WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer diagnostic assessment

  1. Rectal cancer staging: Multidetector-row computed tomography diagnostic accuracy in assessment of mesorectal fascia invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Ippolito, Davide; Drago, Silvia Girolama; Franzesi, Cammillo Talei; Fior, Davide; Sironi, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) as compared with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in identifying mesorectal fascia (MRF) invasion in rectal cancer patients.

  2. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  3. Assessment of the potential diagnostic value of serum p53 antibody for cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutant p53 protein over-expression has been reported to induce serum antibodies against p53. We assessed the diagnostic precision of serum p53 (s-p53 antibodies for diagnosis of cancer patients and compared the positive rates of the s-p53 antibody in different types of cancers. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase, through May 31, 2012. Studies were assessed for quality using QUADAS (quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy. The positive likelihood ratio (PLR and negative likelihood ratio (NLR were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures using diagnostic odds ratios (DORs and Area under the curve(AUC. Meta regression and subgroup analyses were done, and heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. RESULTS: Of 1089 studies initially identified, 100 eligible studies with 23 different types of tumor met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis (cases = 15953, controls = 8694. However, we could conduct independent meta analysis on only 13 of 36 types of tumors. Approximately 56% (56/100 of the included studies were of high quality (QUADAS score≥8. The summary estimates for quantitative analysis of serum p53 antibody in the diagnosis of cancers were: PLR 5.75 (95% CI: 4.60-7.19, NLR 0.81 (95%CI: 0.79-0.83 and DOR 7.56 (95% CI: 6.02-9.50. However, for the 13 types of cancers on which meta-analysis was conducted, the ranges for PLR (2.33-11.05, NLR (0.74-0.97, DOR (2.86-13.80, AUC(0.29-0.81, and positive rate (4.47%-28.36% indicated significant heterogeneity. We found that breast, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatic, lymphoma, lung and ovarian cancer had relatively reasonable diagnostic accuracy. The remaining results of the five types of cancers suggested that s-p53 antibody had limited value. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that s-p53 antibody has potential diagnostic value for cancer, especially for breast, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, hepatic

  4. Fever and neutropenia in cancer patients : the diagnostic role of cytokines in risk assessment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, CSMO; Daenen, SMGJ; Vellenga, E; van der Graaf, WTA; Gietema, JA; Groen, HJM; Kamps, WA; de Bont, ESJM

    2002-01-01

    Cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are susceptible to bacterial infections. Therefore, all neutropenic cancer patients with fever receive standard therapy consisting of broad-spectrum antibiotics and hospitalization. However, febrile neutropenia in cancer patients is often due to other causes

  5. Hereditary colorectal cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise; Holck, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge;

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundThe hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) subset of tumours can broadly be divided into tumours caused by an underlying mismatch-repair gene mutation, referred to as Lynch syndrome, and those that develop in families with similar patterns of heredity but without disease......-predisposing germline mismatch repair mutations, referred to as familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Recognition of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers is central since surveillance programmes effectively reduce morbidity and mortality. The characteristic morphological features linked to Lynch syndrome can aid...... in the identification of this subset, whereas the possibility to use morphological features as an indicator of FCCTX is uncertain.Objective and methodsTo perform a detailed morphological evaluation of HNPCC-associated colorectal cancers and demonstrate significant differences between tumours associated with FCCTX...

  6. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, T. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)], e-mail: tilo.niemann@usb.ch; Zbinden, I.; Bremerich, J.; Bongartz, G. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Roser, H. W. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Remy-Jardin, M. [Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE.

  7. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE

  8. Assessment the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph nodes lymphoscintigraphy using Technetium-99m phytate in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eftekhari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Technetium-99m phytate (99mTc-ph is a readily available radiopharmaceutical and has been suggested as a suitable agent for sentinel lymph node (SLN detection. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy and false-negative rate of radionuclide SLN mapping using 99mTc-ph were investigated. "nMethods: Forty three women (mean age 52.3 years, range 31-74 years, who all had been diagnosed with breast cancer were enrolled in the study. All patients had no palpable axillary lymph nodes and had not undergone exploratory tumor resection or any drug treatment, previously. 99mTc-ph was injected peri-tumorally at four sites. Following SLN scintigraphic imaging, the patients were operated. Intraoperatively SLN were detected by a scintillation probe and a blue dye technique. Modified radical mastectomies with radical axillary dissection were performed with excision of the lymph nodes, to evaluate the accuracy of the SLN technique. "nResults: Intraoperative scinti-mapping identified SLN in 40 of the 43 patients (detection rate: 93%. Scintigraphically, none of the patients had internal mammary drainage or contralateral axillary involvement. The blue dye detection rate in 23 patients under study was 87% and all lymph nodes detected by the blue dye technique were also detected as "hot" spots in the lymphoscintigraphy. Using pathology as the gold standard, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of scintigraphic lymphatic mapping in detection of SLN by 99mTc-ph were 90% and 90.9%, respectively. The same values for blue dye lymphatic mapping were 84.6% and 77.7%, respectively. "nConclusion: 99mTc-ph used for SLN mapping is readily available, has low cost and gives better results than the blue dye technique. Long-term follow-up is required to assess accurately the incidence of failure in patients with negative SLN and the overall diagnostic accuracy and efficacy of the SLN mapping using 99mTc-ph as the radioactive tracer.

  9. [Molecular diagnostics of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryska, A; Dziadziuszko, R; Olszewski, W; Berzinec, P; Öz, B; Gottfried, M; Cufer, T; Samarzija, M; Plank, L; Ostoros, Gy; Tímár, J

    2015-09-01

    Development of the target therapies of lung cancer was a rapid process which fundamentally changed the pathological diagnosis as well. Furthermore, molecular pathology became essential part of the routine diagnostics of lung cancer. These changes generated several practical problems and in underdeveloped countries or in those with reimbursement problems have been combined with further challenges. The central and eastern region of Europe are characterized by similar problems in this respect which promoted the foundation of NSCLC Working Group to provide up to date protocols or guidelines. This present paper is a summary of the molecular pathology and target therapy guidelines written with the notion that it has to be upgraded continuously according to the development of the field.

  10. Autofluorescence based diagnostic techniques for oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramaniam, A. Murali; Sriraman, Rajkumari; Sindhuja, P; Mohideen, Khadijah; Parameswar, R. Arjun; Muhamed Haris, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Despite of various advancements in the treatment modalities, oral cancer mortalities are more, particularly in developing countries like India. This is mainly due to the delay in diagnosis of oral cancer. Delay in diagnosis greatly reduces prognosis of the treatment and also cause increased morbidity and mortality rates. Early diagnosis plays a key role in effective management of oral cancer. A rapid diagnostic technique can greatly aid...

  11. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Huth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients.  Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC. Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53 as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  12. Complex ultrasound diagnostic assessment of the results of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer (Stages IIB–IIIB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current complex ultrasound diagnosis using novel imaging techniques can assess, to a high accuracy, different tumor parameters during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT for locally advanced cervical cancer (CC (Stages IIB–IIB. This assessment is very important and necessary to define further treatment policy.Materials and methods. A total of 199 patients diagnosed with Stages IIB–IIIB CC, including 60 patients with Stage IIB (T2bN0M0, 4 with Stage IIIА (T3aN0M0, and 135 with Stage IIIВ (T2bN1M0, T3aN1M0, T3bN0–1M0 (according to the International Federationof Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO classification, who received NCT at Stage 1 of treatment, were examined. Complex ultrasound study was conducted before treatment initiation and after each NCT cycle. The therapeutic pathomorphism of a tumor was evaluated in surgically treated patients.Results. The criteria have been determined for evaluating the efficiency of NCT for locally advanced CC, which are based on current ultrasonographic techniques including B-mode, Doppler ultrasound (power, spectral, three-dimensional ones, as well as on the results of therapeutic pathomorphism.Conclusion. The criteria for evaluating the efficiency of NCT for CC should be based on current complex ultrasonographic techniques.

  13. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kemal Kara; Ersin Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as as...

  14. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  15. Diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); N. van der Lubbe (Nils); H.M.A. van Agt (H. M A)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The amount of diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening has been assessed prospectively and related to mortality reduction. Assumptions are based on data from Dutch screening programmes and on a scenario for future developments. With 5 invita

  16. Diagnostic Ultrasound in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2014-01-01

    in the liver metastases. In addition, we prospectively compared contrast-enhanced ultrasound with CT scan in the detection of liver metastases.Results By transrectal ultrasound of polyps using the new AWS technique, a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 88% was found for cancer, whereas digital exploration...... to neoadjuvant chemoradiation of advanced rectal cancer.IOUS is a safe method with a significantly higher sensitivity in the detection of liver metastases than preoperative ultrasound and surgical palpation. Patients with liver metastases, which harboured power Doppler signal centrally, more often had advanced...... of rectal cancer, especially in early tumours. Screening for colorectal cancer will give rise to the detection of a number of early tumours. Contrast-enhanced liver ultrasound and intraoperative ultrasound has additional space in the detection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer....

  17. Attendance at cervical cancer screening and use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures on the uterine cervix assessed from individual health insurance data (Belgium, 2002-2006.

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    Marc Arbyn

    Full Text Available To assess the coverage for cervical cancer screening as well as the use of cervical cytology, colposcopy and other diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on the uterine cervix in Belgium, using individual health insurance data.The Intermutualistic Agency compiled a database containing 14 million records from reimbursement claims for Pap smears, colposcopies, cervical biopsies and surgery, performed between 2002 and 2006. Cervical cancer screening coverage was defined as the proportion of women aged 25-64 that had a Pap smear within the last 3 years.Cervical cancer screening coverage was 61% at national level, for the target population of women between 25 and 64 years old, in the period 2004-2006. Differences between the 3 regions were small, but varied more substantially between provinces. Coverage was 70% for 25-34 year old women, 67% for those aged 35-39 years, and decreased to 44% in the age group of 60-64 years. The median screening interval was 13 months. The screening coverage varied substantially by social category: 40% and 64%, in women categorised as beneficiary or not-beneficiary of increased reimbursement from social insurance, respectively. In the 3-year period 2004-2006, 3.2 million screen tests were done in the target group consisting of 2.8 million women. However, only 1.7 million women got one or more smears and 1.1 million women had no smears, corresponding to an average of 1.88 smears per woman in three years of time. Colposcopy was excessively used (number of Pap smears over colposcopies = 3.2. The proportion of women with a history of conisation or hysterectomy, before the age of 65, was 7% and 19%, respectively.The screening coverage increased slightly from 59% in 2000 to 61% in 2006. The screening intensity remained at a high level, and the number of cytological examinations was theoretically sufficient to cover more than the whole target population.

  18. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William;

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark and t...

  19. Real time noninvasive cancer diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Jaliashvili, Z V; Melikishvili, Z G; Mardaleishvili, K M; Ramsden, J J

    2005-01-01

    Laser illumination of tissue results in a characteristic fluorescence emission spectrum whose features depend on the type of tissue, viz., healthy, adenoma or malignant. Hence measurement of the fluorescence is potentially a rapid and reliable diagnostic method. We have applied the technique to thyroid tissues and found that judicious normalization of the fluorescence spectrum reveals a close correlation between spectral shape and tissue type. Hence the pathological state of the tissue can be unambiguously identified from the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum. The method is rapid and portable and is therefore eminently suitable for use during operations.

  20. Diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic biomarkers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Montezuma, Diana; Henrique, Rui; Jerónimo, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide demands development of accurate biomarkers to perfect detection, diagnosis, prognostication and monitoring. Urologic (prostate, bladder, kidney), lung, breast and colorectal cancers are the most common and despite major advances in their characterization, this has seldom translated into biomarkers amenable for clinical practice. Epigenetic alterations are innovative cancer biomarkers owing to stability, frequency, reversibility and accessibility in body fluids, entailing great potential of assay development to assist in patient management. Several studies identified putative epigenetic cancer biomarkers, some of which have been commercialized. However, large multicenter validation studies are required to foster translation to the clinics. Herein we review the most promising epigenetic detection, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for the most common cancers.

  1. A new method for analyzing diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragtrup, Jakob;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To present a new methodology to illustrate, understand and measure delay in health care. The method is inspired by process mapping tools as analytical framework and demonstrates its usefulness for studying diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer. Sample. Six women with a diagnostic...... to delay in the diagnostic process. Some important contributors to diagnostic delay in gynecological cancer were found: lack of cancer suspicion, competing diseases, negative test results, inexpedient referral patterns and referrals without cancer suspicion. Conclusion. Our results point out process...

  2. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  3. Modeling Diagnostic Assessments with Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.; DiBello, Louis V.; Moulder, Brad; Zapata-Rivera, Juan-Diego

    2007-01-01

    This paper defines Bayesian network models and examines their applications to IRT-based cognitive diagnostic modeling. These models are especially suited to building inference engines designed to be synchronous with the finer grained student models that arise in skills diagnostic assessment. Aspects of the theory and use of Bayesian network models…

  4. Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) as a tool in Coverage with Evidence Development: The case of the 70-gene prognosis signature for breast cancer diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.P. Retèl; J.M. Bueno-de-Mesquita; M.J.M. Hummel; M.J. van de Vijver; K.F.L. Douma; K. Karsenberg; F.S.A.M. van Dam; C. van Krimpen; F.E. Bellot; R.M.H. Roumen; S.C. Linn; W.H. van Harten

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene

  5. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikezie O. Madu, Yi Lu

    2010-01-01

    prostate cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the current status of prostate cancer biomarkers, with special emphasis on emerging markers, by evaluating their diagnostic and prognostic potentials. Both genes and proteins that reveal loss, mutation, or variation in expression between normal prostate and cancerous prostate tissues will be covered in this article. Along with the discovery of prostate cancer biomarkers, we will describe the criteria used when selecting potential biomarkers for further development towards clinical use. In addition, we will address how to appraise and validate candidate markers for prostate cancer and some relevant issues involved in these processes. We will also discuss the new concept of the biomarkers, existing challenges, and perspectives of biomarker development.

  6. Novel diagnostic biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Chikezie O; Lu, Yi

    2010-10-06

    purpose of this review is to examine the current status of prostate cancer biomarkers, with special emphasis on emerging markers, by evaluating their diagnostic and prognostic potentials. Both genes and proteins that reveal loss, mutation, or variation in expression between normal prostate and cancerous prostate tissues will be covered in this article. Along with the discovery of prostate cancer biomarkers, we will describe the criteria used when selecting potential biomarkers for further development towards clinical use. In addition, we will address how to appraise and validate candidate markers for prostate cancer and some relevant issues involved in these processes. We will also discuss the new concept of the biomarkers, existing challenges, and perspectives of biomarker development.

  7. Diagnostic and assessment models patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Núñez Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographic review was carried out about the professional competence assessment of human resources in the Health System and the main characteristics of different models that contribute to their improvement, establishing direct links with the present context of National Health System in Cuba. We include trends and common practices related with assessment models, highlighting those aspects associated with professional competence assessment and its inclusion in the dynamic of a strategy to increase the quality of human resources in Health Services. It has been proved that the appropriate assessment of competences among these professionals assures, through its results, to make valuable decisions on the need of knowledge associated with skills and attitudes that should be present in their daily professional practice.

  8. Terminology and details of the diagnostic process for testis cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connolly, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    We examined the process and causes of diagnostic delay, defined as the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis, for testis (germ cell) cancer and the change with time. Diagnostic delay influences disease burden and may be subdivided into symptomatic interval, defined as symptom onset to first presentation, and diagnostic interval, defined as first presentation to diagnosis.

  9. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Wrześniewska; Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka; Jakub Gruszka; Beata Bąk

    2013-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagno...

  10. E-Cadherin as a diagnostic biomarker in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: E-cadherin is expressed in most normal epithelial tissues. Selective loss of E-cadherin can cause dedifferentiation and invasiveness in human carcinomas, leading E-cadherin to be classified as a tumor suppressor. Loss of E-cadherin has been demonstrated in invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, but the relationship between E-cadherin expression and breast cancer histopathology and prognosis is less clear. Aim: Our objective was to assess loss of E-cadherin as a diagnostic breast cancer biomarker and as an aid to the sub-classification of invasive breast cancer. We also correlated the loss of expression of E-cadherin with various clinical and pathologic prognostic factors. Material and Methods: Breast cancer specimens after modified radical mastectomy were obtained from women who underwent surgery at Grant Medical College and Sir J.J Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, India between May 2007 and October 2010. We stained 276 breast cancers specimens with monoclonal antibodies to E-cadherin. The breast cancers were classified by histopathological type. Results: A statistical correlation of E-cadherin loss with a positive diagnosis of invasive lobular carcinoma was found, but there was no correlation with any prognostic tumor variables. A negative E-cadherin stain was a sensitive and specific biomarker to confirm the diagnosis of invasive lobular carcinoma (specificity 97.7%; negative predictive value 96.8%; sensitivity 88.1%; and positive predictive value 91.2%. Positive E-cadherin expression was also associated with tubulolobular carcinomas. Conclusions: E-cadherin immunohistochemistry is helpful in classifying breast cancer cases with indeterminate histopathologic features. E-cadherin loss is uncommon in non-lobular carcinomas but shows no correlation to currently established prognostic variables.

  11. [Technical novelties, latest diagnostic options in the MRI and CT diagnostics of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jederán, Éva; Gõdény, Mária

    2015-09-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic options of colorectal cancer (CRC) have changed over the past decade. Imaging plays a major role, thus the use of scanning methods is recommended by guidelines. Accurate staging, evaluation of treatment efficacy and identification of residual and recurrent tumors are required for the modern management of colorectal cancer. If adequate technical background is provided, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gives the information upon which therapeutic options may be determined. High-resolution MRI scans can be interpreted as maps providing functional and molecular information. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) has shown promising results regarding the determination of tumor volume and evaluation of treatment efficacy. Perfusion dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (P-DCE-MRI) is the subject of research in the early assessment of treatment efficacy. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is a procedure utilizing biochemical analysis. Its application in CRC is under investigation. Clinical effectiveness of PET-MRI (hardware-based combination of MRI and positron emission tomography) is also being studied. Diagnostic value of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) has been proven in the detection of CRC as well as of polyps. PMID:26339907

  12. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  13. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES IN THE PROPHYLAXIS OF CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Wrześniewska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Poland is one of the countries with high cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. The main means to change this situation is to manage an active and modern programme of cervical cancer prophylaxis and diagnostics. To a large extent, the effectiveness of a cervical cancer prophylaxis programme is decided by the availability of modern diagnostic research. The conventional Papanicolaou test and modern LBC cytology techniques were discussed in the article, taking into consideration HPV diagnostics in the procedures for carefully selected cytological diagnosis, in the so called in-depth stage of preventive screening tests and the role of the p16 biomarker in predicting the development of a higher degree of epithelial-cell pathologies of the cervix. Colposcopy as a diagnostic method for the verification of cytological and virological abnormalities. The modern LEEP/LLETZ procedure used in diagnosis and treatment of cervical changes is used to realise the in-depth stage of cervical cancer prophylaxis programmes.

  14. Host-guest supramolecular nanosystems for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Li-li; Fan, Yun-shan; Wang, Hao

    2013-07-26

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to the construction of functional supramolecular nanosystems for applications in catalysis, energy conversion, sensing and biomedicine. The applications of supramolecular nanosystems such as liposomes, micelles, inorganic nanoparticles, carbon materials for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics have been reviewed by other groups. Here, we will focus on the recent momentous advances in the implementation of typical supramolecular hosts (i.e., cyclodextrins, calixarenes, cucurbiturils and metallo-hosts) and their nanosystems in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. We discuss the evolutive process of supramolecular nanosystems from the structural control and characterization to their diagnostic and therapeutic function exploitation and even the future potentials for clinical translation.

  15. Pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Qi-Jun Wu; Gong Yang; Wei Zheng; Hong-Lan Li; Jing Gao; Jing Wang; Yu-Tang Gao; Xiao-Ou Shu; Yong-Bing Xiang

    2015-01-01

    No study to date has prospectively evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among women. This analysis included 547 incident lung cancer cases identified from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) during the follow-up period of 1997-2011. Dietary intake was assessed for all SWHS participants at enrollment and reassessed 2-3 years later. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence...

  16. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer survival: a prospective patient cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Benner, A.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Study results on the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival are inconsistent, partly due to the use of different survival outcomes. We assessed the association of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption with survival and recurrence in a prospective cohort study in Germany includin

  17. Diagnostics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank T

    2016-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Main risk factors include advanced age, family history, male sex, and lifestyle factors. Screening can reduce incidence and death from colorectal cancer. Therefore, prevention and early detection are crucial in order to detect and remove pre-neoplastic adenomas and to detect cancers at early stages. Colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood tests are established tools for screening. Newer fecal immunochemical tests reveal higher sensitivities for advanced adenoma and cancer than guaiac-based hemoccult tests. Molecular stool and blood tests as well as virtual colonoscopy and colon capsule endoscopy are promising new developments so far not established as routine instruments for the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and for adenoma removal. Prognosis is essentially dependent on the tumor stage at the time of the initial diagnosis. Proper staging based on imaging prior to therapy is a prerequisite. In rectal cancer, local staging is an essential requirement for the identification of appropriate candidates for neoadjuvant therapy. PMID:27493942

  18. Statistical analysis of biotissues Mueller matrix images in cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, Sergey; Ivashko, Pavlo; Goudail, François; Gruia, Ion

    2010-11-01

    This work is directed to the investigation of the scope of the technique of laser polarimetry and polarization spectrometry of oncological changes of the human prostate tissue under the conditions of multiple scattering. It was shown that the third statistic moment in the intensity distribution proved to be the most sensitive to pathological changes in orientation structure. Its value in the intensity distribution of polarization image I (0 - 90) of oncologically changed tissue is 21 times higher if compared with the similar statistic parameter of the intensity distribution of the healthy tissue. The results of studies of size linear dichroism prostate gland, as healthy and affected by malignant tumor at different stages of its development was presented. Significant difference in the values of linear dichroism and its spectral dependence in the spectral range λ = 280 - 840 nm as between research facilities, and between biotissues - healthy (or affected by benign tumors) and cancer patients was shown. These results may have diagnostic value for detection and assessment of the development of cancer.

  19. Diagnostic value of mammography for occult breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of mammography in occult breast cancer. Methods: 23 cases of non- palpable breast lesions were examined with stereotactic-guided or surgical biopsy. Results: Pathological diagnosis included ductal carcinoma in sim (7), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (5), lobular carcinoma in sim (2), carcinoma simplex (3), 4 intraductal papillary carcinoma (4), scirrhous carcinoma (1), metastatic adenocarcinoma (1) in the axilla. Conclusion: Mammography is a commonly used and effective method in diagnosis of occult breast cancer. (authors)

  20. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know before using this tool: The Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool was designed for use by doctors and other health providers with their patients. If you are not a health ... your personal risk of colorectal cancer. (Colorectal cancer is another way ...

  1. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  2. Data fusion in metabolomic cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Rasmus; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Savorani, Francesco;

    2013-01-01

    We have recently shown that fluorescence spectroscopy of plasma samples has promising abilities regarding early detection of colorectal cancer. In the present paper, these results were further developed by combining fluorescence with the biomarkers, CEA and TIMP-1 and traditional metabolomic meas...

  3. Alloy metal nanoparticles for multicolor cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Pedro V.; Doria, Gonçalo; Conde, João

    2011-03-01

    Cancer is a multigenic complex disease where multiple gene loci contribute to the phenotype. The ability to simultaneously monitor differential expression originating from each locus results in a more accurate indicator of degree of cancerous activity than either locus alone. Metal nanoparticles have been thoroughly used as labels for in vitro identification and quantification of target sequences. We have synthesized nanoparticles with assorted noble metal compositions in an alloy format and functionalized them with thiol-modified ssDNA (nanoprobes). These nanoprobes were then used for the simultaneous specific identification of several mRNA targets involved in cancer development - one pot multicolor detection of cancer expression. The different metal composition in the alloy yield different "colors" that can be used as tags for identification of a given target. Following a non-cross-linking hybridization procedure previously developed in our group for gold nanoprobes, these multicolor nanoprobes were used for the molecular recognition of several different targets including differently spliced variants of relevant genes (e.g. gene products involved in chronic myeloid leukemia BCR, ABL, BCR-ABL fusion product). Based on the spectral signature of mixtures, before and after induced aggregation of metal nanoparticles, the correct identification could be made. Further application to differentially quantify expression of each locus in relation to another will be presented. The differences in nanoparticle stability and labeling efficiency for each metal combination composing the colloids, as well as detection capability for each nanoprobe will be discussed. Additional studies will be conducted towards allele specific expression studies.

  4. Delay in diagnostic workup and treatment of esophageal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A. Grotenhuis (Brechtje); P. van Hagen (Pieter); B.P.L. Wijnhoven (Bas); V.M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); J.J-B. van Lanschot (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Esophageal cancer should preferably be detected and treated at an early stage, but this may be prohibited by late onset of symptoms and delays in referral, diagnostic workup, and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of these delays on outcome in pa

  5. Application of Diagnostic and Formative Assessment in College English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉莲

    2008-01-01

    This report attempts to look into assessment in higher education in the UK and in Chi- na.The focus of analysis is comparison of the current state of diagnostic and formative assess- ment in the UK and in China.Also the report discusses how diagnostic and formative assessment policy or practice in the UK can be applied to China in English teaching in higher education.Fi- nally,a plan of action for 12 months about the application of diagnostic and formative assessment in College English teaching is made.

  6. Defining Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models and the Problem of Retrofitting in Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2008-01-01

    One promising application of diagnostic classification models (DCM) is in the area of cognitive diagnostic assessment in education. However, the successful application of DCM in educational testing will likely come with a price--and this price may be in the form of new test development procedures and practices required to yield data that satisfy…

  7. The application of microRNAs in cancer diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Ostenfeld, Marie Stampe; Kristensen, Helle;

    2012-01-01

    identified exosome-associated tumor-derived miRNAs in, e.g., blood samples from cancer patients, suggesting that miRNAs may be useful as circulation biomarkers for noninvasive diagnostic testing. In this chapter, we review the current state of development of miRNAs as cancer biomarkers with examples from......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important biological roles in cancer development and progression. During the past decade, widespread use of novel high-throughput technologies for miRNA profiling (e.g., microarrays and next-generation sequencing) has revealed deregulation of miRNA expression as a common...... hallmark of human cancer. Furthermore, miRNAs have been found to be a new class of promising cancer biomarkers with potential to improve the accuracy of diagnosis and prognosis in several hematologic and solid malignancies, as well as to predict response to specific treatments. Recent studies have...

  8. Diagnostic sensitivity of ¹⁸fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Norio; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Nishimura, Goshi

    2012-05-01

    We assessed the sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers, particularly synchronous esophageal cancers in head and neck cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 230 head and neck cancer patients. All the patients routinely underwent the following examinations: urinalysis, occult blood, tumor marker detection [squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)], esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy (when CEA was high or occult blood was positive), abdominal ultrasonography, plain chest computed tomography (CT), and PET. Bronchoscopy was performed when CT revealed lung shadow of central region. Synchronous multiple primary cancers were detected in 42 (18.2%) patients. The diagnostic sensitivity of PET for synchronous primary cancers was as follows: esophagus, 7.6% (1/13); stomach, 25.0% (2/8); lung, 66.7% (4/6); head and neck, 75.0% (3/4); colon, 0% (0/1); kidney, 0% (0/1); and subcutaneous, 100% (1/1). The sensitivity of PET for detecting synchronous esophageal cancers is low because these are early-stage cancers (almost stage 0-I). Therefore, it is necessary to perform esophagogastroduodenoscopy for detecting synchronous esophageal cancers. PET is an important additional tool for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers because the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in synchronous head and neck cancer and lung cancer is high. But PET has the limitation of sensitivity for synchronous multiple primary cancers because the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in synchronous esophageal cancer is very low.

  9. Application of Proteomics to Cancer Molecular Diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sam HANASH

    2009-01-01

    @@ Strategies to achieve personalized medicine and improve public health encompass assessment of an individual's risk for disease, early detection and molecular classification of disease resulting in an informed choice of the most appropriate treatment instituted at an early stage of disease develop- ment. A major contribution of proteomics in this field is the development of blood based tests to achieve the goals of personalized medicine.

  10. Biorisk Assessment of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oladeinde, Bankole Henry; Omoregie, Richard; Odia, Ikponmwonsa; Osakue, Eguagie Osareniro; Imade, Odaro Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess public and private medical diagnostic laboratories in Nigeria for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and measures. Methods A total of 80 diagnostic laboratories in biosafety level 3 were assessed for the presence of biosafety equipment, devices, and compliance rate with biosafety practices. A detailed questionnaire and checklist was used to obtain the relevant information from enlisted laboratories. Results The results showed the prese...

  11. Diagnostic tools assessing airway remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, L; Reche, M; Padial, M A; Valbuena, T; Pascual, C

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lower airways characterised by the presence of airway inflammation, reversible airflow obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness and alterations on the normal structure of the airways, known as remodelling. Remodelling is characterised by the presence of metaplasia of mucous glands, thickening of the lamina reticularis, increased angiogenesis, subepithelial fibrosis and smooth muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Several techniques are being optimised at present to achieve a suitable diagnosis for remodelling. Diagnostic tools could be divided into two groups, namely invasive and non-invasive methods. Invasive techniques bring us information about bronchial structural alterations, obtaining this information directly from pathological tissue, and permit measure histological modification placed in bronchi layers as well as inflammatory and fibrotic cell infiltration. Non-invasive techniques were developed to reduce invasive methods disadvantages and measure airway remodelling-related markers such as cytokines, inflammatory mediators and others. An exhaustive review of diagnostic tools used to analyse airway remodelling in asthma, including the most useful and usually employed methods, as well as the principal advantages and disadvantages of each of them, bring us concrete and summarised information about all techniques used to evaluate alterations on the structure of the airways. A deep knowledge of these diagnostic tools will make an early diagnosis of airway remodelling possible and, probably, early diagnosis will play an important role in the near future of asthma. PMID:22236733

  12. A New Method for Analyzing Diagnostic Delay in Gynecological Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Edwards, Kasper; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    patient reflecting the patients' pathway through the course of the disease. We combined 2 process mapping tools, namely, value stream mapping and business process modeling notation. The first method identifies the flow in a process as timelines. The latter introduces a set of easily recognizable graphical...... elements. RESULTS: Detailed information concerning the cancer patients' pathway was obtained. The method visualized the complexities within the diagnostic pathway. The role of different participants (patient, general practitioner, and local hospitals) became clear by arranging activities according...

  13. DIAGNOSTIC AND PROGNOSTIC UTILITY OF SERUM PSA IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑群; 强水云; 李妙羡; 纪宗正

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of total and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in breast cancer women. Methods Using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay system, we measured the concentrations of these markers in the sera of 85 women with breast cancer and in 30 healthy women.Results Free PSA levels were significantly higher in women with breast cancer than healthy women (P <0. 05 ).The percentage of free PSA predominant subjects was 37. 6% in breast cancer patients and 3. 3% in healthy women.In women with breast cancer,total PSA positivity was 23.5% and free PSA positivity was 27. 1%. When compared to negatives,total PSA positive patients had a higher percentage of lymph node involvement tamours ( P >0. 05).However, patients with predominant free PSA had a higher percentage of early stage than patients with predominant PSA-ACT. Conclusion This study indicate clinical significance of preoperative measurement of serum total and free PSA in diagnosis and prognosis of women with breast cancer. The expression of KLKs is correlated with carcinogenesis of breast cancer.

  14. An Apta-Biosensor for Colon Cancer Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ahmadzadeh Raji

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the design and implementation of an aptasensor using a modified KCHA10a aptamer. This aptasensor consists of a functionalized electrodes using various materials including 11-mercaptoandecanoic acid (11-MUA and modified KCHA10a aptamer. The HCT 116, HT 29 and HEp-2 cell lines are used in this study to demonstrate the functionality of aptasensor for colon cancer detection purposes. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and electrochemical cyclic voltammetry are used to verify the binding between the target cells and aptamer. The limit of detection (LOD of this aptasensor is equal to seven cancer cells. Based on the experimental results, the proposed sensor can be employed for point-of-care cancer disease diagnostics.

  15. Rectal cancer in pregnancy: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The occurrence of colorectal cancer during pregnancy is rare and is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Herein, we report such a case of rectal cancer in pregnancy and review the literature. Case report: A 31-year-old multiparous, pregnant woman, in the 20th week of gestation, presented with rectal bleeding progressing to spasmodic abdominal pain and right flank vague pain. A flexible recto sigmoidoscopy showed a large ulcerative mass located in the recto sigmoid junction, 15 cm away from anal verge. Imaging studies and biopsy proved it to be rectal adenocarcinoma with single liver metastasis. The patient’s pregnancy was terminated and neoadjuvant therapy followed by curative surgery was performed. She is currently receiving adjuvant systemic therapy to eradicate potential micro metastatic disease. Conclusion: This case suggests that colorectal cancer can mimic the signs and the symptoms of pregnancy and tends to present at an advanced stage in pregnant women.

  16. The molecular biology of cancer and its diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, S E

    1981-07-01

    The origin of cancer is discussed from the view of the two-stage model of malignant transformation. Environmental carcinogens play an integral part in the process. When the cell is transformed, cell surface changes are found for such components as fibronectin, collagen, actin, myosin, glycopeptides and enzyme activities. Hormone receptors are a fruitful line for research. Both qualitative and quantitative alterations are also seen with cancer cell enzymes. Among enzymes that can be used as markers of malignancy are the protease. A group of oncodevelopmental proteins, hormonal and non-hormonal, are in regular service for the management of cancer. Improvements in diagnostic specificity can be expected as the newer technologies are harnessed for medical use.

  17. Training in Structured Diagnostic Assessment Using DSM-IV Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Kathryn; Weissman, Myrna M.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Verdeli, Helen; Gameroff, Marc J.; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determining a patient's psychiatric diagnosis is an important first step for the selection of empirically supported treatments and a critical component of evidence-based practice. Structured diagnostic assessment covers the range of psychiatric diagnoses and is usually more complete and accurate than unstructured assessment. Method: We…

  18. DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Arnaudova; Ivan Aleksandrov; Valery Stoyanov; Veronika Ivanova; Petar Y. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of those psychiatric disorders that are still away from our attention, understanding, assessment and proper management. What could be the reason as by its name and diagnostic criteria an etiological fact is specified, namely a specific traumatic event. In our paper we aim to share and elicit some difficulties that we have met in consulting, diagnostic and management of people, who have suffered a traumatic event. On the base of a review of c...

  19. Market Assessment of Tuberculosis Diagnostics in Brazil in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Improved diagnostics for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are urgently needed. However, test developers and investors require market size data to support new product development. This study assessed the served available market for TB diagnostics in Brazil in 2012 and the market segmentation in the public and private sectors. Methods Data were collected on test volumes done in the public and private sectors for the diagnosis of latent and active TB, drug susceptibility testing and...

  20. Cancer among medical diagnostic x-ray workers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.X.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Li, B.X.; Zhang, J.Y.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr.

    1988-05-04

    Cancer incidence among 27,011 diagnostic x-ray workers was compared to that of 25,782 other medical specialists employed between 1950 and 1980 in China. X-ray workers had a 50% higher risk of developing cancer than the other specialists (relative risk (RR) = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.3-1.7). Leukemia was strongly linked to radiation work (RR = 3.5, n = 30). Cancers of the breast (RR = 1.4, n = 11), thyroid (RR = 2.1, n = 7), and skin (RR = 1.5, n = 6) were increased among x-ray workers employed for 10 or more years. High risks of cancers of the esophagus (RR = 3.5, n = 15) and liver (RR = 2.4, n = 48) were not consistent with a radiation effect since risk did not vary by duration of employment. This finding suggested that some differences might exist between groups of hospital workers in social class, alcohol intake, dietary habits, and other risk factors. No excess lung cancer (RR = 0.9, n = 22) or multiple myeloma (n = 0) was observed. Significant excesses of leukemia and cancers of the breast and thyroid occurred among x-ray workers first employed prior to 1960 when radiation exposures in China were high. In fact, it was not uncommon for employees to be given time off from x-ray work because their wbc count was severely depressed. These data indicated that repeated exposure to x-rays over many years can increase the risk of leukemia and several other tumors but apparently not that of lung cancer.

  1. Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Scalbert, Augustin; Tjønneland, Anne; Dossus, Laure; Johansen, Christoffer; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Ward, Heather; Aune, Dagfinn; Riboli, Elio; His, Mathilde; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Overvad, Kim; Lasheras, Cristina; Travier, Noémie; Sánchez, Maria-José; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; van Gils, Carla; Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Salma; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Sund, Malin; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Olsen, Anja; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status.

  2. Tumor specific lung cancer diagnostics with multiplexed FRET immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geißler, D.; Hill, D.; Löhmannsröben, H.-G.; Thomas, E.; Lavigne, A.; Darbouret, B.; Bois, E.; Charbonnière, L. J.; Ziessel, R. F.; Hildebrandt, N.

    2010-02-01

    An optical multiplexed homogeneous (liquid phase) immunoassay based on FRET from a terbium complex to eight different fluorescent dyes is presented. We achieved highly sensitive parallel detection of four different lung cancer specific tumor markers (CEA, NSE, SCC and CYFRA21-1) within a single assay and show a proof-of-principle for 5- fold multiplexing. The method is well suited for fast and low-cost miniaturized point-of-care testing as well as for highthroughput screening in a broad range of in-vitro diagnostic applications.

  3. Millimeter Wave Spectroscopy for Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Konstantin; Chen, Shu; Afsar, Mohammed; Naber, Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Broad-band millimeter wave transmittance measurements of normal and tumorous (cancerous) human breast tissue samples have been acquired in--vitro by employing a free-space, quasi-optical spectrometer. Freshly excised breast tissues were prepared and preserved in 10% neutral-buffered formalin solution before testing. Significant differences in the transmittance profiles have been found between the normal and tumorous tissues. It has been found that despite the inhomogeneity and variable structure and composition of each single tissue, the tumorous specimens consistently manifest much higher absorption level of millimeter wave radiation than the normal ones. It has been shown that free space, quasi-optical spectrometer is capable of contributing valuable insights into the dielectric properties of normal and tumorous human breast tissues and aiding in further developments of millimeter wave spectroscopy and mammography for the breast cancer diagnostics and detection.

  4. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  5. BRIEF REVIEW ON DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUE AND NOVEL MOLECULES IN CLINICAL TRIALS FOR TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHAL KUMAR S. MODI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in both developed and undeveloped countries, and the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer. Although there have been many chemotherapeutic agents like 5-fluorouracil, taxol, tamoxifen, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and camptothecin and hormones are used to treat breast cancer. This review focuses on the causes of breast cancer, latest diagnostic techniques and various molecules under clinical trials for the treatment of breast cancer.

  6. Microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for salivary diagnostics of stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Yael; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    We present a microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for saliva diagnostics with a potential application for non-invasive early diagnosis of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The primary identified cause is infection by a gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. These bacteria secrete the enzyme urease that converts urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3), leading to their elevated levels in breath and body fluids. The proposed optoelectronic sensor will detect clinically relevant levels of CO2 and NH3 in saliva that can potentially be used for early diagnosis of stomach cancer. The sensor is composed of the embedded in a microfluidic device array of microwells filled with ion-exchange polymer microbeads doped with various organic dyes. The optical response of this unique highly diverse sensor is monitored over a broad spectrum, which provides a platform for cross-reactive sensitivity and allows detection of CO2 and NH3 in saliva at ppm levels. PMID:25223554

  7. An Epidemiological Survey of Cachexia in Advanced Cancer Patients and Analysis on Its Diagnostic and Treatment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Quan, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Shiying

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an international consensus diagnostic criterion for cancer cachexia was proposed. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of cachexia in patients with advanced cancer and to assess the current status of the diagnosis and management of cancer cachexia. A total of 390 patients with advanced cancer were included. There were 140 patients with cachexia and the prevalence was 35.9%. The prevalence was highest in pancreatic cancer (88.9%), followed by gastric cancer (76.5%) and esophageal cancer (52.9%). Sixty-three patients with cancer cachexia have CT scans available for muscle mass evaluation and 98.4% were sarcopenic. Cachectic patients have a significantly lower overall quality of life and a higher symptom burden. According to oncology physicians, only 33 patients were considered to have cancer cachexia. The false negative rate amounted to 76.4%. The positive rate was related to the body mass index and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of the patients. There were few types of pharmacological approaches for cancer cachexia and more than half of cachectic patients did not receive any anticachexia treatment. These results indicate that the prevalence of cachexia in advanced cancer patients was high. However, cancer cachexia was rarely recognized and clinical management for cancer cachexia was very inadequate. PMID:26317149

  8. A diagnostic framework for assessing public investment management

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaram, Anand; Le, Tuan Minh; Biletska, Nataliya; Brumby, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a pragmatic and objective diagnostic approach to the assessment of public investment management systems for governments. Since weaknesses in public investment management can negate the core argument that additional fiscal space allocated to public investments could enhance future economic prospects, attention to the processes that govern public investment selection and ...

  9. Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Petermann, Nils; Krey, Volker; Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Luderer, Gunnar; Ashina, Shuichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Eom, Jiyong; Kitous, Alban; Méjean, Aurélie; Paroussos, Leonidas; Sano, Fuminori; Turton, Hal; Wilson, Charlie; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessments of how climate policy interacts with energy-economy systems can be performed by a variety of models with different functional structures. In order to provide insights into why results differ between models, this article proposes a diagnostic scheme that can be applied to a wid

  10. Final Report - DOE Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2002-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the significant progress made by the researchers, students and staff of the Center for Laser Imaging and Cancer Diagnostics (CLICD) from January 1998 through May 2002. During this period, the Center supported several projects. Most projects were proposed initially, some were added subsequently as their relevance and importance to the DOE mission became evident. DOE support has been leveraged to obtain continuing funding for some projects. Leveraged funds come from various sources, including NIH, Army, NSF and the Air Force. The goal of the Center was to develop laser-based instruments for use in the detection and diagnosis of major diseases, with an emphasis on detection and diagnosis of various cancers. Each of the supported projects is a collaborative effort between physicists and laser scientists and the City College of New York and noted physicians, surgeons, pathologists, and biologists located at medical centers in the Metropolitan area. The participating institutions were: City College of New York Institute for Ultrafast Lasers and Spectroscopy, Hackensack University Medical Center, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and New York Eye and Ear Institute. Each of the projects funded by the Center is grouped into one of four research categories: a) Disease Detection, b) Non-Disease Applications, c) New Diagnostic Tools, and, d) Education, Training, Outreach and Dissemination. The progress achieved by the multidisciplinary teams was reported in 51 publications and 32 presentations at major national conferences. Also, one U.S. patent was obtained and six U.S. patent applications have been filed for innovations resulting from the projects sponsored by the Center.

  11. Diagnostic delay experienced among gynecological cancer patients: a nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Ottesen, Bent; Christensen, Karl Bang;

    2009-01-01

    for gynecological cancer surgery in Denmark. SAMPLE: Of the 911 women alive, 648 participated, resulting in a response rate of 71.1%; of these, 30.1% were diagnosed with cervical cancer, 31.0% with endometrial cancer, and 38.9% with ovarian cancer. METHODS: Questionnaire survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnostic......OBJECTIVE: To examine diagnostic delay among gynecological cancer patients. DESIGN: Nationwide study. SETTING: The cohort comprised all women receiving their first treatment for cervical, endometrial, or ovarian cancer between 1 October 2006 and 1 December 2007 in four of the five centers...... delay calculated as total delay, patient delay, general practitioner referral delay, gynecologist appointment delay, and secondary care delay. RESULTS: Diagnostic delays were found in all parts of the diagnostic pathway. Total diagnostic delay has remained long with a median delay of 12 weeks from...

  12. CGPD: Cancer Genetics and Proteomics Database - A Dataset for Computational Analysis and Online Cancer Diagnostic Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan Riaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer Genetics and Proteomics Database (CGPD is a repository for genetics and proteomics data of those Homo sapiens genes which are involved in Cancer. These genes are categorized in the database on the basis of cancer type. 72 genes of 13 types of cancers are considered in this database yet. Primers, promoters and peptides of these genes are also made available. Primers provided for each gene, with their features and conditions given to facilitate the researchers, are useful in PCR amplification, especially in cloning experiments. CGPD also contains Online Cancer Diagnostic Center (OCDC. It also contains transcription and translation tools to assist research work in progressive manner. The database is publicly available at http://www.cgpd.comyr.com.

  13. Electrochemical sensors in breast cancer diagnostics and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Marques

    2015-12-01

    electrodes (SPCEs were used as the transducers. These SPCEs (working volume: ~40 μL are widely employed in the construction of electrochemical (biosensors because of several reasons: simplicity and low cost, versatility of design, small dimensions and possibility of incorporation in portable systems, as well as adequate electroanalytical characteristics. These SPCEs were modified with gold nanoparticles (nAu through the electrochemical deposition of ionic gold from a solution. The developed sensors were applied to the analysis of the selected biomarkers in spiked human serum samples.Besides these immunosensors, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP sensor was developed for the analysis of HER2-ECD. In this case a gold electrode was used as the transducer. The MIP was formed by surface imprinting and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and voltammetry were used for detection purposes.Results: For the immunoassays the following parameters were optimized: capture and detection antibody concentration, surface blocking, reaction mixtures and incubation times. The best limits of detection obtained were below the established cut-off values (25 U/mL and 15 ng/mL for CA15-3 and HER2-ECD, respectively. For the MIP sensor the most adequate polymer was chosen and the electropolymerization, template removal, and incubation conditions were optimized. The lowest HER2-ECD concentration that was analyzed was 50 µg/mL.Conclusion: The obtained results indicate that the developed sensors could be promising tools in breast cancer diagnostics and follow-up. However, further studies should be conducted using patients' samples and the results of these assays should be validated with the established analysis procedures for these cancer biomarkers.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Marques R, Pacheco J, Rama EC, Viswanathan S, Nouws H, Delerue-Matos C. Electrochemical sensors in breast cancer diagnostics and follow-up. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:34012.[This

  14. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Case Definitions and Diagnostic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Yolonda J.; Jantke, Rachel L.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic, debilitating illness that has posed considerable challenges for both patients and health care providers. Individuals with CFS often deal with considerable stigma and difficulties accessing appropriate care. Many medical professionals are increasingly recognizing the devastating nature of this illness, but at this time, few health care workers are knowledgeable and experienced enough to provide adequate patient care. There is a need for further efforts to educate health care workers on CFS diagnostic, assessment, and treatment issues. The present article reviews controversies regarding CFS case definitions, diagnostic criteria, the name of the illness, and epidemiological and treatment studies. We conclude that an imprecise case definition underlies many of the problems with diagnostic and treatment issues..

  15. RNA quantification using gold nanoprobes - application to cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptista Pedro V

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular nanodiagnostics applied to cancer may provide rapid and sensitive detection of cancer related molecular alterations, which would enable early detection even when those alterations occur only in a small percentage of cells. The use of gold nanoparticles derivatized with thiol modified oligonucleotides (Au-nanoprobes for the detection of specific nucleic acid targets has been gaining momentum as an alternative to more traditional methodologies. Here, we present an Au-nanoparticles based approach for the molecular recognition and quantification of the BCR-ABL fusion transcript (mRNA, which is responsible for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and to the best of our knowledge it is the first time quantification of a specific mRNA directly in cancer cells is reported. This inexpensive and very easy to perform Au-nanoprobe based method allows quantification of unamplified total human RNA and specific detection of the oncogene transcript. The sensitivity settled by the Au-nanoprobes allows differential gene expression from 10 ng/μl of total RNA and takes less than 30 min to complete after total RNA extraction, minimizing RNA degradation. Also, at later stages, accumulation of malignant mutations may lead to resistance to chemotherapy and consequently poor outcome. Such a method, allowing for fast and direct detection and quantification of the chimeric BCR-ABL mRNA, could speed up diagnostics and, if appropriate, revision of therapy. This assay may constitute a promising tool in early diagnosis of CML and could easily be extended to further target genes with proven involvement in cancer development.

  16. The diagnostic accuracy of carcinoembryonic antigen to detect colorectal cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Caspar G; Karlsson, William K; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian;

    2016-01-01

    was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CEA in detecting recurrence after intended curative surgery for primary colorectal cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, and articles were chosen based on predefined inclusion criteria. Reference lists...... from included articles were manually searched for additional publications of relevance. RESULTS: Forty-two original studies with generally representative populations and long follow-up were included. Data were reported on outcomes from 9,834 CEA tests during follow-up. Reporting on the reference...

  17. Diagnostic indicators for integrated assessment models of climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegler, Elmar; Petermann, Nils; Krey, Volker; Schwanitz, Jana; Luderer, Gunnar; Ashina, Shuichi; Bosetti, Valentina; Eom, Jiyong; Kitous, Alban; Mejean, Aurelie; Paroussos, Leonidas; Sano, Fuminori; Turton, Hal; Wilson, Charlie; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessments of how climate policy interacts with energy-economic systems can be performed by a variety of models with different functional structures. This article proposes a diagnostic scheme that can be applied to a wide range of integrated assessment models to classify differences among models based on their carbon price responses. Model diagnostics can uncover patterns and provide insights into why, under a given scenario, certain types of models behave in observed ways. Such insights are informative since model behavior can have a significant impact on projections of climate change mitigation costs and other policy-relevant information. The authors propose diagnostic indicators to characterize model responses to carbon price signals and test these in a diagnostic study with 11 global models. Indicators describe the magnitude of emission abatement and the associated costs relative to a harmonized baseline, the relative changes in carbon intensity and energy intensity and the extent of transformation in the energy system. This study shows a correlation among indicators suggesting that models can be classified into groups based on common patterns of behavior in response to carbon pricing. Such a classification can help to more easily explain variations among policy-relevant model results.

  18. LED-based near infrared sensor for cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Ageev, Vladimir; Zabarylo, Urszula; Usenov, Iskander; Schulte, Franziska; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Belikova, Valeria; Minet, Olaf; Feliksberger, E.; Meshkovsky, I.; Artyushenko, Viacheslav

    2016-03-01

    Optical spectroscopic technologies are increasingly used for cancer diagnostics. Feasibility of differentiation between malignant and healthy samples of human kidney using Fluorescence, Raman, MIR and NIR spectroscopy has been recently reported . In the present work, a simplification of NIR spectroscopy method has been studied. Traditional high-resolution NIR spectrometry was replaced by an optical sensor based on a set of light-emitting diodes at selected wavelengths as light sources and a photodiode. Two prototypes of the sensor have been developed and tested using 14 in-vitro samples of seven kidney tumor patients. Statistical evaluation of results using principal component analysis and partial least-squares discriminant analysis has been performed. Despite only partial discrimination between tumor and healthy tissue achieved by the presented new technique, the results evidence benefits of LED-based near-infrared sensing used for oncological diagnostics. Publisher's Note: This paper, originally published on 4 March, 2016, was replaced with a corrected/revised version on 7 April, 2016. If you downloaded the original PDF but are unable to access the revision, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service for assistance.

  19. Diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine diagnostic value of alpha-fetoproteins (alpha-FP) in liver cancer. Design: Prospective study. Place and duration of study: Department of clinical oncology services Hospital Lahore, during the period from February 1998 to February 2001. Subjects and Methods: Among 200 persons studied, 100 presented with liver mass, jaundice and other symptoms directing toward liver pathology, later confirmed histopathologically, as suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while the other 100 healthy subject came to the department for blood donation and were HBs Ag pasitive on blood screening. All these subjects under went blood test for alpha-FP. This tumor marker was analyzed by using enzyme immunoassay-based kit. Results: The alpha-FP positivity was statistically evaluated. In HCC this test was statistically significant with p value of <0.001. In this study sensitivity of alpha-FP was 72% specificity 89%, positive predictive value 86.7% and negative predictive value of 76.1%. Conclusion: This study showed that alpha-FP was a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of HCC. (author)

  20. Diagnostic significance of computed tomography in gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-10-15

    Gastric cancer is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in Korea. Identification and evaluation of gastric mass lesions and regional-distant metastasis by abdominal CT scan are important for the treatment planning and prognostic implications of gastric cancer patients. Author reviewed CT scans of 61 cases of pathology proven gastric cancer, retrospectively, for recent 20 month from July 1983 to Feb. 1985 at Department of Radiology, Korea University, Hae Wha Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. There were 50 cases of advanced adenocarcinoma, 8 cases of early gastric cancer, 2 cases of leiomyosarcoma, and 1 case of lymphoma in total 61 cases. 2. The sex ratio of male to female was 2 : 1. Age distribution was from 24 to 75 year old and peak incidence was in 6th decade. 3. The most frequent site of involvement with gastric cancer was gastric antrum in 51% 4. 48 of 50 patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (96%) had a wall thickness greater than 1 cm, and all of 8 cases of early gastric cancer had a wall thickness less than 1 cm. Regional lymph node tumor infiltration was found in 100% of gastric wall thickness greater than 2.0 cm, in 64% of cases of 1.5 to 2.0 cm, in 50% of cases of 1.0 to 1.5 cm, and 12.5% of cases of less than 1.0 cm. 5. In a comparison of enlargement of regional lymph node by CT scan to tumor infiltration of regional lymph node by histology, sensitivity was 52%, specificity was 87%, and reliability was 66%. 6. The structure involved by distant metastasis of these cases were the retroperitoneal lymph node in 15, liver in 8, and pancreas in 3. 7. The diagnostic accuracy of CT staging was considered about 68% by correlation of the surgical and histological findings. 8. The CT scan is one of the accurate and simple tool for evaluation of size, shape, extent, as well as distant metastasis in the cases of gastric malignancies.

  1. Diagnostic and treatment pathways for men with prostate cancer in Queensland: investigating spatial and demographic inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baade Peter D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of diagnosis and management for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland, Australia, have not yet been systematically documented and so assumptions of equity are untested. This longitudinal study investigates the association between prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment outcomes and key area-level characteristics and individual-level demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods/Design A total of 1064 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between February 2005 and July 2007 were recruited through hospital-based urology outpatient clinics and private practices in the centres of Brisbane, Townsville and Mackay (82% of those referred. Additional clinical and diagnostic information for all 6609 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland during the study period was obtained via the population-based Queensland Cancer Registry. Respondent data are collected using telephone and self-administered questionnaires at pre-treatment and at 2 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, 36 months, 48 months and 60 months post-treatment. Assessments include demographics, medical history, patterns of care, disease and treatment characteristics together with outcomes associated with prostate cancer, as well as information about quality of life and psychological adjustment. Complementary detailed treatment information is abstracted from participants' medical records held in hospitals and private treatment facilities and collated with health service utilisation data obtained from Medicare Australia. Information about the characteristics of geographical areas is being obtained from data custodians such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Geo-coding and spatial technology will be used to calculate road travel distances from patients' residences to treatment centres. Analyses will be conducted using standard statistical methods along with multilevel regression models including individual and area-level components

  2. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  3. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Meagan B

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26858530

  4. Pre-diagnostic high-sensitive C-reactive protein and breast cancer risk, recurrence, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, H; Thune, I; Lofterød, T; Mortensen, E S; Eggen, A E; Risberg, T; Wist, E A; Flote, V G; Furberg, A-S; Wilsgaard, T; Akslen, L A; McTiernan, A

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation may initiate and promote breast cancer development, and be associated with elevated circulating levels of inflammation markers. A total of eight 130 initially healthy women, participated in the population-based Tromsø study (1994-2008). Pre-diagnostic high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was assessed. During 14.6 years of follow-up, a total of 192 women developed invasive breast cancer. These cases were followed for additional 7.2 years. Detailed medical records were obtained. We observed an overall positive dose-response relationship between pre-diagnostic hs-CRP and breast cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.06, 95 % CI 1.01-1.11). Postmenopausal women with above median levels of hs-CRP (>1.2 mg/l) had a 1.42 (95 % CI 1.01-2.00) higher breast cancer risk compared to postmenopausal women with hs-CRP below median. Postmenopausal women, who were hormone replacement therapy non-users, and were in the middle tertile (0.8-1.9 mg/l), or highest tertile of hs-CRP (>1.9 mg/l), had a 2.31 (95 % CI 1.31-4.03) and 2.08 (95 % CI 1.16-3.76) higher breast cancer risk, respectively, compared with women in the lowest tertile. For each unit increase in pre-diagnostic hs-CRP levels (mg/l), we observed an 18 % increase in disease-free interval (95 % CI 0.70-0.97), and a 22 % reduction in overall mortality (95 % CI 0.62-0.98). Our study supports a positive association between pre-diagnostic hs-CRP and breast cancer risk. In contrast, increased pre-diagnostic hs-CRP was associated with improved overall mortality, but our findings are based on a small sample size, and should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process.

