WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer diagnosis program

  1. Cancer diagnosis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, A.J.; Smith, H.S.; Sartorius, O.W.; Snow, L.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Peralta Cancer Research Institute has organized the Breast Diagnostic Center (BDC) to make available to women information about the breast, and to conduct clinical research to improve methods for early diagnosis and treatment of breast disease. Women entering the center are educated about the anatomy and physiology of the breast, signs of both benign and malignant disease, and factors that influence the risk of developing cancer. The BDC program proposes to demonstrate that the combined use of various diagnostic modalities, when each modality is used at maximum potential, can detect cancers at an earlier stage. Emphasis is placed on the physical examination, using nipple aspiration cytology, contrast ductography, fine-needle aspirations, and mammography. With the financial participation of the Clorox Company, it is shown that the concept of the BDC is economically sound and fills a need in the community

  2. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Ancăr, V; Cirstoiu, M M; Rădoi, V; Bohîlțea, L C; Furtunescu, F

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania, reaching in 2013 the average value of 8.06/ 100,000 women, and 15.97/ 100,000 women within the highest risk age range, having in recent years an increasing trend, being higher in urban than in rural population. Annually, approximately 800 new cases are registered in our country. The estimated lifetime risk of a woman to develop endometrial cancer is of about 1,03%. Based on an abnormal uterine bleeding, 35% of the endometrial cancers are diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease, with significantly diminished lifetime expectancy. Drafting a national program for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer. We proposed a standardization of the diagnostic steps and focused on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding occurring in pre/ post-menopausal women, investigating features/ anomalies of cervical cytology examination, diagnosis, treatment and proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms addresses the four risk groups, by improving information system reporting and record keeping. Improving addressability cases by increasing the health education of the population will increase the rate of diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the early stages of the disease. ACOG = American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, PATT = Partial Activated Thromboplastin Time, BRCA = Breast Cancer Gene, CT = Computerized Tomography, IFGO = International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, HLG = Hemoleucogram, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, BMI = Body Mass Index, INR = International Normalized Ratio, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI

  3. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  4. A Partnership Training Program: Studying Targeted Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles In Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Imaging 28: 698–707. 15. Newman RJ, Bore PJ, Chan L, Gadian DG, Styles P, et al. (1982) Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of forearm muscle in Duchenne...against the parental U87 cells. In morphology, cell death was obvious after exposure to DT390-BiscFv806. We further analyzed the cytotoxicity of DT390...funded) 4. NIH Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program ( Parent R21) Sheddable Bivalent Fold-back Format Immunotoxin for Prostate Cancer Therapy

  5. DIAGNOSIS OF MUCINOUS BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. К. Saribekyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the diagnostic results of 27 patients with mucinous breast cancer, which is a rare type of invasive ductal breast cancer accounting for less than 2% of all breast cancers. The role of radiological, histological and cytological examination in the diagnosis of mucinous breast cancer is evaluated. In cases with large tumors, it was difficult to differentiate mucinous breast cancer from fibrocystic and other benign breast lesions.

  6. Delay in Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer; A Need for Awareness Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozturk, Cigdem; Fleer, Joke; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aim To gain insight into patient and doctor delay in testicular cancer (TC) and factors associated with delay. Materials and Methods Sixty of the 66 eligible men; median age 26 (range 17-45) years, diagnosed with TC at the University Medical Center Groningen completed a questionnaire on

  7. A Partnership Training Program: Studying Targeted Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles in Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Cancer Res, 6, 3056 (2000). 33. Dijkgraaf I, Beer AJ, Wester HJ, Front Biosci, 14, 887 (2009). 34. Lim EH, Danthi N, Bednarski M, Li KC , Nanomedicine, 1...Biol 2007;34:229-32. 34. Wang HH, Wang YX, Leung KC , Au DW, Xuan S, Chak CP, Lee SK, Sheng H, Zhang G, Qin L, Griffith JF, Ahuja AT. Durable...arylamide) (MBA), 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propylmethacrylate (MPS), tetraethoxysilane ( TEOS ), 3-(4,5)- dimethylthiahiazo(-z-yl)-3,5

  8. Implementation of an optical diagnosis strategy saves costs and does not impair clinical outcomes of a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Greuter, Marjolein J E; Hazewinkel, Yark; Coupé, Veerle M H; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-12-01

     In an optical diagnosis strategy, diminutive polyps that are endoscopically characterized with high confidence are removed without histopathological analysis and distal hyperplastic polyps are left in situ. We evaluated the effectiveness and costs of optical diagnosis.  Using the Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal CAncer (ASCCA) model, we simulated biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening in individuals aged 55 - 75 years. In this program, we compared an optical diagnosis strategy with current histopathology assessment of all diminutive polyps. Base-case assumptions included 76 % high-confidence predictions and sensitivities of 88 %, 91 %, and 88 % for endoscopically characterizing adenomas, sessile serrated polyps, and hyperplastic polyps, respectively. Outcomes were colorectal cancer burden, number of colonoscopies, life-years, and costs.  Both the histopathology strategy and the optical diagnosis strategy resulted in 21 life-days gained per simulated individual compared with no screening. For optical diagnosis, €6 per individual was saved compared with the current histopathology strategy. These cost savings were related to a 31 % reduction in colonoscopies in which histopathology was needed for diminutive polyps. Projecting these results onto the Netherlands (17 million inhabitants), assuming a fully implemented FIT-based screening program, resulted in an annual undiscounted cost saving of € 1.7 - 2.2 million for optical diagnosis.  Implementation of optical diagnosis in a FIT-based screening program saves costs without decreasing program effectiveness when compared with current histopathology analysis of all diminutive polyps. Further work is required to evaluate how endoscopists participating in a screening program should be trained, audited, and monitored to achieve adequate competence in optical diagnosis.

  9. An exploratory qualitative study of the meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Saunders, Stephanie; Gifford, Wendy; Thomas, Roanne; Hamilton, Ryan

    2018-05-01

    To generate insights into the personal meaning and value of a running/walking program for women after a diagnosis of breast cancer. After completing a 12-week running/walking program with a 5-km training goal, eight women were interviewed and seven participated in a focus group. The interviews and focus group were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were thematically analyzed. Data portrayed the personal benefits and value of the clinic. Four themes were identified: (1) receiving practical information and addressing targeted concerns, (2) pushing personal limits, (3) enabling a committed mindset, and (4) seeing benefits and challenges of running/walking with a group. Findings provide initial understanding of how women experience a running/walking program after a diagnosis of breast cancer and what they find to be important about their experiences. The range of positive benefits experienced by women suggests a running/walking program can help fill a gap in care for women diagnosed with breast cancer, and thus be part of cancer rehabilitation. However, because some women felt isolated at times, future research should seek to examine how running/walking programs can be modified and tailored so that all women find it socially beneficial. Implications for Rehabilitation The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in side effects and increase the risk of long-term disability. Physical activity can help women manage the side effects and lessen the risk of long-term disability. In a relatively small sample, this study shows that participation in a running/walking program can be an important part of breast cancer recovery.

  10. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  11. Five misconceptions in cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William

    2009-01-01

    Much investment has been put into facilities for early cancer diagnosis. It is difficult to know how successful this investment has been. New facilities for rapid investigation in the UK have not reduced mortality, and may cause delays in diagnosis of patients with low-risk, or atypical, symptoms. In part, the failure of new facilities to translate into mortality benefits can be explained by five misconceptions. These are described, along with suggested research and organisational remedies. The first misconception is that cancer is diagnosed in hospitals. Consequently, secondary care data have been used to drive primary care decisions. Second, GPs are thought to be poor at cancer diagnosis, yet the type of education on offer to improve this may not be what is needed. Third, symptomatic cancer diagnosis has been downgraded in importance with the introduction of screening, yet screening identifies only a small minority of cancers. Fourth, pressure is put on GPs to make referrals for those with an individual high risk of cancer — disenfranchising those with ‘low-risk but not no-risk’ symptoms. Finally, considerable nihilism exists about the value of early diagnosis, despite considerable observational evidence that earlier diagnosis of symptomatic cancer is beneficial. PMID:19520027

  12. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  13. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-12-31

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  14. At cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Tom; Lillelund, Hans Christian Düring; Andersen, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Challenges exist in identifying, recruiting and motivating sedentary patients with cancer to initiate physical activity towards recommended levels. We hypothesise that the onset period of adjuvant chemotherapy can be 'the open window of opportunity' to identify and motivate sedentary patients...... with breast and colon cancers, at risk for developing coronary heart disease, to initiate and sustain lifestyle changes....

  15. Microanalysis in cancer diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacheva, G A [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr

    1984-11-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis accuracy of malignant gastric, rectal, liver and prostatic tumors was performed with relation to the sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunological and immunoenzyme commercial kits of reagents manufactured by different companies and used to determine the concentration of the carcinoembryonic antigen, ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein and acid phosphatase of the prostate. With an increase of the test specificity its diagnostic sensitivity decreases, i.e. the percentage of false-negative results increases. The use of highly specific monoclonal antibodies in serological tests results in a marked decrease of the accuracy of tumor diagnosis. It is necessary to strictly determine indications for the use of the serological and immunodiagnostic kits: for the identification of risk populations, early diagnosis of tumors, differential diagnosis or the monitoring of patients.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Pathology and morphology of pancreatic cancer; Staging and prognosis of pancreatic cancer; Biological and immunological markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer; Drug therapy of pancreatic cancer; Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer; Selected studies on the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer; Clinical correlates and syndromes associated with pancreatic neoplasia

  17. Nucleomedical diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    /sup 67/Ga citrate is most often used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. As judged from reported cases, the accuracy rate was 90%, with a false negative rate being about 5%. Lung ventilation and blood flow scintigraphy are valuable in assessing the degree of damage to lung function and the therapeutic effect rather than in finding lung cancer. In aerosol scintigraphy, sup(99m)Tc labelled aerosols with different particle size depending on the purpose of diagnosis are used; the large particles deposit at the center of the trachea and small size aerosols on the periphery. Aerosol-inhaled scintigraphy is highly valuable for the diagnosis of hilus lung cancer. sup(99m)Tc methylene diphosphate is used in bone scintigraphy to detect bone metastasis. But it sometimes gives false positive results such as in the case of senile bone changes. Another valuable method of diagnosis is emission CT by which various substances having affinity for the tumor can be detected by labelling them with a proton emitting nuclear species such as 11 C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O and /sup 18/F. Some cases of lung cancer, and the radionuclide methods used in the diagnosis are shown.

  18. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  19. Breast cancer risk after diagnosis by screening mammography of nonproliferative or proliferative benign breast disease: a study from a population-based screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Xavier; Domingo, Laia; Corominas, Josep María; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Quintana, María Jesús; Baré, Marisa; Vidal, Carmen; Natal, Carmen; Sánchez, Mar; Saladié, Francina; Ferrer, Joana; Vernet, Mar; Servitja, Sonia; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Roman, Marta; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Sala, María

    2015-01-01

    Benign breast disease increases the risk of breast cancer. This association has scarcely been evaluated in the context of breast cancer screening programs although it is a prevalent finding in mammography screening. We assessed the association of distinct categories of benign breast disease and subsequent risk of breast cancer, as well as the influence of a family history of breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 545,171 women aged 50-69 years biennially screened for breast cancer in Spain. The median of follow-up was 6.1 years. The age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) of breast cancer for women with benign breast disease, histologically classified into nonproliferative and proliferative disease with and without atypia, compared with women without benign breast disease was estimated by Poisson regression analysis. A stratified analysis by family history of breast cancer was performed in a subsample. All tests were two-sided. The age-adjusted RR of breast cancer after diagnosis of benign breast disease was 2.51 (95 % CI: 2.14-2.93) compared with women without benign breast disease. The risk was higher in women with proliferative disease with atypia (RR = 4.56, 95 % CI: 2.06-10.07) followed by those with proliferative disease without atypia (RR = 3.58; 95 % CI = 2.61-4.91). Women with nonproliferative disease and without a family history of breast cancer remained also at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.23, 95 % CI: 1.86-2.68). An increased risk of breast cancer was observed among screening participants with proliferative or nonproliferative benign breast disease, regardless of a family history of breast cancer. This information may be useful to explore risk-based screening strategies.

  20. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  1. Breast cancer: Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, I.M.; Clearly, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This is a publication about the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with an appeal for unified reporting of end results. Nine chapters cover historical reviews, risk factors, pathology-receptors-immunology, detection and diagnosis, treatment of the potentially curable patient, and treatment of the patient with advanced disease. The three concluding chapters discuss reconstruction, special clinical situations, and support for the patient. The role of radiation therapy is presented well. The current status of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and combined therapies is also addressed by authoritative authors

  2. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  3. A Step Toward Timely Referral and Early Diagnosis of Cancer: Implementation and Impact on Knowledge of a Primary Care-Based Training Program in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neo M. Tapela

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHealth system delays in diagnosis of cancer contribute to the glaring disparities in cancer mortality between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries. In Botswana, approximately 70% of cancers are diagnosed at late stage and median time from first health facility visit for cancer-related symptoms to specialty cancer care was 160 days (IQR 59–653. We describe the implementation and early outcomes of training targeting primary care providers, which is a part of a multi-component implementation study in Kweneng-East district aiming to enhance timely diagnosis of cancers.MethodsHealth-care providers from all public facilities within the district were invited to participate in an 8-h intensive short-course program developed by a multidisciplinary team and adapted to the Botswana health system context. Participants’ performance was assessed using a 25-multiple choice question tool, with pre- and post-assessments paired by anonymous identifier. Statistical analysis with Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare performance at the two time points across eight sub-domains (pathophysiology, epidemiology, social context, symptoms, evaluation, treatment, documentation, follow-up. Linear regression and negative binomial modeling were used to determine change in performance. Participants’ satisfaction with the program was measured on a separate survey using a 5-point Likert scale.Results176 participants attended the training over 5 days in April 2016. Pooled linear regression controlling for test version showed an overall performance increase of 16.8% after participation (95% CI 15.2–18.4. Statistically significant improvement was observed for seven out of eight subdomains on test A and all eight subdomains on test B. Overall, 71 (40.3% trainees achieved a score greater than 70% on the pretest, and 161 (91.5% did so on the posttest. Participants reported a high degree of satisfaction with the training program’s content

  4. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, I.

    1986-01-01

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  5. CT diagnosis of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Hiroshi; Hachisuka, Kitao; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    1986-01-01

    Preoperative diagnosis of the depth of invasion and lymph node metastasis of rectal cancer were studied using the findings of computed tomography (CT). Of one hundred and four cases operated on for rectal cancer over a period of 32 months, thirty five cases were examined by CT with the use of olive oil enema and contrast enhancement using a 60 % Conray drip infusion with reference to the histological findings. For direct invasion into the wall, the diagnoses by CT were coincident with microscopic findings in 75 % of cancers of the rectosigmoid, in 75 % of the upper rectum and in 84 % of the lower rectum. Of all cases, 28 (80 %) were diagnosed correctly. As to local lymph node metastasis, 74 % of all diagnoses by CT corresponded with the histological diagnosis. Moreover, seventeen cases were evaluated for lateral lymph node metastasis, and the diagnostic accuracy by CT was 88 %. In conclusion, preoperative CT evaluation of the extension into the rectal wall and lymph node metastasis in rectal cancer was considesed useful. (author)

  6. Diagnosis of gastric cancers by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianbing; Gong Jianping; Huan Jian

    1999-01-01

    Forty two cases of gastric cancers were reviewed. The cancer had been examined by CT and was confirmed by operation and pathology. The diagnostic results of gastric cancers obtained by CT were compared with that from GI and fibro-gastroscopy examination. The results showed that the preparation of gastrointestinal tract before CT examination was important in the CT diagnosis of gastric cancer. CT in diagnosis of focus of gastric cancer and organ invasion is better than Gl and Fibro-gastroscopy and accuracy in diagnosis of gastric cancers is near to that of GI examination

  7. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, I.J. de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by

  8. AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers from the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) work to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related tumors,...

  9. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermiah Eramah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay. Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s that did not include a lump (p  Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Conclusions Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing

  10. Diagnosis and prognosis of primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J. F. R.; Evans, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    The diagnosis of breast cancer should be made in the context of a multidisciplinary team: preoperative diagnosis can be made in over 90 % of patients with symptomatic and screen-detected cancers. A preoperative diagnosis allows patients the opportunity to come to terms with the diagnosis of breast cancer and to consider their treatment options before progressing to therapeutic surgery. Surgery remains the primary therapeutic treatment for operable breast cancer with radiotherapy and systemic therapies as adjuvant treatments. Surgery in addition provides pathological specimens from which important prognostic information may be obtained. The traditional TNM classification in itself is no longer sufficient although there is still c considerable prognostic information to be gained in staging patients. Markers of tumour biology provide prognostic data independent of TNM staging. Both need to be considered in any overall assessment of patient prognosis

  11. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  12. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  13. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Concept Development of the Next Generation Diagnostic Breast Imaging Using Digital Image Library and Networking Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chouikha, Mohamed F

    2004-01-01

    ...); and Georgetown University (Image Science and Information Systems, ISIS). In this partnership training program, we will train faculty and students in breast cancer imaging, digital image database library techniques and network communication strategy...

  14. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermiah, Eramah; Abdalla, Fathi; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Larbesh, Entesar; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Collan, Yrjö

    2012-08-21

    To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008-2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3-6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p diagnosis, the clinical stage distribution was as follows: 9.0% stage I, 25.5% stage II, 54.0% stage III and 11.5% stage IV.Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast

  15. Hypothyroidism after a cancer diagnosis: etiology, diagnosis, complications, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Yvette; Sippel, Rebecca S; Chen, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease that is easily treated in the majority of cases, when readily diagnosed; however, presentation of an aggregate of its symptoms is often clinically overlooked or attributed to another disease and can potentially be lethal. Already prevalent in older women, its occurrence in younger patients is rising as a result of radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and newer antineoplastic agents used to manage various malignancies. The presence of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and neuropsychiatric complaints in cancer patients can be attributed to a myriad of other diagnoses and therapies. Thyroid dysfunction can be easily overlooked in cancer patients because of the complexity of cancer's clinical picture, particularly in the pediatric population. Underdiagnosis can have important consequences for the management of both hypothyroidism and the malignancy. At minimum, quality of life is adversely affected. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to heart failure, psychosis, and coma and can reduce the effectiveness of potentially life-saving cancer therapies, whereas iatrogenic causes can provoke atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in cancer patients are pertinent. We summarize the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism in cancer patients.

  16. Hypothyroidism After a Cancer Diagnosis: Etiology, Diagnosis, Complications, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Yvette; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common disease that is easily treated in the majority of cases, when readily diagnosed; however, presentation of an aggregate of its symptoms is often clinically overlooked or attributed to another disease and can potentially be lethal. Already prevalent in older women, its occurrence in younger patients is rising as a result of radiation therapy, radioactive iodine therapy, and newer antineoplastic agents used to manage various malignancies. The presence of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and neuropsychiatric complaints in cancer patients can be attributed to a myriad of other diagnoses and therapies. Thyroid dysfunction can be easily overlooked in cancer patients because of the complexity of cancer’s clinical picture, particularly in the pediatric population. Underdiagnosis can have important consequences for the management of both hypothyroidism and the malignancy. At minimum, quality of life is adversely affected. Untreated hypothyroidism can lead to heart failure, psychosis, and coma and can reduce the effectiveness of potentially life-saving cancer therapies, whereas iatrogenic causes can provoke atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. Consequently, the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in cancer patients are pertinent. We summarize the history, epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and management of hypothyroidism in cancer patients. PMID:24309982

  17. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  18. Advances in MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longmin; Liu Ailian

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in the world, and the incidence of prostate cancer in China shows an upward trend. MRI has high soft tissue resolution and multi-dimensional imaging advantages, and it can better show the anatomy of the prostate and adjacent tissue structures. With the development of MR technique, it plays a more and more important role in prostate cancer diagnosis. This review starts from the imaging performance of routine MRI sequence of prostate cancer, and a variety of functional MRI applications in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of prostate cancer are described in detail, such as MR perfusion-weighted imaging, MR spectroscopy, MR diffusion-weighted imaging, MR diffusion tensor imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging, MR susceptibility-weighted imaging. Meanwhile this review introduces that functional MRI has more advantages and can provide more image information than routine MRI sequence. According to a series of semi-quantitative and quantitative data, functional MRI can further provide the blood perfusion of prostate cancer, water molecule diffusion and microcirculation state, metabolism and biochemical composition change information. (authors)

  19. Application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, N.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading causes of death next to heart diseases, Half of all cancer cases occur in developing countries. The conventional histopathology is usually the most trustable gold standard for pre-cancer and cancer diagnosis. However, the applicability of this method is more or less restricted because of the requirement of removing human tissues and the difficulty of real time diagnosis. Recently, there has been increased interest in 'optical biopsy' system using tissue spectroscopy to establish the pathological changes. Among optical based methods, Raman spectroscopy is a unique vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of probing biomolecular structures and conformation of tissues, and has excelled in the early detection of pre-cancer and cancer in the number of organs with high diagnostic specificity. Raman spectroscopy offers certain distinct advantages over than other optical diagnostic techniques such as high spatial resolution, use of less harmful NIR radiation, less or no sample preparation, no influence of water bands which facilitates in vivo/in situ measurements. This makes Raman spectroscopy also very useful for biomedical applications. Several research groups have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in biomedical applications. The background and principle of these techniques will be discussed with some examples and discussions on how Raman spectroscopy can act as a promising technique for rapid in vivo diagnosis and detection of various cancers at the molecular level. (author)

  20. Cancer diagnosis by infrared spectroscopy: methodological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael; Kim, Keith; Tetteh, John; Mansfield, James R.; Dolenko, Brion; Somorjai, Raymond L.; Orr, F. W.; Watson, Peter H.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1998-04-01

    IR spectroscopy is proving to be a powerful tool for the study and diagnosis of cancer. The application of IR spectroscopy to the analysis of cultured tumor cells and grading of breast cancer sections is outlined. Potential sources of error in spectral interpretation due to variations in sample histology and artifacts associated with sample storage and preparation are discussed. The application of statistical techniques to assess differences between spectra and to non-subjectively classify spectra is demonstrated.

  1. Radiological diagnosis of stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlacher, B

    1981-05-01

    The problems of routine radiology and the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign gastric ulcers are gone into. The value of endoscopy combined with radiology is stressed. The patient, the physician, and the X-ray equipment have to meet certain requirements in order to obtain good images and make a correct interpretation. The most important aspect of radiology today is radiation protection, which is possible only with efficient equipment and experienced medical examiners.

  2. Diagnosis of early stomach cancer (Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Problems concerning diagnosis of early stomach cancer using X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are stated. Classification of early stomach cancer suggested by the Japan Endoscopy Society and division system of early stomach cancer into two main foms: depth (erosive-ulcerous) one and elevated (polypoid) one-is presented X-ray and endoscopic investigation techniques are shown to be high efficiency concerning revealingation of stomach mucous variations using biopsy, which allow to determine for certain whother the process is benign or malignant one

  3. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part...

  4. FLUORESCENCE DIAGNOSIS FOR RECURRENT BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Ulyanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of successful use of local fluorescence spectroscopy combined with fluorescence imaging during cystoscopy for diagnosis of recurrent bladder cancer is represented in the article. Histological study of fluorescent foci confirmed tumor growth (urothelial carcinoma in all areas with high levels of diagnostic parameter. In the fluorescent focus with low diagnostic parameter inflammation was detected.

  5. Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.

  6. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Chul; Jin, S I; Kim, J W [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-12-15

    The ultrasonographic features of stomach cancer were studied in 43 patients who were diagnosed by double contrast UGI study and endoscopy. Ultrasonographic study was performed immediately after UGI study and the findings were correlated with USI study. The authors observed infiltrative lesions causing thickening of gastric wall, which can be localized (16 of 31) or diffuse(15 of 31). 9 cases were exogastric masses, sonographic findings were not found in the lesions occupying the cardia (3 of 5) Ultrasonography is useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of metastasis elsewhere in the abdomen, facilitating tumor staging and evaluation of the response to therapy

  7. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  8. Roentgenoendoscopic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.; Kopytov, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    Some potentialities of the X-ray and endoscopic methods in the recognition of early stomach cancer are analysed. Both methods are provided by a roentgenotogist. Of 396 operated patients with stomach cancer, early forms were detected in 78 which is equal to 8% of the detected number and 19.7% of the operated cancer pasients. Two macroscopic forms of early cancer were detected: cancer with ulceration (erosion-ulcerative form) and polypoidcancer. The first form is interpreted as primary-ulcerative cancer, malignant ulcers and cancer in the form of erosions, the second one as polyps, polypoid and patchlike cancer, malignant polyps. X-ray changes were detected in 80% of the patients, in the rest of 20% by the endoscopic method only. With the help of the roentgenological and endoscopic methods (without cytological examination) one cannot be sure of accurate differential diagnosis between malignant and benign variants of ulcerations and polypoid changes in early cancer. The potentialities of the X-ray method ir the detection of ulcerative and polypoid changes of the stomach make it possible to improve it, though under a strict condition of performing subsequent obligatory endoscopy and getting tissue specimens for biopsy. The organization of the common roentgenoendoscopic centers is found appropriate

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Taira, Naruhito

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the outline of the present diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer essentially based on its therapeutic guideline by the Japan Breast Cancer Society (2005) and on authors' experiences. The diagnosis item contains the medical interview of patients, observatory and palpating examinations, mammography (for this, Japan-Breast Imaging Recording and Data System), ultrasonography (guideline for sonographic diagnosis of mammary gland, 2004), fine needle aspiration (FNA) or aspiration biopsy cytology, bases of triple test (palpation, mammography and FNA) for the cancer diagnosis, core needle biopsy, and mammotome biopsy of non-palpable calcified lesion. The treatment item contains the surgery involving conservation, sentinel lymph node biopsy (for this, lymphoscintigraphy with Tc-phytate is illustrated), radiofrequency ablation, adjuvant chemotherapy essentially using anthracycline and taxane, endocrinological therapy using tamoxifen, LH-RH analogues and aromatase inhibitors, and molecular target therapy with HER2 monoclonal antibody like trastuzumab. Recent progress of systemic therapy with medicals is remarkable, and the educational promotion of experts and medicare circumstances are concluded to be important. (R.T.)

  10. Radiation dose to the patient and the radiologist while performing on chest computed tomography: a program of early diagnosis of lung cancer, biopsy and treatment simulation guided radiation oncologist breast cancer; Dosis de radiacion al paciente y al radiologo durante la realizacion de tomografia computarizada en torax: progrma de diagnostico precoz del cancer de pulmon, biopsia guiada y simulacion del tratamiento oncologo radioterapico del cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor Sanchis, V.; Martinez Sanchez, J. M.; Palma Copete, J. D.; Crispin Contreras, V.; Casal Zamorano, E.; Dolores Alemany, V. de los; Gonzalez Perez, V.; Gimeno Olmo, J.; Guardino de la Flor, C.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we determine the equivalent dose received by the operator and patient lung biopsies using thermoluminescence dosimeters, are established recommendations that this dose is as low as possible. It also reviews the acquisition protocols in both CT scans in early diagnosis program cited as the acquisition of CT for treatment planning dosimetric radiation oncologist in breast cancer.

  11. Delay in the diagnosis of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard

    for a detailed description of the patients' diagnostic pathways, allowing the researchers to draw the time line from symptom onset to treatment start, and to describe the characteristics of the patients and the GPs. Existing scales were used whenever possible; otherwise, ad hoc questions were constructed....... Chaper 1 introduces the concept of delay in the diagnosis of cancer. The chapter aims to provide insight into the time interval from symptom to treatment and into the patient and GP characteristics that potentially influence this interval. In addition, the chapter gives a brief overview of cancer...

  12. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers.

  13. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  14. Efficiency of clinical and combined diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, I.E.

    1986-01-01

    Problems on clinical, instrumental, laboratory diagnosis of mammary glands cancer are described. Efficiency of clinical examination, mammography, cytological examination, ultrasonic, radioisotopic diagnosis, some biochemical tests are estimated. The conclusion concerning advisability of complex diagnosis of mammary glands cancer especially its early forms is made. Perspectivity of application of polyamine test in diagnosis of primary cancer of the mammary gland is mark to estimate efficiency of its treatment

  15. The epigenetic promise for prostate cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Herman, James G; Otto, Gaëtan; Bigley, Joseph W; Epstein, Jonathan I; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2012-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in men and a leading cause of death. Improvements in disease management would have a significant impact and could be facilitated by the development of biomarkers, whether for diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive purposes. The blood-based prostate biomarker PSA has been part of clinical practice for over two decades, although it is surrounded by controversy. While debates of usefulness are ongoing, alternatives should be explored. Particularly with recent recommendations against routine PSA-testing, the time is ripe to explore promising biomarkers to yield a more efficient and accurate screening for detection and management of prostate cancer. Epigenetic changes, more specifically DNA methylation, are amongst the most common alterations in human cancer. These changes are associated with transcriptional silencing of genes, leading to an altered cellular biology. One gene in particular, GSTP1, has been widely studied in prostate cancer. Therefore a meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the role of this and other genes and the potential contribution to prostate cancer management and screening refinement. More than 30 independent, peer reviewed studies have reported a consistently high sensitivity and specificity of GSTP1 hypermethylation in prostatectomy or biopsy tissue. The meta-analysis combined and compared these results. GSTP1 methylation detection can serve an important role in prostate cancer managment. The meta-analysis clearly confirmed a link between tissue DNA hypermethylation of this and other genes and prostate cancer. Detection of DNA methylation in genes, including GSTP1, could serve an important role in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The diagnosis and detection of urogenital cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    Previously, histologic precision in the diagnosis of urologic cancers had, for some time, remained stable. More recently, variations in classifications of testis tumors, prostate cancer, and to some degree, bladder tumors, have been introduced. Most systems have in concurrence a desire or an attempt to infer better prognostic assessment in the overall results to treatment. With the advent of additional biological markers or direct enzymatic measurements, e.g., in prostate cancer, further improvements in identifying at risk populations, responses to treatment, and possible indications for variations in treatment, have ensued. These developments alone unquestionably mark the greatest area of change in the recent decade. The extent of disease assessment prior to definitive therapy, whether by arteriography, ultrasound, CAT scanning, or an occasional lymphangiography, has also influenced or modified treatment decisions. For continuing care and follow-up, several of these noninvasive techniques are now becoming included in the more standard approaches. Noninvasive techniques have been introduced for the therapy of renal tumors such as inducing infarction of the primary tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonic techniques have been particularly useful in assessing the size of pelvic tumors and response to treatment, even in detection of unexpected multiple primaries or metastatic extensions. Overall, the precision in urologic cancer, both for diagnostic and detection purposes, has been increased with these introductions

  17. 3-D Ultrasound Vascularity Assessment for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Paul

    1997-01-01

    This project is to improve the diagnosis and management of patients with breast cancer through development and evaluation of 3D ultrasound imaging and quantification techniques emphasizing vascularity...

  18. Human bladder cancer diagnosis using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sushmita; Wysock, James S.; Ng, Casey K.; Akhtar, Mohammed; Perner, Sven; Lee, Ming-Ming; Rubin, Mark A.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Webb, Watt W.; Scherr, Douglas S.

    2009-02-01

    At the time of diagnosis, approximately 75% of bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive. Appropriate diagnosis and surgical resection at this stage improves prognosis dramatically. However, these lesions, being small and/or flat, are often missed by conventional white-light cystoscopes. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the surgical margin for negativity using conventional cystoscopes. Resultantly, the recurrence rates in patients with early bladder cancer are very high. This is currently addressed by repeat cystoscopies and biopsies, which can last throughout the life of a patient, increasing cost and patient morbidity. Multiphoton endoscopes offer a potential solution, allowing real time, noninvasive biopsies of the human bladder, as well as an up-close assessment of the resection margin. While miniaturization of the Multiphoton microscope into an endoscopic format is currently in progress, we present results here indicating that Multiphoton imaging (using a bench-top Multiphoton microscope) can indeed identify cancers in fresh, unfixed human bladder biopsies. Multiphoton images are acquired in two channels: (1) broadband autofluorescence from cells, and (2) second harmonic generation (SHG), mostly by tissue collagen. These images are then compared with gold standard hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) stained histopathology slides from the same specimen. Based on a "training set" and a very small "blinded set" of samples, we have found excellent correlation between the Multiphoton and histopathological diagnoses. A larger blinded analysis by two independent uropathologists is currently in progress. We expect that the conclusion of this phase will provide us with diagnostic accuracy estimates, as well as the degree of inter-observer heterogeneity.

  19. Improving fluorescence diagnosis of cancer by SLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rück, Angelika; Dolp, Frank; Kinzler, Ingrid; Hauser, Carmen; Scalfi-Happ, Claudia

    2006-02-01

    Although during the last years, significant progress was made in cancer diagnosis, using either intrinsic or specially designed fluorophores, still problems exist, due to difficulties in spectral separation of highly overlapping probes or in lack of specificity. Many of the problems could be circumvented by focusing on time-resolved methods. In combination with spectral resolved detection (spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging, SLIM) highly sophisticated fluorescence lifetime imaging can be performed which might improve specificity of cell diagnosis. To record lifetime images (τ-mapping) with spectral resolution a setup was realized consisting of a laser scanning microscope equipped with a 16 channel array for time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and a spectrograph in front of the array. A Ti:Saphir laser can be used for excitation or alternatively ps diode lasers. With this system the time- and spectral-resolved fluorescence characteristics of different fluorophores were investigated in solution and in cell culture. As an example, not only the mitochondria staining dye rhodamine 123 could be easily distinguished from DAPI, which intercalates into nucleic acids, but also different binding sites of DAPI. This was proved by the appearance of different lifetime components within different spectral channels. Another example is Photofrin, a photosensitizer which is approved for bladder cancer and for palliative lung and esophageal cancer in 20 countries, including the United States, Canada and many European countries. Photofrin is a complex mixture of different monomeric and aggregated porphyrins. The phototoxic efficiency during photodynamic therapy (PDT) seems to be correlated with the relative amounts of monomers and aggregates. With SLIM different lifetimes could be attributed to various, spectrally highly overlapping compounds. In addition, a detailed analysis of the autofluorescence by SLIM could explain changes of mitochondrial metabolism during

  20. Analysis of framelets for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivya, K S; Sakthivel, P; Venkata Sai, P M

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second threatening tumor among the women. The effective way of reducing breast cancer is its early detection which helps to improve the diagnosing process. Digital mammography plays a significant role in mammogram screening at earlier stage of breast carcinoma. Even though, it is very difficult to find accurate abnormality in prevalent screening by radiologists. But the possibility of precise breast cancer screening is encouraged by predicting the accurate type of abnormality through Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. The two most important indicators of breast malignancy are microcalcifications and masses. In this study, framelet transform, a multiresolutional analysis is investigated for the classification of the above mentioned two indicators. The statistical and co-occurrence features are extracted from the framelet decomposed mammograms with different resolution levels and support vector machine is employed for classification with k-fold cross validation. This system achieves 94.82% and 100% accuracy in normal/abnormal classification (stage I) and benign/malignant classification (stage II) of mass classification system and 98.57% and 100% for microcalcification system when using the MIAS database.

  1. Cancer diagnosis in a ''breast clinic''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghys, R.

    1987-01-01

    Conflicting opinions have been expressed in the world literature over the last 15 years about the value of radiological techniques in breast cancer diagnosis. We reviewed 111 breast cancers which we diagnosed between 1971 and 1985, in unselected patients, by the combined use of palpation, thermography and mammography, complemented, since 1980, by diaphanoscopy. Considerable clinical experience is necessary to interpret both mammograms and thermograms. Each of these approaches, when rated independently, has a very high false negative rate ranging from 41% for clinical examination to 32% for mammography. In cases which are not clinically obvious, diaphanoscopy ''retrieves'' the most cancers, with thermography a close second (definitely malignant in 35% of the cases over the whole age range). Mammography comes third and its efficacy drops to 12.5% in premenopausal women. However, by combining this information with the one derived from anamnesis, the ACDTM scoring system gives us a false negative rate - before biopsy - of 5.5% and a false positive rate of <1%. This approach also drastically reduces the number of unnecessary biopsies

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis of pancreatic and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Luis Lancho Tofé

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available When we talk about cancer diagnosis the most important thing is early diagnosis to prevent cancer cells from spreading. We may also consider the high cost of diagnostic tests. Our approach seeks to address both problems. It uses a software based on Bayesian networks that simulates the causeeffect relationships and gets the chance of suffering a pancreatic cancer or lung cancer. This software would support doctors and save a lot of time and resources.

  3. The current status of imaging diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Tang Guangcai

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence and the mortality rate of female breast cancer in our country is increasing, Early diagnosis of breast cancer is particularly important. Precious preoperative staging in the breast cancer is advantageous for the treatment planning. Evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy is beneficial for adjusting the follow-up plan. Imaging examination has become an important role in breast cancer management. At present, commonly used equipment include mammography, ultrasound, CT, and MRI, etc. This article reviews the present study status of these tools in diagnosis of breast cancer. A reasonable and effective choice of those tools can facilitate clinic diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  4. Progress in diagnosis of breast cancer: Advances in radiology technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mari Beth Linder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in females between the ages of 15 and 54, and the second leading cause of cancer death in women in the United States. Diagnosis begins with detection by breast examination (clinical breast exam or breast self-exam or by radiologic studies, like mammography. Many advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer have taken place in recent years. This article will review the history of radiologic advances in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Use of technological advancements in digital breast tomosynthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound in breast cancer diagnosis will be presented. Advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic interventions when compared to older, traditional X-ray films will be discussed. It is important for all nurses, including radiology and oncology nurses, to be well informed about these varied diagnostic modalities, and appreciate the fact that advances in radiologic imaging technologies can yield improved outcomes for breast cancer patients.

  5. New serum biomarkers for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Kailash C.; Miller, Austin; Nair, Bindukumar B.; Schwartz, Stanley A.; Trump, Donald L.; Underwood, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker for diagnosis and management of prostate cancer (CaP). However, PSA typically lacks the sensitivity and specificity desired of a diagnostic marker. Objective The goal of this study was to identify an additional biomarker or a panel of biomarkers that is more sensitive and specific than PSA in differentiating benign versus malignant prostate disease and/or localized CaP versus metastatic CaP. Methods Concurrent measurements of circulating interleukin-8 (IL-8), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptors 1 (sTNFR1) were obtained from four groups of men: (1) Controls (2) with elevated prostate-specific antigen with a negative prostate biopsy (elPSA_negBx) (3) with clinically localized CaP and (4) with castration resistant prostate cancer. Results TNF-α Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.93) and sTNFR1 (AUC = 0.97) were strong predictors of elPSA_negBx (vs. CaP). The best predictor of elPSA_negBx vs CaP was sTNFR1 and IL-8 combined (AUC = 0.997). The strongest single predictors of localized versus metastatic CaP were TNF-α (AUC = 0.992) and PSA (AUC = 0.963) levels. Conclusions The specificity and sensitivity of a PSA-based CaP diagnosis can be significantly enhanced by concurrent serum measurements of IL-8, TNF-α and sTNFR1. In view of the concerns about the ability of PSA to distinguish clinically relevant CaP from indolent disease, assessment of these biomarkers in the larger cohort is warranted. PMID:25593898

  6. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Trong Khoa

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of cancer are currently on the top of disease pattern and the number is increasing and increasing worldwide. The impact of screening program for early diagnosis has been proved their important roles in the war against cancer because it helps increase the cure rates, decrease the mortality and morbidity rates, and therefore reduces the economic-social burden. Advances in diagnostic imaging techniques, especially the hybrid imaging (X-ray and Nuclear Medicine) such as PET/CT, SPECT/CT, PET/MRI, is important in accurate staging and these help choose the optimized treatment options to prolong survival while improve the quality of life. The treatment outcomes of cancer has certain remarkable advances based on variety of research to modify, promote and strengthen the traditional treatments (surgery-chemotherapy-radiation) such as laparoscopic surgery, combined chemo-regimens, intensity modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy, radio surgery, PET/CT simulation, radioactive seeds implant, selective internal radiation therapy, intra-operative radiation therapy, etc. as well as the emerge of new methods such as targeted therapy, immune therapy, radio immunotherapy, proton therapy and heavy ion. Treatment of cancer is now the “individualized treatment” with the advances of biochemistry and histopathology. To achieve the most optimal outcomes, cancer should be approached by a multi professional team including biochemistry, immunology, histopathology, surgical oncology, medical oncology and radiation oncology. (author)

  7. Delay in Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment for Breast Cancer Patients in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Helalah, Ahmad Munir; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Al-Hanaqtah, Mo'tasem; Da'na, Moh'd; Al-Omari, Asim; Mubaidin, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and one of the leading causes of death for females in Jordan and many countries in the world. Studies have shown that delay in symptoms presentation, diagnosis or treatment would result in poor prognosis. There has been no published study from Jordan on delays in patient presentation, delays in diagnosis, or delays in treatment. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess these important quality indicators aiming to improve prognosis for breast cancer patients in Jordan. This project was a cross-sectional study on female breast cancer patients in Jordan. The total number of participants was 327. The proportion of patients with presentation delay, diagnosis delay, and treatment delay was 32.2%, 49.1%, or 32.4%, respectively. The main reported reasons for delay in presentation were ignorance of the nature of the problem (65.6%), limited/lack of knowledge that symptoms were suggestive of cancer diagnosis (16.7%), and misdiagnosis (16.7%). Predictors of delay and mean time for presentation, diagnosis, and treatment were identified. Our results reveal that breast cancer patients in Jordan are experiencing delays in presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. This could justify the advanced stages at diagnosis and poor outcomes for breast cancer patients in Jordan. We recommend revising the current early detection and down-staging programs in Jordan. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pre-operative diagnosis of thyroid cancer: Clinical, radiological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diagnosis or exclusion of cancer in the thyroid nodule remains a clinical dilemma for general surgeons and endocrinologists. Nodular disease of the thyroid is very common, while cancer is rare; a definite diagnosis of either is difficult to make. The general prevalence of thyroid nodules is very high. They are detectable ...

