optimally for 10 years reactor operation. Modified CANDLE burn-up was established successfully in a core radial width 1.4 m. Total thermal power output for reference core is 550 MW. Study on the effect of fuel to coolant ratio shows that effective multiplication factor (keff) is in almost linear relations with the change of the fuel volume to coolant ratio.

  15. Additive effect of cysteinyl leukotriene or thromboxane modifiers to inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Myou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the conducting airways. Current asthma treatment guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroids (ICS as the first-line maintenance therapy for mild to severe persistent asthma, because ICS are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory medication. Despite treatment with ICS, suppression of inflammation is often incomplete and blockade by ICS of cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT and thromboxane (TX A2 biosynthesis is limited. The addition of a CysLT1 receptor antagonist to an ICS represents a reasonable alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of asthma patients whose symptoms remain uncontrolled on ICS alone. Indeed, CysLT1 receptor antagonists are demonstrated both to have an additive effect to ICS therapy and to allow the reduction of ICS dosage. Thromboxane modifiers also have an additive effect with low- to moderate-dose ICS. Although the long-term usefulness of add-on therapy of CysLT or TX modifiers (vs long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonists to ICS is unclear, these alternatives are worthy of further consideration.

  16. A Cost-Effective Tracking Algorithm for Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Maneuver Based on Modified Aerodynamic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV, a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing aerodynamic model, the two control variables attack angle and bank angle cannot be measured by the existing radar equipment and their control laws cannot be known by defenders. To establish the process equation, the MAM for HGV tracking is proposed by using additive white noise to model the rates of change of the two control variables. For the ease of comparison several multiple model algorithms based on CKF are presented, including interacting multiple model (IMM algorithm, adaptive grid interacting multiple