  6. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process. PMID:12298344

  7. Assessment of patient doses and image quality in X-ray diagnostics in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olerud, H.M.

    1998-06-01

    Results from other industrialized countries indicate that the annual number of diagnostic procedures approaches one for every member of the population, and in many cases the individual radiation doses are higher than from any other human activity. Furthermore, the doses to patients for the same type of examination differ widely from place to place, suggesting that there is a considerable potential for dose reduction. This motivated an investigation of the diagnostic use of X-rays in Norway. The trends in the number of X-ray examinations performed annually have been studied. The patient doses (all diagnostics) and image quality (mammography and computed tomography) have been assessed for various radiological procedures. This form the basis for the assessment of total collective effective dose (CED) from X-rays in Norway, and further risk estimates. The radiological practice has then been evaluated according to the radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation. Based on the 1993 examination frequency, the total CED was assessed to 3400 manSv (0.78 mSv/inhabitant). It is estimated that this radiation burden may cause about 100 excess cancer deaths annually. The frequency of CT examination has doubled every fifth year, and did in 1993 represent 7% of the total number of examinations and 30% of the total CED. 129 refs.

  8. Assessment of patient doses and image quality in X-ray diagnostics in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from other industrialized countries indicate that the annual number of diagnostic procedures approaches one for every member of the population, and in many cases the individual radiation doses are higher than from any other human activity. Furthermore, the doses to patients for the same type of examination differ widely from place to place, suggesting that there is a considerable potential for dose reduction. This motivated an investigation of the diagnostic use of X-rays in Norway. The trends in the number of X-ray examinations performed annually have been studied. The patient doses (all diagnostics) and image quality (mammography and computed tomography) have been assessed for various radiological procedures. This form the basis for the assessment of total collective effective dose (CED) from X-rays in Norway, and further risk estimates. The radiological practice has then been evaluated according to the radiation protection principles of justification and optimisation. Based on the 1993 examination frequency, the total CED was assessed to 3400 manSv (0.78 mSv/inhabitant). It is estimated that this radiation burden may cause about 100 excess cancer deaths annually. The frequency of CT examination has doubled every fifth year, and did in 1993 represent 7% of the total number of examinations and 30% of the total CED. 129 refs

  9. Transient Fourier holography with bacteriorhodopsin films for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Devulapalli; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekar; Wu, Pengfei; Yelleswarapu, Chandra

    X-ray mammography is the current gold standard for breast cancer screening. Microcalcifications and other features which are helpful to the radiologist for early diagnostics are often buried in the noise generated by the surrounding dense tissue. So image processing techniques are required to enhance these important features to improve the sensitivity of detection. An innovative technique is demonstrated for recording a hologram of the mammogram. It is recorded on a thin polymer film of Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as photo induced isomerization grating containing the interference pattern between the object beam containing the Fourier spatial frequency components of the mammogram and a reference beam. The hologram contains all the enhanced features of the mammogram. A significant innovation of the technique is that the enhanced components in the processed image can be viewed by the radiologist in time scale. A technician can record the movie and when the radiologist looks at the movie at his convenience, freezing the frame as and when desired, he would see the microcalcifications as the brightest and last long in time. He would also observe lesions with intensity decreasing as their size increases. The same bR film can be used repeatedly for recording holograms with different mammograms. The technique is versatile and a different frequency band can be chosen to be optimized by changing the reference beam intensity. The experimental arrangement can be used for mammograms in screen film or digital format.

  10. Nuclear physics applications in diagnostics and cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Only 1% of the 18,000 world accelerators are devoted to the production of radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. In fact at present about 85% of all the medical examinations use /sup 99m/Tc produced in nuclear reactors. But the development of Positron Emission Tomography and of its combination with Computer Tomography will boost the hospital use of cyclotrons. Much more general is the use of electron linacs in cancer therapy about 40% of the world accelerators are used for this so called "conventional" radiotherapy. In the developed countries every 10 million inhabitants about 20,000 oncological patients are irradiated every year with high-energy photons (called X-rays by radiotherapists) produced by electron linacs. Much less used is "hadrontherapy", the radiotherapy technique that employs protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions are 'heavy' charged particles: they assure a more 'conformal' treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues allowing a larger dose and thus a...

  11. Diagnostic ultrasound in the assessment of patients with incompetent cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G; Pendleton, H J; Nichol, B; Wittmann, B K

    1984-03-01

    Twenty-five pregnant women with suspected cervical incompetence were assessed by serial ultrasound. A dilating internal os was documented in one patient, incompetence was ruled out in two, and a 'slipping suture' was demonstrated in another; the remaining patients were subjected to cerclage on the basis of their history alone. Patients in whom the diagnosis of cervical incompetence is indefinite should have a diagnostic ultrasound scan to visualize the cervix for length, opening of the canal and integrity of the internal os. Selective ultrasonography may be beneficial in both the diagnosis and treatment of cervical incompetence. PMID:6704347

  12. Women's experiences of the breast cancer diagnostic process: A thematic evaluation of the literature; Recall and biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to use relevant literature to understand women's experiences of diagnostic breast cancer procedures; in this case their experiences of being recalled and of having a biopsy. Method: A structured literature search was performed to locate relevant research. Research articles published between 2002 and 2013 were identified in CINAHL, MEDLINE and Science Direct. The quality of the research was assessed using an appropriate critical appraisal tool to enable a systematic and consistent assessment. Results: Thematic analysis of the literature identified five themes: fear, pain and discomfort, waiting, the physical environment and staff interactions. Women's experiences are unique and diverse; however, literature suggests that these themes do summarise women's experiences. Conclusion: Women's experiences of diagnostic breast cancer procedures are not limited to the examinations alone but encompass the entire experience. These themes influence women's experiences and their perception of care

  13. The Role of Epigenomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a key role in cancer development. Genetics alone cannot explain sporadic cancer and cancer development in individuals with no family history or a weak family history of cancer. Epigenetics provides a mechanism to explain the development of cancer in such situations. Alterations in epigenetic profiling may provide important insights into the etiology and natural history of cancer. Because several epigenetic changes occur before histopathological changes, they can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment. Many cancers may remain asymptomatic until relatively late stages; in managing the disease, efforts should be focused on early detection, accurate prediction of disease progression, and frequent monitoring. This chapter describes epigenetic biomarkers as they are expressed during cancer development and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Based on epigenomic information, biomarkers have been identified that may serve as diagnostic tools; some such biomarkers also may be useful in identifying individuals who will respond to therapy and survive longer. The importance of analytical and clinical validation of biomarkers is discussed, along with challenges and opportunities in this field.

  14. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard;

    2013-01-01

    The association between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and breast cancer specific mortality was investigated in 1,052 women diagnosed with early breast cancer in a prospective cohort of 29,875 women. Known clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic risk factors were...... evaluated and adjusted for in multivariate analysis. We found a modest but significant association between pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence with a median follow-up of six years after date of diagnosis, both when using baseline measures of alcohol intake (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1...

  15. Diagnostic delay, quality of life and patient satisfaction among women diagnosed with endometrial or ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine M; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ottesen, Bent;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the association between diagnostic delay (total delay), quality of life (QoL) and patient satisfaction, and the associations between QoL and patient satisfaction scores and survival for women diagnosed with ovarian or endometrial cancer.......This study investigates the association between diagnostic delay (total delay), quality of life (QoL) and patient satisfaction, and the associations between QoL and patient satisfaction scores and survival for women diagnosed with ovarian or endometrial cancer....

  16. DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGES IN ASSESSING POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arnaudova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of those psychiatric disorders that are still away from our attention, understanding, assessment and proper management. What could be the reason as by its name and diagnostic criteria an etiological fact is specified, namely a specific traumatic event. In our paper we aim to share and elicit some difficulties that we have met in consulting, diagnostic and management of people, who have suffered a traumatic event. On the base of a review of current psychiatric classifications and ongoing discussions we briefly summarize and discuss important key points. The definition of the event, associated with PTSD is different in DSM-III (introduced for the fist time in a classification of mental disorders, DSM-IV and ICD-10. DSM-IV is less restrictive and includes events that occur more frequently. In DSM-5, PTSD is placed in chapter “Trauma and Stressor-related disorders” and the accent is on the variable clinical characteristics of psychological distress. Emotional reactions to the traumatic event are no longer part of Criterion A. The clinical presentation varies and a number of intrusive psychological and physiological reactions of distress are described. Here comes a problem- the assessment of the trauma itself and the determination of the basic symptoms, when such an event happens. So, the skills to assess the trauma, to determine and competently attribute these symptoms to the specific event and cluster are of great importance. We conclude that a number of risk and prognostic factors should be considered in the process of assessment, diagnosis and management.

  17. Distress in suspected lung cancer patients following rapid and standard diagnostic programs: a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, P.; Heijden, E.H. van der; Oud, K.T.; Bootsma, G.; Groen, H.J.M.; Donders, A.R.T.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Prins, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Timeliness may influence emotional distress during the diagnostic phase of suspected lung cancer patients. We performed a prospective observational study to compare distress and quality of life (QoL) in two medical centres with a Rapid Outpatient Diagnostic Program (RODP) and two using co

  18. Diagnostic features of lung metastases differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Geliashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The worldwide increasing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC is mainly due to a rise in its major form of differentiated TC (DTC: papillary. Most patients with DTC have a good prognosis; 10-year survival overall rates are as high as 85 %, but not greater than 40 % in a group of patients with distant metastases. At the same time, the lung is the most frequent target for distant metastases, accounting for 70 % of all sites.Objective: to estimate and compare the capabilities of different diagnostic techniques to detect lung metastases of DTC. Materials and methods. The results of diagnosing lung metastases were retrospectively analyzed in 36 patients (33 women and 3 men; mean age 53 years with DTC (29 patients with papillary TC and 7 with follicular TC treated at the department of radiotherapy with systemic therapy, Chelyabinsk Regional Clinical Oncology Center from 2011 to 2014.Results. Chest X-ray could reveal pulmonary metastases in 13 (36 % patients; lung pathology foci were absent in 23 (64 % patients. 131I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS proved to be of informative value in 24 (66.7 % patients, it displayed no increased accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the lung of 12 (33.3 % cases. Multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT of the chest was carried out in 22 (61 % patients; out of them 21 (95.5 % were found to have 1.4-to-20-mm lung cancer foci. 18Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET / CT was performed in 18 (50 % patients, which showed 3–26-mm lung pathology foci in all the patents; out of them 16 (88.9 % were detected to have metastases owing to the CT component of this method. Thus, the highest sensitivity was exhibited by MSCT (95.5 %, 18FDG PET / CT (100 % due to its CT component, and 131I WBS (66.7 %.Conclusion. When lung metastases of DTC are suspected, 1 chest X-ray should be used as a screening test; 2 131I WBS should be performed in all patients; 3 MSCT of the chest is

  19. Assessment and validation of diagnostic interviewing skills for mental health professions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees); G. Blok; R. Kreutzkamp; R. Melles; H.G. Schmidt (Henk); S.M. Bögels (Susan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA behavioral test was developed to assess the quality of diagnostic interviewing skills of (future) mental health professionals. Two aspects of diagnostic interviewing ability are distinguished: process skills, reflecting the interpersonal and communication skills; and content skills, re

  20. Non-small-cell lung cancer resectability: diagnostic value of PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraioli, Francesco; Menezes, Leon; Kayani, Irfan; Syed, Rizwan; O' Meara, Celia; Barnes, Anna; Bomanji, Jamshed B.; Punwani, Shonit; Groves, Ashley M. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Screaton, Nicholas J. [Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Janes, Samuel M. [University College London, Lungs for Living Research Centre, UCL Respiratory Division of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Win, Thida [Lister Hospital, Respiratory Medicine, Stevenage (United Kingdom); Zaccagna, Fulvio [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of PET/MR in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Fifty consecutive consenting patients who underwent routine {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for potentially radically treatable lung cancer following a staging CT scan were recruited for PET/MR imaging on the same day. Two experienced readers, unaware of the results with the other modalities, interpreted the PET/MR images independently. Discordances were resolved in consensus. PET/MR TNM staging was compared to surgical staging from thoracotomy as the reference standard in 33 patients. In the remaining 17 nonsurgical patients, TNM was determined based on histology from biopsy, imaging results (CT and PET/CT) and follow-up. ROC curve analysis was used to assess accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the PET/MR in assessing the surgical resectability of primary tumour. The kappa statistic was used to assess interobserver agreement in the PET/MR TNM staging. Two different readers, without knowledge of the PET/MR findings, subsequently separately reviewed the PET/CT images for TNM staging. The generalized kappa statistic was used to determine intermodality agreement between PET/CT and PET/MR for TNM staging. ROC curve analysis showed that PET/MR had a specificity of 92.3 % and a sensitivity of 97.3 % in the determination of resectability with an AUC of 0.95. Interobserver agreement in PET/MR reading ranged from substantial to perfect between the two readers (Cohen's kappa 0.646 - 1) for T stage, N stage and M stage. Intermodality agreement between PET/CT and PET/MR ranged from substantial to almost perfect for T stage, N stage and M stage (Cohen's kappa 0.627 - 0.823). In lung cancer patients PET/MR appears to be a robust technique for preoperative staging. (orig.)

  1. Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

  2. Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donné, A.J.H.; Costley, A.E.; Barnsley, R.;

    2007-01-01

    on ITER is a substantial challenge. Because of the harsh environment (high levels of neutron and gamma fluxes, neutron heating, particle bombardment) diagnostic system selection and design has to cope with a range of phenomena not previously encountered in diagnostic design. Extensive design and R...

  3. The diagnostic process of cervical cancer; areas of good practice, and windows of opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, A.; de Wilde, Marlieke; Duk, M.J.; Graziosi, G.C.M.; van Haaften, Maarten; von Mensdorff-Pouilly, S.; van Diest, Paul J.; Zweemer, RP; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Verheijen, RHM

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite an extensive screening programme in The Netherlands, some cases of cervical cancer are still diagnosed in late stages of disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate which elements in the diagnostic process of cervical cancer may be improved. Methods This is a retrospec

  4. Recent advances in salivary cancer diagnostics enabled by biosensors and bioelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saswat; Saadat, Darius; Kwon, Ohjin; Lee, Yongkuk; Choi, Woon-Seop; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2016-07-15

    There is a high demand for a non-invasive, rapid, and highly accurate tool for disease diagnostics. Recently, saliva based diagnostics for the detection of specific biomarkers has drawn significant attention since the sample extraction is simple, cost-effective, and precise. Compared to blood, saliva contains a similar variety of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and microbiota that can be compiled into a multiplex of cancer detection markers. The salivary diagnostic method holds great potential for early-stage cancer diagnostics without any complicated and expensive procedures. Here, we review various cancer biomarkers in saliva and compare the biomarkers efficacy with traditional diagnostics and state-of-the-art bioelectronics. We summarize biomarkers in four major groups: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics/microbiota. Representative bioelectronic systems for each group are summarized based on various stages of a cancer. Systematic study of oxidative stress establishes the relationship between macromolecules and cancer biomarkers in saliva. We also introduce the most recent examples of salivary diagnostic electronics based on nanotechnologies that can offer rapid, yet highly accurate detection of biomarkers. A concluding section highlights areas of opportunity in the further development and applications of these technologies. PMID:26946257

  5. Peculiarities of carcinomatous pleurisies in breast cancer (cytological diagnostic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Grigoruk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific features of carcinomatous pleurisies were studied in 119 patients with breast cancer (BC. The most characteristic properties of the structure of cells and the composition of pleural fluid were noted in infiltrating ductal and lobular BC. A differential diagnosis was made between mesothelioma (17% and ovarian cancer (25%; it was difficult to perform it in lobular cancer.

  6. Myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer: diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 1.5-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the preoperative assessment of myometrial invasion by endometrial cancer. In this prospective study, 47 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer underwent preoperative MR imaging and total hysterectomy. The MR protocol included spin-echo multishot T2-weighted, dynamic T1-weighted and DW images acquired with b-values of 0 and 500 s/mm2. Myometrial tumour spread was classified as superficial (<50%) or deep (≥50% myometrial thickness). Postoperative histopathological findings served as a reference standard. Indices of diagnostic performance were assessed for each sequence. At histopathological examination, superficial myometrial invasion was found in 34 patients and deep myometrial invasion in 13. In the assessment of tumour invasion, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of T2-weighted images were 92.3%, 76.5%, 60.0% and 96.3%, respectively. The corresponding values for dynamic images were 69.2%, 61.8%, 40.9% and 84.0%, and for DW images 84.6%, 70.6%, 52.4% and 92.3%. T2-weighted and DW imaging proved to be the most accurate techniques for tumour spread determination. DW imaging proved to be accurate in assessing myometrial invasion, and it could replace dynamic imaging as an adjunct to routine T2-weighted imaging for preoperative evaluation of endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostic Performance of Whole-Body PET/MRI for Detecting Malignancies in Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Shen

    Full Text Available As an evolving imaging modality, PET/MRI is preliminarily applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI for tumor staging in patients with various types of cancer.Relevant articles about PET/MRI for cancer staging were systematically searched in PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO and the Cochrane Library. Two researchers independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality using the QUADAS tool. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, and negative likelihood ratio (NLR were calculated per patient and per lesion. The summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC curves were also constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC and Q* estimates were obtained.A total of 38 studies that involved 753 patients and 4234 lesions met the inclusion criteria. On a per-patient level, the pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 0.93 (0.90-0.95 and 0.92 (0.89-0.95, respectively. On a per-lesion level, the corresponding estimates were 0.90 (0.88-0.92 and 0.95 (0.94-0.96, respectively. The pooled PLR, NLR and DOR estimates were 6.67 (4.83-9.19, 0.12 (0.07-0.21 and 75.08 (42.10-133.91 per patient and 10.91 (6.79-17.54, 0.13 (0.08-0.19 and 102.53 (59.74-175.97 per lesion, respectively.According to our results, PET/MRI has excellent diagnostic potential for the overall detection of malignancies in cancer patients. Large, multicenter and prospective studies with standard scanning protocols are required to evaluate the diagnostic value of PET/MRI for individual cancer types.

  8. Diagnostic and treatment pathways for men with prostate cancer in Queensland: investigating spatial and demographic inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Baade Peter D; Aitken Joanne F; Ferguson Megan; Gardiner Robert A; Chambers Suzanne K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Patterns of diagnosis and management for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Queensland, Australia, have not yet been systematically documented and so assumptions of equity are untested. This longitudinal study investigates the association between prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment outcomes and key area-level characteristics and individual-level demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods/Design A total of 1064 men diagnosed with prostate cancer between...

  9. Salivary apoptotic cells in oral (pre-) cancer as a potential diagnostic means

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Jasdeep; Politis, Constantinus; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is a genetically programmed form of cell death which is indispensable for development and homeostasis of multi-cellular organism. Objectives The aim of this study was to find out the salivary apoptotic cells in oral precancerous and cancerous patients and furthermore to observe the potential diagnostic value of salivary apoptotic cells in detection of oral pre-cancer and cancer. Material and Methods Unsimulated saliva was collected from a group of 103 subjects diagnosed w...

  10. Routine radiography does not have a role in the diagnostic evaluation of ambulatory adult febrile neutropenic cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, CSMO; Gietema, JA; Vellenga, E; Daenen, SMGJ; De Bont, ESJM; Kamps, WA; Groen, HJM; van der Jagt, EJ; van der Graaf, WTA

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients treated with chemotherapy are susceptible to bacterial infections. When an adult patient presents with febrile neutropenia. standard diagnostic care includes physical examination, laboratory diagnostics, chest X-ray (CXR) and sinus radiography. However, the yield of routine radiograp

  11. Using Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Students' Misconceptions of States of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Geban, Omer

    2014-01-01

    This study involves the development of a three-tier diagnostic test to measure high school students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The States of Matter Diagnostic Test (SMDT) is a 19-item three-tier diagnostic test consisting of three-tier items for assessing students' understanding of states of matter concepts. The SMDT…

  12. Existential Anxiety in Diagnostic Process of Genital Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha Hallac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning to have a cancer diagnosis is a concrete threat and a stressful life experience for individuals. Cancer is interpreted as fatal, painful, frightening and scary disease by the patients and makes them realize the presence of death and their own mortality. Facing the reality of death brings an existential questioning of self. This questioning is directly related to the interpretation and biopsychosocial characteristics of the individual and clearly influenced by the patients’ previous experiences and type of cancer involved. The occurrence of a genital organ cancer would lead patient to evaluate the meaning of being human and review his life, his values and his routine habits. This process has significant effect upon the patient’s response and coping mechanisms with cancer. Nurses have a unique position among medical team members for helping such patients to find a meaning in their life by providing necessary support at every stage of the cancer.

  13. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of check valves in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL check valve aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of check valve monitoring methods and techniques. Several check valve monitoring methods are described and compared. These methods include: acoustic emission monitoring, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic flux signature analysis (MFSA), external magnetics. These diagnostic technologies were shown to be useful in determining check valve condition (e.g., disc position, disc motion, and seat leakage), although none of the methods was by itself, successful in monitoring all three condition indicators. The combination of acoustic emission with either ultrasonics or one of the magnetic technologies, however, yields a monitoring system that succeeds in providing the sensitivity to detect all major check valve operating conditions. Other areas covered in the paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues, utility group activities, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  14. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers MB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meagan B Myers Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. Keywords: HER2, precision medicine, in vitro diagnostics, estrogen receptor, multigene assay

  15. Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Sachiko; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko; Miyoshi, Norio

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz spectroscopic images of paraffin-embedded cancer tissues have been measured by a terahertz time domain spectrometer. For the systematic identification of cancer tumors, the principal component analysis and the clustering analysis were applied. In three of the four samples, the cancer tissue was recognized as an aggregate of the data points in the principal component plots. By the agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the data points were well categorized into cancer and the other tissues. This method can be also applied to various kinds of automatic discrimination of plural components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

  16. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  17. [Skin cancer in primary care: frequency, need to further education and subjective diagnostic certainty. A cross sectional survey among general practitioners in Canton of Zurich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Senn, O.; Rossi, P.O.; Wensing, M.; Rosemann, T.; Tandjung, R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incidence of malignant skin lesions is rising in Switzerland. We wanted to assess the frequency of patients with suspicious skin lesions in daily practice. Furthermore, we asked for diagnostic certainty and the need of further education in skin cancer. METHODS: Survey with 1212 GPs in th

  18. An oligonucleotide-tagged microarray for routine diagnostics of colon cancer by genotyping KRAS mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuliang; Guðnason, Haukur; Li, Yiping;

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent types of cancer, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. CRC is curable if diagnosed at an early stage. Mutations in the oncogene KRAS play a critical role in early development of CRC. Detection of activated KRAS is of diagnostic...... mutations at codon 12 of KRAS derived from cancer cells and clinical samples could be unambiguously detected. KRAS mutations were accurately detected when the mutant DNA was present only in 10% of the starting mixed materials including wild-type genomic DNA, which was isolated from either cancer cells...

  19. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging (DWIBS in bladder cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponukalin A.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to identify the most characteristic and significant changes in indicators in patients with bladder cancer during diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging (DWIBS. Materials: From September 2009 till 2011 98 patients have been examined (61 (62,24% with morphologically verified bladder cancer and 37 (37,76% with cystitis. Results: The study has revealed that the sensitivity of DWIBS-study in detecting bladder cancer is 98,36%, specificity of 10,81 %, the efficacy of 65,38%. Conclusions: DWIBS is an informative noninvasive method for screening diagnostics of bladder cancer, to identify suspicious areas on regional, and distant metastases

  20. Detection of the smallest microcalcifications for early diagnostic of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinazzi, Elizandra; Kleper, S.O., E-mail: elizandra.martinazzi@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Institute of Physics

    2011-07-01

    Even though breast cancer is a cancer with relatively easy early diagnostic and has an appropriate treatment, it has high mortality rates in Brazil. This is in part because the disease is diagnosed only in advanced stages, but also because the whole information contained in the mammograms is not used by physicians and radiologists. There are many parameters to be considered in assessing the quality of a mammogram image. Among these parameters are contrast, spatial resolution, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the efficiency of the applied dose. Even with the improvement of the quality of radiographs, many structures, such as small microcalcifications, are not always identified by radiologists in the images. To determine the lowest detectable structures in digital mammograms, we made a numerical analysis of a few digital mammography using simulators, determining the spatial and intensity resolutions, and studying the noise and its distribution. With this, we could determine the detection levels, quantifying the probability that any point is due to statistical noise or a real change in breast density. This is the first step towards early detection of microcalcifications. In our work, it was possible to detect even the smallest microcalcifications of the simulator, 0.18 mm in diameter, with false alarm probability smaller than 1/1000. (author)

  1. Filtering Medline for a clinical discipline: diagnostic test assessment framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iansavichus, Arthur V; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Kastner, Monika; Baier, Leslie A; Shariff, Salimah Z; Rehman, Faisal; Weir, Matthew; McKibbon, K Ann; Haynes, R Brian

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and test a Medline filter that allows clinicians to search for articles within a clinical discipline, rather than searching the entire Medline database. Design Diagnostic test assessment framework with development and validation phases. Setting Sample of 4657 articles published in 2006 from 40 journals. Reviews Each article was manually reviewed, and 19.8% contained information relevant to the discipline of nephrology. The performance of 1 155 087 unique renal filters was compared with the manual review. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of each filter. Results The best renal filters combined two to 14 terms or phrases and included the terms “kidney” with multiple endings (that is, truncation), “renal replacement therapy”, “renal dialysis”, “kidney function tests”, “renal”, “nephr” truncated, “glomerul” truncated, and “proteinuria”. These filters achieved peak sensitivities of 97.8% and specificities of 98.5%. Performance of filters remained excellent in the validation phase. Conclusions Medline can be filtered for the discipline of nephrology in a reliable manner. Storing these high performance renal filters in PubMed could help clinicians with their everyday searching. Filters can also be developed for other clinical disciplines by using similar methods. PMID:19767336

  2. Uptodate view on diagnostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D O Gazizova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 4 years leading endocrine societies of the world published clinical recommendations on diag nostics and treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. The article covers most aspects of following patients with this pathology.

  3. The diagnostic value of transrectal ultrasonographic features in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Zou; Guang Yang; Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to detect the valuable ultrasonographic features in diagnosing prostate cancer.Methods: The patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound in the period from May 2005 to October 2009 at the 1st Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, China, were included, with needle biopsy diagnosis for patients with the prostate cancer and prostatic hyperplasia.Seventy-four cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, compared with 51 cases diagnosed as prostatic hyperplasia.Retrospective analysis of patients with transrectal ultrasound were done, comparing the difference between the two groups in the echo level (hypoechogenic), outlines (ill-defined margin), posterior acoustic attenuation, periphery halo, microcalcification incidence, the blood supply level, peak systolic velocity (Vs) and resistance index (RI).Results: The ratios of hypoechogenic lesions in the prostate cancer group and prostatic hyperplasia group were 56.76% and 35.90%, respectively (P 0.05).Vs of the two groups were (44.00 ± 15.30) cm/s and (17.32 ± 4.65) cm/s, respectively (P < 0.05).RI of the two groups were 0.76 ± 0.10, and 0.51 ± 0.03 respectively (P < 0.05).The significant correlation was designated in the blood supply level between the prostate cancer group and prostatic hyperplasia group (r = -0.388, P < 0.01).Higher revascularization grade was seen in the prostate cancer group compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia group.Conclusion: (1) The significant roles for diagnosing prostate cancer are hypoechogenic, irregular outlines, spiculation, microcalcification, high revascularization grade, posterior acoustic attenuation, high Vs and high RI.(2) It could not help in diagnosing prostate cancer with ultrasonographic periphery halo or not.

  4. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Assessing the Validity of the Diagnostic Schemata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, James Mark

    This paper is concerned with changes which have been proposed in the major current diagnostic system regarding paranoid schizophrenia. It is noted that the proposed changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III) would remove paranoia as a schizophrenic subtype and institute a spectrum description of…

  5. Exploring Ways to Provide Diagnostic Feedback with an ESL Placement Test: Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment of L2 Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Young

    2015-01-01

    Previous research in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) of L2 reading ability has been frequently conducted using large-scale English proficiency exams (e.g., TOEFL, MELAB). Using CDA, it is possible to analyze individual learners' strengths and weaknesses in multiple attributes (i.e., knowledge, skill, strategy) measured at the item level.…

  6. The impact of insurance coverage during insurance reform on diagnostic resolution of cancer screening abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Alok; Battaglia, Tracy A; Isabelle, Alexis P; Hanchate, Amresh D; Kalish, Richard L; Bak, Sharon; Mishuris, Rebecca G; Shroff, Swati M; Freund, Karen M

    2014-02-01

    We examined the impact of Massachusetts insurance reform on the care of women at six community health centers with abnormal breast and cervical cancer screening to investigate whether stability of insurance coverage was associated with more timely diagnostic resolution. We conducted Cox proportional hazards models to predict time from cancer screening to diagnostic resolution, examining the impact of 1) insurance status at time of screening abnormality, 2) number of insurance switches over a three-year period, and 3) insurance history over a three-year period. We identified 1,165 women with breast and 781 with cervical cancer screening abnormalities. In the breast cohort, Medicaid insurance at baseline, continuous public insurance, and losing insurance predicted delayed resolution. We did not find these effects in the cervical cohort. These data provide evidence that stability of health insurance coverage with insurance reform nationally may improve timely care after abnormal cancer screening in historically underserved women.

  7. Methylene blue as an early diagnostic marker for oral precancer and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Akhtar; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala; Natarajan, S

    2013-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common neoplasm's and is ranked eighth in the cancer incidence worldwide. Early detection is of critical importance because survival rates markedly improve. In vivo staining is a simple, inexpensive, and fairly sensitive method. Involved 120 patients (50 with Premalignant Lesion, 50 with OSCC and 20 controls) stained by Methylene Blue (MB). The results of MB uptake were compared with a simultaneous biopsy of these lesions. Pathologically confirmed precancers and cancers were the positive targets of this screening, while hyperkeratosis without dysplasia and no evidence of malignancy were sorted as negative subjects of screening. The results revealed sensitivity of 91.4%, specificity of 66.6%, positive predictive value 97.7% and negative predictive value 33% leading to diagnostic accuracy of MB stain to 90%. We state that MB staining is useful diagnostic tool in community oral cancer screening programmes for high-risk individuals.

  8. Potential Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Ming Tsai; Chia-Siu Wang; Chung-Ying Tsai; Hsiang-Wei Huang; Hsiang-Cheng Chi; Yang-Hsiang Lin; Pei-Hsuan Lu; Kwang-Huei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Human gastric cancer (GC) is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, largely because it is normally not identified until a relatively advanced stage owing to a lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Gastroscopy with biopsy is the routine method for screening, and gastrectomy is the major therapeutic strategy for GC. However, in more than 30% of GC surgical patients, cancer has progressed too far for effective medical resection. Thus, useful biomarkers for early screening or detect...

  9. Pre-Diagnostic Leukocyte Genomic DNA Methylation and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hongmei Nan; Giovannucci, Edward L; Kana Wu; Jacob Selhub; Ligi Paul; Bernard Rosner; Fuchs, Charles S; Eunyoung Cho

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormal one-carbon metabolism may lead to general genomic (global) hypomethylation, which may predispose an individual to the development of colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: We evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic leukocyte genomic DNA methylation level and the risk of colorectal cancer in a nested case-control study of 358 colorectal cancer cases and 661 matched controls within the all-female cohort of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). Among control subjects, we further ...

  10. Does the Primary Care Experience Influence the Cancer Diagnostic Process?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Provost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the impact of patients’ experience of care at their usual source of primary care on their choice of point of entry into cancer investigation process, time to diagnosis, and presence of metastatic cancer at time of diagnosis. Method. A questionnaire was administered to 438 patients with cancer (breast, lung, and colorectal between 2011 and 2013 in four oncology clinics of Quebec (Canada. Multiple regression analyses (logistic and Cox models were conducted. Results. Among patients with symptoms leading to investigation of cancer (n=307, 47% used their usual source of primary care as the point of entry for investigation. Greater comprehensiveness of care was associated with the decision to use this source as point of entry (OR = 1.25; CI 90% = 1.06–1.46, as well as with shorter times between first symptoms and investigation (HR = 1.11; p=0.05, while greater accessibility was associated with shorter times between investigation and diagnosis (HR = 1.13; p<0.01.  Conclusion. Experience of care at the usual source of primary care has a slight influence on the choice of point of entry for cancer investigation and on time to diagnosis. This influence appears to be more related to patients’ perceptions of the accessibility and comprehensiveness of their usual source of primary care.

  11. Exosomal Proteins as a Diagnostic Biomarkers in Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld-Paulsen, B; Jakobsen, K R; Bæk, R;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exosomes have been suggested as promising biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), since they contain proteins from their originating cells and are readily available in plasma. In this study, we explore the potential of exosome protein profiling in diagnosing lung cancer...... patients of all stages and various histological subtypes. METHODS: Plasma was isolated from 581 patients (431 with lung cancer, 150 controls). The Extracellular Vesicle (EV) Array was used to phenotype exosomes. The EV Array contained 49 antibodies for capturing exosomes. Subsequently, a cocktail of biotin......-conjugated CD9, CD81 and CD63 antibodies was used to detect and visualize captured exosomes. Multi-marker models were made combining two or more markers. The optimal multi-marker model was evaluated by Area under the curve (AUC) and Random Forests analysis. RESULTS: The markers CD151, CD171 and Tspan8 were...

  12. Next generation of optical diagnostics for bladder cancer using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Chang, Timothy C.; Pan, Ying; Hsiao, Shelly T.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2012-02-01

    Real-time imaging with confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) probes that fit in standard endoscopes has emerged as a clinically feasible technology for optical biopsy of bladder cancer. Confocal images of normal, inflammatory, and neoplastic urothelium obtained with intravesical fluorescein can be differentiated by morphologic characteristics. We compiled a confocal atlas of the urinary tract using these diagnostic criteria to be used in a prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumor underwent white light cystoscopy (WLC), followed by CLE, and histologic confirmation of resected tissue. Areas that appeared normal by WLC were imaged and biopsied as controls. We imaged and prospectively analyzed 135 areas in 57 patients. We show that CLE improves the diagnostic accuracy of WLC for diagnosing benign tissue, low and high grade cancer. Interobserver studies showed a moderate level of agreement by urologists and nonclinical researchers. Despite morphologic differences between inflammation and cancer, real-time differentiation can still be challenging. Identification of bladder cancer-specific contrast agents could provide molecular specificity to CLE. By using fluorescently-labeled antibodies or peptides that bind to proteins expressed in bladder cancer, we have identified putative molecular contrast agents for targeted imaging with CLE. We describe one candidate agent - anti-CD47 - that was instilled into bladder specimens. The tumor and normal urothelium were imaged with CLE, with increased fluorescent signal demonstrated in areas of tumor compared to normal areas. Thus, cancer-specificity can be achieved using molecular contrast agents ex vivo in conjunction with CLE.

  13. [Diagnostics and surgical treatment of lung cancer in conditions of special thoracal department for patients with purulent lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deĭnega, I V; Egorov, V I; Ionov, P M; Akopov, A L

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated features of diagnostics and surgical treatment of lung cancer which was complicated by purulent destructive process. The possibilities of radical operative intervention were considered after preliminary adequate treatment of purulent complications in 226 patients. It was noted, that the diagnostic thoracotomy should be used in doubtful cases in order to estimate the resectability of lung cancer. PMID:25306630

  14. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT for surveillance in asymptomatic gastric cancer patients after curative surgical resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study evaluated the diagnostic performance of 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for surveillance in asymptomatic gastric cancer patients after curative surgical resection. We retrospectively recruited 190 gastric cancer patients (115 early gastric cancer patients and 75 advanced gastric cancer patients) who underwent 1-year (91 patients) or 2-year (99 patients) postoperative FDG PET/CT surveillance, along with a routine follow-up program, after curative surgical resection. All enrolled patients were asymptomatic and showed no recurrence on follow-up examinations performed before PET/CT surveillance. All PET/CT images were visually assessed and all abnormal findings on follow-up examinations including FDG PET/CT were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up. During follow-up, 19 patients (10.0 %) developed recurrence. FDG PET/CT showed abnormal findings in 37 patients (19.5 %). Among them, 16 patients (8.4 %) were diagnosed as cancer recurrence. Of 153 patients without abnormal findings on PET/CT, three patients were false-negative and diagnosed as recurrence on other follow-up examinations. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FDG PET/CT were 84.2 %, 87.7 %, 43.2 %, and 98.0 %, respectively. Among 115 early gastric cancer patients, PET/CT detected recurrence in four patients (3.5 %) and one patient with local recurrence. Among 75 advanced gastric cancer patients, PET/CT detected recurrence in 12 patients (16.0 %), excluding two patients experiencing peritoneal recurrence. In addition, FDG PET/CT detected secondary primary cancer in six (3.2 %) out of all the patients. Post-operative FDG PET/CT surveillance showed good diagnostic ability for detecting recurrence in gastric cancer patients. FDG PET/CT could be a useful follow-up modality for gastric cancer patients, especially those with advanced gastric cancer

  15. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET/CT for surveillance in asymptomatic gastric cancer patients after curative surgical resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Won [Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, International St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Mi [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 23-20 Byeongmyeong-dong, Dongnam-gu, Chungcheongnam-do, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Myoung Won; Lee, Moon-Soo [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The present study evaluated the diagnostic performance of 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for surveillance in asymptomatic gastric cancer patients after curative surgical resection. We retrospectively recruited 190 gastric cancer patients (115 early gastric cancer patients and 75 advanced gastric cancer patients) who underwent 1-year (91 patients) or 2-year (99 patients) postoperative FDG PET/CT surveillance, along with a routine follow-up program, after curative surgical resection. All enrolled patients were asymptomatic and showed no recurrence on follow-up examinations performed before PET/CT surveillance. All PET/CT images were visually assessed and all abnormal findings on follow-up examinations including FDG PET/CT were confirmed with histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up. During follow-up, 19 patients (10.0 %) developed recurrence. FDG PET/CT showed abnormal findings in 37 patients (19.5 %). Among them, 16 patients (8.4 %) were diagnosed as cancer recurrence. Of 153 patients without abnormal findings on PET/CT, three patients were false-negative and diagnosed as recurrence on other follow-up examinations. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FDG PET/CT were 84.2 %, 87.7 %, 43.2 %, and 98.0 %, respectively. Among 115 early gastric cancer patients, PET/CT detected recurrence in four patients (3.5 %) and one patient with local recurrence. Among 75 advanced gastric cancer patients, PET/CT detected recurrence in 12 patients (16.0 %), excluding two patients experiencing peritoneal recurrence. In addition, FDG PET/CT detected secondary primary cancer in six (3.2 %) out of all the patients. Post-operative FDG PET/CT surveillance showed good diagnostic ability for detecting recurrence in gastric cancer patients. FDG PET/CT could be a useful follow-up modality for gastric cancer patients, especially those with advanced gastric cancer

  16. Diagnostic service effectiveness during the first year of breast cancer screening in the region of Lower Silesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The Polish Government and the National Health Fund introduced population-based breast cancer screening in 2007 aimed to reduce breast cancer mortality. Objectives. To evaluate the diagnostic quality of the program during its initial year in the region of Lower Silesia. Material and Methods. This nation-wide program targets women aged 50-69, excluding females undergoing treatment or being followed up due to breast cancer. Biennial two-view screen-film mammography is used as the standard screening test. A significant reduction in breast cancer mortality requires measurement of long-term screening. Some early performance indicators are therefore widely used and accepted in monitoring the effectiveness of a screening program. These parameters were calculated and compared with those recommended by the European Union. Results. In 2007, 79,143 women were screened in the region of Lower Silesia. Only 0.26% of them were re-examined for technical reasons. The recall for reassessment, short-term recall, and invasive examination rates were 6.85, 0.91, and 0.39%, respectively. Pathologically confirmed breast cancer was found in 460 women, giving a detection rate 5.8/1000. The ratio of cancer detection rate to expected incidence was 3.54. There were only 17 (3.7%) ductal carcinoma in situ found among all the cancers. Three hundred twenty-five cancers were histologically verified by open biopsy, giving a non-operative biopsy rate for malignancy as low as 29%. Conclusions. The effectiveness of the diagnostic service for cancer detection during the initial phase of the breast cancer screening program corresponds to the parameters specified by the European guidelines for quality assessment of initial screening examinations. The main disadvantage is the rate of minimal-invasive biopsy for malignancy, one third of that recommended. Another challenge is the low incidence of DCIS. This needs to be carefully evaluated in the future together with the time interval and false

  17. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  18. Pretreatment axillary ultrasonography and core biopsy in patients with suspected breast cancer: Diagnostic accuracy and impact on management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ortega, Maria Jose, E-mail: rserranogan@telefonica.net [Breast Imaging Center, Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Alvarez Benito, Marina, E-mail: marinaalvarezbenito@telefonica.net [Breast Imaging Center, Radiology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Fuentes Vahamonde, Elena, E-mail: elena.fuentes.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es [Pathology Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Rioja Torres, Pilar, E-mail: priojat@yahoo.es [Clinical Management Unit, Department of General and Digestive Surgery, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Benitez Velasco, Ana, E-mail: abvelazco@yahoo.es [Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain); Martinez Paredes, Maria, E-mail: mariaparedes@uco.es [Radiology and Physical Medicine Area, University of Cordoba Medical School, Avda. Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Preoperative diagnosis of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients enables treatment planning. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of axillary ultrasonography and percutaneous biopsy, both alone and in combination, in detecting axillary metastases in patients with breast cancer and to assess the impact of these techniques on the patients' management. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of consecutive patients with suspected breast cancer examined between October 2006 and December 2008. The diagnosis of a primary tumor was histologically confirmed in all patients. All patients underwent axillary ultrasonography and percutaneous core biopsy (14G) of suspicious lymph nodes. We evaluated the morphological characteristics of the lymph nodes by ultrasonography. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography and of core biopsy, and assessed the impact of these techniques on patients' treatment. Results: We evaluated 675 axillary regions and performed 291 core biopsies of axillary lymph nodes in 662 patients. In 650 patients, breast cancer was histologically confirmed and in 12 patients malignant tumors in other locations were confirmed. The sensitivity and specificity of axillary ultrasonography were 63.2% and 88.7%, respectively. The absence of a fatty hilum within the lymph node was the ultrasonographic finding with the highest positive predictive value for malignancy (93.1%). The sensitivity and specificity of axillary core biopsy were 69.1% and 100%, respectively. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was avoided in 33% of initial candidates and immediate breast reconstruction was undertaken in 35.1% of the patients with mastectomy and negative axillary core biopsy. Conclusions: Ultrasonography and axillary core biopsy enable adequate pretreatment staging in patients with breast cancer and has a positive impact on their management.

  19. Prostate cancer - diagnostic and staging; Prostatakarzinom - Diagnostik und Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franiel, T.; Beyersdorff, D. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2007-06-15

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy of men in Germany. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) is the primary used imaging modality. Patients with elevated PSA levels undergo systematic TRUS-guided transrectal biopsy of the prostate for histologic confirmation of prostate cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the combined endorectal body phased-array coil may be indicated in men with one or more negative prostate biopsies. The detection of prostate cancer by conventional MRI can be improved by an additional dynamic contrast-enhanced MR study and proton MR spectroscopy. Local staging of prostate cancer by MRI is more accurate compared with digital rectal examination and transrectal ultrasound. However, accuracies reported in the literature for these procedures vary widely. Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-bisphosphonate is currently the method of choice for the detection of bone metastases. However, more recent techniques such as whole-body MRI and PET using 18F-FDG, 11C-choline or 11C-acetate as tracers were found to have higher sensitivities. (orig.)

  20. A methodological framework to distinguish spectrum effects from spectrum biases and to assess diagnostic and screening test accuracy for patient populations: Application to the Papanicolaou cervical cancer smear test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coste Joël

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A spectrum effect was defined as differences in the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test according to the patient's characteristics or disease features. A spectrum effect can lead to a spectrum bias when subgroup variations in sensitivity or specificity also affect the likelihood ratios and thus post-test probabilities. We propose and illustrate a methodological framework to distinguish spectrum effects from spectrum biases. Methods Data were collected for 1781 women having had a cervical smear test and colposcopy followed by biopsy if abnormalities were detected (the reference standard. Logistic models were constructed to evaluate both the sensitivity and specificity, and the likelihood ratios, of the test and to identify factors independently affecting the test's characteristics. Results For both tests, human papillomavirus test, study setting and age affected sensitivity or specificity of the smear test (spectrum effect, but only human papillomavirus test and study setting modified the likelihood ratios (spectrum bias for clinical reading, whereas only human papillomavirus test and age modified the likelihood ratios (spectrum bias for "optimized" interpretation. Conclusion Fitting sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios simultaneously allows the identification of covariates that independently affect diagnostic or screening test results and distinguishes spectrum effect from spectrum bias. We recommend this approach for the development of new tests, and for reporting test accuracy for different patient populations.

  1. Screening for ALK Rearrangements in Lung Cancer: Time for a New Generation of Diagnostics?

    OpenAIRE

    Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Shaw, Alice T.

    2016-01-01

    A study reported in this issue of The Oncologist examined the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in detecting ALK rearrangements. NGS may one day become the standard initial test for molecular genotyping of patients with advanced cancers, and this new generation of ALK diagnostics is a welcome addition to the current screening repertoire.

  2. MALDI TOF imaging mass spectrometry in clinical pathology: a valuable tool for cancer diagnostics (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Jörg; Kriegsmann, Mark; Casadonte, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an evolving technique in cancer diagnostics and combines the advantages of mass spectrometry (proteomics), detection of numerous molecules, and spatial resolution in histological tissue sections and cytological preparations. This method allows the detection of proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates or glycoconjugates and small molecules.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can also be investigated by IMS, thus, this method seems to be an ideal tool for cancer diagnostics and biomarker discovery. It may add information to the identification of tumor margins and tumor heterogeneity. The technique allows tumor typing, especially identification of the tumor of origin in metastatic tissue, as well as grading and may provide prognostic information. IMS is a valuable method for the identification of biomarkers and can complement histology, immunohistology and molecular pathology in various fields of histopathological diagnostics, especially with regard to identification and grading of tumors.

  3. Cancer Risk Assessment for the Primary Care Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Korde, Larissa A; Gadalla, Shahinaz M.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer risk assessment can be divided into two major categories: assessment of familial or genetic risk and assessment of environmental factors that may be causally related to cancer. Identification of individuals with a suspected heritable cancer syndrome can lead to additional evaluation and to interventions that can substantially decrease cancer risk. Special attention should also be paid to potentially modifiable cancer ris...

  4. Musashi1 as a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic marker for lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Yang; Yu, Huina; Linnoila, R. Ilona; Li, Laodong; Li, Dangyu; Mo, Biwen; Okano, Hideyuki; Luiz O. F. Penalva; Glazer, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide with a 5-year survival rate of less than 20%. One approach to improving survival is the identification of biomarkers to detect early stage disease. In this study, we investigated the potential of the stem cell and progenitor cell marker, Musashi1 (Msi1), as a diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target for lung cancer. Functional studies in A549 bronchioalveolar carcinoma and NCI-H520 squamous cell carcino...

  5. Diagnostic and prognostic signatures from the small non-coding RNA transcriptome in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens-Uzunova, E S; Jalava, S E; Dits, N F;

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequent male malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Current clinical and pathological methods are limited in the prediction of postoperative outcome. It is becoming increasingly evident that small non-coding RNA...... RNAs (snoRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs). From microarray analysis, we derived a miRNA diagnostic classifier that accurately distinguishes normal from cancer samples. Furthermore, we were able to construct a PCa prognostic predictor that independently forecasts postoperative outcome. Importantly...

  6. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for cancer pain of peripheral nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Lei; Jian-ping AN; Hui ZHAO; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Jun-feng MAO; Li, Yun; Dai, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the characteristics of cancer pain of the peripheral nerves on 18F-FDG PET/CT images, and explore the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for cancer pain of the peripheral nerves. Methods Imaging data of 18F-FDG PET/CT of 10 patients with cancer pain of the peripheral nerves confirmed by histopathology or long-term follow-up were analyzed retrospectively. The similarities and differences in PET/CT manifestations between the diseased side peripheral nerves and contralateral...

  7. Paired design study by real-time PCR: miR-378* and miR-145 are potent early diagnostic biomarkers of human colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Juan; Xie, Zhengyong; Cheng, Liyang; Zhang, Yuxin; CHEN Junyong; Yu, Hongping; Li, Zehang; Kang, Huixing

    2015-01-01

    Background Although microRNAs offer great potential as cancer biomarkers, effective clinical dignostics and tumor maker have not been verified to diagnose with colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of our study is to systematically assess the expression of miRNAs in matched cancer and normal tissue samples to identify promising diagnostic microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for CRC. Methods In our study, we examined by Real-Time PCR the expression levels of 96 mature miRNA in 32 CRC patients with diff...

  8. The association between methylated CDKN2A and cervical carcinogenesis, and its diagnostic value in cervical cancer: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jinyun Li,1,2,* Chongchang Zhou,1,* Haojie Zhou,3,* Tianlian Bao,1 Tengjiao Gao,1 Xiangling Jiang,1 Meng Ye1,2 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Ningbo University, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Affiliated Hospital, Ningbo University, 3Department of Molecular Diagnosis, Ningbo Diagnostic Pathology Center, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors are co-first authors of this work Background: Cervical cancer is the second deadliest gynecologic malignancy, characterized by apparently precancerous lesions and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and having a long course from the development of CIN to cervical cancer. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A is a well-documented tumor suppressor gene and is commonly methylated in cervical cancer. However, the relationship between methylated CDKN2A and carcinogenesis in cervical cancer is inconsistent, and the diagnostic accuracy of methylated CDKN2A is underinvestigated. In this study, we attempted to quantify the association between CDKN2A methylation and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer, and its diagnostic power.Methods: We systematically reviewed four electronic databases and identified 26 studies involving 1,490 cervical cancers, 1,291 CINs, and 964 controls. A pooled odds ratio (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was calculated to evaluate the association between methylated CDKN2A and the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. Specificity, sensitivity, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the diagnostic odds ratio were computed to assess the effect of methylated CDKN2A in the diagnosis of cervical cancer.Results: Our results indicated an upward trend in the methylation frequency of CDKN2A in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer (cancer vs control: OR =23.67, 95% CI =15.54–36.06; cancer vs CIN: OR =2.53, 95% CI =1.79–3.5; CIN vs control: OR =9.68, 95% CI =5.82–16.02. The

  9. Debris and shrapnel assessments for National Ignition Facility targets and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, N. D.; Fisher, A.; Kalantar, D.; Stölken, J.; Smith, C.; Vignes, R.; Burns, S.; Doeppner, T.; Kritcher, A.; Park, H.-S.

    2016-05-01

    High-energy laser experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) can create debris and shrapnel capable of damaging laser optics and diagnostic instruments. The size, composition and location of target components and sacrificial shielding (e.g., disposable debris shields, or diagnostic filters) and the protection they provide is constrained by many factors, including: chamber and diagnostic geometries, experimental goals and material considerations. An assessment of the generation, nature and velocity of shrapnel and debris and their potential threats is necessary prior to fielding targets or diagnostics. These assessments may influence target and shielding design, filter configurations and diagnostic selection. This paper will outline the approach used to manage the debris and shrapnel risk associated with NIF targets and diagnostics and present some aspects of two such cases: the Material Strength Rayleigh- Taylor campaign and the Mono Angle Crystal Spectrometer (MACS).

  10. Radiolabeled Cetuximab Conjugates for EGFR Targeted Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebke Sihver; Jens Pietzsch; Mechthild Krause; Michael Baumann; Jörg Steinbach; Hans-Jürgen Pietzsch

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has evolved over years into a main molecular target for the treatment of different cancer entities. In this regard, the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has been approved alone or in combination with: (a) chemotherapy for treatment of colorectal and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and (b) with external radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The conjugation of radionuclides to cetuximab in combination with the specif...

  11. Alternative Splicing and Its Impact as a Cancer Diagnostic Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yun-Ji; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Most genes are processed by alternative splicing for gene expression, resulting in the complexity of the transcriptome in eukaryotes. It allows a limited number of genes to encode various proteins with intricate functions. Alternative splicing is regulated by genetic mutations in cis-regulatory factors and epigenetic events. Furthermore, splicing events occur differently according to cell type, developmental stage, and various diseases, including cancer. Genome instability and flexible proteo...

  12. Pre-diagnostic levels of adiponectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 are associated with colorectal cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathilde Touvier; Pilar Galan; Sébastien Czernichow; Léopold Fezeu; Namanjeet Ahluwalia; Chantal Julia; Nathalie Charnaux; Angela Sutton; Caroline Méjean; Paule Latino-Martel; Serge Hercberg

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To examine the relationships between pre-diag-nostic biomarkers and colorectal cancer risk and assess their relevance in predictive models.METHODS:A nested case-control study was designed to include all first primary incident colorectal cancer cases diagnosed between inclusion in the SUpplementation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants cohort in 1994 and the end of follow-up in 2007.Cases (n =50) were matched with two randomly selected controis (n =100).Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between prediagnostic levels of hs-CRP,adiponectin,leptin,soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1),soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1,E-selectin,monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and colorectal cancer risk.Area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) and relative integrated discrimination improvement (RIDI) statistics were used to assess the discriminatory poten tial of the models.RESULTS:Plasma adiponectin level was associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk (P for linear trend =0.03).Quartiles of sVCAM-1 were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk (P for linear trend =0.02).No association was observed with any of the other biomarkers.Compared to standard models with known risk factors,those including both adiponectin and sVCAM-1 had substantially improved performance for colorectal cancer risk prediction (P for AUC improvement =0.01,RIDI =26.5%).CONCLUSION:These results suggest that pre-diagnostic plasma adiponectin and sVCAM-1 levels are associated with decreased and increased colorectal cancer risk,respectively.These relationships must be confirmed in large validation studies.

  13. Icelandic women's identifications of stressors and social support during the diagnostic phase of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridfinnsdottir, E B

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study was to describe the nature of stressors Icelandic women identify during the diagnostic phase of breast cancer, what sources of social support they draw upon, and their satisfaction with the social support they receive. Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal and coping was used as a theoretical framework for the study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 women in the diagnostic phase of breast cancer. Women experience the possibility of having cancer as an enormous threat. Social support was identified as a fundamental coping resource, where emotional support from husbands, family and close friends was of utmost importance. Health care professionals were not only the most important source of informational support but also a valuable source of emotional support.

  14. Tissular and soluble miRNAs for diagnostic and therapy improvement in digestive tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albulescu, Radu; Neagu, Monica; Albulescu, Lucian; Tanase, Cristiana

    2011-01-01

    Digestive cancers (e.g., gastric, colorectal, pancreatic or hepatocarcinoma) are among the most frequently reported cancers in the world, and are characterized by invasivity, metastatic potential and poor outcomes. This group includes some of the most critical cancers (among them, are those ranked second to forth in cancer-related mortality) and, despite all sustained efforts, they maintain a profile of low survival rates and lack successful therapies. Discovery of biomarkers that improve disease characterization may make optimized or personalized therapy possible. Novel biomarkers are expected to provide, hopefully, less-invasive or noninvasive diagnostic tools that make possible earlier detection of disease. Also, they may provide a more reliable selection instrument in the drug discovery process. miRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, have emerged in the last few years as significant regulators of cellular activities, controlling protein expression at the post-transcriptional level, with a significant implication in pathology in general and, of most relevance, in cancers. Deregulation of miRNA expression levels and some genetic alterations were demonstrated in various cancers, including digestive cancers. Investigations in tissue samples have provided a considerable amount of knowledge, identifying altered expressions of miRNAs associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Overexpression of some tumor-inducing or tumor-promoting miRNAs was demonstrated, as well as the downregulation of tumor-suppressor miRNAs. Both individual miRNAs, as well as sets of multiple miRNAs, were set up as candidate biomarkers for diagnostics or monitoring, offering relevant insights into tumorigenic mechanisms. Circulating miRNAs were demonstrated as valuable instruments in tumor diagnosis and the prognosis of digestive cancers (affecting the esophagus, stomach, intestine, colorectum, liver and pancreas), and are being investigated thoroughly in order to generate and validate less

  15. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Analysis to 5 Cases of Male Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGLi; XUEXinbo; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective to retrospectively review the characteristics and the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure of 5 cases of male breast cancer.Methods To select 5 cases of male breast carcinoma of 1057 patients admitted in our hospital between 1992 and 2002 who suffered breast cancer.Results The incidence of breast cancer is low,ages of patients, are old,The major pathological type was infiltrative ductal cancer.Radical mastectomy is the primary treatment,accompanied,accompanied with adjuvant therapy such as chemotherapy,radiotherapy and antiestrogen therapy,Conclusion Male breast cancer has low incidence,low differentiation,and early metastasis,Patients should accept systemic treatment,and the primary treatment is radical mastectomy.