  9. Fullerenols in therapy and diagnosis of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lichota

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors are one of the main causes of death in Poland. One of the objectives of contemporary biomedical research is to maximize the effects of therapeutic strategies. The actions undertaken to improve therapeutic agents are aimed at reducing the side effects of cancer treatments. Another direction of investigations is the search for protective substances that reduce the toxicity of the drug to normal cells. Carbon-based nanomaterials (fullerenes and their derivatives, graphene, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds are a broad class of nanoparticles that have potential biomedical applications in both therapy and diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to review biological properties of fullerenols in the context of their use in various strategies of cancer treatments. The authors also discuss the possibility of simultaneous use of nanoparticles in therapy and diagnosis, that is, in theranostics. Current knowledge indicates that fullerenes and their hydrophilic derivatives, especially fullerenols, show low or no toxicity. They may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth and protection of normal cells through their antioxidant properties, as well as to the regulation of expression of genes involved in apoptosis and angiogenesis, and stimulation of the immune response. Gadoliniumcontaining endohedral fullerenes are less toxic as a contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, and they may also inhibit tumor growth, which is a promising result for theranostics. Med Pr 2016;67(6:817–831

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Prat, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopy allows for the screening, early diagnosis, treatment and follow up of superficial esophageal cancer. Endoscopic submucosal dissection has become the gold standard for the resection of superficial squamous cell neoplasia. Combinations of endoscopic mucosal resection and radiofrequency ablation are the mainstay of the management of Barrett's associated neoplasia. However, protruded, non-lifting or large lesions may be better managed by endoscopic submucosal dissection. Novel ablation tools, such as argon plasma coagulation with submucosal lifting and cryoablation balloons, are being developed for the treatment of residual Barrett's esophagus, since iatrogenic strictures still hamper the development of extensive circumferential resections in the esophagus. Optimal surveillance modalities after endoscopic resection are still to be determined. The assessment of the risk of lymph-node metastases, as well as of the need for additional treatments based on qualitative and quantitative histological criteria, balanced to the patient's condition, requires a dedicated multidisciplinary team decision process. The need for trained endoscopists, expert pathologists and surgeons, and specialized multidisciplinary meetings underlines the role of expert centers in the management of superficial esophageal cancer.

  11. Valvular Heart Disease in Cancer Patients: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Merrill H; Jahangir, Eiman; Polin, Nichole M

    2017-07-01

    Cardiac valvular disease as consequence of radiation and chemotherapy during treatment for malignancy is growing in its awareness. While the overwhelming emphasis in this population has been on the monitoring and preservation of left ventricular systolic function, we are now developing a greater appreciation for the plethora of cardiac sequelae beyond this basic model. To this end many institutions across the country have developed cardio-oncology programs, which are collaborative practices between oncologists and cardiologists in order to minimize a patient's cardiovascular risk while allowing them to receive the necessary treatment for their cancer. These programs also help to recognize early nuanced treatment complications such as valvular heart disease, and provide consultation for the most appropriate course of action. In this article we will discuss the etiology, prevalence, diagnosis, and current treatment options of valvular heart disease as the result of chemotherapy and radiation.

  12. New use of prescription drugs prior to a cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancers often have considerable induction periods. This confers a risk of reverse causation bias in studies of cancer risk associated with drug use, as early symptoms of a yet undiagnosed cancer might lead to drug treatment in the period leading up to the diagnosis. This bias can be alle...

  13. Gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment guidelines 2008: Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Uganda most cancers to the exception of bladder and penis are increasing in incidence. The incidence of cancer of stomach is 5.6/100,000 from 0.8/100,000 in the 1960s a seven fold increase.The purpose of this guideline document is to highlight the salient points in gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment in the ...

  14. Racial/Ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities of cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, F Benjamin; Lin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Advanced-stage diagnosis is among the primary causes of mortality among cervical cancer patients. With the wide use of Pap smear screening, cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis rates have decreased. However, disparities of advanced-stage diagnosis persist among different population groups. A challenging task in cervical cancer disparity reduction is to identify where underserved population groups are. Based on cervical cancer incidence data between 1995 and 2008, this study investigated advanced-stage cervical cancer disparities in Texas from three social domains: Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographic location. Effects of individual and contextual factors, including age, tumor grade, race/ethnicity, as well as contextual SES, spatial access to health care, sociocultural factors, percentage of African Americans, and insurance expenditures, on these disparities were examined using multilevel logistic regressions. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and SES were found in cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis. We also found a decline in racial/ethnic disparities of advanced cervical cancer diagnosis rate from 1995 to 2008. However, the progress was slower among African Americans than Hispanics. Geographic disparities could be explained by age, race/ethnicity, SES, and the percentage of African Americans in a census tract. Our findings have important implications for developing effective cervical cancer screening and control programs. We identified the location of underserved populations who need the most assistance with cervical cancer screening. Cervical cancer intervention programs should target Hispanics and African Americans, as well as individuals from communities with lower SES in geographic areas where higher advanced-stage diagnosis rates were identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testicular cancer from diagnosis to epigenetic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Vanacore, Daniela; Zappavigna, Silvia; Cavaliere, Carla; Rossetti, Sabrina; D’Aniello, Carmine; Chieffi, Paolo; Amler, Evzen; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Di Franco, Rossella; Izzo, Alessandro; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Perdonà, Sisto; Caraglia, Michele; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is one of the most common neoplasms that occurs in male and includes germ cell tumors (GCT), sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors and secondary testicular tumors. Diagnosis of TC involves the evaluation of serum tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and lactate dehydrogenase, but clinically several types of immunohistochemical markers are more useful and more sensitive in GCT, but not in teratoma. These new biomarkers are genes expressed in primordial germ cells/gonocytes and embryonic pluripotency-related cells but not in normal adult germ cells and they include PLAP, OCT3/4 (POU5F1), NANOG, SOX2, REX1, AP-2γ (TFAP2C) and LIN28. Gene expression in GCT is regulated, at least in part, by DNA and histone modifications, and the epigenetic profile of these tumours is characterised by genome-wide demethylation. There are different epigenetic modifications in TG-subtypes that reflect the normal developmental switch in primordial germ cells from an under- to normally methylated genome. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the findings of recent investigations in the classification of male genital organs, the discoveries in the use of prognostic and diagnostic markers and the epigenetic aberrations mainly affecting the patterns of DNA methylation/histone modifications of genes (especially tumor suppressors) and microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:29262668

  16. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  17. Gene Expression Correlation for Cancer Diagnosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbing Ling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor prognosis for late-stage, high-grade, and recurrent cancers has been motivating cancer researchers to search for more efficient biomarkers to identify the onset of cancer. Recent advances in constructing and dynamically analyzing biomolecular networks for different types of cancer have provided a promising novel strategy to detect tumorigenesis and metastasis. The observation of different biomolecular networks associated with normal and cancerous states led us to hypothesize that correlations for gene expressions could serve as valid indicators of early cancer development. In this pilot study, we tested our hypothesis by examining whether the mRNA expressions of three randomly selected cancer-related genes PIK3C3, PIM3, and PTEN were correlated during cancer progression and the correlation coefficients could be used for cancer diagnosis. Strong correlations (0.68≤r≤1.0 were observed between PIK3C3 and PIM3 in breast cancer, between PIK3C3 and PTEN in breast and ovary cancers, and between PIM3 and PTEN in breast, kidney, liver, and thyroid cancers during disease progression, implicating that the correlations for cancer network gene expressions could serve as a supplement to current clinical biomarkers, such as cancer antigens, for early cancer diagnosis.

  18. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  19. Plain radiographic findings of lung cancer with delayed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Jin Ill

    1994-01-01

    In Korea, Lung cancer is the Second most common prevailing malignancy among male population next to stomach cancer. Although CT scan and MRI is widely used in the staging of lung cancer, plain chest x-ray still plays an important role in screening and diagnosis. Our intention was to review the confusing radiographic features which result in delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Of the 160 patients with lung cancer evaluated by us, 62 patients(39%) with delayed diagnosis and average diagnostic duration of 5.1 months compared with 2.1 months for those without delay. We reviewed the plain chest x-ray findings of those 62 patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was delayed more than half of the cases under the impression of intrathoracic tuberculosis. Upon reviewing the roentgenologic findings in patients with diagnostic delay, central type appeared as a small hilar or mediastinal mass with or without obstructive pneumonia. Peripheral type appeared as an ill-defined pulmonary module, a nodule hidden by overlapping structures, or as a lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Some cases were misinterpreted as extranodal spread of malignancy. To solve above mentioned problems, we recommend proper understanding of natural history of lung cancer, incorporation of high kVp technique in chest radiographs, routine acquisition of lateral chest radiograph to increase diagnostic accuracy, and appropriate use of CT scan in cases of difficult diagnosis

  20. Computer modeling of lung cancer diagnosis-to-treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Feng; Lee, Hyo Kyung; Osarogiagbon, Raymond U; Yu, Xinhua; Faris, Nick; Li, Jingshan

    2015-08-01

    We introduce an example of a rigorous, quantitative method for quality improvement in lung cancer care-delivery. Computer process modeling methods are introduced for lung cancer diagnosis, staging and treatment selection process. Two types of process modeling techniques, discrete event simulation (DES) and analytical models, are briefly reviewed. Recent developments in DES are outlined and the necessary data and procedures to develop a DES model for lung cancer diagnosis, leading up to surgical treatment process are summarized. The analytical models include both Markov chain model and closed formulas. The Markov chain models with its application in healthcare are introduced and the approach to derive a lung cancer diagnosis process model is presented. Similarly, the procedure to derive closed formulas evaluating the diagnosis process performance is outlined. Finally, the pros and cons of these methods are discussed.

  1. Radiation detection and diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The value of mammography in the symptomatic patient has been adequately documented, but its use as a detection procedure remains a question. Risk-benefit ratios, based primarily upon the study carried out by the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York, have suggested that the technique has little value in individuals under age 50. Emphasis has been placed upon the possible carcinogenic effects of radiation as compared with the efficacy of mammography and the questionable influence of early diagnosis upon end results. Although technical advances have substantially reduced the exposure of the patient to radiation, the possibility of significant information loss as the result of these developments has been considered a potential drawback to their routine use. All of these factors have served to diminish both public and professional acceptance of the examination. Although current data do not allow complete resolution of these problems, certain conclusions may be drawn and trends established. The sum of these may indicate that minimal dose mammography is an accurate, low-risk procedure, capable of significantly altering the natural history of breast cancer. Whether or not the examination should be routinely used in women under age 50 remains open to question since the lack of experimental controls prohibits validation of the technique in terms of reduced mortality rates. Documentation of increased survival rates may partially assist in the established of a reliable risk-benefit ratio, but will not satisfy the statistical requirements of eliminating lead-bias, and self-selection. These questions may be resolved by studies now underway

  2. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Churl Min; Kim, Ho Kyun; Yoon, Yup; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Soon Yong; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen cases of cancers in and adjacent to the pancreas were studied by high resolution and wide field real time ultrasonographic scanner with 3.5 MHz linear array electronically focusing transducer. The result were as follows: 1. In a total of 17 cases, 7 cases were pancreatic cancers and the rests were 3 cases of ampulla of Vaster cancer, 3 cases of distal CBD cancers, and 4 cases of metastatic cancers, respectively. 2. Pancreatic cancers were located mainly in head portion, and metastatic cancers were noted in head, tail, and retropancreatic areas. 3. The sizes of all distal CBD cancer were less than 1.8 cm, usually smaller than other tumors, and the size of metastatic cancers were variable (1-6 cm). 4. The shape, margin, contour and echogenicity of the tumors were variable. 5. Pancreatic duct showed marked dilatation in one of pancreatic cancer, and mild dilatation in one of ampulla of Vater cancer. 6. The caliber of extrahepatic duct were moderately or markedly dilated in nearly all cases except 2 cases of pancreatic body cancer. 7. The pancreatic margin is partially obliterated in pancreatic and ampulla of Vater cancers but not in distal CBD cancer. 8. Gallbladder enlargement is secondary change due to the obstruction of extrahepatic bile duct. 9. Effects on the vessels are due to not only direct mass effect but direct invasion resulting in obliteration. The most commonly involved vessels are spleno-portal junction, splenic vein and portal vein. In case of pancreatic cancer in uncinate process, the superior mesenteric vessels are displaced anteriorly. 10. Surrounding metastatic lesions were suspected in pancreatic and ampulla of Vater cancer, but not seen in distal CBD cancer. 11. Ascites were seen in only two cases of metastasis

  3. Factors Associated with Delayed Cancer Diagnosis in Egyptian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Abdelkhalek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite tremendous importance of early cancer diagnosis in children, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Egypt. Early stage diagnosis can have a positive effect on prognoses and the quality of life of children with cancer. We investigated delays in the diagnosis of childhood cancers in Egypt and determined the factors associated with these delays. Methods This retrospective study included 172 children with cancer from two pediatric oncology units. The interval between symptoms onset and final diagnosis for each child was estimated and examined by univariate and multivariate analyses to determine correlations with the child's sex, age at diagnosis, type and site of malignancy, family residence, socioeconomic status, and parental educational level. Findings The median total diagnosis delay period was 47 days caused by patients and/or parents (8 days and diagnosis (28 days. Statistically significant patient factors associated with delayed diagnosis were age (<5 years, lower parental education, and socioeconomic status. Sex residence and family size were not significant. Malignancy type and tumor site significantly affected the time for diagnosis. The lowest median value was associated with germ cell tumors (GCTs and leukemia, and the highest value was in children with brain tumor. Missed diagnoses were initially recorded in 39.5% of the patients and were associated with patient and tumor factors. Interpretation Delayed diagnosis of childhood cancer is related to age, family, socioeconomic status and parental education, and cancer type and site. Efforts should be made to promote awareness, develop effective steps to eliminate possible contributing factors, and determine the best intervention method.

  4. Diagnosis and evaluation of gastric cancer by positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Xi; Zhu, Zhao-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. The diagnosis of gastric cancer has been significantly improved with the broad availability of gastrointestinal endoscopy. Effective technologies for accurate staging and quantitative evaluation are still in demand to merit reasonable treatment and better prognosis for the patients presented with advanced disease. Preoperative staging using conventional imaging tools, such as computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasonography, is inadequate. Positron emission tomography (PET), using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a tracer and integrating CT for anatomic localization, holds a promise to detect unsuspected metastasis and has been extensively used in a variety of malignancies. However, the value of FDG PET/CT in diagnosis and evaluation of gastric cancer is still controversial. This article reviews the current literature in diagnosis, staging, response evaluation, and relapse monitoring of gastric cancer, and discusses the current understanding, improvement, and future prospects in this area. PMID:24782610

  5. Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Methods - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early cancer detection is a proven life-saving strategy. Learn about the research opportunities NCI supports, including liquid biopsies and other less-invasive methods, for detecting early cancers and precancerous growths.

  6. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or movie together, or buy your child some comic books. Visit with other children who have had ... guide for parents. www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/children-with-cancer.pdf . Updated September 2015. Accessed ...

  7. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens expressed on the surface of target

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colella, Sara; Vilmann, Peter; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    a good diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the future, these techniques in combination with positron emission tomography/computed tomographic may replace surgical staging in patients with suspected and proven lung cancer, but until then surgical staging remains the gold...... standard for adequate preoperative evaluation....

  9. Attitude towards pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for hereditary cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, Chantal; Bleiker, Eveline; Aaronson, Neil; Vriends, Annette; Ausems, Margreet; Jansweijer, Maaike; Wagner, Anja; Sijmons, Rolf; van den Ouweland, Ans; van der Luijt, Rob; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Gómez García, Encarna; Ruijs, Mariëlle; Verhoef, Senno

    2009-01-01

    The use of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for hereditary cancer is subject to on-going debate, particularly among professionals. This study evaluates the attitude towards PGD and attitude-associated characteristics of those concerned: family members with a hereditary cancer predisposition.

  10. Age at diagnosis and breast cancer survival in iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vostakolaei, F.A.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Rostami, N.; van Dijck, J.A.; Feuth, T.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tumour characteristics are the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. Patient-related factors such as young age at diagnosis, obesity, and smoking behaviour may also modify disease outcome. Due to the absence of a unique definition for "young age breast cancer" and the

  11. Thermographic and radionuclide investigation in combined diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushakhmanov, A.Kh.

    1986-01-01

    The results of examination of 157 women with breast diseases are given. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 94 patients, benign diseases in 63. The combined use of the thermographic and radionuclide methods was shown to raise the accuracy of breast cancer diagnosis

  12. Suicide in cancer patients within the first year of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Myung Hee; Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Ramsey, Christine M; Na, Riji; Kim, Seon Ok; Kim, Jeong Eun; Yoon, Shinkyo; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-05-01

    A diagnosis of cancer is associated with an increased suicide risk, and this risk is the highest within the first year of diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors of suicide occurring within the first year of cancer diagnosis (early suicide). The sampling pool consisted of 164,497 patients with cancer admitted to a general hospital in Seoul, South Korea, from 1996 to 2009. We conducted a 1:2 matched case-control study by matching 373 patients who died from suicide (cases) with 746 patients who did not die from suicide (controls) on age, sex, anatomic site, and at the time of cancer diagnosis. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Suicide within the first year after a cancer diagnosis occurred in 149 patients (40.0% of 373 total suicides). The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for early suicide was 1.65 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.40-1.94] and was significantly higher for biliary-pancreatic (SMR = 3.07; 95% CI = 2.02-4.46), lung (SMR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.19-3.30), and stomach (SMR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.16-2.42) cancers than for other cancers. Early and late suicide was significantly different in anatomic site (p = 0.01) and stage (p suicide compared with late suicide (53.4 versus 18.7%; p suicide risk. Cancers with an advanced stage at diagnosis were associated with an increased risk of suicide within 1 year of diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Communication of the cancer diagnosis to an elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Terra Jonas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to collect evidence on matters which involve cancer diagnosis disclosure to an elderly patient. Methods: integrative revision made in five important data bases in the area of health with seven selected articles. Results: it was noticeable that there are conflicts between family members and health professionals concerning cancer diagnosis disclosure to an elderly patient and that the preferences of those people on the disclosure of the diagnosis are similar to other patients. Conclusion: health professionals, especially the nurses, need training in order to have a secure and clarifying communication, matching the information to the specific needs of each patient, considering their reality and type of confrontation..

  14. Diagnosis of the cancer of unknown primary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisova, S.; Poersoek, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is one of the ten most frequent cancers worldwide. It constitutes of 3-5% of all human malignancies. At time of diagnosis patients with CUP present with disseminated metastases without established primary origin. CUP manifests as heterogenous group of mainly epithelial cancers recognised by distinct clinico pathological entities. The diagnostic work-up includes extensive histopathology investigations and modern imaging technology. Nevertheless, the primary tumour remains undetected most of the time. (author)

  15. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeung Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoo Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer.

  16. Radiologic diagnosis of abestos-ralated lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yoo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos was previously widely used due to its many favorable characteristics, such as durability, flexibility, and inexpensiveness. Asbestos has been prohibited in Korea since 2009, however, asbestos-related diseases remain an important public health issue because of its long latency time. Lung cancer is one of the most harmful asbestos-related diseases and patients with asbestos-related lung cancer receive compensation by law. The diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases is based on a detailed interview regarding the asbestos exposure, in addition to clinical, radiological, pathological, and laboratory data. This review provides a radiologic diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer

  17. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  18. [Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in China. In 2012 one million thirty six thousand cases of colorectal cancer were diagnosed all over the world, two hundred fifty three thousand cases were diagnosed in China (accounted for 18.6%). China has the largest number of new cases of colorectal cancer in the world. Colorectal cancer has becoming a serious threat of Chinese residents' health. In 2010, the National Ministry of Health organized colorectal cancer expertise of the Chinese Medical Association to write the "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2010edition), and publish it publicly. In recent years, the National Health and Family Planning Commission has organized experts to revised the protocol 2 times: the first time in 2015, the second time in 2017. The revised part of "Chinese Protocol of Diagnosis and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer" (2017 edition) involves new progress in the field of imaging examination, pathological evaluation, surgery, chemotherpy and radiotherapy. The 2017 edition of the protocol not only referred to the contents of the international guidelines, but also combined with the specific national conditions and clinical practice in China, and also included many evidence-based clinical data in China recently. The 2017 edition of the protocol would further promote the standardization of diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China, improve the survival and prognosis of patients, and benefit millions of patients with colorectal cancer and their families.

  19. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tumor exosomes: cellular postmen of cancer diagnosis and personalized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aman; Khatun, Zamila; Shiras, Anjali

    2016-02-01

    Nanosized (30-150 nm) extracellular vesicles 'exosomes' are secreted by cells for intercellular communication during normal and pathological conditions. Exosomes carry biomacromolecules from cell-of-origin and, therefore, represent molecular bioprint of the cell. Tumor-derived exosomes or TDEx modulate tumor microenvironment by transfer of macromolecules locally as well as at distant metastatic sites. Due to their biological stability, TDEx are rich source of biomarkers in cancer patients. TDEx focused cancer diagnosis allows liquid biopsy-based tumor typing and may facilitate therapy response monitoring by developing novel exosomes diagnostics. Therefore, efficient and specific capturing of exosomes for subsequent amplification of the biomessages; for example, DNA, RNA, miRNA can reinvent cancer diagnosis. Here, in this review, we discuss advancements in exosomes isolation strategies, presence of exosomes biomarkers and importance of TDEx in gauging tumor heterogeneity for their potential use in cancer diagnosis, therapy.

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Alaa M G; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bolla, Manjeet K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. METHODS: A MEDLINE...... cancer-specific mortality, with some evidence of a negative association with all-cause mortality. On the basis of a single study, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-negative disease. There was no association...... with prediagnosis intake for women with ER-negative disease. CONCLUSION: There was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-positive disease. There was weak evidence that moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake is associated...

  2. Proteomic Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Skin Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazova, Rossitza; Seeley, Erin H

    2017-10-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging can be successfully used for skin cancer diagnosis, particularly for the diagnosis of challenging melanocytic lesions. This method analyzes proteins within benign and malignant melanocytic tumor cells and, based on their differences, which constitute a unique molecular signature of 5 to 20 proteins, can render a diagnosis of benign nevus versus malignant melanoma. Mass spectrometry imaging may assist in the differentiation between metastases and nevi as well as between proliferative nodules in nevi and melanoma arising in a nevus. In the difficult area of atypical Spitzoid neoplasms, mass spectrometry diagnosis can predict clinical outcome better than histopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [CBO guideline 'Breast cancer: screening and diagnosis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, E.; Tuut, M.K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    New developments in the diagnostic procedures for women with an increased risk for, or symptoms related to breast cancer led to development of new guidelines by a working group under the auspices of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement, the Organisation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres and

  4. Breast cancer. Nuclear medicine in diagnosis and therapeutic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Bonadonna, G.; Gianni, L.

    2008-01-01

    Brings up-to-date nuclear medical knowledge in breast cancer. Includes vital information on advances in the field of diagnosis. Supplies data on the development of some new modalities. Offers a general overview of the available tools for breast cancer treatment. There can never be enough material in the public domain about cancers, and particularly breast cancer. This book adds much to the literature. It provides general information on breast cancer management and considers all new methods of diagnosis and therapy. It focuses on nuclear medicine modalities by comparing their results with other diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The coverage provides readers with up-to-date knowledge on breast cancer as well as information on the advances in the field of diagnosis. It also details data on the development of some new modalities and provides a general overview of the available tools for breast cancer treatment. In sum, it is a hugely useful text that performs a dual function. Not only does it provide practitioners of all descriptions with a vital overview of the current state of play in breast cancer treatment, but it also lays out in a beautifully structured way the latest diagnostic methodologies. (orig.)

  5. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  6. Preoperative diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Reiki; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Ueno, Keiko; Murata, Yoko

    1996-01-01

    From 1994 to 1995, to evaluate the utility of preoperative CT, EUS (endoscopic ultrasonography) and US in the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in thoracic esophageal cancer, 94 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy were studied clinicopathologically. The sensitivity of EUS diagnosis of upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis (85%), left-sided paragastrin lymph node metastasis (73-77%), and especially lower paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (100%) were good. But due to their low-grade specificity in EUS diagnosis, their overall accuracy was not very good. On the other hand, the overall accuracy of the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was fine. However, sensitivity, the most important clinical factor in the CT diagnosis of lymph node metastasis was considerably inferior to EUS. The assessment of the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis around the tracheal bifurcation and the pulmonary hilum and the left para-cardial lesion by CT or EUS was poor. It was concluded that lymph node metastasis of these area must be the pitfall in preoperative diagnosis. The average diameter of the lymph nodes and the proportion of cancerous tissue in the lymph nodes diagnosed as metastatic lymph nodes by CT was larger than that of the false negative lymph nodes. However, the lymph nodes diagnosed as true positives by EUS showed no such tendency. This must be the reason the sensitivity of the EUS diagnosis and specificity of the CT diagnosis were favorable, but the specificity of the EUS diagnosis and especially the sensitivity of the CT diagnosis were not as good. (author)

  7. Raman spectroscopy and imaging: applications in human breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Musial, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw; Bailo, Elena; Dieing, Thomas; Abramczyk, Halina

    2012-08-21

    The applications of spectroscopic methods in cancer detection open new possibilities in early stage diagnostics. Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging represent novel and rapidly developing tools in cancer diagnosis. In the study described in this paper Raman spectroscopy has been employed to examine noncancerous and cancerous human breast tissues of the same patient. The most significant differences between noncancerous and cancerous tissues were found in regions characteristic for the vibrations of carotenoids, lipids and proteins. Particular attention was paid to the role played by unsaturated fatty acids in the differentiation between the noncancerous and the cancerous tissues. Comparison of Raman spectra of the noncancerous and the cancerous tissues with the spectra of oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, γ-linolenic, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids has been presented. The role of sample preparation in the determination of cancer markers is also discussed in this study.

  8. Cancer Diagnosis: 11 Tips for Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can improve your energy level. Choose a healthy diet consisting of a variety of foods and get adequate rest in order to help you manage the stress and fatigue of the cancer and its treatment. ...

  9. The detection, diagnosis and therapy of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram covers clinical aspects of cancers of the lung and tracheo-bronchial tree, i.e., the lower respiratory tract. This includes primary lung cancer in both early and advanced disease status. The topic includes clinically relevant aspects of the prevention, detection, diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of lung cancer. Certain aspects of metastatic lung disease treatment or therapy which involve aspects of interest to primary lung cancer are included. With certain exceptions, general pre-clinical or animal studies not directly related to the primary human disease are excluded

  10. Concerns on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shen-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Breast cancer is one of the neoplasms that have greatest negative psychological impact on the sufferers. Although China is among the low morbidity country of breast cancer, its yearly increasing rate in China is 1%-2% higher than the average rate of the word.1 Due to its largest population in the word, China tops the world in its breast cancer cases but general medical care for the patients still lags behind the developed countries. These issues are related to the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in China.

  11. Computer vision techniques for the diagnosis of skin cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this volume is to summarize the state-of-the-art in the utilization of computer vision techniques in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in the world. Early diagnosis is particularly important since melanoma can be cured with a simple excision if detected early. In recent years, dermoscopy has proved valuable in visualizing the morphological structures in pigmented lesions. However, it has also been shown that dermoscopy is difficult to learn and subjective. Newer technologies such as infrared imaging, multispectral imaging, and confocal microscopy, have recently come to the forefront in providing greater diagnostic accuracy. These imaging technologies presented in this book can serve as an adjunct to physicians and  provide automated skin cancer screening. Although computerized techniques cannot as yet provide a definitive diagnosis, they can be used to improve biopsy decision-making as well as early melanoma detection, especially for pa...

  12. Discussion of difficult problems of early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Xiaozhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a common malignant neoplasm of the pancreas with an extremely high mortality. Currently, the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is still not ideal. Attention should be paid to some clinical warning symptoms, such as unexplained abdominal and back pain, jaundice, and unexpected diabetes. Additionally, the combined use of CA19-9, CEA, and other tumor markers, the attention to biochemical indicators, the detection of mutation in KAI1 or p53 gene, and the exploration of the value of miRNA in clinical diagnosis are of great significance. On the other hand, ultrasound, CT, MRCP, ERCP, PET-CT, and other imaging methods, as well as effective collection of cytology specimens, should be performed. Thus, there is hope for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis: differential diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lima Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic prostatic paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a very rare condition; however, it may express as a typical benign prostatic hyperplasia or a simulating prostatic adenocarcinoma. This case report presents PCM mimicking prostatic adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this paper is to call the general physician's attention to this important differential diagnosis.

  15. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sandra M. A.; Girão, André F.; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage. PMID:26805845

  16. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. A. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage.

  17. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  18. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  19. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Knyazev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.

  20. Radiologic diagnosis of gastric cancer. A new outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoy, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    In our monograph we have tried to demonstrate the infeasibility of excluding radiological diagnosis, first and foremost the traditional X-ray examination, from the algorithm for diagnosing gastric cancer. We have produced convincing evidence and explanations for the indispensability of the X-ray, which should be used along with endoscopy. The current morphological and clinical characteristics of gastric cancer suggest that only the combined use of X-ray and endoscopy can change the discouraging situation with regard to relatively early diagnosis of the disease. Radical change is also very difficult without screening. Selective screening may become a reasonable alternative in countries with limited economic potential, Russia included. It is very important to attach greater importance to outpatient services in the attempt to improve the control of the disease. Diagnosis and treatment might thus be radically facilitated. Therefore, the tendency to minimize outpatient use of X-ray examinations works against improving the diagnosis of gastric cancer. All these aspects are discussed in detail in the monograph. Although the main purpose of the monograph is to describe the current role of the X-ray examination in the diagnosis of gastric cancer, the book also covers some problems related to the epidemiology and morphology of the disease in order to disprove the existing underestimation of X-ray potential in early diagnosis. While describing radiological diagnosis, we dwell on its methodological and semeiotic principles, as well as on the special importance of each method. These include the traditional radiological and ultrasonographic methods, computed tomography, and magnetic-resonance imaging. While we value these methods, above all MRI, unlike some other researchers, we rely not only on endoscopy but also on the traditional X-ray, because we believe it greatly increases the objective value of the findings and potentials of each separate method. A special chapter in the

  1. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Iglesias García

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 4%, without significant changes over the last 50 years. This poor survival rate and bad prognosis are associated with the diagnosis of advanced-stage disease, which precludes the only potential curative treatment - surgical resection. In this setting, the main objective in the management of pancreatic cancer is to perform an early diagnosis and a correct staging of the disease. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS appears to be an essential tool for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. EUS diagnostic accuracy for detecting pancreatic tumors ranges from 85 to 100%, clearly superior to other imaging techniques. EUS accuracy for the local staging of pancreatic cancer ranges from 70 to 90%, superior or equivalent to other imaging modalities. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration allows a cyto-histological diagnosis in nearly 90% of cases, with a very low complication rate. At present, the formal indications for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration are the necessity of palliative treatment or whenever the possibility of neoadjuvant treatment is present. It could be also indicated to differentiate pancreatic adenocarcinoma from other pancreatic conditions, like lymphoma, metastasis, autoimmune pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis. We can conclude that EUS is an essential tool in the management of patients with pancreatic tumors.

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Iglesias García

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the 5th leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 4%, without significant changes over the last 50 years. This poor survival rate and bad prognosis are associated with the diagnosis of advanced-stage disease, which precludes the only potential curative treatment - surgical resection. In this setting, the main objective in the management of pancreatic cancer is to perform an early diagnosis and a correct staging of the disease. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS appears to be an essential tool for the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer. EUS diagnostic accuracy for detecting pancreatic tumors ranges from 85 to 100%, clearly superior to other imaging techniques. EUS accuracy for the local staging of pancreatic cancer ranges from 70 to 90%, superior or equivalent to other imaging modalities. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration allows a cyto-histological diagnosis in nearly 90% of cases, with a very low complication rate. At present, the formal indications for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration are the necessity of palliative treatment or whenever the possibility of neoadjuvant treatment is present. It could be also indicated to differentiate pancreatic adenocarcinoma from other pancreatic conditions, like lymphoma, metastasis, autoimmune pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis. We can conclude that EUS is an essential tool in the management of patients with pancreatic tumors.

  3. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect...... in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family...... cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals...

  4. THE EFFECT OF EARLY CERVICAL CANCER DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Haller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment effectiveness and clinical outcome of patients with cervical carcinoma FIGO stage IA1 and IA2 are analyzed in three different time period at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Rijeka, Croatia. Method: Retrospective analysis of the hospital chart of all cervical cancer patients between 1991 and 2005 was conducted with five-year follow up. Results: Data on cervical cancer distribution by stage and five-year survival are presented. Separately analyzed age, histology type and treatment modalities in stage FIGO IA1 and IA2 during three consecutive five-year periods are presented. Conclusions: Conservative surgical approach – conization alone in stage IA1 of the squamous cell car- cinoma is reasonable and safe treatment option for reproductive active women. During observed periods conization became the most used surgical technique applied in almost two third of FIGO IA1 cervical cancer patients. Lymph vascular space invasion in stage IA1 lead to adjunct pelvic lymphadenectomy with unclear clinical benefit. In cervical cancer patients stage IA2 simple hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy could be accepted as a standard treatment. In these patients further studies are recommended to evaluate other less radical surgical techniques – simple and radical trachelectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. Radical hysterectomy in both stages IA1 and IA2, based on personal experience and literature data represents a surgical overtreatment and should be abandoned.

  5. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the final decisions should be made together. Knowing what to expect is another way to feel in control. It may also help to keep as normal a routine as possible. Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting spirit and support. Many people also find strength in ...

  6. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  7. Genetic variation in IL-16 miRNA target site and time to prostate cancer diagnosis in African American men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lucinda; Ruth, Karen; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Giri, Veda N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Men with a family history of prostate cancer and African American men are at high risk for prostate cancer and in need of personalized risk estimates to inform screening decisions. This study evaluated genetic variants in genes encoding microRNA (miRNA) binding sites for informing of time to prostate cancer diagnosis among ethnically-diverse, high-risk men undergoing prostate cancer screening. Methods The Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) is a longitudinal screening program for high-risk men. Eligibility includes men ages 35-69 with a family history of prostate cancer or African descent. Participants with ≥ 1 follow-up visit were included in the analyses (n=477). Genetic variants in regions encoding miRNA binding sites in four target genes (ALOX15, IL-16, IL-18, and RAF1) previously implicated in prostate cancer development were evaluated. Genotyping methods included Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assay (Applied Biosystems) or pyrosequencing. Cox models were used to assess time to prostate cancer diagnosis by risk genotype. Results Among 256 African Americans with ≥ one follow-up visit, the TT genotype at rs1131445 in IL-16 was significantly associated with earlier time to prostate cancer diagnosis vs. the CC/CT genotypes (p=0.013), with a suggestive association after correction for false-discovery (p=0.065). Hazard ratio after controlling for age and PSA for TT vs. CC/CT among African Americans was 3.0 (95% CI 1.26-7.12). No association to time to diagnosis was detected among Caucasians by IL-16 genotype. No association to time to prostate cancer diagnosis was found for the other miRNA target genotypes. Conclusions Genetic variation in IL-16 encoding miRNA target site may be informative of time to prostate cancer diagnosis among African American men enrolled in prostate cancer risk assessment, which may inform individualized prostate cancer screening strategies in the future. PMID:24061634

  8. The effection of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and treat of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuling; Hou Xiancun; Xu Kai

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has been increasing recently. Nuclear Medicine plays an important role in the diagnosis and treat of breast cancer: breast scintigraphy in the diagnosis of breast cancer, the detection of sentinel lymph node using radioisotope, skeleton scintigraphy in the diagnosis of osseous metastasis, the application of PET in breast cancer, for instance. (authors)

  9. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat Mehrabi; Sepideh Hajian; Masoomeh Simbar; Mohammad Hoshyari; Farid Zayeri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's...

  10. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  11. Anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer: does knowledge of cancer diagnosis matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Rasool

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal cancer is the first leading cause of cancer related deaths in men and the second among women in Iran. An investigation was carried out to examine anxiety and depression in this group of patients and to investigate whether the knowledge of cancer diagnosis affect their psychological distress. Methods This was a cross sectional study of anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer attending to the Tehran Cancer Institute. Anxiety and depression was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. This is a widely used valid questionnaire to measure psychological distress in cancer patients. Demographic and clinical data also were collected to examine anxiety and depression in sub-group of patients especially in those who knew their cancer diagnosis and those who did not. Results In all 142 patients were studied. The mean age of patients was 54.1 (SD = 14.8, 56% were male, 52% did not know their cancer diagnosis, and their diagnosis was related to esophagus (29%, stomach (30%, small intestine (3%, colon (22% and rectum (16%. The mean anxiety score was 7.6 (SD = 4.5 and for the depression this was 8.4 (SD = 3.8. Overall 47.2% and 57% of patients scored high on both anxiety and depression. There were no significant differences between gender, educational level, marital status, cancer site and anxiety and depression scores whereas those who knew their diagnosis showed a significant higher degree of psychological distress [mean (SD anxiety score: knew diagnosis 9.1 (4.2 vs. 6.3 (4.4 did not know diagnosis, P Conclusion Psychological distress was higher in those who knew their cancer diagnosis. It seems that the cultural issues and the way we provide information for cancer patients play important role in their improved or decreased psychological well-being.

  12. Medical image diagnosis of liver cancer using artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Ueno, Junji; Takao, Shoichiro

    2010-01-01

    A revised Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH)-type neural network algorithm using artificial intelligence technology for medical image diagnosis is proposed and is applied to medical image diagnosis of liver cancer. In this algorithm, the knowledge base for medical image diagnosis are used for organizing the neural network architecture for medical image diagnosis. Furthermore, the revised GMDH-type neural network algorithm has a feedback loop and can identify the characteristics of the medical images accurately using feedback loop calculations. The optimum neural network architecture fitting the complexity of the medical images is automatically organized so as to minimize the prediction error criterion defined as Prediction Sum of Squares (PSS). It is shown that the revised GMDH-type neural network can be easily applied to the medical image diagnosis. (author)

  13. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  14. Interstitial radiophosphorus diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, S.M.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Godin, V.P.; Letyagin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    Method of invasive β-radiometry in breast cancer was developed. Analysis of observations of 148 patients with breast cancer was presented. Qualitative increase of count efficiency is the important advantage for interstitial β-radiometry in intratumoral situation of β-detector. Radionuclide activity of 37-74 kBq/kg permits to receive values of relative accumulation of 32 P in a tumor (RAPTu1) by invasive method. Tendency is evident to some decrease of mean values of RAPTu1 in investigations conducted in 70 hrs and more after 32 P introduction. Study on relative accumulation of radionuclide in tumor after conservative treatment can serve as a criterion for evaluation of efficiency of antitumor treatment

  15. Analysis and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Poulami Das; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir K. Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductalepithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also ...

  16. Epigenetics application in the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb-de la Rosa, Alfredo; Acker, Matthew; Kumar, Raj A; Manoharan, Murugesan

    2015-10-01

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the Western world. Patients with bladder cancer require close monitoring, which may include frequent cystoscopy and urine cytology. Such monitoring results in significant health care cost. The application of epigenetics may allow for a risk adapted approach and more cost-effective method of monitoring. A number of epigenetic changes have been described for many cancer sites, including the urinary bladder. In this review, we discuss the use of epigenetics in bladder cancer and the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. A comprehensive search of the English medical literature was conducted in PubMed using the terms microRNA regulation, DNA methylation, histone modification and bladder cancer. The most important epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA regulation. Both DNA hypomethylation and hypermethylation have been associated with higher rate of cancer. The association of epigenetic changes with bladder cancer has led to the research of its diagnostic and prognostic implications as well as to the development of novel drugs to target these changes with the aim of achieving a survival benefit. Recently, epigenetics has been shown to play a much greater role than previously anticipated in the initiation and propagation of many tumors. The use of epigenetics for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is an evolving and promising field. The possibility of reversing epigenetic changes may facilitate additional cancer treatment options in the future.

  17. Computerized tomography in diagnosis of mammary gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternovoj, S.K.; Shishmareva, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 103 women with suspected malignant breast tumors were examined using combined methods including computed tomography (CT). Cancer was diagnosed in 81 patients benign breast tumors in 22. The authors obtained data concerning CT superiority in the diagnosis of tumors localized in the retromammary space, as well as infinitrative-edematous forms of cancer and breast cancer recurrences. A high reliability of the method in the detection of metastatic involvement of the axillary lymph nodes made it possible to give up transmission axillography

  18. The Importance of Bronchoscopy in Early Lung Cancer (LC Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofolean Doina-Ecaterina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, due to the fact that most patients are diagnosed in a fairly advanced stage. Screening tests such as sputum citology, chest x-rays or CT scans have their limitations and need further histological confirmation of the diagnosis.

  19. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading.

  20. Differential diagnosis of focal pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gulik, T. M.; Moojen, T. M.; van Geenen, R.; Rauws, E. A.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The differentiation of focal, chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer (PAC) poses a diagnostic dilemma. Both conditions may present with the same symptoms and signs. The complexity of differential diagnosis is enhanced because PAC is frequently associated with secondary inflammatory changes

  1. Breast cancer. Present perspective of early diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, S; Langfeldt, B [eds.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains outstanding papers presented at the 3rd International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer, 1985. The Symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultrasonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and very important contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist. With 59 figs., 43 tabs.

  2. Testicular Cancer: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Werntz, Ryan P; Eggener, Scott E

    2018-03-01

    There were an estimated 8720 new cases of testicular cancer (TC) in the United States in 2016. The cause of the disease is complex, with several environmental and genetic risk factors. Although rare, the incidence has been steadily increasing. Fortunately, substantial advances in treatment have occurred over the last few decades, making TC one of the most curable malignancies. However, because TC typically occurs in younger men, considerations of the treatment impact on fertility, quality of life, and long-term toxicity are paramount; an individualized approach must be taken with patients based on their clinical and pathologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Classification and characteristics of interval cancers in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto García, M A; Delgado Sevillano, R; Baldó Sierra, C; González Díaz, E; López Secades, A; Llavona Amor, J A; Vidal Marín, B

    2013-09-01

    To review and classify the interval cancers found in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program (PDPCM). A secondary objective was to determine the histological characteristics, size, and stage of the interval cancers at the time of diagnosis. We included the interval cancers in the PDPCM in the period 2003-2007. Interval cancers were classified according to the breast cancer screening program protocol, with double reading without consensus, without blinding, with arbitration. Mammograms were interpreted by 10 radiologists in the PDPCM. A total of 33.7% of the interval cancers could not be classified; of the interval cancers that could be classified, 40.67% were labeled true interval cancers, 31.4% were labeled false negatives on screening, 23.7% had minimal signs, and 4.23% were considered occult. A total of 70% of the interval cancers were diagnosed in the year of the period between screening examinations and 71.7% were diagnosed after subsequent screening. A total of 76.9% were invasive ductal carcinomas, 61.1% were stage II when detected, and 78.7% were larger than 10mm when detected. The rate of interval cancers and the rate of false negatives in the PDPCM are higher than those recommended in the European guidelines. Interval cancers are diagnosed later than the tumors detected at screening. Studying interval cancers provides significant training for the radiologists in the PDPCM. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2016-03-01

    The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen's thematic analysis approach. Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  5. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's lived experiences confronting breast cancer diagnosis and coping ways they applied to deal with it. Methods: This study was carried out by using qualitative phenomenological design. Data gathering was done through purposive sampling using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 women who survived from breast cancer. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Van Manen’s thematic analysis approach. Results: Two main themes were emerged from the interviews including "emotional turbulence" and "threat control". The first, comprised three sub themes including uncertainty, perceived worries, and living with fears. The second included risk control, recurrence control, immediate seeking help, seeking support and resource to spirituality. Conclusion: Emotional response was the immediate reflection to cancer diagnosis. However, during post-treatment period a variety of emotions were not uncommon findings, patients' perceptions have been changing along the time and problem-focused coping strategies have replaced. Although women may experience a degree of improvement and adjustment with illness, the emotional problems are not necessarily resolved, they may continue and gradually engender positive outcomes.

  6. Cancer Cachexia: Cause, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Todd W

    2017-10-01

    Patients with cancer frequently experience unintended weight loss due to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction caused by the malignancy or treatment of the malignancy. However, others may present with weight loss related to other symptoms not clearly associated with identifiable GI dysfunction such as anorexia and early satiety. Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome that is generally characterized by ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss, often accompanied by anorexia, weakness, and fatigue. CC is associated with poor tolerance of antitumor treatments, reduced quality of life (QOL), and negative impact on survival. Symptoms associated with CC are thought to be caused in part by tumor-induced changes in host metabolism that result in systemic inflammation and abnormal neurohormonal responses. Unfortunately, there is no single standard treatment for CC. Nutrition consequences of oncologic treatments should be identified early with nutrition screening and assessment. Pharmacologic agents directed at improving appetite and countering metabolic abnormalities that cause inefficient nutrient utilization are currently the foundation for treating CC. Multiple agents have been investigated for their effects on weight, muscle wasting, and QOL. However, few are commercially available for use. Considerations for choosing the most appropriate treatment include effect on appetite, weight, QOL, risk of adverse effects, and cost and availability of the agent.

  7. Weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis: Implication and proposed mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makari-Judson, Grace; Braun, Barry; Jerry, D Joseph; Mertens, Wilson C

    2014-01-01

    Weight gain occurs in the majority of women following breast cancer treatment. An overview of studies describing weight gain amongst women treated with early to modern chemotherapy regimens is included. Populations at higher risk include women who are younger, closer to ideal body weight and who have been treated with chemotherapy. Weight gain ranges between 1 to 5 kg, and may be associated with change in body composition with gain in fat mass and loss in lean body mass. Women are unlikely to return to pre-diagnosis weight. Possible mechanisms including inactivity and metabolic changes are explored. Potential interventions are reviewed including exercise, dietary changes and pharmacologic agents. Although breast cancer prognosis does not appear to be significantly impacted, weight gain has negative consequences on quality of life and overall health. Future studies should explore change in body composition, metabolism and insulin resistance. Avoiding weight gain in breast cancer survivors following initial diagnosis and treatment should be encouraged. PMID:25114844

  8. Radiothermometry indifferential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, L.I.; Kogan, E.A.; Yashunskaya, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of radiothermometry for differential diagnosis of peripheral lung formations using a radiometer operating within 10 cm-wave band were worked out. Altogether 59 patients (of them 45 men) were investigated. Temperature was measured on the chest surface in the area of a lung pathological formation projected on it. Placing its image on the heart and major vessel shadows was avoided. Mean temperature was calculated from 6-8 measurements. Temperature above a peripheral lung tumor was shown to be by 0.5 deg C higher than that of unchanged pulmonary tissue. Benign spheroidal formations (tuberculoma, hamartoma) were characterized by a decrease of 0.6-0.9 deg C as compared to unchanged pulmonary tissue. Comparison of operation of 2 radiometers (the second one operating in the 8 mm-wave band) has shown diagnostic advantages of the first one

  9. Loss in working years after a breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plym, Anna; Bower, Hannah; Fredriksson, Irma; Holmberg, Lars; Lambert, Paul C; Lambe, Mats

    2018-03-06

    Breast cancer can negatively influence working life, but it is unclear how many working years women with breast cancer can expect to lose. Women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1997 and 2012 were identified in the Breast Cancer Data Base Sweden (N=19 661), together with breast cancer-free comparison women (N=81 303). Using flexible parametric survival modelling, the loss in working years was calculated as the difference in the remaining years in the work force between women with and without breast cancer. Women aged 50 years at diagnosis with stage I disease lost on average 0.5 years (95% CI, 0.2-0.7) of their remaining working time; the corresponding estimates were 0.9 years (0.5-1.2) in stage II, 2.5 years (1.9-3.1) in stage III and 8.1 years (6.5-9.7) in stage IV. Women with in situ breast cancer did not lose any working years. The strongest treatment determinant was axillary lymph node dissection. We found a loss in working years not only in late but also in early-stage breast cancer. Although it is reassuring that some groups had no or only a modest work loss, the economic consequences for society are considerable given the large number of women annually diagnosed with breast cancer.

  10. Anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer: does knowledge of cancer diagnosis matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoli, Azadeh; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Montazeri, Ali; Roshan, Rasool; Tavoli, Zahra; Omidvari, Sepideh

    2007-07-14

    Gastrointestinal cancer is the first leading cause of cancer related deaths in men and the second among women in Iran. An investigation was carried out to examine anxiety and depression in this group of patients and to investigate whether the knowledge of cancer diagnosis affect their psychological distress. This was a cross sectional study of anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer attending to the Tehran Cancer Institute. Anxiety and depression was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). This is a widely used valid questionnaire to measure psychological distress in cancer patients. Demographic and clinical data also were collected to examine anxiety and depression in sub-group of patients especially in those who knew their cancer diagnosis and those who did not. In all 142 patients were studied. The mean age of patients was 54.1 (SD = 14.8), 56% were male, 52% did not know their cancer diagnosis, and their diagnosis was related to esophagus (29%), stomach (30%), small intestine (3%), colon (22%) and rectum (16%). The mean anxiety score was 7.6 (SD = 4.5) and for the depression this was 8.4 (SD = 3.8). Overall 47.2% and 57% of patients scored high on both anxiety and depression. There were no significant differences between gender, educational level, marital status, cancer site and anxiety and depression scores whereas those who knew their diagnosis showed a significant higher degree of psychological distress [mean (SD) anxiety score: knew diagnosis 9.1 (4.2) vs. 6.3 (4.4) did not know diagnosis, P < 0.001; mean (SD) depression score: knew diagnosis 9.1 (4.1) vs. 7.9 (3.6) did not know diagnosis, P = 0.05]. Performing logistic regression analysis while controlling for demographic and clinical variables studied the results indicated that those who knew their cancer diagnosis showed a significant higher risk of anxiety [OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.1-6.8] and depression [OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.2]. Psychological distress was

  11. Medicare Spending for Breast, Prostate, Lung, and Colorectal Cancer Patients in the Year of Diagnosis and Year of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher T; Li, Ling; Brooks, Gabriel; Hassett, Michael; Schrag, Deborah

    2017-07-26

    To characterize spending patterns for Medicare patients with incident breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. 2007-2012 data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program linked with Medicare fee-for-service claims. We calculate per-patient monthly and yearly mean and median expenditures, by cancer type, stage at diagnosis, and spending category, over the years of diagnosis and death. Over the year of diagnosis, mean spending was $35,849, $26,295, $55,597, and $63,063 for breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer, respectively. Over the year of death, spending was similar across different cancer types and stage at diagnosis. Characterization of Medicare spending according to clinically meaningful categories may assist development of oncology alternative payment models and cost-effectiveness models. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  13. Using data mining techniques for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kharya, Shweta

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers for women in developed countries including India. It is the second most common cause of cancer death in women. The high incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in the last years. In this paper we have discussed various data mining approaches that have been utilized for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Breast Cancer Diagnosis is distinguishing of benign from malignant breast lumps and Breast Cancer Prognosis predicts whe...

  14. Diagnosis of skin cancer using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel

    2014-10-01

    In this papera methodology for classifying skin cancerin images of dermatologie spots based on spectral analysis using the K-law Fourier non-lineartechnique is presented. The image is segmented and binarized to build the function that contains the interest area. The image is divided into their respective RGB channels to obtain the spectral properties of each channel. The green channel contains more information and therefore this channel is always chosen. This information is point to point multiplied by a binary mask and to this result a Fourier transform is applied written in nonlinear form. If the real part of this spectrum is positive, the spectral density takeunit values, otherwise are zero. Finally the ratio of the sum of the unit values of the spectral density with the sum of values of the binary mask are calculated. This ratio is called spectral index. When the value calculated is in the spectral index range three types of cancer can be detected. Values found out of this range are benign injure.

  15. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  16. Breath analysis based on micropreconcentrator for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We are developing micropreconcentrators based on micro/nanotechnology to detect trace levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases contained in human and canine exhaled breath. The possibility of using exhaled VOC gases as biomarkers for various cancer diagnoses has been previously discussed. For early cancer diagnosis, detection of trace levels of VOC gas is indispensable. Using micropreconcentrators based on MEMS technology or nanotechnology is very promising for detection of VOC gas. A micropreconcentrator based breath analysis technique also has advantages from the viewpoints of cost performance and availability for various cancers diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce design, fabrication and evaluation results of our MEMS and nanotechnology based micropreconcentrators. In the MEMS based device, we propose a flower leaf type Si microstructure, and its shape and configuration are optimized quantitatively by finite element method simulation. The nanotechnology based micropreconcentrator consists of carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. As a result, we achieve ppb level VOC gas detection with our micropreconcentrators and usual gas chromatography system that can detect on the order of ppm VOC in gas samples. In performance evaluation, we also confirm that the CNT based micropreconcentrator shows 115 times better concentration ratio than that of the Si based micropreconcentrator. Moreover, we discuss a commercialization idea for new cancer diagnosis using breath analysis. Future work and preliminary clinical testing in dogs is also discussed.

  17. Roentgenographic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung Sook; Choi, Heung Jai

    1970-01-01

    The most significant feature of early carcinoma, be defined as the gastric carcinoma confined in mucosa and submucosal regardless of its size and shape, is its excellent prognosis; 5 year survival rate after operation in early stomach carcinoma amounts to 93 percent in comparison with around 25 percent in advanced carcinoma, and so the detection of this early stomach carcinoma is most important subject to minimize the mortality from stomach carcinoma at the present time. For the diagnosis of the early stomach carcinoma the radiographic study, cytology and gastroscopic examination are practised, and of those the radiographic study has been revealed commonly best results, but by usual method of upper G-I study it is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Therefore, we have been employed the barium and air double contrast method by insertion of the gastric tube. This method is simple and by this method, the adequate amount of air may introduced into the stomach for the best visualization of the mucosal pattern and gastric juice may also aspirated in a case of which the stomach wall could not be coated by barium because of excessive gastric juice. Summary of the results of this studies of early carcinoma detection at the department of radiology, Severance Hospital during 6 months since May 1969 are as followings; of 1407 cases taken upper G-I study with double contrast method, 17 cases were diagnosed as possible early stomach carcinoma radiographically, and then only 6 cases had surgical resection of stomach. Of these 2 cases were confirmed pathologically and one was considered as precancerots lesion

  18. Roentgenographic diagnosis of early stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung Sook; Choi, Heung Jai [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-10-15

    The most significant feature of early carcinoma, be defined as the gastric carcinoma confined in mucosa and submucosal regardless of its size and shape, is its excellent prognosis; 5 year survival rate after operation in early stomach carcinoma amounts to 93 percent in comparison with around 25 percent in advanced carcinoma, and so the detection of this early stomach carcinoma is most important subject to minimize the mortality from stomach carcinoma at the present time. For the diagnosis of the early stomach carcinoma the radiographic study, cytology and gastroscopic examination are practised, and of those the radiographic study has been revealed commonly best results, but by usual method of upper G-I study it is often difficult to diagnose accurately. Therefore, we have been employed the barium and air double contrast method by insertion of the gastric tube. This method is simple and by this method, the adequate amount of air may introduced into the stomach for the best visualization of the mucosal pattern and gastric juice may also aspirated in a case of which the stomach wall could not be coated by barium because of excessive gastric juice. Summary of the results of this studies of early carcinoma detection at the department of radiology, Severance Hospital during 6 months since May 1969 are as followings; of 1407 cases taken upper G-I study with double contrast method, 17 cases were diagnosed as possible early stomach carcinoma radiographically, and then only 6 cases had surgical resection of stomach. Of these 2 cases were confirmed pathologically and one was considered as precancerots lesion.

  19. Psychological distress two years after diagnosis of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleiker, E M; Pouwer, F; Van Der Ploeg, Henk M

    2000-01-01

    The present prospective study aimed at (1) investigating the frequency of high levels of psychological distress in women with early-stage breast cancer almost two years after diagnosis and (2) identifying characteristics associated with long-term distress. One hundred and seventy women participated...... of surgery). At the second measurement, subjective distress was assessed for a second time by means of the Impact of Events Scale (IES). Almost two years after diagnosis, 16% of the women reported a high level of psychological distress as measured by the Intrusion scale (IES). Best predictors of a high level...

  20. Computer tomography in complex diagnosis of laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    To specify the role of computer tomography in the diagnosis of malignant of the larynx. Forty-two patients with suspected laryngeal tumors were examined: 38 men and 4 women aged 41-68 years. X-ray examinations included traditional immediate tomography of the larynx. Main X-ray and computer tomographic symptoms of laryngeal tumors of different localizations are described. It is shown that the use of computer tomography in complex diagnosis of laryngeal cancer permits an objective assessment of the tumor, its structure and dissemination, and of the regional lymph nodes [ru

  1. Diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakimovska, S.; Jakimovska, M.; Jovanovska, S.; Ilieva, S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: A pleural effusion is defined as an abnormal amount of fluid in the space between the layers of tissue (the pleura) that line the lungs. If cancer cells are present in this fluid (pleural cavity) it is called a malignant cancerous pleural effusion. Many benign and malignant disease can cause pleural effusion.The new onset of pleural effusion may herald the presence of a previously undiagnosed malignancy, or more typically, complicate the course of a known lung tumor. Malignant pleural effusions can lead lead to an initial diagnosis of lung cancer in patients.and it was the first symptom of lung cancer. Pleural deposits of tumor cause pleuritic pain. Purpose of this presentation is to show the role of CT in diagnosis of malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer. Material and methods: CT examinations of chest were made to 138 patients for 1 year (1/6/2011- 1/6/2012) with Siemens Somatom Emotion 16 CT Scanner. Patients were at age of 30 -81 years, 93 of them are male and 45 are female. Results: 56 (40.5%) of the patients had pleural effusion. From this group 21 37.5% had malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer. 17 (81%) of them are male, and 4 (19%) are female. 9 (43%) diagnosed lung cancer for first time. Conclusion: Pleural effusion more commonly occur in patient with advanced-stage tumor who frequently have metastases to other organs and long-term survival is uncommon in this group. CT diagnosed malignant pleural effusion and lung cancer and help to choice treatment for these patients

  2. Stage at diagnosis and delay in seeking medical care among women with breast cancer, delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakseresht, Sedigheh; Ingle, Gopal Krishna; Garg, Suneela; Sarafraz, Nahid

    2014-12-01

    Patients with cancer often delay seeking medical advice in developing countries. It can adversely influence the outcome of disease. The present study was performed to determine the stage at diagnosis and delay in seeking medical care among women with breast cancer in Delhi, India. This was a cross-sectional study based on a census (case series) approach to reach all women (172) diagnosed with primary breast cancer "detected in surgery Out Patient Department (OPD) from January 2007 to December 2009" at Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi, India. Patients were interviewed using a self-structure questionnaire. Seeking behavior variables were awareness of problem, first consultation, followed physician's advice, detection of problem, system of medicine and gap between knowing the problem and consultation (patient delay). Statistical Analysis was performed using the Microsoft SPSS-pc version 14.0 statistical program. The analytic methods were used (mean, standard deviation, X(2), Fisher's Exact Test, K-S, Kruskal-Wallis) for variables. All statistical tests were performed at a significance level of 5% (P cancer at the time of diagnosis. The mean duration of gap between knowing the problem and consulting a physician (patients delay) was 10.90 months. There was no significant association between stage of cancer and consultation gap. A significant association was found between the stage of breast cancer and income; women with lower income had a higher stage of breast cancer (P breast cancer. It seems necessary to design educating programs for women in both clinical and community settings, about breast cancer and early detection practices.

  3. [DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUMOROID-LIKE ABSCESS AND LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churylin, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of work is development and clarification of roentgenology displays of tumoroidea variant of abscess of lungs for differential diagnostics him with the cancer of lungs. Practically in most cases abscess of lungs there is a necessity of leadthrough of differential diagnostics with in a number of nosology forms, including with the cavernous form of peripheral cancer of lungs. The features of flow of roentgenologic picture of tumoroidea variant are resulted, alike symptoms, differ ences and signs which allow to set a correct diagnosis, are resulted, the value of follow-up of roent genologic research and use of computed tomography is underlined.

  4. Aided diagnosis methods of breast cancer based on machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Wang, Nian; Cui, Xiaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In the field of medicine, quickly and accurately determining whether the patient is malignant or benign is the key to treatment. In this paper, K-Nearest Neighbor, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Logistic Regression were applied to predict the classification of thyroid,Her-2,PR,ER,Ki67,metastasis and lymph nodes in breast cancer, in order to recognize the benign and malignant breast tumors and achieve the purpose of aided diagnosis of breast cancer. The results showed that the highest classification accuracy of LDA was 88.56%, while the classification effect of KNN and Logistic Regression were better than that of LDA, the best accuracy reached 96.30%.

  5. Coping with a diagnosis of breast cancer among Omani women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Mohammed H; Al-Awisi, Huda; Al-Rasbi, Samira; Al-Moundhri, Mansour

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify coping strategies experienced by Omani women after breast cancer diagnosis. Individual semistructured interviews were conducted with 19 women diagnosed with breast cancer. Several coping strategies were identified including denial, optimism, withdrawal, Islamic beliefs and practices, and the support of family members and health-care providers, but Islamic beliefs and practices were the commonest. Health-care professionals should be aware of and respect women's coping strategies and encourage them to use to reduce the psychological symptoms. They should also make family members and friends aware of their role in supporting and encouraging coping strategies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  7. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer and early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamao, Kenji; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Sawaki, Akira; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Chang, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the strategy for improving the poor prognosis of the pancreatic (P) cancer by its early imaging diagnosis followed by resection, based on recent findings on its high risk group. Epidemiological studies have revealed that patients with diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, intraductal papillary-mucious tumor, P cyst, familial history of P cancer, and hereditary P cancer syndrome are involved in the high risk group of P cancer. Imaging diagnosis with CT and/or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) followed by histological confirmation for resection can be a useful approach to improve the prognosis in those high risk, asymptomatic individuals with abnormal levels of P enzyme and tumor marker, and with US findings of P ductal dilation and cyst. The guideline 2006 for P cancer by Japan Pancreas Society shows the algorithm leading to the final diagnosis for the positive high risk group: firstly, CT and/or MRCP (MR cholangiopancreatography (CP)); or, in case of uncertainty, EUS and/or ERCP (E retrograde CP) and/or PET; and finally, cytological, histological diagnosis. The newer approach proposed recently for the group is: multi detector row (MD)-CT and EUS; then cytodiagnosis guided by ERCP and/or with fine needle aspiration by EUS, also a promising early diagnosis. As well, molecular biological approaches are supposedly useful for the future diagnosis. (R.T.)

  8. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Symptoms Prostate cancer has no symptoms in its early stages. They ...

  9. Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You: Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / ... regular clinical breast exams and mammograms to find breast cancer early, when treatment is more likely to work ...

  10. Couple functioning after pediatric cancer diagnosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schoors, Marieke; Caes, Line; Alderfer, Melissa A; Goubert, Liesbet; Verhofstadt, Lesley

    2017-05-01

    A systematic review was conducted to (1) investigate couple functioning after a pediatric cancer diagnosis and (2) examine theoretical and methodological tendencies and issues in this literature. Searches of Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, PsycINFO, and Embase resulted in inclusion of 32 qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-method papers. Findings of these papers were extracted for summary. Most couples adapt well to the crisis of a pediatric cancer diagnosis in domains such as emotional closeness, support, marital satisfaction, and general marital adjustment. However, most experience difficulties in the domain of sexual intimacy, and reports on conflict are mixed across qualitative and quantitative studies. This review illustrates the need for future research with a greater focus on the impact of a pediatric cancer diagnosis on the couple's functioning, conducted with the use of appropriate theoretical frameworks and based on both partners' reports. Improvements in research are needed to best inform couple-based interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Social integration and survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Poole, Elizabeth M; Tworoger, Shelley S; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Bao, Ying

    2018-02-15

    Although larger social networks have been associated with lower all-cause mortality, few studies have examined whether social integration predicts survival outcomes among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The authors examined the association between social ties and survival after CRC diagnosis in a prospective cohort study. Participants included 896 women in the Nurses' Health Study who were diagnosed with stage I, II, or III CRC between 1992 and 2012. Stage was assigned using the American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria. Social integration was assessed every 4 years since 1992 using the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index, which included marital status, social network size, contact frequency, religious participation, and other social group participation. During follow-up, there were 380 total deaths, 167 of which were due to CRC. In multivariable analyses, women who were socially integrated before diagnosis had a subsequent reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.46-0.92) and CRC mortality (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.38-1.06) compared with women who were socially isolated. In particular, women with more intimate ties (family and friends) had lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88) and CRC mortality (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.34-1.03) compared with those with few intimate ties. Participation in religious or community activities was not found to be related to outcomes. The analysis of postdiagnosis social integration yielded similar results. Socially integrated women were found to have better survival after a diagnosis of CRC, possibly due to beneficial caregiving from their family and friends. Interventions aimed at strengthening social network structures to ensure access to care may be valuable programmatic tools in the management of patients with CRC. Cancer 2018;124:833-40. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  13. Portable LED-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Yung-Jiun; Yang, Chin-Siang; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2017-04-01

    Oral cancer is a serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. To improve the cancer screening procedure, we developed a portable light-emitting-diode (LED)-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager that contains two wavelength LED excitation light sources and multiple filters to capture ex vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Compared with conventional means of oral cancer diagnosis, the LIAF imager is a handier, faster, and more highly reliable solution. The compact design with a tiny probe allows clinicians to easily observe autofluorescence images of hidden areas located in concave deep oral cavities. The ex vivo trials conducted in Taiwan present the design and prototype of the portable LIAF imager used for analyzing 31 patients with 221 measurement points. Using the normalized factor of normal tissues under the excitation source with 365 nm of the central wavelength and without the bandpass filter, the results revealed that the sensitivity was larger than 84%, the specificity was not smaller than over 76%, the accuracy was about 80%, and the area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was achieved at about 87%, respectively. The fact shows the LIAF spectroscopy has the possibilities of ex vivo diagnosis and noninvasive examinations for oral cancer.

  14. Multislice CT for preoperative diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Akihiko; Ishihara, Shin; Ito, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the ability of multislice (MS) CT to visualize and diagnose the progression of pancreatic cancer. With regard to local progression, good diagnosis was possible for detecting the invasion of the intrapancreatic bile duct, duodenum, portal vein, arteries and other organs, and liver metastasis. Sensitivity was high but specificity was not good for detecting the invasion of the anterior and posterior pancreatic tissue. This is thought to be because of the positive diagnosis with pancreatitis that accompanies cancer. Pancreatic plexus invasion was also thought to be a cause of the lipid elevation of the nerve plexus and decreased sensitivity accompanying pancreatitis. Identification of cancer invasion and tumor periphery changes based on concomitant pancreatitis also depends on the amount of fibrous stroma, but this will require further investigation. Factors other than the size of lymph node metastases also need to be investigated. MS-CT can provide detailed volume data in a short time and making it an essential test in diagnosing the stage of pancreatic cancer. (author)

  15. 2D nanomaterials based electrochemical biosensors for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xiong, Qirong; Xiao, Fei; Duan, Hongwei

    2017-03-15

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in the world. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that early diagnosis holds the key towards effective treatment outcome. Cancer biomarkers are extensively used in oncology for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Electrochemical sensors play key roles in current laboratory and clinical analysis of diverse chemical and biological targets. Recent development of functional nanomaterials offers new possibilities of improving the performance of electrochemical sensors. In particular, 2D nanomaterials have stimulated intense research due to their unique array of structural and chemical properties. The 2D materials of interest cover broadly across graphene, graphene derivatives (i.e., graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide), and graphene-like nanomaterials (i.e., 2D layered transition metal dichalcogenides, graphite carbon nitride and boron nitride nanomaterials). In this review, we summarize recent advances in the synthesis of 2D nanomaterials and their applications in electrochemical biosensing of cancer biomarkers (nucleic acids, proteins and some small molecules), and present a personal perspective on the future direction of this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exosomes: novel implications in diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Mohammad; Rahbari, Nuh; Reissfelder, Christoph; Weitz, Juergen; Kahlert, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Amongst all cancer subtypes, gastrointestinal tumours are responsible for most cancer-related deaths. In most of the cases, the limitation of the prognosis of patients with malignant gastrointestinal tumours can be attributed to delayed diagnosis of the disease. In the last decade, secondary prevention strategies, in particular tumour screenings, have been identified to significantly improve the identification of patients with early-stage disease, leading to more effective therapeutic interventions. Therefore, new screening methods and further innovative treatment approaches may lead to an increase in progression-free and overall survival rates. Exosomes are small microvesicles with a size of 50-150 nm. They are formed in the endosomal system of many different cell types, where they are packed with nucleotides and proteins from the parental cell. After their release into the extracellular space, exosomes can deliver their cargo into recipient cells. By this mechanism, tumour cells can recruit and manipulate the adjacent and systemic microenvironment in order to support invasion and dissemination. Cancer-derived exosomes in the blood may provide detailed information about the tumour biology of each individual patient. Moreover, tumour-derived exosomes can be used as targetable factors and drug delivery agents in clinical practice. In this review, we summarise new aspects about novel implications in the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and show how circulating exosomes have come into the spotlight of research as a high potential source of 'liquid biopsies'.

  17. Computer Aided Diagnosis System for Early Lung Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Taher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer continues to rank as the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. One of the most promising techniques for early detection of cancerous cells relies on sputum cell analysis. This was the motivation behind the design and the development of a new computer aided diagnosis (CAD system for early detection of lung cancer based on the analysis of sputum color images. The proposed CAD system encompasses four main processing steps. First is the preprocessing step which utilizes a Bayesian classification method using histogram analysis. Then, in the second step, mean shift segmentation is applied to segment the nuclei from the cytoplasm. The third step is the feature analysis. In this step, geometric and chromatic features are extracted from the nucleus region. These features are used in the diagnostic process of the sputum images. Finally, the diagnosis is completed using an artificial neural network and support vector machine (SVM for classifying the cells into benign or malignant. The performance of the system was analyzed based on different criteria such as sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The evaluation was carried out using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the SVM classifier over other classifiers, with 97% sensitivity and accuracy as well as a significant reduction in the number of false positive and false negative rates.

  18. Novel biotechnology approaches in colorectal cancer diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousipour, Soudabeh; Khademi, Fathemeh; Zamani, Mozhdeh; Vakili, Bahareh; Mokarram, Pooneh

    2017-06-01

    With ever-increasing molecular information about colorectal cancer (CRC), there is an expectation to detect more sensitive and specific molecular markers for new advanced diagnostic methods that can surpass the limitations of current screening tests. Moreover, enhanced molecular pathology knowledge about cancer has led to the development of targeted therapies, designed to interfere with specific aberrant biological pathways in cancer. Furthermore, biotechnology has opened a new window in CRC diagnosis and treatment by introducing different application of antibodies, antibody fragments, non-Ig scaffold proteins, and aptamers in targeted therapy and drug delivery. This review summarizes the molecular diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in CRC with a focus on genetic and epigenetic alterations, protein and metabolite markers as well as targeted therapy and drug delivery by Ig-scaffold proteins, non-Ig scaffold proteins, nanobodies, and aptamers.

  19. Oral cancer. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciubba, J J

    2001-01-01

    Oral cancer is an important health issue. The WHO predicts a continuing worldwide increase in the number of patients with oral cancer, extending this trend well into the next several decades. In the US the projected number of new cases of oral and oropharyngeal cancer will exceed 31,000 per year. Mortality due to cancers in this region exceeds the annual death rate is the US caused by either cutaneous melanoma or cervical cancer. Significant agents involved in the etiology of oral cancer in Western countries include sunlight exposure, smoking and alcohol consumption. Use of the areca or betel nut in many cultures is a major etiological factor outside of the USA. Other etiologic factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma, but far less significant statistically, include syphilis and sideropenic dysphagia. Recently, strong evidence for an etiological relationship between human papilloma virus and a subset of head and neck cancers has been noted. It is generally accepted that most sporadic tumors are the result of a multi-step process of accumulated genetic alterations. These alterations affect epithelial cell behavior by way of loss of chromosomal heterozygosity which in turn leads to a series of events progressing to the ultimate stage of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The corresponding genetic alterations are reflected in clinical and microscopic pathology from hyperplasia through invasiveness. A wide range of mucosal alternations fall within the rubric of leukoplakia. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia represents a relatively new type of leukoplakia that is separate from the more common or less innocuous form of this condition. Erythroplakia is particularly relevant considering its almost certain relationship with dysplasia or invasive carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma will develop from antecedent dysplastic oral mucosal lesions if an early diagnosis has not been made and treatment given. Early diagnosis within stages I and II correspond to a vastly

  20. The Early Intervention Readiness Program (EIRP): A Post-ASD Diagnosis Family Support Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmie, Rhiannon S.; Bruck, Susan; Kerslake, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    A child's diagnosis with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be an extremely stressful time for families. Researchers suggest that the period immediately following ASD diagnosis is a key time for professionals to guide families by providing appropriate information about support options. This article describes a family support program, developed by…

  1. Warning dreams preceding the diagnosis of breast cancer: a survey of the most important characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Larry

    2015-01-01

    There are rare reports of warning dreams about breast cancer in the dream literature and even fewer in the medical literature. Anxiety about breast cancer is increasing due to uncertainty about conflicting guidelines regarding mammography screening. The purpose of the study was to survey women with breast cancer who had warning dreams prior to diagnosis to determine the most common and important characteristics of these dreams. Eighteen women with a known diagnosis of breast cancer completed a survey of 19 Yes or No questions about their warning dreams and submitted dream narratives. The five most common characteristics of warning dreams in descending order of frequency reported in the survey were: a sense of conviction about the importance in 94%; the dreams were more vivid, real or intense than ordinary in 83%; an emotional sense of threat, menace or dread in 72%; the use of the specific words breast cancer/tumor in 44%; and the sense of physical contact with the breast in 39%. Warning dreams of breast cancer were often reported to be life changing experiences that prompted medical attention leading directly to diagnosis. Further research needs to be done to determine the frequency of such dreams in women without known breast cancer in order to assess the predictive value of a warning dream. These preliminary results suggest that keeping a dream diary might be a useful adjunct to routine self-examination as part of a breast self-care program, particularly for women in a high-risk category. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of a biomarker panel for colorectal cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Bilbao Amaia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignancies arising in the large bowel cause the second largest number of deaths from cancer in the Western World. Despite progresses made during the last decades, colorectal cancer remains one of the most frequent and deadly neoplasias in the western countries. Methods A genomic study of human colorectal cancer has been carried out on a total of 31 tumoral samples, corresponding to different stages of the disease, and 33 non-tumoral samples. The study was carried out by hybridisation of the tumour samples against a reference pool of non-tumoral samples using Agilent Human 1A 60-mer oligo microarrays. The results obtained were validated by qRT-PCR. In the subsequent bioinformatics analysis, gene networks by means of Bayesian classifiers, variable selection and bootstrap resampling were built. The consensus among all the induced models produced a hierarchy of dependences and, thus, of variables. Results After an exhaustive process of pre-processing to ensure data quality--lost values imputation, probes quality, data smoothing and intraclass variability filtering--the final dataset comprised a total of 8, 104 probes. Next, a supervised classification approach and data analysis was carried out to obtain the most relevant genes. Two of them are directly involved in cancer progression and in particular in colorectal cancer. Finally, a supervised classifier was induced to classify new unseen samples. Conclusions We have developed a tentative model for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer based on a biomarker panel. Our results indicate that the gene profile described herein can discriminate between non-cancerous and cancerous samples with 94.45% accuracy using different supervised classifiers (AUC values in the range of 0.997 and 0.955.

  3. Breast Camps for Awareness and Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Countries With Limited Resources: A Multidisciplinary Model From Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Shahin; Moloo, Zahir; Ngugi, Anthony; Allidina, Amyn; Ndumia, Rose; Mutuiri, Anderson; Wasike, Ronald; Wahome, Charles; Abdihakin, Mohamed; Kasmani, Riaz; Spears, Carol D; Oigara, Raymond; Mwachiro, Elizabeth B; Busarla, Satya V P; Kibor, Kibet; Ahmed, Abdulaziz; Wawire, Jonathan; Sherman, Omar; Saleh, Mansoor; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in Kenya. There are no national breast cancer early diagnosis programs in Kenya. The objective was to conduct a pilot breast cancer awareness and diagnosis program at three different types of facilities in Kenya. This program was conducted at a not-for-profit private hospital, a faith-based public hospital, and a government public referral hospital. Women aged 15 years and older were invited. Demographic, risk factor, knowledge, attitudes, and screening practice data were collected. Breast health information was delivered, and clinical breast examinations (CBEs) were performed. When appropriate, ultrasound imaging, fine-needle aspirate (FNA) diagnoses, core biopsies, and onward referrals were provided. A total of 1,094 women were enrolled in the three breast camps. Of those, 56% knew the symptoms and signs of breast cancer, 44% knew how breast cancer was diagnosed, 37% performed regular breast self-exams, and 7% had a mammogram or breast ultrasound in the past year. Of the 1,094 women enrolled, 246 (23%) had previously noticed a lump in their breast. A total of 157 participants (14%) had abnormal CBEs, of whom 111 had ultrasound exams, 65 had FNAs, and 18 had core biopsies. A total of 14 invasive breast cancers and 1 malignant phyllodes tumor were diagnosed Conducting a multidisciplinary breast camp awareness and early diagnosis program is feasible in different types of health facilities within a low- and middle-income country setting. This can be a model for breast cancer awareness and point-of-care diagnosis in countries with limited resources like Kenya. This work describes a novel breast cancer awareness and early diagnosis demonstration program in a low- and middle-income country within a limited resource setting. The program includes breast self-awareness and breast cancer education, clinical exams, and point-of-care diagnostics for women in three different types of health facilities in Kenya. This pilot

  4. Fucosylation Is a Promising Target for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Shinzaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides, sequences of carbohydrates conjugated to proteins and lipids, are arguably the most abundant and structurally diverse class of molecules. Fucosylation is one of the most important oligosaccharide modifications involved in cancer and inflammation. Recent advances in glycomics have identified several types of glyco-biomarkers containing fucosylation that are linked to certain types of cancer. Fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is widely used in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma because it is more specific than alpha-fetoprotein. High levels of fucosylated haptoglobin have also been found in sera of patients with various carcinomas. We have recently established a simple lectin-antibody ELISA to measure fucosylated haptoglobin and to investigate its clinical use. Cellular fucosylation is dependent upon fucosyltransferase activity and the level of its donor substrate, guanosine diphosphate (GDP-fucose. GDP-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMDS is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Mutations of GMDS found in colon cancer cells induced a malignant phenotype, leading to rapid growth in athymic mice resistant to natural killer cells. This review describes the role of fucosylated haptoglobin as a cancer biomarker, and discusses the possible biological role of fucosylation in cancer development.