  16. Pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure and survival after breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Outzen, Malene;

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, with industrial contact, tobacco smoking and foods processed at high temperatures as the main routes of exposure. In animal studies oral intake of acrylamide has been related to cancer development, with indications that the increased cancer occurrence...... especially regards endocrine related tumors. In human epidemiological studies, dietary exposure to acrylamide has also been suggested related to higher risk of endocrine related tumors, like estrogen sensitive breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure......, measured by acrylamide and glycidamide hemoglobin adducts (AA-Hb and GA-Hb), were associated to mortality in breast cancer cases. Among 24,697 postmenopausal women included into a Danish cohort between 1993 and 1997, 420 developed breast cancer before 2001 and 110 died before 2009. AA-Hb and GA...

  17. Diagnostic Emergency Ultrasound: Assessment Techniques In The Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttman, Joshua; Nelson, Bret P

    2016-01-01

    Emergency ultrasound is performed at the point of care to answer focused clinical questions in a rapid manner. Over the last 20 years, the use of this technique has grown rapidly, and it has become a core requirement in many emergency medicine residencies and in some pediatric emergency medicine fellowships. The use of emergency ultrasound in the pediatric setting is increasing due to the lack of ionizing radiation with these studies, as compared to computed tomography. Utilizing diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department can allow clinicians to arrive at a diagnosis at the bedside rather than sending the patient out of the department for another study. This issue focuses on common indications for diagnostic ultrasound, as found in the pediatric literature or extrapolated from adult literature where pediatric evidence is scarce. Limitations, current trends, controversies, and future directions of diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department are also discussed.

  18. Reliability and validity of ADHD diagnostic criteria in the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA): a Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background With reports of a high prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, publication of ADHD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, and the urgent need for a relevant diagnostic instrument conforming to DSM-5, we developed the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA), a Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview. We report here the reliability and validity of ASIA ADHD diagnostic criteria. Methods ASIA ADHD criterion A corresponds to DSM-5 ADHD criterion ...

  19. Reliability and validity of ADHD diagnostic criteria in the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA): A Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With reports of a high prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, publication of ADHD diagnostic criteria in DSM-5, and the urgent need for a relevant diagnostic instrument conforming to DSM-5, we developed the Assessment System for Individuals with ADHD (ASIA), a Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview. We report here the reliability and validity of ASIA ADHD diagnostic criteria. Methods: ASIA ADHD criterion A corresponds to DSM-5 ADHD criterio...

  20. Synthesis of Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chen

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted enormous research attention due to their unique magnetic properties that enable the detection by the non-invasive medical imaging modality---magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By incorporating advanced features, such as specific targeting, multimodality, therapeutic delivery, the detectability and applicability of MNPs have been dramatically expanded. Smart and rational design on structure, composition and surface chemistry is essential to achieving desired properties in MNP systems, such as high sensitivity and colloidal stability, target specificity and/or multimodality. The goal of this research is to develop MNP-based platforms for the detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. MNPs with high contrast enhancement were coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based polymers to render aqueous stability and confer therapeutic-loading capability. Tumor-specific MNPs were developed by functionalization of nanoparticles with chlorotoxin (CTX) or arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) that targets, respectively, MMP-2 receptor or alphavbeta3 integrin overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells. The effects of ligands' molecular targets on the temporal and spatial distribution of MNPs within tumors were also investigated both in vitro and in vivo. All MNPs exhibited excellent long-term stability in cell culture media. CTX-labeled MNP exhibited sustained accumulation, penetration and distribution in the tumor mass. These findings revealed the influence of the targeting ligands on the intratumoral distribution of the ligand-enabled nanoprobes. To demonstrate the ability of nanoparticles as drug carrier, anthracyline chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin and mitoxantrone were attached to iron oxide nanoparticles. The theragnostic nanoparticles showed sufficient contrast enhancement and comparable anti-neoplastic efficacy in vitro. With flexible surface chemistry, our nanoparticle platform can be used in a modular fashion to

  1. A diagnostic pitfall: pancreatic tuberculosis, not pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common forms of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis and is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality globally. Tuberculosis can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, the peritoneum, liver, spleen and the pancreatobiliary system. The occurrence of abdominal TB is independent of pulmonary disease in most patients, with a reported incidence of co-existing pulmonary disease varying from 6 to 38% worldwide. We report a case of pancreatic tuberculosis also involving the vertebrae, which was initially treated as a case of pancreatic cancer. (author)

  2. Diagnostic Assessment of Preparedness of Level One Sports Science Students for Biomechanics Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Sharon J.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the use of a diagnostic test to assess the preparedness of level one students for a sports biomechanics module. During their first week at university, a cohort of 108 students completed a diagnostic test at the end of their first lecture in sports biomechanics, with no prior notice. Upon…

  3. Radiolabeled Cetuximab Conjugates for EGFR Targeted Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Sihver

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR has evolved over years into a main molecular target for the treatment of different cancer entities. In this regard, the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab has been approved alone or in combination with: (a chemotherapy for treatment of colorectal and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and (b with external radiotherapy for treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The conjugation of radionuclides to cetuximab in combination with the specific targeting properties of this antibody might increase its therapeutic efficiency. This review article gives an overview of the preclinical studies that have been performed with radiolabeled cetuximab for imaging and/or treatment of different tumor models. A particularly promising approach seems to be the treatment with therapeutic radionuclide-labeled cetuximab in combination with external radiotherapy. Present data support an important impact of the tumor micromilieu on treatment response that needs to be further validated in patients. Another important challenge is the reduction of nonspecific uptake of the radioactive substance in metabolic organs like liver and radiosensitive organs like bone marrow and kidneys. Overall, the integration of diagnosis, treatment and monitoring as a theranostic approach appears to be a promising strategy for improvement of individualized cancer treatment.

  4. Childhood cancer and factors related to prolonged diagnostic intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrensberg, J M; Olesen, F; Hansen, R P;

    2013-01-01

    Baggrund: Forsinket diagnostik af kræft hos børn kan have betydning for barnets prognose, øge det i forvejen høje niveau af psykisk stress og påvirke familiens mestring af den svære situation Formålet med denne undersøgelse var at undersøge om særlige symptomer, lægens tolkning af symptomerne og...... overleveringen til hospitalet var af betydning for hvor lang tid, der går fra lægesøgning til diagnose. Metode: Dansk populations-baseret studie. Data for 550 børn < 15 år med en incident cancer diagnose (jan 2007-dec 2010) blev indsamlet vha spørgeskemaer til forældre (response-rate=69%) and praktiserende læger...... barnets symptomer som vage og ukarakteristiske i 25,4%; som alvorlige, men ikke cancer-relaterede i 50,0%; og som alarm symptom i 19,0% af tilfælde. Symptom tolkningen varierede med cancertype (p<0,001) og var associeret med DI (p<0,001). Symptomet “opkast” var associeret til et kortere DI ved børn med...

  5. Diagnostic whole body scan (pre-therapy scan in differentiated thyroid cancer: A single center community hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Santhanam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diagnostic whole body scan (pre-therapy scan with either I-123 or I-131 (radioactive isotopes of iodine is performed to assess the extent of thyroid cancer especially distant metastasis prior to administering the therapeutic dose of I-131. Our aim of the following study was to determine the utility of the diagnostic pre-therapy scan in the management of differentiated thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods: It was a case-control study carried out by retrospective chart review, of a randomly selected 100 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who had followed in our community hospital over the course of 1 year. We collected data on multiple variables in the subjects - including age, gender, pre-operative size of the nodules, diagnosis, stage of the malignancy, size of the tumor, multifocality, lymphovascular invasion, dose of radioiodine used for remnant ablation, recurrence rates and persistence rates. Continuous variables were compared using the independent sample Mann-Whitney U-test whereas the Chi-square test was used for nominal variables. Results: The mean dose of radioactive iodine administered was 97.56 (±27.98 in the pre-therapy scan group and it was 97.23 (±32.40 in the control group. There was no difference between the two groups (P - 0.45. There was also no difference in the recurrence rates between the groups (P = 1.0. There was a trend toward a higher degree of persistent cancer in the group that had the pre-therapy scans (P - 0.086. Conclusion: Pre-therapy scan may not affect the dose of radio-iodine I-131 used for remnant ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer and does not influence the recurrence rates. This was especially true with respect to I-131 remnant ablation for low risk tumors.

  6. Assessing Fit of Cognitive Diagnostic Models: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Almond, Russell G.

    2007-01-01

    A cognitive diagnostic model uses information from educational experts to describe the relationships between item performances and posited proficiencies. When the cognitive relationships can be described using a fully Bayesian model, Bayesian model checking procedures become available. Checking models tied to cognitive theory of the domains…

  7. Diagnostic Performance of Whole-Body PET/MRI for Detecting Malignancies in Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Kuang, Anren

    2016-01-01

    Background As an evolving imaging modality, PET/MRI is preliminarily applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of PET/MRI for tumor staging in patients with various types of cancer. Methods Relevant articles about PET/MRI for cancer staging were systematically searched in PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO and the Cochrane Library. Two researchers independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality using the QUADAS tool. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were calculated per patient and per lesion. The summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curves were also constructed, and the area under the curve (AUC) and Q* estimates were obtained. Results A total of 38 studies that involved 753 patients and 4234 lesions met the inclusion criteria. On a per-patient level, the pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 0.93 (0.90–0.95) and 0.92 (0.89–0.95), respectively. On a per-lesion level, the corresponding estimates were 0.90 (0.88–0.92) and 0.95 (0.94–0.96), respectively. The pooled PLR, NLR and DOR estimates were 6.67 (4.83–9.19), 0.12 (0.07–0.21) and 75.08 (42.10–133.91) per patient and 10.91 (6.79–17.54), 0.13 (0.08–0.19) and 102.53 (59.74–175.97) per lesion, respectively. Conclusion According to our results, PET/MRI has excellent diagnostic potential for the overall detection of malignancies in cancer patients. Large, multicenter and prospective studies with standard scanning protocols are required to evaluate the diagnostic value of PET/MRI for individual cancer types. PMID:27124545

  8. The added diagnostic value of SPECT/CT imaging for bone metastases from lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the added diagnostic value of SPECT/CT imaging over routine planar whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) for bone metastases from lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and forty-six patients with lung cancer, confirmed by pathological examination, underwent routine 99Tcm-MDP (1110 MBq) WBBS, followed by SPECT/CT over the regions with indeterminate findings on WBBS. Both WBBS and bone SPECT/CT images were interpreted by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians in consensus as the positive, negative or uncertain bone metastases. The final diagnosis was com-firmed by pathology or clinical follow-up. χ2 test was used to compare the differences between the two imaging methods. Results: Finally, 45 patients were diagnosed as positive bone metastases and the other 101 as negative. The diagnostic sensitivity of bone SPECT/CT for bone metastases from lung cancer was 93.3% (42/45), significantly higher than that of WBBS (64.4%, 29/45) (χ2=19.944, P<0.05). The diagnostic accuracy of bone SPECT/CT was 89.7% (131/146), much higher than that of WBBS (44.5%, 65/146) (χ2=69.598, P<0.05). The uncertain and incorrect diagnostic rates of bone SPECT/CT and WBBS were 10.3% (15/146, raging from 5.3% to 15.2% with 95% confidence interval (CI)) and 55.5% (81/146, raging from 47.4% to 63.5% with 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: Bone SPECT/CT provides incremental diagnostic value over routine WBBS for bone metastases from lung cancer. (authors)

  9. Magnetic resonance colonography versus colonoscopy as a diagnostic investigation for colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIMS: Magnetic resonance colonography (MRC) is emerging as a potential complementary investigation for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and also for benign pathology such as diverticular disease. A meta-analysis reporting the use of MRC is yet to be performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRC compared with the gold-standard investigation, conventional colonoscopy (CC). METHODS: A literature search was carried out to identify studies containing comparative data between MRC findings and CC findings. Quantitative meta-analysis for diagnostic tests was performed, which included the calculation of independent sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratios, the construction of summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves, pooled analysis and sensitivity analysis. The study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q-test using a random-effect model to accommodate the cluster of outcomes between individual studies. RESULTS: In all, 8 comparative studies were identified, involving 563 patients. The calculated pooled sensitivity for all lesions was 75% (95% CI: 47% to 91%), the specificity was 96% (95% CI: 86% to 98%) and the area under the ROC curve was 90% (weighted). On sensitivity analysis, MRC had a better diagnostic accuracy for CRC than for polyps, with a sensitivity of 91% (95% CI: 97% to 91%), a specificity of 98% (95% CI: 66% to 99%) and an area under the ROC curve of 92%. There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies with regard to the diagnostic accuracy of MRC for CRC. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that MRC is an imaging technique with high discrimination for cases presenting with colorectal cancer. The exact diagnostic role of MRC needs to be clarified (e.g. suitable for an elderly person with suspected CRC). Further evaluation is necessary to refine its applicability and diagnostic accuracy in comparison with other imaging methods such as computed tomography colonography

  10. Early diagnostic value of survivin and its alternative splice variants in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein Survivin and its splice variants are differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues. Our previous work showed Survivin is released from tumor cells via small membrane-bound vesicles called exosomes. We, therefore, hypothesize that analysis of serum exosomal Survivin and its splice variants may provide a novel biomarker for early diagnosis of breast cancer. We collected sera from forty breast cancer patients and ten control patients who were disease free for 5 years after treatment. In addition, twenty-three paired breast cancer tumor tissues from those same 40 patients were analyzed for splice variants. Serum levels of Survivin were analyzed using ELISA and exosomes were isolated from this serum using the commercially available ExoQuick kit, with subsequent Western blots and immunohistochemistry performed. Survivin levels were significantly higher in all the breast cancer samples compared to controls (p < 0.05) with exosome amounts significantly higher in cancer patient sera compared to controls (p < 0.01). While Survivin and Survivin-∆Ex3 splice variant expression and localization was identical in serum exosomes, differential expression of Survivin-2B protein existed in the exosomes. Similarly, Survivin and Survivin-∆Ex3 proteins were the predominant forms detected in all of the breast cancer tissues evaluated in this study, whereas a more variable expression of Survivin-2B level was found at different cancer stages. In this study we show for the first time that like Survivin, the Survivin splice variants are also exosomally packaged in the breast cancer patients’ sera, mimicking the survivin splice variant pattern that we also report in breast cancer tissues. Differential expression of exosomal-Survivin, particularly Survivin-2B, may serve as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker, a “liquid biopsy” if you will, in early breast cancer patients. Furthermore, a more thorough understanding of the role of this

  11. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression in the diagnostic phase of suspected cancer, and the influence of diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Rydahl Hansen, Susan; Overgaard, Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    Background Undergoing diagnostic evaluation for cancer has been associated with a high prevalence of anxiety and depression and affected health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aims of this study were to assess HRQoL, anxiety, and depression pre- and post-diagnosis in patients undergoing...... patients with non-cancer diagnoses were calculated. The impact of baseline psychological, socio-demographic, and medical factors on HRQoL, anxiety and depression at follow-up was explored by bootstrapped multivariate linear regression analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 838...... were no intra- or inter-group differences in the depression scores. The strongest predictors of global QL, anxiety, and depression after a known diagnosis were baseline scores, co-morbidity and poor self-rated health. Conclusions Patients undergoing diagnostic evaluations for cancer based on non...

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) for bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Lan; Chen, Jie; Yan, Wei; Zang, Ding; Qin, Qin; Deng, An-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the accuracy of serum and urinary measurements of cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) for the diagnosis of bladder cancer; however, the results have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall accuracy of CYFRA 21-1 for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. We performed a search for English-language publications reporting on the detection of CYFRA21-1 levels for the diagnosis of bladder cancer through November 2, 2014, using public medical databases, including EMBASE, Web of Science, and Medline. The quality of the studies was assessed by revised QUADAS tools. The performance characteristics were pooled and analyzed using a bivariate model. Publication bias was explored with the Deek's test. Sixteen studies, with a total 1,262 bladder-cancer patients and 1,233 non-bladder-cancer patients, were included in the study. The pooled sensitivities for serum and urine CYFRA 21-1 were 0.42 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.51) and 0.82 (95 % CI, 0.70-0.90), respectively. The corresponding specificities were 0.94 (95 % CI, 0.90-0.96) and 0.80 (95 % CI, 0.73-0.86), respectively. The areas under the summary receiver-operating-characteristic curves for serum and urine CYFRA 21-1 were 0.88 (95 % CI, 0.85-0.91) and 0.87 (95 % CI, 0.84-0.90), respectively. The major design deficiencies of the included studies were participant-selection bias, potential review, and verification bias. Therefore, we concluded that both serum and urine CYFRA 21-1 served as efficient indexes for bladder-cancer diagnosis. Additional, well-designed studies should be performed to rigorously evaluate the diagnostic value of CYFRA 21-1 for bladder cancer. PMID:25854170

  13. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  14. Assessing the value of diagnostic imaging: the role of perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchen, E. J.; Cooper, Thomas G.

    2000-04-01

    The value of diagnostic radiology rests in its ability to provide information. Information is defined as a reduction in randomness. Quality improvement in any system requires diminution in the variation in its performance. The major variation in performance of the system of diagnostic radiology occurs in observer performance and in the communication of information from the observer to someone who will apply that information to the benefit of the patient. The ability to provide information can be determined by observer performance studies using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The amount of information provided by each observer can be measured in terms of the uncertainty they reduce. Using a set of standardized radiographs, some normal and some abnormal, sorting them randomly, and then asking an observer to redistribute them according to their probability of normality can measure the difference in the value added by different observers. By applying this observer performance measure, we have been able to characterize individual radiologists, groups of radiologists, and regions of the United States in their ability to add value in chest radiology. The use of these technologies in health care may improve upon the contribution of diagnostic imaging.

  15. Diagnostic model of saliva protein finger print analysis of patients with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Zhi Wu; Ji-Guo Wang; Xiao-Li Zhang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer by screening the expression spectrum of saliva protein in gastric cancer patients using mass spectrometry for proteomics. METHODS: Proportional peptide mass fingerprints were obtained by analysis based on proteomics matrixassisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. A diagnosis model was established using weak cation exchange magnetic beads to test saliva specimens from gastric cancer patients and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed in the mass to charge ratio (m/z) peaks of four proteins (1472.78 Da, 2936.49 Da, 6556.81 Da and 7081.17 Da) between gastric cancer patients and healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: The finger print mass spectrum of saliva protein in patients with gastric cancer can be established using gastric cancer proteomics. A diagnostic model for distinguishing protein expression mass spectra of gastric cancer from non-gastriccancer saliva can be established according to the different expression of proteins 1472.78 Da, 2936.49 Da, 6556.81 Da and 7081.17 Da. The method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer is of certain value for screening special biological markers.

  16. Evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating cathepsin S in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Li; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Kai; Liu, Yi-Jun; Xing, Shan; Chi, Pei-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Hua; Xue, Ning; Lai, Yan-Zhen; Guo, Ling; Zhang, Ge

    2016-05-10

    To evaluate whether serum Cathepsin S (Cat S) could serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC), Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect serum Cat S in 496 participants including healthy controls and patients with benign gastric diseases, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer. The levels of serum Cat S were significantly increased in cancer patients, especially in GC patients. The qRT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the overexpression of Cat S in GC cell lines and tissues. The diagnostic value of serum Cat S for GC patients from controls resulted in an AUC of 0.803 with a sensitivity of 60.7% and a specificity of 90.0%. Moreover, the levels of serum Cat S were associated with GC tumor volume, lymphoid nodal status, metastasis status, and stages. Moreover, the patients with high levels of serum Cat S had a poorer overall survival. Univariate analysis revealed Cat S expression was a prognostic factor. The knockdown of Cat S significantly suppressed the migration and invasion of GC cells. This study suggested serum Cat S may be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of GC.

  17. Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging (DWIBS in the urinary bladder cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor V. Zuev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to identify the most characteristic and significant changes of magnetic resonance indicators in patients with the urinary bladder cancer during diffusion-weighed whole-body imaging (DWIBS. Materials: From September 2009 till April 2011 98 patients have been examined: 61 (62.2% with morphologically verified bladder cancer and 37 (37.8% with cystitis. Results: The study has revealed that the sensitivity of DWIBS investigation in detecting bladder cancer is 98.36%, specificity is 10.81, and the efficacy is 65.38%. Conclusions: DWIBS is an informative noninvasive method for screening diagnostics of bladder cancer, as well as for identificating suspicious areas of regional and distant metastases.

  18. Considerations for Implementation of Cancer Molecular Diagnostics Into Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Physicians have provided personalized care with as much precision as possible for several centuries. However, increasingly sophisticated understanding of the human genome and of cancer biology has permitted identification of genetic and phenotypic distinctions that might permit development of new tumor biomarker tests for risk categorization, screening, differential diagnosis, prognosis, prediction, and monitoring. Both commercial and academic laboratories are offering tests for single analytes, panels of tests of single analytes, multiparameter assays coalesced into a signature, and total genomic, transcriptomic, or proteomic analyses. However, the absence of a consistent regulatory environment has led to marketing of assays without proven analytic validity or clinical utility. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval or clearance does not necessarily imply that use of the test will improve patient outcomes, and FDA discretion to permit laboratory-developed tests results in unknown benefit, or harm, of others. In this regard, a "bad tumor marker is as bad as a bad drug." Caveat emptor is not a satisfactory approach to delivering high-quality care. Rather, adoption of tumor biomarker tests should be based on high levels of evidence generated in scientifically rigorous studies that demonstrate both analytical validity and clinical utility. Doing so will ensure that clinicians and patients are confident that a tumor biomarker test is likely to improve their outcomes. PMID:27249708

  19. FTIR- Microspectroscopy as diagnostic method for cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study we have compared the spectral behavior of malignant cells with normal un transformed cells using microscopic Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR-M) spectroscopy in order to evaluate the potential of this technique for early detection of cancer cells. Cells were transformed by infection with murine sarcoma virus (MuSV) and examined at various times post infection (p. i) by FTIR M. Our results showed significant and consistent differences between the normal cells and malignant cells. A considerable decrease in carbohydrates and phosphates levels was seen in malignant cells compared to the normal cells. In addition, the peak attributed to the PO2- symmetric stretching mode at 1082 cm-1 in normal cells was shifted significantly to 1087 cm-1 in malignant cells. These spectral changes in addition to others were seen already about 24 h p.i., while no morphological changes were observed at this time by optical microscope. These results in addition to further differences in the shapes of various bands may indicate for promising potential of FTIR microscopy technique for detection of malignant cells at early stages of malignant transformation.(Author)

  20. Label-free surface plasmon sensing towards cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Goutham

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop a conventional, home-built SPR bio-sensor to demonstrate bio-sensing applications. This emphasizes the understanding of basic concepts of Surface Plasmon Resonance and various interrogation techniques. Intensity Modulation was opted to perform the label-free SPR bio-sensing experiments due to its cost-efficient and compact setup. Later, label-free surface plasmon sensing was carried out to study and understand the bio-molecular interactions between (1). BSA and Anti BSA molecules and (2). Exosome/Liposome on thin metal (Au) films. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles present in bodily fluids like blood, saliva, urine, epididymal fluid containing miRNAs, RNA, proteins, etc., at stable quantities during normal health conditions. The exosomes comprise varied constituents based on their cell origin from where they are secreted and is specific to that particular origin. However an exacerbated release is observed during tumor or cancer conditions. This increased level of exosomes present in the sample, can be detected using the SPR bio-sensor demonstrated in this thesis and effective thickness of adsorption on Au surface can be estimated. Also, chemically synthesized liposome particles were studied to determine if they can generate an equivalent sensor response to that of exosomes to consider them as an alternate. Finally a 10ppb Mercury (Hg) sensing was performed as part of Environment Monitoring application and results have been tabulated and compared.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of circulating tumor cells detection in gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) detection has previously been used for diagnosing gastric cancer. However, the previous studies failed to make an agreement whether the detection of CTCs contributes to the diagnosis of gastric cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the overall accuracy of CTCs detection for diagnosing gastric cancer. PubMed, Embase and the Wanfang database were searched in all languages published up to Oct 2012. The pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR, respectively), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC) curve were calculated to evaluate the overall test performance. Twenty studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The diagnostic value of CTCs detection for the gastric cancer was calculated to evaluate the overall test performance. The summary estimates of The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio were 0.42 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21-0.67), 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00), 58.2 (95% CI, 9.8-345.9), 0.58 (95% CI, 0.38-0.89), and 100 (95% CI, 15–663), respectively. The summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). Deek’s funnel plot asymmetry test found no evidence of study publication bias in the current study (P = 0.49). This systematic review suggests that CTCs detection alone cannot be recommended as a screening test for gastric cancer. However, it might be used as a noninvasive method for the confirmation of the gastric cancer diagnosis

  2. The diagnostic rules of peripheral lung cancer preliminary study based on data mining technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqian Qiang; Youmin Guo; Xue Li; Qiuping Wang; Hao Chen; Duwu Cui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical and imaging diagnostic rules of peripheral lung cancer by data mining technique, and to explore new ideas in the diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer, and to obtain early-stage technology and knowledge support of computer-aided detecting (CAD). Methods: 58 cases of peripheral lung cancer confirmed by clinical pathology were collected. The data were imported into the database after the standardization of the clinical and CT findings attributes were identified. The data was studied comparatively based on Association Rules (AR) of the knowledge discovery process and the Rough Set (RS) reduction algorithm and Genetic Algorithm(GA) of the generic data analysis tool (ROSETTA), respectively. Results: The genetic classification algorithm of ROSETTA generates 5 000 or so diagnosis rules. The RS reduction algorithm of Johnson's Algorithm generates 51 diagnosis rules and the AR algorithm generates 123 diagnosis rules. Three data mining methods basically consider gender, age,cough, location, lobulation sign, shape, ground-glass density attributes as the main basis for the diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer. Conclusion: These diagnosis rules for peripheral lung cancer with three data mining technology is same as clinical diagnostic rules, and these rules also can be used to build the knowledge base of expert system. This study demonstrated the potential values of data mining technology in clinical imaging diagnosis and differential diagnosis.

  3. Study design requirements for RNA sequencing-based breast cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mer, Arvind Singh; Klevebring, Daniel; Grönberg, Henrik; Rantalainen, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Sequencing-based molecular characterization of tumors provides information required for individualized cancer treatment. There are well-defined molecular subtypes of breast cancer that provide improved prognostication compared to routine biomarkers. However, molecular subtyping is not yet implemented in routine breast cancer care. Clinical translation is dependent on subtype prediction models providing high sensitivity and specificity. In this study we evaluate sample size and RNA-sequencing read requirements for breast cancer subtyping to facilitate rational design of translational studies. We applied subsampling to ascertain the effect of training sample size and the number of RNA sequencing reads on classification accuracy of molecular subtype and routine biomarker prediction models (unsupervised and supervised). Subtype classification accuracy improved with increasing sample size up to N = 750 (accuracy = 0.93), although with a modest improvement beyond N = 350 (accuracy = 0.92). Prediction of routine biomarkers achieved accuracy of 0.94 (ER) and 0.92 (Her2) at N = 200. Subtype classification improved with RNA-sequencing library size up to 5 million reads. Development of molecular subtyping models for cancer diagnostics requires well-designed studies. Sample size and the number of RNA sequencing reads directly influence accuracy of molecular subtyping. Results in this study provide key information for rational design of translational studies aiming to bring sequencing-based diagnostics to the clinic. PMID:26830453

  4. Serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer.METHODS:One hundred and six adult in-patients with colorectal cancer were studied and divided into patients with liver metastasis(n = 56) and patients without liver metastasis(n = 50).Serum levels of tumor and biochemical markers for liver were measured at the time of diagnosis.RESULTS:The mean survival time was 55.9 mo,36.8 mo and 68.3 mo for the overall patients,patients with liver metastasis and ...

  5. Diagnostic utility of LunX mRNA in peripheral blood and pleural fluid in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhigang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in lung cancer is hampered by the lack of clinically useful diagnostic markers. The goal of this study was to provide a detailed evaluation of lung cancer tumor markers indicative of molecular abnormalities and to assess their diagnostic utility in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to determine LunX, CK19, CEA, VEGF-C and hnRNP A2/B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood and pleural fluid from NSCLC patients, compared with those from patients with other epithelial cancer (esophagus cancer and breast cancer, benign lung disease (pneumonia and tuberculo pleurisy and from healthy volunteers. Results In peripheral blood LunX mRNA was detectable in 75.0% (33/44 of patients with NSCLC, but not in patients with other epithelial cancer (0/28, benign lung disease (0/10 or in healthy volunteers (0/15. In contrast, all other genetic markers were detected in patients with either NSCLC, other epithelia cancer or benign lung disease, and in healthy volunteers. The expression level and positive rate of LunX mRNA in peripheral blood correlated with the pathologic stage of NSCLC (P LunX mRNA was detected in 92.9% (13/14 of malignant pleural fluid samples and was the only marker whose expression level was significantly different between malignant and benign pleural fluid (P LunX mRNA in the peripheral blood of NSCLC patients decreased shortly after clinical treatment (P = 0.005. Conclusion Of several commonly used genetic markers, LunX mRNA is the most specific gene marker for lung cancer and has potential diagnostic utility when measured in the peripheral blood and pleural fluid of NSCLC patients.

  6. MicroRNAs in colorectal cancer: A new and promising early diagnostic option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in diagnostic techniques, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, colorectal cancers remain undefeated. In the absence of screening, colorectal cancers are diagnosed in an advanced stage when regional and distant metastasis is present. Hence, the hope for control is primary prevention or early diagnosis. Western lifestyle and diet have been implicated in the causation of colon cancers. However, it is still a controversy whether this is due to excess calories, high fat content, genotoxic agents, or lack of protective agents present in vegetables and fruits. Therefore, recommending a specific cancer prevention diet can have fallacies. In this context reduction in cancer mortality can be achieved by screening population at high risk. The colorectal cancers require investigative modalities like colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy or fecal occult blood testing (FOBT for screening. Colonoscopy is the most sensitive and specific of all the available colorectal screening tests, whereas the sensitivity and specificity for FOBT and sigmoidoscopy are much lower. Although performance of FOBT is relatively inexpensive, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy must be performed by trained endoscopists and are more expensive. Moreover, lack of awareness that colorectal cancer is a prevalent and serious disease, concerns about the potential discomforts of colorectal cancer procedures or of the preparations for screening appear to be potential barriers for colorectal cancer screening. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have roles in colon carcinogenesis; therefore, may be useful biomarkers for colorectal carcinoma (CRC. They are short ribonucleic acid (RNA molecules having very few nucleotides compared with other RNAs. miRNAs have been studied intensively in the field of oncological research, and emerging evidence suggests that altered miRNA regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of cancers. This review summarizes the use of miRNA in the early diagnosis of colorectal

  7. Radiological diagnostics of ovarian cancer; Radiologische Diagnostik des Ovarialkarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissnitzer, M.; Forstner, R. [Paracelsus Medizinische Universitaet, Universitaetsinstitut fuer Radiologie, Salzburg (Austria)

    2011-07-15

    Ovarian cancer is diagnosed in stages FIGO III/IV in up to 75% of cases. Despite medical advances the 5-year survival rate has only been moderately increased to 44% during recent years. The initial evaluation is performed using transvaginal ultrasound (US) (sensitivity 90-96%, specificity 98-99% for detection of ovarian lesions). Probably benign findings will be followed-up sonographically or will be laparoscopically excised. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows a definitive diagnosis in more than 90% of sonographically indeterminate lesions. Malignant lesions require computer tomography (CT) staging and treatment in gynecooncology centers in a multidisciplinary setting. Peritoneal implants larger than 1 cm are detected equally by CT and MRI. Detection of ascites which is associated with peritoneal carcinomatosis in up to 80% of cases is equally feasible by US, CT and MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Diagnose ''Ovarialkarzinom'' wird in 75% der Faelle erst im Stadium FIGO III/IV gestellt, und die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensrate konnte trotz medizinischer Fortschritte nur maessig auf 44% verbessert werden. Die Bildgebung erfolgt initial mittels transvaginalem Ultraschall (Sensitivitaet 90-96%, Spezifitaet 98-99% fuer ovarielle Laesionen). Benigne Befunde werden sonographisch im Verlauf kontrolliert oder laparoskopisch entfernt. Bei sonographisch unklaren Laesionen erlaubt die MRT in mehr als 90% eine definitive Diagnose. Sonographisch malignomsuspekte Laesionen sollten einem CT-Staging unterzogen werden. Diese Information ist entscheidend fuer die Therapiestratifizierung, die idealerweise in gynaekoonkologischen Zentren in multidisziplinaerer Zusammenarbeit erfolgt. Bei peritonealer Karzinose werden Implantationen ueber 1 cm in der CT und MRT vergleichbar gut detektiert. Ein Aszites, der beim Ovarialkarzinom in bis zu 80% der Faelle mit einer peritonealen Karzinose assoziiert ist, laesst sich gleichermassen mit Ultraschall, CT und MRT nachweisen. (orig.)

  8. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed.

  9. Next-Generation Sequencing in Clinical Molecular Diagnostics of Cancer: Advantages and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Rajyalakshmi Luthra; Hui Chen; Sinchita Roy-Chowdhuri; R. Rajesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to characterize cancer genomes has resulted in the discovery of numerous genetic markers. Consequently, the number of markers that warrant routine screening in molecular diagnostic laboratories, often from limited tumor material, has increased. This increased demand has been difficult to manage by traditional low- and/or medium-throughput sequencing platforms. Massively parallel sequencing capabilities of NGS provide a much-needed alternativ...

  10. Fetal and maternal dose assessment for diagnostic scans during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem; Hoseinian Azghadi, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Despite the concerns about prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation, the number of nuclear medicine examinations performed for pregnant women increased in the past decade. This study attempts to better quantify radiation doses due to diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures during pregnancy with the help of our recently developed 3, 6, and 9 month pregnant hybrid phantoms. The reference pregnant models represent the adult female international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) reference phantom as a base template with a fetus in her gravid uterus. Six diagnostic scintigraphy scans using different radiopharmaceuticals were selected as typical diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Furthermore, the biokinetic data of radioiodine was updated in this study. A compartment representing iodide in fetal thyroid was addressed explicitly in the biokinetic model. Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo transport method. Tabulated dose coefficients for both maternal and fetal organs are provided. The comparison was made with the previously published fetal doses calculated for stylized pregnant female phantoms. In general, the fetal dose in previous studies suffers from an underestimation of up to 100% compared to fetal dose at organ level in this study. A maximum of difference in dose was observed for the fetal thyroid compared to the previous studies, in which the traditional models did not contain the fetal thyroid. Cumulated activities of major source organs are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. The differences in fetal dose depend on several other factors including chord length distribution between fetal organs and maternal major source organs, and anatomical differences according to gestation periods. Finally, considering the results of this study, which was based on the realistic pregnant female phantoms, a more informed evaluation of the risks and benefits of the different procedures could be made.

  11. Diagnostic utility of serum and pleural fluid carcinoembryonic antigen, and cytokeratin 19 fragments in patients with effusion from nonsmall cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Kumar Sharma; Sanjay Bhat; Vikas Chandel; Mayank Sharma; Pulkit Sharma; Sakul Gupta; Sashank Sharma; Aijaz Ahmed Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To assess the diagnostic value of CEA and CYFRA 21-1 (cytokeratin 19 fragments) in serum and pleural fluid in non small cell lung cancer with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Settings and Design: Two subsets of patients were recruited with lymphocytic exudative effusion, one subset constituted diagnosed patients of NSCLC with malignant pleural effusion and the other subset of constituted with Tubercular pleural effusion. Methods and Material : CYFRA 21-1 and CEA levels were measured us...

  12. Developments Toward Diagnostic Breast Cancer Imaging Using Near-Infrared Optical Measurements and Fluorescent Contrast Agents1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Hawrysz

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of near-infrared (NIR light to interrogate deep tissues has enormous potential for molecular-based imaging when coupled with NIR excitable dyes. More than a decade has now passed since the initial proposals for NIR optical tomography for breast cancer screening using time-dependent measurements of light propagation in the breast. Much accomplishment in the development of optical mammography has been demonstrated, most recently in the application of time-domain, frequency-domain, and continuous-wave measurements that depend on endogenous contrast owing to angiogenesis and increased hemoglobin absorbance for contrast. Although exciting and promising, the necessity of angiogenesis-mediated absorption contrast for diagnostic optical mammography minimizes the potential for using NIR techniques to assess sentinel lymph node staging, metastatic spread, and multifocality of breast disease, among other applications. In this review, we summarize the progress made in the development of optical mammography, and focus on the emerging work underway in the use of diagnostic contrast agents for the molecular-based, diagnostic imaging of breast.

  13. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: Diagnostic performance of CT to differentiate from gallbladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.j [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Chang, Samuel; Wang, Jin Hong [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3362 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA15213 (United States); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1- Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3362 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA15213 (United States); Federle, Michael P. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University Medical Center, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5105 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate CT findings of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) and to measure diagnostic performance for distinguishing it from gallbladder (GB) cancer. Methods and materials: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Three blinded radiologists, first independently and then in consensus, retrospectively evaluated postcontrast CT images of 35 patients with histopathologically proved XGC and GB cancer, all of whom subsequently had cholecystectomy. These included 18 patients with XGC (13 male, 5 female; age range, 35-84, mean 63 years) and 17 with GB cancer (6 male, 11 female; age range, 45-95, mean 69). Differences in CT findings between XGC and GB cancer and diagnostic performances for each CT finding were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for each radiologist and observer performance was also determined by receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis. Results: Five CT findings showed significant differences between XGC and GB cancer. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each finding for the differentiation of XGC were 89%, 65%, 77% with diffuse GB wall thickening, 67%, 82%, 74% with a continuous mucosal line, 61%, 71%, 66% with intra-mural hypo-attenuated nodules, 72%, 77%, 74% with absence of macroscopic hepatic invasion, and 67%, 71%, 69% with absence of intra-hepatic bile duct dilatation, respectively. When at least three of these five CT findings were observed in combination, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. Sensitivities, specificities and Az values for the differentiation of XGC from GB cancer were 83%, 88%, 0.94 for reader 1, 78%, 88%, 0.93 for reader 2, and 78%, 82%, 0.84 for reader 3. Conclusions: The combination of three of the five CT findings that are common with XGC can provide excellent accuracy for the differentiation of XGC and GB cancer.

  14. Secular, Spiritual, and Religious Existential Concerns of Women with Ovarian Cancer during Final Diagnostics and Start of Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene; Hounsgaard, Lise; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    a woman with ovarian cancer during her first treatment period. Although the women experienced their health to be seriously threatened, they also felt hope, will, and courage. The diagnostic procedures and treatment had comprehensive impact on their lives. However, hope and spirituality were important......Introduction. This paper deals with secular, spiritual, and religious existential concerns during severe illness. Materials and Methods. Qualitative research interviews were made before and after surgery with women who underwent final diagnostics, surgery, and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer...

  15. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  16. Hereditary cancer risk assessment: essential tools for a better approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gomy, Israel; Estevez Diz, Maria Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary cancer risk assessment (HCRA) is a multidisciplinary process of estimating probabilities of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes and assessing empiric risks of cancer, based on personal and family history. It includes genetic counseling, testing and management of at-risk individuals so that they can make well-informed choices about cancer surveillance, surgical treatment and chemopreventive measures, including biomolecular cancer therapies. Providing patients and famil...

  17. Patient dose assessment in different diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective doses have been estimated for 314 patients under diagnostic procedures in a Nuclear Medicine Department using data reported in ICRP-80 and RIDIC (Radiation Internal Dose Information Center). Data on administered activity, radiopharmaceutical and administration route, age and sex of the patients have been collected. Doses in the most exposed critical organ for every protocol, doses in uterus, doses in fetus versus the stage of pregnancy (in case the female patient was pregnant) and doses for nursing infants have been also estimated. Ga-67 studies give the highest effective doses per protocol followed by cardiac SPECT procedures using Tl-201 chloride. Ga-67 studies also give the highest absorbed doses in uterus. Due to not administering different activities, depending on height and weight of adults, women receive doses about 20% higher than men. This would be a practice to modify in the future in order to optimise doses. (author)

  18. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging in young patients with testicular cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, C.J.; Twomey, M.; O' Regan, K.N. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Murphy, K.P.; Maher, M.M.; O' Connor, O.J. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); University College Cork, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); McLaughlin, P.D. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Cork (Ireland); Vancouver General Hospital, Department of Emergency and Trauma Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Power, D.G. [Cork and Mercy University Hospitals, Department of Medical Oncology, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-04-01

    Risks associated with high cumulative effective dose (CED) from radiation are greater when imaging is performed on younger patients. Testicular cancer affects young patients and has a good prognosis. Regular imaging is standard for follow-up. This study quantifies CED from diagnostic imaging in these patients. Radiological imaging of patients aged 18-39 years, diagnosed with testicular cancer between 2001 and 2011 in two tertiary care centres was examined. Age at diagnosis, cancer type, dose-length product (DLP), imaging type, and frequency were recorded. CED was calculated from DLP using conversion factors. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In total, 120 patients with a mean age of 30.7 ± 5.2 years at diagnosis had 1,410 radiological investigations. Median (IQR) surveillance was 4.37 years (2.0-5.5). Median (IQR) CED was 125.1 mSv (81.3-177.5). Computed tomography accounted for 65.3 % of imaging studies and 98.3 % of CED. We found that 77.5 % (93/120) of patients received high CED (>75 mSv). Surveillance time was associated with high CED (OR 2.1, CI 1.5-2.8). Survivors of testicular cancer frequently receive high CED from diagnostic imaging, mainly CT. Dose management software for accurate real-time monitoring of CED and low-dose CT protocols with maintained image quality should be used by specialist centres for surveillance imaging. (orig.)

  19. The role of assessment packages for diagnostic consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla B; Buus, Niels; Stenager, Egon;

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a conversation analysis of assessment package consultations. Healthcare delivery packages belong to a highly structured mode of healthcare delivery, in which specific courses of healthcare interventions related to assessment and treatment are predefined, both as to timing...... whose goal was to leave the consultation with clarification in the form of a definite diagnosis, but who were not offered such clarification. These patients negotiated the outcome of the consultation by applying implicit and explicit pressure, which induced the doctors to disregard the boundaries...... of the package and offer the patient more tests. The study highlights some of the problems related to introducing narrow, specialized package assessment....

  20. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power of Thermography in Breast Cancer Using Bayesian Network Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicandro, Cruz-Ramírez; Efrén, Mezura-Montes; María Yaneli, Ameca-Alducin; Enrique, Martín-Del-Campo-Mena; Héctor Gabriel, Acosta-Mesa; Nancy, Pérez-Castro; Alejandro, Guerra-Hernández; Guillermo de Jesús, Hoyos-Rivera; Rocío Erandi, Barrientos-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide. There are a number of techniques used for diagnosing this disease: mammography, ultrasound, and biopsy, among others. Each of these has well-known advantages and disadvantages. A relatively new method, based on the temperature a tumor may produce, has recently been explored: thermography. In this paper, we will evaluate the diagnostic power of thermography in breast cancer using Bayesian network classifiers. We will show how the information provided by the thermal image can be used in order to characterize patients suspected of having cancer. Our main contribution is the proposal of a score, based on the aforementioned information, that could help distinguish sick patients from healthy ones. Our main results suggest the potential of this technique in such a goal but also show its main limitations that have to be overcome to consider it as an effective diagnosis complementary tool. PMID:23762182

  1. Diagnostic value of the lfuoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yong Shen; Chun-Hua Chai; Wen-Bo Xiao; Qi-Dong Wang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the common malignant tumors. Liver acquisition with acceleration volume acquisition (LAVA), which allows simultaneous dynamic enhancement of the hepatic parenchyma and vascu-lature imaging, is of great help in the diagnosis of PLC. This study aimed to evaluate application of the lfuoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique in the imaging of PLC and liver vasculature. METHODS: The clinical data and imaging ifndings of 38 adults with PLC (22 men and 16 women;average age 52 years), pathologically conifrmed by surgical resection or biopsy, were collected and analyzed. All magnetic resonance images were obtained with a 1.5-T system (General Electrics Medical Systems) with an eight-element body array coil and application of the lfuoroscopic triggering 3D LAVA technique. Overall image quality was assessed on a 5-point scale by two experienced radiologists. All the nodules and blood vessel were recorded and compared. The diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of LAVA were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients gave high quality images of 72 nodules in the liver for diagnosis. The accuracy of LAVA was 97.2% (70/72), and the coincidence rate between the extent of tumor judged by dynamic enhancement and pathological examination was 87.5%(63/72). Displayed by the maximum intensity projection reconstruction, nearly all cases gave satisfactory images of branchesⅢandⅣof the hepatic artery. Furthermore, small early-stage enhancing hepatic lesions and the parallel portal vein were also well displayed. CONCLUSIONS: Sequence of LAVA provides good multi-phase dynamic enhancement scanning of hepatic lesions. Combined with conventional scanning technology, LAVA effectively and safely displays focal hepatic lesions and the relationship between tumor and normal tissues, especially blood vessels.

  2. Validation of a Cognitive Diagnostic Model across Multiple Forms of a Reading Comprehension Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to fit a cognitive diagnostic model (CDM) across multiple forms of a passage-based reading comprehension assessment using the attribute hierarchy method. Previous research on CDMs for reading comprehension assessments served as a basis for the attributes in the hierarchy. The two attribute hierarchies were fit to data from…

  3. First among Equals: Hybridization of Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment and Evidence-Centered Game Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Jacqueline P.; Chu, Man-Wai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to explore differences and similarities between cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) and evidence-centered game design (ECgD) in the service of intentional hybridization. Although some testing specialists might argue that both are essentially the same given their origins in principled assessment design and…

  4. SELDI-TOF Serum Profiling for Prognostic and Diagnostic Classification of Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Laronga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI time-of-flight mass spectrometry has emerged as a successful tool for serum based detection and differentiation of many cancer types, including breast cancers. In this study, we have applied the SELDI technology to evaluate three potential applications that could extend the effectiveness of established procedures and biomarkers used for prognostication of breast cancers. Paired serum samples obtained from women with breast cancers prior to surgery and post-surgery (6–9 mos. were examined. In 14/16 post-treatment patients, serum protein profiles could be used to distinguish these samples from the pre-treatment cancer samples. When compared to serum samples from normal healthy women, 11 of these post-treatment samples retained global protein profiles not found in healthy women, including five low-mass proteins that remained elevated in both pre-treatment and post-treatment serum groups. In another pilot study, serum profiles were compared for a group of 30 women who were known BRCA-1 mutation carriers, half of whom subsequently developed breast cancer within three years of the sample procurement. SELDI protein profiling accurately classified 13/15 women with BRCA-1 breast cancers from the 15 non-cancer BRCA-1 carriers. Additionally, the ability of SELDI to distinguish between the serum profiles from sentinel lymph node positive and sentinel lymph node negative patients was evaluated. In sentinel lymph node positive samples, 22/27 samples were correctly classified, in comparison to the correct classification of 55/71 sentinel lymph node negative samples. These initial results indicate the utility of protein profiling approaches for developing new diagnostic and prognostic assays for breast cancers.

  5. Fitting cognitive diagnostic assessment to the Concept Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago Roman, Aidsa Ivette

    A concept inventory (CI) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to evaluate whether a person has an accurate, working knowledge of a specific set of concepts. An important role of CI's is to provide instructors with clues about the pre-conceptions (or misconceptions) their students hold which may be actively interfering with learning. Only a few engineering CI's have been able to be applied successfully in instructional settings, due in part to statistical analysis techniques that are typically applied to the instrument. These techniques include psychometric interpretative techniques such as Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT), which measure the item performance data of the CI's. However, these strategies do not measure students' cognitive abilities (misconceptions). To begin filing this gap, the objective of this study was to determine the applicability of a new statistical method called the Fusion Model to the Concept Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS) among engineering students from various US universities. Specifically, the research question that guided this study was: Can the Fusion Model be appropriately used with the Cognitive Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS) to diagnostically measure students' cognitive understanding of Statics concepts? In this study, the Fusion Model was applied to CATS through a four-phase procedure. Each phase had a specific objective that was tied to the primary research question. The analysis performed resulted in the generation of a Q-matrix that relates a set of cognitive attributes to specific questions. These attributes were determined using the expertise of the author of this study and most importantly the developer of CATS. Results of the study indicated that CATS has high capability to be used as diagnostic assessment, and also identified items (questions) that needed to be revised because they were not able to discriminate between examinees who were masters and non-masters of the specified attributes

  6. An examination of cancer-related fatigue through proposed diagnostic criteria in a sample of cancer patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Wei-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue among cancer patients has often been reported in the literature; however, great variations have been documented, ranging from 15% to 90%, probably due to the lack of a widely accepted definition and established diagnostic criteria for cancer-related fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proposed International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th revision (ICD-10 criteria in a sample of cancer patients from a medical center and a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. More accurate prevalence estimates of CRF may result in improved diagnoses and management of one of the most common symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment. Methods Since self-reporting from patients is the most effective and efficient method to measure fatigue, the ICD-10 criteria for fatigue were used. The ICD-10 criteria questionnaire was translated into Chinese and was approved by experts. Patients were recruited from outpatient palliative and oncology clinics and from palliative and oncology inpatient units. Results Of the 265 cancer patients that were interviewed between 21 October 2008 and 28 October 2009, 228 (86% reported having at least 2 weeks of fatigue in the past month, and further evaluation with the ICD-10 criteria showed that 132 (49.8% had cancer-related fatigue. Internal consistency was very good, which was indicated by a Cronbach alpha of 0.843. Conclusion The prevalence of diagnosable CRF in the patients in this sample, of whom most were under palliative treatment, was 49.8%, which was probably somewhat lower than in some of the previous reports that have used less-strict criteria. In addition, among the various criteria of the proposed diagnostic criteria, the most frequently reported symptoms in our sample populations were regarding sleep disturbance and physical factors. Although they will require further replication in other samples, these formal diagnostic

  7. The diagnostic value of serum hybrid capture 2 (CH2) HPV DNA in cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Duo; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Ning; Ouyang, Ling; Lu, Yanming; Zhang, Yao; Wei, Heng; Zhang, Shulan

    2014-09-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of cervical cancer remains a clinical challenge, and a number of studies have used the serum hybrid capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the overall accuracy of HC2 HPV DNA in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. A systematic review of studies from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Ovid, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database-disc, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Technology of Chongqing (VIP), and Wan Fang database was conducted, and the data concerning the accuracy of HC2 HPV DNA in the diagnosis of cervical cancer were pooled. The methodological quality of each study was assessed by quality assessment for studies of diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS). Statistical analysis was performed by employing Meta-DiSc (version 1.4) and Stata (version 12.0) software. The overall test performance was summarized using receiver operating characteristic curves. Finally, 12 studies, including 12,492 subjects, met the inclusion criteria and then included in this present meta-analysis. The summary estimates for serum HC2 HPV DNA in the diagnosis of cervical cancer were as follows: sensitivity 0.83 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.85), specificity 0.71 (95 % CI 0.69-0.72), positive likelihood ratio 3.65 (95 % CI 1.77-7.54), negative likelihood ratio 0.32 (95 % CI 0.21-0.48), and diagnostic odds ratio 10.54 (95 % CI 4.95-22.46), and the area under the curve was 0.8922. Our findings suggest that HC2 HPV DNA may improve the accuracy of cervical cancer diagnosis, while the results of HC2 HPV DNA assays should be interpreted in parallel with conventional test results and other clinical findings.

  8. Fluorescence diagnostics of metastatic lesion of regional lymph nodes upon surgical treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonenko, E. V.; Pak, D. D.; Yanikova, A. G.

    2013-06-01

    We have performed intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics of 60 patients for metastases of breast cancer to regional lymph nodes. All the patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 50 patients, which were surgically treated at the first stage. The second group consisted of ten patients, which underwent combined treatment. At the first stage, they received from two to four courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and, at the second stage, the surgical intervention was performed. The intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics was performed using the preparation alasens (precursor of protoporphyrin IX in the human organism). The occurrence of fluorescence of alasens-induced protoporphyrin IX was determined visually and using the local fluorescence spectroscopy method. Altogether, 498 lymph nodes were examined: 408 in the first group and 90 in the second one. For the first group, the sensitivity of the method was found to be 87.2%, and its specificity, 94.8%; in the second group, these parameters were determined to be 77 and 78%, respectively. The first experience of the application of the intraoperative fluorescence diagnostics of metastatic lesion of lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer has shown its high efficiency and application potential.

  9. Tumor seeding after diagnostic vitrectomy for choroidal metastasis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Ya-Hsin; Wu, Tsung-Tien; Lin, Chia-Shian

    2012-09-01

    Choroidal metastasis is the most common type of intraocular tumor in adults, and in females the most common primary site is the breast. We report a case of unilateral choroidal metastasis with exudative retinal detachment as the initial presentation of recurrent breast cancer, and subsequent ophthalmic metastasis following diagnostic vitrectomy. A 49-year-old woman with a 7-year-history of well-treated bilateral breast cancer had been suffering from blurred vision in the left eye for 1 week. Ocular examination was normal except for superotemporal retinal detachment in the left eye. Neither retinal break nor choroidal mass was seen. The patient received scleral buckling and pneumatic retinopexy without significant improvement. Fluorescein angiography revealed a suspected choroidal metastasis in the left eye, but ocular ultrasonography did not show a visible choroidal mass. Two consecutive diagnostic vitrectomies with cytology could not confirm malignancy. A systemic workup was also negative. Six months later, two tumor masses were noted over two of the sclerotomy wounds of the left eye. Pathology showed adenocarcinoma compatible with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Ocular metastasis may present as infiltrative choroidal lesions with exudative retinal detachment without a visible mass. Invasive procedures, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy and diagnostic vitrectomy, may risk tumor seeding.

  10. Cancer risk in diagnostic radiation workers in Korea from 1996–2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Ha, Mina; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Jeong, Meeseon; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Lee, Kwang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kang, Jong-Won; Kim, Heon

    2013-01-14

    This study was aimed to examine the association between the effective radiation dose of diagnostic radiation workers in Korea and their risk for cancer. A total of 36,394 diagnostic radiation workers (159,189 person-years) were included in this study; the effective dose and cancer incidence were analyzed between the period 1996 and 2002. Median (range) follow-up time was 5.5 (0.04-7) years in males and 3.75 (0.04-7) years in females. Cancer risk related to the average annual effective dose and exposure to more than 5 mSv of annual radiation dose were calculated by the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for occupation and age at the last follow-up. The standardized incidence ratio of cancer in radiation workers showed strong healthy worker effects in both male and female workers. The relative risk of all cancers from exposure of the average annual effective dose in the highest quartile (upper 75% or more of radiation dose) was 2.14 in male workers (95% CI: 1.48-3.10, p-trend: <0.0001) and 4.43 in female workers (95% CI: 2.17-9.04, p-trend: <0.0001), compared to those in the lower three quartiles of radiation exposure dose (less than upper 75% of radiation dose). Cancer risks of the brain (HR: 17.38, 95% CI: 1.05-287.8, p-trend: 0.04) and thyroid (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.09-13.75, p-trend: 0.01) in female workers were significantly higher in the highest quartile group of radiation exposure compared to those in the lower three quartiles, and the risk of colon and rectum cancers in male workers showed a significantly increasing trend according to the increase of the average annual radiation dose (HR: 2.37, 95% CI: 0.99-5.67, p-trend: 0.02). The relative risk of leukemia in male workers and that of brain cancer in female workers were significantly higher in the group of people who had been exposed to more than 5 mSv/year than those exposed to less than 5 mSv/year (HR: 11.75, 95% CI: 1.08-128.20; HR: 63.11, 95% CI: 3.70-1,075.00, respectively). Although the present study

  11. A Geriatric Consultation and Diagnostic Center: One Model for Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelihan, William M.

    Traditional clinical techniques for the assessment of psychological functioning have proven to be highly inadequate for certain groups of elderly individuals, particularly in the area of differentiating "normal" from pathological aspects of aging. One such group is the population of community residents now being served by the Baer Consultation and…

  12. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  13. Consistency and accuracy of diagnostic cancer codes generated by automated registration: comparison with manual registration

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    Codazzi Tiziana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated procedures are increasingly used in cancer registration, and it is important that the data produced are systematically checked for consistency and accuracy. We evaluated an automated procedure for cancer registration adopted by the Lombardy Cancer Registry in 1997, comparing automatically-generated diagnostic codes with those produced manually over one year (1997. Methods The automatically generated cancer cases were produced by Open Registry algorithms. For manual registration, trained staff consulted clinical records, pathology reports and death certificates. The social security code, present and checked in both databases in all cases, was used to match the files in the automatic and manual databases. The cancer cases generated by the two methods were compared by manual revision. Results The automated procedure generated 5027 cases: 2959 (59% were accepted automatically and 2068 (41% were flagged for manual checking. Among the cases accepted automatically, discrepancies in data items (surname, first name, sex and date of birth constituted 8.5% of cases, and discrepancies in the first three digits of the ICD-9 code constituted 1.6%. Among flagged cases, cancers of female genital tract, hematopoietic system, metastatic and ill-defined sites, and oropharynx predominated. The usual reasons were use of specific vs. generic codes, presence of multiple primaries, and use of extranodal vs. nodal codes for lymphomas. The percentage of automatically accepted cases ranged from 83% for breast and thyroid cancers to 13% for metastatic and ill-defined cancer sites. Conclusion Since 59% of cases were accepted automatically and contained relatively few, mostly trivial discrepancies, the automatic procedure is efficient for routine case generation effectively cutting the workload required for routine case checking by this amount. Among cases not accepted automatically, discrepancies were mainly due to variations in coding practice.

  14. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  15. Remedial Process for Negative Numbers Subtraction Operation: A Computerized Diagnostic Assessment

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    Elango Periasamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of our research on remedial process for Negative Numbers subtraction operation. It was based on our previous study which involved 124 students aged 14 years old and five Mathematics teachers from secondary schools from a district in Malaysia which identified a diagnostic assessment for subject domain. It was found that conventionally to implement such diagnostic assessment in school setting was possible but the time and work load to analyse and make visual the misconceptions information was impossible as the sample size increases for mathematics teachers. Thus, this study was about computerization of that diagnostic assessment which would enable students to analyse their own ability in subject domain at anytime and anyplace. This system provides immediate analysis result which would save time and work load of remediation process and repeated as many times as each students wants to and be more responsible in monitoring their own misconception based on the analysis result obtained.

  16. Diagnostic Assessment and Management of Dysphagia in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Virginia; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Patriti, Alberto; Marano, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    A growing concern in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is dysphagia, or swallowing impairment, which leads to malnutrition, dehydration, weight loss, functional decline and fear of eating and drinking, as well as a decrease in the quality of life. Thus the diagnostic assessment of dysphagia in patients with AD is imperative to ensure that they receive effective management, avoiding complications, and reducing comorbidity and mortality in such a growing population. Dysphagia management requires a multidisciplinary approach considering that no single strategy is appropriate for all patients. However, evidence for clinical diagnostic assessment, interventions, and medical management of dysphagia in these patients are still limited: few studies are reporting the evaluation and the management among this group of patients. Here we analyzed the most recent findings in diagnostic assessment and management of swallowing impairment in patients affected by AD. PMID:26836016

  17. Managing hydroclimatic risks in federal rivers: a diagnostic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Dustin; De Stefano, Lucia; Fung, Fai; Pittock, Jamie; Schlager, Edella; New, Mark; Connell, Daniel

    2013-11-13

    Hydroclimatic risks and adaptive capacity are not distributed evenly in large river basins of federal countries, where authority is divided across national and territorial governments. Transboundary river basins are a major test of federal systems of governance because key management roles exist at all levels. This paper examines the evolution and design of interstate water allocation institutions in semi-arid federal rivers prone to drought extremes, climatic variability and intensified competition for scarce water. We conceptualize, categorize and compare federal rivers as social-ecological systems to analyse the relationship between governance arrangements and hydroclimatic risks. A diagnostic approach is used to map over 300 federal rivers and classify the hydroclimatic risks of three semi-arid federal rivers with a long history of interstate allocation tensions: the Colorado River (USA/Mexico), Ebro River (Spain) and Murray-Darling River (Australia). Case studies review the evolution and design of water allocation institutions. Three institutional design trends have emerged: adoption of proportional interstate allocation rules; emergence of multi-layered river basin governance arrangements for planning, conflict resolution and joint monitoring; and new flexibility to adjust historic allocation patterns. Proportional allocation rules apportion water between states based on a share of available water, not a fixed volume or priority. Interstate allocation reform efforts in the Colorado and Murray-Darling rivers indicate that proportional allocation rules are prevalent for upstream states, while downstream states seek reliable deliveries of fixed volumes to increase water security. River basin governance arrangements establish new venues for multilayered planning, monitoring and conflict resolution to balance self governance by users and states with basin-wide coordination. Flexibility to adjust historic allocation agreements, without risk of defection or costly

  18. Diagnostic methods for assessing maxillary skeletal and dental transverse deficiencies: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Dena; Currie, Kris; Vich, Manuel Lagravere; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the diagnostic tools available for assessing maxillary transverse deficiencies. Methods An electronic search of three databases was performed from their date of establishment to April 2015, with manual searching of reference lists of relevant articles. Articles were considered for inclusion if they reported the accuracy or reliability of a diagnostic method or evaluation technique for maxillary transverse dimensions in mixed or permanent dentitions. Risk of bias was assessed in the included articles, using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool-2. Results Nine articles were selected. The studies were heterogeneous, with moderate to low methodological quality, and all had a high risk of bias. Four suggested that the use of arch width prediction indices with dental cast measurements is unreliable for use in diagnosis. Frontal cephalograms derived from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reportedly more reliable for assessing intermaxillary transverse discrepancies than posteroanterior cephalograms. Two studies proposed new three-dimensional transverse analyses with CBCT images that were reportedly reliable, but have not been validated for clinical sensitivity or specificity. No studies reported sensitivity, specificity, positive or negative predictive values or likelihood ratios, or ROC curves of the methods for the diagnosis of transverse deficiencies. Conclusions Current evidence does not enable solid conclusions to be drawn, owing to a lack of reliable high quality diagnostic studies evaluating maxillary transverse deficiencies. CBCT images are reportedly more reliable for diagnosis, but further validation is required to confirm CBCT's accuracy and diagnostic superiority. PMID:27668196

  19. Diagnostic methods for assessing maxillary skeletal and dental transverse deficiencies: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Dena; Currie, Kris; Vich, Manuel Lagravere; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the diagnostic tools available for assessing maxillary transverse deficiencies. Methods An electronic search of three databases was performed from their date of establishment to April 2015, with manual searching of reference lists of relevant articles. Articles were considered for inclusion if they reported the accuracy or reliability of a diagnostic method or evaluation technique for maxillary transverse dimensions in mixed or permanent dentitions. Risk of bias was assessed in the included articles, using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool-2. Results Nine articles were selected. The studies were heterogeneous, with moderate to low methodological quality, and all had a high risk of bias. Four suggested that the use of arch width prediction indices with dental cast measurements is unreliable for use in diagnosis. Frontal cephalograms derived from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were reportedly more reliable for assessing intermaxillary transverse discrepancies than posteroanterior cephalograms. Two studies proposed new three-dimensional transverse analyses with CBCT images that were reportedly reliable, but have not been validated for clinical sensitivity or specificity. No studies reported sensitivity, specificity, positive or negative predictive values or likelihood ratios, or ROC curves of the methods for the diagnosis of transverse deficiencies. Conclusions Current evidence does not enable solid conclusions to be drawn, owing to a lack of reliable high quality diagnostic studies evaluating maxillary transverse deficiencies. CBCT images are reportedly more reliable for diagnosis, but further validation is required to confirm CBCT's accuracy and diagnostic superiority.

  20. Utilization and cost of diagnostic imaging and biopsies following positive screening mammography in the southern breast cancer screening region of the Netherlands, 2000-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prospectively assessed trends in utilization and costs of diagnostic services of screen-positive women in a biennial breast cancer screening program for women aged 50-75 years. All 2,062 women with suspicious findings at screening mammography in the southern region of the Netherlands between 1 January 2000 and 1 July 2005 (158,997 screens) were included. Data were collected on any diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures, and surgical consultations with two-year follow-up. We used national reimbursement rates to estimate imaging costs and percutaneous biopsy costs. Cost prices, charged by hospitals, were used to estimate open surgical biopsy costs and surgical consultation costs. The largest increase in utilization of diagnostic procedures per 100 referrals was observed for axillary ultrasound (from 3.9 in 2000 to 33.5 in 2005) and for stereotactic core biopsy (from 2.1 in 2000 to 26.8 in 2005). Per 100 referrals, the open surgical biopsy rate decreased from 34.7 (2000) to 4.6 (2005) and the number of outpatient surgical consultations fluctuated between 269.8 (2000) and 309.7 (2004). Mean costs for the diagnosis of one cancer were EUR1,501 and ranged from EUR1,223 (2002) to EUR1,647 (2003). Surgical biopsies comprised 54.1% of total diagnostic costs for women screened in 2000, but decreased to 9.9% for women screened in 2005. Imaging costs increased from 23.7 to 43.8%, percutaneous biopsy costs from 9.9 to 27.2%, and consultation costs from 12.3 to 19.1%. We conclude that diagnostic costs per screen-detected cancer remained fairly stable through the years, although huge changes in the use of different diagnostic procedures were observed. (orig.)

  1. Proteins and carbohydrates in nipple aspirate fluid predict the presence of atypia and cancer in women requiring diagnostic breast biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wenyi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herein we present the results of two related investigations. The first study determined if concentrations in breast nipple discharge (ND of two proteins (urinary plasminogen activator, uPA and its inhibitor, PAI-1 predicted the presence of breast atypia and cancer in pre- and/or postmenopausal women requiring surgery because of a suspicious breast lesion. The second study assessed if these proteins increased the predictive ability of a carbohydrate (Thomsen Friedenreich, TF which we previously demonstrated predicted the presence of disease in postmenopausal women requiring surgery. Methods In the first study we prospectively enrolled 79 participants from whom we collected ND, measured uPA and PAI-1 and correlated expression with pathologic findings. In the second study we analyzed 35 (uPA and PAI-1 in 24, uPA in an additional 11 ND samples collected from different participants requiring breast surgery, all of whom also had TF results. Results uPA expression was higher in pre- and PAI-1 in postmenopausal women with 1 cancer (DCIS or invasive vs. either no cancer (atypia or benign pathology, p = .018 and .025, respectively, or benign pathology (p = .017 and .033, respectively; and 2 abnormal (atypia or cancer versus benign pathology (p = .018 and .052, respectively. High uPA and PAI-1 concentrations and age were independent predictors of disease in premenopausal women, with an area under the curve (AUC of 83-87% when comparing diseased vs. benign pathology. uPA, TF, and age correctly classified 35 pre- and postmenopausal women as having disease or not 84-91% of the time, whereas combining uPA+PAI-1+TF correctly classified 24 women 97-100% of the time. Conclusions uPA and PAI-1 concentrations in ND were higher in women with atypia and cancer compared to women with benign disease. Combining uPA, PAI-1 and TF in the assessment of women requiring diagnostic breast surgery maximized disease prediction. The assessment of these

  2. The diagnostic value of monoclonal gastric cancer 7 antigen: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zongyue; Fu, Sheng; Hu, Ping; Zhao, Liuyang; Zhang, Hailong; Tang, Xi; Yang, Xiaorong; Zeng, Zhaofang

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the clinical characteristic and the diagnostic role of MG7-Ag in detecting gastric cancer (GC) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Relevant manuscripts aiming at the application of serum MG7-Ag level in GC diagnosis were searched in PubMed, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and Wan Fang Data independently,which were published between January 1, 1980 and February 28, 2013. The pooled sensitivity, specificity,positive diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR+), negative diagnostic likelihood ratio (DLR-), diagnostic odds ratio,and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic(AUC) were used to evaluate the value of serum MG7-Ag in diagnosis of GC by using the Meta-DiSc and STATA 11.0 statistical software. 410 manuscripts were retrieved, and 7 manuscripts of high quality including 652 patients were of high quality in this meta-analysis. Overall,the pooled sensitivity, specificity, DLR+, DLR-, and AUC were 0.73 (95 % CI 0.63-0.82), 0.91 (95 % CI 0.84-0.94), 8.59 (95 % CI 5.62-13.11), 0.29 (95 % CI 0.21-0.42), and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.89-0.94), respectively. MG7-Ag is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of GC.However, more studies are needed to confirm the standard criteria. PMID:23797567

  3. The validation and clinical implementation of BRCAplus: a comprehensive high-risk breast cancer diagnostic assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansook Kim Chong

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women, with 10% of disease attributed to hereditary factors. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for a high percentage of hereditary cases, there are more than 25 susceptibility genes that differentially impact the risk for breast cancer. Traditionally, germline testing for breast cancer was performed by Sanger dideoxy terminator sequencing in a reflexive manner, beginning with BRCA1 and BRCA2. The introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS has enabled the simultaneous testing of all genes implicated in breast cancer resulting in diagnostic labs offering large, comprehensive gene panels. However, some physicians prefer to only test for those genes in which established surveillance and treatment protocol exists. The NGS based BRCAplus test utilizes a custom tiled PCR based target enrichment design and bioinformatics pipeline coupled with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH to identify mutations in the six high-risk genes: BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, TP53, CDH1, and STK11. Validation of the assay with 250 previously characterized samples resulted in 100% detection of 3,025 known variants and analytical specificity of 99.99%. Analysis of the clinical performance of the first 3,000 BRCAplus samples referred for testing revealed an average coverage greater than 9,000X per target base pair resulting in excellent specificity and the sensitivity to detect low level mosaicism and allele-drop out. The unique design of the assay enabled the detection of pathogenic mutations missed by previous testing. With the abundance of NGS diagnostic tests being released, it is essential that clinicians understand the advantages and limitations of different test designs.

  4. Investigation into the actual application of the diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for colon cancer

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    Dario Antonelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: In colon cancer, the effectiveness of the cure is largely dependent on the early detection of the pathology. It is therefore useful to investigate the quality prevention programs. As a result, the Italian Healthcare System is increasingly adopting Quality Assurance by implementing diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines.
    In this study, a comparison was made between the current pathways undertaken by patients with colon cancer and the prescribed guidelines. The analysis investigates the diagnostic pathways that lead to the discovery of colon cancer, the service center where the pathway started and the therapy regimen administered to treat the cancer.

    Methods: The analysis covers all 205,000 patients who accessed one Italian Local Health Agency during the year 2007. In order to fund the costs of the services, the local regional council requested the collection of data from the Agency itself. Starting from this raw data, a data warehouse was built, the required data extracted and, eventually, the actual pathways were created.

    Results and conclusions: Only 11.2% of colon cancer patients underwent the sequence of exams recommended by the official guidelines. 54.4% of them only partly followed the sequence of recommended exams. The remaining patients underwent exams that did not comply at all with the guidelines. Furthermore, there is evidence of a lack of prevention for some patients, particularly for those that only discovered the pathology when they arrived at the Emergency Department.

  5. Overview of diagnostic/targeted treatment combinations in personalized medicine for breast cancer patients

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    Tessari A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anna Tessari,1 Dario Palmieri,2 Serena Di Cosimo11Division of Medical Oncology 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy; 2Molecular Biology and Cancer Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Breast cancer includes a body of molecularly distinct subgroups, characterized by different presentation, prognosis, and sensitivity to treatments. Significant advances in our understanding of the complex architecture of this pathology have been achieved in the last few decades, thanks to new biotechnologies that have recently come into the research field and the clinical practice, giving oncologists new instruments that are based on biomarkers and allowing them to set up a personalized approach for each individual patient. Here we review the main treatments available or in preclinical development, the biomolecular diagnostic and prognostic approaches that changed our perspective about breast cancer, giving an overview of targeted therapies that represent the current standard of care for these patients. Finally, we report some examples of how new technologies in clinical practice can set in motion the development of new drugs.Keywords: breast cancer, biomarkers, gene expression profile, next generation sequencing, targeted therapy

  6. Effect of breast cancer phenotype on diagnostic performance of MRI in the prediction to response to neoadjuvant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bufi, Enida, E-mail: reagandus@alice.it [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Belli, Paolo; Di Matteo, Marialuisa [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Terribile, Daniela; Franceschini, Gianluca [Department of Surgery, Breast Unit, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Nardone, Luigia [Department of Radiotherapy, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi [Department of Pathology, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Bonomo, Lorenzo [Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Catholic University, Rome (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Aim: The estimation of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is useful in the surgical decision in breast cancer. We addressed the diagnostic reliability of conventional MRI, of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and of a merged criterion coupling morphological MRI and DWI. Diagnostic performance was analysed separately in different tumor subtypes, including HER2+ (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)/HR+ (hormone receptor) (hybrid phenotype). Materials and methods: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients underwent MRI before and after NAC. The response to treatment was defined according to the RECIST classification and the evaluation of DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The complete pathological response – pCR was assessed (Mandard classification). Results: Tumor phenotypes were Luminal (63.6%), Triple Negative (16.4%), HER2+ (7.6%) or Hybrid (12.4%). After NAC, pCR was observed in 17.3% of cases. Average ADC was statistically higher after NAC (p < 0.001) among patients showing pCR vs. those who had not pCR. The RECIST classification showed adequate performance in predicting the pCR in Triple Negative (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, ROC AUC = 0.9) and in the HER2+ subgroup (AUC = 0.826). Lower performance was found in the Luminal and Hybrid subgroups (AUC 0.693 and 0.611, respectively), where the ADC criterion yielded an improved performance (AUC = 0.787 and 0.722). The coupling of morphological and DWI criteria yielded maximally improved performance in the Luminal and Hybrid subgroups (AUC = 0.797 and 0.761). Conclusion: The diagnostic reliability of MRI in predicting the pCR to NAC depends on the tumor phenotype, particularly in the Luminal and Hybrid subgroups. In these cases, the coupling of morphological MRI evaluation and DWI assessment may facilitate the diagnosis.

  7. Virtual humans and formative assessment to train diagnostic skills in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Pla, Joana; Andrés-Pueyo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Carrying out a diagnostic interview requires skills that need to be taught in a controlled environment. Virtual Reality (VR) environments are increasingly used in the training of professionals, as they offer the most realistic alternative while not requiring students to face situations for which they are yet unprepared. The results of the training of diagnostic skills can also be generalized to any other situation in which effective communication skills play a major role. Our aim with this study has been to develop a procedure of formative assessment in order to increment the effectiveness of virtual learning simulation systems and then to assess their efficacy. PMID:24875685

  8. Assessment of vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma by MDCT

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    Omar Hassanen

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Assessment of vascular invasion is crucial in the evaluation of resectability for pancreatic cancer. MDCT is an accurate diagnostic tool for peripancreatic vascular invasion in cancer pancreas.

  9. Diagnostic value of EBUS-TBNA for lung cancer with non-enlarged lymph nodes: a study in a tuberculosis-endemic country.

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    Chih-Hsi Kuo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In tuberculosis (TB-endemic areas, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT and positron emission tomography (PET findings of lung cancer patients with non-enlarged lymph nodes are frequently discrepant. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial aspiration (EBUS-TBNA enables real-time nodal sampling, and thereby improves nodal diagnosis accuracy. This study aimed to compare the accuracy of nodal diagnosis by using EBUS-TBNA, and PET. METHODS: We studied 43 lung cancer patients with CT-defined non-enlarged mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes and examined 78 lymph nodes using EBUS-TBNA. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EBUS-TBNA were 80.6%, 100%, 100%, and 85.7%, respectively. PET had low specificity (18.9% and a low positive predictive value (44.4%. The diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA was higher than that of PET (91% vs. 47.4%; p<0.001. Compared to CT-based nodal assessment, PET yielded a positive diagnostic impact in 36.9% nodes, a negative diagnostic impact in 46.2% nodes, and no diagnostic impact in 16.9% nodes. Patients with lymph nodes showing negative PET diagnostic impact had a high incidence of previous pulmonary TB. Multivariate analysis indicated that detection of hilar nodes on PET was an independent predictor of negative diagnostic impact of PET. CONCLUSION: In a TB-endemic area with a condition of CT-defined non-enlarged lymph node, the negative diagnostic impact of PET limits its clinical usefulness for nodal staging; therefore, EBUS-TBNA, which facilitates direct diagnosis, is preferred.

  10. The video fluorescent device for diagnostics of cancer of human reproductive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysin, Nickolay N.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2008-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the advanced methods of treatment of skin cancer and surfaces of internal organs. The basic advantages of PDT are high efficiency and low cost of treatment. PDT technique is needed for providing fluorescent diagnostics. Laser-based systems are widely applied to the fluorescence excitations for diagnostic because of a narrow spectrum of fluorescence excitation and high density of radiation. Application of laser systems for carrying out fluorescent diagnostics gives the image of a tumor distorted by speckles that does not give an opportunity to obtain full information about the form of a tumor quickly. Besides, these laser excitation systems have complicated structure and high cost. As a base for the development and creation of a video fluorescent device one of commercially produced colposcopes was chosen. It allows to decrease cost of the device, and also has enabled to make modernization for already used colposcopes. A LED-based light source was offered to be used for fluorescence excitation in this work. The maximum in a spectrum of radiation of LEDs corresponds to the general spectral maximum of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) absorption. Irradiance in the center of a light spot is 31 mW/cm2. The receiving optical system of the fluorescent channel is adjusted at 635 nm where a general spectral maximum of fluorescence PPIX is located. Also the device contains a RGB video channel, a white light source and a USB spectrometer LESA-01-BIOSPEC, for measurement of spectra of fluorescence and diffusion reflections in treatment area. The software is developed for maintenance of the device. Some studies on laboratory animals were made. As a result, areas with the increased concentration of a PPIX were correctly detected. At present, the device is used for diagnostics of cancer of female reproductive system in Research Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Moscow, Russia).

  11. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  12. Review of Physicochemical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janvier Sylvestre N’cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A power transformer outage has a dramatic financial consequence not only for electric power systems utilities but also for interconnected customers. The service reliability of this important asset largely depends upon the condition of the oil-paper insulation. Therefore, by keeping the qualities of oil-paper insulation system in pristine condition, the maintenance planners can reduce the decline rate of internal faults. Accurate diagnostic methods for analyzing the condition of transformers are therefore essential. Currently, there are various electrical and physicochemical diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. This paper is aimed at the description, analysis and interpretation of modern physicochemical diagnostics techniques for assessing insulation condition in aged transformers. Since fields and laboratory experiences have shown that transformer oil contains about 70% of diagnostic information, the physicochemical analyses of oil samples can therefore be extremely useful in monitoring the condition of power transformers.

  13. Assessment of Circulating microRNAs in Plasma of Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Fortunato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide and numerous ongoing research efforts are directed to identify new strategies for its early detection. The development of non-invasive blood-based biomarkers for cancer detection in its preclinical phases is crucial to improve the outcome of this deadly disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a new promising class of circulating biomarkers for cancer detection and prognosis definition, but lack of consensus on data normalization methods for circulating miRNAs and the critical issue of haemolysis, has affected the identification of circulating miRNAs with diagnostic potential. We describe here an interesting approach for profiling circulating miRNAs in plasma samples based on the evaluation of reciprocal miRNA levels measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR. By monitoring changes of plasma miRNA-ratios, it is possible to assess the deregulation of tumor-related miRNAs and identify signatures with diagnostic and prognostic value. In addition, to avoid bias due to the release of miRNAs from blood cells, a miRNA-ratios signature distinguishing haemolyzed samples was identified. The method described was validated in plasma samples of lung cancer patients, but given its reproducibility and reliability, could be potentially applied for the identification of diagnostic circulating miRNAs in other diseases.

  14. Recent progress of diagnostic and therapeutic approach to cancers using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the major topics of interest in cancer immunology, immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy with the antibodies are summarized historically and prospectively. The concept of injecting anti-tumor cell antibodies to localize tumors was first introduced in experimental systems by Pressman (1957). Since then, various trials have been achieved with human tumors using specific or nonspecific tumor-localizing antibodies diagnostically or therapeutically. In 1970's, successes in immunodiagnosis with the antibodies to oncofetal proteins also have been reported. Recently, there are numerous papers dealed with a series of external scanning or serotherapeutic trials by the use of monoclonal antibodies that bind selectively to tumor cells. Various relevant problems with them are discussed. (author)

  15. Urine microRNAs as biomarkers for bladder cancer: a diagnostic meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Y

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yidong Cheng,* Xiaheng Deng,* Xiao Yang,* Pengchao Li, Xiaolei Zhang, Peng Li, Jun Tao, Qiang Lu, Zengjun Wang Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The diagnostic value of microRNA (miRNA detection in patients with bladder cancer (BCa is controversial. We performed a diagnostic meta-analysis to evaluate current evidence on the use of miRNA assays to diagnose BCa. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for studies published before March 31, 2015. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, diagnostic odds ratio, and area under the curve (AUC were calculated to evaluate the overall test performance. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the between-study heterogeneity. Deeks’ funnel plot asymmetry test was used to test publication bias. We applied the software of RevMan 5.2 and Stata 11.0 to the meta-analysis. Results: A total of 23 studies from nine articles were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 719 patients and 494 controls. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68–0.80 and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.80, respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio was 3.03 (95% CI, 2.50–3.67; negative likelihood ratio was 0.33 (95% CI, 0.27–0.42; and diagnostic odds ratio was 9.07 (95% CI, 6.35–12.95. The pooled AUC was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.78–0.85. Subgroup analyses indicated that the multiple miRNAs assays and urine supernatant assays showed high accuracies in diagnosing BCa. Conclusion: The miRNA assays may serve as potential noninvasive diagnostic tool for the detection of BCa. However, the clinical application of miRNA assays for BCa diagnosis still needs further validation by large prospective studies. Keywords: microRNAs, bladder cancer, diagnostic accuracy, meta-analysis

  16. Cancer nanotechnology: a new commercialization pipeline for diagnostics, imaging agents, and therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Krzysztof; Farrell, Dorothy; Hinkal, George; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Hook, Sara; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2011-06-01

    Nanotechnology - the science and engineering of manipulating matter at the molecular scale to create devices with novel chemical, physical and biological properties - has the potential to radically change oncology. Research sponsored by the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has led to the development of nanomaterials as platforms of increasing complexity and devices of superior sensitivity, speed and multiplexing capability. Input from clinicians has guided researchers in the design of technologies to address specific needs in the areas of cancer therapy and therapeutic monitoring, in vivo imaging, and in vitro diagnostics. The promising output from the Alliance has led to many new companies being founded to commercialize their nanomedical product line. Furthermore, several of these technologies, which are discussed in this paper, have advanced to clinically testing.

  17. Probing intracellular mass density fluctuation through confocal microscopy: application in cancer diagnostics as a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Sahay, Peeyush; Ghimire, Hemendra M; Almabadi, Huda; Yallappu, Murali M; Skalli, Omar; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C; Pradhan, Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular structural alterations are hallmark of several disease conditions and treatment modalities. However, robust methods to quantify these changes are scarce. In view of this, we introduce a new method to quantify structural alterations in biological cells through the widely used confocal microscopy. This novel method employs optical eigenfunctions localization properties of cells and quantifies the degree of structural alterations, in terms of nano- to micron scale intracellular mass density fluctuations, in one single parameter. Such approach allows a powerful way to compare changing structures in heterogeneous cellular media irrespective of the origin of the cause. As a case study, we demonstrate its applicability in cancer detection with breast and prostate cancer cases of different tumorigenicity levels. Adding new dimensions to the confocal based studies, this technique has potentially significant applications in areas ranging from disease diagnostics to therapeutic studies, such as patient pro...

  18. Diagnostic validity across racial and ethnic groups in the assessment of adolescent DSM-IV disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Lin, Julia Y; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Alegria, Margarita

    2012-12-01

    We examine differential validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses assessed by the fully-structured Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (CIDI) among Latino, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents in comparison to gold standard diagnoses derived from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children (K-SADS). Results are based on the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement, a national US survey of adolescent mental health. Clinicians re-interviewed 347 adolescent/parent dyads with the K-SADS. Sensitivity and/or specificity of CIDI diagnoses varied significantly by ethnicity/race for four of ten disorders. Modifications to algorithms sometimes reduced bias in prevalence estimates, but at the cost of reducing individual-level concordance. These findings document the importance of assessing fully-structured diagnostic instruments for differential accuracy in ethnic/racial subgroups.

  19. Validation of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group Diagnostic Assessment for Dementia in Arabic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phung, Kieu T T; Chaaya, Monique; Waldemar, Gunhild;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the North Africa and Middle East region, the illiteracy rates among older people are high, posing a great challenge to cognitive assessment. Validated diagnostic instruments for dementia in Arabic are lacking, hampering the development of dementia research in the region. The study...... aimed at validating the Arabic version of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) diagnostic assessment for dementia to determine whether it is suitable for case ascertainment in epidemiological research. METHODS: A total of 244 participants older than 65 years were included, 100 with normal cognition...... and 144 with mild to moderate dementia. Dementia was diagnosed by clinicians according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. Depression was diagnosed using the Geriatric Mental State. Trained interviewers blind to the cognitive status of the participants...

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of mammography and ultrasonography in detection of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the value of mammography and ultrasonography in the detection of early breast cancer, and the usefulness of combining the two modalities for the diagnostic study of this condition. The mammographic and ultrasonographic features of 47 female patients aged 23-68 (average, 46) years with pathologically proven early breast cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Mammography was preformed in 46 patients and ultrasonography in 38, and 37 underwent both mammography and ultrasonography. Analysis of the mammographic and/or ultrasonographic features focused on mass, microcalcification, mass with microcalcification, multiple nodules, duct dilatation, and architectural distortion. Mammography revealed microcalcification in 29 (63%) patients, mass in 13 (28%) patients, mass with microcalcification in 8 (17%) patients, multiple nodules in 2 (4%) patients, architectural distortions in 1 (2%) patient, and negative finding in 9 (20%) patients. Ultrasonography revealed mass in 25 (66%) patients, microcalcification in 9 (24%) patients, mass with microcalcification in 8 (21%) patients, multiple nodules in 2 (5%) patients, duct dilatation in 3 (8%) patients, and negative finding in 7 (18%) patients. On combined study of mammography and ultrasonography of the 37 patients, mammography or ultrasonography revealed mass in 25 (68%) patients, microcalcification in 20 (54%) patients, multiple nodules in 2 (5%) patients, duct dilatation in 3 (8%) patients, and architectural distortion in 1 (3%) patient. In one (3%) patient among them, both mammography and ultrasonography revealed negative findings. The false negative rate of mammography, ultrasonography or both was 20%, 18%, and 3%, respectively, which was statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Combined study of mammography and ultrasonography is the most useful as a diagnostic study for early breast cancer. So, ultrasonography seems to be important additional method for detection of early breast cancer

  1. Assessment of diagnostic methods for solenoid-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solenoid-operated valves (SOVS) were studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The primary objective of the study was to identify, evaluate, and recommend methods for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of SOVs that can help ensure their operational readiness-that is, their ability to perform required safety functions under all anticipated operating conditions, since failure of one of these small and relatively inexpensive devices could have serious consequences under certain circumstances. An earlier (Phase 1) NPAR program study described SOV failure modes and causes and identified measurable parameters thought to be linked to the progression of ever-present degradation mechanisms that may ultimately result in functional failure of the valve. Using this earlier work as a guide, the present (Phase II) study focused on devising and then demonstrating the effectiveness of techniques and equipment with which to measure performance parameters that show promise for detecting the presence and trending the progress of such degradations before they reach a critical stage. Intrusive techniques requiring the addition of magnetic or acoustic sensors or the application of special test signals were investigated briefly, but major emphasis was placed on the examination of condition-indicating techniques that can be applied with minimal cost and impact on plant operation. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the technical feasibility and practicality of the monitoring techniques assessed in the study, and recommendations for further work are provided

  2. Assessment of diagnostic methods for solenoid-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solenoid-operated valves (SOVs) were studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The primary objective of the study was to identify, evaluate, and recommend methods for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of SOVs that can help ensure their operational readiness -- that is, their ability to perform required safety functions under all anticipated operating conditions, since failure of one of these small and relatively inexpensive devices could have serious consequences under certain circumstances. Intrusive techniques requiring the addition of magnetic or acoustic sensors or the application of special test signals were investigated briefly, but major emphasis was placed on the examination of condition-indicating techniques that can be applied with minimal cost and impact on plant operation. These include monitoring coil mean temperature remotely by means of coil dc resistance or ac impedance, determining valve plunger position by means of coil ac impedance, verifying unrestricted SOV plunger movement by measuring current and voltage at their critical bistable (pull-in and drop-out) values, and detecting the presence of shorted turns or insulation breakdown within the solenoid coil using interrupted-current test methods. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the technical feasibility and praticality of the monitoring techniques assessed in the study, and recommendations for further work are provided

  3. Characteristics of Depression as Assessed by the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Rush, Karena S.; Hamilton, Martha; Anderson, Stephen J.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Baglio, Christopher S.; Kirkpatrick-Sanchez, Sharon; Williams, Don

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-seven individuals with severe mental retardation, including 18 with a diagnosis of depression, 19 with autism and 20 without emotional disorders, tested the validity of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped II (DASH-II) depression subscale. Results found DASH-II to be a valid indicator of depression. (CR)

  4. Using Diagnostic Assessment to Help Teachers Understand the Chemistry of the Lead-Acid Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Nineteen pre-service and in-service teachers taking a chemistry teaching methods course at a university in Hong Kong were asked to take a diagnostic assessment. It consisted of seven multiple-choice questions about the chemistry of the lead-acid battery. Analysis of the teachers' responses to the questions indicated that they had difficulty in…

  5. Assessing the diagnostic validity of a structured psychiatric interview in a first-admission hospital sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sæbye, Ditte;

    2012-01-01

    , first-admitted inpatients, the results of an assessment with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), yielding a DSM-IV diagnosis and performed by a trained non-clinician, were compared with a consensus lifetime best diagnostic estimate (DSM-IV) by two experienced research clinicians, based...

  6. Evolving a Diagnostic Assessment System for Formative Use by Senior School System Executives in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D. S. G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Diagnostic Executive Competency Analysis System (DECAS) developed by researchers at the University of Texas (Austin). Applies assessment center methods conventionally used for selection and screening purposes to formative needs-based professional development activities. Presents DECAS within the framework of the U.S. Multi-Site…

  7. Statistical Classification for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Gierl, Mark; Guo, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to describe how the artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to interpret student performance on cognitive diagnostic assessments (CDAs) and evaluate the performances of ANNs using simulation results. CDAs are designed to measure student performance on problem-solving tasks and provide useful…

  8. Dynamic Bayesian Network Modeling of Game Based Diagnostic Assessments. CRESST Report 837

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Digital games offer an appealing environment for assessing student proficiencies, including skills and misconceptions in a diagnostic setting. This paper proposes a dynamic Bayesian network modeling approach for observations of student performance from an educational video game. A Bayesian approach to model construction, calibration, and use in…

  9. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Laniewska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in gastric cancer cells (GC). Moreover, the activity of total ADH and class IV isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for gastric cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative results, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 168 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and from 168 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH IV isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of gastric cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 73%, specificity 79%, positive and negative predictive values were 81 and 72% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.67. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as marker of gastric cancer.

  10. A diagnostic system to assess sustainability at farm level: the SOSTARE model

    OpenAIRE

    PARACCHINI Maria-Luisa; BULGHERONI CLAUDIA; BORREANI Giorgio; Tabacco, Ernesto; Banterle, Alessandro; BERTONI Danilo; Rossi, Graziano; PAROLO Gilberto; ORIGGI Roberto; DE PAOLA Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a model for integrated sustainability assessment at a farm scale. The SOSTARE model (analysis of farm technical efficiency and impacts on environmental and economic sustainability), in fact, aims at providing a diagnostic tool to farmers and advisory services to assess the general performance of the farm, explore in detail any perceived weaknesses in farm management and to investigate the impact of changes that might improve efficiency. The model is derived from a survey of...

  11. Evaluation of QUADAS, a tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bossuyt Patrick NM; Reitsma Johannes B; Rutjes Anne WS; Weswood Marie E; Whiting Penny F; Kleijnen Jos

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background A quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies, named QUADAS, has recently been developed. Although QUADAS has been used in several systematic reviews, it has not been formally validated. The objective was to evaluate the validity and usefulness of QUADAS. Methods Three reviewers independently rated the quality of 30 studies using QUADAS. We assessed the proportion of agreements between each reviewer and the final consensus rating. This was done for all QUADAS i...

  12. Diagnostic performance of 64-section CT using CT gastrography in preoperative T staging of gastric cancer according to 7th edition of AJCC cancer staging manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woong [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Center for Aging and Geriatrics, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Suk Hee; Lim, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoo Duk [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Pathology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Kyu [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Surgery, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chang Hwan [Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Internal Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of 64-section multidetector CT with CT gastrography for determining the depth of mural invasion in patients with gastric cancer according to the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual. A total of 127 patients with gastric cancer and who had undergone both esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy and 64-section CT were included in this study. Two radiologists independently reviewed the preoperative CT images with respect to the detectability and T-staging of the gastric cancers. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and overall accuracy of each reviewer for the T staging of gastric cancer were calculated. Overall, gastric cancer was detected in 123 (96.9%) of the 127 cancers on the CT images. Reviewer 1 correctly staged 98 gastric cancers, and reviewer 2 correctly classified 105 gastric cancers. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the T staging was 77.2% (98/127) for reviewer 1 and 82.7% (105/127) for reviewer 2. 64-section CT using CT gastrography showed a reasonable diagnostic performance for determining the T staging in patients with gastric cancer according to the 7th edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual. (orig.)

  13. Long interspersed nuclear element-1 hypomethylation and oxidative stress: correlation and bladder cancer diagnostic potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maturada Patchsung

    Full Text Available Although, increased oxidative stress and hypomethylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1 associate with bladder cancer (BCa development, the relationship between these alterations is unknown. We evaluated the oxidative stress and hypomethylation of the LINE-1 in 61 BCa patients and 45 normal individuals. To measure the methylation levels and to differentiate the LINE-1 loci into hypermethylated, partially methylated and hypomethylated, peripheral blood cells, urinary exfoliated cells and cancerous tissues were evaluated by combined bisulfite restriction analysis PCR. The urinary total antioxidant status (TAS and plasma protein carbonyl content were determined. The LINE-1 methylation levels and patterns, especially hypomethylated loci, in the blood and urine cells of the BCa patients were different from the levels and patterns in the healthy controls. The urinary TAS was decreased, whereas the plasma protein carbonyl content was increased in the BCa patients relative to the controls. A positive correlation between the methylation of LINE-1 in the blood-derived DNA and urinary TAS was found in both the BCa and control groups. The urinary hypomethylated LINE-1 loci and the plasma protein carbonyl content provided the best diagnostic potential for BCa prediction. Based on post-diagnostic samples, the combination test improved the diagnostic power to a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. In conclusion, decreased LINE-1 methylation is associated with increased oxidative stress both in healthy and BCa subjects across the various tissue types, implying a dose-response association. Increases in the LINE-1 hypomethylation levels and the number of hypomethylated loci in both the blood- and urine-derived cells and increase in the oxidative stress were found in the BCa patients. The combination test of the urinary hypomethylated LINE-1 loci and the plasma protein carbonyl content may be useful for BCa screening and monitoring of

  14. Secondary prevention of cervical cancer through the development and implementation of a system to optimize diagnostic and therapeutic and rehabilitation measures in the background and precancerous cervical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Badretdinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive evaluation and treatment of background and pre-cancerous cervical cancer of women were studied (n = 1022. There is the complex assessment of social and obstetric gynecological risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. A system for optimizing diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive and rehabilitative measures, taking into account the differentiated approach to the choice of treatment, follow-up in the near and long-term postoperative period. An individual approach to the selection of organ presentation or radical treatment using new technologies of surgical treatment are identified. Application of the developed system enabled a statistically significantly improve the results of treatment of background and precancerous cervical disease.

  15. Combination of fluorescence imaging and local spectrophotometry in fluorescence diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of comparative studies of autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX, used in the diagnostics of early cancer of larynx and bronchi, are presented. The autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced fluorescence images of larynx and bronchial tissues are analysed during the endoscopic study. The method of local spectrophotometry is used to verify findings obtained from fluorescence images. It is shown that such a combined approach can be efficiently used to improve the diagnostics of precancer and early cancer, to detect a primary multiple tumours, as well as for the diagnostics of a residual tumour or an early recurrence after the endoscopic, surgery or X-ray treatment. The developed approach allows one to minimise the number of false-positive results and to reduce the number of biopsies, which are commonly used in the white-light bronchoscopy search for occult cancerous loci. (laser biology and medicine)

  16. Methods of sociological diagnostics in the assessment of staff's competencies: a case of a state museum (St. Petersburg, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Asiia Usiaeva; Mariia Rubtcova; Irina Pavlenkova; Svetlana Petropavlovskaya

    2016-01-01

    The study is dedicated to research of methods of sociological diagnostics, which can be used in the assessment of staff's competencies. Theoretical framework of this survey is T. Parson’s structural functionalism, the approach that sees the society as a complex system. The research questions were how we can analyze competencies by using sociological diagnostics and what the features of sociological diagnostics are. In order to achieve the target, it was analyzed the assessment of staff's comp...

  17. Personality Assessment in the Diagnostic Manuals: On Mindfulness, Multiple Methods, and Test Score Discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Recent controversies have illuminated the strengths and limitations of different frameworks for conceptualizing personality pathology (e.g., trait perspectives, categorical models), and stimulated debate regarding how best to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), and in other diagnostic systems (i.e., the International Classification of Diseases, the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual). In this article I argue that regardless of how PDs are conceptualized and which diagnostic system is employed, multimethod assessment must play a central role in PD diagnosis. By complementing self-reports with evidence from other domains (e.g., performance-based tests), a broader range of psychological processes are engaged in the patient, and the impact of self-perception and self-presentation biases can be better understood. By providing the assessor with evidence drawn from multiple modalities, some of which provide converging patterns and some of which yield divergent results, a multimethod assessment compels the assessor to engage this evidence more deeply. The mindful processing that ensues can help minimize the deleterious impact of naturally occurring information processing bias and distortion on the part of the clinician (e.g., heuristics, attribution errors), bringing greater clarity to the synthesis and integration of assessment data.

  18. Early detection of prostate cancer relapse by biochemistry and diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, L; Zattoni, F; Rossi, E; Karnes, R J; Lowe, V

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignancy in men associated with an increase in the incidence rate. Radical prostatectomy (RP) or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) represents the most employed treatments for the local control of disease. However, 10-50% of patients who experienced a recurrence of disease after primary treatments can benefit from salvage or palliative therapies. To date, prostate specific antigen (PSA) is usually used in clinical practice to monitor the status of disease and to early detect the recurrence of PCa. Nevertheless, PSA cannot discriminate the presence of local vs. distant metastatic disease. Circulating tumor cells are considered as a sign of disease widespread, but their correlation with metastatic PCa and local recurrence of disease is still indeterminate. Digital rectal exploration and transrectal ultrasonography are considered the first clinical and diagnostic approach to identify the local recurrence of PCa, but are associated with a low detection rate and low diagnostic accuracies. Conversely, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has gained a great importance in this setting of disease, being able to determine the presence of local recurrence with high sensitivity, also in the presence of low serum PSA levels. Lastly, the introduction of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline agents let to improve the management of patients with early recurrence of disease, although its accuracy is linked to the PSA and PSA dynamic values. New radiopharmaceutical agents, like 68Ga-PSMA or 18F-FACBC and others could improve the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT, but the data is still preliminary. In the present review we will discuss both clinical and diagnostic instrumentations, actually available in clinical practice, able to early identify the presence of recurrent PCa and to differentiate between local and distant relapse of tumor.

  19. The Relationship between Students' Reading Performance on Diagnostic Assessments and the Third Grade Reading Achievement Test in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…

  20. A STUDY OF DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY AND UTILITY OF ULTRASOUND IN THE ASSESSMENT OF BILIARY STENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant U

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is cheap , easily available imaging modality which is useful in detection of stent within the biliary tree , dilatation of biliary tree and in assessment of complications after ERCP. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Our study aims at to statistic ally assess the diagnostic accuracy and utility of ultrasound in assessment of biliary stent. MATERIAL AND METHOD S : Total 221 patients from gastroenterology department were evaluated by ultrasound abdomen examination using Philips HD 11XE ultrasound scanne r. Post ERCP clinical details were obtained. X - ray abdomen done in all cases with ERCP is done wherever required. RESULT: In our study we found following measures of diagnostic accuracy in detection of biliary stent. Sensitivity 77.27% , Specificity 94.59% , Accuracy 85.97% , Positive predictive value 93.40% , Negative predictive value 80.76% , Positive likelihood ratio 14.29 , Negative likelihood ratio 0.24 , Diagnostic odds ratio 59.50. Twenty cases showed biliary dilatation in presence of CBD stent. Out of thes e 4 cases showed presence of upper end of stent in tumor mass while in rest cases it was in dilated biliary tree. Post ERCP complications were noted in 11 cases. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound is a reliable , noninvasive , nonradiative imaging modality to assess presence of biliary stent , biliary dilatation in presence of stent and to assess tumor status and post ERCP complications. Hence we recommend the use of follow up ultrasound after ERCP procedure.

  1. Efficacy of a touchscreen computer based family cancer history questionnaire and subsequent cancer risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, J; Hampel, H.; Bradley, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—A computer based touchscreen family cancer history questionnaire was developed and implemented to facilitate the provision of cancer risk assessments for the ambulatory and outpatient populations of a free standing cancer hospital.
METHODS—A questionnaire consisting of a series of branched point decision making screens was developed which enables the participant to enter demographic data, personal cancer history, and cancer histories for first and second degree relatives. A freestan...

  2. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor conjugated mesoporous zinc oxide nanofibers for breast cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Azahar; Mondal, Kunal; Singh, Chandan; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-04-28

    We report the fabrication of an efficient, label-free, selective and highly reproducible immunosensor with unprecedented sensitivity (femto-molar) to detect a breast cancer biomarker for early diagnostics. Mesoporous zinc oxide nanofibers (ZnOnFs) are synthesized by electrospinning technique with a fiber diameter in the range of 50-150 nm. Fragments of ZnOnFs are electrophoretically deposited on an indium tin oxide glass substrate and conjugated via covalent or electrostatic interactions with a biomarker (anti-ErbB2; epidermal growth factor receptor 2). Oxygen plasma treatment of the carbon doped ZnOnFs generates functional groups (-COOH, -OH, etc.) that are effective for the conjugation of anti-ErbB2. ZnOnFs without plasma treatment that conjugate via electrostatic interactions were also tested for comparison. Label-free detection of the breast cancer biomarker by this point-of-care device is achieved by an electrochemical impedance technique that has high sensitivity (7.76 kΩ μM(-1)) and can detect 1 fM (4.34 × 10(-5) ng mL(-1)) concentration. The excellent impedimetric response of this immunosensor provides a fast detection (128 s) in a wide detection test range (1.0 fM-0.5 μM). The oxy-plasma treated ZnOnF immunoelectrode shows a higher association constant (404.8 kM(-1) s(-1)) indicating a higher affinity towards the ErbB2 antigen compared to the untreated ZnOnF immunoelectrode (165.6 kM(-1) s(-1)). This sensor is about an order of magnitude more sensitive than the best demonstrated in the literature based on different nanomaterials and about three orders of magnitude better than the ELISA standard for breast cancer biomarker detection. This proposed point-of-care cancer diagnostic offers several advantages, such as higher stability, rapid monitoring, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, etc., and should prove to be useful for the detection of other bio- and cancer markers. PMID:25811908

  3. The potential of spectral imaging in the noninvasive diagnostics of tissue cancers and precancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Costas J.

    2003-08-01

    A novel approach to the problem of non-invasive diagnostics is presented, which relay son a combiend optical and chemical excitation of the tissue, by employing white light and topical application of acetic acid solution, respecitvley. Acetic acid-tissue interaction results in a transient alteration in the light scattering properties of the abnormal tissue selectivity. A specially developed Spectral Imaging system was used for the in vivo spectral imaging and analysis of the tissue and for the measurement, as a function of both time and location, of the acetic acid-induced alterations in the tissue scattering properties. Modeling and fitting of the experimental data result in the calculation of the kinetic constants of the marker-tissue interaction process, and spatil distribution of whcih is visualized with the aid of a pseudocolor scale. Clinical evaluation of both methodology and technology in normal, precancerous and cancerous lesions of cervix show that the measured kinetic data contain specific information, which enables the differentiation between cancerous and non-cancerous lesions, as well as between dysplasias of different grade. The calculated map of the kinetic constants provides information for the spatial distribution of the lesion's grades, thus enabling the detection of incipient lesions and the precise localization and classification of pathologic tissue areas.

  4. Cancer Risk in Diagnostic Radiation Workers in Korea from 1996–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Won Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the association between the effective radiation dose of diagnostic radiation workers in Korea and their risk for cancer. A total of 36,394 diagnostic radiation workers (159,189 person-years were included in this study; the effective dose and cancer incidence were analyzed between the period 1996 and 2002. Median (range follow-up time was 5.5 (0.04–7 years in males and 3.75 (0.04–7 years in females. Cancer risk related to the average annual effective dose and exposure to more than 5 mSv of annual radiation dose were calculated by the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for occupation and age at the last follow-up. The standardized incidence ratio of cancer in radiation workers showed strong healthy worker effects in both male and female workers. The relative risk of all cancers from exposure of the average annual effective dose in the highest quartile (upper 75% or more of radiation dose was 2.14 in male workers (95% CI: 1.48–3.10, p-trend: <0.0001 and 4.43 in female workers (95% CI: 2.17–9.04, p-trend: <0.0001, compared to those in the lower three quartiles of radiation exposure dose (less than upper 75% of radiation dose. Cancer risks of the brain (HR: 17.38, 95% CI: 1.05–287.8, p-trend: 0.04 and thyroid (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.09–13.75, p-trend: 0.01 in female workers were significantly higher in the highest quartile group of radiation exposure compared to those in the lower three quartiles, and the risk of colon and rectum cancers in male workers showed a significantly increasing trend according to the increase of the average annual radiation dose (HR: 2.37, 95% CI: 0.99–5.67, p-trend: 0.02. The relative risk of leukemia in male workers and that of brain cancer in female workers were significantly higher in the group of people who had been exposed to more than 5 mSv/year than those exposed to less than 5 mSv/year (HR: 11.75, 95% CI: 1.08–128.20; HR: 63.11, 95% CI: 3.70–1,075.00, respectively

  5. Validating the Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment Using a Danish Trauma Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schandorph Løkkegaard, Sille; Elklit, Ask

    Background: There is a lack of validated assessment tools for identifying young children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One of the few existing tools for children aged 1-6 years is the Diagnostic Infant and Preschool Assessment (DIPA: Sheeringa & Haslett, 2010.) Purpose: To validate...... their mother; one third of the children have been exposed to family violence and taken shelter at a women’s shelter with their mother; and one third of the children have been exposed to maltreatment and are undergoing legal assessments by social services. Expected results: If the concurrent criterion validity...

  6. Assessment of the added value of the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope in breast cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilgerink MP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Marjolein P Hilgerink1, Marjan JM Hummel2, Srirang Manohar3, Simon R Vaartjes1, Maarten J IJzerman21Department of Medical Physics, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; 2Health Technology and Services Research, 3Biomedical Photonic Imaging, MIRA Institute, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsPurpose: Photoacoustic (PA imaging is a recently developed breast cancer imaging technique. In order to enhance successful clinical implementation, we quantified the potential clinical value of different scenarios incorporating PA imaging by means of multi-criteria analysis. From this analysis, the most promising area of application for PA imaging in breast cancer diagnosis is determined, and recommendations are provided to optimize the design of PA imaging.Methods: The added value of PA imaging was assessed in two areas of application in the diagnostic track. These areas include PA imaging as an alternative to x-ray mammography and ultrasonography in early stage diagnosis, and PA imaging as an alternative to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI in later stage diagnosis. The added value of PA imaging was assessed with respect to four main criteria (costs, diagnostic performance, patient comfort and risks. An expert panel composed of medical, technical and management experts was asked to assess the relative importance of the criteria in comparing the alternative diagnostic devices. The judgments of the experts were quantified based on the validated pairwise comparison technique of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, a technique for multi-criteria analysis. Sensitivity analysis was applied to account for the uncertainty of the outcomes.Results: Among the considered alternatives, PA imaging is the preferred technique due to its non-invasiveness, low cost and low risks. However, the experts do not expect large differences in diagnostic performance. The outcomes suggest that design changes to improve the diagnostic performance of PA imaging should

  7. Impact of social and clinical factors on diagnostic delay of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianatinasab, Mostafa; Fararouei, Mohammad; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Zare-Bandamiri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract One of the reasons for high mortality of breast cancer is long delay in seeking medical care. This study was designed to measure the association of a wide range of socio-demographic and clinical factors with the diagnostic delay in breast cancer among Iranian patients. This study was conducted on 505 newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer from southern part of Iran. Medical files of the patients who were admitted to the hospital from November 2013 to May 2015 were examined and clinical and demographic information were extracted. According to the results, illiterate patients were diagnosed on average 87.42 days later compared with those with a college degree (95%CI: 29.68–145.16, P = 0.003) and those from rural area were diagnosed on average 72.48 days later (95%CI: 35.94–109.03, P = 0.001) compared with urban residences. Single women were diagnosed 65.99 days later (95%CI: 7.37–124.61, P = 0.02) compared with those married. Lobular or medullary types of cancer were diagnosed 65.19 days later (95%CI: 2.67–127.70, P = 0.04) compared with ductal type. On the other hand, those who were able to perform breast self-exam were diagnosed 49.07 days earlier compared with others (95%CI: 18.69–79.45, P = 0.002). Those felt lump as the initiating symptom were diagnosed 62.01 days earlier, (95%CI: 8.17–115.85, P = 0.02) compared with those with other initial symptoms. The only factor associated with doctors diagnosis delay was the place of residence as rural residences were diagnosed on average 87.42 days later compared with urban residences, (95%CI: 53.82–121.92, P = 0.001). Higher education, living in cities, ductal type of tumor, and noticing lump in breast were the most important demographic and clinical factors associated with shorter breast cancer diagnosis delay. Informing women and doctors, especially general physicians who are practicing in rural areas, of the common symptoms of breast cancer as well as training women to perform breast self

  8. Mass spectrometry-based serum proteome pattern analysis in molecular diagnostics of early stage breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stobiecki Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometric analysis of the blood proteome is an emerging method of clinical proteomics. The approach exploiting multi-protein/peptide sets (fingerprints detected by mass spectrometry that reflect overall features of a specimen's proteome, termed proteome pattern analysis, have been already shown in several studies to have applicability in cancer diagnostics. We aimed to identify serum proteome patterns specific for early stage breast cancer patients using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry. Methods Blood samples were collected before the start of therapy in a group of 92 patients diagnosed at stages I and II of the disease, and in a group of age-matched healthy controls (104 women. Serum specimens were purified and the low-molecular-weight proteome fraction was examined using MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry after removal of albumin and other high-molecular-weight serum proteins. Protein ions registered in a mass range between 2,000 and 10,000 Da were analyzed using a new bioinformatic tool created in our group, which included modeling spectra as a sum of Gaussian bell-shaped curves. Results We have identified features of serum proteome patterns that were significantly different between blood samples of healthy individuals and early stage breast cancer patients. The classifier built of three spectral components that differentiated controls and cancer patients had 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Spectral components (i.e., protein ions that were the most frequent in such classifiers had approximate m/z values of 2303, 2866 and 3579 Da (a biomarker built from these three components showed 88% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Of note, we did not find a significant correlation between features of serum proteome patterns and established prognostic or predictive factors like tumor size, nodal involvement, histopathological grade, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. In addition, we observed a significantly (p = 0

  9. Diagnostic value of ultrasound and color Doppler in identifying axillary lymph node metastases in patients with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, D.; M. Dias; Gonçalo, Manuela; Pinto, E.; Oliveira, CF

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of ultrasound and color Doppler in axillary lymph node metastases of patients with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study including 55 patients with primitive, invasive, node negative breast cancer who underwent preoperative axillary ultrasound and color Doppler. Doppler and morphologic ultrasound criteria were applied to the identification of axillary lymph node metastases. RESULTS: The imagery study of a...

  10. Appraising and applying evidence about a diagnostic test during a performance-based assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Ellen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of Evidence-based Medicine requires that clinicians assess the validity of published research and then apply the results to patient care. We wanted to assess whether our soon-to-graduate medical students could appraise and apply research about a diagnostic test within a clinical context and to compare our students with peers trained at other institutions. Methods 4th year medical students who previously had demonstrated competency at probability revision and just starting first-year Internal Medicine residents were used for this research. Following an encounter with a simulated patient, subjects critically appraised a paper about an applicable diagnostic test and revised the patient's pretest probability given the test result. Results The medical students and residents demonstrated similar skills at critical appraisal, correctly answering 4.7 and 4.9, respectively, of 6 questions (p = 0.67. Only one out of 28 (3% medical students and none of the 15 residents were able to correctly complete the probability revision task (p = 1.00. Conclusions This study found that most students completing medical school are able to appraise an article about a diagnostic test but few are able to apply the information from the article to a patient. These findings raise questions about the clinical usefulness of the EBM skills possessed by graduating medical students within the area of diagnostic testing.