  5. Exosomes: Some approaches to cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtam, T.; Samsonov, R.; Kamyshinsky, R.; Pantina, R.; Verlov, N.; Vasiliev, A.; Konevega, A. L.; Malek, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are membrane-bound, intercellular communication shuttle vesicles that are defined by their endocytic origin and size range of 30-120 nm. Secreted by nearly all mammalian cell types and present in bodily fluids, exosomes confer messages between cells, by transporting functionally relevant proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. The capability of tumor exosomes to house tumorigenic information and induce cellular responses that promote disease pathogenesis make tumor exosomes an attractive tool in identifying cancer biomarkers and exploiting exosomes for therapy. In this paper, we sum up our previous findings to utilize exosomes as biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis and therapy selection of prostate and thyroid cancer and present our results on exosomes in colon cancer. Some of plasma exosomal miRNAs showed their potential as diagnostic markers for colon cancer. All together, the data suggested the potentials of circulating exosomal miRNAs as liquid biopsy markers for cancer. Here we also present the possibilities of delivering therapeutic molecules by exosomes. Previously, we had demonstrated the potential of exosome-mediated siRNA delivery. Here, we present the possibility of carrying the exogenous p53 protein by exosomes in vitro.

  6. CT diagnosis of primary lung cancer coexisting with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Joo; Kim, Young Sook; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Chul

    1992-01-01

    When bronchogenic carcinoma is coexisting with pulmonary tuberculosis, it is difficult to differentiate bronchogenic carcinoma from pulmonary tuberculosis radiographically. Thus, the object of this study is to define differential diagnosis of bronchogenic carcinoma by computed tomography. We analyzed CT scans of 27 patients with radiologic findings of pulmonary tuberculosis and mass of which twelve cases were pulmonary tuberculosis and fifteen cases were primary lung cancer. The location of parenchymal infiltration and the mass was the same in 60%(9/15) of the primary lung cancer in cases and 83%(10/12) of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases. The common location of the mass was the both upper lobes in 92%(11/12) of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 53%(8/15) of the primary lung cancer cases. The common locations of the mediastinal lymphadenopathy were 4R, 2R of the pulmonary tuberculosis cases and 4R, 10R of the primary lung cancer cases. In the feature of post enhanced lymph nodes, homogenous increased density was more frequent in primary lung cancer. Measurements of the maximum thickness part of the cavity wall was not a reliable indication of malignancy

  7. Multifunctional nanoparticle developments in cancer diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Parvanian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages, has the potential to revolutionize the early diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of disease progression. Technological application of nanometer molecules in medicine with the aim of fighting and curing ailments is the globally definition of nanomedicine. The success of nanotechnology in the healthcare part is driven by the possibility to work at the same scale of several biological processes, cellular mechanisms, and organic molecules. With the growing understanding of methods to functionalize nanoparticles and the continued efforts of creative scientists to advance this technology, it is likely that functionalized nanoparticles will become an important tool in the above mentioned areas. This paper describes the role of multifunctional nanoparticle in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide basic information on nanoparticles, describe previously developed methods to functionalize nanoparticles and discuss their potential applications in biomedical sciences and finally mention the therapeutic nanoparticle commercialization challenges. Keywords: Multifunctional nanoparticle, Cancer, Diagnosis, Treatment, Therapy

  8. Impact of comorbidity and healthcare utilization on colorectal cancer stage at diagnosis: literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkum, Mark; Urquhart, Robin; Burge, Fred; Porter, Geoffrey; Johnston, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Individuals diagnosed with cancer close to death have low access to enrollment in palliative care programs. The purpose of this literature review was to assess the usefulness of pre-diagnostic comorbidity and healthcare utilization as indicators of late-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis, to help with early identification of individuals who may benefit from palliative care. Methods A literature search was conducted in relevant databases using title/abstract terms which included “cancer,” “stage,” “diagnosis,” “determinants,” “predictors,” and “associated.” Included studies examined whether comorbidity and/or healthcare utilization had an impact on the stage at which CRC was diagnosed. A standardized data abstraction form was used to assess the eligibility of each study. Thirteen articles were included in the literature review. These studies were assessed and synthesized using qualitative methodology. Results We found much heterogeneity among study variables. The findings of this literature review point to the presence of comorbidity and non-emergent healthcare utilization as having no association with late-stage diagnosis. Conversely, emergency room presentation (ERP) was associated with late-stage diagnosis. Conclusions The results of this literature review did not find strong evidence to suggest that comorbidity and healthcare utilization are potential indicators of late-stage diagnosis. However, ERP may be useful as a flag for consideration of prompt referral to palliative care. Additional research is required to identify potential indicators of late-stage diagnosis that may be available in administrative databases, particularly in the area of healthcare utilization. PMID:22101505

  9. Emotions and coping of patients with head and neck cancers after diagnosis: A qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, A; Juvva, S

    2016-01-01

    Patients suffering with head and neck cancers are observed to have a relatively high risk of developing emotional disturbances after diagnosis and treatment. These emotional concerns can be best understood and explored through the method of content analysis or qualitative data. Though a number of qualitative studies have been conducted in the last few years in the field of psychosocial oncology, none have looked at the emotions experienced and the coping by head and neck cancer patients. Seventy-five new cases of postsurgery patients of head and neck cancers were qualitatively interviewed regarding the emotions experienced and coping strategies after diagnosis. Qualitative content analysis of the in-depth interviews brought out that patients experienced varied emotions on realizing that they were suffering from cancer, the cause of which could be mainly attributed to three themes: 1) knowledge of their illness; 2) duration of untreated illness; and 3) object of blame. They coped with their emotions by either: 1) inculcating a positive attitude and faith in the doctor/treatment, 2) ventilating their emotions with family and friends, or 3) indulging in activities to divert attention. The results brought out a conceptual framework, which showed that an in-depth understanding of the emotions - Their root cause, coping strategies, and spiritual and cultural orientations of the cancer survivor - Is essential to develop any effective intervention program in India.

  10. The application of nanoparticles in diagnosis and theranostics of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rutian; Liu, Baorui; Gao, Jiahui

    2017-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. For the diagnosis of gastric cancer, apart from regular systemic imaging, the locoregional imaging is also of great importance. Moreover, there are still other ways for the detecting of gastric cancer, including the early detection of gastric cancer by endoscopy, the detection of gastric-cancer related biomarkers and the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of gastric cancer. However, conventional diagnostic methods are usually lack of specificity and sensitivity. Nanoparticles provide many benefits in the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Besides, nanoparticles are capable of integrating the functions of diagnosis and treatment together (theranostics). In this paper, we reviewed the applications of nanoparticles in diagnosis and theranostics of gastric cancer in the above mentioned aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Availability of stage at diagnosis, cancer treatment delay and compliance with cancer guidelines as cancer registry indicators for cancer care in Europe: Results of EUROCHIP-3 survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Kwast, A.; Gavin, A.; Baili, P.; Otter, R.

    2013-01-01

    EUROCHIP (European Cancer Health Indicators Project) focuses on understanding inequalities in the cancer burden, care and survival by the indicators “stage at diagnosis,” “cancer treatment delay” and “compliance with cancer guidelines” as the most important indicators. Our study aims at providing

  12. Coping response following a diagnosis of breast cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-12-01

    Coping with breast cancer is an important health issue that results in adjustments to the disease in survivors. The present systematic review aims to synthesize the evidence about the coping strategies used by women who are primary breast cancer survivors to adjust to their new situations in their lives. Searches were conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Wiley Online Library, and PsycINFO, using the terms "breast cancer," "breast malignancy," "coping strategies," "coping behaviors," and "adjustment" from January 2000 to July 2015. Only relevant studies in English were selected at the end of the search. Only those papers were selected that focused on coping strategies/behaviors that were used by breast cancer survivors. Searching the electronic databases resulted in 2390 articles. Ultimately, 20 studies met the inclusion criteria of the present study and were included in the review. Two reviewers independently reviewed all relevant articles using the same inclusion criteria. The reviewers completed a quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment scales for observational studies. The more frequent coping strategies that patients with breast cancer used in the studies were 1) seeking social support (9 studies), 2) positive reframing and reappraisal behaviors as problem focused strategies (7 studies), 3) religious/spirituality-focused efforts (8 studies), 4) emotional expression as positive emotion-focused strategies (3 studies), and 5) avoidance and distraction as avoidance orientated strategies (6 studies). Women with different ethnicities and educational levels used different coping strategies with breast cancer, and they used different strategies in different phases of the disease. This systematic review revealed that seeking social support and emotion-focused efforts were the main coping strategies that women with breast cancer diagnosis used, especially in the early phase of breast cancer diagnosis. This information about the coping

  13. Ontology based decision system for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi Ben Ameur, Soumaya; Cloppet, Florence; Wendling, Laurent; Sellami, Dorra

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on analysis and diagnosis of breast masses inspired by expert concepts and rules. Accordingly, a Bag of Words is built based on the ontology of breast cancer diagnosis, accurately described in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. To fill the gap between low level knowledge and expert concepts, a semantic annotation is developed using a machine learning tool. Then, breast masses are classified into benign or malignant according to expert rules implicitly modeled with a set of classifiers (KNN, ANN, SVM and Decision Tree). This semantic context of analysis offers a frame where we can include external factors and other meta-knowledge such as patient risk factors as well as exploiting more than one modality. Based on MRI and DECEDM modalities, our developed system leads a recognition rate of 99.7% with Decision Tree where an improvement of 24.7 % is obtained owing to semantic analysis.

  14. Hospitalization Rates and Predictors of Rehospitalization Among Individuals With Advanced Cancer in the Year After Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Robin L; Bell, Janice F; Tancredi, Daniel J; Romano, Patrick S; Bold, Richard J; Joseph, Jill G

    2017-11-01

    Purpose Among individuals with advanced cancer, frequent hospitalization increasingly is viewed as a hallmark of poor-quality care. We examined hospitalization rates and individual- and hospital-level predictors of rehospitalization among individuals with advanced cancer in the year after diagnosis. Methods Individuals diagnosed with advanced breast, colorectal, non-small-cell lung, or pancreatic cancer from 2009 to 2012 (N = 25,032) were identified with data from the California Cancer Registry (CCR). After linkage with inpatient discharge data, multistate and log-linear Poisson regression models were used to calculate hospitalization rates and to model rehospitalization in the year after diagnosis, accounting for survival. Results In the year after diagnosis, 71% of individuals with advanced cancer were hospitalized, 16% had three or more hospitalizations, and 64% of hospitalizations originated in the emergency department. Rehospitalization rates were significantly associated with black non-Hispanic (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.42) and Hispanic (IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.20) race/ethnicity; public insurance (IRR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.47) and no insurance (IRR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.35); lower socioeconomic status quintiles (IRRs, 1.09 to 1.29); comorbidities (IRRs, 1.13 to 1.59); and pancreatic (IRR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.95 to 2.20) and non-small-cell lung (IRR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.54 to 1.86) cancers versus colorectal cancer. Rehospitalization rates were significantly lower after discharge from a hospital that had an outpatient palliative care program (IRR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.97) and were higher after discharge from a for-profit hospital (IRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.56). Conclusion Individuals with advanced cancer experience a heavy burden of hospitalization in the year after diagnosis. Efforts to reduce hospitalization and provide care congruent with patient preferences might target individuals at higher risk. Future work might

  15. Optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer using fluorescence cystoscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draga, R.O.P.

    2013-01-01

    The gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer is transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT). A relative high recurrence rate and the need for repeated treatments make bladder cancer one the most expensive cancers from diagnosis till death of the patient. The TURBT

  16. Optimized smith waterman processor design for breast cancer early diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, D. S.; Isa, M. N.; Ismail, R. C.; Ahmad, M. I.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an optimized design of Processing Element (PE) of Systolic Array (SA) which implements affine gap penalty Smith Waterman (SW) algorithm on the Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX75T Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) sequence alignment. The PE optimization aims to reduce PE logic resources to increase number of PEs in FPGA for higher degree of parallelism during alignment matrix computations. This is useful for aligning long DNA-based disease sequence such as Breast Cancer (BC) for early diagnosis. The optimized PE architecture has the smallest PE area with 15 slices in a PE and 776 PEs implemented in the Virtex - 6 FPGA.

  17. Diagnosis of renal cell cancer by dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Katoh, Katsuya

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic MRI was performed in 15 cases (16 lesions) of renal cell cancer. The enhanced pattern of the tumor was mainly evaluated and findings were compared with these of dynamic CT and renal angiography. Enhanced patterns on dynamic MRI and dynamic CT were similar, but each phase on dynamic MRI tended to be prolonged compared with dynamic CT. Many hypervascular tumors on renal angiography had prominent enhancement in an early phase on dynamic MRI, but there was no prominent enhancement in cases with tumor thrombi in the renal vein or IVC. All hypovascular tumors were enhanced to some degree without exception on dynamic MRI. Dynamic MRI is considered to be useful for the evaluation of the characterization, especially vascularity, of renal cell cancer, but we should pay attention to the differential diagnosis from other tumor in atypical cases because its enhanced patterns are various on dynamic MRI. (author)

  18. Current status of lectin-based cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohona S. Coulibaly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. Due to their exceptional glycan recognition property, they have found many applications in analytical chemistry, biotechnology and surface chemistry. This manuscript explores the current use of lectins for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Moreover, novel drug delivery strategies aiming at improving lectin’s stability, reducing their undesired toxicity and controlling their non-specific binding interactions are discussed. We also explore the nanotechnology application of lectins for cancer targeting and imaging. Although many investigations are being conducted in the field of lectinology, there is still a limited clinical translation of the major findings reported due to lectins stability and toxicity concerns. Therefore, new investigations of safe and effective drug delivery system strategies for lectins are warranted in order to take full advantage of these proteins.

  19. Imaging techniques in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.; Stotzka, R.; Neiber, H.J.; Eppler, W.; Gemmeke, H.

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer is a frequent cause for death of women in the western world. Detection of anomalies in early pathological stages and immediate treatment are essential for successful cure. Early stages of breast cancer are indicated by the occurance of microcalcifications. Their shape and spatial arrangement are of high diagnostic value. The process of recognition and three-dimensional reconstruction of clustered microcalcifications requires a good expert knowledge and a high abstract imagination capability. Therefore, it is useful to detect calcifications automatically in mammograms and present their spatial relationship in an animated 3D-model. This automatic process is done in a mammography workstation with the objective not to replace a medical doctor but to provide a second expert opinion. This will lead to a more reliable diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Molecular biology-based diagnosis and therapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hayato; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Mainly described are author's investigations of the title subject through clinical and basic diagnosis/therapeutic approach. Based on their consideration of carcinogenesis and pathological features of pancreatic cancer (PC), analysis of expression of cancer-related genes in clinically available samples like pancreatic juice and cells biopsied can result in attaining their purposes. Desmoplasia, a pathological feature of PC, possibly induces resistance to therapy and one of strategies is probably its suppression. Targeting stem cells of the mesenchyma as well as those of PC is also a strategy in future. Authors' studies have revealed that quantitation of hTERT (coding teromerase) mRNA levels in PC cells micro-dissected from cytological specimens is an accurate molecular biological diagnostic method applicable clinically. Other cancer-related genes are also useful for the diagnosis and mucin (MUC) family genes are shown to be typical ones for differentiating the precancerous PC, PC and chronic pancreatisis. Efficacy of standard gemcitabine chemotherapy can be individualized with molecular markers concerned to metabolism of the drug like dCK. Radiotherapy/radio-chemotherapy are not so satisfactory for PC treatment now. Authors have found elevated MMP-2 expression and HGF/c-Met signal activation in irradiated PC cells, which can increase the invasive capability; and stimulation of phosphorylation and activation of c-Met/MARK in co-culture of irradiated PC cells with messenchymal cells from PC, which possibly leads to progression of malignancy of PC through their interaction, of which suppression, therefore, can be a new approach to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. Authors are making effort to introducing adenovirus therapy in clinic; exempli gratia (e.g.), the virus carrying wild type p53, a cancer-suppressive gene, induces apoptosis of PC cells often having its mutated gene. (T.T.)

  1. Molecular Endoscopic Ultrasound for Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournet, Barbara [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Center Rangueil, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Pointreau, Adeline; Delpu, Yannick; Selves, Janick; Torrisani, Jerome [INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Buscail, Louis, E-mail: buscail.l@chu-toulouse.fr [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Center Rangueil, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France); Cordelier, Pierre [INSERM U1037, University Hospital Center Rangueil, Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-24

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is a safe and effective technique in diagnosing and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However its predictive negative value does not exceed 50% to 60%. Unfortunately, the majority of pancreatic cancer patients have a metastatic and/or a locally advanced disease (i.e., not eligible for curative resection) which explains the limited access to pancreatic tissue specimens. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is the most widely used approach for cytological and histological material sampling in these situations used in up to two thirds of patients with pancreatic cancer. Based on this unique material, we and others developed strategies to improve the differential diagnosis between carcinoma and inflammatory pancreatic lesions by analysis of KRAS oncogene mutation, microRNA expression and methylation, as well as mRNA expression using both qRT-PCR and Low Density Array Taqman analysis. Indeed, differentiating pancreatic cancer from pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis remains very difficult in current clinical practice, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy analysis proved to be very helpful. In this review, we will compile the clinical and molecular advantages of using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy in managing pancreatic cancer.

  2. From Femtosecond Dynamics to Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramczyk, H.; Placek, I.; Brozek-Pluska, B.; Kurczewski, K.; Morawiec, Z.; Tazbir, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents new results based on Raman spectroscopy and demonstrates its utilisation as a diagnostic and development tool with the key advantage in breast cancer research. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in cancer research are in the early stages of development. However, research presented here as well as performed in a few other laboratories demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy to accurately characterize cancer tissue and distinguish between normal, malignant and benign types. The main goals of bio-Raman spectroscopy at this stage are threefold. Firstly, the aim is to develop the diagnostic ability of Raman spectroscopy so it can be implemented in a clinical environment, producing accurate and rapid diagnoses. Secondly, the aim is to optimize the technique as a diagnostic tool for the non-invasive real time medical applications. Thirdly, the aim is to formulate some hypothesis based on Raman spectroscopy on the molecular mechanism which drives the transformation of normal human cells into highly malignant derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most statistically reliable report on Raman spectroscopy-based diagnosis of breast cancers among the world women population

  3. Molecular Endoscopic Ultrasound for Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bournet, Barbara; Pointreau, Adeline; Delpu, Yannick; Selves, Janick; Torrisani, Jerome; Buscail, Louis; Cordelier, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is a safe and effective technique in diagnosing and staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. However its predictive negative value does not exceed 50% to 60%. Unfortunately, the majority of pancreatic cancer patients have a metastatic and/or a locally advanced disease (i.e., not eligible for curative resection) which explains the limited access to pancreatic tissue specimens. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy is the most widely used approach for cytological and histological material sampling in these situations used in up to two thirds of patients with pancreatic cancer. Based on this unique material, we and others developed strategies to improve the differential diagnosis between carcinoma and inflammatory pancreatic lesions by analysis of KRAS oncogene mutation, microRNA expression and methylation, as well as mRNA expression using both qRT-PCR and Low Density Array Taqman analysis. Indeed, differentiating pancreatic cancer from pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis remains very difficult in current clinical practice, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy analysis proved to be very helpful. In this review, we will compile the clinical and molecular advantages of using endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration-biopsy in managing pancreatic cancer

  4. Serological Diagnosis of Liver Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Rui; Wang, Li-ping

    2012-01-01

    To diagnose and explore the serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with breast cancer before symptoms occur. A total of 430 female in-patients with breast cancer of stages 0 to IIIC who came to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2003 to January 2004 were studied and followed up until May 2011. Serum levels of biochemical markers for tumor and liver were measured at the time of diagnosis. Liver metastasis was more likely to occur in patients with stage III cancer or c-erbB-2-positive expression. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) levels were significantly higher in patients with liver metastasis than those without liver metastasis. Diagnostic indices of LDH, GGT, and CA153 were 174 U/L, 32 U/L, and 26.48 µg/L, respectively. The areas under the curves of LDH, GGT, and CEA were 0.795, 0.784, and 0.661, respectively, and sensitivities of parallel tests for LDH and CA153 and for GGT and CA153 were 88.6% and 85.7%, respectively. The specificity of serial tests for both pairs of enzymes was 97.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of combined tumor and biochemical markers could be used as indicators during screening for breast-liver metastasis

  5. Diagnosis of Malignant Melanoma of Skin Cancer Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hassin Alasadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer that begins in melanocytes. It can influence on the skin only, or it may expand to the bones and organs. It is less common, but more serious and aggressive than other types of skin cancer. Malignant Melanoma can happen anywhere on the skin, but it is widespread in certain locations such as the legs in women, the back and chest in men, the face, the neck, mouth, eyes, and genitals. In this paper, a proposed algorithm is designed for diagnosing malignant melanoma types by using digital image processing techniques. The algorithm consists of four steps: preprocessing, separation, features extraction, and diagnosis. A neural network (NN used to diagnosis malignant melanoma types. The total accuracy of the neural network was 100% for training and 93% for testing. The evaluation of the algorithm is done by using sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing malignant melanoma types was 95.6%, while the specificity was 92.2% and the accuracy was 93.9%. The experimental results are acceptable.

  6. Diagnosis and management of differentiated thyroid cancer using molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert L; Ferris, Robert L; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Sherman, Steven I; Steward, David L; Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2013-04-01

    To define molecular biology in clinical practice for diagnosis, surgical management, and prognostication of differentiated thyroid cancer. Ovid Medline 2006-2012 Manuscripts with clinical correlates. Papillary thyroid carcinomas harbor point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes or RET/PTC rearrangements, all of which activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These mutually exclusive mutations are found in 70% of PTC. BRAF mutation is found in 45% of papillary thyroid cancer and is highly specific. Follicular carcinomas are known to harbor RAS mutation or PAX8/PPARγ rearrangement. These mutations are also mutually exclusive and identified in 70% of follicular carcinomas. Molecular classifiers measure the expression of a large number of genes on a microarray chip providing a substantial negative predictive value pending further validation. 1) 20% to 30% of cytologically classified Follicular Neoplasms and Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance collectively are malignant on final pathology. Approximately 70% to 80% of thyroid lobectomies performed solely for diagnostic purposes are benign. Molecular alteration testing may reduce the number of unnecessary thyroid procedures, 2) may reduce the number of completion thyroidectomies, and 3) may lead to more individualized operative and postoperative management. Molecular testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARγ for follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm improve specificity, whereas molecular classifiers may add negative predictive value to fine needle aspiration diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Factors influencing diagnosis delay of advanced breast cancer in Moroccan women

    OpenAIRE

    Maghous, A.; Rais, F.; Ahid, S.; Benhmidou, N.; Bellahamou, K.; Loughlimi, H.; Marnouche, E.; Elmajjaoui, S.; Elkacemi, H.; Kebdani, T.; Benjaafar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer in symptomatic women of 3?months or more is associated with advanced stage and low survival. We conducted this study to learn more about the extent and reasons behind diagnosis delay of advanced breast cancer in Moroccan women. Methods A group of patients with advanced breast cancer were interviewed at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat during the period from February to December 2014. Diagnosis delay was devised into patient delay a...

  8. Role of Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging in Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Nikolajeff, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a major global health issue. It causes extensive individual suffering and gives a huge burden on the health care in society. Despite extensive research and different tools have been developed it still remains a challenge for early detection of this disease. FTIR imaging has been used to diagnose and differentiate the molecular differences between normal and diseased tissues. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is able to measure biochemical changes in tissue, cell and biofluids based on the vibrational signature of their components. This technique enables to the distribution and structure of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids as well as other metabolites. These differences depended on the type and the grade of cancer. We emphasize here, that the FTIR spectroscopy and imaging can be considered as a promising technique and will find its place on the detection of this dreadful disease because of high sensitivity, accuracy and inexpensive technique. Now the medical community started using and accepting this technique for early stage cancer detection. We discussed this technique and the several challenges in its application for the diagnosis of cancer in regards of sample preparations, data interpretation, and data analysis. The sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs on individual specific has also discussed. So far progressed has done with the FTIR imaging in understanding of cancer disease pathology. However, more research is needed in this field and it is necessary to understand the morphology and biology of the sample before using the spectroscopy and imaging because invaluable information to be figured out. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Communication networks of men facing a diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dot; Oetzel, John; Henderson, Alison

    2016-11-01

    This study seeks to identify the factors that shape the communication networks of men who face a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer, and how these factors relate to their disclosure about their changing health status. Men facing a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer are in a challenging situation; the support benefits of disclosing their changing health status to others in their communication networks is set against a backdrop of the potential stigma and uncertainty of the diagnosis. All men on a prostate biopsy waiting list were eligible for inclusion in an exploratory and interpretive study. Semi-structured interviews with 40 men explored their network structures and disclosure of health information. Thematic analysis highlighted the factors which contributed to their network structures and their disclosure about their health status. Four network factors shaped men's perspectives about disclosing their health status: (1) tie strength, comprising both strong and weak ties; (2) knowledgeable others, with a focus on medical professionals in the family; (3) homophily, which included other individuals with a similar medical condition; and (4) geographical proximity, with a preference for face-to-face communication. Communication networks influence men's disclosure of their health status and in particular weak ties with medical knowledge have an important role. Men who use the potential for support in their networks may experience improved psychosocial outcomes. Using these four network factors-tie strength, knowledgeable others, homophily or geographical proximity-to forecast men's willingness to disclose helps identify men who lack potential support and so are at risk of poor psychosocial health. Those with few strong ties or knowledgeable others in their networks may be in the at-risk cohort. The support provided in communication networks complements formal medical care from nurses and other health professionals, and encouraging patients to use their

  10. The effect of breast cancer on personal income three years after diagnosis by cancer stage and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Thielen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between stage of incident breast cancer (BC) and personal income three years after diagnosis. The analysis further considered whether the association differed among educational groups. Methods: The study...... was based on information from Danish nationwide registers. A total of 7,372 women aged 30¿60 years diagnosed with BC, 48% with metastasis, were compared to 213,276 controls. Generalised linear models were used to estimate the effect of a cancer diagnosis on personal gross income three years after diagnosis......, stratified by education and stage of cancer. The models were adjusted for income two years prior to cancer diagnosis and demographic, geographic and co-morbidity covariates. Results: Adjusting for income two years prior to cancer diagnosis and other baseline covariates (see above), cancer had a minor effect...

  11. Quantitative Digital Tomosynthesis Mammography for Improved Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yiheng

    2008-01-01

    .... When fully developed, the DTM can provide radiologists improved quantitative, three-dimensional volumetric information of the breast tissue, and assist in breast cancer detection and diagnosis...

  12. Breast Density Notification Legislation and Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis: Early Evidence from the SEER Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana; Asch, Steven M; Bendavid, Eran; Bhattacharya, Jay; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-06-01

    Twenty-eight states have passed breast density notification laws, which require physicians to inform women of a finding of dense breasts on mammography. To evaluate changes in breast cancer stage at diagnosis after enactment of breast density notification legislation. Using a difference-in-differences analysis, we examined changes in stage at diagnosis among women with breast cancer in Connecticut, the first state to enact legislation, compared to changes among women in control states. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) registry, 2005-2013. Women ages 40-74 with breast cancer. Breast density notification legislation, enacted in Connecticut in October of 2009. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Our study included 466,930 women, 25,592 of whom lived in Connecticut. Legislation was associated with a 1.38-percentage-point (95 % CI 0.12 to 2.63) increase in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states who had localized invasive cancer at the time of diagnosis, and a 1.12-percentage-point (95 % CI -2.21 to -0.08) decline in the proportion of women with ductal carcinoma in situ at diagnosis. Breast density notification legislation was not associated with a change in the proportion of women in Connecticut versus control states with regional-stage (-0.09 percentage points, 95 % CI -1.01 to 1.02) or metastatic disease (-0.24, 95 % CI -0.75 to 0.28). County-level analyses and analyses limited to women younger than 50 found no statistically significant associations. Single intervention state, limited follow-up, potential confounding from unobserved trends. Breast density notification legislation in Connecticut was associated with a small increase in the proportion of women diagnosed with localized invasive breast cancer in individual-level but not county-level analyses. Whether this finding reflects potentially beneficial early detection or potentially harmful overdiagnosis is not known. Legislation was not

  13. Cancer diagnosis in a ''breast clinic''. A 15 years retrospection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghys, R

    1987-01-01

    Conflicting opinions have been expressed in the world literature over the last 15 years about the value of radiological techniques in breast cancer diagnosis. We reviewed 111 breast cancers which we diagnosed between 1971 and 1985, in unselected patients, by the combined use of palpation, thermography and mammography, complemented, since 1980, by diaphanoscopy. Considerable clinical experience is necessary to interpret both mammograms and thermograms. Each of these approaches, when rated independently, has a very high false negative rate ranging from 41% for clinical examination to 32% for mammography. In cases which are not clinically obvious, diaphanoscopy ''retrieves'' the most cancers, with thermography a close second (definitely malignant in 35% of the cases over the whole age range). Mammography comes third and its efficacy drops to 12.5% in premenopausal women. However, by combining this information with the one derived from anamnesis, the ACDTM scoring system gives us a false negative rate - before biopsy - of 5.5% and a false positive rate of <1%. This approach also drastically reduces the number of unnecessary biopsies.

  14. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  15. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  16. DNA methylation–based immune response signature improves patient diagnosis in multiple cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Jana; Bizet, Martin; Calonne, Emilie; Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Garaud, Soizic; Koch, Alexander; Larsimont, Denis; Salgado, Roberto; Van den Eynden, Gert; Willard Gallo, Karen; Defrance, Matthieu; Sotiriou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The tumor immune response is increasingly associated with better clinical outcomes in breast and other cancers. However, the evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) relies on histopathological measurements with limited accuracy and reproducibility. Here, we profiled DNA methylation markers to identify a methylation of TIL (MeTIL) signature that recapitulates TIL evaluations and their prognostic value for long-term outcomes in breast cancer (BC). METHODS. MeTIL signature scores were correlated with clinical endpoints reflecting overall or disease-free survival and a pathologic complete response to preoperative anthracycline therapy in 3 BC cohorts from the Jules Bordet Institute in Brussels and in other cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. RESULTS. The MeTIL signature measured TIL distributions in a sensitive manner and predicted survival and response to chemotherapy in BC better than did histopathological assessment of TILs or gene expression–based immune markers, respectively. The MeTIL signature also improved the prediction of survival in other malignancies, including melanoma and lung cancer. Furthermore, the MeTIL signature predicted differences in survival for malignancies in which TILs were not known to have a prognostic value. Finally, we showed that MeTIL markers can be determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing of small amounts of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue, supporting clinical applications for this methodology. CONCLUSIONS. This study highlights the power of DNA methylation to evaluate tumor immune responses and the potential of this approach to improve the diagnosis and treatment of breast and other cancers. FUNDING. This work was funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) and Télévie, the INNOVIRIS Brussels Region BRUBREAST Project, the IUAP P7/03 program, the Belgian “Foundation against Cancer,” the Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF), and the Fonds Gaston Ithier

  17. An efficient model for auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma based on gene expression programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Jiasheng; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Chuanmiao; Xu, Kuihua

    2018-03-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The early diagnosis of HCC is greatly helpful to achieve long-term disease-free survival. However, HCC is usually difficult to be diagnosed at an early stage. The aim of this study was to create the prediction model to diagnose HCC based on gene expression programming (GEP). GEP is an evolutionary algorithm and a domain-independent problem-solving technique. Clinical data show that six serum biomarkers, including gamma-glutamyl transferase, C-reaction protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, carbohydrate antigen 153, and carbohydrate antigen 199, are related to HCC characteristics. In this study, the prediction of HCC was made based on these six biomarkers (195 HCC patients and 215 non-HCC controls) by setting up optimal joint models with GEP. The GEP model discriminated 353 out of 410 subjects, representing a determination coefficient of 86.28% (283/328) and 85.37% (70/82) for training and test sets, respectively. Compared to the results from the support vector machine, the artificial neural network, and the multilayer perceptron, GEP showed a better outcome. The results suggested that GEP modeling was a promising and excellent tool in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, and it could be widely used in HCC auxiliary diagnosis. Graphical abstract The process to establish an efficient model for auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. Support for coping after diagnosis of gynaecologic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adellund, Kamila; Frandsen, Helle Nørtved; Juhl, Inger Rudbeck

    and their relatives experience.   Method: The project is divided into three phases and includes both qualitative and quantitative research methods as well as development and implementation of a multidisciplinary support program.   Conclusion: The project started in April 2009 and the results from 1st phase......Background: Denmark has implemented several cancer schools that offer training and support after treatment. However, there are no offers to patients and relatives from the referral until definitive treatment. Therefore we focus on nursing care for patients and relatives in this period of time where...... their existence is threatened and their ability to cope weakened. The main question of this investigation was: How can the nurse in a multidisciplinary team support patients and relatives to master the first few days where cancer is suspected? We aimed to: Fase 1:          Explore the needs of support...

  19. Cancer of the Uterine Cervix: Late Diagnosis. Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Serra Valdés

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is an important health problem due to the high morbidity and mortality which it produces. The first cause of women death between 30 and 44 years old in Cuba is cervix carcinoma. This is a case of a 39 year old woman who presented to the secondary health care level with a stage IV cervix tumor where it was diagnosed, it simulated an anaemic syndrome due to another cause. The histological and imaging studies were concluding. Primary prevention of this kind cancer by means of health education and searching in the risk population are paramount. The program of early detection still has difficulties. The presentation of this case is aimed at teaching so as documentary exposition for professionals of primary health care attention, gyneco-obstetricians, internists and any other clinical specialty derived.

  20. The Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, Medicaid, and breast cancer outcomes among Ohio's underserved women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroukian, Siran M; Bakaki, Paul M; Htoo, Phyo Than; Han, Xiaozhen; Schluchter, Mark; Owusu, Cynthia; Cooper, Gregory S; Rose, Johnie; Flocke, Susan A

    2017-08-15

    As an organized screening program, the national Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCEDP) was launched in the early 1990s to improve breast cancer outcomes among underserved women. To analyze the impact of the BCCEDP on breast cancer outcomes in Ohio, this study compared cancer stages and mortality across BCCEDP participants, Medicaid beneficiaries, and "all others." This study linked data across the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicaid, the BCCEDP database, death certificates, and the US Census and identified 26,426 women aged 40 to 64 years who had been diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer during the years 2002-2008 (deaths through 2010). The study groups were as follows: BCCEDP participants (1-time or repeat users), Medicaid beneficiaries (women enrolled in Medicaid before their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/prediagnosis] or around the time of their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/peridiagnosis]), and all others (women identified as neither BCCEDP participants nor Medicaid beneficiaries). The outcomes included advanced-stage cancer at diagnosis and mortality. A multivariable logistic and survival analysis was conducted to examine the independent association between the BCCEDP and Medicaid status and the outcomes. The percentage of women presenting with advanced-stage disease was highest among women in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group (63.4%) and lowest among BCCEDP repeat users (38.6%). With adjustments for potential confounders and even in comparison with Medicaid/prediagnosis beneficiaries, those in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group were twice as likely to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease (adjusted odds ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-2.66). Medicaid/peridiagnosis women are at particularly high risk to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. Efforts to reduce breast cancer disparities must target this group of women before they present to Medicaid. Cancer 2017;123:3097-106. © 2017 American Cancer Society

  1. Racial Differences in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Di Pietro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Disparities between African American and Caucasian men in prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis and treatment in the United States have been well established, with significant racial disparities documented at all stages of PCa management, from differences in the type of treatment offered to progression-free survival or death. These disparities appear to be complex in nature, involving biological determinants as well as socioeconomic and cultural aspects. We present a review of the literature on racial disparities in the diagnosis of PCa, treatment, survival, and genetic susceptibility. Significant differences were found among African Americans and whites in the incidence and mortality rates; namely, African Americans are diagnosed with PCa at younger ages than whites and usually with more advanced stages of the disease, and also undergo prostate-specific antigen testing less frequently. However, the determinants of the high rate of incidence and aggressiveness of PCa in African Americans remain unresolved. This pattern can be attributed to socioeconomic status, detection occurring at advanced stages of the disease, biological aggressiveness, family history, and differences in genetic susceptibility. Another risk factor for PCa is obesity. We found many discrepancies regarding treatment, including a tendency for more African American patients to be in watchful waiting than whites. Many factors are responsible for the higher incidence and mortality rates in African Americans. Better screening, improved access to health insurance and clinics, and more homogeneous forms of treatment will contribute to the reduction of disparities between African Americans and white men in PCa incidence and mortality.

  2. Balancing the benefits and detriments among women targeted by the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Román, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Falk, Ragnhild S

    2016-12-01

    To compute a ratio between the estimated numbers of lives saved from breast cancer death and the number of women diagnosed with a breast cancer that never would have been diagnosed during the woman's lifetime had she not attended screening (epidemiologic over-diagnosis) in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program invites women aged 50-69 to biennial mammographic screening. Results from published studies using individual level data from the programme for estimating breast cancer mortality and epidemiologic over-diagnosis comprised the basis for the ratio. The mortality reduction varied from 36.8% to 43% among screened women, while estimates on epidemiologic over-diagnosis ranged from 7% to 19.6%. We computed the average estimates for both values. The benefit-detriment ratio, number of lives saved, and number of women over-diagnosed were computed for different scenarios of reduction in breast cancer mortality and epidemiologic over-diagnosis. For every 10,000 biennially screened women, followed until age 79, we estimated that 53-61 (average 57) women were saved from breast cancer death, and 45-126 (average 82) were over-diagnosed. The benefit-detriment ratio using average estimates was 1:1.4, indicating that the programme saved about one life per 1-2 women with epidemiologic over-diagnosis. The benefit-detriment ratio estimates of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, expressed as lives saved from breast cancer death and epidemiologic over-diagnosis, should be interpreted with care due to substantial uncertainties in the estimates, and the differences in the scale of values of the events compared. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  4. Future strategies in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der; Witjes, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review new modalities in the diagnosis, staging and treatment of superficial and invasive bladder cancer are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Urinary markers still cannot replace cystoscopy in diagnosing bladder cancer. However, DNA micro-array has shown promise for diagnosis.

  5. Integrative Analysis of Cancer Diagnosis Studies with Composite Penalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2013-01-01

    Summary In cancer diagnosis studies, high-throughput gene profiling has been extensively conducted, searching for genes whose expressions may serve as markers. Data generated from such studies have the “large d, small n” feature, with the number of genes profiled much larger than the sample size. Penalization has been extensively adopted for simultaneous estimation and marker selection. Because of small sample sizes, markers identified from the analysis of single datasets can be unsatisfactory. A cost-effective remedy is to conduct integrative analysis of multiple heterogeneous datasets. In this article, we investigate composite penalization methods for estimation and marker selection in integrative analysis. The proposed methods use the minimax concave penalty (MCP) as the outer penalty. Under the homogeneity model, the ridge penalty is adopted as the inner penalty. Under the heterogeneity model, the Lasso penalty and MCP are adopted as the inner penalty. Effective computational algorithms based on coordinate descent are developed. Numerical studies, including simulation and analysis of practical cancer datasets, show satisfactory performance of the proposed methods. PMID:24578589

  6. Systematic Review: Family Resilience After Pediatric Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Schoors, Marieke; Caes, Line; Verhofstadt, Lesley L; Goubert, Liesbet; Alderfer, Melissa A

    2015-10-01

    A systematic review was conducted to (1) investigate family resilience in the context of pediatric cancer, and (2) examine theoretical, methodological, and statistical issues in this literature. Family resilience was operationalized as competent family functioning after exposure to a significant risk. Following guidelines for systematic reviews, searches were performed using Web of Science, Pubmed, Cochrane, PsycInfo, and Embase. After screening 5,563 articles, 85 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were extracted for review. Findings indicated that most families are resilient, adapting well to the crisis of cancer diagnosis. However, a subset still experiences difficulties. Methodological issues in the current literature hamper strong nuanced conclusions. We suggest future research with a greater focus on family resilience and factors predicting it, based on available theory, and conducted with attention toward unit of measurement and use of appropriate statistical analyses. Improvements in research are needed to best inform family-based clinical efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. From Cancer Screening to Treatment: Service Delivery and Referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W.; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D.; Royalty, Janet E.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies. PMID:25099897

  8. Novel personalized pathway-based metabolomics models reveal key metabolic pathways for breast cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sijia; Chong, Nicole; Lewis, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    diagnosis. We applied this method to predict breast cancer occurrence, in combination with correlation feature selection (CFS) and classification methods. Results: The resulting all-stage and early-stage diagnosis models are highly accurate in two sets of testing blood samples, with average AUCs (Area Under.......993. Moreover, important metabolic pathways, such as taurine and hypotaurine metabolism and the alanine, aspartate, and glutamate pathway, are revealed as critical biological pathways for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Conclusions: We have successfully developed a new type of pathway-based model to study...... metabolomics data for disease diagnosis. Applying this method to blood-based breast cancer metabolomics data, we have discovered crucial metabolic pathway signatures for breast cancer diagnosis, especially early diagnosis. Further, this modeling approach may be generalized to other omics data types for disease...