  11. An oligonucleotide-tagged microarray for routine diagnostics of colon cancer by genotyping KRAS mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuliang; Gudnason, Haukur; Li, Yi-Ping; Bang, Dang Duong; Wolff, Anders

    2014-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent types of cancer, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. CRC is curable if diagnosed at an early stage. Mutations in the oncogene KRAS play a critical role in early development of CRC. Detection of activated KRAS is of diagnostic and therapeutic importance. In this study, KRAS gene fragments containing mutations in codon 12 were amplified by multiplex PCR using a 5'-Cy5-labeled reverse primer in combination with 3'-mutation-specific forward primers that were linked with four unique nucleotide-sequence tags at the 5'-end. The Cy5-labeled reverse primer was extended under PCR amplification to the 5'-end of the mutation-specific forward primers and thus included the complimentary sequence of the tag. PCR products were hybridized to tag-probes immobilized on various substrates and detected by a scanner. Our results indicate that all mutations at codon 12 of KRAS derived from cancer cells and clinical samples could be unambiguously detected. KRAS mutations were accurately detected when the mutant DNA was present only in 10% of the starting mixed materials including wild-type genomic DNA, which was isolated from either cancer cells or spiked fecal samples. The immobilized tag-probes were stable under multiple thermal cycling treatments, allowing re-use of the tag-microarray and further optimization to solid PCR. Our results demonstrated that a novel oligonucleotide-tagged microarray system has been developed which would be suitable to be used for detection of KRAS mutations and clinical diagnosis of CRC. PMID:25018048

  12. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the patients with cancer of unknown primary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective :The prognosis of the patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is poor. Detection of the primary tumor could determine the treatment strategy, improve the prognosis and the survival rate. The study was to assess the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the patients with CUP. Methods:Seventy patients with CUP underwent a whole-body PET/CT imaging study. All the images were blindly interpreted by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The final diagnosis was based on pathology and follow-up for more than 3 months. Results :The primary tumor site was correctly identified by PET/CT in 35 patients (35/70, 50%), 1 false negative and 1 false positive cases were encountered. In 33 patients (33/70, 47.1%), the primary tumor site was not localized. In addition, PET/CT scan identified further unexpected metastases in 36 patients, patient management was changed in 39 patients (39/70, 55.7%). Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool in the assessment and initial stages of the management process. (authors)

  13. The Diagnostic Validity and Reliability of an Internet-Based Clinical Assessment Program for Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny; Austin, David William; Abbott, Jo-Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-based assessment has the potential to assist with the diagnosis of mental health disorders and overcome the barriers associated with traditional services (eg, cost, stigma, distance). Further to existing online screening programs available, there is an opportunity to deliver more comprehensive and accurate diagnostic tools to supplement the assessment and treatment of mental health disorders. Objective The aim was to evaluate the diagnostic criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the electronic Psychological Assessment System (e-PASS), an online, self-report, multidisorder, clinical assessment and referral system. Methods Participants were 616 adults residing in Australia, recruited online, and representing prospective e-PASS users. Following e-PASS completion, 158 participants underwent a telephone-administered structured clinical interview and 39 participants repeated the e-PASS within 25 days of initial completion. Results With structured clinical interview results serving as the gold standard, diagnostic agreement with the e-PASS varied considerably from fair (eg, generalized anxiety disorder: κ=.37) to strong (eg, panic disorder: κ=.62). Although the e-PASS’ sensitivity also varied (0.43-0.86) the specificity was generally high (0.68-1.00). The e-PASS sensitivity generally improved when reducing the e-PASS threshold to a subclinical result. Test-retest reliability ranged from moderate (eg, specific phobia: κ=.54) to substantial (eg, bulimia nervosa: κ=.87). Conclusions The e-PASS produces reliable diagnostic results and performs generally well in excluding mental disorders, although at the expense of sensitivity. For screening purposes, the e-PASS subclinical result generally appears better than a clinical result as a diagnostic indicator. Further development and evaluation is needed to support the use of online diagnostic assessment programs for mental disorders. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials

  14. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor conjugated mesoporous zinc oxide nanofibers for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Azahar; Mondal, Kunal; Singh, Chandan; Dhar Malhotra, Bansi; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-04-01

    We report the fabrication of an efficient, label-free, selective and highly reproducible immunosensor with unprecedented sensitivity (femto-molar) to detect a breast cancer biomarker for early diagnostics. Mesoporous zinc oxide nanofibers (ZnOnFs) are synthesized by electrospinning technique with a fiber diameter in the range of 50-150 nm. Fragments of ZnOnFs are electrophoretically deposited on an indium tin oxide glass substrate and conjugated via covalent or electrostatic interactions with a biomarker (anti-ErbB2; epidermal growth factor receptor 2). Oxygen plasma treatment of the carbon doped ZnOnFs generates functional groups (-COOH, -OH, etc.) that are effective for the conjugation of anti-ErbB2. ZnOnFs without plasma treatment that conjugate via electrostatic interactions were also tested for comparison. Label-free detection of the breast cancer biomarker by this point-of-care device is achieved by an electrochemical impedance technique that has high sensitivity (7.76 kΩ μM-1) and can detect 1 fM (4.34 × 10-5 ng mL-1) concentration. The excellent impedimetric response of this immunosensor provides a fast detection (128 s) in a wide detection test range (1.0 fM-0.5 μM). The oxy-plasma treated ZnOnF immunoelectrode shows a higher association constant (404.8 kM-1 s-1) indicating a higher affinity towards the ErbB2 antigen compared to the untreated ZnOnF immunoelectrode (165.6 kM-1 s-1). This sensor is about an order of magnitude more sensitive than the best demonstrated in the literature based on different nanomaterials and about three orders of magnitude better than the ELISA standard for breast cancer biomarker detection. This proposed point-of-care cancer diagnostic offers several advantages, such as higher stability, rapid monitoring, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, etc., and should prove to be useful for the detection of other bio- and cancer markers.We report the fabrication of an efficient, label-free, selective and highly reproducible immunosensor

  15. Concentration and Methylation of Cell-Free DNA from Blood Plasma as Diagnostic Markers of Renal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyba, Liudmyla; Onyshchenko, Kateryna; Kashparova, Olena; Nikolaienko, Oleksii; Panasenko, Grigory; Vozianov, Sergii; Romanenko, Alina; Rynditch, Alla

    2016-01-01

    The critical point for successful treatment of cancer is diagnosis at early stages of tumor development. Cancer cell-specific methylated DNA has been found in the blood of cancer patients, indicating that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) circulating in the blood is a convenient tumor-associated DNA marker. Therefore methylated cfDNA can be used as a minimally invasive diagnostic marker. We analysed the concentration of plasma cfDNA and methylation of six tumor suppressor genes in samples of 27 patients with renal cancer and 15 healthy donors as controls. The cfDNA concentrations in samples from cancer patients and healthy donors was measured using two different methods, the SYBR Green I fluorescence test and quantitative real-time PCR. Both methods revealed a statistically significant increase of cfDNA concentrations in cancer patients. Hypermethylation on cfDNA was detected for the LRRC3B (74.1%), APC (51.9%), FHIT (55.6%), and RASSF1 (62.9%) genes in patients with renal cancer. Promoter methylation of VHL and ITGA9 genes was not found on cfDNA. Our results confirmed that the cfDNA level and methylation of CpG islands of RASSF1A, FHIT, and APC genes in blood plasma can be used as noninvasive diagnostic markers of cancer.

  16. Tumor markers in finding recurrent disease iin colorectal cancer: a diagnostic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verberne, Charlotte; de Jong, W.H.; Grossmann, Irene;

    2013-01-01

    ). Methods: A comprehensive literature review (1985- 2010) was performed by two independent reviewers. Sensitivity and specificity of markers mentioned in the articles were checked by recalculation. A validated quality score system was used to estimate study quality. Results: Seventeen studies focusing on......Aim: In the search for evidence-based follow-up of patients after resection for colorectal cancer, numerous tumor markers have been proposed. This review has evaluated these markers and comments on the diagnostic accuracy in finding recurrent disease in relation to Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA...... eight different markers were included. Three markers were shown to have comparable or better accuracy than CEA: TPA, CA 242 and CA 72-4 in at least one study. These three markers, from four independent studies, showed a tu- mor marker sensitivity of > 60% in combination with an outperformance of CEA in...

  17. Moving beyond local practice: reconfiguring the adoption of a breast cancer diagnostic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatopoulos, Gregory; Procter, Rob; Llewellyn, Sue; Harvey, Gill; Boyd, Alan

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the ways in which technological innovation becomes adopted and incorporated into healthcare practice. Drawing upon the notion of 'field of practices', we examine how adoption is subject to spatially and temporally distributed reconfigurations across a multi-level set of practices, ranging from the policy level to the micro-level setting of individual action. The empirical backdrop is provided by a case study of the adoption of Breast Lymph Node Assay (BLNA), a diagnostic technology innovation for the treatment of breast cancer patients. Our aim is to contribute to the development of a more comprehensive analysis of the processes surrounding the adoption and incorporation of complex healthcare technologies into routine practice.

  18. The potential diagnostic power of circulating tumor cell analysis for non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kirsty; Pailler, Emma; Faugeroux, Vincent; Taylor, Melissa; Oulhen, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie; Planchard, David; Soria, Jean-Charles; Lindsay, Colin R; Besse, Benjamin; Vielh, Philippe; Farace, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), genotyping tumor biopsies for targetable somatic alterations has become routine practice. However, serial biopsies have limitations: they may be technically difficult or impossible and could incur serious risks to patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) offer an alternative source for tumor analysis that is easily accessible and presents the potential to identify predictive biomarkers to tailor therapies on a personalized basis. Examined here is our current knowledge of CTC detection and characterization in NSCLC and their potential role in EGFR-mutant, ALK-rearranged and ROS1-rearranged patients. This is followed by discussion of the ongoing issues such as the question of CTC partnership as diagnostic tools in NSCLC. PMID:26564313

  19. Assess results of PET/CT in cancer diagnosis, follow up treatment and simulation for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET/CT (Positron Emission Computed Tomography) has been studied and established as routine at the Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Center, Bach Mai hospital. From 8/2009 to 5/2015, 6223 patients have been undergone PET/CT scan. Among them, diagnostic and simulation PET/CT scan for cancer patients accounted to 5833 (93.8%). Researches about value of PET/CT for most common cancers have been done. Results: PET/CT can help the primary tumor diagnosis, metastases detection, staging, simulation for radiation therapy, response to treatment assessment, and relapses after treatment identification. Percentage accordance between PET / CT and histopathology was 96% (esophagus cancer), 94.7% (lung cancer). Average maxSUV value of primary tumor of the esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer, nasopharynx cancer, lung cancer, and NHL respectively 9.50, 9.78, 11.08, 9.17, 10.21. MaxSUV value increased with histological grade and tumor size. After undergone PET / CT, stage of disease changed in 28% esophagus cancer; 22.7% colorectal cancer; stage of disease increased in 23.5% of NHL, 32.0% of lung cancer, and 25.0% of nasopharynx cancer. PET / CT simulation for radiation therapy target volume reduced in 28% of nasopharynx cancer, which helped the radioactive dose concentrate exactly in the target lesions, minimize effect to healthy tissues, improved the effectiveness of treatment and reduced complications. (author)

  20. Diagnostic value of the copper/zinc ratio in digestive cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, J L; Romero, R R; Robles, J A; Montemayor, A C; Isoard, F; Estanes, A; Uribe, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of the copper/zinc ratio (Cu/Zn ratio) in the evaluation of a large group of patients with digestive cancer compared to gender and age-matched control subjects. A total of 282 patients was studied and separated into three groups: group I (n = 75), patients with digestive cancer, group II (n = 112), patients with benign digestive disease, and group III (n = 95), healthy subjects. Serum levels of copper and zinc were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed that the serum levels of copper (mg/dL) in patients with digestive cancer (91.6 +/- 27.3, p cancer (1.45 +/- .58, p copper/zinc ratio was 82.2%, with a specificity of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 45.8% and a negative predictive value of 91.3%. In conclusion, Cu/Zn ratio was found to be considerably higher in patients with digestive cancer compared to age- and gender-matched controls, with a sensitivity of 82.2% that might be useful in the evaluation of suspected malignancy.

  1. Diagnostic value of microRNA-21 in the diagnosis of lung cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis involving 11 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renjie; Jiang, Yingjiu; Wu, Qingcheng; Li, Qiang; Cheng, Dan; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ming; Ye, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Molecular biomarkers that can be detected in easily accessible body fluids have been proposed as non-invasive, cost-effective, and useful tools for cancer diagnosis. Recently, extensive research has explored the involvement of the aberrant expression of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21, miR-21) in lung cancer. Inconsistent results, however, have prevented its widespread use in diagnosis. In light of this situation, our meta-analysis aimed to systematically determine whether aberrant miR-21 expression can distinguish patients with lung cancer from cancer-free controls with a high level of diagnostic accuracy. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published before December 23, 2013 was conducted in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and three Chinese databases. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and other parameters were used to assess the overall performance of miR-21-based assays. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATA 11.0 software. Eleven research articles involving 676 patients with lung cancer and 529 healthy controls were considered eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The following summary parameters were calculated from all the included studies: sensitivity of 0.66 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.74), specificity of 0.82 (95 % CI: 0.74-0.88), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of 3.70 (95 % CI: 2.50-5.60), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of 0.42 (95 % CI: 0.32-0.54); diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 9.00 (95 % CI: 5.00-16.00), and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 (95 % CI: 0.77-0.84). In addition, we added two pre-specified covariates (ethnicity and specimen types) to the bivariate model to assess their impact on the diagnostic value of miR-21 for lung cancer. Similar results were also observed in subgroup analyses, indicating a relatively low level of accuracy. The current meta-analysis indicates that a single miR-21 may not be sufficient to identify lung cancer and that more miRNAs should be used to detect

  2. The possibilities of improvement in the sensitivity of cancer fluorescence diagnostics by computer image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwon, Aleksandra; Bieda, Robert; Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Polanski, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Konrad; Latos, Wojciech; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina; Sieron, Aleksander

    2008-02-01

    Background: Fluorescence diagnostics uses the ability of tissues to fluoresce after exposition to a specific wavelength of light. The change in fluorescence between normal and progression to cancer allows to see early cancer and precancerous lesions often missed by white light. Aim: To improve by computer image processing the sensitivity of fluorescence images obtained during examination of skin, oral cavity, vulva and cervix lesions, during endoscopy, cystoscopy and bronchoscopy using Xillix ONCOLIFE. Methods: Function of image f(x,y):R2 --> R 3 was transformed from original color space RGB to space in which vector of 46 values refers to every point labeled by defined xy-coordinates- f(x,y):R2 --> R 46. By means of Fisher discriminator vector of attributes of concrete point analalyzed in the image was reduced according to two defined classes defined as pathologic areas (foreground) and healthy areas (background). As a result the highest four fisher's coefficients allowing the greatest separation between points of pathologic (foreground) and healthy (background) areas were chosen. In this way new function f(x,y):R2 --> R 4 was created in which point x,y corresponds with vector Y, H, a*, c II. In the second step using Gaussian Mixtures and Expectation-Maximisation appropriate classificator was constructed. This classificator enables determination of probability that the selected pixel of analyzed image is a pathologically changed point (foreground) or healthy one (background). Obtained map of probability distribution was presented by means of pseudocolors. Results: Image processing techniques improve the sensitivity, quality and sharpness of original fluorescence images. Conclusion: Computer image processing enables better visualization of suspected areas examined by means of fluorescence diagnostics.

  3. In Silico discovery of transcription factors as potential diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choolani Mahesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study focuses on identifying potential biomarkers for diagnosis and early detection of ovarian cancer (OC through the study of transcription regulation of genes affected by estrogen hormone. Results The results are based on a set of 323 experimentally validated OC-associated genes compiled from several databases, and their subset controlled by estrogen. For these two gene sets we computationally determined transcription factors (TFs that putatively regulate transcription initiation. We ranked these TFs based on the number of genes they are likely to control. In this way, we selected 17 top-ranked TFs as potential key regulators and thus possible biomarkers for a set of 323 OC-associated genes. For 77 estrogen controlled genes from this set we identified three unique TFs as potential biomarkers. Conclusions We introduced a new methodology to identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for OC. This report is the first bioinformatics study that explores multiple transcriptional regulators of OC-associated genes as potential diagnostic biomarkers in connection with estrogen responsiveness. We show that 64% of TF biomarkers identified in our study are validated based on real-time data from microarray expression studies. As an illustration, our method could identify CP2 that in combination with CA125 has been reported to be sensitive in diagnosing ovarian tumors.

  4. In Silico discovery of transcription factors as potential diagnostic biomarkers of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep

    2011-09-19

    Background: Our study focuses on identifying potential biomarkers for diagnosis and early detection of ovarian cancer (OC) through the study of transcription regulation of genes affected by estrogen hormone.Results: The results are based on a set of 323 experimentally validated OC-associated genes compiled from several databases, and their subset controlled by estrogen. For these two gene sets we computationally determined transcription factors (TFs) that putatively regulate transcription initiation. We ranked these TFs based on the number of genes they are likely to control. In this way, we selected 17 top-ranked TFs as potential key regulators and thus possible biomarkers for a set of 323 OC-associated genes. For 77 estrogen controlled genes from this set we identified three unique TFs as potential biomarkers.Conclusions: We introduced a new methodology to identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for OC. This report is the first bioinformatics study that explores multiple transcriptional regulators of OC-associated genes as potential diagnostic biomarkers in connection with estrogen responsiveness. We show that 64% of TF biomarkers identified in our study are validated based on real-time data from microarray expression studies. As an illustration, our method could identify CP2 that in combination with CA125 has been reported to be sensitive in diagnosing ovarian tumors. 2011 Kaur et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. A Dynamic Imaging Database for 3-D Morphologic Analysis and Clinical Assessment in Diagnostic Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, Gabriela; Toni, Louay; Foran, David J.; Nosher, John L.; DeMarco, J. Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques such as MRI and CT have become invaluable clinical and research tools for visualizing internal organs and anatomic structures, non-invasively. We present a dynamic imaging database for performing comparative morphologic studies in diagnostic radiology to facilitate clinical assessment. The prototype system utilizes a double elliptic Fourier transform to characterize shape in three dimensions. A prototype system was used to evaluate neuroanatomy from MR brain scans of...

  6. External Quality Assessment Program for Chlamydia trachomatis Diagnostic Testing by Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Land, Sally; Tabrizi, Sepehr; Gust, Anthony; Johnson, Elizabeth; Garland, Susan; Dax, Elizabeth M.

    2002-01-01

    We report the results from 57 Australian diagnostic laboratories testing two external quality assessment panels using either the Roche Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis test (R-PCR) or the Abbott LCx Chlamydia trachomatis assay (A-ligase chain reaction [LCR]). Panel samples were either normal urine spiked with Chlamydia trachomatis antigen or clinical urine specimens. There was no significant difference between laboratories or between assays in detection of C. trachomatis-positive clinical sampl...

  7. Diagnostic efficacy of biophysical tests and cerebral-umbilical index when assessing fetal oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Čančarević-Đajić Branka; Vilendečić Rade

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Perinatal morbidity and mortality are the ultimate indicators of antenatal care today, whose responsible task is to assess the respiratory function of the placenta, fetal growth and placental maturation in order to provide conditions for the delivery of a living and viable newborn. The diagnostic procedures of antenatal care tested within this study were the biophysical tests of cardiotocography and the fetal biophysical profile, along with the colour doppler evaluation of...

  8. A Diagnostic Assessment of Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization for Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Hadka, D.; Herman, J.; Kasprzyk, J.; Kollat, J.

    2012-04-01

    This study contributes a rigorous diagnostic assessment of state-of-the-art multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) and highlights key advances that the water resources field can exploit to better discover the critical tradeoffs constraining our systems. This study provides the most comprehensive diagnostic assessment of MOEAs for water resources to date, exploiting more than 100,000 MOEA runs and trillions of design evaluations. The diagnostic assessment measures the effectiveness, efficiency, reliability, and controllability of ten benchmark MOEAs for a representative suite of water resources applications addressing rainfall-runoff calibration, long-term groundwater monitoring (LTM), and risk-based water supply portfolio planning. The suite of problems encompasses a range of challenging problem properties including (1) many-objective formulations with 4 or more objectives, (2) multi-modality (or false optima), (3) nonlinearity, (4) discreteness, (5) severe constraints, (6) stochastic objectives, and (7) non-separability (also called epistasis). The applications are representative of the dominant problem classes that have shaped the history of MOEAs in water resources and that will be dominant foci in the future. Recommendations are provided for which modern MOEAs should serve as tools and benchmarks in the future water resources literature.

  9. Impact of diagnostic interval on mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A new perspective on the waiting list paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard;

    was statistically significant for colon cancer (p=0.02). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: After adjusting we observed the well-known waiting list paradox, but also a significantly poorer prognosis for patients with diagnostic intervals longer than 30 days. The shifting association would have been hidden if the...

  10. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MRI for detection of pelvic metastatic lymph nodes in patients with cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, G; Zhou, H; Jia, Z; Deng, H

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI has emerged as a new technique for detecting the pelvic lymph metastases in patients with cervical cancer. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the diagnostic value of DW imaging (DWI) for benign/malignant discrimination of pelvic lymph nodes (LNs). Studies about DWI for the detection of metastatic LNs were searched in the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese databases. Based on the extracted data, we determined pooled sensitivities, specificities and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) across studies, calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves with area under the curve (AUC) and Q* obtained. We also analysed the heterogeneity between studies based on subgroup analysis, threshold effect and publication bias. In total, 15 studies involving 1021 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and DOR of DWI were 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84-0.89], 0.84 (95% CI, 0.83-0.86) and 47.21 (95% CI, 25.67-86.81), respectively. LR syntheses yielded overall positive LR of 6.55 (95% CI, 4.77-9.01) and negative LR of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.12-0.23). The AUC and Q* index were 0.9384 and 0.8754, respectively. The heterogeneity was relatively high between studies; however, there was no evidence for threshold effect and publication bias. DWI is beneficial in the pelvic nodal assessment in patients with cervical cancer. Large-scale, high-quality trials with standard protocols are required to evaluate its clinical value for discrimination of metastatic from non-metastatic pelvic LNs in patients with cervical cancer. Advances in knowledge include providing evidence to assess the role of DWI in nodal staging of cervical cancer.

  11. Serum tumour markers as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in Libyan breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfagieh, Mohamed; Abdalla, Fathi; Gliwan, Asma; Boder, Jamela; Nichols, Wafa; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset

    2012-12-01

    Results from studies on efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) and thymidine kinase (TK1) as diagnostic and prognostic tools for primary breast cancer (BC) have presented conflicting results, and usefulness of these markers for clinical use in BC remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate potential of concentration of the sera CEA, CA15.3 and TK1 peptides' use as markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast lesions of Libyan patients. Serum tumour markers were studied in 20 healthy subjects, 30 patient with benign lesion diseases and 50 patients with histologically confirmed BC diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Misurata, Libya during the period 2005-2009. The concentrations of the BC patients' cutoff points used for diagnostic and prognostic sensitivity were 8.82 ng/ml, 35.57 U/ml and 32.57 U/mg/protein for CEA, CA15.3 and TK1, respectively. Increased CEA (>8.82 ng/ml), CA 15.3 (>35.57 U/ml) and TK1 (>32.57 U/mg/protein) concentrations were found in 62 %, 70 % and 78 % of the BC patients, respectively. For all three tumour markers, increased concentrations correlated increased tumour size and nodal involvement. Significantly higher serum TK1 levels were found in patients with advanced disease (p < 0.0001) and TK1 levels also correlated with disease-specific survival (DSS, p < 0.07). The combined data set of the three markers' data from three markers increased the diagnostic sensitivity to 90 %. The serum marker analysis for CEA, CA 15.3, and S-TK1 concentrations is shown to be a useful tool for identification of malignant cases in our BC population and for the prognostic evaluation of patients with primary BC. Increased concentrations of the markers were also observed to be higher in patients with advanced tumours and indicative of the development of distant metastasis.

  12. Comparative study of transvaginal ultrasonographic and diagnostic hysteroscopic findings in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Wan-li; ZHANG Lu-ping; FENG Li-min

    2011-01-01

    Background There is an association between postmenopausal tamoxifen therapy and endometrial pathologies. We investigated the usefulness of diagnostic hysteroscopy and transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) and estimated whether diagnostic hysteroscopy improves detection of endometrial pathologies in postmenopausal breast cancer patients on tamoxifen. Methods Ninety-seven postmenopausal breast cancer patients who had been taking tamoxifen 20 mg/d for ≥6 months went through TVS, diagnostic hysteroscopy, and endometrial biopsy examinations. The presence of endometrial histopathologic features with abnormal TVS and diagnostic hysteroscopic findings were correlated. Results No endometrial cancer was found in any of the 97 patients. Fifty-three patients (54.6%) developed endometrial polyps as diagnosed histopathologically. Fifty-nine patients (60.8%) tested positive in TVS exams, of whom 43 had polyps, four had hyperplasia, and 12 atrophy. Thirty-eight patients (39.2%) tested negative in TVS exams, of whom 10had polyps, three hyperplasia, and 25 atrophy. TVS exams presented 63.6% specificity, 81.8% sensitivity, 72.9%positive-predictive value, and 73.7% negative-predictive value, whereas the corresponding values of diagnostic hysteroscopy were 100%, 98.1%, 100%, and 97.8% respectively. The correct ratio of hysteroscopy was significantly higher than that of TVS (P=0.000). Conclusions In postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen, TVS alone is not sufficient for the detection of endometrial pathologies. Additional use of diagnostic hysteroscopy considerably improves the detection of polyps, thus significantly reducing the rate of false-negative findings of endometrial pathologies.

  13. Tumor markers in finding recurrent disease in colorectal cancer: a diagnostic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Muller Kobold

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the search for evidence-based follow-up of patients after resection for colorectal cancer, numerous tumor markers have been proposed. This review has evaluated these markers and comments on the diagnostic accuracy in finding recurrent disease in relation to Carcino-Embryonic Antigen (CEA. Methods: A comprehensive literature review (1985-2010 was performed by two independent reviewers. Sensitivity and specificity of markers mentioned in the articles were checked by recalculation. A validated quality score system was used to estimate study quality. Results: Seventeen studies focusing on eight different markers were included. Three markers were shown to have comparable or better accuracy than CEA: TPA, CA 242 and CA 72-4 in at least one study. These three markers, from four independent studies, showed a tumor marker sensitivity of > 60% in combination with an outperformance of CEA in follow-up. These results were not confirmed by six other studies investigating the same markers. Conclusion: This review revealed three tumor markers other than CEA that have been shown to adequately indicate recurrences in colorectal cancer. However, comparability of studies was difficult. Therefore a prospective study of these markers seems necessary to investigate their real value, and to overcome design and inclusion biases.

  14. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Valérie A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA. Results The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. Conclusions The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2 of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  15. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerard, Valerie A

    2011-11-10

    Abstract Background Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs) which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA). Results The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. Conclusions The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2) of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  16. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.

    2005-07-15

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being

  17. First round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics in the WHO Western Pacific Region, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwoon Yong Pok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue surveillance and control. The objective of this programme was to assess dengue diagnostic proficiency among national-level public health laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. Methods: Nineteen national-level public health laboratories performed routine dengue diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules: one containing commercial serum samples spiked with cultured dengue viruses for the detection of nucleic acid and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 (Module A and one containing human serum samples for the detection of anti-dengue virus antibodies (Module B. A review of logistics arrangements was also conducted. Results: All 16 laboratories testing Module A performed reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for both RNA and serotype detection. Of these, 15 had correct results for RNA detection and all 16 correctly serotyped the viruses. All nine laboratories performing NS1 antigen detection obtained the correct results. Sixteen of the 18 laboratories using IgM assays in Module B obtained the correct results as did the 13 laboratories that performed IgG assays. Detection of ongoing/recent dengue virus infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 15/19 participating laboratories. Discussion: This first round of external quality assessment of dengue diagnostics was successfully conducted in national-level public health laboratories in the WHO Western Pacific Region, revealing good proficiency in both molecular and serological testing. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing for dengue virus and other priority pathogens in the Region will be assessed during future rounds.

  18. Preliminary Evidence on the Diagnostic and Molecular Role of Circulating Soluble EGFR in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Lococo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of biological diagnostic factors providing clinically-relevant information to guide physician decision-making are still needed for diseases with poor outcomes, such as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a promising molecule in the clinical management of NSCLC. While the EGFR transmembrane form has been extensively investigated in large clinical trials, the soluble, circulating EGFR isoform (sEGFR, which may have a potential clinical use, has rarely been considered. This study investigates the use of sEGFR as a potential diagnostic biomarker for NSCLC and also characterizes the biological function of sEGFR to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in the course of action of this protein. Plasma sEGFR levels from a heterogeneous cohort of 37 non-advanced NSCLC patients and 54 healthy subjects were analyzed by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological function of sEGFR was analyzed in vitro using NSCLC cell lines, investigating effects on cell proliferation and migration. We found that plasma sEGFR was significantly decreased in the NSCLC patient group as compared to the control group (median value: 48.6 vs. 55.6 ng/mL respectively; p = 0.0002. Moreover, we demonstrated that sEGFR inhibits growth and migration of NSCLC cells in vitro through molecular mechanisms that included perturbation of EGF/EGFR cell signaling and holoreceptor internalization. These data show that sEGFR is a potential circulating biomarker with a physiological protective role, providing a first approach to the functional role of the soluble isoform of EGFR. However, the impact of these data on daily clinical practice needs to be further investigated in larger prospective studies.

  19. Pretreatment plasma levels and diagnostic utility of hematopoietic cytokines in cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ławicki, Sławomir; Będkowska, Grażyna E; Gacuta-Szumarska, Ewa; Knapp, Paweł; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2012-07-04

    In this study, we compared plasma levels and the diagnostic utility of hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) with SCC-Ag in cervical cancer patients in relation to control groups and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) patients and healthy subjects. Pretreatment plasma levels of HGFs (SCF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF) were determined by the use of immunoenzyme assay (ELISA), and SCC-Ag by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Significantly different concentrations of GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF were observed in the group of patients with cervical cancer and CIN compared to the healthy controls. Significant differences in plasma levels of GM-CSF and M-CSF between cervical cancer and benign lesions patients were also found. The HGFs and SCC-Ag diagnostic specificities received high values. The diagnostic sensitivity and the predictive value of a positive and negative test result were higher for M-CSF than for antigen SCC in the cancer group. The M-CSF area under the ROC curve (AUC) was the largest from hematopoietic cytokines and SCC-Ag. These results suggest the potential utility of M-CSF as a good candidate for a marker of cervical cancer as well as benign lesions of this organ (CIN).

  20. The road map towards providing a robust Raman spectroscopy-based cancer diagnostic platform and integration into clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine; Isabelle, Martin; Lloyd, Gavin R.; Old, Oliver; Shepherd, Neil; Bell, Ian M.; Dorney, Jennifer; Lewis, Aaran; Gaifulina, Riana; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Kendall, Catherine; Stone, Nicolas; Thomas, Geraint; Reece, David

    2016-03-01

    Despite the demonstrated potential as an accurate cancer diagnostic tool, Raman spectroscopy (RS) is yet to be adopted by the clinic for histopathology reviews. The Stratified Medicine through Advanced Raman Technologies (SMART) consortium has begun to address some of the hurdles in its adoption for cancer diagnosis. These hurdles include awareness and acceptance of the technology, practicality of integration into the histopathology workflow, data reproducibility and availability of transferrable models. We have formed a consortium, in joint efforts, to develop optimised protocols for tissue sample preparation, data collection and analysis. These protocols will be supported by provision of suitable hardware and software tools to allow statistically sound classification models to be built and transferred for use on different systems. In addition, we are building a validated gastrointestinal (GI) cancers model, which can be trialled as part of the histopathology workflow at hospitals, and a classification tool. At the end of the project, we aim to deliver a robust Raman based diagnostic platform to enable clinical researchers to stage cancer, define tumour margin, build cancer diagnostic models and discover novel disease bio markers.

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of non-invasive assessment in the Dutch breast cancer screening program versus usual care: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.M.H.; Damen, J.A.A.G.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Heeten, GJ. den; Adang, E.M.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased recall rates in the Dutch breast cancer screening program call for a new assessment strategy aiming to reduce unnecessary costs and anxiety. Diagnostic work-up (usual care) includes multidisciplinary hospital assessment and is similar for all recalled women, regardless of the ra

  3. FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnostic work-up of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In screening mammography is the best method, followed by biopsy in suspect findings. Ultrasound is used in combination with mammography. In difficult cases like preoperative exclusion of multicentric disease, silicon implants and differentation between scar and local recurrence MRI has gained widespread acceptation. Scintimammography may be useful in nondiagnostic or equivocal findings in mammography due to dense breast parenchyma to monitor neoadjuvant chemotherapy of LABC, but is not recommended for routine use. FDG-PET showed to have a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of primary breast cancer. But there are limitations in the detection of tumors smaller than 10 mm and of lobular carcinomas. For screening its accuracy does not appear sufficient. FDG-PET may help improving the diagnosis of primary breast cancer in particular cases. The diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET axillary lymph node staging has shown to be not sufficient. Especially small or micrometastases are missed frequently due to the low spatial resolution of PET. Diagnostic accuracy is not high enough to replace histopathological evaluation after surgical (sentinel) lymph node dissection. In the diagnosis of distant lymphatic and hematological metastases a high sensitivity and specificity of PET was reported. FDG-PET may be useful in staging women with high risk of presenting metastases like women with locally advanced breast cancer, but is not implemented in clinical routine, yet. FDG-PET shows a high potential to predict the therapeutic outcome of neoadjuvant chemotherapy very early and with high accuracy. But PET fails to detect microscopic residual tumor in case of complete clinical response. In the diagnosis of local recurrence PET is only useful in equivocal findings in mammography due to breast implant or posttherapeutic scars. A high sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET in diagnosing metastases was reported. Especially in case of unclearly elevated tumor markers PET is recommended

  4. Establishing a family risk assessment clinic for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting European women and the leading cause of cancer-related death. A total of 15-20% of women who develop breast cancer have a family history and 5-10% a true genetic predisposition. The identification and screening of women at increased risk may allow early detection of breast cancer and improve prognosis. We established a family risk assessment clinic in May 2005 to assess and counsel women with a family history of breast cancer, to initiate surveillance, and to offer risk-reducing strategies for selected high-risk patients. Patients at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer according to NICE guidelines were accepted. Family history was determined by structured questionnaire and interview. Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was calculated using Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick scoring. Risk of carrying a breast cancer-related gene mutation was calculated using the Manchester system. One thousand two hundred and forty-three patients have been referred. Ninety-two percent were at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer. Formal assessment of risk has been performed in 368 patients, 73% have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 72% a Manchester score >or=16. BRCA1\\/2 mutations have been identified in 14 patients and breast cancer diagnosed in two. Our initial experience of family risk assessment has shown there to be a significant demand for this service. Identification of patients at increased risk of developing breast cancer allows us to provide individuals with accurate risk profiles, and enables patients to make informed choices regarding their follow-up and management.

  5. Research progress of molecular diagnostics of lung cancer%肺癌分子诊断学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛剑; 娄加陶

    2011-01-01

    As a complement to imaging and c tology-based screening strategies, molecular diagnostics of lung cancer include not only the early detection but also the prognosis index and prediction of target therapy. In this paper, gene mutation, prediction of target therapy, miRNA, cancer stem cells and methylation in molecular diagnostics of lung cancer are reviewed.%肺癌的分子诊断作为影像学和细胞学筛查策略的重要补充,其内容不仅包括早期诊断,还包括预后指标及靶向治疗的预测等.该文拟对当前肺癌分子诊断的研究热点基因突变与靶向治疗预测、miRNA、肿瘤干细胞、甲基化及相关检测方法进行综述.

  6. Human Papilloma Viruses and Breast CancerAssessment of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K.; Whitaker, Noel James

    2016-01-01

    High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case–control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is “specificity.” HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers. PMID:27747193

  7. Global methylation silencing of clustered proto-cadherin genes in cervical cancer: serving as diagnostic markers comparable to HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Hung; Lin, Cuei-Jyuan; Liu, Chou-Jen; Liu, Dai-Wei; Huang, Rui-Lan; Ding, Dah-Ching; Weng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Tang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic remodeling of cell adhesion genes is a common phenomenon in cancer invasion. This study aims to investigate global methylation of cell adhesion genes in cervical carcinogenesis and to apply them in early detection of cancer from cervical scraping. Genome-wide methylation array was performed on an investigation cohort, including 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (CIN3) and 20 cervical cancers (CA) versus 12 each of normal, inflammation and CIN1 as controls. Twelve members of clustered proto-cadherin (PCDH) genes were collectively methylated and silenced, which were validated in cancer cells of the cervix, endometrium, liver, head and neck, breast, and lung. In an independent cohort including 107 controls, 66 CIN1, 85 CIN2/3, and 38 CA, methylated PCDHA4 and PCDHA13 were detected in 2.8%, 24.2%, 52.9%, and 84.2% (P diagnostic markers for cervical cancer noninferior to HPV.

  8. Diagnostic significance of diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Bo; Xiang, Shi-Feng; Yao, Gen-Dong; Yang, Su-Jun; Wang, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to demonstrate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) could assist in the precise diagnosis of cervical cancer or not. Both English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for potential relevant studies followed by a comprehensive literature search without any language restriction. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included trials. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated in this meta-analysis. We chose Version 12.0 STATA statistical software to analyze our statistical data. Thirteen eligible cohort studies were selected for statistical analysis, including 645 tumor tissues and 504 normal tissues. Combined SMD of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) suggested that the ADC value in cervical cancer tissues was significantly lower than that of normal tissue (SMD = 2.80, 95 % CI = 2.64 ~ 2.96, P cervical cancer. DWI could therefore be an important imaging tool in potentially identifying patients with cervical cancer.

  9. Diagnostic outcome following routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the diagnostic yield following a routine genetics clinic referral for the assessment of global developmental delay. Detailed retrospective review of 119 complete consecutive case notes of patients referred to one single clinical geneticist over a 14 month time period was undertaken (n = 119; 54 males, 65 females). The age at initial review ranged from 2 months to 37 years 3 months (mean 8 y 3 mo [SD 7 y 10 mo]). We made a diagnosis in 36\\/119 (30%); 21\\/36 were new diagnoses and 15\\/36 were confirmations of diagnoses. We removed a wrong diagnostic label in 8\\/119 (7%). In 3\\/8 we were able to achieve a diagnosis but in 5\\/8 no alternative diagnosis was reached. We had a better diagnostic rate where the patients were dysmorphic (odds ratio [OR] 1.825; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.065 to 3.128, p = 0.044). In the majority, the diagnosis was made by clinical examination only. Molecular diagnosis was reached in seven cases. Five cases were confirmed by cytogenetic analysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a diagnosis in three cases. This study confirms the importance of a clinical genetics assessment in the investigation of global developmental delay.

  10. Academic literacy diagnostic assessment in the first semester of first year at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorinda Palmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One vital aspect of the first semester of the first year at university is how academic literacy expectations are made explicit though teaching and assessment practices at the disciplinary level. This paper describes how an academic literacy diagnostic process, and the MASUS tool, was used to ascertain the academic literacy profile of a cohort of undergraduate nursing students [N=569] at the beginning and end of their first semester. Key findings of this quantitative descriptive case study were that only just over half of commencing students possessed appropriate academic literacy skills in all four aspects of the diagnostic and nearly 20% scored in the lowest band—suggesting difficulty with multiple aspects of academic literacy. By the end of semester, 77% of the students who had scored in the lowest band of the MASUS at the beginning of the semester had improved their scores to the middle or highest band, and 73% of them eventually attained a pass or higher grade for the course. The findings of this study suggest that large-scale academic literacy diagnostic assessment, when embedded and contextualized within a course of study, is an effective means of providing the early feedback and targeted support that many commencing university students need.

  11. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in detecting esophageal cancer and assessing lymph-node status, compared with histopathological results. DWI was prospectively performed in 24 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer, using the diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) sequence. DWIBS images were fused with T2-weighted images, and independently and blindly evaluated by three board-certified radiologists, regarding primary tumor detectability and lymph-node status. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the primary tumor and lymph nodes were also measured. Average primary tumor detection rate was 49.4%, average patient-based sensitivity and specificity for the detection of lymph-node metastasis were 77.8 and 55.6%, and average lymph-node group-based sensitivity and specificity were 39.4 and 92.6%. There were no interobserver differences among the three readers (P -3 mm2/s. Mean ADC of metastatic lymph nodes (1.46 ± 0.35 x 10-3 mm2/s) was significantly higher (P 2/s), but ADCs of both groups overlapped. In conclusion, this study suggests that DWI only has a limited role in detecting esophageal cancer and nodal staging. (orig.)

  12. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

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    Li Ting Soh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods: Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV or chikungunya virus (CHIKV for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1 antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results: Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85% correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 18 (90% correctly determined serotype and 19 (95% correctly identified CHIKV by RT-PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7% laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3% and 20/20 (100% of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT-PCR and serological methods (IgM was available in 19/24 (79.2% participating laboratories. Discussion: Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA.

  13. A latent transition analysis for the assessment of structured diagnostic interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Pamela; Masyn, Katherine E; Salomon, Joshua A; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2015-09-01

    Structured diagnostic interviews administered by lay people are commonly used to assess psychiatric disorders, including depression, in large epidemiologic studies. Many interviews utilize "gate" questions, such as screening questions, that allow interviewers to skip entire survey sections for a particular respondent, saving time and reducing respondent fatigue. However, most depression estimates based on these response data are predicated on the assumption that the gate questions function without measurement error or bias. The tenability of this assumption is questionable, and its violation could compromise the reliability and validity of those estimates of depression. In this study, we used a novel application of latent transition analysis to cross-sectional data, accounting for measurement error in different response pathways through the depression module in the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The analysis included data from 19,734 participants ≥18 years of age in the Comprehensive Psychiatric Epidemiologic Surveys. The latent transition analysis, allowing for measurement error in screening questions and exclusion criteria, produced a higher estimate of the lifetime probability of experiencing depression than did the algorithm based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision. This illustration of latent transition analysis applied to item-level data from a complex structured diagnostic tool with gate questions demonstrates the potential utility of an analytic approach that does not automatically assume gate questions function without measurement error. This model could also be used to probe for evidence of measurement bias in the form of differential item function when using structured diagnostic tools in different cultures and languages. PMID:25894707

  14. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guogen Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003. However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization.

  15. Electrical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the internal cellulosic paper and oil insulation are of concern for the performance of power transformers. Over the years, a number of methods have been developed to diagnose and monitor the degradation/aging of the transformer internal insulation system. Some of this degradation/aging can be assessed from electrical responses. Currently there are a variety of electrical-based diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. In most cases, the electrical signals being monitored are due to mechanical or electric changes caused by physical changes in resistivity, inductance or capacitance, moisture, contamination or aging by-products in the insulation. This paper presents a description of commonly used and modern electrical-based diagnostic techniques along with their interpretation schemes.

  16. Publishing nutrition research: validity, reliability, and diagnostic test assessment in nutrition-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Philip M; Harris, Jeffrey; Sheean, Patricia M; Boushey, Carol J; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This is the sixth in a series of monographs on research design and analysis. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss several concepts related to the measurement of nutrition-related characteristics and outcomes, including validity, reliability, and diagnostic tests. The article reviews the methodologic issues related to capturing the various aspects of a given nutrition measure's reliability, including test-retest, inter-item, and interobserver or inter-rater reliability. Similarly, it covers content validity, indicators of absolute vs relative validity, and internal vs external validity. With respect to diagnostic assessment, the article summarizes the concepts of sensitivity and specificity. The hope is that dietetics practitioners will be able to both use high-quality measures of nutrition concepts in their research and recognize these measures in research completed by others.

  17. Assessing the diagnostic validity of a structured psychiatric interview in a first-admission hospital sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sæbye, Ditte;

    2012-01-01

    on multiple sources of information, which included videotaped comprehensive semi-structured narrative interviews. The overall kappa agreement was 0.18. The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of schizophrenia by SCID were 19% and 100%, respectively. It is concluded that structured interviews......The use of structured psychiatric interviews performed by non-clinicians is frequent for research purposes and is becoming increasingly common in clini-cal practice. The validity of such interviews has rarely been evaluated empirically. In this study of a sample of 100 diagnostically heterogeneous......, first-admitted inpatients, the results of an assessment with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), yielding a DSM-IV diagnosis and performed by a trained non-clinician, were compared with a consensus lifetime best diagnostic estimate (DSM-IV) by two experienced research clinicians, based...

  18. [Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment: possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, C; Boccardo, F; Zilli, A; Maccio, A; Napoli, F; Ferreira Azevedo, W; Fulcheri, E; Taddei, G

    2002-01-01

    We performed a prospective randomized study upon 50 patients who had undergone a breast cancer treatment, considering particularly the possibility of appearance of arm secondary lymphedema. The patients were divided in two groups of 25 patients each. In the 1st group, we performed only a clinical follow-up, whilst in the 2nd one, we used also lymphoscintigraphy. The aim of the study was to compare the incidence of arm secondary lymphedema in the two groups, and relate the data with those of the international literature, in order to identify diagnostic procedures indicative of the risk of development of lymphedema and find proper therapeutic preventive measures. It is certainty complex to foresee the appearance of arm lymphedema due to breast cancer treatment. No specific preventive therapeutic methods based upon particular diagnostic investigations were ever reported. Patients had undergone surgery and radiation for breast cancer in the period between April 1992 and June 1994, and controlled at over 5 years after operation. Upper limb lymphoscintigraphy was performed only in one of the two groups of 25 patients, before operation and, furthermore, after 1-3-6 months and 1-3 years from the treatment. Patients who presented lymphoscintigraphic alterations (dermal back flow, diffused or delayed transit of the tracer, etc.), before edema appeared clinically, underwent physical and rehabilitative therapy (bandages, manual lymphatic drainage, mechanical lymph drainage, elastic garments, etc.) and microsurgery (lymphatic-venous anastomoses at the arm), performed early (stages Ib and II) in patients not responsive to physical therapy. In the first group followed only clinically, secondary arm lymphedema occurred in 9 cases (36%), and appeared after a period variable from 1 week to 2 years (3-6 months averagely). In the second group, lymphoscintigraphy, performed preoperatively, permitted to find lymphatic impairment (absence of deltoid way, reduced axillary lymph nodal

  19. Diagnostic relevance of a questionnaire for osteoporosis risk assessment - comparison with osteodensitometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early detection of osteoporosis is a key factor for reducing associated costs. Clinical risk factors have been used for selection of subjects suitable for bone densitometry. Questionnaires for preliminary osteoporosis risk assessment have already been implemented. The purpose of this study is to apply an original questionnaire for risk assessment and to assess its diagnostic value by comparison to forearm bone mineral density data (BMD). 285 females were included - mean age 53.5 ±8.8 years, 82% were menopausal. The osteoporosis risk was assessed by an original score system based on a questionnaire. Forearm BMD was measured by single-energy x-ray absorptiometry using own reference ranges. Two diagnosis models were tested by 'cluster analysis' - classifications with 3 or 2 diagnostic items. The second proved better. Sensitivity in detecting women with forearm osteoporosis was 86.7%, specificity - 16.5% and 75.8% of all women were correctly classified. The total score distribution in the study population is skewed to the right which reflects the two subgroups - at high and low risk for osteoporosis. The value of a similar questionnaire in the overall strategy for diagnosis and treatment of low BMD is discussed. (author)

  20. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hur Jin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Results Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6% had NSCLC and 55 (28.4% had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p Conclusion Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC.

  1. Confusion assessment method: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy

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    Shi Q

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Qiyun Shi,1,2 Laura Warren,3 Gustavo Saposnik,2 Joy C MacDermid1 1Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; 2Stroke Outcomes Research Center, Department of Medicine, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Background: Delirium is common in the early stages of hospitalization for a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of two delirium screening tools, the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo for relevant articles published in English up to March 2013. We compared two screening tools to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria. Two reviewers independently assessed studies to determine their eligibility, validity, and quality. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a bivariate model. Results: Twenty-two studies (n = 2,442 patients met the inclusion criteria. All studies demonstrated that these two scales can be administered within ten minutes, by trained clinical or research staff. The pooled sensitivities and specificity for CAM were 82% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%–91% and 99% (95% CI: 87%–100%, and 81% (95% CI: 57%–93% and 98% (95% CI: 86%–100% for CAM-ICU, respectively. Conclusion: Both CAM and CAM-ICU are validated instruments for the diagnosis of delirium in a variety of medical settings. However, CAM and CAM-ICU both present higher specificity than sensitivity. Therefore, the use of these tools should not replace clinical judgment. Keywords: confusion assessment method, diagnostic accuracy, delirium, systematic review, meta-analysis

  2. CT for assessment of pancreatic and periampullary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over a period of 2 years, 77 patients, strongly suspected of having pancreatic cancer, had abdominal CT as part of the diagnostic work-up. The CT images were reviewed by 2 radiologists who did not know the clinical course, the surgical procedure, or the final diagnosis. The positive predictive value of CT for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was 92% (82-97%) and the negative predictive value 69% (41-89%). The 95% confidence limits of the positive predictive value of CT in staging the extent of periampullary cancer in 52 patients varied between 21 to 79% and 59 to 100%, with the lowest values in diagnosis of liver metastases. The confidence limits for the negative predictive values in staging varied between 17 to 56% and 67 to 94%, with the highest values concerning liver metastases. We conclude that CT cannot be used as the only diagnostic procedure for confirming or excluding the diagnosis of pancreatic or periampullary cancer, and that the staging of periampullary cancer by CT alone is too inaccurate for the evaluation of resectability. (orig.)

  3. Diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for cancer pain of peripheral nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei FANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the characteristics of cancer pain of the peripheral nerves on 18F-FDG PET/CT images, and explore the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for cancer pain of the peripheral nerves. Methods Imaging data of 18F-FDG PET/CT of 10 patients with cancer pain of the peripheral nerves confirmed by histopathology or long-term follow-up were analyzed retrospectively. The similarities and differences in PET/CT manifestations between the diseased side peripheral nerves and contralateral normal peripheral nerves were observed, and the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax were compared by paired t test with SPSS 17.0 software. Results Seventeen secondary malignant peripheral nerve lesions were found in 10 cases. On PET images, the lesions were found to spread along the plexus, nerve bundle or intervertebral foramen, and manifested as bundle-, root-hair- or nodule-like high 18F-FDG metabolic tissue, with the SUVmax as high as 6.67±3.24. The lesions on CT images manifested as bundle-, root-hair- or nodule-like soft tissue density shadows spreading along the nerve bundle or nerve root canal, and there was no clear border between the lesions and the surrounding soft and fat tissues. The contralateral normal peripheral nerves showed no abnormal images on 18F-FDG PET or CT, and the SUVmax was 1.19±0.48, which was significantly different from that of nerves on disease side (t=9.389, P<0.001. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT can accurately show invasion and metastasis to the peripheral nerve of tumor, and it also can display the size, shape, distribution and tumor activity of the lesions, thus it is valuable for the diagnosis of cancer pain of the peripheral nerves. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.009

  4. The Assessment of the Colo-rectal Polyps in Order to the New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Diac Andreea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessment of the histological and endoscopic features of the colo-rectal polyps is requered for the application of the new diagnostic and therapeutical strategies in the managment of the diminutive polyps.

  5. Diagnostic versus therapeutic second-look surgery in patients with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisch, H; Schieder, K; Koelbl, H

    1989-03-01

    Between August 1982 and January 1988, 82 patient with epithelial ovarian cancer underwent second-look laparotomy. Before second-look surgery, 37 patients (45%) were in clinical complete remission. Eleven of these women who had previously received complete surgery received a diagnostic second-look operation. Whereas the clinical diagnosis of a complete response was confirmed by second-look procedure in eight of these patients, positive tumour findings were still evident in four women. The other 26 women who did not have clinical evidence of disease underwent staging second-look laparatomy to complete primary surgery. However, 11 patients revealed macroscopic evidence of tumour. In addition, the second-look operation was classified as a staging procedure in two women despite progressive disease classified preoperatively, but with negative intra-abdominal tumour findings. A therapeutic second-look laparotomy was performed in 37 patients with clinical evidence of disease to remove as much tumour as possible. Second-look laparatomy as a palliative procedure was necessary in six patients. Considering the type of second-look procedure, the 39 patients (48%) who underwent a diagnostic or staging procedure revealed a significantly longer median survival time of 62 months compared with the 43 women (52%) who underwent therapeutic or palliative second-look surgery and had a median survival of 19 months (P less than 0.0003, Log Rank Test). In patients with positive tumour findings at the time of second-look surgery, therapeutic cytoreduction was not associated with an improved survival time. We conclude that second-look surgery should be performed only in patients who are clinically free of disease to evaluate their intraperitoneal tumour status.

  6. Is diagnostic accuracy of 18F - FDG PET/CT different according to anatomical levels of cervical lymph node in restaging of papillary thyroid cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, J. M.; Kwon, S. Y.; Seo, Y. S.; Chong, A. R.; Jeong, S. Y.; Jeong, Y. Y.; Min, J. J.; Song, H. C.; Bom, H. S. [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    To restage of thyroid papillary cancer, accurate detection of metastatic cervical lymph node (LN) is important. Therefore, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of restaging 18F-FDG PET/CT according to anatomical levels of cervical LN. Thirty patients (F 19, M 11, mean age 49.2 y) with total thyroidectomy and regional LN dissection were included for restaging thyroid papillary carcinoma. We analyzed lymph node metastases according to anatomical level by AJCC 1996. Sixty nine LNs from these patients were analyzed by comparing PET/CT results with surgical pathology. We determined the cut-off value as maxSUV = 3.0 using ROC curve analysis. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was 81.1%, 59.4%, 69.8%, 73.1% and 71.1%, respectively. In each LN levels, level II showed 72.7%, 50%, 44.4%, 76.9%, 58%, level III 100%, 50%, 90%, 100%, 90.9%, level IV, 80%, 66.7%, 88.9%, 50%, 77%, level V 100%, 66.7%, 75%, 100%, 83.3%. Level I showed specificity of 100%, NPV of 80%, diagnostic accuracy of 80%. Level VI showed sensitivity of 100%, PPV of 100%, diagnostic accuracy of 100%. Out of total 14 false-positive, 10 was located in level II. There was no significant difference of maxSUV between benign and malignant lesion in level II LN group (p>0.05). But there were significant difference of maxSUV in other LN levels (p<0.01). PET/CT was useful for detecting metastatic or recurred cervical LNs in restaging of thyroid papillary cancer. However, because there can be many false-positive lesions in level II as compared to other levels, we need to apply different cut-off value of FDG uptake or consider other imaging modalities when we evaluate level II LNs.