  9. Cancer-affine radiopharmaceuticals for the study of biochemical nature of cancer and in the early diagnosis and follow-up of cancer and its systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S.K.; Cipriani, C.; Atzei, G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer patient needs less diagnosis but an effective therapy. The systemic nature of cancer, often right from its inception, requires systemic therapy with cancer-affine radiopharmaceuticals which contain radionuclide species recognizing both the primary and secondary cancers which have generally different biochemical properties. Cancers may be classified into two groups: I. CATIONIC COMPLEX-AFFINE TUMOURS; Lung cancer, thyroid cancer, primary breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, bone metastases from anionic complex-affine cancers, ...; II. ANIONIC COMPLEX-AFFINE TUMOURS; Primary prostate cancer, melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, bone metastases from cationic complex-affine cancer. With cancer-affine citratogallate-67 complexes we have diagnosed and followed up, and with citratoyttrate-90 complexes we have treated advanced breast, prostate, renal cell cancer patients. The patient preparation by advising to avoid cancer risk factors and to take cancer preventing and radiopharmaceutical stabilizing diets during diagnosis and therapy have given better results. Friendliness, caring visits and telephone calls from the therapist group help to obtain better outcomes of the diagnosis, and mainly of the therapy. The complexes of these radionuclides with other chelating agents EDTA and DPTA are expected to give better images and cure of advanced cancer patients. Cancer-affine formulations of Tc-99m(V), Re-186(V) and Re-188(V)-DMSA are being studied for their future use in early diagnosis and follow-up, and for the systemic therapy of cancer which will show affinity for them. (author)

  10. Sociocultural factors and breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: implications for diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Dinah A; Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is on the rise in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and efforts at early diagnosis have not been very successful because the public has scant knowledge about the disease, a large percentage of breast cancer cases are diagnosed late and mainly rural SSA women's practice of breast self-examination is poor. In this paper, we argue that an examination of the social and cultural contexts of SSA that influence breast cancer diagnosis and management in the region is needed. We discuss the implications of sociocultural factors, such as gender roles and spirituality, on breast cancer diagnosis and management in SSA.

  11. Adjustment to cancer in the 8 years following diagnosis : A longitudinal study comparing cancer survivors with healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya; Ranchor, A.V; Sanderman, R.

    This longitudinal study examined the long-term impact of a diagnosis of cancer on physical and psychological functioning, by comparing 8-year cancer survivors (n = 206) to a randomly selected sample of similar-aged references without cancer (n = 120) in the Netherlands. Comparisons were made at

  12. CEA A BIOCHEMICAL MARKER FOR DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Prathibha; Vishnu Datt

    2016-01-01

    Serum tumor markers (TM) are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of cancer. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is one of the most widely investigated tumor markers in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Estimation of circulating tumor markers is a non- invasive quantitative method. Serum levels of CEA were studied for diagnosis and prognosis of gastrointestinal malignancies. 140 subjects were undertaken out of which 35 normal and remaining 105 were GI cancer patients. Ser...

  13. Breast Cancer Diagnosis using Artificial Neural Networks with Extreme Learning Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Prasetyo Utomo; Aan Kardiana; Rika Yuliwulandari

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of dead among women. Early detection followed by appropriate cancer treatment can reduce the deadly risk. Medical professionals can make mistakes while identifying a disease. The help of technology such as data mining and machine learning can substantially improve the diagnosis accuracy. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) has been widely used in intelligent breast cancer diagnosis. However, the standard Gradient-Based Back Propagation Artificial Neural Networks...

  14. Lived experiences of breast cancer survivors after diagnosis, treatment and beyond: qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Faustine; Jeanetta, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of breast cancer survivors has increased since 1990 due to advances in biomedical technology that lead to an increase in early diagnosis and treatment. Research on survivorship has focused on the psychological and treatment aspects of the disease. The goal of this study was focused on exploring the lived experiences of breast cancer survivors from diagnosis, treatment and beyond. Objective To understand the lived experiences of women who are breast cancer surviv...

  15. Age of diagnosis of breast cancer in china: almost 10 years earlier than in the United States and the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Kun; Li, Jing; Huang, Rong; Fan, Jin-Hu; Zheng, Rong-Shou; Zhang, Bao-Ning; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Qiao, You-Lin; Chen, Wan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe the age distribution of breast cancer diagnosis among Chinese females for comparison with the United States and the European Union, and provide evidence for the screening target population in China. Median age was estimated from hospital databases from 7 tertiary hospitals in China. Population-based data in China, United States and European Union was extracted from the National Central Cancer Registry, SEER program and GLOBOCAN 2008, respectively. Age-standardized distribution of breast cancer at diagnosis in the 3 areas was estimated based on the World Standard Population 2000. The median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was around 50 in China, nearly 10 years earlier than United States and European Union. The diagnosis age in China did not vary between subgroups of calendar year, region and pathological characteristics. With adjustment for population structure, median age of breast cancer at diagnosis was 50~54 in China, but 55~59 in United States and European Union. The median diagnosis age of female breast cancer is much earlier in China than in the United States and the European Union pointing to racial differences in genetics and lifestyle. Screening programs should start at an earlier age for Chinese women and age disparities between Chinese and Western women warrant further studies.

  16. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  17. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  18. Missed Opportunities for the Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Siminoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine patient and medical characteristics which predict a missed diagnostic opportunity (MDO for colorectal cancer (CRC. Methods. The sample consisted of 252 patients diagnosed with Stages 1–4 CRC who were diagnosed in the prior six months, had experienced symptoms prior to diagnosis, and were not diagnosed through routine screening. Systematic review of all medical records prior to patients’ diagnosis was conducted. An MDO was defined as a clinical encounter where, even in the presence of presumptive CRC symptoms, the CRC diagnostic process is not started. Results. 92 patients (36.5% experienced an MDO. Almost 80% of alternate diagnoses were other GI-GU diseases, including hemorrhoids and diverticulitis. Stomach pain, anemia, and constipation were the most common symptoms experienced by the MDO group. These symptoms, and weight loss and vomiting, were more likely to be noted in the charts of the MDO patients (P<0.04. Independent risk factors for MDO included age (<50 [OR = 2.29 (1.14–4.60, P=0.02] and female sex [OR = 2.19 (1.16–4.16, P=0.03]. Each additional physician seen, more than doubled the MDO risk [OR = 2.05 (1.53–2.74, P<0.001]. Conclusions. Females, younger patients, and those consulting more physicians were all more likely to experience an MDO. Continued increased training of physicians to enhance knowledge of who is vulnerable to CRC is needed in addition to an increased focus to adherence to screening recommendations.

  19. Diagnosing cancer in primary care: results from the National Cancer Diagnosis Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Ruth; McPhail, Sean; Witt, Jana; Shand, Brian; Abel, Gary A; Hiom, Sara; Rashbass, Jem; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Rubin, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Background Continual improvements in diagnostic processes are needed to minimise the proportion of patients with cancer who experience diagnostic delays. Clinical audit is a means of achieving this. Aim To characterise key aspects of the diagnostic process for cancer and to generate baseline measures for future re-audit. Design and setting Clinical audit of cancer diagnosis in general practices in England. Method Information on patient and tumour characteristics held in the English National Cancer Registry was supplemented by information from GPs in participating practices. Data items included diagnostic timepoints, patient characteristics, and clinical management. Results Data were collected on 17 042 patients with a new diagnosis of cancer during 2014 from 439 practices. Participating practices were similar to non-participating ones, particularly regarding population age, urban/rural location, and practice-based patient experience measures. The median diagnostic interval for all patients was 40 days (interquartile range [IQR] 15–86 days). Most patients were referred promptly (median primary care interval 5 days [IQR 0–27 days]). Where GPs deemed diagnostic delays to have occurred (22% of cases), patient, clinician, or system factors were responsible in 26%, 28%, and 34% of instances, respectively. Safety netting was recorded for 44% of patients. At least one primary care-led investigation was carried out for 45% of patients. Most patients (76%) had at least one existing comorbid condition; 21% had three or more. Conclusion The findings identify avenues for quality improvement activity and provide a baseline for future audit of the impact of 2015 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance on management and referral of suspected cancer. PMID:29255111

  20. Diagnosing cancer in primary care: results from the National Cancer Diagnosis Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Ruth; McPhail, Sean; Witt, Jana; Shand, Brian; Abel, Gary A; Hiom, Sara; Rashbass, Jem; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Rubin, Greg

    2018-01-01

    Continual improvements in diagnostic processes are needed to minimise the proportion of patients with cancer who experience diagnostic delays. Clinical audit is a means of achieving this. To characterise key aspects of the diagnostic process for cancer and to generate baseline measures for future re-audit. Clinical audit of cancer diagnosis in general practices in England. Information on patient and tumour characteristics held in the English National Cancer Registry was supplemented by information from GPs in participating practices. Data items included diagnostic timepoints, patient characteristics, and clinical management. Data were collected on 17 042 patients with a new diagnosis of cancer during 2014 from 439 practices. Participating practices were similar to non-participating ones, particularly regarding population age, urban/rural location, and practice-based patient experience measures. The median diagnostic interval for all patients was 40 days (interquartile range [IQR] 15-86 days). Most patients were referred promptly (median primary care interval 5 days [IQR 0-27 days]). Where GPs deemed diagnostic delays to have occurred (22% of cases), patient, clinician, or system factors were responsible in 26%, 28%, and 34% of instances, respectively. Safety netting was recorded for 44% of patients. At least one primary care-led investigation was carried out for 45% of patients. Most patients (76%) had at least one existing comorbid condition; 21% had three or more. The findings identify avenues for quality improvement activity and provide a baseline for future audit of the impact of 2015 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance on management and referral of suspected cancer. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  1. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sze Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The potential of genetic programming (GP on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. Method GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS. The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM and logistic regression (LR are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. Result The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341 when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Discussion Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  2. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Chang, Siow-Wee; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  3. Post diagnosis diet quality and colorectal cancer survival in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Kashambwa, Rutendo; Sato, Kaori; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Ogino, Shuji; Hu, Frank B; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary factors are known to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, however, their association with CRC survival is unclear. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between diet quality scores, dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. 1201 women diagnosed with stage I-III CRC between 1986 and 2008, were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire administered at least 6 months after diagnosis. We computed the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (DASH) and derived two dietary patterns, Western (unhealthy) and prudent (healthy), by principal component analysis for each woman. During follow-up, we documented 435 deaths, including 162 from CRC. After adjusting for potential confounders, only a higher AHEI-2010 score was significantly associated with lower overall mortality (HR comparing extreme quintiles = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.98, p trend = 0.01) as well as borderline significantly with lower risk of CRC mortality by the trend test (HR Q5 vs Q1 = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.43-1.21, p trend = 0.07). When AHEI-2010 components were examined separately, inverse associations for overall mortality were primarily accounted for by moderate alcohol intake (HR comparing abstainers vs 5-15 g/d = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.05-1.61) and lower intake of sugar sweetened beverages and fruit juices combined (HR for each additional serving = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23). No other diet quality score or dietary pattern was associated with overall or CRC-specific mortality. Higher AHEI-2010 score may be associated with lower overall mortality, moderate alcohol consumption and lower consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and juices combined appeared to account for most of the observed associations.

  4. Post diagnosis diet quality and colorectal cancer survival in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa T Fung

    Full Text Available Dietary factors are known to influence colorectal cancer (CRC risk, however, their association with CRC survival is unclear. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between diet quality scores, dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC survival.1201 women diagnosed with stage I-III CRC between 1986 and 2008, were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire administered at least 6 months after diagnosis. We computed the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (DASH and derived two dietary patterns, Western (unhealthy and prudent (healthy, by principal component analysis for each woman.During follow-up, we documented 435 deaths, including 162 from CRC. After adjusting for potential confounders, only a higher AHEI-2010 score was significantly associated with lower overall mortality (HR comparing extreme quintiles = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.98, p trend = 0.01 as well as borderline significantly with lower risk of CRC mortality by the trend test (HR Q5 vs Q1 = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.43-1.21, p trend = 0.07. When AHEI-2010 components were examined separately, inverse associations for overall mortality were primarily accounted for by moderate alcohol intake (HR comparing abstainers vs 5-15 g/d = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.05-1.61 and lower intake of sugar sweetened beverages and fruit juices combined (HR for each additional serving = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23. No other diet quality score or dietary pattern was associated with overall or CRC-specific mortality.Higher AHEI-2010 score may be associated with lower overall mortality, moderate alcohol consumption and lower consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and juices combined appeared to account for most of the observed associations.

  5. Applications of genetic programming in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzel, William P; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-02-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allow scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future.

  6. Diagnosis, surgical treatment and follow-up of thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacini, F.; Pinchera, A.; Vorontsova, T.; Demidchik, E.P.; Delange, F.; Reiners, C.; Schlumberger, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the activities and the results of the research carried out by the Centers participating to the JSP4 project, within the framework of the EU program on the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. The project was aimed to develop and to control the application of basic principles for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of thyroid carcinoma, with special attention to the peculiar requirement of children and adolescents. To this purpose, training in Western European Centers was offered to a number of scientists from Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Several official meetings were organized to share views and to discuss the progress of the project. A basic protocol for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of thyroid carcinoma has been developed and approved by all participating Centers. Hopefully, it will be applied to the new cases and to those already under monitoring. A large part of the protocol is dedicated to the post-surgical treatment with thyroid hormones for the suppression of TSH and with calcitriol for the management of surgical hypoparathyroidism. A detailed protocol to asses iodine deficiency and, eventually, to introduce a program of iodine supplementation has been proposed. The collection of control cases of childhood thyroid carcinoma in non-radiation exposed European countries has been initiated in Italy, France and Germany. This data will be used as control for the post-Chernobyl childhood thyroid carcinomas. Here is reported a preliminary comparison of the clinical and epidemiological features of almost all (n=368) radiation-exposed Belarus children who developed thyroid carcinoma (age at diagnosis < 16 years), with respect to 90 children of the same age group, who, in the past 20 years, have received treatment for thyroid carcinoma in two centers in Italy (Pisa and Rome). Finally, by molecular biology, genetic mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been found in several samples of thyroid carcinomas provided by the Belarus

  7. Ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Shcherbyina, O.V.; Yatsik, V.Yi.; Gladka, L.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the work is analysis of diagnostic possibilities of transrectal ultrasonography and PSA in differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. 142 patients have been investigated by transrectal ultrasonography. he transrectal ultrasonography and PSA are sensible tests in diagnosis of prostate cancer and in differential diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

  8. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate

  9. An expert support system for breast cancer diagnosis using color wavelet features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac Niwas, S; Palanisamy, P; Chibbar, Rajni; Zhang, W J

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis can be done through the pathologic assessments of breast tissue samples such as core needle biopsy technique. The result of analysis on this sample by pathologist is crucial for breast cancer patient. In this paper, nucleus of tissue samples are investigated after decomposition by means of the Log-Gabor wavelet on HSV color domain and an algorithm is developed to compute the color wavelet features. These features are used for breast cancer diagnosis using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier algorithm. The ability of properly trained SVM is to correctly classify patterns and make them particularly suitable for use in an expert system that aids in the diagnosis of cancer tissue samples. The results are compared with other multivariate classifiers such as Naïves Bayes classifier and Artificial Neural Network. The overall accuracy of the proposed method using SVM classifier will be further useful for automation in cancer diagnosis.

  10. Barriers and Explanatory Mechanisms of Delays in the Patient and Diagnosis Intervals of Care for Breast Cancer in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel; Miranda, Alfonso; Verduzco-Bustos, Guillermo

    2018-04-01

    Most breast cancer patients in low- and middle-income settings are diagnosed at advanced stages due to lengthy intervals of care. This study aimed to understand the mechanisms through which delays occur in the patient interval and diagnosis interval of care. We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 886 patients referred to four major public cancer hospitals in Mexico City. Based in a conceptual model of help-seeking behavior, a path analysis strategy was used to identify the relationships between explanatory factors of patient delay and diagnosis delay. The patient and the diagnosis intervals were greater than 3 months in 20% and 65% of participants, respectively. We present explanatory models for each interval and the interrelationship between the associated factors. The patient interval was longer among women who were single, interpreted their symptoms as not worrisome, concealed symptoms, and perceived a lack of financial resources and the difficulty of missing a day of work as barriers to seek care. These barriers were more commonly perceived among patients who were younger, had lower socioeconomic status, and lived outside of Mexico City. The diagnosis interval was longer among those who used several different health services prior to the cancer hospital and perceived medical errors in these services. More health services were used among those who perceived errors and long waiting times for appointments, and who first consulted private services. Our findings support the relevance of strengthening early cancer diagnosis strategies, especially the improvement of quality of primary care and expedited referral routes to cancer services. This study's findings suggest that policy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) should be directed toward reducing delays in diagnosis, before the implementation of mammography screening programs. The results suggest several factors susceptible to early diagnosis interventions. To reduce patient delays, the usually

  11. Effect of depression before breast cancer diagnosis on mortality among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoyun; Margolis, Karen L; Hendryx, Michael; Reeves, Katherine; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Weitlauf, Julie; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Caan, Bette; Qi, Lihong; Lane, Dorothy; Lavasani, Sayeh; Luo, Juhua

    2017-08-15

    Few previous studies investigating depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer and breast cancer-specific mortality have examined depression measured at more than 1 time point. This study investigated the effect of depression (combining depressive symptoms alone with antidepressant use) measured at 2 time points before the diagnosis of breast cancer on all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality among older postmenopausal women. A large prospective cohort, the Women's Health Initiative, was used. The study included 3095 women with incident breast cancer who had measures of depressive symptoms and antidepressant use before their diagnosis at the baseline and at year 3. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) between depression at the baseline, depression at year 3, and combinations of depression at these time points and all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality. Depression at year 3 before a breast cancer diagnosis was associated with higher all-cause mortality after adjustments for multiple covariates (HR, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.78). There was no statistically significant association of baseline depression and all-cause mortality or breast cancer-specific mortality whether or not depression was also present at year 3. In women with late-stage (regional- or distant-stage) breast cancer, newly developed depression at year 3 was significantly associated with both all-cause mortality (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.13-3.56) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.24-4.70). Women with newly developed depression before the diagnosis of breast cancer had a modestly but significantly increased risk for death from any cause and for death from breast cancer at a late stage. Cancer 2017;123:3107-15. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Preventing delayed diagnosis of cancer: clinicians’ views on main problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Lorainne Tudor; Papachristou, Nikolaos; Urch, Catherine; Majeed, Azeem; El–Khatib, Mona; Aylin, Paul; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip; Vincent, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Delayed diagnosis is a major contributing factor to the UK’s lower cancer survival compared to many European countries. In the UK, there is a significant national variation in early cancer diagnosis. Healthcare providers can offer an insight into local priorities for timely cancer diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to identify the main problems and solutions relating to delay cancer diagnosis according to cancer care clinicians. Methods We developed and implemented a new priority–setting approach called PRIORITIZE and invited North West London cancer care clinicians to identify and prioritize main causes for and solutions to delayed diagnosis of cancer care. Results Clinicians identified a number of concrete problems and solutions relating to delayed diagnosis of cancer. Raising public awareness, patient education as well as better access to specialist care and diagnostic testing were seen as the highest priorities. The identified suggestions focused mostly on the delays during referrals from primary to secondary care. Conclusions Many identified priorities were feasible, affordable and converged around common themes such as public awareness, care continuity and length of consultation. As a timely, proactive and scalable priority–setting approach, PRIORITZE could be implemented as a routine preventative system for determining patient safety issues by frontline staff. PMID:28028437

  13. Histoscanning and shear wave ultrasound elastography for prostate cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Amosov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The shear wave ultrasound elastography is a recently developed ultrasound-based method in the clinical practice, which allows the qualitative visual and quantitative measurements of tissue stiffness. In the 2010 this technology of the shear wave was called Shear Wave Elastograhpy. Due to the front of the shear waves the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the tissue stiffness is possible.Objective is to examine the efficacy of the shear wave ultrasound elastography in the evaluation of the prevalence of the oncological disease in patients with the prostate cancer and to compare the obtained results with the routine method X-ray diagnostics.Materials and methods. From the april 2015 in the I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University Urology Clinic there were conducted 314 shear wave ultrasound elastography examinations of the prostate. The ultrasound system Aixplorer® by SuperSonic Imagine was used. This system provides information provided by B-mode and shear wave ultrasound elastography mode. The transrectal echograms were made in 6 dimensions, so called Q-boxes (3 demensions in the every lobe on the segments from the base to the apex, according to the biopsy zone. The unit of measurement was the mean value in the kilopaskals (kPa. All the patients were randomized into 3 groups. There were 146 men with the possible prostate cancer in the first group (prospective study, 120 men with the certain diagnosis of the prostate cancer in the second group (retrospective study and 48 healthy men in the third group (control study. In all the patients of the first and the second groups the routine complete examination, including the prostate specific antigen (PSA level examination, digital rectal examination (DRE, doppler transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS, histoscanning and ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE, was conducted. In the 229 patients of the first and the second groups the prostatectomy with the

  14. Support vector machine for diagnosis cancer disease: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser H. Sweilam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machine has become an increasingly popular tool for machine learning tasks involving classification, regression or novelty detection. Training a support vector machine requires the solution of a very large quadratic programming problem. Traditional optimization methods cannot be directly applied due to memory restrictions. Up to now, several approaches exist for circumventing the above shortcomings and work well. Another learning algorithm, particle swarm optimization, Quantum-behave Particle Swarm for training SVM is introduced. Another approach named least square support vector machine (LSSVM and active set strategy are introduced. The obtained results by these methods are tested on a breast cancer dataset and compared with the exact solution model problem.

  15. Training Program in Biostatistics for Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Roderick

    1998-01-01

    The current training program terminates in the summer of 1998. We had originally planned to develop a training program in biostatistics for cancer research for submission to the National Cancer Institute (Task 9...

  16. [Backstage of a massive open online course (MOOC) on cancer diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardair, Charlotte; Bousquet, Guilhem; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; de Bazelaire, Cédric; de Cremoux, Patricia; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Sockeel, Marie; Battistella, Maxime; Calvani, Julien; Gervais, Jocelyne; Pottier, Yohann; Prévaut, Laurent; Sekri, Karima; Bertheau, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Massive open online course (or MOOC) is a new online and open access teaching approach aimed at unlimited participation and providing interactions among students and teaching staff. These academic courses, often still free, lead to the delivery of a certificate of attendance and could soon also deliver a diploma. The MOOC "Stratégies diagnostiques des cancers" will be hosted in autumn 2016 on the platform "France Université Numérique" and will have two levels of learners: students in the field of health and biology and the general public. This MOOC will also be integrated into the teaching program of medical students of Paris Diderot University and Paris 13 University. The educational objective of this MOOC is to convey to all participants an overview of the diagnostic steps of cancers and of the various medical specialties involved in this diagnosis. The second week of the MOOC, entitled "tumor samples, macroscopic and microscopic analysis", presents the pathology specialty with the technical treatment of tissue or cell samples and the basic elements of the tissue section analysis to get a diagnosis of benign or malignant tumor. After this MOOC, it is planned to assess the impact of this new modality of teaching the pathology specialty or pathology, especially by the general public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. New and chronic use of hypnotics after diagnosis with early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lærke Toftegård; Suppli, Nis Frederik Palm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine use and investigate factors associated with use of hypnotics the first year after a diagnosis with breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective registry based cohort study linking clinical data from the Danish Breast Cancer Group with the National Prescription Drug...... Database and other health and administrative registries. We included 26 082 women diagnosed with early breast cancer as first time primary cancer during 1996-2006. Use of hypnotics was measured as redeemed prescriptions in the first year after diagnosis of early breast cancer. Prior use of hypnotics.......21-1.42)] and use of antidepressants the year before breast cancer diagnosis [HR 1.97 (95% CI 1.85-2.10)]. CONCLUSION: This study detected a group of patients at great risk for initiating and increasing use of hypnotics and preventive and prophylactic mechanism should be investigated and initiated when this group...

  18. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Van De Poll-franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline; Van Herk-sukel, Myrthe P. P.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Rottmann, Nina; Horsbøl, Trine; Dalton, Susanne; Denollet, Johan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics in a

  19. Association of atopy and tentative diagnosis of skin cancer - results from occupational skin cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, I; Mohr, P; Zander, N; Fölster-Holst, R; Augustin, M

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between atopic conditions and carcinoma of the skin has been described inconsistently. Population-based data providing information on atopic diseases as well as on skin cancer are sparse. To determine the correlation between atopy and prevalence of precanceroses, non-melanoma skin cancer and malignant melanoma (MM), while taking into account known risk factors for skin cancer. Data from occupational skin cancer screenings were analysed in a cross-sectional study. Dermatologists performed whole body examinations and collected medical histories. Subjects comprised all employees (16-70 years) examined from 2006 to 2014. 'Atopy' was defined by clinical screening diagnosis and/or by participant-reported, pre-existing atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma or other specified allergies confirmed by a physician. Tentative screening diagnoses of skin cancer related to actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. The study cohort comprised 90 265 employees (mean age 43 ± 11 years, 58.5% male), 30.7% of whom were ever diagnosed with an atopic disease. Persons with atopic conditions recorded in their medical history and at the time of screening had a significantly lower prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and MM. After controlling for age, sex and relevant risk factors (skin type, childhood sun burns), atopy remained significantly protective against BCC (OR 0.77) and MM (OR 0.53). Design limitations of the study include that all findings of skin cancer were based on clinical examination only and must therefore be considered tentative diagnoses. Furthermore, owing to the cross-sectional study design, causal pathways cannot be proven. However, analyses of data from such a large and general population-based cohort afford valuable insights into the relationship between atopic diseases and skin cancer. They provide the grounds for prospective cohort studies to evaluate and dissect the underlying mechanism. © 2017

  20. Presentations to general practice before a cancer diagnosis in Victoria: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, K; Bishop, JF; Cross, HL; Chondros, P; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Emery, JD

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess variations in the number of general practitioner visits preceding a cancer diagnosis, and in the length of the interval between the patient first suspecting a problem and their seeing a hospital specialist. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data provided to the Cancer Patient Experience Survey (CPES; survey response rate, 37.7%) by 1552 patients with one of 19 cancer types and treated in one of five Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre hospitals, 1 October 20...

  1. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prostate Cancer Scholars Program is designed to encourage students from under-represented minority groups to enter graduate training and ultimately

  2. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  3. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoormans, Dounya; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics...... adjustment for depression, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical characteristics......., anxiety, and depression. By multivariable Cox regression analysis, we examined the risk associated with pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression for developing CVD after cancer diagnosis, adjusting for age, pharmaceutically treated hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus...

  4. Oral cancer calibration and diagnosis among professionals from the public health in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, José Carlos; da Silva, Renato Pereira; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem responsible for 13% of deaths worldwide in 2008 and screening programs can be useful to detect individuals more vulnerable to the disease, improving its prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oral cancer calibration (in lux and in vivo methodologies) and diagnosis processes performed by dental surgeons (DSs) of the public health system in São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-three oral cancer photographs were examined during in lux calibration, while 560 individuals were examined during in vivo calibration. Oral conditions were coded as "0 - sound tissues", "1 - buccal lesions without malignant potential" and "2 - buccal lesions with malignant potential". The final sample for oral cancer screening was composed of 336 individuals, age-range 40 years or older. Kappa values for interexaminer agreement were 0.67 and 0.45 for in lux and in vivo respectively. The accuracy of both methodologies was over 80%. Oral cancer screening revealed 48 healthy individuals, 273 oral lesions coded as "1" and 12 oral lesions coded as "2". In spite of the low reproducibility, the validity of the visual examination in oral cancer screening was satisfactory, showing its importance as part of preventive oral cancer programs and public health system campaigns.

  5. [Clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with non-invasive breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnijć, Zoran; Brkljacić, Boris; Drinković, Ivan; Jakić-Razumović, Jasminka; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Krajina, Zdenko; Margaritoni, Marko; Strnad, Marija; Sarcević, Bozena; Tomić, Snjezana; Zic, Rado

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Early diagnosis and more effective treatment of invasive breast cancer resulted in significant mortality reduction, improvement of survival and the quality of life of the patients. The management od non-invasive breast cancer, on the contrary, is still controversial and the problem of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of patients come to evidence. In the following text a multidisciplinary team of experts brings the first consensus guidelines aimed to standardize and optimize the criteria and management in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of non-invasive breast cancer patients in the Republic of Croatia.

  6. Ulcerative Cutaneous Lesions Synchronously Present with the Diagnosis of Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of patients with lung cancer that develop skin metastases is low. The diagnosis is usually made using clinical information and skin biopsy in patients with suspicious skin lesions and history of smoking or lung cancer. The prognosis for patients having lung cancer with skin metastasis is very poor. We describe findings in a 70-year-old man with lung cancer with skin metastases. Interestingly, multiple skin lesions were the first manifestation of the underlying lung cancer. The prognosis for patients having lung cancer with skin metastasis is thus very poor.

  7. Use of shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A; Saffari, N; Rus, G

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer remains as a major healthcare issue. Limitations in current diagnosis and treatment monitoring techniques imply that there is still a need for improvements. The efficacy of prostate cancer diagnosis is still low, generating under and over diagnoses. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation is an emerging treatment modality, which enables the noninvasive ablation of pathogenic tissue. Clinical trials are being carried out to evaluate its longterm efficacy as a focal treatment for prostate cancer. Successful treatment of prostate cancer using non-invasive modalities is critically dependent on accurate diagnostic means and is greatly benefited by a real-time monitoring system. While magnetic resonance imaging remains the gold standard for prostate imaging, its wider implementation for prostate cancer diagnosis remains prohibitively expensive. Conventional ultrasound is currently limited to guiding biopsy. Elastography techniques are emerging as a promising real-time imaging method, as cancer nodules are usually stiffer than adjacent healthy prostatic tissue. In this paper, a new transurethral approach is proposed, using shear waves for diagnosis and ablation monitoring of prostate cancer. A finite-difference time domain model is developed for studying the feasibility of the method, and an inverse problem technique based on genetic algorithms is proposed for reconstructing the location, size and stiffness parameters of the tumour. Preliminary results indicate that the use of shear waves for diagnosis and monitoring ablation of prostate cancer is feasible. (paper)

  8. [Four year follow-up of a screening program for prostate cancer in workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; Piñaga-Solé, Montserrat; Fernández-Fernández, Miguel; Belanger-Quintana, Diego; Gómez-Gallego, Félix

    2013-01-01

    To analyze our four-year follow-up experience (2008-2011) with a prostate cancer screening program offered to employees of a banking company. Data were obtained from the health examinations carried out by the bank's in-house occupational health service (with centers in Barcelona, Madrid and Valencia). PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood levels were measured and cases with high levels (>4 ng/ml) were followed through diagnosis and treatment, including a telephone survey of confirmed cases. Personal and occupational characteristics of the participants were analyzed as well. 750 workers (99% with administrative and/or commercial jobs) met the inclusion criteria for the screening program. Of these, 110 had elevated PSA levels on at least one occasion. The diagnosis of prostate cancer was confirmed in 21 cases. There were no associations between a diagnosis of cancer and the remaining analyzed variables. Urology and pathology records were retrieved for 76% of the contacted cases. The most frequent histological type was adenocarcinoma (98%), the most common Gleason grade at diagnosis was 6-7% (88%), and the majority of cases were treated surgically (90%).With respect to adverse effects, 48% of cases described erectile dysfunction and 33% reported urinary incontinence. In our program the observed prevalence of prostate cancer was above that expected (respectively, 21 confirmed cases vs. 12 expected). The identified cases unanimously expressed their support for the screening program. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  9. Fluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Breast Cancer Diagnosis During Core Needle Biopsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Changfang

    2007-01-01

    .... Both empirically based and model based approaches have been explored for the extraction of diagnostically useful information from the tissue spectra, as well as the diagnosis of breast cancer based...

  10. Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Breast Cancer: A Multi-Center Demonstrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Floyd, Carey

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus has been to gather data from multiple sites in order to verify and whether the artificial neural network computer aid to the diagnosis of breast cancer can be translated between locations...

  11. Infrared spectroscopy and microscopy in cancer research and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisola, Giuseppe; Sorio, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Since the middle of 20th century infrared (IR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR microspectroscopy) has been recognized as a non destructive, label free, highly sensitive and specific analytical method with many potential useful applications in different fields of biomedical research and in particular cancer research and diagnosis. Although many technological improvements have been made to facilitate biomedical applications of this powerful analytical technique, it has not yet properly come into the scientific background of many potential end users. Therefore, to achieve those fundamental objectives an interdisciplinary approach is needed with basic scientists, spectroscopists, biologists and clinicians who must effectively communicate and understand each other's requirements and challenges. In this review we aim at illustrating some principles of Fourier transform (FT) Infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy and microscopy (microFT-IR) as a useful method to interrogate molecules in specimen by mid-IR radiation. Penetrating into basics of molecular vibrations might help us to understand whether, when and how complementary information obtained by microFT-IR could become useful in our research and/or diagnostic activities. MicroFT-IR techniques allowing to acquire information about the molecular composition and structure of a sample within a micrometric scale in a matter of seconds will be illustrated as well as some limitations will be discussed. How biochemical, structural, and dynamical information about the systems can be obtained by bench top microFT-IR instrumentation will be also presented together with some methods to treat and interpret IR spectral data and applicative examples. The mid-IR absorbance spectrum is one of the most information-rich and concise way to represent the whole “… omics” of a cell and, as such, fits all the characteristics for the development of a clinically useful biomarker. PMID:22206042

  12. APPLICATION IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICALLY RESEARCH METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pulbere

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The actual problem of modern urology remains differential diagnostics of various diseases of the prostate gland. The purpose of the study. Increasing the effectiveness of differential diagnosis of diseases of the prostate. Materials and methods. In the biopsy specimens of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and prostate cancer (PCa, an immunohistochemical study of the production of the Ki-67 proliferation marker, matrix metalloproteinase-9, the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-1, and the distribution of collagen type IV was performed. Results. A moderate positive correlation was found between Gleason gradation and the cell proliferation index for Ki 67 (rs = 0.674 and a moderate negative correlation of Gleason gradation with the level of production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (rs = -0.660. A weak significant negative correlation was established between the level of proliferative cell activity and the production of  MMP-9 tumor cells (rs = -0.369. A significant decrease in the level of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in adenocarcinoma of different grades was revealed. The invasive properties of tumor cells, expressed in the destruction of collagen of the IV type of the basal membrane and connective tissue prostatic stroma, are mediated by the imbalance between MMP-9 and the protein blocking this enzyme - TIMP-1, whose production decreases in adenocarcinomas of different grades compared with BPH. Conclusions: 1. BPH is characterized by high production of MMP-9 type, which destroys the collagen of the basal membranes and stroma, the proteolytic action of which is blocked by the high content of TIMP-1.

  13. Ultrasonic diagnosis of hepatic metastases in patients with stomach cancer and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kye, Jong Sik; Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1987-01-01

    To assess the value of hepatic ultrasound in cancer patients, a prospective evaluation was performed by comparing the preoperative ultrasound report and surgeon's diagnosis at the time of operation in 86 patients with stomach cancer and 26 patients with colon cancer. In a total of 112 patients considered to have a metastasis free liver on ultrasound scanning 10 patients were turned out to have had hepatic metastasis at the time of laparotomy. Among these, 4 patients had miliary metastasis, 4 patients had nodular metastasis at the dome of the right hepatic lobe, and 2 patients had surface metastasis or direct invasion from the primary tumor. These observations suggest that false negative preoperative hepatic ultrasound scanning is 9% had this is considered due to small size of the metastatic lesions, and lesions roundabout the dome of the right hepatic lobe or surface metastasis. Thus one should keep in mind the possibility of miliary metastasis in cancer patient was has coarse hepatic echotexture. In addition, the hepatic dome as well as hepatic surfaces should be searched carefully as the lesions in these areas tend to be easily neglected by ultrasound

  14. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoormans, Dounya; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Pedersen, Susanne S; Rottmann, Nina; Horsbøl, Trine; Dalton, Susanne; Denollet, Johan

    2017-11-01

    To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics in a population-based observational study. Adult 1-year breast cancer survivors (n = 7227), diagnosed between 01-01-1999 and 12-31-2010, with no history of CVD, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Drug dispensing data were derived from the PHARMO Database Network and used as proxy for CVD, anxiety, and depression. By multivariable Cox regression analysis, we examined the risk associated with pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression for developing CVD after cancer diagnosis, adjusting for age, pharmaceutically treated hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus in the year prior to cancer diagnosis, tumor stage, and cancer treatment. During the 13-year follow-up period, 193 (3%) breast cancer survivors developed CVD. Women pharmaceutically treated for anxiety in the year prior to their cancer diagnosis had a 48% increased hazard for CVD [HR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.05-1.08] after full adjustment. This association was restricted to breast cancer survivors who were 65 years or younger. Depression was not associated with CVD risk [HR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.52-1.53]. Older age [HR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.05-1.08], hypertension [HR = 1.80; 95% CI 1.32-2.46], and hypercholesterolemia [HR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.15-2.33] were associated with an increased hazard for incident CVD, whereas hormone therapy [HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.42-0.83] was protective. Anxiety present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis increases the risk of incident CVD in 1-year breast cancer survivors, after adjustment for depression, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical characteristics.

  15. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  16. Special Section: Colorectal Cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are my risk factors for colon cancer? What can I do to reduce my risk of getting colon cancer? Photos: David Nash Former Globetrotter Star Recommends Early Screening Former Harlem Globetrotter David Nash, ...

  17. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to receptors...museums (art, natural history, and sports). In addition, there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application...there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with

  18. Predictors of psychological distress after diagnosis in breast cancer patients and patients with benign breast problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Noriko; Iwamitsu, Yumi; Kuranami, Masaru; Okazaki, Shigemi; Nakatani, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Watanabe, Masahiko; Miyaoka, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how age and psychological characteristics assessed prior to diagnosis could predict psychological distress in outpatients immediately after disclosure of their diagnosis. This is a longitudinal and prospective study, and participants were breast cancer patients and patients with benign breast problems (BBP). Patients were asked to complete questionnaires to determine levels of the following: trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), negative emotional suppression (Courtauld Emotional Control Scale), life stress events (Life Experiences Survey), and psychological distress (Profile of Mood Status) prior to diagnosis. They were asked to complete a questionnaire measuring psychological distress after being told their diagnosis. We analyzed a total of 38 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 95 women diagnosed with a BBP. A two-way analysis of variance (prior to, after diagnosis × cancer, benign) showed that psychological distress after diagnosis among breast cancer patients was significantly higher than in patients with a BBP. The multiple regression model accounted for a significant amount of variance in the breast cancer group (model adjusted R(2) = 0.545, p psychological distress after diagnosis, and might have prospects as a screening method for psychologically vulnerable women. Copyright © 2011 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The diagnosis of cancer in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery, repeat biopsy or specimen consultation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Stanek-Widera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA is the only diagnostic method that allows a preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. An unequivocal diagnosis of a malignant change is achievable only in cases in which all cytological criteria of carcinoma are met. The aim of the study was to evaluate the necessity of repeat thyroid FNA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma verified on consultative examination (CE. We analyzed cytology reports of thyroid FNA and CE that resulted in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Evaluation of the correlation of the cytological diagnosis with the histopathology report was based on data obtained after the surgery. Between 2010 and 2015 in the Institute of Oncology (IO there were 184 cancers diagnosed on CE or in thyroid FNA performed primarily in IO. Additionally, 74 patients were subjected to repeat biopsy after confirmation of cancer in CE. Histopathological diagnosis of cancer was obtained in 62 (100% cases that were doubly confirmed with cytological examination. The remaining 12 patients were operated on outside the institute. From 110 FNA primarily performed in the IO, histopathological verification was achievable in 92 cases, from which 92 (100% provided a confirmation of cancer, and the remaining 18 patients were operated on outside the institute. High (100% specificity of cancer diagnosis in FNA established primarily and verified on CE (second independent assessment indicates that repeat FNA in order to confirm the diagnosis is unnecessary.

  20. Time to diagnosis and treatment for cancer patients in the Netherlands: Room for improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Charles C W; van Erp, Nicole N F; Peeters, Petra P H M; de Wit, Niek N J

    2017-12-01

    Reducing the duration of the diagnostic cancer care pathway is intensively pursued. The aim of this study was to chart the diagnostic pathway for the five most common cancers in the Netherlands. A retrospective cohort study using cancer patients' anonymised primary care data (free text and coded) linked to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. We determined the median duration of the following: 1. Primary care intervals (IPCs): the first cancer-related general practitioner consultation to referral, 2. Referral intervals (IRs): referral to diagnosis, 3. Treatment intervals (ITs): diagnosis to treatment and the overarching intervals, 4. Diagnostic intervals (IDs): IPC and IR combined and 5. Health care intervals (IHCs): IPC, IR and IT combined. For 465, 309, 197, 237 and 149 patients diagnosed with breast-, colorectal-, lung-, prostate cancer and melanoma, respectively; median IPC, IR and ID durations were shortest for breast cancer and melanoma (ID duration 7 and 21 days, respectively), intermediate for lung- and colon cancer (ID duration 49 and 54 days) and the longest for prostate cancer (ID duration 137 days). For all cancers, the duration of intervals increased steeply for the 10-25% with longest durations. For colorectal cancer, increasing ID durations showed increasing proportions of time attributable to primary care (IPC). Approximately 10-25% of cancer patients show substantially long duration of diagnostic intervals. Reducing primary care delay seems particularly relevant for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microchimerism and survival after breast and colon cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article...

  2. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer in the Western Cape | Heyns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Early stage prostate cancer does not cause symptoms, and even metastatic disease may exist for years without causing symptoms or signs. Whereas early stage prostate cancer can be cured with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancer is ...

  3. Risk of breast cancer after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: Is preventive mastectomy warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Jacob; Giannakeas, Vasily; Karlan, Beth; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Rosen, Barry; McLaughlin, John; Risch, Harvey; Sun, Ping; Foulkes, William D; Neuhausen, Susan L; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Narod, Steven A

    2017-05-01

    Preventive breast surgery and MRI screening are offered to unaffected BRCA mutation carriers. The clinical benefit of these two modalities has not been evaluated among mutation carriers with a history of ovarian cancer. Thus, we sought to determine whether or not BRCA mutation carriers with ovarian cancer would benefit from preventive mastectomy or from MRI screening. First, the annual mortality rate for ovarian cancer patients was estimated for a cohort of 178 BRCA mutation carriers from Ontario, Canada. Next, the actuarial risk of developing breast cancer was estimated using an international registry of 509 BRCA mutation carriers with ovarian cancer. A series of simulations was conducted to evaluate the reduction in the probability of death (from all causes) associated with mastectomy and with MRI-based breast surveillance. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the impacts of mastectomy and MRI screening on breast cancer incidence as well as on all-cause mortality. Twenty (3.9%) of the 509 patients developed breast cancer within ten years following ovarian cancer diagnosis. The actuarial risk of developing breast cancer at ten years post-diagnosis, conditional on survival from ovarian cancer and other causes of mortality was 7.8%. Based on our simulation results, among all BRCA mutation-carrying patients diagnosed with stage III/IV ovarian cancer at age 50, the chance of dying before age 80 was reduced by less than 1% with MRI and by less than 2% with mastectomy. Greater improvements in survival with MRI or mastectomy were observed for women who had already survived 10years after ovarian cancer, and for women with stage I or II ovarian cancer. Among BRCA mutation-carrying ovarian cancer patients without a personal history of breast cancer, neither preventive mastectomy nor MRI screening is warranted, except for those who have survived ovarian cancer without recurrence for ten years and for those with early stage ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017

  4. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2009-01-01

    . The introduction of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration allows a preoperative diagnosis in patients with resectable cancer, as well as a confirmation of diagnosis before chemoradiotherapy for those that are not. This comprehensive review highlighted the diagnostic capabilities of EUS including the newest refinements...

  5. Critical analysis of imaging methods for the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, Maria Helena Siqueira

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer is a significant health problem. Early diagnosis of the disease is mandatory to increase the effectiveness of the treatment, to augment the chances of cure and to permit conservative surgery. The use of imaging methods is essential in the early diagnosis of the disease. Imaging methods advantages and disadvantages, use and limitations, specificity and sensitivity are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of Cancer-Proteogenome to Identify Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Hem D

    2017-10-25

    During the past century, our understanding of cancer diagnosis and treatment has been based on a monogenic approach, and as a consequence our knowledge of the clinical genetic underpinnings of cancer is incomplete. Since the completion of the human genome in 2003, it has steered us into therapeutic target discovery, enabling us to mine the genome using cutting edge proteogenomics tools. A number of novel and promising cancer targets have emerged from the genome project for diagnostics, therapeutics, and prognostic markers, which are being used to monitor response to cancer treatment. The heterogeneous nature of cancer has hindered progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to abnormal cellular growth. Since, the start of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the International Genome consortium projects, there has been tremendous progress in genome sequencing and immense numbers of cancer genomes have been completed, and this approach has transformed our understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancers. By employing Genomics and proteomics technologies, an immense amount of genomic data is being generated on clinical tumors, which has transformed the cancer landscape and has the potential to transform cancer diagnosis and prognosis. A complete molecular view of the cancer landscape is necessary for understanding the underlying mechanisms of cancer initiation to improve diagnosis and prognosis, which ultimately will lead to personalized treatment. Interestingly, cancer proteome analysis has also allowed us to identify biomarkers to monitor drug and radiation resistance in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Further, TCGA-funded studies have allowed for the genomic and transcriptomic characterization of targeted cancers, this analysis aiding the development of targeted therapies for highly lethal malignancy. High-throughput technologies, such as complete proteome, epigenome, protein-protein interaction, and pharmacogenomics

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of Cancer-Proteogenome to Identify Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem D. Shukla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past century, our understanding of cancer diagnosis and treatment has been based on a monogenic approach, and as a consequence our knowledge of the clinical genetic underpinnings of cancer is incomplete. Since the completion of the human genome in 2003, it has steered us into therapeutic target discovery, enabling us to mine the genome using cutting edge proteogenomics tools. A number of novel and promising cancer targets have emerged from the genome project for diagnostics, therapeutics, and prognostic markers, which are being used to monitor response to cancer treatment. The heterogeneous nature of cancer has hindered progress in understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to abnormal cellular growth. Since, the start of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, and the International Genome consortium projects, there has been tremendous progress in genome sequencing and immense numbers of cancer genomes have been completed, and this approach has transformed our understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of different types of cancers. By employing Genomics and proteomics technologies, an immense amount of genomic data is being generated on clinical tumors, which has transformed the cancer landscape and has the potential to transform cancer diagnosis and prognosis. A complete molecular view of the cancer landscape is necessary for understanding the underlying mechanisms of cancer initiation to improve diagnosis and prognosis, which ultimately will lead to personalized treatment. Interestingly, cancer proteome analysis has also allowed us to identify biomarkers to monitor drug and radiation resistance in patients undergoing cancer treatment. Further, TCGA-funded studies have allowed for the genomic and transcriptomic characterization of targeted cancers, this analysis aiding the development of targeted therapies for highly lethal malignancy. High-throughput technologies, such as complete proteome, epigenome, protein–protein interaction

  8. Raman spectral feature selection using ant colony optimization for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahzadeh, Omid; Dehghani-Bidgoli, Zohreh; Assarian, Mohammad

    2018-06-04

    Pathology as a common diagnostic test of cancer is an invasive, time-consuming, and partially subjective method. Therefore, optical techniques, especially Raman spectroscopy, have attracted the attention of cancer diagnosis researchers. However, as Raman spectra contain numerous peaks involved in molecular bounds of the sample, finding the best features related to cancerous changes can improve the accuracy of diagnosis in this method. The present research attempted to improve the power of Raman-based cancer diagnosis by finding the best Raman features using the ACO algorithm. In the present research, 49 spectra were measured from normal, benign, and cancerous breast tissue samples using a 785-nm micro-Raman system. After preprocessing for removal of noise and background fluorescence, the intensity of 12 important Raman bands of the biological samples was extracted as features of each spectrum. Then, the ACO algorithm was applied to find the optimum features for diagnosis. As the results demonstrated, by selecting five features, the classification accuracy of the normal, benign, and cancerous groups increased by 14% and reached 87.7%. ACO feature selection can improve the diagnostic accuracy of Raman-based diagnostic models. In the present study, features corresponding to ν(C-C) αhelix proline, valine (910-940), νs(C-C) skeletal lipids (1110-1130), and δ(CH2)/δ(CH3) proteins (1445-1460) were selected as the best features in cancer diagnosis.

  9. A Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Breast Cancer Combining Digital Mammography and Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Huang, "Breast cancer diagnosis using self-organizing map for sonography." Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26, 405 (2000). 20 K. Horsch, M.L. Giger, L.A. Venta ...L.A. Venta , "Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography." Acad Radiol 11, 272 (2004). 22 W. Chen...418. 27. Horsch K, Giger ML, Vyborny CJ, Venta LA. Performance of computer-aided diagnosis in the interpretation of lesions on breast sonography

  10. Psychological aspects of the cancer patients' education: thoughts, feelings, behavior and body reactions of patients faced with diagnosis of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klikovac, T; Djurdjevic, A

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of cancer diagnosis on several psychological dimensions, this study was undertaken with the aim to understand, identify and document the psychological responses of cancer patients - their common thoughts, feelings, body sensations and behavior when they faced the cancer diagnosis. The sample consisted of 80 patients who attended psychological lectures during the implementation of the European Educational Programme (EEP) "Learning to live with cancer". At the beginning of the lectures, the patients were asked to fulfill the self-describing questionnaire with 4 open questions: "Describe your common thoughts, feelings, behavior, and body reactions in the first 6 weeks when you learned that you were affected by cancer". A significant proportion of patients reported disease denial (65%) and reexamination in relation to past life experiences, stressful events and bad habits (60%). Depressive feelings and disappointment were reported by 90% of the patients, while 85% of them reported fear, hopelessness and emptiness. They also reported sadness (70%), anger and anxiety (65%), nervousness and irritability (90%). Positive thoughts and attitude in the sense of optimism concerning a successful treatment outcome were reported by 20% and 15% of patients, respectively. The diagnosis of cancer and cancer treatment can cause distress, emotional turmoil and different psychosocial disorders. Taking into consideration different psychological reactions of cancer patients can be helpful for organizing adequate psycho-educational and psychosocial support, and psychotherapy for cancer patients and their families.

  11. Three cases of thyroid cancer following the diagnosis of testicular cancer: treatment-related complication or genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliopoulou, Pavlina; Bowers, Sarah Pauline; Gibson, Sarah; White, Jeff; Reed, Nick

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of second primary thyroid cancer in subjects diagnosed and treated for testicular cancer is raised. This finding is strongly associated to treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and it is explained by their mutagenic effect. On the other hand, inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes inducing both testicular and thyroid cancers denote that these tumours might share common genomic aberrations. We herein present our experience with three cases of metachronous development of thyroid cancer after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer in our tertiary cancer centre. Our case report contributes to the limited available literature on such findings and aims to raise awareness of the cancer physicians treating these particular tumour types. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Evaluation of the potential benefit of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for lung cancer screening using photofluorography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Doi, Kunio; Kano, Akiko.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential benefit of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in lung cancer screenings using photofluorographic films, we performed an observer test with 12 radiologists. We used 60 photofluorographic films obtained from a lung cancer screening program in Yamaguchi Prefecture (30 contained cancerous nodules and 30 had no nodules). In these cases, our current automated detection scheme achieved a sensitivity of 80%, but yielded an average of 11 false-positives per image. The observer study consisted of three viewing conditions: 1) only the original image (single reading), 2) the original image and computer output obtained from the current CAD scheme (CAD 1), 3) the original image and computer output obtained from a simulated improved CAD scheme with the same 80% true-positive rate, but with an average of one false-positive per image (CAD 2). Compared with double reading using independent interpretations, which is based on a higher score between two single readings, CAD 2 was more sensitive in subtle cases. The specificity of CAD was superior to that of double reading. Although CAD 1 (Az=0.805) was inferior to double reading (Az=0.837) in terms of the ROC curve, CAD 2 (Az=0.872) significantly improved the ROC curve and also significantly reduced observation time (p<0.05). If the number of false positives can be reduced, computer-aided diagnosis may play an important role in lung cancer screening programs. (author)

  13. Predictive values of symptoms in relation to cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnik, Ivan; Andersen, John Sahl

    a manual describing the symptoms that should engender reasonable suspicion of malignancy (“alarm symptoms”) to the general practitioner. Objectives: To investigate the evidence in the literature of the predictive value (PPV) placed on the”alarm symptoms” for colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer...... years (6,6%-21,2%), but much lower in younger age groups. ”Change in bowel habits” and ”Significant general symptoms” are more uncertain (3,5%-8,5%). Breast cancer: ”Palpable suspect tumor” is well supported (8,1%-24%). The predictive value of ”Pitting of the skin”, ”Papil-areola eczema......Background/significance: Poorer prognosis for cancer patients in Denmark than in comparable countries has been shown and contributed to the introduction of accelerated diagnostic trajectories for patients suspicious for cancer in 2008. For all types of cancers the National Board of Health developed...

  14. Sexuality after a cancer diagnosis: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-12-15

    This study explored differences in sexual activity, function, and concerns between cancer survivors and cancer-free controls in a population-based study. The data were from 2982 men and 3708 women who were 50 years old or older and were participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual well-being was assessed with the Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire, and cancer diagnoses were self-reported. There were no differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of sexual activity (76.0% vs 78.5% for men and 58.2% vs 55.5% for women) or sexual function. Men and women with cancer diagnoses were more dissatisfied with their sex lives than controls (age-adjusted percentages: 30.9% vs 19.8% for men [P = .023] and 18.2% vs 11.8% for women [P = .034]), and women with cancer were more concerned about levels of sexual desire (10.2% vs 7.1%; P = .006). Women diagnosed sexual desire (14.8% vs 7.1%; P = .007) and orgasmic experience (17.6% vs 7.1%; P = .042) than controls, but there were no differences in men. Self-reports of sexual activity and functioning in older people with cancer are broadly comparable to age-matched, cancer-free controls. There is a need to identify the causes of sexual dissatisfaction among long-term cancer survivors despite apparently normal levels of sexual activity and function for their age. The development of interventions addressing low sexual desire and problems with sexual functioning in women is also important and may be particularly relevant for cancer survivors after treatment. Cancer 2016;122:3883-3891. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  15. Waiting Time from Diagnosis to Treatment has no Impact on Survival in Patients with Esophageal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.; Leeftink, Anne Greetje; van Rossum, P.S.N.; Siesling, Sabine; van Hillegersberg, R.; Ruurda, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Waiting time from diagnosis to treatment has emerged as an important quality indicator in cancer care. This study was designed to determine the impact of waiting time on long-term outcome of patients with esophageal cancer who are treated with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery or

  16. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis: stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. METHODS: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with

  17. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis : stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Methods: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with

  18. Feature selection using genetic algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis: experiment on three different datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalaei, Shokoufeh; Shahraki, Hadi; Rowhanimanesh, Alireza; Eslami, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses feature selection for breast cancer diagnosis. The present process uses a wrapper approach using GA-based on feature selection and PS-classifier. The results of experiment show that the proposed model is comparable to the other models on Wisconsin breast cancer datasets. To

  19. The role of neuropsychological functioning in cancer survivors' return to work one year after diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; de Boer, Angela; Spelten, Evelien; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Verbeek, Jos H. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and the ability to work in cancer survivors. Methods: The study involved a consecutive cohort of 45 patients who had received a primary diagnosis of cancer, were gainfully employed at

  20. Impact of Urban Neighborhood Disadvantage on Late Stage Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pam Baker; Cohn, Wendy F; Camacho, Fabian; Edwards, Brandy L; Sturz, Vanessa N; Schroen, Anneke T

    2017-04-01

    Research suggests that residents of inner-city urban neighborhoods have higher rates of late stage cancer diagnosis. Identifying urban neighborhoods with high rates of both concentrated disadvantage and late stage cancer diagnosis may assist health care providers to target screening interventions to reduce disparities. The purposes of this study were to (1) create an index to evaluate concentrated disadvantage (CD) using non-racial measures of poverty, (2) determine the impact of neighborhood CD on late stage breast cancer diagnosis in US cities, and (3) to understand the role of obesity on this relationship. We used census block group- (CBG) level poverty indicators from five Virginia cities to develop the index. Breast cancer cases of women aged 18-65 who lived in the five cities were identified from the 2000-2012 Virginia Cancer Registry. A logistic regression model with random intercept was used to evaluate the impact of disadvantage on late stage breast cancer diagnosis. CBG-level maps were developed to geographically identify neighborhoods with both high rates of CD and late breast cancer staging. Over 900 CBGs and 6000 breast cases were included. Global fit of the concentrated disadvantage model was acceptable. The effect of disadvantage on late stage was significant (OR = 1.0083, p = 0.032). Inner-city poverty impacts risk of late stage breast cancer diagnosis. Area-level obesity is highly correlated with neighborhood poverty (ρ = 0.74, p diagnosis for urban poor and for minorities living in these underserved neighborhoods, but more study is needed to understanding the complex relationship between concentrated neighborhood poverty, obesity, and late stage diagnosis.

  1. Use of 67Ga citrate in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Zajtseva, T.I.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Abramov, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A study was of the potentialities of 67 Ga citrate in the diagnosis of lung cancer, in differentiation from benign tumors and chronic inflammatory processes of the lungs. A total of 101 lung cancer patients were examined, of them 64 with central, and 37 with peripheral cancer. The results of radionuclide studies were correlated with those of surgery and with morphological findings. It has been established that in central cancer scintigraphy with 67 Ga citrate gives positive results in 87% of cases, and in peripheral cancer in 89%. This method is of great value for the diagnosis of cancer metastases to the mediastinal lymph nodes. No correlation between the intensity of 67 Ga citrate accumulation in lung tumors and their histological structure has been revealed [ru

  2. Safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of 14 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azim, Hatem A; Santoro, Luigi; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Due to the rising trend of delaying pregnancy to later in life, more women are diagnosed with breast cancer before completing their families. Therefore, enquiry into the feasibility and safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis is on the rise. Available evidence suggests that women...... with a history of breast cancer are frequently advised against future conception for fear that pregnancy could adversely affect their breast cancer outcome. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to understand the effect of pregnancy on overall survival of women with a history of breast cancer....

  3. Nanoscale nuclear architecture for cancer diagnosis by spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin; Bista, Rajan K.; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Qiu, Wei; Staton, Kevin D.; Zhang, Lin; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Brand, Randall E.; Liu, Yang

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in nuclear architecture are the hallmark diagnostic characteristic of cancer cells. In this work, we show that the nuclear architectural characteristics quantified by spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), is more sensitive for the identification of cancer cells than conventional cytopathology. We demonstrated the importance of nuclear architectural characteristics in both an animal model of intestinal carcinogenesis - APC/Min mouse model and human cytology specimens with colorectal cancer by identifying cancer from cytologically noncancerous appearing cells. The determination of nanoscale nuclear architecture using this simple and practical optical instrument is a significant advance towards cancer diagnosis.

  4. Safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis: a meta-analysis of 14 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azim, Hatem A; Santoro, Luigi; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    with a history of breast cancer are frequently advised against future conception for fear that pregnancy could adversely affect their breast cancer outcome. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to understand the effect of pregnancy on overall survival of women with a history of breast cancer.......Due to the rising trend of delaying pregnancy to later in life, more women are diagnosed with breast cancer before completing their families. Therefore, enquiry into the feasibility and safety of pregnancy following breast cancer diagnosis is on the rise. Available evidence suggests that women...

  5. Factors influencing diagnosis delay of advanced breast cancer in Moroccan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghous, A; Rais, F; Ahid, S; Benhmidou, N; Bellahamou, K; Loughlimi, H; Marnouche, E; Elmajjaoui, S; Elkacemi, H; Kebdani, T; Benjaafar, N

    2016-06-07

    Delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer in symptomatic women of 3 months or more is associated with advanced stage and low survival. We conducted this study to learn more about the extent and reasons behind diagnosis delay of advanced breast cancer in Moroccan women. A group of patients with advanced breast cancer were interviewed at the National Institute of Oncology in Rabat during the period from February to December 2014. Diagnosis delay was devised into patient delay and system delay. Patient delay was defined as time from first symptoms until first medical consultation. System delay was defined as time from first presentation to a health care provider until definite diagnosis or treatment. Prospective information and clinical data were collected on a form during an interview with each patient and from medical records. In all, 137 patients were interviewed. The mean age of women was 48.3 ± 10.4 years. The median of consultation time was 6[4,12] months and the median of diagnosis time was 1[1,3] months. Diagnosis delay was associated to a personal reason in 96 (70.1 %) patients and to a medical reason in 19 (13.9 %) patients. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: symptoms were not considered serious in 66 (55.9 %) patients; traditional therapy was applied in 15 (12.7 %) patients and fear of cancer diagnosis and/or treatment in 14 (11.9 %) patients. A use of traditional methods was significantly associated with rural residence and far away from basic health center (p = 0.000). Paradoxically, a family history of breast cancer was significantly higher in who report a fear of cancer diagnosis and/or treatment to diagnosis delay (p Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Morocco. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer information in our populations and training of general practitioners to reduce advanced breast cancer by

  6. Chronic and episodic stress predict physical symptom bother following breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren N; Bauer, Margaret R; Wiley, Joshua F; Hammen, Constance; Krull, Jennifer L; Crespi, Catherine M; Weihs, Karen L; Stanton, Annette L

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer patients often experience adverse physical side effects of medical treatments. According to the biobehavioral model of cancer stress and disease, life stress during diagnosis and treatment may negatively influence the trajectory of women's physical health-related adjustment to breast cancer. This longitudinal study examined chronic and episodic stress as predictors of bothersome physical symptoms during the year after breast cancer diagnosis. Women diagnosed with breast cancer in the previous 4 months (N = 460) completed a life stress interview for contextual assessment of chronic and episodic stress severity at study entry and 9 months later. Physical symptom bother (e.g., pain, fatigue) was measured at study entry, every 6 weeks through 6 months, and at nine and 12 months. In multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) analyses, both chronic stress and episodic stress occurring shortly after diagnosis predicted greater physical symptom bother over the study period. Episodic stress reported to have occurred prior to diagnosis did not predict symptom bother in MSEM analyses, and the interaction between chronic and episodic stress on symptom bother was not significant. Results suggest that ongoing chronic stress and episodic stress occurring shortly after breast cancer diagnosis are important predictors of bothersome symptoms during and after cancer treatment. Screening for chronic stress and recent stressful life events in the months following diagnosis may help to identify breast cancer patients at risk for persistent and bothersome physical symptoms. Interventions to prevent or ameliorate treatment-related physical symptoms may confer added benefit by addressing ongoing non-cancer-related stress in women's lives.

  7. The value of imaging examinations in diagnosis and curative effect evaluation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiaotian; Zhang Yongxue

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious impact on women's physical and mental health and a life-threatening common disease. Imaging examinations have great significances in diagnosing and evaluating curative effect on breast cancer. This article aims to introduce and comprehensive the value of diagnosis and curative effect evaluation of breast cancer in the context of imaging examinations (ultrasonography, mammography, breast CT, breast MRI, breast 99 Tc m -MIBI imaging, PET, PET-CT, etc). (authors)

  8. Color model comparative analysis for breast cancer diagnosis using H and E stained images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyu; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    2015-03-01

    Digital cancer diagnosis is a research realm where signal processing techniques are used to analyze and to classify color histopathology images. Different from grayscale image analysis of magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray, colors in histopathology images convey large amount of histological information and thus play significant role in cancer diagnosis. Though color information is widely used in histopathology works, as today, there is few study on color model selections for feature extraction in cancer diagnosis schemes. This paper addresses the problem of color space selection for digital cancer classification using H and E stained images, and investigates the effectiveness of various color models (RGB, HSV, CIE L*a*b*, and stain-dependent H and E decomposition model) in breast cancer diagnosis. Particularly, we build a diagnosis framework as a comparison benchmark and take specific concerns of medical decision systems into account in evaluation. The evaluation methodologies include feature discriminate power evaluation and final diagnosis performance comparison. Experimentation on a publicly accessible histopathology image set suggests that the H and E decomposition model outperforms other assessed color spaces. For reasons behind various performance of color spaces, our analysis via mutual information estimation demonstrates that color components in the H and E model are less dependent, and thus most feature discriminate power is collected in one channel instead of spreading out among channels in other color spaces.

  9. Diagnosis of malignant tumors of female breast cancer by transmission optical tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Pyanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature on diagnostic systems for the detection of breast cancer by optical tomography was presented. The actuality of the method of transmission of optical tomography and its advantages over existing methods of medical diagnosis of cancer have been substanti- ated. We have analyzed tomographic systems used for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The basic advantages and disadvantages of tomograph- ic systems using various types of radiation have been indicated. The results of review can be used in the development of technique for optical transmission tomography.

  10. Sickness Absence and Disability Pension After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A 5-Year Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Bränström, Richard; Nilsson, Kerstin; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To explore future diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer. Also, to examine associations with disease-related and sociodemographic factors among those with breast cancer. Methods Longitudinal register data on 3,547 women living in Sweden (age 20 to 65 years) who were first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2005, and a matched comparison cohort (n = 14,188), were analyzed for the annual prevalence of diagnosis-specific sickness absence and disability pension over 5 years. Logistic regressions were used to explore associations of disease-related and sociodemographic factors with future sickness absence and disability pension among women with breast cancer. Results Immediately after being diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of women with sickness absence was high but decreased continuously from the 1st through 5th year after diagnosis (71%, 40%, 30%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). In comparison, the range for women without breast cancer was 17% to 11%, respectively. The higher prevalence of sickness absence after breast cancer was mainly a result of breast cancer diagnosis, not a mental diagnosis, or other somatic diagnoses. Advanced cancer at diagnosis, > 90 days sickness absence before diagnosis, low education, and being born outside Sweden were associated with higher odds ratios for sickness absence and disability pension (odds ratio range, 1.40 to 6.45). Conclusion The level of sickness absence increased substantially in women with breast cancer during the first year after diagnosis and approached the level of breast cancer-free women in the following years; however, even in the first year, most women were not on sickness absence for a substantial time, and even in high-risk groups, many were not on sickness absence or disability pension in the following years. Information about relatively low future sickness absence and disability pension levels can be used by

  11. Application of nanodimensional particles and aluminum hydroxide nanostructures for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, M. S.; Fomenko, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Nanoparticles and nanostructured materials are one of the most promising developments for cancer therapy. Gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles based on iron and its oxides and other metal oxides have been widely used in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Much less researchers' attention has been paid to nanoparticles and nanostructures based on aluminum oxides and hydroxides as materials for cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, recent investigations have shown promising results regarding these objects. Here, we review the antitumor results obtained with different aluminum oxide/hydroxide nanoparticles and nanostructures.

  12. Exosomes in diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jun; Ding, Meng; Xu, Kai; Yang, Chunhua; Mao, Li-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the ...

  13. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  14. EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF SKIN CANCER USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Birajdar Yogesh; Rengaprabhu P

    2017-01-01

    The proposed work is to present an approach to easily detect the skin cancer and classify into benign and malignant classes differentiating with the wounds. The skin cancer occurs for many people in some regions of the countries like Australia & New Zealand where the sunlight is difficult to reach during winters. Thus the deficiency of Vitamin D causes skin cancer for the people dwelling in such regions. Self-assessment is being encouraged in such cities to detect the skin cancers in early st...

  15. Lynch Syndrome: Female Genital Tract Cancer Diagnosis and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne M; Longacre, Teri A

    2016-06-01

    Lynch syndrome is responsible for approximately 5% of endometrial cancers and 1% of ovarian cancers. The molecular basis for Lynch syndrome is a heritable functional deficiency in the DNA mismatch repair system, typically due to a germline mutation. This review discusses the rationales and relative merits of current Lynch syndrome screening tests for endometrial and ovarian cancers and provides pathologists with an informed algorithmic approach to Lynch syndrome testing in gynecologic cancers. Pitfalls in test interpretation and strategies to resolve discordant test results are presented. The potential role for next-generation sequencing panels in future screening efforts is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Geographic Variations of Colorectal and Breast Cancer Late-Stage Diagnosis and the Effects of Neighborhood-Level Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yan; Wimberly, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the geographic variations of late-stage diagnosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) and breast cancer as well as to investigate the effects of 3 neighborhood-level factors-socioeconomic deprivation, urban/rural residence, and spatial accessibility to health care-on the late-stage risks. This study used population-based South Dakota cancer registry data from 2001 to 2012. A total of 4,878 CRC cases and 6,418 breast cancer cases were included in the analyses. Two-level logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk of late-stage CRC and breast cancer. For CRC, there was a small geographic variation across census tracts in late-stage diagnosis, and residing in isolated small rural areas was significantly associated with late-stage risk. However, this association became nonsignificant after adjusting for census-tract level socioeconomic deprivation. Socioeconomic deprivation was an independent predictor of CRC late-stage risk, and it explained the elevated risk among American Indians. No relationship was found between spatial accessibility and CRC late-stage risk. For breast cancer, no geographic variation in the late-stage diagnosis was observed across census tracts, and none of the 3 neighborhood-level factors was significantly associated with late-stage risk. Results suggested that socioeconomic deprivation, rather than spatial accessibility, contributed to CRC late-stage risks in South Dakota as a rural state. CRC intervention programs could be developed to target isolated small rural areas, socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, as well as American Indians residing in these areas. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  17. The association between socioeconomic status and tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known predictor of survival for several cancers and it has been suggested that SES differences affecting tumour stage at diagnosis may be the most important explanatory factor for this. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated SES...... differences in tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer. In a pooled analysis, we investigated whether SES as represented by level of education is predictive for advanced tumour stage at diagnosis of ovarian cancer, overall and by histotype. The effect of cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI......) on the association was also evaluated. METHODS: From 18 case-control studies, we obtained information on 10,601 women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer. Study specific odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models and combined into a pooled...

  18. Nutritional status at diagnosis in children with cancer. 2. An assessment by arm anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald; Collins, Laura; Nayiager, Trishana; Doring, Nancy; Kennedy, Charlene; Halton, Jacqueline; Walker, Scott; Sala, Alessandra; Webber, Colin

    2011-04-01

    Assessment of nutritional status in children with cancer is important but measures based on weight can be problematic at diagnosis, especially in those with advanced disease. Likewise, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be confounded by other radiological procedures and is not commonly available in low-income countries where most children with cancer live. Arm anthropometry is not subject to these constraints. In a study sample of 99 Canadian patients with cancer at diagnosis, mid-upper arm circumference correlated well with lean body mass as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry but triceps skin fold thickness was a poor predictor of fat mass. Arm anthropometry can be a useful tool for the measurement of nutritional status in children with cancer. However, further studies, particularly in low-income countries and in children with solid tumors at diagnosis, are required to determine the full extent of its utility.

  19. Psychological turmoil: Anxiety and depression in individuals after receiving a breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraim, N. L.

    2006-01-01

    A possible diagnosis of any form of cancer is every person's worst nightmare. Primarily among women, the most feared cancer diagnosis is breast cancer. With the development of modern technology, a variety of treatments are available; however, these treatments are not without side effects. Receiving the diagnosis initiates the development of psychological upheaval within the person. The modality and amount of treatment of treatment as well as the amount of social support the individual receives plays an important role in the person's survival throughout this disease. The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an overview of the psychological turmoil experienced by individual's diagnosed with breast cancer. Data for this paper was collected via electronic databases and internet sources

  20. The nature and correlates of change in depressive symptoms with cancer diagnosis: reaction and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Frank J; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam

    2013-06-01

    Major life events trigger change processes in mental health. We examined how depressive symptoms change in conjunction with cancer diagnosis during adulthood and old age, and whether sociodemographic variables, cognitive and health resources, and cancer-specific mortality risks moderate event-related reaction and adaptation. Specifically, we applied multiphase growth models to prospective longitudinal data from 2,848 participants (age at diagnosis: M = 69, SD = 9.91; 46% women) in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who reported receiving a cancer diagnosis while enrolled in the study. On average, individuals experienced a significant increase in depressive symptoms within 2 years of cancer diagnosis, still-elevated levels 2 years postdiagnosis, and smaller increases in depressive symptoms postdiagnosis relative to the increases observed prediagnosis. Better memory and lower cancer-specific mortality risks were protective against increases in depressive symptoms within 2 years of diagnosis and were associated with reporting fewer depressive symptoms 2 years postdiagnosis. Findings suggest that diagnosis-related changes in depressive symptoms are typically characterized by a multiphase pattern, but tremendous between-person differences also emerged within each phase. Follow-up analyses comparing a matched group (N = 2,272) who did not experience cancer provided an additional layer of evidence supporting our inferences. Results indicate that, on average, people adapt and adjust to the challenges accompanying a cancer diagnosis, and illustrate the utility of using natural experiments such as major life events as a paradigm for studying developmental change processes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Detection of Methylated Circulating DNA as Noninvasive Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Isabella Wai Yin; Shin, Vivian Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, breast cancer is the most common female cancer, and is induced by a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic risk factors. Despite the advancement of imaging techniques, invasive sampling of breast epithelial cells is the only definitive diagnostic procedure for patients with breast cancer. To date, molecular biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity for the screening and early detection of breast cancer are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the detection of methylated circulating cell-free DNA in the peripheral blood of patients with cancer may be a promising quantitative and noninvasive method for cancer diagnosis. Methylation detection based on a multi-gene panel, rather than on the methylation status of a single gene, may be used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer screening. In this review, the results of 14 relevant studies, investigating the efficacy of cell-free DNA methylation screening for breast cancer diagnosis, have been summarized. The genetic risk factors for breast cancer, the methods used for breast cancer detection, and the techniques and limitations related to the detection of cell-free DNA methylation status, have also been reviewed and discussed. From this review, we conclude that the analysis of peripheral blood or other samples to detect differentially methylated cell-free DNA is a promising technique for use in clinical settings, and may improve the sensitivity of screening for both, early detection and disease relapse, and thus improve the future prognosis of patients with breast cancer. PMID:28382090

  2. Socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer survival: relation to stage at diagnosis, treatment and race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xue

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented lower breast cancer survival among women with lower socioeconomic status (SES in the United States. In this study, I examined the extent to which socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer survival was explained by stage at diagnosis, treatment, race and rural/urban residence using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER data. Methods Women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1998-2002 in the 13 SEER cancer registry areas were followed-up to the end of 2005. The association between an area-based measure of SES and cause-specific five-year survival was estimated using Cox regression models. Six models were used to assess the extent to which SES differences in survival were explained by clinical and demographical factors. The base model estimated the hazard ratio (HR by SES only and then additional adjustments were made sequentially for: 1 age and year of diagnosis; 2 stage at diagnosis; 3 first course treatment; 4 race; and 5 rural/urban residence. Results An inverse association was found between SES and risk of dying from breast cancer (p Conclusion Stage at diagnosis, first course treatment and race explained most of the socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer survival. Targeted interventions to increase breast cancer screening and treatment coverage in patients with lower SES could reduce much of socioeconomic disparity.

  3. The impact of a breast cancer diagnosis in young women on their relationship with their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asma; Fergus, Karen; Wright, Frances C; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Kiss, Alex; Warner, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    For young women with breast cancer mothers might either be a source of support or of increased stress, depending on the premorbid relationship and on the psychological effect of the daughter's diagnosis on her mother. To examine the effects of a breast cancer diagnosis on young women's relationships with their mothers and the possible support needs of these mothers from the daughters' perspective. We developed and pre-tested a self-administered questionnaire on 10 survivors of breast cancer diagnosed ≤ age 40. Then, consecutive recurrence-free young women diagnosed with breast cancer were asked to complete the modified questionnaire. Of 110 daughters approached from July/11 to May/12, 90 (82%) participated. In 11 cases (13%), the daughters had turned to their mothers before approaching anyone else. Of the 83 daughters who disclosed their diagnosis to their mothers, 76 (92%) stated their mothers had been emotionally and/or practically supportive, and 43 (54%) reported that the breast cancer diagnosis had a favorable impact on their relationship with their mothers. Of the 35 employed mothers, 26 had taken time off from work to support their daughters. Nineteen mothers, eight of whom had been living in a different country, had slept over or moved in with daughters during their treatment. Twenty-two daughters believed their mothers felt responsible to some extent for their developing breast cancer. Fifty-nine daughters indicated that health care professionals could help mothers by providing information pamphlets, education sessions, and linking to support groups. Mothers are an important source of support for young daughters with breast cancer, with the mother-daughter relationship frequently becoming closer after the diagnosis. However, the practical and emotional burden on mothers appears to be high. Future studies should address the effects of a breast cancer diagnosis in young daughters from the mothers' perspective, and the benefit of formal supports for these

  4. Ethnic inequalities in time to diagnosis of cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Tanimola; Hamilton, William; Ukoumunne, Obioha C

    2013-12-23

    Minimising diagnostic delays in cancer may help improve survival. Ethnic minorities have worse outcomes in some cancer types when compared to the majority; this may relate in part to differences during the diagnostic phase. Only a few British studies have specifically explored this relationship, and no synthesis of these exists. The present study aimed to systematically review evidence on ethnic inequalities in cancer diagnosis, focussing on patient and primary care intervals of diagnosis. Six electronic databases were searched. Included studies were those conducted in the UK or elsewhere (where access to healthcare is comparable to the NHS) and those that described a time element during diagnosis. Study quality was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist for cohort studies and synthesis method was narrative. Seven of 8,520 studies retrieved by our search met the review criteria; six conducted in the UK, and one in New Zealand. Five (including one covering several sites) focused on breast cancer, one on prostate, and one on oesophagogastric cancer. The studies employed different methods of ascertainment and definition of ethnic groups and defined diagnostic delay in a non-standardised way; therefore, narrative synthesis was performed. In breast cancer, three studies reported longer diagnostic intervals among ethnic minorities and two found no evidence of differences by ethnicity. There was some evidence of longer diagnostic and referral intervals among ethnic minorities in oesophagogastric and colorectal cancers, but no evidence of this in prostate, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lung, and ovarian cancers. None of the studies identified shorter patient or primary care intervals in ethnic minorities. Existing studies provide insufficient evidence to confirm or refute ethnic inequalities in diagnostic intervals of cancer. Further studies are necessary to examine common cancer types including those frequently found in ethnic minorities (in

  5. Emerging applications of nanoparticles for lung cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, Uday Kumar; Bhushan, Bharat; Dubey, Poornima; Matai, Ishita; Sachdev, Abhay; Packirisamy, Gopinath

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, most of them being active tobacco smokers. Non small cell lung cancer accounts for around 85% to 90% of deaths, whereas the rest is contributed by small cell lung cancer. The extreme lethality of lung cancer arises due to lack of suitable diagnostic procedures for early detection of lung cancer and ineffective conventional therapeutic strategies. In course with desperate attempts to address these issues independently, a multifunctional nanotherapeutic or diagnostic system is being sought as a favorable solution. The manifestation of physiochemical properties of such nanoscale systems is tuned favorably to come up with a versatile cancer cell targeted diagnostic and therapeutic system. Apart from this, the aspect of being at nanoscale by itself confers the system with an advantage of passive accumulation at the site of tumor. This review provides a broad perspective of three major subclasses of such nanoscale therapeutic and diagnostic systems which include polymeric nanoparticles-based approaches, metal nanoparticles-based approaches, and bio-nanoparticles-based approaches. This review work also serves the purpose of gaining an insight into the pros and cons of each of these approaches with a prospective improvement in lung cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

  6. Health care use after diagnosis of cancer in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Lorenzi, M.F.; Korevaar, J.C.; McBride, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Young patients with cancer often require extensive care during and shortly after cancer treatment for medical, psychosocial and educational problems. Approximately 85% are treated by an oncologist; however, their additional health care in this phase has barely been studied. The role of the

  7. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer

  8. Imaging tumor vascularization for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijblom, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van den Engh, F. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in western women. Current screening and diagnostic imaging modalities, like x-ray mammography and ultrasonography, focus on morphological changes of breast tissue. However, these techniques still miss some cancers and often falsely

  9. Familial gastric cancer: guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Plukker, John T.; de Jong, Daphne; van Krieken, J. Han; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Bleiker, Eveline; Cats, Anemieke; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R. H.; Cats, A.; Wagner, A.; Dekker, E.; Tytgat, Kristien; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Vasen, H. F. A.; Plukker, J. T.; Ligtenberg, M.; van Hillegersberg, R.; van Grieken, N. C. T.; de Jong, D.; van Krieken, J. H.; Bleiker, E.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a relatively rare disorder, with a mutated CDH1 gene as the only known cause. Carriers of a germline mutation in CDH1 have a lifetime risk of >80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early

  10. Familial gastric cancer : guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Plukker, John T.; de Jong, Daphne; van Krieken, J. Han; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Bleiker, Eveline; Cats, Anemieke

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a relatively rare disorder, with a mutated CDH1 gene as the only known cause. Carriers of a germline mutation in CDH1 have a lifetime risk of > 80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting

  11. Epigenetic targets in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Manoharan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is one of leading cause of cancer related deaths in men. Various aspects of cancer epigenetics are rapidly evolving and the role of 2 major epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone modifications in prostate cancer is being studied widely. The epigenetic changes are early event in the cancer development and are reversible. Novel epigenetic markers are being studied, which have the potential as sensitive diagnostic and prognostic marker. Variety of drugs targeting epigenetic changes are being studied, which can be effective individually or in combination with other conventional drugs in PC treatment. In this review, we discuss epigenetic changes associated with PC and their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications including future areas of research.