  7. Assessment of tumor morphology on diffusion-weighted (DWI) breast MRI : Diagnostic value of reduced field of view DWI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barentsz, M.W.; Taviani, Valentina; Chang, Jung M; Ikeda, Debra M; Miyake, Kanae K; Banerjee, Suchandrima; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Hargreaves, Brian A; Daniel, Bruce L

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic value of conventional, bilateral diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and high-resolution targeted DWI of known breast lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with known breast cancer or suspicious breast lesions were scanned with the convention

  8. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL MOV aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of MOV monitoring methods and techniques. The diagnostic information available from many MOV measurable parameters was evaluated by ORNL using MOVs that were mounted on test stands. Those tests led to the conclusion that the single most informative MOV measurable parameter was also the one which was most easily acquired, namely the motor current. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) was found to provide detailed information related to the condition of the motor, motor operator, and valve across a wide range of levels. As part of the MOV aging assessment, several tests were carried out by ORNL on MOVs having implanted defects and degradations. Tests were also performed on many MOVs located within a nuclear power plant. In addition, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown Test program carried out at Wyle Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. Results from all of these tests are summarized in this paper and several selected examples are given. Other areas covered in this paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues and activities, other related diagnostics research at ORNL, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  9. Assessment of diagnostic methods for determining degradation of motor-operated valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has carried out a comprehensive aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) in support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. This paper provides a summary of the ORNL MOV aging assessment with emphasis on the identification, evaluation, and application of MOV monitoring methods and techniques. The diagnostic information available from any MOV measurable parameters was evaluated by ORNL using MOVs that were mounted on test stands. Those tests led to the conclusion that the single most informative MOV measurable parameter was also the one which was most easily acquired, namely the motor current. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) was found to provide detailed information related to the condition of the motor, motor operator, and valve across a wide range of levels. As part of the MOV aging assessment, several tests were carried out by ORNL on MOVs having implanted defects and degradations. Tests were also performed on many MOVs located within a nuclear power plant. In addition, ORNL participated in the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown Test program carried out at Wyle Laboratories in Huntsville, Alabama. Results from all of these tests are summarized in this paper and several selected examples are given. Other areas covered in this paper include descriptions of relevant regulatory issues and activities, other related diagnostics research at ORNL, and interactions ORNL has had with outside organizations for the purpose of disseminating research results

  10. DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SERUM PROGRP31-98 IN PATIENTS WITH SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昂; 杨谨; 李旭; 李蓉; 王一理; 司履生

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of serum level of pro-gastrin-releasing peptide 31-98 (ProGRP31-98) for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), in comparison with neuron-specific enolase (NSE). Methods Serum level of ProGRP31-98 and NSE was measured by ELISA respectively in 30 patients with SCLC, 30 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 15 with benign lung diseases and 15 normal subjects, additionally, 10 SCLC patients after having treatment with chemotherapy were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to set the cut-off value and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy. Results The serum level of ProGRP31-98 was higher in patients with SCLC than that in other groups. The SCLC patients with extensive disease had a higher value than the patients with limited disease. In SCLC patients with distant metastases, it was also higher than in those without. Increase in serum ProGRP31-98 and NSE was both seen in SCLC patients, but for the former one, the increase was of much greater compared to the normal controls. Given the cut-off value for ProGRP31-98 was 40ng*L-1 and for NSE 8μg*L-1, their sensitivity of diagnosis in SCLC was 73% and 60%, respectively. The area under ROC curve of ProGRP31-98 was significantly larger than that of NSE. All patients responded to chemotherapy showed marked decrease in ProGRP31-98. Conclusion ProGRP31-98 is a more specific and sensitive marker than NSE in the diagnosis of SCLC.

  11. Potential Diagnostic, Prognostic and Therapeutic Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ming Tsai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human gastric cancer (GC is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, largely because it is normally not identified until a relatively advanced stage owing to a lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Gastroscopy with biopsy is the routine method for screening, and gastrectomy is the major therapeutic strategy for GC. However, in more than 30% of GC surgical patients, cancer has progressed too far for effective medical resection. Thus, useful biomarkers for early screening or detection of GC are essential for improving patients’ survival rate. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in tumorigenesis. They contribute to gastric carcinogenesis by altering the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Because of their stability in tissues, serum/plasma and other body fluids, miRNAs have been suggested as novel tumor biomarkers with suitable clinical potential. Recently, aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been identified and tested for clinical application in the management of GC. Aberrant miRNA expression profiles determined with miRNA microarrays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing approaches could be used to establish sample specificity and to identify tumor type. Here, we provide an up-to-date summary of tissue-based GC-associated miRNAs, describing their involvement and that of their downstream targets in tumorigenic and biological processes. We examine correlations among significant clinical parameters and prognostic indicators, and discuss recurrence monitoring and therapeutic options in GC. We also review plasma/serum-based, GC-associated, circulating miRNAs and their clinical applications, focusing especially on early diagnosis. By providing insights into the mechanisms of miRNA-related tumor progression, this review will hopefully aid in the identification of novel potential therapeutic targets.

  12. Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease mimicking lung cancer: Clinicoradiologic features and diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Tae Jung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2016-06-01

    To describe the features and clinical implications of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy (PCNB) in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease manifesting as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy.Among a cohort of 388 patients with NTM pulmonary disease, 14 patients with clinically and radiologically suspected lung cancer were included in our study. Two chest radiologists evaluated CT features, including lesion type (nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation), morphologic features (margin, degree of enhancement, calcification), and presence of accompanying findings suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease (bronchiectasis with clustered centrilobular nodules or upper-lobe cavitary lesions) by consensus. Diagnostic procedures for microbiologic diagnosis of NTM disease and clinical outcome were reviewed.Incidence of NTM pulmonary disease presenting as solitary nodule/mass (n = 8) or mass-like consolidation (n = 6) was 3.6% (14 of 388). Most lesions were detected incidentally during routine health check-up or evaluation of other disease (11 of 14, 79%). Lesions typically showed poor contrast-enhancement (9 of 12) and internal calcification (6 of 14). No lesions had CT features suggestive of NTM pulmonary disease. All 4 lesions for which PET/CT imaging was performed showed strong fluorodeoxyglucose uptake simulating malignant lesions (mean, 4.9; range, 3.6-7.8). PCNB revealed mycobacterial histology in 6 of 11 specimens and positive culture results were obtained for 7 of 7 specimens.NTM pulmonary disease may present as a solitary nodule, mass, or mass-like consolidation mimicking malignancy. CT features and PCNB are important to diagnose NTM disease mimicking lung cancer to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:27367996

  13. A nested case-control study on female breast cancer risk among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To research whether prolonged or repeated low-level ionizing radiation can induce female breast cancer or not and to investigate other risk factors related to breast cancer risk, a nested case-control study was done. Methods: 30 cases of breast cancers were enrolled in the study, 4 normal persons were selected from X-ray workers as controls to match each case. Logistic regression model was used for risk analysis. Results: 1) Accumulative breast dose is a significant risk factor, odds ratio (OR) between two dose levels (10c Gy) is 1.73 (95%CI = 1.05-2.84). 2) ORs of other two factors, obesity and family history of breast cancer, are 4.07 (P = 0.01) and 26.67 (P = 0.024) respectively. 3) Interaction may exist between occupational X-ray exposure and obesity or non-lactation. Conclusions: Longtime and low-level occupational X-ray exposure may relate to excess risk of female breast cancer among medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Family history of breast cancer and obesity are also the significant risk factors of the cancer. The existence of obesity and non-lactation may enhance the effect of radiation-induced breast cancer

  14. Cancer incidence rate after diagnostic X-ray exposure in 1976-2003 among patients of a university children's hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation is well known, knowledge gaps persist on the health effects of low-dose radiation, especially in children. The cancer incidence rate in a cohort of 92,957 children diagnosed using X-rays in the years 1976-2003 in the radiology department of a large university clinic was studied. Materials and Methods: Individual radiation doses per examination were reconstructed using an algorithm taking into account the dose area product and other exposure parameters together with conversion factors computed specifically for the equipment and protocols used in the radiology department. Incident cancer cases in the period 1980-2006 were identified via record linkage to the German Childhood Cancer Registry using pseudonymized data. Results: A total of 87 cancers occurred in the cohort between 1980 and 2006: 33 leukemia, 13 lymphoma, 10 brain tumors, and 31 other tumors. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.79 1.22). A dose-response relationship was not observed for all cancers, leukemia and lymphoma or solid tumors. The cancer risks for boys and girls did not differ. Conclusion: No increase in the cancer incidence risk in relation to very low doses of diagnostic ionizing radiation was observed in this study. However, the results are compatible with a broad range of risk estimates. (orig.)

  15. The readability of online breast cancer risk assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Sarah; Milbrandt, Melissa; Kaphingst, Kimberly; James, Aimee; Colditz, Graham

    2015-11-01

    Numerous breast cancer risk assessment tools that allow users to input personal risk information and obtain a personalized breast cancer risk estimate are available on the Internet. The goal of these tools is to increase screening awareness and identify modifiable health behaviors; however, the utility of this risk information is limited by the readability of the material. We undertook this study to assess the overall readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and accompanying information, as well as to identify areas of suggested improvement. We searched for breast cancer risk assessment tools, using five search terms, on three search engines. All searches were performed on June 12, 2014. Sites that met inclusion criteria were then assessed for readability using the suitability assessment of materials (SAM) and the SMOG readability formula (July 1, 2014–January 31, 2015). The primary outcomes are the frequency distribution of overall SAM readability category (superior, adequate, or not suitable) and mean SMOG reading grade level. The search returned 42 sites were eligible for assessment, only 9 (21.4 %) of which achieved an overall SAM superior rating, and 27 (64.3 %) were deemed adequate. The average SMOG reading grade level was grade 12.1 (SD 1.6, range 9–15). The readability of breast cancer risk assessment tools and the sites that host them is an important barrier to risk communication. This study demonstrates that most breast cancer risk assessment tools are not accessible to individuals with limited health literacy skills. More importantly, this study identifies potential areas of improvement and has the potential to heighten a physician’s awareness of the Internet resources a patient might navigate in their quest for breast cancer risk information.

  16. A Case of Urethral Metastasis from Sigmoid Colon Cancer Diagnostically and Prognostically Indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han Seok; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Soyon; Im, Su Jin; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Hur, So Chong [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and is known to have a poor prognosis. A 72 year old man with a history of colectomy and colostomy due to sigmoid colon cancer was admitted to the emergency room with bowel distension, rectal bleeding and urinary symptoms. Computed tomography of the abdominopelvis showed sigmoid colon cancer with multiple metastases involving the liver. Positron emission tomography with F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed multiple hypermetabolic foci in the liver, penis and pubic bone, which otherwise could not be diagnosed. The lesions revealed no improvement with chemotherapy and urological surgery on follow up F 18 FDG PET/CT. We present a case of urethral metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer diagnostically and prognostically indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT.

  17. Spermine and citrate as metabolic biomarkers for assessing prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro F Giskeødegård

    Full Text Available Separating indolent from aggressive prostate cancer is an important clinical challenge for identifying patients eligible for active surveillance, thereby reducing the risk of overtreatment. The purpose of this study was to assess prostate cancer aggressiveness by metabolic profiling of prostatectomy tissue and to identify specific metabolites as biomarkers for aggressiveness. Prostate tissue samples (n = 158, 48 patients with a high cancer content (mean: 61.8% were obtained using a new harvesting method, and metabolic profiles of samples representing different Gleason scores (GS were acquired by high resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR-MAS. Multivariate analysis (PLS, PLS-DA and absolute quantification (LCModel were used to examine the ability to predict cancer aggressiveness by comparing low grade (GS = 6, n = 30 and high grade (GS≥7, n = 81 cancer with normal adjacent tissue (n = 47. High grade cancer tissue was distinguished from low grade cancer tissue by decreased concentrations of spermine (p = 0.0044 and citrate (p = 7.73·10(-4, and an increase in the clinically applied (total choline+creatine+polyamines/citrate (CCP/C ratio (p = 2.17·10(-4. The metabolic profiles were significantly correlated to the GS obtained from each tissue sample (r = 0.71, and cancer tissue could be distinguished from normal tissue with sensitivity 86.9% and specificity 85.2%. Overall, our findings show that metabolic profiling can separate aggressive from indolent prostate cancer. This holds promise for the benefit of applying in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS within clinical MR imaging investigations, and HR-MAS analysis of transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies has a potential as an additional diagnostic tool.

  18. Reduced uncertainty as a diagnostic benefit: an initial assessment of somatostatic receptor scintigraphy's value in detecting distant metastases of carcinoid liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R S; Schnitzler, M A; Kvols, L K

    1998-03-01

    This paper employs classical concepts of diminishing marginal utility to demonstrate that risk-aversion can increase the perceived value of diagnostic procedures and thus raise optimum diagnostic expenditures. The theory is applied to a model in the spirit of Phelps and Mushlin's initial technology assessments. The specific evaluation is the cost-effectiveness of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy used to detect distant metastases of carcinoid liver tumours in a patient otherwise eligible for surgical resection of the liver. Data for the model are taken from published sources and financial databases, when available, and otherwise from a senior clinician's experience (LKK). The quantitative results indicate that receptor scintigraphy may have two beneficial impacts to risk-neutral individuals. First, it may reduce the combined costs of therapy and treatment because the diagnostic procedure costs less than the expected savings generated by avoiding inappropriate surgeries. Second, it may improve the patient's expected health-status-adjusted life years (HSALY) because the information allows physicians to better match treatment to the cancer's stage. Finally the paper demonstrates that risk aversion, as embodied in classical diminishing marginal utility applied to health status, can increase the value of the diagnostic tests and can lead the patient to choose a less beneficial treatment. An illustrative risk-averse utility function changed the optimum treatment from surgery to chemotherapy and increased scintigraphy's benefit by 500%. PMID:9565171

  19. Semiconductor Quantum Dots Surface Modification for Potential Cancer Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor Quantum dots (QDs have generated extensive interest for biological and clinical applications. These applications arise from their unique properties, such as high brightness, long-term stability, simultaneous detection of multiple signals, tunable emission spectra. However, high-quality QDs, whether single or core-shell QDs, are most commonly synthesized in organic solution and surface-stabilized with hydrophobic organic ligands and thus lack intrinsic aqueous solubility. For biological applications, very often it is necessary to make the QDs dispersible in water and therefore to modify the QD surfaces with various bifunctional surface ligands or caps to promote solubility in aqueous media. Well-defined methods have been developed for QD surface modification to impart biocompatibility to these systems. In this review, we summarize the recent progress and strategies of QDs surface modification for potential cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In addition, the question that arose from QD surface modification, such as impact of size increase of QD bioconjugates after surface-functionalization or surface modification on photophysical properties of QDs, are also discussed.

  20. Toward development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based cancer diagnostic immunoassay panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Jennifer H; Granger, Michael C; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Porter, Marc D

    2013-01-21

    Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous read-out of large numbers of biomolecules. For this purpose, we have chosen pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a test bed for diagnosis and prognosis. PA is a devastating form of cancer in which an estimated 86% of diagnoses resulted in death in the United States in 2010. The high mortality rate is due, in part, to the asymptomatic development of the disease and the dearth of sensitive diagnostics available for early detection. One promising route lies in the development of a serum biomarker panel that can generate a signature unique to early stage PA. We describe the design and development of a proof-of-concept PA biomarker immunoassay array coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a sensitive readout method. PMID:23150876

  1. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (Fgf21) as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Renal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, ME; Minatta, JN; Roulet, L; Gueglio, G; Pasik, L; Ranuncolo, SM; Nuñez, M; Puricelli, L; De Lorenzo, MS

    2016-01-01

    Background The finding of new biomarkers is needed to have a better sub-classification of primary renal tumors (RCC) as well as more reliable predictors of outcome and therapy response. In this study, we evaluated the role of circulating FGF21, an endocrine factor, as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for ccRCC. Materials and Methods Serum samples from healthy controls (HC), clear cell and chromophobe RCC cancer patients were obtained from the serum biobank “Biobanco Público de Muestras Séricas Oncológicas” (BPMSO) of the “Instituto de Oncología “Ángel H. Roffo”. Serum FGF21 and leptin were measured by ELISA while other metabolic markers were measured following routinely clinical procedures. Results One of our major findings was that FGF21 levels were significantly increased in ccRCC patients compared with HC. Moreover, we showed an association between the increased serum FGF21 levels and the shorter disease free survival in a cohort of 98 ccRCC patients, after adjustment for other predictors of outcome. Conclusion Our results suggest that higher FGF21 serum level is an independent prognostic biomarker, associated with worse free-disease survival. PMID:27358750

  2. Improving the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, James B; Walshe, Maria; Aggarwal, Dinesh; Thapar, Ankur; Hardman, John; Wilson, Jonathan; Oshowo, Ayo; Bhan, Chetan; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to improve the lead-time and the patient experience of the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway. This project worked within the constraints of limited resources and an austere environment. The core team included a project manager trained in quality improvement methodologies. Senior and Fleming's planned change model was used as the overall framework. Baseline data supported the case for change and highlighted targets for improvement. A stakeholder workshop employed social movement theory, lean thinking, experience-based design and patient stories to engage influential leaders and secure support and commitment. Solutions that arose from the workshop were then researched. A "Genchi Genbutsu" ethos took the team to Northumbria to learn about another unit's pathway innovations. Subsequently, our new pathway employed solutions aimed at increasing the proportion of patients who went straight-to-test. Consensus on the design was achieved using Schein's process consultation theory. Implementation of the new pathway resulted in a significant reduction in the median time from referral to endoscopy from 26 days to 14 days (PChanges to improve patient experience were also implemented, however data to evidence this has not yet been collected. Going forward, further standardisation is required and issues around sustainability need to be tackled. This project exemplified, amongst others, the value of working from data from the beginning and a comprehensive early stakeholder engagement. PMID:27637830

  3. Circulating Cell Free DNA as the Diagnostic Marker for Ovarian Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou

    Full Text Available Quantitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA are potential methods for the detection of ovarian cancer. Many studies have evaluated these approaches, but the results were too inconsistent to be conclusive. This study is the first to systematically evaluate the accuracy of circulating cfDNA for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer by conducting meta-analysis.We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases systematically for relevant literatures up to December 10, 2015. All analyses were conducted using Meta-DiSc1.4 and Stata 12.0 software. Sensitivity, specificity and other measures of accuracy of circulating cfDNA for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer were pooled. Meta-regression was performed to identify the sources of heterogeneity.This meta-analysis included a total of 9 studies, including 462 ovarian cancer patients and 407 controls. The summary estimates for quantitative analysis of circulating cfDNA in ovarian cancer screen were as follows: sensitivity, 0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI, 0.65-0.74; specificity, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.87-0.93; positive likelihood ratio, 6.60 (95% CI, 3.90-11.17; negative likelihood ratio, 0.34 (95% CI, 0.25-0.47; diagnostic odds ratio, 26.05 (95% CI, 14.67-46.26; and area under the curve, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83-0.95, respectively. There was no statistical significance for the evaluation of publication bias.Current evidence suggests that quantitative analysis of cfDNA has unsatisfactory sensitivity but acceptable specificity for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Further large-scale prospective studies are required to validate the potential applicability of using circulating cfDNA alone or in combination with conventional markers as diagnostic biomarker for ovarian cancer and explore potential factors that may influence the accuracy of ovarian cancer diagnosis.

  4. Evaluation of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in lung cancer: factors influencing the diagnostic accuracy of CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Du Hwan; Lee, Tae Hyun; Kim, Kie Hwan; Chin, Soo Yil; Zo, Jae Ill; Cho, Kyung Ja [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate factors influencing the CT assessment of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. CT scans of 198 patients who had undergone thoracotomy and mediastinal lymph node dissection for non-small cell lung cancer were retrospectively evaluated using a size criterion of {>=} 10mm in the short axis. To evaluate the accuracy of CT in diagnosing lymph node metastasis on a nodal station-by-station basis, CT and pathological results were correlated. Analysis included a comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of CT according to 1) cell type of tumor, squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma (excluding bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma); 2) histologic differentiation; 3) tumor size ; 4) central and peripheral location of the tumor; 5) the presence or absence of obstructive pneumonitis and /or atelectasis; 6) the presence or absence of prior granulomatous disease. In the CT assessment of mediastinal lymph node metastasis the cell type of adenocarcinoma adversely affected sensitivity, with a high frequency of normal-sized metastatic nodes. Obstructive pneumonitis caused by central tumor adversely affected specificity with the frequent occurrence of hyperplastic nodes. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Diagnostic value of cancer-testis antigen mRNA in peripheral blood from hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the diagnostic value of cancer-testis antigen(CTA) mRNA in peripheral blood samples from hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) patients.METHODS:Peripheral blood samples were taken from 90 patients with HCC before operation.Expression of melanoma antigen-1(MAGE-1),synovial sarcoma X breakpoint-1(SSX-1),and cancer-testis-associated protein of 11 kDa(CTp11) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC) was tested by nested reverse transcriptspolymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).Serum α-fetoprotein(AFP)...

  6. Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurada, Aine; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Nasu, Seiji; Horie, Tomohiko; Imai, Yutaka [Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kanagawa (Japan); Takahara, Taro [Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kanagawa (Japan); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cauteren, Marc van [Philips Healthcare Asia Pacific, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in detecting esophageal cancer and assessing lymph-node status, compared with histopathological results. DWI was prospectively performed in 24 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer, using the diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) sequence. DWIBS images were fused with T2-weighted images, and independently and blindly evaluated by three board-certified radiologists, regarding primary tumor detectability and lymph-node status. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the primary tumor and lymph nodes were also measured. Average primary tumor detection rate was 49.4%, average patient-based sensitivity and specificity for the detection of lymph-node metastasis were 77.8 and 55.6%, and average lymph-node group-based sensitivity and specificity were 39.4 and 92.6%. There were no interobserver differences among the three readers (P < 0.0001). Mean ADC of detected primary tumors was 1.26 {+-} 0.29 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s. Mean ADC of metastatic lymph nodes (1.46 {+-} 0.35 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that of nonmetastatic lymph nodes (1.15 {+-} 0.24 mm{sup 2}/s), but ADCs of both groups overlapped. In conclusion, this study suggests that DWI only has a limited role in detecting esophageal cancer and nodal staging. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostic value of tumor marker pro-gastrin-releasing peptide in patients with small cell lung cancer: a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jian-hua; ZHANG Xiu-long; ZHANG Zhi-hua; WANG Rui; ZHANG He-ming; ZHANG Zhi-lin; WANG Jing-hui; REN Wei-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world and one of the leading cancers that result in death. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of the serum tumor marker pro-gastrin-releasing peptide 31-98 (ProGRP31-98) to pathological diagnosis as reference standard in patients with suspected small cell lung cancer (SCLC).Methods Literature searches covering 1978 through to 2009 were performed in Pubmed, OVID, MEDLINE, EMbase,Cancerlit, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and CBM using the key search words; 'small cell lung cancer','tumor marker', 'ProGRP31-98' and 'diagnostic tests', 'ELISA', 'EIA' and 'diagnostic accuracy'. Studies were collected and data analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum ProGRP31-98 levels for the diagnosis of SCLC compared with pathology. Eligibility criteria for inclusion in the analysis were based on criteria for diagnostic research published by the Cochrane Screening and Diagnostic Tests Methods Group (SDTMG). The characteristics of the included articles were appraised and the data were extracted from the original articles for further statistical analysis of study heterogeneity using Review Manager 4.2 software. Based on study heterogeneity analysis, a suitable 'effect' model was selected to calculate pooled sensitivity and specificity by meta-analysis. A Summary Receiver Operating Characteristic (SROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were generated and sensitivity analysis conducted.Results A total of 22 articles were entered into this meta-review, including 11 English articles with a quality at level C. In total, the studies involved 6759 subjects, of which 1470 were diagnosed with SCLC by pathology, and 5289 subjects diagnosed with non-SCLC (NSCLC). The meta-analysis showed that heterogeneity among studies was high (P=0.00001,(I2)=86.8%). With ELISA, the pooled sensitivity was 0.72 (0.70 to 0.75 at 95% Cl) and the pooled specificity was 0.93 (0

  8. Automatic breast cancer risk assessment from digital mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, Sami; Karssemeijer, N;

    Purpose: Textural characteristics of the breast tissue structure on mammogram have been shown to improve breast cancer risk assessment in several large studies. Currently, however, the texture is not used to assess risk in standard clinical procedures or involved in general breast cancer risk...... have investigated a fully automatic and robust risk assessment tool that can take not just the density but also the texture and heterogeneity of the breast tissue into account. By the use of computerized pattern recognition and machine learning techniques, the local texture may be scored......-control study (Otten et al, 2005) includes mammograms (MLO view) of 245 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the subsequent 2-4 years (123 interval and 122 screen detected cancers) and 250 matched controls. We use the state-of-the-art anatomical breast coordinate system (Brandt et al, submitted) where every...

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of 64-Slice Multislice Computed Tomography in Assessment of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arjmand Shabestari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nowadays 64-slice mul-tislice computed tomography (MSCT has gained a wide acceptance as a non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality in native coronary arteries. This study was performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MSCT in assessment of coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG patency. Materials and Methods: 73 patients underwent both coronary CT-angiography (CTA using 64-slice MSCT scanner and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA were studied. Arterial and venous CABG patency was graded as: a-normal, b-patent with non-significant (<50% diameter reduction stenosis, c-patent with significant (≥50% diameter reduction stenosis or d-totally occluded. The results of CTA and QCA were compared. Results: Totally, 236 CABG were assessed, including 49 arterial and 187 venous grafts. Sensitivity, specific-ity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative pre-dictive value (NPV in detecting normal patency of arterial grafts were 100%, 85%, 95% and 100%, re-spectively and those in finding normal patency of ve-nous grafts all were 100%. The above-mentioned fig-ures for non-significant stenosis were 67% (2 out of 3 patients, 100%, 100% and 98% in arterial and 95%, 100%, 100% and 99% in venous grafts, respectively. Regarding to the significant stenosis, the results were 67% (2 out of 3 patients, 100%, 100% and 98% in arterial and 100%, 99%, 94% and 100% in venous grafts, respectively. All of these numerals were meas-ured being 100% for total occlusion of both arterial and venous grafts. Conclusion: Diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MSCT in detecting normal patency, non-significant stenosis, significant stenosis and total occlusion of arterial and particularly venous CABG is extremely high so that QCA may be eventually substituted by CTA in a near future.

  10. Therapy evaluation and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumours: assessment of radiological methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvin, A.

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonically guided biopsy-gun biopsies was assessed in a group of 47 patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. A correct diagnosis was obtained in 44 of the 47 patients (94%). Twenty-five patients with known neuroendocrine tumour disease were biopsied with 1.2 mm and 0.9 mm biopsy-gun needles. The influence of treatment-related fibrosis was also evaluated. The overall diagnostic accuracy with the 0.9 mm needle was 69% as compared to 92% with the 1.2 mm needle. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy rate for radiologists with different experience of biopsy procedures 175 cases of renal biopsy-gun biopsies were evaluated. No statistical significant difference was found between the different operators. The role of duplex Doppler ultrasound in monitoring interferon treatment-related changes in carcinoid metastases was evaluated. It present duplex Doppler ultrasound does not seem to play a role in the evaluation of tumour therapy in carcinoid patients. Therapy response evaluation was performed with MR imaging in a group of 17 patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases. A significant difference was found between patients responding to and patients with failure of treatment in terms of tumour T1, contrast enhancement and signal intensity ratio. This indicates that MR investigation may be used in therapy monitoring of patients with neuroendocrine metastases. The neuroendocrine-differentiated colonic carcinoma cell line (LCC-18) was transplanted to 29 mice to establish a tumour/animal model that would allow the monitoring of changes with MR imaging induced by interferon therapy and to evaluate whether the therapeutic response could be modulated by different interferon dosages. Interferon does not seem to have any prolonged anti-proliferative effect on the LCC-18 tumour cell line when transplanted to nude mice.

  11. Diagnostic efficacy of biophysical tests and cerebral-umbilical index when assessing fetal oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čančarević-Đajić Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Perinatal morbidity and mortality are the ultimate indicators of antenatal care today, whose responsible task is to assess the respiratory function of the placenta, fetal growth and placental maturation in order to provide conditions for the delivery of a living and viable newborn. The diagnostic procedures of antenatal care tested within this study were the biophysical tests of cardiotocography and the fetal biophysical profile, along with the colour doppler evaluation of the cerebral-umbilical ratio. The objective of this study was to determine the most effective diagnostic procedure when assessing fetal oxygenation. Materials and Methods. The prospective study included 119 pregnant women. They all underwent cardiotocography, biophysical profile and colour doppler evaluation of the cerebral-umbilical ratio. The babies’ umbilical artery blood pH was determined in the first minute upon birth, along with the Apgar score. Results. The results were processed statistically and the most effective diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of fetal oxygenation was selected, after which the rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality were calculated. The findings revealed that cardiotocography was the most sensitive antepartal predictor of fetal acidosis, while the fetal biophysical profile proved the most specific. The rates of perinatal morbidity and of perinatal mortality were 24.37% and 1.68%, respectively. Conclusion. The findings analysis revealed a high statistical significance of both biophysical tests and the cerebral-umbilical ratio evaluation as predictors of the fetal distress syndrome. The analysis of the cerebral-umbilical ratio and biophysical tests showed that the cerebral-umbilical ratio evaluation not only was more sensitive as a parameter compared to biophysical tests but it was also more specific than cardiotocography. Cardiotocography is the most sensitive antepartal predictor of fetal acidosis, followed by the cerebral

  12. Petascale Diagnostic Assessment of the Global Portfolio Rainfall Space Missions' Ability to Support Flood Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Chaney, N.; Herman, J. D.; Wood, E. F.; Ferringer, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    This research represents a multi-institutional collaboration between Cornell University, The Aerospace Corporation, and Princeton University that has completed a Petascale diagnostic assessment of the current 10 satellite missions providing rainfall observations. Our diagnostic assessment has required four core tasks: (1) formally linking high-resolution astrodynamics design and coordination of space assets with their global hydrological impacts within a Petascale "many-objective" global optimization framework, (2) developing a baseline diagnostic evaluation of a 1-degree resolution global implementation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to establish the required satellite observation frequencies and coverage to maintain acceptable global flood forecasts, (3) evaluating the limitations and vulnerabilities of the full suite of current satellite precipitation missions including the recently approved Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, and (4) conceptualizing the next generation spaced-based platforms for water cycle observation. Our team exploited over 100 Million hours of computing access on the 700,000+ core Blue Waters machine to radically advance our ability to discover and visualize key system tradeoffs and sensitivities. This project represents to our knowledge the first attempt to develop a 10,000 member Monte Carlo global hydrologic simulation at one degree resolution that characterizes the uncertain effects of changing the available frequencies of satellite precipitation on drought and flood forecasts. The simulation—optimization components of the work have set a theoretical baseline for the best possible frequencies and coverages for global precipitation given unlimited investment, broad international coordination in reconfiguring existing assets, and new satellite constellation design objectives informed directly by key global hydrologic forecasting requirements. Our research poses a step towards realizing the integrated

  13. Multi-transcript profiling in archival diagnostic prostate cancer needle biopsies to evaluate biomarkers in non-surgically treated men

    OpenAIRE

    Kachroo, Naveen; Warren, Anne Y; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most biomarkers in prostate cancer have only been evaluated in surgical cohorts. The value of these biomarkers in a different therapy context remains unclear. Our objective was to test a panel of surgical biomarkers for prognostic value in men treated by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT). Methods The Fluidigm® PCR array was used for multi-transcript profiling of laser microdissected tumours from archival formalin-fixed diagnostic biop...

  14. NIR-Cyanine Dye Linker: a Promising Candidate for Isochronic Fluorescence Imaging in Molecular Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Komljenovic, Dorde; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Debus, Jürgen; Braun, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Personalized anti-cancer medicine is boosted by the recent development of molecular diagnostics and molecularly targeted drugs requiring rapid and efficient ligation routes. Here, we present a novel approach to synthetize a conjugate able to act simultaneously as an imaging and as a chemotherapeutic agent by coupling functional peptides employing solid phase peptide synthesis technologies. Development and the first synthesis of a fluorescent dye with similarity in the polymethine part of the ...

  15. Differentiation of Pancreatic Cancer and Chronic Pancreatitis Using Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) Images: A Diagnostic Test

    OpenAIRE

    Maoling Zhu; Can Xu; Jianguo Yu; Yijun Wu; Chunguang Li; Minmin Zhang; Zhendong Jin; Zhaoshen Li

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Differentiating pancreatic cancer (PC) from normal tissue by computer-aided diagnosis of EUS images were quite useful. The current study was designed to investigate the feasibility of using computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) techniques to extract EUS image parameters for the differential diagnosis of PC and chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study recruited 262 patients with PC and 126 patients with CP. Typical EUS images were selected from the sample set...

  16. The High Frequency Ultrasonic Diagnostic System for Hard and Soft Tissue Specific Assessments in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slak, Bartosz

    The numerical assessment of dental tissues is essential when selecting a relevant treatment protocol in the field of dentistry. This will have significant ramifications on the restoration quality of dental tissues. The aim of the research study presented in this thesis was to validate applicability and obtain non-invasively, quantitative data for hard and soft tissue thickness in dental applications. An ultrasonic system was developed and assembled for the purpose of these experiments. Numerous laboratory trials were conducted to validate system performance against traditional and destructive methods of assessment. Ultrasonic measurements were found to yield similar values to those obtained from invasive methods. Results obtained in these experiments have validated potentials of ultrasound as a supplementary diagnostic tool for dental healthcare.

  17. Assessing Tumor Response to Treatment in Patients with Lung Cancer Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S. Strauch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature available on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT as a tool to evaluate treatment response in patients with lung cancer. This systematic review was compiled according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Only original research articles concerning treatment response in patients with lung cancer assessed with DCE-CT were included. To assess the validity of each study we implemented Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2. The initial search yielded 651 publications, and 16 articles were included in this study. The articles were divided into groups of treatment. In studies where patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with or without anti-angiogenic drugs, four out of the seven studies found a significant decrease in permeability after treatment. Four out of five studies that measured blood flow post anti-angiogenic treatments found that blood flow was significantly decreased. DCE-CT may be a useful tool in assessing treatment response in patients with lung cancer. It seems that particularly permeability and blood flow are important perfusion values for predicting treatment outcome. However, the heterogeneity in scan protocols, scan parameters, and time between scans makes it difficult to compare the included studies.

  18. LINE1 methylation levels associated with increased bladder cancer risk in pre-diagnostic blood DNA among US (PLCO) and European (ATBC) cohort study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Karami, Sara; Ruth M Pfeiffer; Hurwitz, Lauren; Liao, Linda M; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2013-01-01

    Global methylation in blood DNA has been associated with bladder cancer risk in case-control studies, but has not been examined prospectively. We examined the association between LINE1 total percent 5-methylcytosine and bladder cancer risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (299 cases/676 controls), and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) cohort of Finnish male smokers (391 cas...

  19. Quality assessments for cancer centers in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, A.; Rajan, A.; Harten, van W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer centers are pressured to deliver high-quality services that can be measured and improved, which has led to an increase of assessments in many countries. A critical area of quality improvement is to improve patient outcome. An overview of existing assessments can help stakeholders

  20. MINI REVIEW - EPIGENETIC PROCESSES AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment encourages the use of mechanistic data in the assessment of human cancer risk at low (environmental) exposure levels. The key events that define a particular mode of action for tumor fo...

  1. Development and potential applications of microarrays based on fluorescent nanocrystal-encoded beads for multiplexed cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Kristina; Grinevich, Regina; Efimov, Anton E.; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2014-05-01

    Advanced multiplexed assays have recently become an indispensable tool for clinical diagnostics. These techniques provide simultaneous quantitative determination of multiple biomolecules in a single sample quickly and accurately. The development of multiplex suspension arrays is currently of particular interest for clinical applications. Optical encoding of microparticles is the most available and easy-to-use technique. This technology uses fluorophores incorporated into microbeads to obtain individual optical codes. Fluorophore-encoded beads can be rapidly analyzed using classical flow cytometry or microfluidic techniques. We have developed a new generation of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic systems for detection of cancer antigens in human serum samples based on microbeads encoded with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). The designed suspension microarray system was validated for quantitative detection of (1) free and total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the serum of patients with prostate cancer and (2) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the serum of patients with breast cancer. The serum samples from healthy donors were used as a control. The antigen detection is based on the formation of an immune complex of a specific capture antibody (Ab), a target antigen (Ag), and a detector Ab on the surface of the encoded particles. The capture Ab is bound to the polymer shell of microbeads via an adapter molecule, for example, protein A. Protein A binds a monoclonal Ab in a highly oriented manner due to specific interaction with the Fc-region of the Ab molecule. Each antigen can be recognized and detected due to a specific microbead population carrying the unique fluorescent code. 100 and 231 serum samples from patients with different stages of prostate cancer and breast cancer, respectively, and those from healthy donors were examined using the designed suspension system. The data were validated by comparing with the results of

  2. Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value of cell-free miRNAs in prostate cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endzeliņš, Edgars; Melne, Vita; Kalniņa, Zane; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Riekstiņa, Una; Llorente, Alicia; Linē, Aija

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer, the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in males worldwide, is estimated to be diagnosed in 1.1 million men per year. Introduction of PSA testing substantially improved early detection of prostate cancer, however it also led to overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment of patients with an indolent disease. Treatment outcome and management of prostate cancer could be improved by the development of non-invasive biomarker assays that aid in increasing the sensitivity and specificity of prostate cancer screening, help to distinguish aggressive from indolent disease and guide therapeutic decisions. Prostate cancer cells release miRNAs into the bloodstream, where they exist incorporated into ribonucleoprotein complexes or extracellular vesicles. Later, cell-free miRNAs have been found in various other biofluids. The initial RNA sequencing studies suggested that most of the circulating cell-free miRNAs in healthy individuals are derived from blood cells, while specific disease-associated miRNA signatures may appear in the circulation of patients affected with various diseases, including cancer. This raised a hope that cell-free miRNAs may serve as non-invasive biomarkers for prostate cancer. Indeed, a number of cell-free miRNAs that potentially may serve as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers have been discovered in blood or other biofluids of prostate cancer patients and need to be validated in appropriately designed longitudinal studies and clinical trials. In this review, we systematically summarise studies investigating cell-free miRNAs in biofluids of prostate cancer patients and discuss the utility of the identified biomarkers in various clinical scenarios. Furthermore, we discuss the possible mechanisms of miRNA release into biofluids and outline the biological questions and technical challenges that have arisen from these studies. PMID:27189160

  3. The effectiveness of drama therapy on preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilievová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The integral part of the treatment of pediatric oncological patients is a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures are often associated with the fear and anxiety of the suffering child. We investigated whether a psychological preparation through drama therapy and the therapeutic puppet may reduce the anxiety related to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the preschool or early school children suffering from cancer.Methods: Twenty consecutive pediatric patients of preschool and early school age, with the diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia, were included in the study. The patients were alternatingly assigned to experimental or control group, and subjected or not subjected to drama therapy, respectively. We measured the changes in heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate as indicators of anxiety and fear, before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.Results: Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in pediatric oncological patients before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure were significantly lower in the experimental group of patients.Conclusion: Our results show that psychological preparation using drama therapy and therapeutic puppet reduced the fear and anxiety related to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in pediatric oncological patients.Key words: drama therapy; therapeutic puppet; children; oncology; psychology 

  4. Low-dose CT scan screening for lung cancer: comparison of images and radiation doses between low-dose CT and follow-up standard diagnostic CT

    OpenAIRE

    ONO, KOJI; Hiraoka, Toru; Ono, Asami; Komatsu, Eiji; Shigenaga, Takehiko; Takaki, Hajime; Maeda, Toru; Ogusu, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Shintaro; Fukushima, Kiyoyasu; Kai, Michiaki

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aim to compare image quality and radiation doses between low-dose CT and follow-up standard diagnostic CT for lung cancer screening. Methods In a single medical institution, 19 subjects who had been screened for lung cancer by low-dose CT before going through follow-up standard diagnostic CT were randomly selected. Both CT image sets for all subjects were independently evaluated by five specialized physicians. Results There were no significant differences between low-dos...

  5. Secular, Spiritual and religious Existential concerns during final diagnostics and treatment period – The lived experiences of women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Seibæk, L.; Hvidt, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    a woman with ovarian cancer during her first treatment period. Although the women experienced their health to be seriously threatened, they also felt hope, will, and courage. The diagnostic procedures and treatment had comprehensive impact on their lives. However, hope and spirituality were important......Introduction. This paper deals with secular, spiritual, and religious existential concerns during severe illness. Materials and Methods. Qualitative research interviews were made before and after surgery with women who underwent final diagnostics, surgery, and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer...

  6. Diagnostic value of circulating tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Mu; Chunhua Ma; Rong Jiang; Yuan Lv; Jinduo Li; Bin Wang; Liwei Sun

    2016-01-01

    To assess circulating tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid as a diagnostic approach to identify meningeal metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer by using tumor marker immunostaining–fluorescence in situ hybridization (TM-iFISH).

  7. Soluble Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (sHER2 as a Potential Risk Assessment, Screening, and Diagnostic Biomarker of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre T. Baron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Here, we evaluated the potential clinical utility of soluble human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (sHER2 for the risk assessment, screening, and diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC using an unmatched case-control study design. Serum sHER2 concentrations were measured by immunoassay in 244 primary NSCLC cases and 218 healthy controls. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, logistic regression models, and receiver operating characteristic plots were used to assess whether sHER2 is associated with lung cancer. Median serum sHER2 concentrations are higher in patients with adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma regardless of gender, and sHER2 is a weak, independent biomarker of adenocarcinoma, but not of squamous cell carcinoma, adjusted for age and gender. The age-adjusted relative risk (odds of adenocarcinoma is 3.95 (95% CI: 1.22, 12.81 and 7.93 (95% CI: 2.26, 27.82 greater for women and men with high sHER2 concentrations (≥6.60 ng/mL vs. low sHER2 concentrations (≤1.85 ng/mL, respectively. When adjusted for each other, sHER2, age, and gender discern healthy controls from patients with primary adenocarcinomas of the lung with 85.9% accuracy. We conclude that even though serum sHER2 is not a strong, stand-alone discriminatory biomarker of adenocarcinoma, sHER2 may be a useful, independent covariate in multivariate risk assessment, screening, and diagnostic models of lung cancer.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with retrograde intralumen contrast enhancement of the rectum in diagnostics of rectovaginal fistulas after combination therapy of rectal cancer. Experience of application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usova, A.; Frolova, I.; Afanasev, S.; Tarasova, A.; Molchanov, S.

    2016-02-01

    Experiment of use of MRI in diagnostics of rectovaginal fistulas after combination therapy of rectal cancer is shown on clinical examples. We used retrograde contrasting of a rectum with 150ml ultrasonic gel to make MRI more informative in case of low diagnostic efficiency of ultrasound, colonoscopy and gynecological examination.

  9. A novel fully automated molecular diagnostic system (AMDS for colorectal cancer mutation detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Kitano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations are frequently observed in colorectal cancer (CRC. In particular, KRAS mutations are strong predictors for clinical outcomes of EGFR-targeted treatments such as cetuximab and panitumumab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC. For mutation analysis, the current methods are time-consuming, and not readily available to all oncologists and pathologists. We have developed a novel, simple, sensitive and fully automated molecular diagnostic system (AMDS for point of care testing (POCT. Here we report the results of a comparison study between AMDS and direct sequencing (DS in the detection of KRAS, BRAF and PI3KCA somatic mutations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: DNA was extracted from a slice of either frozen (n = 89 or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE CRC tissue (n = 70, and then used for mutation analysis by AMDS and DS. All mutations (n = 41 among frozen and 27 among FFPE samples detected by DS were also successfully (100% detected by the AMDS. However, 8 frozen and 6 FFPE samples detected as wild-type in the DS analysis were shown as mutants in the AMDS analysis. By cloning-sequencing assays, these discordant samples were confirmed as true mutants. One sample had simultaneous "hot spot" mutations of KRAS and PIK3CA, and cloning assay comfirmed that E542K and E545K were not on the same allele. Genotyping call rates for DS were 100.0% (89/89 and 74.3% (52/70 in frozen and FFPE samples, respectively, for the first attempt; whereas that of AMDS was 100.0% for both sample sets. For automated DNA extraction and mutation detection by AMDS, frozen tissues (n = 41 were successfully detected all mutations within 70 minutes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: AMDS has superior sensitivity and accuracy over DS, and is much easier to execute than conventional labor intensive manual mutation analysis. AMDS has great potential for POCT equipment for mutation analysis.

  10. Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD)…

  11. Formative Assessment in Teacher Education: The Development of a Diagnostic Language Test for Trainee Teachers of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a diagnostic test of German and its integration in a programme of formative assessment during a one-year initial teacher-training course. The test focuses on linguistic aspects that cause difficulty for trainee teachers of German as a foreign language and assesses implicit and explicit…

  12. Improving Student Outcomes with mCLASS: Math, a Technology-Enhanced CBM and Diagnostic Interview Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Gushta, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act resulted in increased school-level implementation of assessment-based school interventions that aim to improve student performance. Diagnostic assessments are included among these interventions, designed to help teachers use evidence about student performance to modify and differentiate instruction and improve student…

  13. Optimizing HER2 assessment in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Rossing, Henrik; Møller Talman, Maj-Lis; Kristensson, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    In breast cancer, analysis of HER2 expression is pivotal for treatment decision. This study aimed at comparing digital, automated image analysis with manual reading using the HER2-CONNECT algorithm (Visiopharm) in order to minimize the number of equivocal 2+ scores and the need for reflex...

  14. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of TSH Levels in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Müslüm Tuna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The frequency of thyroid surgery for suspected malignancy but with a benign result in pathological examination is increasing in recent years. For this reason, additional preoperative markers are needed for increasing the sensitivity for evaluating the preoperative malignancy risk of thyroid nodules. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum TSH levels for determining the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC and to identify a proper cut-off value if relevant association is present. Material and Method: Our study included 380 patients who underwent thyroidectomy due to nodular goiter in our hospital between 01.01.2012 and 01.06.2013 retrospectively. 201 patients who were diagnosed with DTC constituted the study group, and 179 consecutive patients with a benign pathology result were included as controls. Patients who had overt hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism and was taken medicines that affect TSH level were excluded. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, sex, and family history of thyroid disease. Preoperative TSH levels were 1.66 mIU/lt and 1.59 mIU/lt in patients with DTC and controls, respectively (p=0.641. There was no correlation between TSH and tumor size, and no relationship between TSH and capsular invasion, vascular invasion, extrathyroidal invasion and lymph node metastasis. Discussion: In our study, no relationship was found between preoperative TSH level and DTC. In addition, there was no relationship between TSH and bad prognostic parameters. Turk Jem 2014; 1: 1-4

  15. Diagnostic performance of various cephalometric parameters for the assessment of vertical growth pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maheen; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Multiple cephalometric analyses are used to diagnose vertical skeletal facial discrepancy. A multitude of times, these parameters show conflicting results, and a specific diagnosis is hard to reach. Objective: Hence, this study aimed to identify the skeletal analysis that performs best for the identification of vertical skeletal pattern in borderline cases. Methods: The sample consisted of 161 subjects (71 males and 90 females; mean age = 23.6 ± 4.6 years). Y-axis, Sella-Nasion to mandibular plane angle (SN.MP), maxillary plane to mandibular plane angle (MMA), Sella-Nasion to Gonion-Gnathion angle (SN.GoGn), Frankfort to mandibular plane angle (FMA), R-angle and facial height ratio (LAFH.TAFH) were used to evaluate vertical growth pattern on lateral cephalograms. The subjects were divided into three groups (hypodivergent, normodivergent and hyperdivergent groups), as indicated by the diagnostic results of the majority of parameters. Kappa statistics was applied to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various analyses. To further validate the results, sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) for each parameter were also calculated. Results: SN.GoGn showed a substantial interclass agreement (k = 0.850). In the hypodivergent group, MMA showed the highest sensitivity (0.934), whereas FMA showed the highest PPV (0.964). In the normodivergent group, FMA showed the highest sensitivity (0.909) and SN.GoGn had the highest PPV (0.903). SN.GoGn showed the highest sensitivity (0.980) and PPV (0.87) in the hyperdivergent group. Conclusions: SN.GoGn and FMA were found to be the most reliable indicators, whereas LAFH.TAFH is the least reliable indicator in assessing facial vertical growth pattern. Hence, the cephalometric analyses may be limited to fewer analyses of higher diagnostic performance. PMID:27653263

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE BREAST MASSES WITH DIAGNOSTIC MAMMOGRAPHY AND FNAC CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Diagnostic mammography is the basic imaging study employed to evaluate breast abnormalities. Our objective was to assess the role of diagnostic mammography in characterizing the breast lumps in correlation with cytopathology. STUDY DESIGN This prospective study of 63 patients of breast lumps and related complaints in the age group of 18-65 years, was done over a period of two years. Two standard radiological views Craniocaudal (CC and Mediolateral Oblique (MLO were taken. Additional views and ultrasound was done as and when required. Reporting of mammograms was done using standard ACR BIRADS 4th edition (2003 Lexicon followed by cytopathological correlation. RESULTS In 63 patients with 70 lesions, 44 were proved cytopathological benign and 19 were malignant; 3 male patients were also included. Lump was the commonest presenting complaint. Left breast and superolateral quadrant with the axillary tail region was more frequently affected. Infiltrating ductal Ca (17.14% was commonest malignant lesion and fibroadenoma the commonest benign lesion (30%; 21 patients were categorized in BIRADS 3, 19 in BIRADS 1, 6 in BIRADS 2, 12 in BIRADS 4 and 5 in BIRADS 5 categories. In BIRADS 1, 2, 3 which were benign category, 43 were true negative, but 3 patients were pathologically malignant and hence false negative. Similarly, out of 17 malignant cases in BIRADS 4 and 5, 1 was false positive and 16 proved to be true positive. The statistical analysis was done and parameters calculated. CONCLUSION Diagnostic mammography is highly sensitive and accurate in detection and characterization of breast lumps, especially the malignant and the ACR-BIRADS lexicon proved useful in uniform mammography reporting and consistency in lesion classification.

  17. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB) is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years) with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6%) had NSCLC and 55 (28.4%) had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p < 0.001, CEA: 92.1% versus 83.5%, p = 0.002, SCC: 91.4% versus 83.5%, p = 0.003). Accuracy improved significantly for NAB combined with cytological CYFRA 21–1 compared with NAB alone (95.9% versus 88.1%, p < 0.001). The area under curve (AUC) of NAB with cytological CYFRA 21–1 was significantly larger than for NAB alone (0.966 versus 0.917, p = 0.009). Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC

  18. Optimizing breast cancer follow-up: diagnostic value and costs of additional routine breast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Farrokh, Andre; Hille, Ursula; Hirschauer, Elke; Schmidt, Werner; Hillemanns, Peter; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2011-02-01

    A total of 2,546,325 breast cancer survivors are estimated to live in the United States. The organized breast cancer follow-up programs do not generally include breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women. The purpose of our prospective study was to investigate the efficacy of breast ultrasound in detecting previously occult recurrences. A total of 735 eligible patients with a history of breast cancer were recruited. We assessed the same patient population before (routine follow-up program) and after (study follow-up program) the introduction of an additional ultrasound examination. In the routine follow-up program 245 of 735 patients (33.3% [95% confidence-interval (CI): 29.9-36.7]) had an ultrasound due to abnormal local or mammographic findings. 490 of 735 patients (66.7% [95% CI: 63.3-70.1]) were initially considered asymptomatic and received an additional ultrasound exclusively within the study follow-up program. All positive examination results were followed by accelerated core needle biopsy. The routine follow-up program led to a biopsy in 66 of 735 patients (9.0%) revealing a recurrent cancer in 27 cases (3.7%). The study follow-up program with the additional ultrasound led to another 21 biopsies raising the total number of patients who had to undergo a biopsy from 9.0% (95% CI: 6.9-11.1) to 11.8% (95% CI: 9.5-14.2). Finally, we diagnosed a previously occult malignant lesion in an additional six patients following this protocol. Therefore, the rate of detected recurrences rose from 3.7% (95% CI: 2.3-5.0) in the routine follow-up program to 4.5% (95% CI: 3.0-6.0) in the study follow-up program (p = 0.041). Negative side effects were the additional costs (the costs per detected malignancy in the routine follow-up program were $2455.69; the costs for each additionally detected malignancy in the study follow-up program were $7580.30), the higher overall biopsy rate (9.0 vs. 11.8%) and the elevated benign biopsies rate (59.1% vs. 71.4%). Regarding these results, the

  19. 螺旋CT对胃癌的诊断价值%The diagnostic value of spiral CT in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐江; 刘珍友

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析胃癌的螺旋CT表现,并评价螺旋CT对胃癌的诊断能力。方法收集19例经胃镜活检或手术病理证实的胃癌病例,分析其螺旋CT表现。结果螺旋CT能清楚地观察胃癌病变的全貌、病变与周围脏器的关系,但对胃癌的定性方面有一定的局限性。结论螺旋 CT检查可首先发现胃部病变,如结合钡餐、纤维胃镜,能为临床治疗提供可靠的价值。%Objective To analyze the CT findings of stomach cancer and to evaluate its diagnostic ability. Methods Collection of 19 cases by endoscopic biopsy or surgical pathology confirmed cases of gastric cancer. The spiral CT features of stomach cancer were analyzed retrospectively. Results Although the limitation in the diagnosis of GASTRIC cancer, spiral CT shows a clearly revealed outline of gastric cancer lesions and the relationship between the lesions and surrounding organs. Conclusion Spiral CT examination may first discovered gastric cancer and can provide reliable basis for clinical treatment by combining barium meal and fiberoptic endoscope.

  20. Rapid Chemometric X-Ray Fluorescence approaches for spectral Diagnostics of Cancer utilizing Tissue Trace Metals and Speciation profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy is an analytical method for identification and quantification of elements in materials by measurement of their spectral energy and intensity. EDXRFS spectroscopic technique involves simultaneous non-invasive acquisition of both fluorescence and scatter spectra from samples for quantitative determination of trace elemental content in complex matrix materials. The objective is develop a chemometric-aided EDXRFS method for rapid diagnosis of cancer and its severity (staging) based on analysis of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Se and Mn), their speciation and multivariate alterations of the elements in cancerous body tissue samples as cancer biomarkers. The quest for early diagnosis of cancer is based on the fact that early intervention translates to higher survival rate and better quality of life. Chemometric aided EDXRFS cancer diagnostic model has been evaluated as a direct and rapid superior alternative for the traditional quantitative methods used in XRF such as FP method. PCA results of cultured samples indicate that it is possible to characterize cancer at early and late stage of development based on trace elemental profiles

  1. Assessment of Diagnostic and Prognostic Role of Copeptin in the Clinical Setting of Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Battista

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of copeptin were evaluated in septic patients, as compared to procalcitonin assessment. In this single centre and observational study 105 patients were enrolled: 24 with sepsis, 25 with severe sepsis, 15 with septic shock, and 41 controls, divided in two subgroups (15 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and 26 with suspected SIRS secondary to trauma, acute coronary syndrome, and pulmonary embolism. Biomarkers were determined at the first medical evaluation and thereafter 24, 48, and 72 hours after admission. Definitive diagnosis and in-hospital survival rates at 30 days were obtained through analysis of medical records. At entry, copeptin proved to be able to distinguish cases from controls and also sepsis group from septic shock group, while procalcitonin could distinguish also severe sepsis from septic shock group. Areas under the ROC curve for copeptin and procalcitonin were 0.845 and 0.861, respectively. Noteworthy, patients with copeptin concentrations higher than the threshold value (23.2 pmol/L, calculated from the ROC curve, at admission presented higher 30-day mortality. No significant differences were found in copeptin temporal profile among different subgroups. Copeptin showed promising diagnostic and prognostic role in the management of sepsis, together with its possible role in monitoring the response to treatment.

  2. Assessment of Diagnostic and Prognostic Role of Copeptin in the Clinical Setting of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Stefania; Audisio, Umberto; Galluzzo, Claudia; Maggiorotto, Matteo; Masoero, Monica; Forno, Daniela; Pizzolato, Elisa; Ulla, Marco; Lucchiari, Manuela; Vitale, Annarita; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico; Settanni, Fabio; Mengozzi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of copeptin were evaluated in septic patients, as compared to procalcitonin assessment. In this single centre and observational study 105 patients were enrolled: 24 with sepsis, 25 with severe sepsis, 15 with septic shock, and 41 controls, divided in two subgroups (15 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and 26 with suspected SIRS secondary to trauma, acute coronary syndrome, and pulmonary embolism). Biomarkers were determined at the first medical evaluation and thereafter 24, 48, and 72 hours after admission. Definitive diagnosis and in-hospital survival rates at 30 days were obtained through analysis of medical records. At entry, copeptin proved to be able to distinguish cases from controls and also sepsis group from septic shock group, while procalcitonin could distinguish also severe sepsis from septic shock group. Areas under the ROC curve for copeptin and procalcitonin were 0.845 and 0.861, respectively. Noteworthy, patients with copeptin concentrations higher than the threshold value (23.2 pmol/L), calculated from the ROC curve, at admission presented higher 30-day mortality. No significant differences were found in copeptin temporal profile among different subgroups. Copeptin showed promising diagnostic and prognostic role in the management of sepsis, together with its possible role in monitoring the response to treatment. PMID:27366743

  3. Assessment of organ equivalent doses and effective doses from diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIRD-type adult male, female and age 10 phantoms were constructed to evaluate organ equivalent dose and effective dose of patient due to typical diagnostic X-ray examination. These phantoms were constructed with external and internal dimensions of Korean. The X-ray energy spectra were generated with SPEC78. MCNP4B ,the general-purposed Monte Carlo code, was used. Information of chest PA , chest LAT, and abdomen AP diagnostic X-ray procedures was collected on the protocol of domestic hospitals. The results showed that patients pick up approximate 0.02 to 0.18 mSv of effective dose from a single chest PA examination, and 0.01 to 0.19 mSv from a chest LAT examination depending on the ages. From an abdomen AP examination, patients pick up 0.17 to 1.40 mSv of effective dose. Exposure time, organ depth from the entrance surface and X-ray beam field coverage considerably affect the resulting doses. Deviation among medical institutions is somewhat high, and this indicated that medical institutions should interchange their information and the need of education for medical staff. The methodology and the established system can be applied, with some expansion, to dose assessment for other medical procedures accompanying radiation exposure of patients like nuclear medicine or therapeutic radiology

  4. Black blood MRI has diagnostic and prognostic value in the assessment of patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double inversion recovery (DIR) ''black blood'' MRI suppresses the signal from flowing blood, slow flowing blood causes incomplete suppression resulting in pulmonary blood flow artefact (PFA). This study examines the diagnostic utility and prognostic value of a PFA scoring system in a mixed cohort of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). DIR-MRI images were reviewed for 233 patients referred with suspected PH who underwent right heart catheterisation (RHC) within 48 h of MR. The degree of PFA was visually scored in all patients from 0 to 5 (0 = absent, 1 = segmental, 2 = lobar, 3 = distal main, 4 = proximal main and 5 = trunk). Pulmonary artery (PA), aorta (Ao), and PA main branch diameters were measured from which PA/Ao ratios and mean PA branch diameters (MPAB) were calculated. PFA >1 demonstrated high sensitivity (86%) and specificity (85%) for the diagnosis PH in our mixed patient cohort. A good correlation was found with PFA and haemodynamic parameters, PVR (r = 0.70), mPAP (r = 0.65) and CI (r = -0.53). PFA predicted mortality (P = 0.005) during the mean follow-up for 19 months. PFA scoring demonstrated good inter-observer agreement (k = 0.83). PFA scoring is of diagnostic and prognostic value in the assessment of patients with suspected PH. and is a predictor of mortality. (orig.)

  5. A diagnostic assessment of evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective surface water reservoir control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain Salazar, Jazmin; Reed, Patrick M.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Globally, the pressures of expanding populations, climate change, and increased energy demands are motivating significant investments in re-operationalizing existing reservoirs or designing operating policies for new ones. These challenges require an understanding of the tradeoffs that emerge across the complex suite of multi-sector demands in river basin systems. This study benchmarks our current capabilities to use Evolutionary Multi-Objective Direct Policy Search (EMODPS), a decision analytic framework in which reservoirs' candidate operating policies are represented using parameterized global approximators (e.g., radial basis functions) then those parameterized functions are optimized using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to discover the Pareto approximate operating policies. We contribute a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of modern MOEAs' abilities to support EMODPS using the Conowingo reservoir in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania, USA. Our diagnostic results highlight that EMODPS can be very challenging for some modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance, time-continuation, and auto-adaptive search are helpful for attaining high levels of performance. The ɛ-MOEA, the auto-adaptive Borg MOEA, and ɛ-NSGAII all yielded superior results for the six-objective Lower Susquehanna benchmarking test case. The top algorithms show low sensitivity to different MOEA parameterization choices and high algorithmic reliability in attaining consistent results for different random MOEA trials. Overall, EMODPS poses a promising method for discovering key reservoir management tradeoffs; however algorithmic choice remains a key concern for problems of increasing complexity.

  6. Comprehensive geriatric assessment basics for the cancer professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extermann, Martine

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) has been a cornerstone of geriatric practice for many years. However, oncology practitioners are still unfamiliar with it. Yet, recent research has shown an important potential to improve the daily care of older cancer patients. The purpose of this article is to review the basic nature of a CGA, its effectiveness, its applicability to cancer patients, and its cost-effectiveness. Cancer is one of the major health problems in our society. Furthermore, the incidence of cancer increases with age. Nowadays, half of the cancers occur beyond the age of 70. Given the aging of the US population, this proportion is expected to increase in the next decades. A challenge for the oncologists is that older people can have a highly variable health status. Yet little is known yet about how to best assess and integrate into decision making the various health problems patients may have. Taking their clues from the experience of geriatricians, geriatric oncologists advocate the use of a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) as one of the tools to deal with this problem. It is, for example, part of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for the elderly'. This article offers a primer on CGA for the reader unfamiliar with the approach in an oncologic setting. PMID:12699111

  7. Applying the Burke–Litwin model as a diagnostic framework for assessing organisational effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Martins

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study investigated the utility of the Burke–Litwin model as a diagnostic framework for assessing the factors affecting organisational effectiveness. The research setting consisted of an international company, with a population comprising representatives of more than 17 different nationalities. The purposive sampling method was used to  involve employee participants (N = 147  in  focus groups  and  executive managers  (N =  11  in semi- structured probing  interviews. The  factors identified related  to both  the  transformational and  transactional dimensions of  the Burke–Litwin model. The f ndings add to the existing literature on factors causing organisational effectiveness and ineffectiveness in cross-cultural organisational contexts.

  8. The health preoccupation diagnostic interview: inter-rater reliability of a structured interview for diagnostic assessment of DSM-5 somatic symptom disorder and illness anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Erland; Andersson, Erik; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Wallhed Finn, Daniel; Hedman, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) and illness anxiety disorder (IAD) are two new diagnoses introduced in the DSM-5. There is a need for reliable instruments to facilitate the assessment of these disorders. We therefore developed a structured diagnostic interview, the Health Preoccupation Diagnostic Interview (HPDI), which we hypothesized would reliably differentiate between SSD, IAD, and no diagnosis. Persons with clinically significant health anxiety (n = 52) and healthy controls (n = 52) were interviewed using the HPDI. Diagnoses were then compared with those made by an independent assessor, who listened to audio recordings of the interviews. Ratings generally indicated moderate to almost perfect inter-rater agreement, as illustrated by an overall Cohen's κ of .85. Disagreements primarily concerned (a) the severity of somatic symptoms, (b) the differential diagnosis of panic disorder, and (c) SSD specifiers. We conclude that the HPDI can be used to reliably diagnose DSM-5 SSD and IAD. PMID:27096407

  9. Methods of sociological diagnostics in the assessment of staff's competencies: a case of a state museum (St. Petersburg, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiia Usiaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to research of methods of sociological diagnostics, which can be used in the assessment of staff's competencies. Theoretical framework of this survey is T. Parson’s structural functionalism, the approach that sees the society as a complex system. The research questions were how we can analyze competencies by using sociological diagnostics and what the features of sociological diagnostics are. In order to achieve the target, it was analyzed the assessment of staff's competencies in the museum complex “The Cathedral”, Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Methodology of the research was structured observation, data collected by using “Mystery shopper” method. As a result, it was showed which techniques were applied in the staff’s assessment in this museum. Besides, the researcher discovered the level of museum staff’s competencies and revealed that the least developed employees’ competence was communication with visitors.

  10. Assessment of surgical portosystemic shunts and associated complications: The diagnostic and therapeutic role of radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslakian, Bedros; Faraj, Walid; Khalife, Mohammad; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad; El-Merhi, Fadi; Saade, Charbel; Hallal, Ali; Haydar, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Surgical portosystemic shunting, the formation of a vascular connection between the portal and systemic venous circulation, has been used as a treatment to reduce portal venous pressure. Although the use of portosystemic shunt surgery in the management of portal hypertension has declined during the past decade in favour of alternative therapies, and subsequently surgeons and radiologists became less familiar with the procedure, it remains a well-established treatment. Knowledge of different types of surgical portosystemic shunts, their pathophysiology and complications will help radiologists improve communication with surgeons and enhance their understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic role of radiology in the assessment and management of these shunts. Optimal assessment of the shunt is essential to determine its patency and allow timely intervention. Both non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities complement each other in the evaluation of surgical portosystemic shunts. Interventional radiology plays an important role in the management of complications, such as shunt thrombosis and stenosis. This article describes the various types of surgical portosystemic shunts, explains the anatomy and pathophysiology of these shunts, illustrates the pearls and pitfalls of different imaging modalities in the assessment of these shunts and demonstrates the role of radiologists in the interventional management of complications.

  11. Diagnostic assessment of enlarged superficial lymph nodes by fine needle aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, S; Di Palma, S; Alasio, L; Bartoli, C; Rilke, F

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-five consecutive outpatients with enlarged superficial lymph node either clinically suspicious (152) or with a previous diagnosis of a malignant tumor (133) underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA) followed by excisional biopsy. Cytologic and/or cytologic-immunophenotypic diagnoses made on direct smears were compared with subsequent histologic findings. The comparison demonstrated (1) a high rate of conclusive cytologic diagnoses in the assessment of metastatic malignancies, with an overall accuracy rate of 99.1% and a typing accuracy rate of 96.5%; (2) a high rate of conclusive diagnoses in the assessment of high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease, with the exception of the lymphocytic predominance variant of the latter; and (3) significant limitations in the assessment of low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas because of the high rate of false-negative diagnoses in cases with a substantial nonmalignant cell component. This was particularly evident in follicular centroblastic-centrocytic lymphomas. Immunocytochemistry appeared to be of limited value in the distinction between centroblastic-centrocytic follicular lymphomas and reactive follicular hyperplasia. The results confirmed the diagnostic value of fine needle aspiration as the first step in the workup of patients with nodal enlargement suspicious for malignancy. In the area of low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, morphologic and immunocytochemical methods need to be supplemented by molecular techniques in order to achieve conclusive diagnoses.

  12. Pre-diagnostic meat and fibre intakes in relation to colorectal cancer survival in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Heather A; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Skeie, Guri; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krassimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Åsli, Lene Angell; Jakszyn, Paula; Ramón Quirós, J; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jirström, Karin; Ericson, Ulrika; Johansson, Ingegerd; Gylling, Björn; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio

    2016-07-01

    Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, pre-diagnostic consumption of red meat, processed meat, poultry and dietary fibre was examined in relation to CRC-specific mortality (n 1008) and all-cause mortality (n 1262) using multivariable Cox regression models, adjusted for CRC risk factors. Pre-diagnostic red meat, processed meat or fibre intakes (defined as quartiles and continuous grams per day) were not associated with CRC-specific or all-cause mortality among CRC survivors; however, a marginal trend across quartiles of processed meat in relation to CRC mortality was detected (P 0·053). Pre-diagnostic poultry intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality among women (hazard ratio (HR)/20 g/d 0·92; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·00), but not among men (HR 1·00; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·09) (P for heterogeneity=0·10). Pre-diagnostic intake of red meat or fibre is not associated with CRC survival in the EPIC cohort. There is suggestive evidence of an association between poultry intake and all-cause mortality among female CRC survivors and between processed meat intake and CRC-specific mortality; however, further research using post-diagnostic dietary data is required to confirm this relationship. PMID:27193442

  13. The diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced MRI in the assessment of joint abnormalities in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemke, Robert [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology (G1-235), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijpers, Taco W.; Veenendaal, Mira van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, J.M. van den; Rossum, Marion A.J. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Hematology, Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children' s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reade, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dolman, Koert M. [Reade, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); St. Lucas Andreas Hospital, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Maas, Mario [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology (G1-235), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of MRI without contrast enhancement in the evaluation of JIA knee joint abnormalities. JIA patients with clinically active knee involvement were prospectively studied using an 1-T open-bore magnet. MRI features were independently evaluated by two readers using the JAMRIS system. The first reading included unenhanced images, whereas complete image sets were available for the second reading. Imaging findings from 73 patients were analysed. Agreement between Gd-enhanced (+Gd) and Gd-unenhanced (-Gd) MRI scores of bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions and bone erosions was good concerning sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value. Inter-observer agreement was good for both -Gd and +Gd scores (ICC = 0.91-1.00, 0.93-1.00, respectively). Regarding the assessment of synovial hypertrophy, specificity of -Gd was high (0.97), but the sensitivity of unenhanced MRI was only 0.62. Inter-reader agreement for +Gd MRI was ICC = 0.94; however, omitting post-Gd acquisitions increased inter-reader variation (ICC = 0.86). If Gd-enhanced MRI is the reference standard, omitting Gd contrast medium is irrelevant for the assessment of bone marrow changes, cartilage lesions and bone erosions as joint abnormalities in JIA. Omitting intravenous Gd in the MRI assessment of joints in JIA is inadvisable, because it decreases the reliability of detecting synovial disease. circle Magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly used to assess juvenile idiopathic arthritis. circle Synovial hypertrophy, a marker of JIA activity, is well shown by MRI. (orig.)

  14. Socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer: a nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ottesen, Bent Smedegaard;

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the association between socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among gynaecological cancer patients. A questionnaire was sent to 1052 women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer between October 2006 and December 2007 in Denmark. Long p...

  15. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in

  16. Full Intelligent Cancer Classification of Thermal Breast Images to Assist Physician in Clinical Diagnostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, AmirEhsan; Pak, Fatemeh; Firouzmand, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. The important key to treat the breast cancer is early detection of it because according to many pathological studies more than 75% - 80% of all abnormalities are still benign at primary stages; so in recent years, many studies and extensive research done to early detection of breast cancer with higher precision and accuracy. Infra-red breast thermography is an imaging technique based on recording temperature distribution patterns of breast tissue. Compared with breast mammography technique, thermography is more suitable technique because it is noninvasive, non-contact, passive and free ionizing radiation. In this paper, a full automatic high accuracy technique for classification of suspicious areas in thermogram images with the aim of assisting physicians in early detection of breast cancer has been presented. Proposed algorithm consists of four main steps: pre-processing & segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. At the first step, using full automatic operation, region of interest (ROI) determined and the quality of image improved. Using thresholding and edge detection techniques, both right and left breasts separated from each other. Then relative suspected areas become segmented and image matrix normalized due to the uniqueness of each person's body temperature. At feature extraction stage, 23 features, including statistical, morphological, frequency domain, histogram and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) based features are extracted from segmented right and left breast obtained from step 1. To achieve the best features, feature selection methods such as minimum Redundancy and Maximum Relevance (mRMR), Sequential Forward Selection (SFS), Sequential Backward Selection (SBS), Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS), Sequential Floating Backward Selection (SFBS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been used at step 3. Finally to classify and TH labeling procedures

  17. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer: a diagnostic tool for prognosis and molecular analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoshen Dong; R.Katherine Alpaugh; Massimo Cristofanilli

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is characterized by a combination of tumor growth,proliferation and metastatic progression and is typically managed with palliative intent.The benefit of standard systemic therapies is relatively limited and the disease is considered incurable suggesting the need to investigate the biological drivers of the various phases of the metastatic process in order to improve the selection of molecularly driven therapies.The detection,enumeration and molecular analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provide an intriguing opportunity to advance this knowledge.CTCs enumerated by the Food and Drugs Administration-cleared CellSearchTM system are an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MBC patients.Several published papers demonstrated the poor prognosis for MBC patients that presented basal CTC count ≥5 in 7.5 mL of blood.Therefore,the enumeration of CTCs during treatment for MBC provides a tool with the ability to predict progression of disease earlier than standard timing of anatomical assessment using conventional radiological tests.During the metastatic process cancer cells exhibit morphological and phenotypic plasticity undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).This important phenomenon is associated with down regulation of epithelial marker (e.g.,EpCAM) with potential limitations in the applicability of current CTCs enrichment methods.Such observations translated in a number of investigations aimed at improving our capabilities to enumerate and perform molecular characterization of CTCs.Theoretically,the phenotypic analysis of CTCs can represent a "liquid" biopsy of breast tumor that is able to identify a new potential target against the metastatic disease and advance the development and monitoring of personalized therapies.

  18. The diagnostic utility of the flare phenomenon on bone scintigraphy in staging prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Gary J.R.; Lewington, Valerie J.; Chua, Sue C. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Venkitaraman, Ram; Huddart, Robert A.; Parker, Christopher C.; Dearnaley, David D.; Horwich, Alan [Royal Marsden Hospital, Academic Urology Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Sohaib, Aslam S. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy (BS) lacks sensitivity for detecting very early skeletal metastases (SM) in prostate cancer (PC) and is often limited by poor specificity. Also scintigraphic flare of SM can occur following effective treatment and mislead an early response assessment. We hypothesised that a flare reaction might amplify the signal from subclinical SM, increasing the sensitivity of BS and that the phenomenon may be specific for metastases. We conducted a prospective study to determine the frequency of the flare phenomenon in patients with metastatic PC starting hormone therapy and to explore its utility in patients with negative staging scans but considered at high risk of SM and in those with equivocal baseline BS abnormalities. Ninety-nine patients commencing first-line hormone therapy had repeat BS at 6 weeks to score a flare reaction. Of 22 patients with unequivocal SM on the baseline scan, a flare occurred in 9 (41%). Of 36 high-risk localised prostate cancer patients with normal BS pre-treatment, the scan became positive for metastases at 6 weeks in 4 (11%). Of 41 patients with pre-treatment scintigraphic abnormalities of uncertain aetiology, a flare occurred in 8 cases (20%). All eight were confirmed to have SM by follow-up and imaging. Of the 33 remaining patients without a flare, 2 developed SM at 14 months and the remainder did not develop SM in a median follow-up period of 36 months. The flare phenomenon following initial hormone therapy can be used to improve both sensitivity and specificity of BS in PC. (orig.)

  19. Assessment Stability and Informative of Diagnostic Matrix in Analysis States of Reinforced Concrete Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article was examined the issues of sustainability and informative of diagnostic matrix, which are used when it is necessary to determinate the technical condition of constructions. Determination based on the mathematical instrument of technical diagnostics. One of the most widespread methods of technical diagnostics – a statistical method of Bayes is used.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic impact of restaging by magnetic resonance imaging after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The prognostic role of restaging rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with preoperative CRT has not been established. The goal of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic role of radiological staging by rectal MRI after preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer. Methods: A total of 231 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CRT and radical resection from January 2008 to December 2009 were prospectively enrolled. The diagnostic accuracy and prognostic significance of post-CRT radiological staging by MRI was evaluated. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of radiological diagnosis of good responders (ypTNM stage 0–I) were 32%, 90%, 65%, and 69%, respectively. The overall accuracy of MRI restating for good responders was 68%. The 5-year disease-free survival rates of patients with radiological and pathological TNM stage 0, stage I, and stage II–III were 100%, 94%, and 76%, respectively (P = 0.037), and 97%, 87%, and 73%, respectively (P = 0.007). On multivariate analysis, post-CRT radiological staging by MRI was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusion: Radiological staging by MRI after preoperative CRT may be an independent predictor of survival in patients with rectal cancer

  1. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  2. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average.

  3. Positive diagnostic values and histological detection ratios from the Rotterdam cervical cancer screening programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Kreuger; H. Beerman (Henk); H.G. Nijs (Huub); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: In organized screening programmes for cervical cancer, pre-cancerous lesions are detected by cervical smears. However, during follow-up after a positive smear these pre-cancerous lesions are not always found. The purpose of the study is to analys

  4. Cancer Diagnostics: The Future Ain't What It Used to Be

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a genomic disease. Most cancers contain multiple genetics alterations that drive their unrestrained proliferation, progression and metastatic capacity. For most cancer types, it is known what these alterations are and what their frequency is. Genomics technologies have made it possible to

  5. Microfluidics in the selection of affinity reagents for the detection of cancer: paving a way towards future diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Lien-Yu; Wang, Chih-Hung; Fu, Chien-Yu; Gopinathan, Priya; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic technologies have miniaturized a variety of biomedical applications, and these chip-based systems have several significant advantages over their large-scale counterparts. Recently, this technology has been used for automating labor-intensive and time-consuming screening processes, whereby affinity reagents, including aptamers, peptides, antibodies, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and a variety of small molecules, are used to probe for molecular biomarkers. When compared to conventional methods, the microfluidic approaches are faster, more compact, require considerably smaller quantities of samples and reagents, and can be automated. Furthermore, they allow for more precise control of reaction conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, and shearing forces) such that more efficient screening can be performed. A variety of affinity reagents for targeting cancer cells or cancer biomarkers are now available and will likely replace conventional antibodies. In this review article, the selection of affinity reagents for cancer cells or cancer biomarkers on microfluidic platforms is reviewed with the aim of highlighting the utility of such approaches in cancer diagnostics. PMID:27381813

  6. Combined RASSF1A and RASSF2A Promoter Methylation Analysis as Diagnostic Biomarker for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Meng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoter hypermethylation, a widely studied epigenetic event known to influence gene expression levels, has been proposed as a potential biomarker in multiple types of cancer. Clinical diagnostic biomarkers are needed for reliable prediction of bladder cancer recurrence. In this paper, DNA promoter methylation of five C-terminal Ras-association family members (RASSF1A, RASSF2A, RASSF4, RASSF5, and RASSF6 was studied in 64 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE bladder cancer and normal adjacent tissues using methylation-specific high-resolution melting (MS-HRM analysis. Results showed that 73% (30/41 of transitional cell carcinoma, 100% (3/3 of squamous cell carcinoma, and 100% (4/4 of small cell carcinoma demonstrated promoter methylation of the RASSF1A or RASSF2A gene, but only 6% (1/16 of normal tissues had promoter methylation of RASSF genes. Testing positive for hypermethylation of RASSF1A or RASSF2A promoter provided 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity for identification of cancer tissues with an area under the curve of 0.854, suggesting that promoter methylation analysis of RASSF1A and RASSF2A genes has potential for use as a recurrence biomarker for bladder cancer patients.

  7. Health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression in the diagnostic phase of suspected cancer, and the influence of diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Rydahl Hansen, Susan; Overgaard, Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    suspected to have cancer based on non-specific symptoms was performed. Participants completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 quality of life scale, HADS, SOC-13 and self-rated health before and after completing diagnostic evaluations. Intra- and inter-group differences between patients diagnosed with cancer versus....... There were no intra- or inter-group differences in the depression scores. The strongest predictors of global QL, anxiety, and depression after a known diagnosis were baseline scores, co-morbidity and poor self-rated health. Conclusions Patients undergoing diagnostic evaluations for cancer based on non...

  8. Elastography as a new diagnostic tool to detect breast cancer – evaluation of research and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rzymski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammography and ultrasonography are currently the most sensitive methods for detecting breast cancer,but elastography is a new diagnostic tool. Stiffness of invasive carcinomas were found to be 5-25 times largerthan that of normal adipose tissue. There are basically two types of elastography examination used in initialclinical research: conventional elastography with compression and shear wave elastography. Analysis of 20 studiesin the years 1997-2010 with 1484 malignant and 2822 benign breast lesions is presented in this paper. Theoverall sensitivity was 67-100% with specificity of 62-99% for elastography. This raises the hope of introducingthis method in the BI-RADS classification and modifying diagnostics in category 3-4.

  9. Knowledge assessment of women living in the Wielkopolska region concerning risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawdzik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer (CC is a malignant tumor which for many years has been a serious epidemiological problem in Poland. This issue is important because CC is the second most common type of malignant tumor, after breast cancer, and the second most common cause of death among women. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of women living in the Wielkopolska region (Gniezno district of risk factors for cervical cancer. Material and methods: The study used the diagnostic poll method, based on a previously developed survey questionnaire. The study was carried out between March and April 2013. The study group consisted of 100 women, involving schoolgirls from the secondary school in Gniezno (Group I, workers (doctors, nurses and midwives of two outpatient clinics in the Gniezno district (Group II and patients of the same clinics (Group III. Results : According to the respondents, the main cause of CC is human papillomavirus (Group II – 36% and genetic predisposition (Group III – 35%. It is alarming that 26% of women did not know the risk factors for CC. Conclusions : It is necessary to improve health education, especially concerning the main factors affecting the development of CC, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates related to this cancer.

  10. Comparison of diagnostic and prognostic utility of lactate and procalcitonin for sepsis in adult cancer patients presenting to emergency department with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Keçe, Esra; YAKA, Elif; Yılmaz, Serkan; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Alyeşil, Cansu; Pekdemir, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Differentiating sepsis from other noninfectious causes of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in cancer patients is often challenging. Although lactate and procalcitonin have been studied extensively regarding sepsis management, little is known about their utility in cancer patients. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic and prognostic utility of lactate and procalcitonin for sepsis in cancer patients. Material and methods This prospective case-control study was con...

  11. The development of QUADAS: a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossuyt Patrick MM

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the era of evidence based medicine, with systematic reviews as its cornerstone, adequate quality assessment tools should be available. There is currently a lack of a systematically developed and evaluated tool for the assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. The aim of this project was to combine empirical evidence and expert opinion in a formal consensus method to develop a tool to be used in systematic reviews to assess the quality of primary studies of diagnostic accuracy. Methods We conducted a Delphi procedure to develop the quality assessment tool by refining an initial list of items. Members of the Delphi panel were experts in the area of diagnostic research. The results of three previously conducted reviews of the diagnostic literature were used to generate a list of potential items for inclusion in the tool and to provide an evidence base upon which to develop the tool. Results A total of nine experts in the field of diagnostics took part in the Delphi procedure. The Delphi procedure consisted of four rounds, after which agreement was reached on the items to be included in the tool which we have called QUADAS. The initial list of 28 items was reduced to fourteen items in the final tool. Items included covered patient spectrum, reference standard, disease progression bias, verification bias, review bias, clinical review bias, incorporation bias, test execution, study withdrawals, and indeterminate results. The QUADAS tool is presented together with guidelines for scoring each of the items included in the tool. Conclusions This project has produced an evidence based quality assessment tool to be used in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies. Further work to determine the usability and validity of the tool continues.

  12. Assessment of surgical portosystemic shunts and associated complications: The diagnostic and therapeutic role of radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: btaslakian@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Faraj, Walid, E-mail: wf07@aub.edu.lb [Department of General Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalife, Mohammad, E-mail: mk12@aub.edu.lb [Department of General Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad, E-mail: mk00@aub.edu.lb [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); El-Merhi, Fadi, E-mail: fe19@aub.edu.lb [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Saade, Charbel, E-mail: cs39@aub.edu.lb [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Hallal, Ali, E-mail: ah05@aub.edu.lb [Department of General Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon); Haydar, Ali, E-mail: ah24@aub.edu.lb [Department of Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El-Solh 1107 2020—PO Box: 11-0236, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Portal hypertension is the pathological increase in portal venous pressure. • Surgical portosystemic shunting is an accepted methods to decrease portal venous pressure. • Surgical portosystemic shunts are divided into selective and nonselective. • Shunt thrombosis is a serious complication, resulting in shunt dysfunction. • Imaging is essential in the assessment of the shunt function and anatomy. - Abstract: Surgical portosystemic shunting, the formation of a vascular connection between the portal and systemic venous circulation, has been used as a treatment to reduce portal venous pressure. Although the use of portosystemic shunt surgery in the management of portal hypertension has declined during the past decade in favour of alternative therapies, and subsequently surgeons and radiologists became less familiar with the procedure, it remains a well-established treatment. Knowledge of different types of surgical portosystemic shunts, their pathophysiology and complications will help radiologists improve communication with surgeons and enhance their understanding of the diagnostic and therapeutic role of radiology in the assessment and management of these shunts. Optimal assessment of the shunt is essential to determine its patency and allow timely intervention. Both non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities complement each other in the evaluation of surgical portosystemic shunts. Interventional radiology plays an important role in the management of complications, such as shunt thrombosis and stenosis. This article describes the various types of surgical portosystemic shunts, explains the anatomy and pathophysiology of these shunts, illustrates the pearls and pitfalls of different imaging modalities in the assessment of these shunts and demonstrates the role of radiologists in the interventional management of complications.

  13. Subendometrial enhancement and peritumoral enhancement for assessing endometrial cancer on dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Shinya [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kido, Aki, E-mail: akikido@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Baba, Tsukasa [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujimoto, Koji; Daido, Sayaka [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We have assessed the peritumoral enhancement (PTE), which mimics SEE on DCE. •We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SEE for the myometrial invasion and the frequency of PTE. •We assessed the relationship between these enhancements and important pathologic factors. •PTE Type 1 is the main factor causing the overestimation of myometrial invasion using SEE on DCE. •PTE Type 2 correlates the myometrial invasion and may play an important role in the diagnosis of LVSI. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of subendometrial enhancement (SEE) in assessing the myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, the frequency and clinical significance of peritumoral enhancement (PTE) on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging. Materials and methods: MR images of 147 patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively analyzed for intact SEE and PTEs: Type 1, a focal early enhancement peritumorally, and Type 2, an irregular thin-layered early intense enhancement peritumorally. Two radiologists independently assessed intact SEE and PTEs on DCE imaging and compared the lesions by the presence and depth of myometrial invasion, grade, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis. The relationship between SEE, PTEs, and each factor was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for SEE. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for myometrial invasion based on SEE disruption on DCE were 96.6%, 32.1–46.4%, 85.8–88.5%, 69.2–76.5%, and 84.4–87.1%. According to multivariate analysis, SEE significantly predicted myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). PTE Type 2 significantly predicted myometrial invasion presence (p < 0.05) and depth (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Diagnosis of myometrial invasion only by using SEE might be difficult on DCE-MRI due to the

  14. Subendometrial enhancement and peritumoral enhancement for assessing endometrial cancer on dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We have assessed the peritumoral enhancement (PTE), which mimics SEE on DCE. •We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SEE for the myometrial invasion and the frequency of PTE. •We assessed the relationship between these enhancements and important pathologic factors. •PTE Type 1 is the main factor causing the overestimation of myometrial invasion using SEE on DCE. •PTE Type 2 correlates the myometrial invasion and may play an important role in the diagnosis of LVSI. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of subendometrial enhancement (SEE) in assessing the myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, the frequency and clinical significance of peritumoral enhancement (PTE) on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging. Materials and methods: MR images of 147 patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively analyzed for intact SEE and PTEs: Type 1, a focal early enhancement peritumorally, and Type 2, an irregular thin-layered early intense enhancement peritumorally. Two radiologists independently assessed intact SEE and PTEs on DCE imaging and compared the lesions by the presence and depth of myometrial invasion, grade, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis. The relationship between SEE, PTEs, and each factor was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for SEE. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for myometrial invasion based on SEE disruption on DCE were 96.6%, 32.1–46.4%, 85.8–88.5%, 69.2–76.5%, and 84.4–87.1%. According to multivariate analysis, SEE significantly predicted myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). PTE Type 2 significantly predicted myometrial invasion presence (p < 0.05) and depth (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Diagnosis of myometrial invasion only by using SEE might be difficult on DCE-MRI due to the

  15. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  16. Genetic Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk in Primary Care Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Wylie; Culver, Julie; Pinsky, Linda; Hall, Sarah; Reynolds, Susan E; Yasui, Yutaka; Press, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Family history is increasingly important in primary care as a means to detect candidates for genetic testing or tailored prevention programs. We evaluated primary care physicians’ skills in assessing family history for breast cancer risk, using unannounced standardized patient visits to 86 general internists and family medicine practitioners in King County, WA. Transcripts of clinical encounters were coded to determine ascertainment of family history, risk assessment, and clinical follow-up. ...

  17. An assessment of various blood collection and transfer methods used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Fred

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four blood collection and transfer devices commonly used for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs were assessed for their consistency, accuracy and ease of use in the hands of laboratory technicians and village health workers. Methods Laboratory technicians and village health workers collected blood from a finger prick using each device in random order, and deposited the blood either on filter paper or into a suitable casette-type RDT. Consistency and accuracy of volume delivered was determined by comparing the measurements of the resulting blood spots/heights with the measurements of laboratory-prepared pipetted standard volumes. The effect of varying blood volumes on RDT sensitivity and ease of use was also observed. Results There was high variability in blood volume collected by the devices, with the straw and the loop, the most preferred devices, usually transferring volumes greater than intended, while the glass capillary tube and the plastic pipette transferring less volume than intended or none at all. Varying the blood volume delivered to RDTs indicated that this variation is critical to RDT sensitivity only when the transferred volume is very low. Conclusion None of the blood transfer devices assessed performed consistently well. Adequate training on their use is clearly necessary, with more development efforts for improved designs to be used by remote health workers, in mind.

  18. A "package solution" fast track program can reduce the diagnostic waiting time in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Johansen, Jørgen; Gano, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a fast track program for patients with suspicion of head and neck cancer (HNC) was introduced in Denmark to reduce unnecessary waiting time. The program was based on so called "package solutions" including pre-booked slots for outpatient evaluation, imaging, and diagnostic surgical...... the introduction, and the third interval represents the current situation. The median time from referral to first consultation was reduced from eight calendar days in group 1 to only one day in groups 2 and 3 (p ...

  19. Optical transillumination spectroscopy of breast tissue for cancer risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilge, Lothar; Blyschak, Kristina; Simick, Michelle; Jong, Roberta A.

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women. The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 1 in 10 thereby the highest out of all cancers. Breast cancer screening programs have been shown to decrease the mortality rates of women between ages 50-69, since cancers are detected at an earlier, more favourable stage. It is apparent that the development of breast cancer is a slow process following initial transformation of the breast tissue. Hence, there has been a strong effort within the research community to understand risk factors for the disease. Risk factors are defined as those characteristics that are more common in people with the disease when compared to the normal population. Quantification of an individual's breast cancer rate may lead that individual to modify her lifestyle and/or diet. Lifestyle changes could lead to a reduction in the incidence of breast cancer. Anatomically, the presence of increased amounts of fibroglandular tissue raises the estimated risk by up to 6 fold (correct for age), hence representing one of the strongest known risk factors pertaining to the entire female population. In this study the relative area of mammographic densities within a mammogram will be used as a global risk assessment tool. It has been shown previously that quantification of water, lipids, haemoglobin and other tissue chromophores of the optically interrogated breast tissue, which also gives rise to the mammographic densities, is feasible through near-infrared spectroscopy. Thus, the hypothesis for this study is that optical transillumination spectroscopy provides consistent and/or complementary information to conventional mammography in quantifying breast tissue density.

  20. Diagnostic value of lymph node metastasis by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Qin He

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The ADC values in CC tissues with LN metastasis were significantly lower than those without LN metastasis, suggesting that DWI appears to improve diagnostic performance and can be a useful adjunct imaging for identifying LN metastasis in CC patients.

  1. Quality assessment of diagnostic before-after studies: development of methodology in the context of a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Clare F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality assessment tools for primary studies of test accuracy are relatively well developed, although only one is validated (QUADAS, but very little work has been done to develop tools to quality-assess studies evaluating the impact of diagnostic testing on management of patients (diagnostic or therapeutic yield. The recent draft NICE Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal (2007 suggests QUADAS "as a useful starting point for appraising studies that evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a test" but does not mention how to quality assess diagnostic or therapeutic yield studies, in particular diagnostic before-after studies. In the context of undertaking a rapid systematic review of structural neuroimaging in psychosis for NICE, we describe the modifications that we made to QUADAS, our experience of this in practice and in relation to published theory on diagnostic or therapeutic yield studies. Methods The QUADAS tool was assessed for use in the review by two systematic reviewers with in-depth knowledge of the clinical area being reviewed and the types of studies being found in the searches that could answer the clinical question. Modifications were made following discussion as considered appropriate. Results Two QUADAS questions were removed altogether and. four additional questions were developed to capture additional quality issues not addressed by QUADAS. However, the developed checklist only partially helped to discern implications of the study designs on the results given. Conclusion The division between topic-specific and more generic quality items of relevance to diagnostic before-after studies is important. With more time, further work could have been done to create a better quality assessment tool, for example by incorporating some of the issues mentioned in previous work in this area. This paper is a discussion around quality assessment and is intended to offer insights into the types of issues that

  2. Esophageal Cancer: Role of Imaging in Primary Staging and Response Assessment Post Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Yvette

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the early detection and treatment of esophageal cancer have meant improved survival rates for patients with esophageal cancer. Accurate pretreatment and post-neoadjuvant treatment staging of esophageal cancer is essential for assessing operability and determining the optimum treatment plan. This article reviews the multimodality imaging approach in the diagnosis, staging, and assessment of treatment response in esophageal cancer. PMID:27342898

  3. Assessment of the potential impact of a reminder system on the reduction of diagnostic errors: a quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Paul M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized decision support systems (DSS have mainly focused on improving clinicians' diagnostic accuracy in unusual and challenging cases. However, since diagnostic omission errors may predominantly result from incomplete workup in routine clinical practice, the provision of appropriate patient- and context-specific reminders may result in greater impact on patient safety. In this experimental study, a mix of easy and difficult simulated cases were used to assess the impact of a novel diagnostic reminder system (ISABEL on the quality of clinical decisions made by various grades of clinicians during acute assessment. Methods Subjects of different grades (consultants, registrars, senior house officers and medical students, assessed a balanced set of 24 simulated cases on a trial website. Subjects recorded their clinical decisions for the cases (differential diagnosis, test-ordering and treatment, before and after system consultation. A panel of two pediatric consultants independently provided gold standard responses for each case, against which subjects' quality of decisions was measured. The primary outcome measure was change in the count of diagnostic errors of omission (DEO. A more sensitive assessment of the system's impact was achieved using specific quality scores; additional consultation time resulting from DSS use was also calculated. Results 76 subjects (18 consultants, 24 registrars, 19 senior house officers and 15 students completed a total of 751 case episodes. The mean count of DEO fell from 5.5 to 5.0 across all subjects (repeated measures ANOVA, p Conclusion The provision of patient- and context-specific reminders has the potential to reduce diagnostic omissions across all subject grades for a range of cases. This study suggests a promising role for the use of future reminder-based DSS in the reduction of diagnostic error.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF THE DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF MR ENTEROGRAPHY IN CROHN’S DISEASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Jafari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Crohn's disease beginsfrom an early age and in the course of many years it frequently flares. Regarding the multisegmental involvement of GI and also its numerous mural and extramural complications, MRI as a noninvasive,repeatable diagnostic imaging modality withoutusing harmful X ray may demonstrate different involvements of Crohn's disease throughout the abdomen and pelvis.Patients and Methods: Thirty-one patients who suffered from Crohn's disease and had been under colonoscopy and biopsy, after preparation of the small bowel, were studied at sequences of T2HASTE, TRUE FISP and post contrast VIBE using MRI. The existence of 10 signs including mural thickening, mural enhancement, stratification, comb sign, nodular thickening, stricture, fistula, mesentric lymph node, multisegmental involvement and mural edema was assessedResults: MR enterography with regard to the carriedout protocol of this study lead to the proper diagnosis of 19 cases out of 21 cases of Crohn's disease diagnosed by colonoscopy and biopsy.Generally, the sensitivity and specificity of MR enterography were assessed as 90.5% and 90%, respectively (PPV=95%, NPV=81.8%. The symptoms related to mural involvement of the small bowel including mural thickening more than 4 mm, wall enhancement,mural edema, stratification and multisegmental involvement were of high sensitivity and specificity; the increase in wall thickening and mural enhancement had the highest sensitivity and specificity.Conclusion: MR enterography has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing Crohn's disease activity and is an excellent imaging modality for assessment of the activity of this disease.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerus Steve

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

  6. A Design Research Study of a Curriculum and Diagnostic Assessment System for a Learning Trajectory on Equipartitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confrey, Jere; Maloney, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Design research studies provide significant opportunities to study new innovations and approaches and how they affect the forms of learning in complex classroom ecologies. This paper reports on a two-week long design research study with twelve 2nd through 4th graders using curricular materials and a tablet-based diagnostic assessment system, both…

  7. The accuracy of physical diagnostic tests for assessing meniscal lesions of the knee: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.J.P.M.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Opstelten, W.; Bijl, D.; Plas, C.G. van der; Bouter, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our systematic review summarizes the evidence about the accuracy of physical diagnostic tests for assessing meniscal lesions of the knee. SEARCH STRATEGY. We performed a literature search of MEDLINE (1966-1999) and EMBASE 1988- 1999) with additional reference tracking. SELECTION CRITERIA

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament lesions of the knee in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, H.P.; Luijsterburg, P.A.; Boks, S.S.; Heintjes, E.M.; Berger, M.Y.; Verhaar, J.A.; Koes, B.W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wagemakers HP, Luijsterburg PA, Boks SS, Heintjes EM, Berger MY, Verhaar JA, Koes BK, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Diagnostic accuracy of history taking and physical examination for assessing anterior cruciate ligament lesions of the knee in primary care. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2010;91:1452-9. Objective: To a

  9. Diagnosing Examinees' Attributes-Mastery Using the Bayesian Inference for Binomial Proportion: A New Method for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Seok John

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA) is a new theoretical framework for psychological and educational testing that is designed to provide detailed information about examinees' strengths and weaknesses in specific knowledge structures and processing skills. During the last three decades, more than a dozen psychometric models have been developed…

  10. Cancer-related fatigue: prevalence, assessment and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common symptoms reported by patients and is defined as the feeling of extraordinary exhaustion associated with a high level of distress, disproportionate to the patients' activity, and is not relieved by sleep or rest. Prevalence rates range from 59 to nearly 100% depending on the clinical status of the cancer. Except for chemotherapy-induced anemia, the mechanisms responsible for CRF are not yet completely understood. Therefore, CRF may be influenced by multiple possible somatic and psychosocial factors. CRF has been shown as either a short-term side effect of adjuvant cancer therapy or a chronic long-term late effect. Compared with other symptoms, such as pain or nausea, CRF is more distressing and often long lasting, with a strong impact on daily living and quality of life. The concept of fatigue has been widely elaborated and operationalized in different dimensions within the last few decades and specific instruments assessing fatigue in cancer populations have been developed. To support patients and alleviate CRF symptoms various treatment strategies are discussed in this article, including information and counseling, enhancement of activities, exercise and sports therapy, psychosocial interventions as well as pharmacological treatment. In most Western countries, treatment of CRF has been identified as a priority for advancing cancer patient care. This article gives an overview of the concept of CRF, its pathogenesis, assessment and treatment strategies. PMID:21831025

  11. Metal concentrations in hair of patients with various head and neck cancers as a diagnostic aid

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak, Anna; Napierala, Marta; Golasik, Magdalena; Herman, Małgorzata; Walas, Stanisław; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Szyfter, Witold; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Golusinski, Wojciech; Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Florek, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancers are one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. This paper attempts to evaluate disturbances of homeostasis of the necessary elements (calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese) and changes in the levels of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium VI) in hair of patients with head and neck cancers, as well as people without a diagnosed neoplastic disease. In order to quantify the necessary elements and toxic metals, a method using ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniqu...

  12. MicroRNAs: Promising chemoresistance biomarkers in gastric cancer with diagnostic and therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Matuszcak, Christiane; Haier, Joerg; Hummel, Richard; Lindner, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer worldwide and ranks second in global cancer mortality statistics. Perioperative chemotherapy plays an important role in the management and treatment of advanced stage disease. However, response to chemotherapy varies widely, with some patients presenting no or only minor response to treatment. Hence, chemotherapy resistance is a major clinical problem that impacts on outcome. Unfortunately, to date there are no reliable biomarkers available...

  13. Moving Forward in Human Cancer Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Paules, Richard S.; Aubrecht, Jiri; Corvi, Raffaella; Garthoff, Bernward; Kleinjans, Jos C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The current safety paradigm for assessing carcinogenic properties of drugs, cosmetics, industrial chemicals, and environmental exposures relies mainly on in vitro genotoxicity testing followed by 2-year rodent bioassays. This testing battery is extremely sensitive but has low specificity. Furthermore, rodent bioassays are associated with high costs, high animal burden, and limited predictive value for human risks. Objectives We provide a response to a growing appeal for a paradigm ...

  14. The Clinician's Toolbox: Assessing the Sexual Impacts of Cancer on Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer (AYAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Aubin, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Cancer can have a significant impact on numerous domains of AYAC sexuality. The assessment of and attention to the impact of sexuality on AYAC is crucial in order to provide effective and comprehensive quality patient cancer care. Aubin S and Perez S. The clinician's toolbox: assessing the sexual impacts of cancer on adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYAC. Sex Med 2015;3:198–212.

  15. Advanced Electrochemical Platforms for Cancer Diagnostics based on Nanoswitchable DNA Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferapontova, Elena

    Cancer is an important chronic disease and a serious public health problem. One in three can be expected to be diagnosed with cancer in our lifetimes and one in four will die of it. One of the most important factors in the fight against cancer is its early and reliable detection and greater...... and specific proteins, shown to be indicators of cancer development, are of high priority. Great efforts are made to develop new nanobiotechnologies to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of analysis. Among them, combination of electrochemistry and DNA nanotechnology allowed the development of extremely...

  16. Comparative diagnostic values of grey-scale USS versus CT scan in the primary management of gynaecological pelvic mass with emphasis on ovarian cancer detection and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeka, B A; Atalla, A; Deemer, H

    2001-09-01

    Thirty-one consecutive patients with clinical pelvic masses suspected to be gynaecological in origin were initially investigated by transabdominal grey-scale ultrasound (TAUS) and then by computed tomography (CT) prior to surgery and or chemotherapy. Retrospective comparative review of the reports of the two imaging methods was carried out on each patient and then correlated with surgical findings and histopathology report. The diagnostic potentials of the two imaging methods with respect to ovarian cancer detection and staging were particularly emphasised. The results were analysed and compared with published results of similar studies in the literature. Compared with TAUS we found CT scan more sensitive in making an overall presumptive diagnosis of pelvic mass (15/31, 48% vs. 9/31, 29%). The sensitivity of CT scan for all ovarian cancer detection was greater than that of TAUS (5/6, 83% vs. 4/6, 67%) but TAUS was more specific. The false negative and false positive values for cancer detection were comparable. Both methods were equally efficacious in detecting and staging advanced ovarian cancer cases (4/4, 100%). Visualisation of the ovaries occurred more readily with TAUS, which in addition offered a more precise assessment of ovarian tumour size. There were no significant differences in the two methods regarding tumour localisation (organ of origin), characterisation and the details of descriptive report when no presumptive diagnosis is offered. Overall CT did not offer significant additional features and did not result in changes in management plan in any of the patients reviewed. The marginal benefit of CT scan over TAUS will not warrant its routine usage in the diagnosis of gynaecological pelvic mass. Our findings largely reflected the conclusions of published reports in the literature. PMID:12521811

  17. The assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer: cut-off values for the FAACT–A/CS and the VAS for appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, S.; Ruijgrok, C.; Ostelo, R. W.; de Vet, H. C. W.; Verheul, H.M.W.; de van der Schueren, M. A. E.; Langius, J. A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anorexia is a frequently observed symptom in patients with cancer and is associated with limited food intake and decreased quality of life. Diagnostic instruments such as the Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale (A/CS) of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) questionnaire and the visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite have been recommended in the assessment of anorexia, but validated cut-off values are lacking. This study aimed to obtain cut-off values of these instrum...

  18. Solid cancer incidence among Chinese medical diagnostic x-ray workers, 1950-1995: Estimation of radiation-related risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijuan; Inskip, Peter D; Wang, Jixian; Kwon, Deukwoo; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhang, Liangan; Wang, Qin; Fan, Saijun

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to estimate solid cancer risk attributable to long-term, fractionated occupational exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Based on cancer incidence for the period 1950-1995 in a cohort of 27,011 Chinese medical diagnostic X-ray workers and a comparison cohort of 25,782 Chinese physicians who did not use X-ray equipment in their work, we used Poisson regression to fit excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) dose-response models for incidence of all solid cancers combined. Radiation dose reconstruction was based on a previously published method that relied on simulating measurements for multiple X-ray machines, workplaces and working conditions, information about protective measures, including use of lead aprons, and work histories. The resulting model was used to estimate calendar year-specific badge dose calibrated as personal dose equivalent (Sv). To obtain calendar year-specific colon doses (Gy), we applied a standard organ conversion factor. A total of 1,643 cases of solid cancer were identified in 1.45 million person-years of follow-up. In both ERR and EAR models, a statistically significant radiation dose-response relationship was observed for solid cancers as a group. Averaged over both sexes, and using colon dose as the dose metric, the estimated ERR/Gy was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.48, 1.45), and the EAR was 22 per 10(4)PY-Gy (95% CI: 14, 32) at age 50. We obtained estimates of the ERR and EAR of solid cancers per unit dose that are compatible with those derived from other populations chronically exposed to low dose-rate occupational or environmental radiation.

  19. Diagnostic strategies and the incidence of prostate cancer:reasons for the low reported incidence of prostate cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Zhang; Shan Wu; Li-Rong Guo; Xue-Jian Zhao

    2009-01-01

    We have analysed the reasons for the low reported incidence of prostate cancer in China and argue for early diagnosis and treatment of this disease.According to the 2002 database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC),the age-standardized incidence of prostate cancer in China is 1.6/105 person years (PY),with a mortality rate of 1.0/105PY and mortality-to-incidence rate ratio (MR/IR)=0.63.The MR/IR ratio of prostate cancer in China was found to be higher than the average in Asia (MR/IR=0.57) and much higher than that in North America (MR/IR=0.13).These data indicate that in China most prostate cancers were in the advanced stages at the time of diagnosis,and that patients had a short survival time thereafter.In 2004,Stamey et al.reported a retrospective American study of prostate cancer for the years 1983-2003.It was shown that most cases of prostate cancer detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening were in the advanced stage at the start of this 20-year period.These early follow-up data are quite similar to the results obtained from mass PSA screening of elderly men in Changchun,China.However,after the American programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer were accepted,tumours were diagnosed at earlier stages.On the basis of these findings,mass screening should be performed in the whole of China using serum PSA to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. Diagnostic and therapeutic path of breast cancer: effectiveness, appropriateness, and costs – results from the DOCMa study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovagnoli MR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Maria Rosaria Giovagnoli,1 Adriana Bonifacino,2 Cosimo Neglia,3 Marco Benvenuto,3,4 Francesco Vincenzo Sambati,3 Lorenzo Giolli,5 Alessandra Giovagnoli,6 Prisco Piscitelli7,8 1Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, 2Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Translational Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Sant’Andrea University Hospital, Rome, 3Euro Mediterranean Scientific Biomedical Institute (ISBEM, Brindisi, 4Department of Economics, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, 5eCampus University, Novedrate, 6Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, 7Coleman Ltd, 8IOS, Southern Italy Hospital Institute, Naples, ItalyObjective: An increase in breast cancer incidence has been documented in Italy and in other countries, and some women decide by themselves to undergo diagnostic examinations outside the official screening campaigns. The aim of this paper was to analyze – in terms of effectiveness, appropriate access, and related costs – the path spontaneously followed by a sample of Italian women for the early diagnosis of breast cancer.Subjects and methods: A total of 143 women who consecutively referred themselves to the breast cancer outpatient facilities at the Sant’Andrea University Hospital in Rome from May to June 2007 were enrolled in the study, gave their consent, and were screened according to their individual risk factors for breast cancer. The entire diagnostic and therapeutic path followed in the previous 2 years by each of them, either at Sant’Andrea or in other medical facilities, was reviewed and evaluated in terms of its operative efficiency and fair economic value.Results: The subjects’ mean age was 47.5 years (standard deviation 13.6 years; 55% of the women were <50 years old (28% <40 years, and were thus not included in the official screening campaigns; 97 women (70% were requesting a routine control; and 49% of them had already undergone four to seven examinations before the

  1. Evaluation of the efficiency of biofield diagnostic system in breast cancer detection using clinical study results and classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbhuraam, Vinitha Sree; Ng, E Y K; Kaw, G; Acharya U, Rajendra; Chong, B K

    2012-02-01

    The division of breast cancer cells results in regions of electrical depolarisation within the breast. These regions extend to the skin surface from where diagnostic information can be obtained through measurements of the skin surface electropotentials using sensors. This technique is used by the Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) to detect the presence of malignancy. This paper evaluates the efficiency of BDS in breast cancer detection and also evaluates the use of classifiers for improving the accuracy of BDS. 182 women scheduled for either mammography or ultrasound or both tests participated in the BDS clinical study conducted at Tan Tock Seng hospital, Singapore. Using the BDS index obtained from the BDS examination and the level of suspicion score obtained from mammography/ultrasound results, the final BDS result was deciphered. BDS demonstrated high values for sensitivity (96.23%), specificity (93.80%), and accuracy (94.51%). Also, we have studied the performance of five supervised learning based classifiers (back propagation network, probabilistic neural network, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and a fuzzy classifier), by feeding selected features from the collected dataset. The clinical study results show that BDS can help physicians to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions, and thereby, aid in making better biopsy recommendations.

  2. Evaluation of the efficiency of biofield diagnostic system in breast cancer detection using clinical study results and classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbhuraam, Vinitha Sree; Ng, E Y K; Kaw, G; Acharya U, Rajendra; Chong, B K

    2012-02-01

    The division of breast cancer cells results in regions of electrical depolarisation within the breast. These regions extend to the skin surface from where diagnostic information can be obtained through measurements of the skin surface electropotentials using sensors. This technique is used by the Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) to detect the presence of malignancy. This paper evaluates the efficiency of BDS in breast cancer detection and also evaluates the use of classifiers for improving the accuracy of BDS. 182 women scheduled for either mammography or ultrasound or both tests participated in the BDS clinical study conducted at Tan Tock Seng hospital, Singapore. Using the BDS index obtained from the BDS examination and the level of suspicion score obtained from mammography/ultrasound results, the final BDS result was deciphered. BDS demonstrated high values for sensitivity (96.23%), specificity (93.80%), and accuracy (94.51%). Also, we have studied the performance of five supervised learning based classifiers (back propagation network, probabilistic neural network, linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines, and a fuzzy classifier), by feeding selected features from the collected dataset. The clinical study results show that BDS can help physicians to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions, and thereby, aid in making better biopsy recommendations. PMID:20703753

  3. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum CA19-9 and TGF-β contents in patients with pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical diagnostic value of combined determination of serum contents of CA19-9 and TGF-β in patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: Serum CA19-9 (with RIA) and TGF-β (with ELISA) contents were deter- mined in 30 patients with pancreatic cancer and 35 controls. Results: The serum CA19-9 and TGF-β contents in patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). The diagnostic sensitivity of CA19-9 for pancreatic cancer was 70.8%, lower than that of TGF-β (80.2%, P<0.05). The diagnostic specificity of CA19-9 and TGF-β was 90.2% and 93.4% respectively. Conclusion: Both determinations of serum CA19-9 and TGF-β contents would yield high specificity for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Sensitity of TGF-β determination was higher than that of CA19-9 determination. Combined determination of CA19-9 and TGF-β would improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients with pancreatic cancer. (authors)

  4. Advances in circulating microRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers for ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zheng; Jia-Yu Liu; Feng-Ju Song; Ke-Xin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal malignant gynecological tumors. More than 70%of patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at advanced stage. The 5-year survival in patients with advanced ovarian cancer is less than 30%because of the lack of effective biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized treatment. MicroRNA (miR) is a class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression primarily through post-transcriptional repression. Many studies on tissue miR in ovarian cancer have been carried out and show great potential in clinical practice. However, tissue samples are not easily available because sampling causes injury. Researchers have started to focus on plasma/serum miR, assuming that blood samples may replace tissue samples in miR research in the future. Plasma/serum miR research is still in its early stages. Studies on its function in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer have achieved some progress, but plasma/serum miR profiling for prognosis and personalized treatment of ovarian cancer remains unknown. A thorough understanding of the function of plasma/serum miR in ovarian cancer will facilitate early diagnosis and improve treatment for ovarian cancer.

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of the empirical lymphocyte genome sensitivity (LGS) assay: implications for improving cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Diana; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Gopalan, Rajendran; Ghaderi, Nader; Scally, Andrew J; Britland, Stephen T; Jacobs, Badie K; Reynolds, P Dominic; Davies, Justin; Wright, Andrew L; Al-Ghazal, Shariff; Sharpe, David; Denyer, Morgan C

    2014-10-01

    Lymphocyte responses from 208 individuals: 20 with melanoma, 34 with colon cancer, and 4 with lung cancer (58), 18 with suspected melanoma, 28 with polyposis, and 10 with COPD (56), and 94 healthy volunteers were examined. The natural logarithm of the Olive tail moment (OTM) was plotted for exposure to UVA through 5 different agar depths (100 cell measurements/depth) and analyzed using a repeated measures regression model. Responses of patients with cancer plateaued after treatment with different UVA intensities, but returned toward control values for healthy volunteers. For precancerous conditions and suspected cancers, intermediate responses occurred. ROC analysis of mean log OTMs, for cancers plus precancerous/suspect conditions vs. controls, cancer vs. precancerous/suspect conditions plus controls, and cancer vs. controls, gave areas under the curve of 0.87, 0.89, and 0.93, respectively (P<0.001). Optimization allowed test sensitivity or specificity to approach 100% with acceptable complementary measures. This modified comet assay could represent a stand-alone test or an adjunct to other investigative procedures for detecting cancer.

  6. Classification and Diagnostic Output Prediction of Cancer Using Gene Expression Profiling and Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, C.; Gernaey, Krist

    2008-01-01

    the subtype classification 3 data sets solely on the basis of molecular-level monitoring. Compared to unsupervised clustering, the supervised method performed better for discriminating between cancer types and cancer subtypes for the leukemia data set. The performance of the proposed method, using only...