  12. RADIONUCLIDE STUDIES USING TUMOR-SEEKING RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Tarassov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: to evaluate the efficiency of prostate scintigraphy in the prebioptic diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and two patients with suspected PC underwent comprehensive examination, including 99mTc-technetril prostate scintigraphy and a morphometric study of biopsy material columns. A computer program (official registration certificate No. 2007614475 dated October 24, 2007 was worked out and patented to calculate the intensity of accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in different portions of the right and left prostate lobes.Results and discussion. When the division index point «pathological focus/background», 1.5; ≤ 1.5, healthy; > 1.5 suspected prostate cancer was used, the sensitivity of prostate scintigraphy was 81.65%; its specificity was 87.1%; the diagnostic effectiveness was 84.37%.Conclusion: The application of prostate scintigraphy can improve indicators for early detection of PC, due to the purposeful detection of the points, enhance the effectiveness of biopsy, and, having more grounds than the early ones, to exclude this disease at the prebioptic stage. The method is noninvasive and can be used to monitor patients with suspected PC.

  13. RADIONUCLIDE STUDIES USING TUMOR-SEEKING RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Tarassov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Object: to evaluate the efficiency of prostate scintigraphy in the prebioptic diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and two patients with suspected PC underwent comprehensive examination, including 99mTc-technetril prostate scintigraphy and a morphometric study of biopsy material columns. A computer program (official registration certificate No. 2007614475 dated October 24, 2007 was worked out and patented to calculate the intensity of accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals in different portions of the right and left prostate lobes.Results and discussion. When the division index point «pathological focus/background», 1.5; ≤ 1.5, healthy; > 1.5 suspected prostate cancer was used, the sensitivity of prostate scintigraphy was 81.65%; its specificity was 87.1%; the diagnostic effectiveness was 84.37%.Conclusion: The application of prostate scintigraphy can improve indicators for early detection of PC, due to the purposeful detection of the points, enhance the effectiveness of biopsy, and, having more grounds than the early ones, to exclude this disease at the prebioptic stage. The method is noninvasive and can be used to monitor patients with suspected PC.

  14. Sexuality after a cancer diagnosis: A population‐based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study explored differences in sexual activity, function, and concerns between cancer survivors and cancer‐free controls in a population‐based study. METHODS The data were from 2982 men and 3708 women who were 50 years old or older and were participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual well‐being was assessed with the Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire, and cancer diagnoses were self‐reported. RESULTS There were no differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of sexual activity (76.0% vs 78.5% for men and 58.2% vs 55.5% for women) or sexual function. Men and women with cancer diagnoses were more dissatisfied with their sex lives than controls (age‐adjusted percentages: 30.9% vs 19.8% for men [P = .023] and 18.2% vs 11.8% for women [P = .034]), and women with cancer were more concerned about levels of sexual desire (10.2% vs 7.1%; P = .006). Women diagnosed sexual desire (14.8% vs 7.1%; P = .007) and orgasmic experience (17.6% vs 7.1%; P = .042) than controls, but there were no differences in men. CONCLUSIONS Self‐reports of sexual activity and functioning in older people with cancer are broadly comparable to age‐matched, cancer‐free controls. There is a need to identify the causes of sexual dissatisfaction among long‐term cancer survivors despite apparently normal levels of sexual activity and function for their age. The development of interventions addressing low sexual desire and problems with sexual functioning in women is also important and may be particularly relevant for cancer survivors after treatment. Cancer 2016;122:3883–3891. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27531631

  15. Factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal people in Australia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Thompson, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives Delayed presentation of symptomatic cancer is associated with poorer survival. Aboriginal patients with cancer have higher rates of distant metastases at diagnosis compared with non-Aboriginal Australians. This paper examined factors contributing to delayed diagnosis of cancer among Aboriginal Australians from patient and service providers' perspectives. Methods In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted in two stages (2006–2007 and 2011). Inductive thematic analysis was assisted by use of NVivo looking around delays in presentation, diagnosis and referral for cancer. Participants Aboriginal patients with cancer/family members (n=30) and health service providers (n=62) were recruited from metropolitan Perth and six rural/remote regions of Western Australia. Results Three broad themes of factors were identified: (1) Contextual factors such as intergenerational impact of colonisation and racism and socioeconomic deprivation have negatively impacted on Aboriginal Australians' trust of the healthcare professionals; (2) health service-related factors included low accessibility to health services, long waiting periods, inadequate numbers of Aboriginal professionals and high staff turnover; (3) patient appraisal of symptoms and decision-making, fear of cancer and denial of symptoms were key reasons patients procrastinated in seeking help. Elements of shame, embarrassment, shyness of seeing the doctor, psychological ‘fear of the whole health system’, attachment to the land and ‘fear of leaving home’ for cancer treatment in metropolitan cities were other deterrents for Aboriginal people. Manifestation of masculinity and the belief that ‘health is women's domain’ emerged as a reason why Aboriginal men were reluctant to receive health checks. Conclusions Solutions to improved Aboriginal cancer outcomes include focusing on the primary care sector encouraging general practitioners to be proactive to suspicion of symptoms with appropriate

  16. Spiral (Helical) computed tomographic imaging for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Vascular and pancreatic invasions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon, Masanori

    1997-01-01

    The development of several imaging techniques for diagnosing bile duct cancer have improved, however, its diagnosis at the early stage is still difficult. We discuss the significance of the spiral (helical) computed tomography (SCT) imaging for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer at an early stage. We performed, as a preoperative examination, SCT under intravenous angiography (IV-SCT) for all cases, which included 233 cases of benign bile duct diseases, 42 cases of gallbladder cancer and 22 cases of bile duct cancer. The accuracy rate of diagnosis ability of 42 cases of gallbladder cancer by IV-SCT was 91%, and that of portal vein invasion was 91%. In the cases of bile duct cancer, IV-SCT showed destructive images of the bile duct wall and the tumor images invaded into the pancreatic parenchyma, in the cases of invasion at the splenic vein and confluence site of the portal vein, IV-SCT gave clearer 3D images than conventional angiography. The accuracy rate of diagnosing pancreatic invasion in bile duct cancer by IV-SCT was 80%. However, it is still difficult to determine completely the layer structures of the bile duct and the invasion into the walls along the long axis. As the future development of SCT for the diagnosis of bile duct cancer, we expect further progression of diagnosis ability of bile duct cancer and the invasion level by the applying high resolution thin-section CT images or endoscopical images of the luminal organs in examining the bile duct. (K.H.)

  17. European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. First Edition--Quality assurance in pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, P; Risio, M; Lambert, R; von Karsa, L; Vieth, M

    2012-09-01

    Multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have been developed by experts in a project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document covers the entire process of population-based screening. It consists of 10 chapters and over 250 recommendations, graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the supporting evidence. The 450-page guidelines and the extensive evidence base have been published by the European Commission. The chapter on quality assurance in pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis includes 23 graded recommendations. The content of the chapter is presented here to promote international discussion and collaboration by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider professional and scientific community. Following these recommendations has the potential to enhance the control of colorectal cancer through improvement in the quality and effectiveness of the screening process, including multi-disciplinary diagnosis and management of the disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Differential diagnosis of pancreas cancer and chronic pancreatitis in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Saitou, Hiroya; Hiromura, Tadao; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Morita, Yutaka; Irie, Goro

    1987-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of pancreas cancer and chronic pancreatitis in Computed Tomography. CT pictures of 46 cases of pancreas cancer and 16 cases of chronic pancreatitis were reviewed to clarify a way of differential diagnosis of these two disorders. The conclusion obtained in this study is as below. 1) Well-defined cystic central low density is a sign of chronic pancreatitis, and in the other hand, the solid central low density is a sign of pancreas cancer. 2) Effect of contrast enhancement was greater in chronic pancreatitis than in pancreas cancer. 3) Possibility of pancreas cancer is high in a case which has a sign of vascular involvement but no definite sign of tumor. 4) Sensitivity, specificity, total accuracy is 76.7 %, 87.5 %, 75.8 % respectively. (author)

  19. CEA A BIOCHEMICAL MARKER FOR DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS OF GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum tumor markers (TM are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of cancer. Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA is one of the most widely investigated tumor markers in gastrointestinal (GI cancers. Estimation of circulating tumor markers is a non- invasive quantitative method. Serum levels of CEA were studied for diagnosis and prognosis of gastrointestinal malignancies. 140 subjects were undertaken out of which 35 normal and remaining 105 were GI cancer patients. Serum levels of CEA were analyzed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Result of serum CEA levels of the GI cancer patients and normal subjects were analyzed statistically. It was observed that there was significant increase in (P <0.01 in CEA levels of oesophagus, stomach and colon cancer patients as compared to normal subjects. The levels of CEA decreased significantly after the surgery but the decrease in levels of CEA was not up to the levels as normal control subjects.

  20. Fast track diagnosis as a means of reducing diagnostic delay in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Bach; Vedsted, Peter; Olesen, Frede

    of cancer and expanded services to the general practitioners. Objective: To investigate the diagnostic delay of cancer, patient and provider satisfaction and health economic aspects in two Danish regions with special emphasis on the possible benefits of fast track diagnosis. Methods: The study......Background: Denmark has the highest morbidity and mortality from cancer in Western Europe, and studies suggest that Danish cancer patients are diagnosed at a later stage than patients in the other Nordic countries. To address this issue a Danish hospital has introduced fast track diagnosis...... will be designed as a cross-sectional study with the construction of a clinical database of all incident cancers in two Danish regions within a year (12,000 patients). Data will be collected from general practitioners, patients and national registers. In the first part of the analysis the general variation...

  1. Non-invasive spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakaki, E.; Sianoudis, IA; Zois, EN; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, AA; Dessinioti, C.; Stefanaki, E.; Stratigos, AJ; Antoniou, C.; Katsambas, A.; Christofidou, E.

    2017-11-01

    The number of non-melanoma skin cancers is increasing worldwide and has become an important health and economic issue. Early detection and treatment of skin cancer can significantly improve patient outcome. Therefore there is an increase in the demand for proper management and effective non-invasive diagnostic modalities in order to avoid relapses or unnecessary treatments. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for non-melanoma skin cancers is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancers include high-definition optical coherence tomography, fluorescence spectroscopy, oblique incidence diffuse reflectance spectrometry among others spectroscopic techniques. Our findings establish how those spectrometric techniques can be used to more rapidly and easily diagnose skin cancer in an accurate and automated manner in the clinic.

  2. Diagnosis delay of breast cancer and its associated factors in Malaysian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Nyi N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Malaysia. Delayed diagnosis is preventable and has major effects on patients' prognosis and survival. The objectives of our study were to identify the magnitude of delayed diagnosis and its associated factors in women with breast cancer in Malaysia. Methods This study had a cross-sectional design. Respondents had histologically confirmed breast cancer and were registered at five medical centres between 2005 and 2007. All breast cancer patients who attended hospital clinics at the East Coast were included. Patients at Kuala Lumpur hospitals were selected by systematic sampling. A standardised questionnaire was developed to interview respondents. We measured the time from the first recognition of symptoms to the first general practitioners' consultation and to the histological diagnosis of breast cancer. Diagnosis delay was defined when there was more than 6 months from the recognition of symptoms to the histological diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis. Results In total, 328 respondents were included. The mean (standard deviation age was 47.9 (9.4 years. Most respondents were of Malay ethnicity, were married housewives with a median family income of RM1500 a month. Most respondents had ductal carcinoma (89.3% and the stage distribution was as follows: 5.2% stage I, 38.7% stage II, 44.8% stage III and 11.3% stage IV. The median time to consultation was 2 months and the median time to diagnosis was 5.5 months. The frequency of diagnosis delay of more than 3 months was 72.6% and delay of more than 6 months occurred in 45.5% of the cases. The factors associated with diagnosis delay included the use of alternative therapy (odds ratio (OR 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.06, 2.94, breast ulcer (OR 5.71; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.47, palpable axillary lymph nodes (OR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.90, false-negative diagnostic test (OR 5.32; 95% CI: 2

  3. Diagnosis delay of breast cancer and its associated factors in Malaysian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rampal, Krishna G; Rahmah, Mohd A; Naing, Nyi N; Biswal, Biswa M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in Malaysia. Delayed diagnosis is preventable and has major effects on patients' prognosis and survival. The objectives of our study were to identify the magnitude of delayed diagnosis and its associated factors in women with breast cancer in Malaysia. This study had a cross-sectional design. Respondents had histologically confirmed breast cancer and were registered at five medical centres between 2005 and 2007. All breast cancer patients who attended hospital clinics at the East Coast were included. Patients at Kuala Lumpur hospitals were selected by systematic sampling. A standardised questionnaire was developed to interview respondents. We measured the time from the first recognition of symptoms to the first general practitioners' consultation and to the histological diagnosis of breast cancer. Diagnosis delay was defined when there was more than 6 months from the recognition of symptoms to the histological diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression was used for analysis. In total, 328 respondents were included. The mean (standard deviation) age was 47.9 (9.4) years. Most respondents were of Malay ethnicity, were married housewives with a median family income of RM1500 a month. Most respondents had ductal carcinoma (89.3%) and the stage distribution was as follows: 5.2% stage I, 38.7% stage II, 44.8% stage III and 11.3% stage IV. The median time to consultation was 2 months and the median time to diagnosis was 5.5 months. The frequency of diagnosis delay of more than 3 months was 72.6% and delay of more than 6 months occurred in 45.5% of the cases. The factors associated with diagnosis delay included the use of alternative therapy (odds ratio (OR) 1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.94), breast ulcer (OR 5.71; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.47), palpable axillary lymph nodes (OR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.90), false-negative diagnostic test (OR 5.32; 95% CI: 2.32, 12.21), non-cancer interpretation

  4. Clinical significance of plasma lysophosphatidic acid levels in the differential diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jie Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: We first performed a hospital-based, case-control study involving 123 ovarian cancer patients and 101 benign ovarian tumor patients, and then conducted a meta-analysis with 19 case-control studies to assess the correlation between ovarian cancer and plasma LPA levels. Results: The case-control study results demonstrated that ovarian cancer patients have increased LPA and cancer antigen (CA-125 levels compared to patients with benign ovarian tumor (LPA: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 5.28 ± 1.52 vs 1.82 ± 0.77 μmol/L; CA-125: Ovarian cancer vs benign ovarian tumor: 87.17 ± 45.81 vs. 14.03 ± 10.14 U/mL, which showed statistically significant differences (both P < 0.05. LPA with advanced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rate of diagnosis excelled CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (both P < 0.05. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer (LPA: 0.983; CA-125: 0.910 were statistically significant compared with the reference (both P < 0.001 and the difference of the areas of ROC curve between LPA and CA-125 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. The meta-analysis results suggested that plasma LPA levels were higher in ovarian cancer tissues than in benign tissues (standardized mean difference (SMD =2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61-3.11, P < 0.001 and normal tissues (SMD = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.77-2.87, P < 0.001. Conclusion: LPA shows greater value in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer compared to CA-125 and may be employed as a biological index to diagnose ovarian cancer.

  5. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention...

  6. Malnutrition in pediatric patients with cancer at diagnosis and throughout therapy: A multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karin; Ammann, Roland A; Kuehni, Claudia E; De Geest, Sabina; Cignacco, Eva

    2013-04-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in pediatric patients with cancer. Reported prevalence varies widely and has often been assessed only in a subset of childhood types of cancer. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of malnutrition among pediatric patients newly diagnosed with cancer, to describe the occurrence and course of malnutrition during therapy and to identify factors associated with malnutrition during therapy. In a retrospective cohort study of 327 patients diagnosed from 2003 to 2006 in three Swiss tertiary care hospitals, weight and height measures together with patient-, disease-, and treatment-related characteristics were assessed. Malnutrition was defined as body mass index (BMI) below -2 standard deviation scores (SDS) or a weight loss >10% from diagnosis. Malnutrition was assessed at diagnosis and continuously during anticancer therapy. At diagnosis, 5.8% of the patients (19) were malnourished based on BMI. During anticancer therapy, the cumulative incidence of malnutrition rose to 22% (70 patients) after 30 days, to 36% (116 patients) after 60 days, and finally to 47% (155 patients). In these 155 patients, the median duration of malnutrition was 60 days (interquartile range, 21-122). Age above 10 years at diagnosis, BMI ≤ -1.0 SDS at diagnosis, and a diagnosis of medulloblastoma were positively associated with a higher proportion of malnutrition time during therapy. The rapid increase of malnutrition after the start of treatment underlines the need to develop evidence-based and efficient methods to provide nutritional support for children with cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reduction in Late Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer Following Introduction of a Specialist Colorectal Surgery Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Amanda L; Mercer, Stuart J; Harris, Guy JC; Simson, Jay NL

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An audit of patients presenting with colorectal cancer to our district general hospital during a 2-year period from November 1994 found that 12.1% of cases were diagnosed later than 6 months after initial presentation to a physician. This audit was repeated for a 2-year period from December 2001, to determine whether the introduction of a specialist coloproctology surgery service had led to a reduction in late diagnosis of colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Case notes were reviewed of all patients presenting with colorectal cancer between December 2001 and November 2003. Late diagnosis was defined as diagnosis of colorectal cancer more than 6 months after their first attendance to either their general practitioner or district general hospital. The results were compared with those of the previous study. RESULTS Of a total of 218 patients presenting with colorectal cancer during the study period, 14 (6.4%; 10 men and 4 women) satisfied the criteria for late diagnosis, with the longest delay being 12.5 months. Reasons for late diagnosis were false-negative reporting of barium studies (n = 3), inaccurate tumour biopsy (n = 2), concurrent pathology causing anaemia (n = 4), inappropriate delay in definitive investigation (n = 3), and refusal of investigation by patients (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS There has been a reduction of nearly 50% (12.1% to 6.4%) in the proportion of patients with a late diagnosis of colorectal cancer compared with our previous audit. It is suggested that an important factor in this improvement in diagnosis has been the introduction of a specialist coloproctology surgery service. PMID:17059718

  8. Developing an Intelligent Diagnosis and Assessment E-Learning Tool for Introductory Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chenn-Jung; Chen, Chun-Hua; Luo, Yun-Cheng; Chen, Hong-Xin; Chuang, Yi-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a lot of open source e-learning platforms have been offered for free in the Internet. We thus incorporate the intelligent diagnosis and assessment tool into an open software e-learning platform developed for programming language courses, wherein the proposed learning diagnosis assessment tools based on text mining and machine learning…

  9. Increasing Age and Treatment Modality Are Predictors for Subsequent Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer Following Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K.; Mashtare, Terry L.; McCloskey, Susan A.; Seixas-Mikelus, Stefanie A.; Kim, Hyung L.; May, Kilian Salerno

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of prostate cancer therapy (surgery or external beam irradiation, or both or none) on the actuarial incidence of subsequent bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 1973 to 2005 was analyzed. Treatment was stratified as radiotherapy, surgery, both surgery and adjuvant radiation, and neither modality. Brachytherapy was excluded. Results: In all, 555,337 prostate carcinoma patients were identified; 124,141 patients were irradiated; 235,341 patients were treated surgically; 32,744 patients had both surgery and radiation; and 163,111 patients received neither modality. Bladder cancers were diagnosed in: 1,836 (1.48%) men who were irradiated (mean age, 69.4 years), 2,753 (1.09%) men who were treated surgically (mean age, 66.9 years); 683 (2.09%) men who received both modalities (mean age, 67.4 years), and 1,603 (0.98%) men who were treated with neither modality (mean age, 71.8 years). In each treatment cohort, Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that increasing age (by decade) was a significant predictor of developing bladder cancer (p < 0.0001). Incidence of bladder cancer was significantly different for either radiation or surgery alone versus no treatment, radiation versus surgery alone, and both surgery and radiation versus either modality alone (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. Conclusions: Following prostate cancer, increasing age and irradiation were highly significant predictors of being diagnosed with bladder cancer. While use of radiation increased the risk of bladder cancer compared to surgery alone or no treatment, the overall incidence of subsequent bladder cancer remained low. Routine bladder cancer surveillance is not warranted.

  10. the diagnosis of early genital cancer and other abnormalities by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that is constantly receiving the active attention of workers throughout the world. ... year Papanicolaou9 reported finding cancer cells in the vaginal secretions of ..... pessaries are prescribed for 10 nights to combat possible secondary infection.

  11. Breast Cancer Diagnosis Using Ultrasound and Diffusive Light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Quing

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to evaluate a novel imaging system and method that combines ultrasound with near infrared diffusive light to increase the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection...

  12. An immune-inspired semi-supervised algorithm for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lingxi; Chen, Wenbin; Zhou, Wubai; Li, Fufang; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Jiandong

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently and world widely diagnosed life-threatening cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer death among women. Early accurate diagnosis can be a big plus in treating breast cancer. Researchers have approached this problem using various data mining and machine learning techniques such as support vector machine, artificial neural network, etc. The computer immunology is also an intelligent method inspired by biological immune system, which has been successfully applied in pattern recognition, combination optimization, machine learning, etc. However, most of these diagnosis methods belong to a supervised diagnosis method. It is very expensive to obtain labeled data in biology and medicine. In this paper, we seamlessly integrate the state-of-the-art research on life science with artificial intelligence, and propose a semi-supervised learning algorithm to reduce the need for labeled data. We use two well-known benchmark breast cancer datasets in our study, which are acquired from the UCI machine learning repository. Extensive experiments are conducted and evaluated on those two datasets. Our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed algorithm, which proves that our algorithm is a promising automatic diagnosis method for breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Values of serum TSGF, CA125 and CEA determination in early diagnosis of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiang; Zhou Yu; Yu Wuzhong; Chou Donghui; Zhou Ying; Zhang Yang; Guo Yong; Wang Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    To investigate levels of TSGF,CA125 and CEA as a panel for early diagnosis of overian cancer, the levels of three tumor markers(TSGF,CA125 and CEA) in serum were determined in 85 patients with ovarian cancer, 54 patients with benign tumor and 76 healthy control. The results showed that the levels of three tumor markers in ovarian cancer patients were significantly higher than those in benign tumor patients and controls(P<0.05). Combined detection of the three markers may greatly improve the diagnostic accuracy of overian cancer. (authors)

  14. Pneumonia diagnosis in childhood and incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-01-01

    of pneumonia was a clinical marker of the three most common childhood cancers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, hospital diagnoses, 1994-2013. METHODS: Using national health registries, we compared the observed incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer among 83 935 children...... with a hospital-based pneumonia diagnosis with that expected among children in the general population. We calculated absolute cancer risks and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of relative risk. RESULTS: The cancer SIRs were substantially increased during the first 6 months of follow-up; lymphoid...

  15. Application evaluation of MR diffusion weighted imaging in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of early prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Junkang; Lu Yanli; Yang Yi; Zhao Wenlu; Jiang Zhen; Zhang Caiyuan; Ma Qi; Zhang Yongsheng; Shan Yuxi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of early prostate cancer. Methods: The data of 106 patients [35 with early prostate cancer (PCa), 55 with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 16 with prostatitis] were retrospectively analyzed, who underwent T 2 WI, DWI, and T 2 WI + DWI examination and all patients were confirmed by pathology. The data obtained from T 2 WI, DWI, and a combination of T 2 WI and DWI were scored and compared with pathological findings. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed for the area under the curve (Az) using Z test. Specificities, sensitivities and accuracies of the three protocols to diagnose PCa were evaluated. The ADC values of each prostate lesion were measured and compared with ANOVA test. Results: DWI missed 7 in 35 early prostate cancer, misdiagnosed 2 in 55 BPH, and 11 in 16 prostatitis. The Az values of T 2 WI, DWI, and T 2 WI + DWI for the detection of early prostate cancer were 0.846, 0.874, and 0.947, respectively. There was significant differences between T 2 WI + DWI and T 2 WI alone (Z=3.262, P=0.001), and between T 2 WI + DWI and DWI alone (Z=2.402, P=0.016). There was no significant difference between T 2 WI alone and DWI alone (Z=0.630, P=0.528). The sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies of T 2 WI, DWI, and a combination of T 2 WI and DWI for the detection of early prostate cancer were 51.43% (18/35), 80.00% (28/35), and 85.71% (30/35); 90.14% (64/71), 81.69% (58/71), and 88.73% (63/71); 77.36% (82/106), 81.13% (86/106), and 87.74% (93/106) respectively. The ADC values for detecting early PCa, BPH, and prostatitis were (723 ± 183) ×10 -3 , (1 381 ± 117) × 10 -3 , and (957 ± 175) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s.These ADC values showed statistical significance (F=131.94, P<0.01) among the three groups and also reached statistical significance between each two groups. Conclusions: DWI is valuable in detecting early prostate

  16. [Treatment program for dual-diagnosis substance abusers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Isack

    2007-01-01

    Dual-diagnosis mentally ill patients, i.e. those characterized with substance abuse problems combined with mental health problems, are a challenge both for systems treating substance abusers and for mental health services. These patients are not easily integrated in either of these healthcare systems and/or are treated only for one aspect of their problem by each of these systems. For such patients it is necessary to create a separate treatment model, combining care of the problem of substance abuse and attention to the patient's mental pathology, according to his individual personality traits. For purposes of this programme a treatment setting operating on the model of a therapeutic community is proposed. This setting will open an affiliated treatment programme for dual-diagnosed patients in a separate treatment programme that is not part of the therapeutic community but will be affiliated with it and will accept dual-diagnosis patients.

  17. Disparity in Breast Cancer Late Stage at Diagnosis in Missouri: Does Rural Versus Urban Residence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Faustine; Thompson, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that black women have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared to white women, black women experience higher death rates than any other group. We examined the stage of breast cancer presentation by race and geographic region using population-based breast cancer incidence in all 115 counties in the state of Missouri. We used 2003-2008 breast cancer incidence data from Missouri Cancer Registry and Research Center. County of residence was categorized as urban or rural using the rural-urban continuum code. We computed the conditional proportion of stage at diagnosis by race and metropolitan status and also used Pearson's chi-squared test with Yates' continuity correction to determine statistical significance of association. Results of the study indicate that a greater proportion of black women (38.8 %) compared to white women (30.2 %) were diagnosed with more advanced breast metastasis. Our results further suggest that stage at diagnosis depended on county of residence or metropolitan status (p = .04). Women living in non-metropolitan counties were slightly more likely to have late-stage breast cancer than their metropolitan counterparts (32.0 vs 30.7 %). Overall, black women had 1.5-fold increased odds of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis compared to their white counterparts (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI, 1.39, 1.63; p diagnosis among women living in non-metropolitan or rural counties was over 11 % higher compared with their metropolitan or urban counterpart. The current study corroborates previous findings that the risk of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis was higher among women residing in non-metropolitan rural counties.

  18. Fuzzy method for pre-diagnosis of breast cancer from the Fine Needle Aspirate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizilio Gláucia RMA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Across the globe, breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women and, currently, Fine Needle Aspirate (FNA with visual interpretation is the easiest and fastest biopsy technique for the diagnosis of this deadly disease. Unfortunately, the ability of this method to diagnose cancer correctly when the disease is present varies greatly, from 65% to 98%. This article introduces a method to assist in the diagnosis and second opinion of breast cancer from the analysis of descriptors extracted from smears of breast mass obtained by FNA, with the use of computational intelligence resources - in this case, fuzzy logic. Methods For data acquisition of FNA, the Wisconsin Diagnostic Breast Cancer Data (WDBC, from the University of California at Irvine (UCI Machine Learning Repository, available on the internet through the UCI domain was used. The knowledge acquisition process was carried out by the extraction and analysis of numerical data of the WDBC and by interviews and discussions with medical experts. The PDM-FNA-Fuzzy was developed in four steps: 1 Fuzzification Stage; 2 Rules Base; 3 Inference Stage; and 4 Defuzzification Stage. Performance cross-validation was used in the tests, with three databases with gold pattern clinical cases randomly extracted from the WDBC. The final validation was held by medical specialists in pathology, mastology and general practice, and with gold pattern clinical cases, i.e. with known and clinically confirmed diagnosis. Results The Fuzzy Method developed provides breast cancer pre-diagnosis with 98.59% sensitivity (correct pre-diagnosis of malignancies; and 85.43% specificity (correct pre-diagnosis of benign cases. Due to the high sensitivity presented, these results are considered satisfactory, both by the opinion of medical specialists in the aforementioned areas and by comparison with other studies involving breast cancer diagnosis using FNA. Conclusions This paper presents an

  19. Close relatives find meaning to cope with cancer diagnosis and treatment of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyh, Janelle M; Levine, Ellen G; Clay, Karine

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care has recently become a priority in the health care field and is implemented at the time of diagnosis rather than days or weeks before the child's death. Social constructivism theory in which humans generate meaning from their experiences was utilized as a general framework to determine the impact of pediatric palliative care on close relatives. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a substantive theory that explains how close relatives such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles of a child with cancer experience palliative care. The participants of the study included close relatives of children in palliative care. Semistructured interviews and journaling were used to collect data. Initial, focused, and axial coding procedures were used to manage the data and a content analysis of the textual data was performed. Findings from the data suggested a process of finding meaning which helps close relatives to let go of what they cannot control while holding on to what they can control. Social change implications of this study may include improving health care programming for close relatives utilizing supportive-expressive measures. This programming may promote mental health of the close relatives who will learn to deal with their adjustment difficulties and improve their coping skills.

  20. The relationship of cancer characteristics and patient outcome with time to lung cancer diagnosis after an abnormal screening CT

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    Sonavane, Sushilkumar K.; Watts, Jubal; Singh, Satinder P.; Nath, Hrudaya [University of Alabama in Birmingham School of Medicine, Department of Radiology- Cardiopulmonary section, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pinsky, Paul [National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gierada, David S. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Munden, Reginald [Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Winston Salem, NC (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a reduction in lung cancer and all-cause mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening. The aim of our study was to examine the time to diagnosis (TTD) of lung cancer in the LDCT arm of the NLST and assess its relationship with cancer characteristics and survival. The subjects (N = 462) with a positive baseline screen and subsequent lung cancer diagnosis within 3 years were evaluated by data and image review to confirm the baseline abnormality. The cases were analysed for the relationship between TTD and imaging features, cancer type, stage and survival for 7 years from baseline screen. Cancer was judged to be present at baseline in 397/462 cases. The factors that showed significant association (p value trend less than 0.05) with longer TTD included smaller nodule size, pure ground glass nodules (GGNs), smooth/lobulated margins, stages I/II, adenocarcinoma, and decreasing lung cancer mortality. The logistic regression model for lung cancer death showed significant inverse relationships with size less than 20 mm (OR = 0.32), pure GGNs (OR = 0.24), adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.57) and direct relationship with age (OR = 1.4). TTD after a positive LDCT screen in the NLST showed a strong association with imaging features, stage and mortality. (orig.)

  1. The relationship of cancer characteristics and patient outcome with time to lung cancer diagnosis after an abnormal screening CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonavane, Sushilkumar K.; Watts, Jubal; Singh, Satinder P.; Nath, Hrudaya; Pinsky, Paul; Gierada, David S.; Munden, Reginald

    2017-01-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a reduction in lung cancer and all-cause mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening. The aim of our study was to examine the time to diagnosis (TTD) of lung cancer in the LDCT arm of the NLST and assess its relationship with cancer characteristics and survival. The subjects (N = 462) with a positive baseline screen and subsequent lung cancer diagnosis within 3 years were evaluated by data and image review to confirm the baseline abnormality. The cases were analysed for the relationship between TTD and imaging features, cancer type, stage and survival for 7 years from baseline screen. Cancer was judged to be present at baseline in 397/462 cases. The factors that showed significant association (p value trend less than 0.05) with longer TTD included smaller nodule size, pure ground glass nodules (GGNs), smooth/lobulated margins, stages I/II, adenocarcinoma, and decreasing lung cancer mortality. The logistic regression model for lung cancer death showed significant inverse relationships with size less than 20 mm (OR = 0.32), pure GGNs (OR = 0.24), adenocarcinoma (OR = 0.57) and direct relationship with age (OR = 1.4). TTD after a positive LDCT screen in the NLST showed a strong association with imaging features, stage and mortality. (orig.)

  2. Advances in medical imaging for the diagnosis and management of common genitourinary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohammad H; Ahlman, Mark A; Lindenberg, Liza; Turkbey, Baris; Lin, Jeffrey; Cahid Civelek, Ali; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Agarwal, Piyush K; Choyke, Peter L; Folio, Les R; Apolo, Andrea B

    2017-07-01

    Medical imaging of the 3 most common genitourinary (GU) cancers-prostate adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder-has evolved significantly during the last decades. The most commonly used imaging modalities for the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of GU cancers are computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). Multiplanar multidetector computed tomography and multiparametric MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging are the main imaging modalities for renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma, and although multiparametric MRI is rapidly becoming the main imaging tool in the evaluation of prostate adenocarcinoma, biopsy is still required for diagnosis. Functional and molecular imaging using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET and sodium fluoride-PET are essential for the diagnosis, and especially follow-up, of metastatic GU tumors. This review provides an overview of the latest advances in the imaging of these 3 major GU cancers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The Impact of Continuous Medicaid Enrollment on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Survival in Six Surgical Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Aaron J; Louie, Rachel; Nguyen, David K; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Parikh, Punam; Ettner, Susan L; Ko, Clifford Y; Zingmond, David S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of Medicaid enrollment on the diagnosis, treatment, and survival of six surgically relevant cancers among poor and underserved Californians. Data Sources California Cancer Registry (CCR), California's Patient Discharge Database (PDD), and state Medicaid enrollment files between 2002 and 2008. Study Design We linked clinical and administrative records to differentiate patients continuously enrolled in Medicaid from those receiving coverage at the time of their cancer diagnosis. We developed multivariate logistic regression models to predict death within 1 year for each cancer after controlling for sociodemographic and clinical variables. Data Collection/Extraction Methods All incident cases of six cancers (colon, esophageal, lung, pancreas, stomach, and ovarian) were identified from CCR. CCR records were linked to hospitalizations (PDD) and monthly Medicaid enrollment. Principal Findings Continuous enrollment in Medicaid for at least 6 months prior to diagnosis improves survival in three surgically relevant cancers. Discontinuous Medicaid patients have higher stage tumors, undergo fewer definitive operations, and are more likely to die even after risk adjustment. Conclusions Expansion of continuous insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act is likely to improve both access and clinical outcomes for cancer patients in California. PMID:25256223

  4. Being given a cancer diagnosis in old age: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Swane, Christine E; Hallberg, Ingalill Rahm

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to illuminate the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age. Background: Little research has been done on the experience of elderly people developing cancer and the impact of the illness on their lives. Such knowledge is needed to support e...... in clinical practice, to identify the specific meaning the turning point has for an elderly person with cancer, and to understand the particular approach he or she uses to handle the awareness of being old. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3......Objectives: The aim of the study was to illuminate the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age. Background: Little research has been done on the experience of elderly people developing cancer and the impact of the illness on their lives. Such knowledge is needed to support...... elderly people in dealing with issues arising after cancer is diagnosed. Design: A descriptive phenomenological method was used to investigate the phenomenon "the lived experience of being given a cancer diagnosis in old age". Participants: In total, 16 persons (aged 65+, mean age 76, range 68...

  5. Novel fiber optic-based needle redox imager for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniyappan, Udayakumar; Xu, He N.; Tang, Qinggong; Gaitan, Brandon; Liu, Yi; Li, Lin Z.; Chen, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Despite various technological advancements in cancer diagnosis, the mortality rates were not decreased significantly. We aim to develop a novel optical imaging tool to assist cancer diagnosis effectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy/imaging is a fast, rapid, and minimally invasive technique which has been successfully applied to diagnosing cancerous cells/tissues. Recently, the ratiometric imaging of intrinsic fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), as pioneered by Britton Chance and the co-workers in 1950-70's, has gained much attention to quantify the physiological parameters of living cells/tissues. The redox ratio, i.e., FAD/(FAD+NADH) or FAD/NADH, has been shown to be sensitive to various metabolic changes in in vivo and in vitro cells/tissues. Optical redox imaging has also been investigated for providing potential imaging biomarkers for cancer transformation, aggressiveness, and treatment response. Towards this goal, we have designed and developed a novel fiberoptic-based needle redox imager (NRI) that can fit into an 11G clinical coaxial biopsy needle for real time imaging during clinical cancer surgery. In the present study, the device is calibrated with tissue mimicking phantoms of FAD and NADH along with various technical parameters such as sensitivity, dynamic range, linearity, and spatial resolution of the system. We also conducted preliminary imaging of tissues ex vivo for validation. We plan to test the NRI on clinical breast cancer patients. Once validated this device may provide an effective tool for clinical cancer diagnosis.