  7. The diagnostic accuracy of multidetector row CT for evaluating the axillary lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Doo Kyung; Kim, Jun Man; Yim, Hyun Ee [Ajou University, College of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    We investigated the CT (computed tomography) findings of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs), and we analyzed the diagnostic performance of multidetector row CT (MDCT) for detecting axillary LN metastases in patients with breast cancer. We investigated 59 patients who preoperatively underwent chest MDCT, and they underwent sentinel LN biopsy ro whole axillary LN dissection. We analyzed the morphologic features, the degree of enhancement and the delayed enhancement pattern. We classified the patients into the non-metastatic LN group and the metastatic LN group, and we calculated the diagnostic performance of MDCT for detecting metastatic LNs. When both the morphologic and quantitative criteria were consistent, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 58.1%, 100%, 100% and 68.3%, respectively, and MDCT accurately detected metastatic LNs in 2 patients that were false negative on sentinel LN biopsy. When the morphologic and quantitative criteria were consistent, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 87.1%, 53.6%, 67.5% and 78.9%, respectively. However, MDCT could not detect metastatic LNs, including two micrometastases (a total of 8 micrometastases) that were in each of four patients. MDCT can be used to perform the morphology and quantitative analysis of axillary LNs, and this modality has excellent specificity and a PPV for detecting metastatic LNs when the both of the diagnostic criteria are consistent.

  8. Cardio-miRNAs and onco-miRNAs: circulating miRNA-based diagnostics for non-cancerous and cancerous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru eKatoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases and cancers are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that primarily repress target mRNAs. Here, miR-24, miR-125b, miR-195 and miR-214 were selected as representative cardio-miRs that are upregulated in human heart failure. To bridge the gap between miRNA studies in cardiology and oncology, the targets and functions of these miRNAs in cardiovascular diseases and cancers will be reviewed. ACVR1B, BCL2, BIM, eNOS, FGFR3, JPH2, MEN1, MYC, p16 and ST7L are miR-24 targets that have been experimentally validated in human cells. ARID3B, BAK1, BCL2, BMPR1B, ERBB2, FGFR2, IL6R, MUC1, SITR7, Smoothened, STAT3, TET2 and TP53 are representative miR-125b targets. ACVR2A, BCL2, CCND1, E2F3, GLUT3, MYB, RAF1, VEGF, WEE1 and WNT7A are representative miR-195 targets. BCL2L2, ß-catenin, BIM, CADM1, EZH2, FGFR1, NRAS, PTEN, TP53 and TWIST1 are representative miR-214 targets. miR-125b is a good cardio-miR that protects cardiomyocytes; miR-195 is a bad cardio-miR that elicits cardiomyopathy and heart failure; miR-24 and miR-214 are bi-functional cardio-miRs. By contrast, miR-24, miR-125b, miR-195 and miR-214 function as oncogenic or tumor suppressor miRNAs in a cancer (subtype-dependent manner. Circulating miR-24 is elevated in diabetes, breast cancer and lung cancer. Circulating miR-195 is elevated in acute myocardial infarction, breast cancer, prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma. Circulating miR-125b and miR-214 are elevated in some cancers. Cardio-miRs and onco-miRs bear some similarities in functions and circulation profiles. Because circulating miRNA profiles are modulated by genetic and environmental factors and are dysregulated by genetic and epigenetic alterations in somatic cells, circulating miRNA association studies (CMASs within several thousands of cases each for common non-cancerous diseases and major cancers are necessary for miRNA-based diagnostics.

  9. Assessment of mental disorders in preschoolers: the multiaxial profiles of diagnostic classification 0-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Sandra; Rossi, Giuseppe; Curzio, Olivia; Felloni, Beatrice; Grassi, Cinzia; Intorcia, Claudia; Petrozzi, Angela; Salsedo, Helen; Muratori, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    A group of 291 preschoolers consecutively enrolled at the Early Childhood Mental Health Service of IRCSS Stella Maris (Italy) were assessed using the Diagnostic Classification Zero to Three (DC:0-3; ZERO TO THREE, 1994). All active variables were extracted from its five axes, and a multiple correspondence analysis was performed. This analysis evidenced four multiaxial clinical profiles: (a) Multisystem developmental disorders (Axis I) were correlated with the underinvolved quality of relationship (Axis II), medical conditions (Axis III), and a low level of emotional functioning (Axis V); (b) regulatory disorders (Axis I) were correlated with maladaptive or angry/hostile relationship (Axis II), medical conditions (Axis III), and an immature level of emotional functioning (Axis V); (c) affective disorders (Axis I) were correlated with anxious/tense relationship (Axis II), stress factors (Axis IV), and emotional functioning vulnerable to stress (Axis V); and (d) adjustment, feeding, and sleeping disorders (Axis I) were correlated with mild relationship disorders (Axis II) and important impact of stress factors (Axis IV). These findings support DC:0-3 as a valid tool to detect multiaxial profiles that could be useful to plan comprehensive treatments of the disorders.

  10. The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism.

  11. Dose assessment for medical exposure from diagnostic X-rays using a human voxel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korean voxel model, KORMAN, segmented from whole-body MR data of an adult male, was used to calculate organ equivalent doses and effective doses due to diagnostic X-ray examinations. Calculated doses were normalized to entrance air kerma and compared with those derived using a stylized mathematical model, MIRD5. General purposed Monte Carlo code, MCNPX 2.3 was used for simulation of X-ray procedure. Korean voxel model picked up 0.048 Sv/Gy of effective dose per unit air kerma from a single chest PA examination, and 0.277 Sv/Gy from abdomen AP examination. These calculated results are higher than those MIRD5. The difference of effective doses between Korean voxel model and MIRD5 was within 32%, which were caused by significant discrepancies of organ equivalent doses between the two models. As MIRD5 is representing reference man, whereas KORMAN is segmented from specific individual MR data, it is recognized that variation among individuals could be significant for dose assessment in X-ray examination. Substantial differences in calculated doses between voxel and mathematical models suggested that existing mathematical models should be revised. (author)

  12. The validity of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale for assessing pathological grandiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Donnellan, M Brent; Ackerman, Robert A; Thomas, Katherine M; Morey, Leslie C; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Although controversy surrounds the definition and measurement of narcissism, the claim that pathological grandiosity is central to the construct generates little disagreement. Yet representations of pathological grandiosity vary across measures of narcissism, leading to conceptual confusion in the literature. The validity of a DSM-based measure of pathological narcissism, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 Narcissistic Personality Disorder scale (PDQ-4 NPD), was evaluated in 1 clinical and 3 nonclinical samples (total N=2,391) for its ability to measure pathological grandiosity. Findings were generally supportive: average scores were higher in the clinical than nonclinical samples and the PDQ-4 NPD scale correlated most strongly with (a) other measures of NPD; (b) other DSM Cluster B personality disorders; (c) traits involving antagonism, hostility, and assertiveness; and (d) interpersonal distress and disaffiliative dominance. However, the low internal consistency of the PDQ-4 NPD scale and unexpected associations with Cluster A and obsessive-compulsive features point to potential psychometric weaknesses with this instrument. These findings are useful for evaluating the PDQ-4 NPD scale and for informing ongoing debates regarding how to define and assess pathological narcissism. PMID:23101760

  13. [Performance Assessment of a Newly Developed Rapid Diagnostic Reagent for Human Immunodeficiency Virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagiri, Itsuhiro; Wada, Hideho; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Fukuda, Hirofumi; Tasaka, Taizo; Sugihara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Extremely early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been considered highly important for its treatment. We conducted a performance assessment of a newly developed rapid diagnostic reagent for HIV by using a fourth-generation immunochromatographic assay (Alere HIV Combo). We used whole-blood, plasma, and serum samples obtained from 250 Japanese adults who visited the Kawasaki Medical School Hospital and underwent HIV screening tests. We also used 12 types of commercial HIV-1 sero- conversion panels and World Health Organization standard antigens. This method, which has a detection sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.3%, was as accurate as the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) method. In a sensitivity test using seroconversion panels in the early phase of infection, the mean duration until positive conversion was 19.3 days. With this method having a high detection sensitivity for HIV-1p24 antigen, the results from whole-blood samples were the same as those from plasma and serum samples. Therefore, it can be considered as a useful rapid measurement method for general practice. PMID:26821522

  14. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for assessing the burden of malaria at delivery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeru; Saxena, Ajay; Awadhia, S B; Shrivastava, Rita; Singh, M P

    2005-11-01

    All pregnant women who came for delivery at a district hospital in Mandla and a civil hospital in Maihar were screened for Plasmodium falciparum (placental parasitemia using a rapid test and microscopy and peripheral and umbilical cord parasitemia using microscopy alone). Two rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), Paracheck Pf and ParaHITf, were used. At Mandla, the sensitivity and specificity of the Paracheck Pf for P. falciparum were 93% and 84%, respectively. The positive predictive values (PPVs) and negative predictive values (NPVs) were 50% and 99%, respectively. At Maihar, the sensitivity and specificity of the ParaHITf for P. falciparum were 87.5% and 97%, respectively. The PPVs and NPVs were 75.4% and 98.7%, respectively. Placental infection was significantly associated with low birth weight. The RDTs for the identification of P. falciparum were more sensitive in placental blood than the placental blood smear by microscopy. Thus, the RDTs should be useful for rapid assessment of malaria at delivery. PMID:16282293

  15. Inflammatory breast cancer in a previously treated case of breast cancer: a diagnostic dilemma for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravind, Rahul; Kumar, Priyadarshini Venkatram; Prabaharan, Sasikala

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a relatively rare and aggressive subtype, accounting for nearly 2.5% of all diagnosed breast cancers worldwide. It is usually characterised by an acute onset, rapid clinical progression, poor prognosis and micrometastasis at the time of presentation. Prompt recognition of clinical symptoms and identification of warning signs are vital in diagnosing and appropriately treating a patient with IBC. PMID:27060073

  16. Serum tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 in the diagnostics of squamous cell lung cancer - comparison with CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to test the diagnostic value tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 for squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) in comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Ninety-one patients were induced in this study: 56 with SQCLC - Group I, 25 with other types of lung cancer - Group II, 10 with benign respiratory tract diseases - Group III. Median CYFRA 21-1 serum concentration (ng/ml) was: in Group I: 4.52 (0.94 - >16), in Group II: 3.58 (1.72 - >16), in Group III: 2.05 (0.99 - 3.41). Median CEA serum concentration (ng/ml) was: in Group I: 4.49 (076- >20), in Group II: 3.32 (1.17 - >20), in Group III: 3.09 (1.84 - 6.37). There was a highly significant difference between the levels of CYFRA 21-1 in group I and Group III (p < 0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between the levels of CEA in Group I and III. Sensitivity of CYFRA 21-1 by the cut-off 3.33 ng/ml in the diagnostics of SQCLC was 0.68, specificity 0.090, positive predictive value 0.91, negative predictive value 0.65. Sensitivity of CEA by cut-off 4.61 ng/ml was 0.5 by the same specificity 0.90. CYFRA 21-1 has high sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value in the diagnostics of SQCLC. Sensitivity of CYFRA 21-1 is significantly higher than sensitivity of CEA in this settings. (author)

  17. Differences in Regional Diagnostic Strategies and in Intended Versus Actual First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triage of patients with ovarian cancer to primary debulking surgery (PDS) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is challenging. In Denmark, the use of NACT has increased, but substantial differences in the use of NACT or PDS exist among centers. We aimed to characterize the differences...... and 4% never had debulking surgery. Of the 288 patients (53%) referred to NACT, 44% were never debulked. Fourteen patients (3%) were referred to palliative treatment. The use of different imaging modalities, diagnostic laparoscopy, and laparotomy varied significantly among the centers. Diagnostic......-line treatments as well as in the diagnostic process and use of NACT, calling for further discussion on diagnostic strategy and therapeutically approach for patients with advanced ovarian cancer....

  18. Molecular Pathology and Personalized Medicine: The Dawn of a New Era in Companion Diagnostics—Practical Considerations about Companion Diagnostics for Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Plönes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Companion diagnostics (CDx have become a major tool in molecular pathology and assist in therapy decisions in an increasing number of various cancers. Particularly, the developments in lung cancer have been most impressing in the last decade and consequently lung cancer mutation testing and molecular profiling has become a major business of diagnostic laboratories. However, it has become difficult to decide which biomarkers are currently relevant for therapy decisions, as many of the new biomarkers are not yet approved as therapy targets, remain in the status of clinical studies, or still have not left the experimental phase. The current review is focussed on those markers that do have current therapy implications, practical implications arising from the respective companion diagnostics, and thus is focused on daily practice.

  19. A panel of autoantibodies as potential early diagnostic serum biomarkers in patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Mingmei; Xu, Shuang; Li, Siyao; Sun, Baosheng; Lee, Kuang-Hui; Liu, Linlin; Sun, Shilong

    2016-07-01

    The study was designed to test whether circulating autoantibodies against associated antigens (TAAs) were altered in early cervical cancer and benign cervical tumors. A total of 111 cervical cancer patients, 137 cervical benign tumor patients, and 160 healthy volunteers matched in age were recruited in this study. The expression of autoantibodies was tested using in-house developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with linear peptide envelope antigens derived from TAAs. One-way ANOVA test showed that there was no difference in the CD25 autoantibody expression among the cervical cancer group, benign tumor group, and healthy control group (P = 0.063; P = 0.191). The expression of autoantibodies against survivin and TP53 in the cervical cancer group was significantly higher than that in the benign tumor group (P cervical cancer group than in the healthy control group (P = 0.010; P = 0.001), while autoantibodies in the cervical cancer group showed no difference in expression compared with that in the benign tumor group. The panel of five TAAs showed a sensitivity of 37.8 % and a specificity of 90 %, which was much higher than the sensitivity of the single-TAA testing group. The data from this study further support our previous hypothesis that the detection of autoantibodies for the diagnosis of a specific cancer type can be enhanced using a panel of several selected TAAs as target antigens.

  20. Assessment of quality of life in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Infante-Cossío, Pedro; Hernández-Guisado, José María; Hens-Aumente, Elena; Gutierrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2008-11-01

    Quality of life (QL) in oral cancer patients has become one of the most important parameters to consider in the diagnosis and post-treatment follow-up. The purpose of this article has been to review the papers published that study the QL in oral cancer patients, the different QL questionnaires used, the clinical results obtained, and the systematic revisions available in the indexed literature for the last 10 years. The term QL appears as a keyword in an increasing number of articles throughout the past 10 years; however, few studies focus on oral cancer. Most of them assess all head and neck cancers, which conform to a heterogeneous group with several different features depending on location (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx and salivary glands). Most studies evaluate QL in short periods of time, normally within the first year after the diagnosis. Series do not discern between different therapeutic options, and they generally center on Northern European or Northern American populations. There are few instruments translated and validated into Spanish that measure QL, a fundamental characteristic to link QL to own patients' socio-cultural parameters. Data related with QL are mostly related to patient (age, sex, co-morbidity), tumour (location, size), and treatment (surgical treatment, radiotherapy association, reconstruction, cervical dissection, and/or feeding tube). Nowadays QL's assessment is considered an essential component of an oral cancer patient as well as the survival, morbidity and years free of disease. Although many aspects related to QL in oral cancer patients have been published throughout the past 10 years, more systematic research is needed to be able to apply it on a daily basis.

  1. Recurrence Incidence in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers and the Importance of Diagnostic Iodine-131 Scintigraphy in Clinical Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Hatipoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC are tumors with good prognosis. However, local recurrence or distant metastasis can be observed. In our study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of recurrence and the importance of diagnostic iodine-131 whole body scan (WBS in clinical follow-up in patients with DTC. Methods: The clinical data of 217 patients with DTC who were followed-up more than 3 years were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of recurrence was investigated in a group of patients who had radioactive iodine (RAI treatment and showed no sign of residual thyroid tissue or metastasis with diagnostic WBS that was performed at 6-12 months after therapy and had a thyroglobulin (Tg level lower than 2 ng/dl. Results: At the time of diagnosis, ten cases had thyroid capsule invasion, 25 cases had extra-thyroid soft tissue invasion, 11 patients showed lymph node metastasis and four patients had distant organ metastasis. One hundred forty-five patients had RAI treatment at ablation dose (75-100 mCi, whereas 35 patients had RAI treatment at metastasis dose (150-200 mCi. Thirty-seven patients with papillary microcarcinoma did not receive RAI treatment. In 12 (%7.5 of the 160 patients who were considered as “successful ablation”, a recurrence was identified. Recurrence was detected by diagnostic WBS in all cases and stimulated Tg level was <2 ng/dL with the exception of the two cases who had distant metastasis. Conclusion: Identification of pathological findings with WBS in patients who developed local recurrence in the absence of elevated Tg highlights the importance of diagnostic WBS in clinical follow-up.

  2. The significance of amperometric detection of alkaline phosphatase in colorectal cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Anton; Freynd, Genrietta; Katsnelson, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world; it takes the second place in oncological morbidity. The ALP activity of intestinal epithelial differentiation marker (ALP) was investigated in surgical material and colon biopsies of 47 patients with the electrochemical method using biosensors (biochips). The average current obtained in the studies of colorectal cancer tissues was lower than in the studies of intact colon mucosa. Histology of tumors matched the differentiation types/stages of adenocarcinomas. The study of ALP activity in the surgical material and biopsies of colon tumors can become one of the most useful methods for evaluating the functional atypia in tumor tissue.

  3. The Role of Device Diagnostic Algorithms in the Assessment and Management of Patients with Systolic Heart Failure: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. T. Ha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization due to heart failure (HF exacerbation represents a major burden in health care and portends a poor long-term prognosis for patients. As a result, there is considerable interest to develop novel tools and strategies to better detect onset of volume overload, as HF hospitalizations may be reduced if appropriate interventions can be promptly delivered. One such innovation is the use of device-based diagnostic parameters in HF patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD and/or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT devices. These diagnostic algorithms can effectively monitor and detect changes in patients' HF status, as well as predict one's risk of HF hospitalization. This paper will review the role of these device diagnostics parameters in the assessment and management of HF patients in ambulatory settings. In addition, the integration of these novel algorithms in existing HF disease management models will be discussed.

  4. How reassuring is a normal breast ultrasound in assessment of a screen-detected mammographic abnormality? A review of interval cancers after assessment that included ultrasound evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M.L. [Breastscreen WA, Perth (Australia); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia); Welman, C.J. [Breastscreen WA, Perth (Australia); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia); Department of Radiology, Fremantle Hospital and Health Service, Fremantle (Australia); Celliers, L.M., E-mail: liesl.celliers@health.wa.gov.au [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth (Australia); Department of Radiology, Fremantle Hospital and Health Service, Fremantle (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Aim: To review factors resulting in a false-negative outcome or delayed cancer diagnosis in women recalled for further evaluation, including ultrasound, after an abnormal screening mammogram. Materials and methods: Of 646,692 screening mammograms performed between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004, 34,533 women were recalled for further assessment. Nine hundred and sixty-four interval cancers were reported in this period. Forty-six of these women had been recalled for further assessment, which specifically included ultrasound evaluation in the preceding 24 months, and therefore, met the inclusion criteria for this study. Screening mammograms, further mammographic views, ultrasound scans, clinical findings, and histopathology results were retrospectively reviewed by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The interval cancer developed in the contralateral breast (n = 9), ipsilateral breast, but different site (n = 6), and ipsilateral breast at the same site (n = 31) as the abnormality for which they had recently been recalled. In the latter group, 10 were retrospectively classified as a false-negative outcome, nine had a delay in obtaining a biopsy, and 12 had a delay due to a non-diagnostic initial biopsy. Various factors relating to these outcomes are discussed. Conclusion: Out of 34,533 women who attended for an assessment visit and the 46 women who subsequently developed an interval breast cancer, 15 were true interval cancers, 10 had a false-negative assessment outcome, and 21 had a delay to cancer diagnosis on the basis of a number of factors. When there is discrepancy between the imaging and histopathology results, a repeat biopsy rather than early follow-up would have avoided a delay in some cases. A normal ultrasound examination should not deter the radiologist from proceeding to stereotactic biopsy, if the index mammographic lesion is suspicious of malignancy.

  5. How reassuring is a normal breast ultrasound in assessment of a screen-detected mammographic abnormality? A review of interval cancers after assessment that included ultrasound evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To review factors resulting in a false-negative outcome or delayed cancer diagnosis in women recalled for further evaluation, including ultrasound, after an abnormal screening mammogram. Materials and methods: Of 646,692 screening mammograms performed between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2004, 34,533 women were recalled for further assessment. Nine hundred and sixty-four interval cancers were reported in this period. Forty-six of these women had been recalled for further assessment, which specifically included ultrasound evaluation in the preceding 24 months, and therefore, met the inclusion criteria for this study. Screening mammograms, further mammographic views, ultrasound scans, clinical findings, and histopathology results were retrospectively reviewed by two consultant breast radiologists. Results: The interval cancer developed in the contralateral breast (n = 9), ipsilateral breast, but different site (n = 6), and ipsilateral breast at the same site (n = 31) as the abnormality for which they had recently been recalled. In the latter group, 10 were retrospectively classified as a false-negative outcome, nine had a delay in obtaining a biopsy, and 12 had a delay due to a non-diagnostic initial biopsy. Various factors relating to these outcomes are discussed. Conclusion: Out of 34,533 women who attended for an assessment visit and the 46 women who subsequently developed an interval breast cancer, 15 were true interval cancers, 10 had a false-negative assessment outcome, and 21 had a delay to cancer diagnosis on the basis of a number of factors. When there is discrepancy between the imaging and histopathology results, a repeat biopsy rather than early follow-up would have avoided a delay in some cases. A normal ultrasound examination should not deter the radiologist from proceeding to stereotactic biopsy, if the index mammographic lesion is suspicious of malignancy.

  6. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  7. Gene expression of P53 and adipoq as diagnostic markers for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nadhum Jalal Ismaiel; Rozhgar Abdullah Mohammed; Hazha Jamal Hidayat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the most frequent cause of death and had high mortality rate in Western world. It is from complex, variable and patient- specific interaction between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the contribution of gene expression of the P53 and Adipoq, both genes to the risk of colorectal cancer. P53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene, encoded protein of P53 is a transcription factor and its pivotal role in maintaini...

  8. Pathohistological classification systems in gastric cancer: Diagnostic relevance and prognostic value

    OpenAIRE

    Berlth, Felix; Bollschweiler, Elfriede; Drebber, Uta; Hoelscher, Arnulf H; Moenig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Several pathohistological classification systems exist for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the pathohistological characteristics in gastric cancer and patient characteristics, disease specific criteria and overall outcome. It is still controversial as to which classification system imparts the most reliable information, and therefore, the choice of system may vary in clinical routine. In addition to the most common classification systems...

  9. The diagnostic value of PET/CT scanning in patients with cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Roed, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical value of PET/CT as a supplement to FIGO staging in patients with cervical cancer stage >or=1B. METHODS: This prospective study included 120 consecutive patients. After staging, a whole-body PET/CT scan was performed and these examinations were divided into two....../CT scanning for newly diagnosed cervical cancer FIGO stage >or=1B has a high sensitivity and specificity, and can be a valuable supplement to the FIGO staging procedure....

  10. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Ability of Optical Enhancement System in Early Gastric Cancer Demarcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Misato; Ogawa, Ryo; Sasaki, Sho; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Goto, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Okamoto, Takeshi; Suenaga, Masato

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the utility of optical enhancement (OE) in early gastric cancer demarcation. Twenty lesions of early gastric cancer were examined by PENTAX endoscopy system with OE-1 and OE-2 functions. The areas of tumor demarcation identified by 12 evaluators (6 novice and 6 experienced) were compared to the corresponding correct areas determined by postoperative histopathology findings. The misdiagnosed scores that were the sums of false-positive and false-negative areas were compared. Color of one hundred pixels from the inside of the cancerous area and the outside of the cancerous area was expressed as three-dimensional RGB component vectors. The mean vectors and covariance matrixes were calculated and the Mahalanobis distance, indicative of color differences between two areas, was tested. Comparisons of the misdiagnosed score revealed that OE-1 was preferred over WL-1 for gastric cancer demarcation for all 12 evaluators (p = 0.008) and in novice evaluators (p = 0.026). OE-2 was not significantly different from WL-2 in all cases. OE-1 images gave significantly larger Mahalanobis distances, indicative of color differences, than WL-1 images (p = 0.002). It was demonstrated that the OE Mode 1 has a significant advantage over the white light mode in demarcation of early gastric cancer.

  11. Clinical manifestations and diagnostic approach to metastatic cancer of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, C; Lang, S; Pruckmayer, M; Millesi, W; Rasse, M; Marosi, C; Leitha, T

    1997-10-01

    In a 12-month period, metastatic cancer was diagnosed in eight patients. Six of them presented with pain mimicking toothache, temporomandibular joint disorders or trigeminal neuralgia, while two showed osteopenic bone lesions in the panoramic radiography, and perimandibular swelling. Anesthesia of the lower lip was the only common clinical feature. In seven of the eight patients, a whole body bone scintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the skull in combination with a whole body and SPECT anti-granulocyte (Tc-99m MAK 250/183) bone marrow scintigraphy was performed. One patient did not have combined scintigraphy performed secondary to severe systemic illness. In six of the seven, the results were conclusive for a metastatic bone lesion. Biopsies confirmed three patients to have a previously unrecognized primary cancer, one patient to have previously unrecognized recurrent cancer, and three patients to exhibit new metastatic spread of an already diagnosed cancer. Histology revealed breast, lung, renal cancer and a malignancy of inconclusive origin. In the remaining patient, combined scintigraphy suggested osteomyelitis, yet biopsy revealed a prostate cancer metastasis with acute inflammatory cell infiltration. Thus, the scintigraphy pattern of a hot spot in the bone scan and a cold lesion in the bone marrow scintigraphy is highly suggestive of a mandibular metastasis, if accompanied by anesthesia of the lower lip.

  12. The nuclear envelope and cancer: a diagnostic perspective and historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Las Heras, Jose I; Schirmer, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Cancer has been diagnosed for millennia, but its cellular nature only began to be understood in the mid-nineteenth century when advances in microscopy allowed detailed specimen observations. It was soon noted that cancer cells often possessed nuclei that were altered in size and/or shape. This became an important criterion for cancer diagnosis that continues to be used today. The mechanisms linking nuclear abnormalities and cancer only started to be understood in the second half of the twentieth century, with the discovery of nuclear lamina composition differences in cancer cells compared to normal cells. The nuclear envelope, rather than providing a mere physical barrier between the genetic material in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, is a very important functional hub for many cellular processes. In this review we give an overview of the links between cancer biology and nuclear envelope, from the early days of microscopy until the present day's understanding of some of the molecular mechanisms behind those links. PMID:24563341

  13. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum tumor markers (NSE, CA-242, TPA, CEA) levels in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of combined determination of serum NSE, CA242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) and CEA levels in patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: Serum NSE, CA242, TPA and CEA levels were determined with ELISA in (1) 102 patients with various types of primary lung carcinoma (adenocarcinoma 38, squamous cell carcinoma 32, small cell lung carcinoma 32) (2) 33 patients with open lung T. B. and (3) 30 controls. Results: (1) In patients with lung cancer, serum levels of all the four markers were increased and significantly higher than their respective values in patients with open lung T.B. and controls. (2) Positive rate of combined any two markers were 75% for adenocarcinoma, 50% for squamous cell carcinoma and 65% for small cell lung carcinoma, while false positive rate was only 9% for T.B patients and none for the controls. (3) The most appropriate single marker for each specific type of lung cancer was: NSE for SCLC (sensitivity 72%, specificity 97%, CA242 for adenocarcinoma sensitivity 62%, specificity 90%). Conclusion: Combined determination of these tumor markers would improve the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of primary lung carcinoma. (authors)

  14. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  15. Functional protease profiling with reporter peptides in serum specimens of colorectal cancer patients: demonstration of its routine diagnostic applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findeisen Peter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progression of many solid tumors is characterized by the release of tumor-associated proteases and the detection of tumor specific proteolytic activity in serum specimens is a promising diagnostic tool in oncology. Here we describe a mass spectrometry-based functional proteomic profiling approach that tracks the ex-vivo degradation of a synthetic endoprotease substrate in serum specimens of colorectal tumor patients. Methods A reporter peptide (RP with the amino acid sequence WKPYDAAD was synthesized that has a known cleavage site for the cysteine-endopeptidase cancer procoagulant (EC 3.4.22.26. The RP was added to serum specimens from colorectal cancer patients (n = 30, inflammatory controls (n = 30 and healthy controls (n = 30 and incubated under strictly standardized conditions. The proteolytic fragment of the RP was quantified with liquid chromatography / mass spectrometry (LC/MS. Results RP-spiking showed good intra- and inter-day reproducibility with coefficients of variation (CVs that did not exceed a value of 10%. The calibration curve for the anchor peptide was linear in the concentration range of 0.4 – 50 μmol/L. The median concentration of the RP-fragment in serum specimens from tumor patients (TU: 17.6 μmol/L, SD 9.0 was significantly higher when compared to non-malignant inflammatory controls (IC: 11.1 μmol/L, SD 6.1 and healthy controls (HC: 10.3 μmol/L, SD 3.1. Highest area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC values were seen for discrimination of TU versus HC (0.89 followed by TU versus IC (0.77. IC and HC could barely be separated indicated by an AUROC value of 0.57. The proteolytic activity towards the RP was conserved in serum specimens that were kept at room temperature for up to 24 hours prior to the analysis. Conclusion The proteolytic cleavage of reporter peptides is a surrogate marker for tumor associated proteolytic activity in serum specimens of cancer patients. A

  16. Impact of social and clinical factors on diagnostic delay of breast cancer: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianatinasab, Mostafa; Fararouei, Mohammad; Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Zare-Bandamiri, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    One of the reasons for high mortality of breast cancer is long delay in seeking medical care. This study was designed to measure the association of a wide range of socio-demographic and clinical factors with the diagnostic delay in breast cancer among Iranian patients.This study was conducted on 505 newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer from southern part of Iran. Medical files of the patients who were admitted to the hospital from November 2013 to May 2015 were examined and clinical and demographic information were extracted.According to the results, illiterate patients were diagnosed on average 87.42 days later compared with those with a college degree (95%CI: 29.68-145.16, P = 0.003) and those from rural area were diagnosed on average 72.48 days later (95%CI: 35.94-109.03, P = 0.001) compared with urban residences. Single women were diagnosed 65.99 days later (95%CI: 7.37-124.61, P = 0.02) compared with those married. Lobular or medullary types of cancer were diagnosed 65.19 days later (95%CI: 2.67-127.70, P = 0.04) compared with ductal type. On the other hand, those who were able to perform breast self-exam were diagnosed 49.07 days earlier compared with others (95%CI: 18.69-79.45, P = 0.002). Those felt lump as the initiating symptom were diagnosed 62.01 days earlier, (95%CI: 8.17-115.85, P = 0.02) compared with those with other initial symptoms. The only factor associated with doctors diagnosis delay was the place of residence as rural residences were diagnosed on average 87.42 days later compared with urban residences, (95%CI: 53.82-121.92, P = 0.001).Higher education, living in cities, ductal type of tumor, and noticing lump in breast were the most important demographic and clinical factors associated with shorter breast cancer diagnosis delay. Informing women and doctors, especially general physicians who are practicing in rural areas, of the common symptoms of breast cancer as well as training women to perform breast self-examination are effective

  17. Assessment of the value of various tomography modalities for diagnostic evaluation of the female genital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comprehensive survey explains the indications and the specific value of the modern tomographic modalities with respect to the various diagnostic issues. Numerous reproductions of CT, MRI, US scans illustrate the aspects discussed. (orig./CB)

  18. Identification of tumor-associated antigens as diagnostic and predictive biomarkers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ying; Looi, Kok Sun; Tan, Eng M

    2009-01-01

    Many studies demonstrated that cancer sera contain antibodies which react with autologous cellular antigens generally known as tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). In our laboratories, the approach used in the identification of TAAs has involved initially examining the sera of cancer patients using extracts of tissue culture cells as source of antigens in Western blotting and by indirect immunofluorescence on whole cells. With these two techniques, we identify sera which have high-titer fluorescent staining or strong signals to cell extracts on Western blotting and subsequently use these sera as probes in immunoscreening cDNA expression libraries, and also in proteomic approaches to isolate and identify targeted antigens which might potentially be involved in malignant transformation. In this manner, several novel TAAs including HCC1, p62, p90, and others have been identified. In extension of these studies, we evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different antigen-antibody systems as markers in cancer in order to develop "tumor-associated antigen array" systems for cancer diagnosis, cancer prediction, and for following the response of patients to treatment. PMID:19381943

  19. Breast and gynecologic cancer-related extremity lymphedema: a review of diagnostic modalities and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Pankaj; Coriddi, Michelle; Salani, Ritu; Povoski, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Lymphedema remains a poorly understood entity that can occur after lymphadenectomy. Herein, we will review the pathogenesis of lymphedema, diagnostic modalities and the natural history of extremity involvement. We will review the incidence of upper extremity lymphedema in patients treated for breast malignancies and lower extremity lymphedema in those treated for gynecologic malignancy. Finally, we will review traditional treatment modalities for lymphedema, as well as introduce new surgical ...

  20. Multi-detector row CT in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic capability instead of clinical efficacy of multi-detector row CT (MDCT) in the assessment of axillary lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. MDCT was performed in 63 patients with breast cancer, and multiplanar reformation (MPR) and volume rendering (VR) images were reconstructed for the evaluation of bilateral axillary lymph nodes. Two hundred sixty eight lymph nodes were depicted with MDCT, and correlation with pathological findings was performed. The short axis length of lymph node was measured on MPR image, and the shape of the nodes was analyzed with the pathological results statistically. The diagnostic criteria on size and shape of lymph node metastasis were discussed Dynamic study with contrast media was also performed, and the CT value ratios (CTVR) of the lymph nodes and breast tumors were calculated. No relevance of axillary lymph node metastasis was noted to the pathological types of breast cancer. The average short axis length of the ipsilateral axillary nodes was 8.9 mm±3.8 (SD) while that of the contralateral nodes was 4.9 mm±1.1 (SD) showing significant difference. More than 6.5 mm in short length of the lymph node was thought to be an effective criterion for positive metastasis, and its sensitivity was 96%. Soybean-shape lymph node was statistically common in metastasis, while non-metastatic nodes were commonly demonstrated as letter ''c'' shape or ring-like shape. Statistical relevance was obtained between the CTVR of axillary lymph nodes and that of breast tumors, suggesting clinical usefulness of dynamic study using contrast media in the evaluation of lymph node metastasis. With MPR and VR images using MDCT, more accurate morphological evaluation of axillary lymph nodes was possible. When soybean-shape node with more than 6.5 mm in short axis is depicted in the axillar region on MDCT metastasis should be the consideration. Comparison with the contralateral side as a control in coronal

  1. The Conversations About Cancer (CAC) project: assessing feasibility and audience impacts from viewing The Cancer Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Wayne A; Buller, Mary K; Dozier, David M; Buller, David B; Gutzmer, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Basic communication research has identified a major social problem: communicating about cancer from diagnosis through death of a loved one. Over the past decade, an award-winning investigation into how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, based on a corpus of 61 phone calls over a period of 13 months, has been transformed into a theatrical production entitled The Cancer Play. All dialogue in the play is drawn from naturally occurring (transcribed) interactions between family members as they navigate their way through the trials, tribulations, hopes, and triumphs of a cancer journey. This dramatic performance explicitly acknowledges the power of the arts as an exceptional learning tool for extending empirical research, exploring ordinary family life, and exposing the often taken-for-granted conceptions of health and illness. In this study, a Phase I STTR project funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), we assess the feasibility of educating and impacting cancer patients, family members, and medical professionals who viewed the play as a live performance and through DVD screenings. Pre- and postperformance questionnaires were administered to solicit audience feedback. Pre-post change scores demonstrate overwhelming and positive impacts for changing opinions about the perceived importance, and attributed significance, of family communication in the midst of cancer. Paired-sample t-tests were conducted on five factor-analyzed indices/indicators-two indices of opinions about cancer and family communication, two indices measuring the importance of key communication activities, and the self-efficacy indicator-and all factors improved significantly (academic and health care professions are discussed. PMID:24098921

  2. Artificial neural networks as classification and diagnostic tools for lymph node-negative breast cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eswari J, Satya; Chandrakar, Neha [National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur (India)

    2016-04-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used to develop a technique to classify lymph node negative breast cancer that is prone to distant metastases based on gene expression signatures. The neural network used is a multilayered feed forward network that employs back propagation algorithm. Once trained with DNA microarraybased gene expression profiles of genes that were predictive of distant metastasis recurrence of lymph node negative breast cancer, the ANNs became capable of correctly classifying all samples and recognizing the genes most appropriate to the classification. To test the ability of the trained ANN models in recognizing lymph node negative breast cancer, we analyzed additional idle samples that were not used beforehand for the training procedure and obtained the correctly classified result in the validation set. For more substantial result, bootstrapping of training and testing dataset was performed as external validation. This study illustrates the potential application of ANN for breast tumor diagnosis and the identification of candidate targets in patients for therapy.

  3. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE RELIABILITY OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY AS A DIAGNOSTIC AID IN VARIOUS SALIVARY GLAND PATHOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Akshara; Achal; Kuber

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVE : To assess the reliability of ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in various salivary gland pathologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The present study was conducted in the department of radiodiagnosis, GR Medical College & JA group of hospitals, Gwalior during period of one year from August 2012 to October 2013. 62 patients with suspected inflammation or tumors of the major salivary gla nds were examined by high resolution real - time sono...

  4. A novel serum metabolomics-based diagnostic approach for colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Nishiumi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve the quality of life of colorectal cancer patients, it is important to establish new screening methods for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed serum metabolome analysis using gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS. First, the accuracy of our GC/MS-based serum metabolomic analytical method was evaluated by calculating the RSD% values of serum levels of various metabolites. Second, the intra-day (morning, daytime, and night and inter-day (among 3 days variances of serum metabolite levels were examined. Then, serum metabolite levels were compared between colorectal cancer patients (N = 60; N = 12 for each stage from 0 to 4 and age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers (N = 60 as a training set. The metabolites whose levels displayed significant changes were subjected to multiple logistic regression analysis using the stepwise variable selection method, and a colorectal cancer prediction model was established. The prediction model was composed of 2-hydroxybutyrate, aspartic acid, kynurenine, and cystamine, and its AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.9097, 85.0%, 85.0%, and 85.0%, respectively, according to the training set data. In contrast, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CEA were 35.0%, 96.7%, and 65.8%, respectively, and those of CA19-9 were 16.7%, 100%, and 58.3%, respectively. The validity of the prediction model was confirmed using colorectal cancer patients (N = 59 and healthy volunteers (N = 63 as a validation set. At the validation set, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the prediction model were 83.1%, 81.0%, and 82.0%, respectively, and these values were almost the same as those obtained with the training set. In addition, the model displayed high sensitivity for detecting stage 0-2 colorectal cancer (82.8%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our prediction model established via GC/MS-based serum metabolomic analysis

  5. Quantitative Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization in Lung Cancer as a Diagnostic Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Khuong; Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Guilly, Marie-Noëlle; Vielh, Philippe; Zalcman, Gérard; Livartowski, Alain; Chapelier, Alain; Poupon, Marie-France; Dutrillaux, Bernard; Malfoy, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of lung cancer is quite often hampered by the existence of various cell types within samples such as biopsies or pleural effusions. We have established a new marker for image cytometry of interphase tumor cells of the lung by using the most recurrent and early cytogenetic event in lung cancer, the loss of the short arm of chromosome 3. The method is based on the detection of the imbalance between the long and the short arms of chromosome 3 by performing two-color fluorescence in...

  6. NMR-based metabolomics of prostate cancer: a protagonist in clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish; Nath, Kavindra

    2016-06-01

    Advances in the application of NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomic profiling of prostate cancer comprises a potential tactic for understanding the impaired biochemical pathways arising due to a disease evolvement and progression. This technique involves qualitative and quantitative estimation of plethora of small molecular weight metabolites of body fluids or tissues using state-of-the-art chemometric methods delivering an important platform for translational research from basic to clinical, to reveal the pathophysiological snapshot in a single step. This review summarizes the present arrays and recent advancements in NMR-based metabolomics and a glimpse of currently used medical imaging tactics, with their role in clinical diagnosis of prostate cancer. PMID:26959614

  7. [Organisational aspects and existing problems in prevention and early diagnostics of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhorbenadze, R A

    2005-10-01

    Thorough study of advanced stages of lung cancer has been held. Delayed detection of most of the malignant tumours (IV stages) points to a number of problems existing in Georgia in terms of primary prevention and early detection of oncologic diseases. Hence, elaboration of strategy for prevention and early detection of oncologic diseases is of great importance for our country. Activities aimed at early detection of lung cancer under the conditions of low-level resources primarily imply education of population and professionals, as well as implementation of screening procedures. Cheap and effective methods should be applied for early diagnosis of one or two most widespread malignant tumours.

  8. Assessing the impact of next-generation rapid diagnostic tests on Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Hannah C; Ross, Amanda; Ouédraogo, André Lin; White, Lisa J; Nguon, Chea; Walker, Patrick G T; Ngor, Pengby; Aguas, Ricardo; Silal, Sheetal P; Dondorp, Arjen M; La Barre, Paul; Burton, Robert; Sauerwein, Robert W; Drakeley, Chris; Smith, Thomas A; Bousema, Teun; Ghani, Azra C

    2015-12-01

    Mass-screen-and-treat and targeted mass-drug-administration strategies are being considered as a means to interrupt transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the effectiveness of such strategies will depend on the extent to which current and future diagnostics are able to detect those individuals who are infectious to mosquitoes. We estimate the relationship between parasite density and onward infectivity using sensitive quantitative parasite diagnostics and mosquito feeding assays from Burkina Faso. We find that a diagnostic with a lower detection limit of 200 parasites per microlitre would detect 55% of the infectious reservoir (the combined infectivity to mosquitoes of the whole population weighted by how often each individual is bitten) whereas a test with a limit of 20 parasites per microlitre would detect 83% and 2 parasites per microlitre would detect 95% of the infectious reservoir. Using mathematical models, we show that increasing the diagnostic sensitivity from 200 parasites per microlitre (equivalent to microscopy or current rapid diagnostic tests) to 2 parasites per microlitre would increase the number of regions where transmission could be interrupted with a mass-screen-and-treat programme from an entomological inoculation rate below 1 to one of up to 4. The higher sensitivity diagnostic could reduce the number of treatment rounds required to interrupt transmission in areas of lower prevalence. We predict that mass-screen-and-treat with a highly sensitive diagnostic is less effective than mass drug administration owing to the prophylactic protection provided to uninfected individuals by the latter approach. In low-transmission settings such as those in Southeast Asia, we find that a diagnostic tool with a sensitivity of 20 parasites per microlitre may be sufficient for targeted mass drug administration because this diagnostic is predicted to identify a similar village population prevalence compared with that currently detected using

  9. ERG Protein Expression in Diagnostic Specimens Is Associated with Increased Risk of Progression During Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Kasper Drimer; Vainer, Ben; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compelling biomarkers identifying prostate cancer patients with a high risk of progression during active surveillance (AS) are needed. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between ERG expression at diagnosis and the risk of progression during AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: This study included 265 patients followed on AS with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements, clinical examinations, and 10-12 core rebiopsies from 2002 to 2012 in a prospectively maintained database. ERG immunohistochemical staining was performed on diagnostic paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections...... examination and ultrasound, and/or histopathologic progression: upgrade of Gleason score, more than three positive cores or bilateral positive cores, and/or PSA progression: PSA doubling time cause-specific Cox regression and stratified cumulative...

  10. Comparison of thallium-201, Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scan in the follow-up assessment after I-131 ablative therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Sung; Lee, Sung Keun; Kim, Doe Min; Park, Sae Jong; Jang, Kyong Sun; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Chong Soon [Hanil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    We conducted a comparative study to evaluate the diagnostic values of Tl-201, Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scans in the follow-up assessment after ablative I-131 therapy in differentiated thyroid cancer. The study population consisted of 20 patients who underwent surgical removal of thyroid cancer and ablative radioactive iodine therapy, and followed by one or more times of I-131 retreatment (33 cases). In all patients, Tl-201, Tc-99m MIBI, diagnostic and therapeutic I-131 scans were performed and the results were analyzed retrospectively. Also serum thyroglobulin levels were measured in all patients. The final diagnosis of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer was determined by clinical, biochemical, radiologic and/or biopsy findings. Positive rates (PR) of Tc-99m MIBI, Tl-201, diagnostic and therapeutic I-131 scans in detecting malignant thyroid tissue lesions were 70% (19/27), 54% (15/28), 35% (17/48) and 63% (30/48), respectively. The PR in the group of 20 cases (28 lesions) who underwent concomitant Tl-201 and I-131 scans were in the order of therapeutic 131 scan 71%, Tl-201 scan 54% and diagnostic I-131 scan 36%. There was no statistically significant difference between Tl-201 and diagnostic I-131 scans (p>0.05). In the group of 20 cases (27 lesions) who underwent concomitant Tc-99m MIBI and I-131 scans, the PR were in the order of Tc-99m MIBI scan 70%, I-131 therapeutic scan 52% and I-131 diagnostic scan 33%. The PR of Tc-99m MIBI was significantly higher than that of diagnostic I-131 scan (p<0.05). Tc-99m MIBI scan is superior to diagnostic I-131 scan in detecting recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer following ablation therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Tl-201 scan did not showed significantly higher positive rate than diagnostic I-131 scan. Instead of diagnostic I-131 scan before the I-131 retreatment, Tc-99m MIBI scan without discontinuing thyroid hormone replacement would be a prudent and effective approach in the management of these

  11. The nutritional assessment of head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnano, Mauro; Mola, Patrizia; Machetta, Giacomo; Maffeis, Paola; Forestiero, Ilenia; Cavagna, Roberta; Artino, Elena; Boffano, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Patients affected by head and neck cancer are particularly at risk for nutritional depletion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients affected by head and neck cancer at diagnosis. All adult patients with head and neck cancer between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. The following data were recorded: demographics, tobacco and/or alcohol consumption, weight, height, the reference weight 6 months before the diagnosis, tumor site, tumor stage, and laboratory data. Then, Body mass index (BMI), and Buzby nutrition risk index (NRI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was used to search for associations among multiple variables. 122 men and 22 women were enrolled. As for reference BMI, 77 patients were overweight, whereas just 7 subjects were underweight. At diagnosis, 72 subjects were overweight according to BMI, whereas 52 patients were underweight. Instead, according to NRI, 96 patients were severely malnourished, 42 patients were moderately malnourished, whereas just 6 patients had a normal value of NRI. The assessment of nutrition by BMI excluded from a thorough consideration all overweight and obese patients with head and neck cancer. Instead, NRI correctly identified both undernourished and overweight/obese patients as "malnourished" subjects. PMID:25534287

  12. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 as a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Stage I and II Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Teng; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Kun-Peng; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Ke-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased level of serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), a member of transforming growth factor-β superfamily, was found in patients with epithelial tumors. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum level of MIC-1 can be a candidate diagnostic and prognostic indicator for early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A prospective study enrolled 152 patients with Stage I–II NSCLC, who were followed up after surgical resection. Forty-eight patients with benign pulmonary disease (BPD) and 105 healthy controls were also included in the study. Serum MIC-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the association with clinical and prognostic features was analyzed. Results: In patients with NSCLC, serum protein levels of MIC-1 were significantly increased compared with healthy controls and BPD patients (all P hazard ratio = 3.37, 95% confidential interval: 1.09–10.42, P = 0.035). Conclusion: The present study suggested that serum MIC-1 may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with early-stage NSCLC. PMID:27569226

  13. [IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS OF PROSTATIC CANCER, USING NOTI-MICROCHIPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozianov, S O; Kashuba, V I; Grygorenko, V M; Gordiyuk, V V; Danylets, R O; Bondarenko, Yu M; Vikarchuk, M V

    2016-04-01

    The biopsy material specimens were investigated in 33 patients, examined for the prostatic cancer suspicion. In accordance to the morphological investigation data, in 15 patients a benign prostatic hyperplasia was verified, and in 18--pancreatic adenocarcinoma. NotI-Microchips of 180 clones of the third chromosome were used for determination of epigenetic changes. In 50 genes of the third chromosome a high rate of the methylation state changes (from 33 to 82%) was noted. Some changed genes take part in cancerogenesis (HMGB1L5, LRRC58, GPR149, DZIP1L, C3orf77, NUDT16) and in the prostatic gland cancer occurrence (BCL6, ITGA9, FBLN2, SOX2, LRRC3B etc.). Dependence of the genes methylation state from the clinic-morphological indices in patients with the prostatic gland cancer, including, the prostate-specific antigen level, the tumor differentiation degree in accordance to Gleason, was not established. Panel, consisting of 16 new potential markers for early and differentiated diagnosis of prostatic gland cancer, was identified: BHLHE40, FOXP1, LOC285205, ITGA9, CTDSPL, FGF12, LOC440944/SETD5, VHL, CLCN2, OSBPL10/ZNF860, LMCD1, FAM19A4, CAND2, MAP4, KY and LRRC58.

  14. A novel proteomic biomarker panel as a diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Claus; Fung, Eric T; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that the proteomic markers apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-alpha trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin, connective-tissue activating protein 3 and beta-2 microglobulin may discriminate between a benign pelvic mass and ovarian cancer (OC). The aim ...

  15. The sentinel node procedure in early stage cervical cancer, taking the next step; a diagnostic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, C.; Rovers, M.M.; Graaf, C. de; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent reviews on the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in cervical cancer have shown that bilateral SLN detection and ultra staging are safe and superior options compared to a unilateral detection, frozen section and H&E analysis. So far, nobody identified a subgroup of patients in who

  16. A novel proteomic biomarker panel as a diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Claus; Fung, Eric T; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that the proteomic markers apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-alpha trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin, connective-tissue activating protein 3 and beta-2 microglobulin may discriminate between a benign pelvic mass and ovarian cancer (OC). The aim...

  17. Assessment of Breast Specimens With or Without Calcifications in Diagnosing Malignant and Atypia for Mammographic Breast Microcalcifications Without Mass: A STARD-Compliant Diagnostic Accuracy Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yun-Chung; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Lo, Yung-Feng; Huang, Pei-Chin; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chen, Shin-Cheh

    2015-10-01

    Presence of microcalcifications within the specimens frequently signifies a successful attempt of stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) in obtaining a pathologic diagnosis of the breast microcalcifications. In this study, the authors aimed to assess and compare the accuracy and consistency of calcified or noncalcified specimens obtained from same sites of sampling on isolated microcalcifications without mass in diagnosing high-risk and malignant lesions. To the best of our knowledge, an individual case-based prospective comparison has not been reported.With the approval from institutional review board of our hospital (Chang Gung Memorial Hospital), the authors retrospectively reviewed all clinical cases of stereotactic VABBs on isolated breast microcalcifications without mass from our database. The authors included those having either surgery performed or had clinical follow-up of at least 3 years for analysis. All the obtained specimens with or without calcification were identified using specimen radiographs and separately submitted for pathologic evaluation. The concordance of diagnosis was assessed for both atypia and malignant lesions.A total of 390 stereotactic VABB procedures (1206 calcified and 1456 noncalcified specimens) were collected and reviewed. The consistent rates between calcified and noncalcified specimens were low for atypia and malignant microcalcifications (44.44% in flat epithelial atypia, 46.51% in atypical ductal hyperplasia, 55.73% in ductal carcinoma in situ, and 71.42% in invasive ductal carcinoma). The discordance in VABB diagnoses indicated that 41.33% of malignant lesions would be misdiagnosed by noncalcified specimens. Furthermore, calcified specimens showed higher diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer as compared with the noncalcified specimens (91.54 % versus 69.49%, respectively). The evaluation of both noncalcified specimens and calcified specimens did not show improvement of diagnostic accuracy as compared with

  18. Diagnostic and prognostic value of serum nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, basic fibroblast growth factor and copper as angiogenic markers in premenopausal breast cancer patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewala, T I; Abd El-Moneim, N A; Ebied, S Abd El-Moneim; Sheta, M I; Soliman, K; Abu-Elenean, A

    2010-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that increased microvessel density (MVD) surrounding primary tumour is associated with decreased overall survival in patients with breast cancer. This study compares the diagnostic and prognostic values of the angiogenic serum factors nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and copper with those of serum CA15-3 as the standard tumour marker in breast cancer patients. Microvessel density was estimated in CD31-immunostained sections from breast cancer patients. Before surgery, NO, TNFalpha, bFGF, copper and CA 15-3 were measured in serum samples from 30 premenopausal breast cancer patients in comparison with 15 healthy controls. The diagnostic values of the assayed parameters were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Univariate survival analysis of patients was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Breast cancer tissues showed higher MVD than did normal breast tissues adjacent to the tumour (P = 0.008). Before surgery, tumour MVD correlated significantly with serum NO, TNFalpha, bFGF and copper (r = 0.458, P = .011; r = 0.379, P = .039; r = 0.513, P = .004 and r = 0.613, P = 0.000, respectively). Serum NO, TNFalpha, bFGF, copper and CA 15-3 levels in patients were significantly elevated compared with controls (P = 0.011, P = 0.004, P = 0.039, P = 0.000 and P = 0.001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with elevated serum TNFalpha, CA 15-3 and copper (P = 0.035, P = 0.040, P = 0.0339, respectively) had an overall survival significantly shorter than those who had lower levels of these parameters. These data suggest that serum TNFalpha, CA 15-3 and copper are useful predictive markers for overall survival in premenopausal breast cancer patients.

  19. Searching for early breast cancer biomarkers by serum protein profiling of pre-diagnostic serum; a nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum protein profiles have been investigated frequently to discover early biomarkers for breast cancer. So far, these studies used biological samples collected at or after diagnosis. This may limit these studies' value in the search for cancer biomarkers because of the often advanced tumor stage, and consequently risk of reverse causality. We present for the first time pre-diagnostic serum protein profiles in relation to breast cancer, using the Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition) cohort. In a nested case-control design we compared 68 women diagnosed with breast cancer within three years after enrollment, with 68 matched controls for differences in serum protein profiles. All samples were analyzed with SELDI-TOF MS (surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry). In a subset of 20 case-control pairs, the serum proteome was identified and relatively quantified using isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ) and online two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS (2D-nanoLC-MS/MS). Two SELDI-TOF MS peaks with m/z 3323 and 8939, which probably represent doubly charged apolipoprotein C-I and C3a des-arginine anaphylatoxin (C3adesArg), were higher in pre-diagnostic breast cancer serum (p = 0.02 and p = 0.06, respectively). With 2D-nanoLC-MS/MS, afamin, apolipoprotein E and isoform 1 of inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4) were found to be higher in pre-diagnostic breast cancer (p < 0.05), while alpha-2-macroglobulin and ceruloplasmin were lower (p < 0.05). C3adesArg and ITIH4 have previously been related to the presence of symptomatic and/or mammographically detectable breast cancer. We show that serum protein profiles are already altered up to three years before breast cancer detection

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of MALDI Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Unfractionated Serum in Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Pinar B.; Shyr, Yu; Rahman, Jamshedur S. M.; Wardwell, Noel R.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Shakhtour, Bashar; Gray, William H.; Chen, Shuo; Li, Ming; Roder, Heinrich; Liebler, Daniel C.; Bigbee, William L.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Gonzalez, Adriana L.; Ninan, Mathew; Johnson, David H.; Carbone, David P.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Massion, Pierre P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There is a critical need for improvements in the noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer. We hypothesized that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) analysis of the most abundant peptides in the serum may distinguish lung cancer cases from matched controls. Patients and Methods We used MALDI MS to analyze unfractionated serum from a total of 288 cases and matched controls split into training (n = 182) and test sets (n = 106). We used a training–testing paradigm with application of the model profile defined in a training set to a blinded test cohort. Results Reproducibility and lack of analytical bias was confirmed in quality-control studies. A serum proteomic signature of seven features in the training set reached an overall accuracy of 78%, a sensitivity of 67.4%, and a specificity of 88.9%. In the blinded test set, this signature reached an overall accuracy of 72.6 %, a sensitivity of 58%, and a specificity of 85.7%. The serum signature was associated with the diagnosis of lung cancer independently of gender, smoking status, smoking pack-years, and C-reactive protein levels. From this signature, we identified three discriminatory features as members of a cluster of truncated forms of serum amyloid A. Conclusions We found a serum proteomic profile that discriminates lung cancer from matched controls. Proteomic analysis of unfractionated serum may have a role in the noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer and will require methodological refinements and prospective validation to achieve clinical utility. PMID:17909350