  6. Sonographic diagnosis of gallbladder cancer: analysis of mis-diagnosed cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hyun; Moon, Jung Mi; Ahn, Sang Won; Song, Ik Hoon

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the most valuable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of gallbladder (GB) diseases. Although sonographic findings in GB cancer have been well described, the diagnostic accuracy has not been clearly analyzed. Our purpose of this report was to discuss diagnostic difficulties and analyze causes of misdiagnosis of GB cancer based on our recent experience and so may result in more accurate diagnosis of GB cancer. We analyzed 13misdiagnosed cases out of 24 cases of GB cancer with special emphasis on diagnostic difficulties and causes of misidagnosis. The most common type of misdiagnosed GB cancer was thickened wall type which was found in 10 cases. Preoperative sonographic diagnosis of these cases was empyema in 4 cases, cholecystitis in 3, and non-specific GB wall thickening in 1. In 2 cases, any lesion could not be detected at ultrasonography. Two cases with intraluminal type of GB cancer were misdiagnosed ; one being misdiagnosed as cholecystitis with stone, and the other being completely missed. Three cases that were completely missed consist of 2 with focal wall thickening and 1 involving GB neck. In conclusion, sonographic diagnosis of GB cancer is difficult, because the wall thickening type, that mimicks the cholecystitis, is frequent. Thorough and careful investigation of GB is mandatory for eliminating misdiagnosis

  7. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent self-reported diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Siobhan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Piazza, Marina; Tachimori, Hisateru; Hu, Chiyi; Lim, Carmen; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Alonso, Jordi; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Florescu, Silvia; Kiejna, Andrzej; Levinson, Daphna; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The associations between mental disorders and cancer remain unclear. It is also unknown whether any associations vary according to life stage or gender. This paper examines these research questions using data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed the lifetime prevalence of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders in face-to-face household population surveys in nineteen countries (n = 52,095). Cancer was indicated by self-report of diagnosis. Smoking was assessed in questions about current and past tobacco use. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequently reported cancer. Results After adjustment for comorbidity, panic disorder, specific phobia and alcohol abuse were associated with a subsequently self-reported diagnosis of cancer. There was an association between number of mental disorders and the likelihood of reporting a cancer diagnosis following the onset of the mental disorder. This suggests that the associations between mental disorders and cancer risk may be generalised, rather than specific to a particular disorder. Depression is more strongly associated with self-reported cancers diagnosed early in life and in women. PTSD is also associated with cancers diagnosed early in life. Conclusion This study reports the magnitude of the associations between mental disorders and a self-reported diagnosis of cancer and provides information about the relevance of comorbidity, gender and the impact at different stages of life. The findings point to a link between the two conditions and lend support to arguments for early identification and treatment of mental disorders. PMID:24529039

  8. Disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Keefe, Dorothy; Farshid, Gelareh; Eckert, Marion; Cargo, Margaret; Brown, Alex

    2017-06-01

    This study tested the utility of retrospectively staging cancer registry data for comparing stage and stage-specific survivals of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Differences by area level factors were also explored. This test dataset comprised 950 Aboriginal cases and all other cases recorded on the South Australian cancer registry with a 1977-2010 diagnosis. A sub-set of 777 Aboriginal cases diagnosed in 1990-2010 were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by year of birth, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site of cancer. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, and geographic attributes with risk of cancer death. Aboriginal cases were 10 years younger at diagnosis, more likely to present in recent diagnostic years, to be resident of remote areas, and have primary cancer sites of head & neck, lung, liver and cervix. Risk of cancer death was associated in the matched analysis with more advanced stage at diagnosis. More Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal cases had distant metastases at diagnosis (31.3% vs 22.0, pAboriginal residents had higher risks of cancer death than Aboriginal residents of metropolitan areas. Non-Aboriginal cases had the lowest risk of cancer death. Retrospective staging proved to be feasible using registry data. Results indicated more advanced stages for Aboriginal than matched non-Aboriginal cases. Aboriginal people had higher risks of cancer death, which persisted after adjusting for stage, and applied irrespective of remoteness of residence, with highest risk of death occurring among Aboriginal people from remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Useful radiologic sign in diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer: Nucleohalo sign and its pathologic basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Shi, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors investigated the x-ray findings of 117 patients with peripheral lung cancer proved by operation and pathology, of them 35(29.9%) cases were found to have the 'nucleohalo sign', 6(13.6%) in 44 cases of solitary metastatic lung cancers, but none in 167 cases of benign lung nodular lesions and 4 cases of primary lung sarcoma and lymphoma. Radiologic and pathologic correlative study of the nucleohalo sign with surgical specimens of 14 lung cancers suggested that the cancerous parenchymas in nuclear areas were more than the interstitices in 12 cases and the other 2 were equal in both parenchymas and interstitices. Instead, the cancerous parenchymas in halo areas were less than cancerous interstitices in all cases. Dynamic observation of the 'nucleohalo sign' showed that this sign was an appearance of a stage in cancer growth. It is considered a very important sign in x-ray diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer, especially in the early diagnosis of lung cancer under or equal to 3 cm in diameter

  10. The value of auditing negative lower GI investigations preceding a final diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasekar, A; James, L; Stephenson, B M; Thompson, I W; Vellacott, K D; Allison, M C

    2009-09-01

    To review all preceding 'negative' large bowel investigations in patients with a final diagnosis of colorectal cancer, and to examine whether delayed diagnosis was associated with worse outcome. Details were gathered on all patients with a new diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma presenting over 4.5 years. For each patient the hospital's clinical workstation and radiology and endoscopy databases were interrogated for all flexible sigmoidoscopies, colonoscopies and barium enemas during the 5 years prior to diagnosis. Among the 570 patients, 28 (5%) had undergone colonoscopy and/or flexible sigmoidoscopy that had not shown colorectal cancer during the 5 years preceding final diagnosis, and a further 28 (5%) had undergone 'negative' barium enemas. Polyp surveillance might have missed four lesions destined to become malignant. Correspondingly there were three patients undergoing IBD surveillance found to have CRC, having had a negative complete colonoscopy within the preceding 5 years. Among patients undergoing de novo colonoscopy for diagnosis the true miss rate was only one patient per year. At August 2007, 29 (58%) of those with delayed diagnosis were still alive, compared with 216 (42%) of those diagnosed during initial investigation (chi2 = 5.04, P auditing the quality assurance of lower gastrointestinal diagnostic services. Despite the delay, late diagnosis was found to be associated with improved survival and a lower likelihood of metastatic disease.

  11. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer:Initial experience of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To describe the introduction and evaluate efficacy of photodynamic diagnosis with Hexvix fordetecting tumours and abnormal mucosal lesions during transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). Subjects and methods: Prospective study of consecutive eligible patients who underwent TURBT with aidof ...

  12. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF METACHRONOUS TESTICULAR CANCER: A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalpinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of bilateral testicular cancer is 5% in the total cohort of patients. Synchronous and metachronous testicular cancers are detected in 1-2 and 3% of cases, respectively. The standard treatment for testicular cancer is orchifuniculectomy and that for synchronous or metachronous cancer is organ-saving treatment, testectomy.The paper describes a clinical case of multiple primary metachronous testicular cancer. A 24-year-old patient underwent surgery (orchifuniculectomy and received 4 courses of BEP polychemotherapy for embryonal carcinoma of the left testicle at the P.A. Herzen Moscow Oncology Research Institute. After 55 months, a dynamic control examination diagnosed a 9-mm tumor in his single right testis that was thereafter resected. Its histological examination revealed embryonal carcinoma with solitary structures in the immature teratoma. Following 22 months, a control examination showed a recurrence of the disease, for which orchifuniculectomy of the single right testis, followed by hormone replacement therapy, was performed. The follow-up period was 80 months; no recurrence is now observed.

  13. Recurrence after surgery due to cervical cancer - An evaluation of the follow-up program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective During the last 20 years the follow-up program after surgical treatment for cervical cancer has remained unchanged. Surprisingly, little is communicated in relation to the follow-up program even though it has a huge impact on the life of the women and their relatives for five years....... The focus for this study is to evaluate the follow-up program in fulfilling the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence while reminding and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery, 10 times during five years. Already politicians are focusing on the subject due to the socioeconomic...... consequences, but there is a need for a foundation prior to an adjustment of the follow-up program. Methods Design: retrospective study of a cohort of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer. Material: From the patient register at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics...

  14. Does the diagnosis of breast or ovarian cancer trigger referral to genetic counseling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C Bethan; Littell, Ramey; Hoodfar, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Fiona; Pressman, Alice

    2013-03-01

    Kaiser Permanente Northern California is a large integrated health care delivery system in the United States that has guidelines for referring women with newly diagnosed BRCA1-and BRCA2-associated cancers for genetic counseling. This study assesses adherence to genetic counseling referral guidelines within this health system. Chart review was performed to identify patients with cancer who met the following pathology-based Kaiser Permanente Northern California guidelines for referral for genetic counseling: invasive breast cancer, younger than age 40; nonmucinous epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer, younger than age 60; women with synchronous or metachronous primary cancers of the breast and ovaries; and male breast cancer. We assessed compliance with referral guidelines. An electronic notice was sent to the managing physician of patients with newly diagnosed cancer to assess the feasibility of this intervention. A total of 340 patients were identified with breast cancer at younger than age 40 or with ovarian, peritoneal, or tubal cancer between January and June, 2008. Upon chart review, 105 of these patients met pathology-based criteria for referral to genetic counseling, of whom 47 (45%) were referred within the 2-year study period. Of the 67 subjects with breast cancer, 40 subjects (60%) were referred. In contrast, only 7 (21%) of 33 patients with ovarian cancer were referred (P < 0.001). A pilot study was performed to test the feasibility of notifying managing oncologists with an electronic letter alerting them of eligibility for genetic referral of patients with new diagnosis (n = 21). In the 3 to 6 months after this notification, 12 of these 21 patients were referred for counseling including 5 of 7 patients with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. There is a missed opportunity for referring patients to genetic counseling, especially among patients with ovarian cancer. A pilot study suggests that alerting treating physicians is a feasible

  15. Genetic determinants of psychic resilience after a diagnosis of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Drago, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity between cancer and psychiatric disorders including adjustment disorder, depressive disorders or angst can seriously influence the prognosis and the quality of life of patients. The identification of the psychological and biological profile of patients at risk for such comorbidity is n...... on the investigation of the Gene X Environment and the epigenetic control over the activation of the HPA axis is proposed as a tool to refine the definition of the biologic profile at risk for comorbidity between psychiatry and cancer....... is not yet available. Classical candidate genes such as the BDNF, the 5-HTLPR and genes whose products are involved in inflammatory events have received some attention, but results are inconclusive.the present review the association between cancer and psychiatric disorders is reviewed, a focus...

  16. THE ABILITY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER METASTASES IN CERVICAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Kryazheva; M. A. Chekalova; Z. R-B. Musaeva; V. V. Kuznetsov

    2017-01-01

    Objective: to explore the possibilities of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis of liver metastases in patients with a diagnosis of cervical cancer.Materials and methods. We analyzed the results of 4 clinical cases, of which 3 cases according CEUS diagnosed with liver metastases, in 1 case – nodular hyperplasia.Results and conclusions. Despite the small number of observations, we have concluded that the use of CEUS allows to expand possibilities of the ultrasound method in the...

  17. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer using Molecular, Biochemical and Pathological Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Salah E.D. El-Assal; Adel A. El-Tarras; Samir M. Abd-alla

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Laboratory diagnosis of breast cancer in most of the hospitals has traditionally been performed using cell culture and the direct hormone receptor assay, which are money and time consuming. Approach: This study was performed in order to direct the attention toward increasing the efficiency of early diagnosis in clinical laboratories at the western region of KSA and Egypt using recent PCR-dependent protocols i.e., Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) and Reverse Transc...

  18. Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment of Brain Metastases from the Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi LIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer with brain metastasis was 23% to 65%, and is the most common type in brain metastasis tumors with the poor prognosis. At present, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung carcinoma and its molecular mechanism have become one hot spot of amount researches. Here, we made a systematic review of the progress of the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of brain metastases from lung and its molecular mechanism.

  19. Pre-diagnosis employment status and financial circumstances predict cancer-related financial stress and strain among breast and prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Linda; Timmons, Aileen

    2016-02-01

    Cancer may have a significant financial impact on patients, but the characteristics that predispose patients to cancer-related financial hardship are poorly understood. We investigated factors associated with cancer-related financial stress and strain in breast and prostate cancer survivors in Ireland, which has a complex mixed public-private healthcare system. Postal questionnaires were distributed to 1373 people diagnosed with cancer 3-24 months previously identified from the National Cancer Registry Ireland. Outcomes were cancer-related financial stress (impact of cancer diagnosis on household ability to make ends meet) and financial strain (concerns about household financial situation since cancer diagnosis). Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) for factors associated with cancer-related financial stress and strain. Seven hundred forty survivors participated (response rate = 54 %). Of the respondents, 48 % reported cancer-related financial stress and 32 % cancer-related financial strain. Compared to those employed at diagnosis, risk of cancer-related financial stress was significantly lower in those not working (RR = 0.71, 95 % CI 0.58-0.86) or retired (RR = 0.48, 95 % CI 0.34-0.68). It was significantly higher in those who had dependents; experienced financial stress pre-diagnosis; had a mortgage/personal loans; had higher direct medical out-of-pocket costs; and had increased household bills post-diagnosis. For cancer-related financial strain, significant associations were found with dependents, pre-diagnosis employment status and pre-diagnosis financial stress; risk was lower in those with higher direct medical out-of-pocket costs. Cancer-related financial stress and strain are common. Pre-diagnosis employment status and financial circumstances are important predictors of post-diagnosis financial wellbeing. These findings could inform development of tools to identify patients/survivors most in need of financial

  20. National program of breast cancer early detection in Brod-Posavina County (East Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Irena; Kolovrat, Ana; Mitrečić, Drago; Cvitković, Ante

    2014-09-01

    Results of the National Program of Breast Cancer Early Detection in Brod-Posavina County during the 2006-2012 period are presented. Response rate in two National Program cycles, cancers detected according to factors such as first and last menstruation, age at cancer detection, deliveries and mammography findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) before diagnosis verification were analyzed. Data were obtained from the software connecting Public Health Institutes via Ministry of Health server and questionnaires filled out by the women presenting for screening and processed by the method of descriptive statistics. Mammography findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. In two National Program cycles during the 2006-2012 period, women aged 50-69 were called for mammography screening. In the first cycle, the response rate in Brod-Posavina County was 53.2%, with 71 cancers detected at a mean age of 61.3 years. In the second cycle, the response rate was 57.0%, with 44 cancers detected at a mean age of 62.5 years. In the first and second cycles, there were 21.1% and 14.3% of mammography findings requiring additional work-up (BI-RADS 0), respectively. Particular risk factors such as early menarche, late menopause, parity, positive family history and presence of benign breast lesions were not demonstrated in women with verified cancer. There was no increase in the incidence of breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in the Brod-Posavina County following implementation of the National Program. In conclusion, efforts should be focused on increasing public health awareness, ensuring appropriate professional staff engaged in screening, and improving medical care in order to reduce the time elapsed from establishing suspicion to confirming the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  1. The Role of Forensic Autopsies in Diagnosis of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Çengel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Death from cancer is mostly considered as natural deaths. The role of cancer on the cause of death in forensic cases like sudden deaths, negligence or malpractice claims are being investigated. In a small amount of forensic cases, cancer is found incidentally at the autopsy. The aim of this study was to reveal characteristics of the cases in which cancer was diagnosed and types of malignancies in medicolegal autopsies. In addition, the role of forensic autopsies in determining oncological diseases was discussed. Methods: Forensic autopsies were performed in the Morgue Department of Forensic Medicine Council in İzmir for eight years were retrospectively reviewed. Cases that postmortem histopathological examination performed and malignant tumors diagnosed were included in the study. Data about age, sex, location of tumors, immediate causes of death and the potential relation between tumors and the primary cause of death were investigated. Results: In eight year period (between 2001 and 2009, 3722 medicolegal autopsies were done by postmortem histopathological examination. In 86 cases such kind of tumors were observed. In seven of 86 cases the tumors were determined as benign and excluded from the study. The remaining 79 cases with malignant tumors included in the study, 63 (79.7% were male and 16 (20.3% were female, mean age 54.96±20.35 (range: 7-88 years. The tumors were most frequently located in respiratory system (35.4%, gastrointestinal system (19%, genitourinary system (10.1% and central nervous system (8.9%. The males most frequently had tumors in the respiratory system (42.9% and the females in the endocrine system (25%. According to histopathological classification of the tumors, the most frequent tumors were epithelial tumors (65.8%, followed by hemopoetic (12.7%, mesenchymal (7.6%, glial (5.1% and neuroendocrine tumors (2.5% and timoma (1.3%. The tumors could not be histopathologically differentiated in 5.1% of the deaths

  2. Design ensemble machine learning model for breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chen, Chi-Huang; Hsu, Kai-Ping; Lee, I-Shun; Wang, Zhenyu; Lai, Feipei

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we classify the breast cancer of medical diagnostic data. Information gain has been adapted for feature selections. Neural fuzzy (NF), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), quadratic classifier (QC), each single model scheme as well as their associated, ensemble ones have been developed for classifications. In addition, a combined ensemble model with these three schemes has been constructed for further validations. The experimental results indicate that the ensemble learning performs better than individual single ones. Moreover, the combined ensemble model illustrates the highest accuracy of classifications for the breast cancer among all models.

  3. Evaluation of clinical value of combined tumor markers detection in diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangming; Deng Shouzhen; Wang Yun; Xu Lianqin; He Wanting; Gao Quan; Lin Xiangtong

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate clinical value of single or combined tumor marker detection CY21-1, CEA, CA15-3 and SCC in the diagnosis of lung cancer. There was retrospective analysis of 87 lung cancer inpatients, all of them was confirmed by pathology. Results showed: (1) Sensitivity of CY21-1, CEA, CA15-3 and SCC by single detection in diagnosing lung cancer was 59.8%, 39.1%, 44.8%, 18.4%, respectively. (2) Sensitivity of group I (CY21-1 + CEA) was 78.2%; sensitivity of group II (CY21-1 + CEA + CA15-3) was 88.5%; sensitivity of group III (CY21-1 + CEA + CA15-3 + SCC) was the same as group II. In the diagnosis of lung cancer, the combined detection with CY21-1, CEA, CA15-3 was an ideal selective combination

  4. The application value of PET-CT in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haitao

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in most of countries. During the past decades, the application of PET with 18 f-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glocuse ( 18 F-FDG) has remarkably improved the management of breast cancer. Nevertheless, due to anatomical localisation of 18 F-FDG uptake was difficult, the clinical interpretation of 18 F-FDG PET scan could not be exactly. A novel combined PET-CT system has largely improved the capacity of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of breast cancer. In this artiacal we focus on the application value of PET-CT to breast cancer diagnosis, with respect to dissease re-staging, treatment monitoring, preoperative staging and radiotherapy planning. (authors)

  5. Diagnosis and staging of breast cancer by SPECT images fused with CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanjing; Zhu Qiaomei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the TNM staging value of 99mTc-MIBI scintimammotraphy with SPECT-CT images fusing for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods: 10 patients with breast cancer underwent scintimammography with 99mTc-MIBI, and SPECT images were fused with CT images. Images were compared with final diagnosis confirmed by histopathology. Results: Of the 19 breast cancer patients, one case of invasive ductal carcinoma showed false-negative. Among 18 cases of positive lesions, axillary metastases were involved in 10, supraclavicular nodes were also defined in 3, para-sternum nodes were involved in 2, 2 were missed and 1 cases without metastatic node. The axillary lymph nodes were divided into three levels with respect to their position relative to the pectoralis minor muscle by fused images. Conclusion: 99mTc-MIBI scintimammotraphy combined with SPECT-CT images fusing is of some clinical value in TNM staging of breast cancer. (authors)

  6. The usefulness of FDG-PET for diagnosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Ikeda, Masataka; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Nomura, Masaya; Takemasa, Ichiro; Fukunaga, Hiroki; Higuchi, Ichiro; Monden, Morito

    2006-01-01

    The local recurrence is the most frequently encountered recurrent pattern after radical resection of rectal cancer. We show the results of our study evaluating the usefulness of FDGPET (PET) and fusion image of PET and CT for the diagnosis of local recurrence of rectal cancer. Forty-two patients with a suspicious local recurrence after curative resection of rectal cancer were prospectively recruited and underwent PET and CT. The fusion image yielded a correct diagnosis in 39 (93%) of 42 patients, whereas CT alone and PET alone did so in 33 (79%) and 37 (88%) patients, respectively. The fusion image had better diagnostic accuracy than CT alone (P=.0138) and PET alone (P=.0156), and altered patient management in 11 (26.2%) cases on the basis of additional information. Fusion image had a potential clinical value in the treatment of suspected local recurrence of rectal cancer. (author)

  7. Evaluation of detection methodology for carcinoembryonic antigen and application of CEA in diagnosis of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Enlan; Li Tao

    2005-01-01

    To compare the specificity and sensitivity of different methods in detection of CEA, and to investigate the application of CEA detection in diagnosis of gastric cancer, CEA in serum of 36 patients with gastric cancer and 20 negtive reference serum was detected by ELISA, TR- FIA, RIA and CLIA. The results showed that the specificity of these 4 methods was all 100% and the sensitivity of ELISA was the lowest (19.4%) while CLIA was the highest (44.4%). Therefore, the sensitivity of ELISA should be raised and CEA, besides used as an observation index for curative effects in a part of gastric cancer patients, can not be used in diagnosis of gastric cancer. (authors)

  8. Machine Learning for Nuclear Mechano-Morphometric Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Adityanarayanan; Damodaran, Karthik; Soylemezoglu, Ali C; Uhler, Caroline; Shivashankar, G V

    2017-12-20

    Current cancer diagnosis employs various nuclear morphometric measures. While these have allowed accurate late-stage prognosis, early diagnosis is still a major challenge. Recent evidence highlights the importance of alterations in mechanical properties of single cells and their nuclei as critical drivers for the onset of cancer. We here present a method to detect subtle changes in nuclear morphometrics at single-cell resolution by combining fluorescence imaging and deep learning. This assay includes a convolutional neural net pipeline and allows us to discriminate between normal and human breast cancer cell lines (fibrocystic and metastatic states) as well as normal and cancer cells in tissue slices with high accuracy. Further, we establish the sensitivity of our pipeline by detecting subtle alterations in normal cells when subjected to small mechano-chemical perturbations that mimic tumor microenvironments. In addition, our assay provides interpretable features that could aid pathological inspections. This pipeline opens new avenues for early disease diagnostics and drug discovery.

  9. Socioeconomic position and stage at diagnosis of head and neck cancer - a nationwide study from DAHANCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Maja Halgren; Bøje, Charlotte Rotbøl; Kjær, Trille Kristina

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic position and advanced stage HNSCC at diagnosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Men and women with HNSCC diagnosed between 1992 and 2008 were identified in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) database, which contains detailed information on all cases of HNSCC treated in Denmark. Individual...... information on the following four socioeconomic indicators: highest attained educational level, cohabitation status, disposable income and degree of urbanisation were obtained from Statistics Denmark. For the 9683 cases on which there was full information, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) for a diagnosis...... for hypopharynx cancer patients living in rural areas or provincial cities. Having one or more comorbid conditions was associated with an increased OR for advanced stage oral cancer but with a decreased OR for oropharynx cancer. CONCLUSION: In this nationwide population-based study, socioeconomic differences...

  10. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis: stability and adaptive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with chemotherapy (n=47), breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy (n=32) and in healthy women (n=58) at 3, 9 and 15 months after diagnosis. Results indicate that personal control was affected only in patients treated with chemotherapy, particularly right after the completion of treatment. Furthermore, the cross-sectional and longitudinal results provide modest support for the stress-buffering potential of control. The findings and future directions of research on the role of personal control in the adjustment to cancer will be discussed. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Diverticular Disease and Colorectal Cancer: Incidental Diagnosis or Real Association? Final Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Jaroslaw

    2016-10-01

    Associations between diverticular disease of the colon and the colorectal cancer has been studied for >60 years. Observational, cross-sectional, and case-control studies as well as large population-based studies gave conflicting results and association was not fully proven. Obtaining the proof was difficult because both diseases share similar clinical characteristics, both increase with age, and both involve similar dietary factors. Long-term observations are difficult as diagnostic methods changed over time from barium enema 50 to 60 years ago, through endoscopy, up to CT and MR in recent years. Cancer or adenomas may be missed within diverticular segment; diverticula may be underreported in patients with colon cancer diagnosis. Most recent 2 large cohort studies have solved the dilemma. These studies have clearly shown that diverticular disease does not increase the risk of colon cancer after the first year of diagnosis. Within the first year of diagnosis the association is strong, most probably due to difficulties with differential diagnosis and misclassifications and shared symptoms. Findings of these studies have led to the conclusion that colon cancer has to be excluded using modern techniques after the first episode of suspected diverticulitis.

  12. The association of diagnosis in the private or NHS sector on prostate cancer stage and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiere, J M; Greenberg, D C; Wright, K A; Brown, C H; Palmer, C; Neal, D E; Lyratzopoulos, G

    2012-03-01

    To examine associations of private healthcare with stage and management of prostate cancer. Regional population-based cancer registry information on 15 916 prostate cancer patients. Compared with patients diagnosed in the National Health Service (NHS) (94%), those diagnosed in private hospitals (5%) were significantly more affluent (69 versus 52% in deprivation quintiles 1-2), younger (mean 69 versus 73 years) and diagnosed at earlier stage (72 versus 79% in Stages Private hospital of diagnosis was independently associated with lower probability of advanced disease stage [odds ratio (OR) 0.75, P = 0.002], higher probability of surgery use (OR 1.28, P = 0.037) and lower probability of radiotherapy use (OR 0.75, P = 0.001). Private hospital of diagnosis independently predicted higher surgery and lower radiotherapy use, particularly in more deprived patients aged ≤ 70. In prostate cancer patients, private hospital diagnosis predicts earlier disease stage, higher use of surgery and lower use of radiotherapy, independently of case-mix differences between the two sectors. Substantial socioeconomic differences in stage and treatment patterns remain across centres in the NHS, even after adjusting for private sector diagnosis. Cancer registration data could be used to identify private care use on a population basis and the potential associated treatment disparities.

  13. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  14. MRI-Targeted or Standard Biopsy for Prostate-Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasivisvanathan, Veeru; Rannikko, Antti S; Borghi, Marcelo; Panebianco, Valeria; Mynderse, Lance A; Vaarala, Markku H; Briganti, Alberto; Budäus, Lars; Hellawell, Giles; Hindley, Richard G; Roobol, Monique J; Eggener, Scott; Ghei, Maneesh; Villers, Arnauld; Bladou, Franck; Villeirs, Geert M; Virdi, Jaspal; Boxler, Silvan; Robert, Grégoire; Singh, Paras B; Venderink, Wulphert; Hadaschik, Boris A; Ruffion, Alain; Hu, Jim C; Margolis, Daniel; Crouzet, Sébastien; Klotz, Laurence; Taneja, Samir S; Pinto, Peter; Gill, Inderbir; Allen, Clare; Giganti, Francesco; Freeman, Alex; Morris, Stephen; Punwani, Shonit; Williams, Norman R; Brew-Graves, Chris; Deeks, Jonathan; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Emberton, Mark; Moore, Caroline M

    2018-05-10

    Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with or without targeted biopsy, is an alternative to standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy for prostate-cancer detection in men with a raised prostate-specific antigen level who have not undergone biopsy. However, comparative evidence is limited. In a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we assigned men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously to undergo MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, or standard transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy. Men in the MRI-targeted biopsy group underwent a targeted biopsy (without standard biopsy cores) if the MRI was suggestive of prostate cancer; men whose MRI results were not suggestive of prostate cancer were not offered biopsy. Standard biopsy was a 10-to-12-core, transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy. The primary outcome was the proportion of men who received a diagnosis of clinically significant cancer. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of men who received a diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancer. A total of 500 men underwent randomization. In the MRI-targeted biopsy group, 71 of 252 men (28%) had MRI results that were not suggestive of prostate cancer, so they did not undergo biopsy. Clinically significant cancer was detected in 95 men (38%) in the MRI-targeted biopsy group, as compared with 64 of 248 (26%) in the standard-biopsy group (adjusted difference, 12 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4 to 20; P=0.005). MRI, with or without targeted biopsy, was noninferior to standard biopsy, and the 95% confidence interval indicated the superiority of this strategy over standard biopsy. Fewer men in the MRI-targeted biopsy group than in the standard-biopsy group received a diagnosis of clinically insignificant cancer (adjusted difference, -13 percentage points; 95% CI, -19 to -7; Pprostate cancer who had not undergone biopsy previously. (Funded by the National Institute for

  15. Application of Quantum Dots-Based Biotechnology in Cancer Diagnosis: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular and in vivo molecular imaging. More and more researches showed that QDs-based technology may become a promising approach in cancer research. In this review, we focus on recent application of QDs in cancer diagnosis and treatment, including early detection of primary tumor such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer, as well as regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. With the development of QDs synthesis and modification, the effect of QDs on tumor metastasis investigation will become more and more important in the future.

  16. Social inequalities in stage at diagnosis of rectal but not in colonic cancer: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We investigated stage at diagnosis in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) among 15 274 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 1996-2004 nationwide in Denmark. The effect of SES on the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was analysed using logistic regression models....... A reduction in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis was seen in elderly rectal cancer patients with high income, living in owner-occupied housing and living with a partner. Among younger rectal cancer patients, a reduced risk was seen in those having long education. No social gradient was found...... among colon cancer patients. The social gradient found in rectal cancer patients was significantly different from the lack of association found among colon cancer patients. There are socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of being diagnosed with distant metastasis of a rectal, but not a colonic, cancer...

  17. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a

  18. Advances in diagnosis and follow-up in kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioja, Jorge; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Laguna, M. Pilar

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the most recent data on preoperative diagnostic methods in kidney cancer and in follow-up and monitoring after ablation therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the role of the percutaneous biopsy in the diagnostics of renal masses has been limited, new data suggest a high

  19. The Adjunctive Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Lung Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT and digital mammography (DM for breast cancers. Materials and Methods. Fifty-seven female patients with pathologically proved breast cancer were enrolled. Three readers gave a subjective assessment superiority of the index lesions (mass, focal asymmetry, architectural distortion, or calcifications and a forced BIRADS score, based on DM reading alone and with additional DBT information. The relevance between BIRADS category and index lesions of breast cancer was compared by chi-square test. Result. A total of 59 breast cancers were reviewed, including 17 (28.8% mass lesions, 12 (20.3% focal asymmetry/density, 6 (10.2% architecture distortion, 23 (39.0% calcifications, and 1 (1.7% intracystic tumor. Combo DBT was perceived to be more informative in 58.8% mass lesions, 83.3% density, 94.4% architecture distortion, and only 11.6% calcifications. As to the forced BIRADS score, 84.4% BIRADS 0 on DM was upgraded to BIRADS 4 or 5 on DBT, whereas only 27.3% BIRADS 4A on DM was upgraded on DBT, as BIRADS 4A lesions were mostly calcifications. A significant P value (<0.001 between the BIRADS category and index lesions was noted. Conclusion. Adjunctive DBT gives exquisite information for mass lesion, focal asymmetry, and/or architecture distortion to improve the diagnostic performance in mammography.

  20. Diagnosis of prostate cancer with needle biopsy: Should all cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The triad of digital rectal examination (DRE), serum prostate specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound‑guided prostate biopsy is used in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). It is recommended that all cases of PCa should be diagnosed with needle biopsy before treatment. The exclusion criteria for those ...

  1. Prostate cancer: computer-aided diagnosis on multiparametric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Laura; Racoceanu, Daniel; Renard Penna, Raphaele; Ezziane, Malek

    2017-11-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in men, being also the second most deadly cancer after lung cancer. There is increasing interest in active surveillance and minimally invasive focal therapies in PCa to avoid morbidities associated with whole gland therapy. Tumor volume represents an essential prognostic factor of PCa and the definition of index lesion volume is critical for appropriate decision making, especially for image guide focal treatment or in case of active surveillance. Multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mp-MRI) is the modality of choice for the detection and the localization of PCa foci. However, little has been published on mp-MRI accuracy in determining PCa volume, especially at 3T. There is insufficient evidence and no consensus to determine which of the methods for measuring volume is optimal. The objective of this study concerns the elaboration of an algorithm for automatic interpretation of mp-MRI. We determine the accuracy of the proposed method by comparing the prostate tumor volume issued from the automated volumetric mp-MRI measurements of the tumoral region, with manual and semi-automated volumetric measurements done by and respectively with radiologists. Information issued from whole mount histopathology is used to validate the whole approach.

  2. Bladder cancer: epidemiology, staging and grading, and diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirkali, Z.; Chan, T.; Manoharan, M.; Algaba, F.; Busch, C.; Cheng, L.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Kriegmair, M.; Montironi, R.; Murphy, W.M.; Sesterhenn, I.A.; Tachibana, M.; Weider, J.

    2005-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variable natural history. At one end of the spectrum, low-grade Ta tumors have a low progression rate and require initial endoscopic treatment and surveillance but rarely present a threat to the patient. At the other extreme, high-grade tumors have a

  3. Individual trajectories in stress covary with immunity during recovery from cancer diagnosis and treatments☆

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Lisa M.; Andersen, Barbara L.; Crespin, Timothy R.; Carson, William E.

    2006-01-01

    Research connects stressful events with altered immune regulation, but the role of subjective stress is uncertain. Using a longitudinal design, we provide a statistically powerful test of the relationship between subjective stress (perceived stress, emotional distress) and immunity (T cell blastogenesis, natural killer cell cytotoxicity, [NKCC]) as individuals adjust to a severe stressor, a cancer diagnosis and its treatments. Women with regional breast cancer (N = 113) were assessed at diagn...

  4. Bayesian network modelling on data from fine needle aspiration cytology examination for breast cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Xuemei; Cao, Yi; Zhai, Jia; Maguire, Liam; Li, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Zeng, Jinshu; Liu, Shuo

    2017-01-01

    The paper employed Bayesian network (BN) modelling approach to discover causal dependencies among different data features of Breast Cancer Wisconsin Dataset (BCWD) derived from openly sourced UCI repository. K2 learning algorithm and k-fold cross validation were used to construct and optimize BN structure. Compared to Na‹ve Bayes (NB), the obtained BN presented better performance for breast cancer diagnosis based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) examination. It also showed that, amon...

  5. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Compined preoperative diagnosis of stomach cancer involvement of the abdominal and retroperitoneal organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.E.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Kolesnikova, E.K.; Bal'ter, S.A.; Ostrovtsev, I.V.; Dolgushin, B.I.; Mazurov, S.T.; Mironova, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of 136 cases of stomach cancer led to the determination of the role and place of gammatopography, echography, computerized X-ray tomography, angiography and laparoscopy in specified preoperative diagnosis of extraorganic spreading of primary tumors. The informative value and shortcomings of certain methods were shown. A high accuracy of the entire set of diagnostic procedures (94.8%) in the preoperative definition of stomach cancer involvement of the abdominal and retroperitoneal organs and tissues was emphasized

  7. Years of experience in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaker Valle, Isaac

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to demonstrate that the patients with thyroid cancer and metastases, in the long term have had a very good response to high radiation doses with iodine 131, since 1,5 Ci in the treatment, without having observed complications that should alter significantly the quality and quantity life. Also, to promote the initial use of more high doses of iodine 131 in those patients hospitalized with diagnosis of thyroid cancer

  8. BLINCK?A diagnostic algorithm for skin cancer diagnosis combining clinical features with dermatoscopy findings

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, Peter; Rosendahl, Cliff; Keir, Jeff; Cameron, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Deciding whether a skin lesion requires biopsy to exclude skin cancer is often challenging for primary care clinicians in Australia. There are several published algorithms designed to assist with the diagnosis of skin cancer but apart from the clinical ABCD rule, these algorithms only evaluate the dermatoscopic features of a lesion. Objectives: The BLINCK algorithm explores the effect of combining clinical history and examination with fundamental dermatoscopic assessment in primar...

  9. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  10. X-ray diagnosis of esophageal cancer and application of Borrmann's classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Soo Yil

    1985-01-01

    In 126 cases and who were diagnosed as esophageal cancer and treated by radiation at Cancer Research Hospital, K. A. E. R. I., from January 1974 to July 1979, a study on the x-ray diagnosis of esophageal cancer was carried out mainly as to the type classification. The ordinary classification od esophageal cancer by x-ray picture was reviewed and Borrmann's classification using gastric cancer was tried to apply to the macroscopic classification of esophageal cancer, and also the application of this classification to x-ray diagnosis was discussed. And the effect of radiotherapy as to each type of cancer according to the ordinary x-ray classification and Borrmann's classification was studied too. The results were as follows: 1. The ordinary x-ray classification was not simple, because the degree of progression of cancer, difference of mural invasion, and position and method of radiography could make misinterpretation of the type of cancer and the therapeutic effect by radiation as to each type according to this classification did not represent a significant characteristic too, although the radiation was most effective in the polypoidal type and least effective in funnel type. 2. The Borrmann's classification was relatively easy even on the radiogram because of little overlapping between each type and the type became more evident on the resected specimen after operation. And also some correlation was recognized between the type of Borrmann's classification and radiotherapeutic effect. The effect was best in type I and It was gradually decreased in type II, III, and IV in the other. The radiotherapy was ineffective in about three quarters of type IV. 3. The Borrmann's classification is now employed to the carcinoma of large bowel, as well as to the gastric cancer. If it is applied to the esophageal cancer, the macroscopic classification for the cancer of digestive tract can be systemized and it will be convenient in clinical study.

  11. THE ABILITY OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER METASTASES IN CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kryazheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the possibilities of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS in the diagnosis of liver metastases in patients with a diagnosis of cervical cancer.Materials and methods. We analyzed the results of 4 clinical cases, of which 3 cases according CEUS diagnosed with liver metastases, in 1 case – nodular hyperplasia.Results and conclusions. Despite the small number of observations, we have concluded that the use of CEUS allows to expand possibilities of the ultrasound method in the differential diagnosis of focal changes in the liver.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of CA 19-9 tumor marker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, V.V.; Slavnov, V.N.; Komissarenko, I.V.; Kovpak, N.A.; Kovalenko, A.E.; Guda, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Applicability of determining carbohydrate antigen CA 19-9 content in blood serum, tissue extracts, and thyroid tumor aspiration biopsy samples to the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant tumors of thyroid is studied. Radioimmunoassay was used for measurements. It is shown that determination of marker CA 19-9 in blood serum is not informationally capable for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Considerable increase in CA 19-9 concentration was found in tumor aspiration biopsy samples from patients with malignant tumors this fact can be used for preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer [ru

  13. Cost analysis of breast cancer diagnostic assessment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein-AbouHaidar, G N; Hoch, J S; Dobrow, M J; Stuart-McEwan, T; McCready, D R; Gagliardi, A R

    2017-10-01

    Diagnostic assessment programs (daps) appear to improve the diagnosis of cancer, but evidence of their cost-effectiveness is lacking. Given that no earlier study used secondary financial data to estimate the cost of diagnostic tests in the province of Ontario, we explored how to use secondary financial data to retrieve the cost of key diagnostic test services in daps, and we tested the reliability of that cost-retrieving method with hospital-reported costs in preparation for future cost-effectiveness studies. We powered our sample at an alpha of 0.05, a power of 80%, and a margin of error of ±5%, and randomly selected a sample of eligible patients referred to a dap for suspected breast cancer during 1 January-31 December 2012. Confirmatory diagnostic tests received by each patient were identified in medical records. Canadian Classification of Health Intervention procedure codes were used to search the secondary financial data Web portal at the Ontario Case Costing Initiative for an estimate of the direct, indirect, and total costs of each test. The hospital-reported cost of each test received was obtained from the host-hospital's finance department. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the cost of individual or group confirmatory diagnostic tests, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test or the paired t-test was used to compare the Ontario Case Costing Initiative and hospital-reported costs. For the 191 identified patients with suspected breast cancer, the estimated total cost of $72,195.50 was not significantly different from the hospital-reported total cost of $72,035.52 ( p = 0.24). Costs differed significantly when multiple tests to confirm the diagnosis were completed during one patient visit and when confirmatory tests reported in hospital data and in medical records were discrepant. The additional estimated cost for non-salaried physicians delivering diagnostic services was $28,387.50. It was feasible to use secondary financial data to retrieve the cost

  14. Screening prior to Breast Cancer Diagnosis: The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica B. Friedman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In November 2009, the U.S. Preventative Service Task Force (USPSTF revised their breast cancer screening guidelines. We evaluated the pattern of screening subsequent to the altered guidelines in a cohort of women. Methods. Our database was queried for the following variables: age, race, method of diagnosis, mass palpability, screening frequency, histology, and stage. Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson’s chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results. 1112 women were diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2010 to 2012. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years. Most cancers were detected on mammography (61%. The majority of patients had invasive ductal carcinoma (59%, stage 0 (23%, and stage 1 (50% cancers. The frequency of screening did not change significantly over time (P=0.30. However, nonregular screeners had an increased risk of being diagnosed with later stage breast cancer (P<0.001 and were more likely to present with a palpable mass compared to regular screeners (56% versus 21%; P<0.001. Conclusions. In our study, screening behavior did not significantly change in the years following the USPSTF guidelines. These results suggest that women who are not screened annually are at increased risk of a delay in breast cancer diagnosis, which may impact treatment options and outcomes.

  15. Delay in Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer among Women Attending a Reference Service in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiro Lopes, Tiara Cristina; Gravena, Angela Andréia França; Demitto, Marcela de Oliveira; Borghesan, Deise Helena Pelloso; Dell`Agnolo, Cátia Millene; Brischiliari, Sheila Cristina Rocha; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2017-11-26

    Background: Cancer is a major public health problem. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for reducing mortality. This study aimed to analyze factors associated with delay in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment among women attending a reference cancer service. Methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed with data collected from medical records and interviews conducted with women diagnosed with breast cancer and treated from October 2013 to October 2014 at a cancer reference hospital in Paraná, Southern Brazil. Results: A total of 82 participants were enrolled during the study period; their average age was 58.2 ± 11.5 years. The average time taken for final diagnosis of breast cancer was 102.5 ± 165.5 days. Treatment onset was delayed in the majority of cases, and the average time elapsing from diagnostic biopsy to onset of primary treatment was 72.3 ± 54.0 days. The odds of treatment delay were higher among the women with a low educational level. Conclusions: The results underline the need for proposals aimed at early detection, identification of risk factors and timely provision of treatment by health managers that focus on this group. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Impact of Marital Status on Tumor Stage at Diagnosis and on Survival in Male Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekolujo, Orimisan Samuel; Tadisina, Shourya; Koduru, Ujwala; Gernand, Jill; Smith, Susan Jane; Kakarala, Radhika Ramani

    2017-07-01

    The effect of marital status (MS) on survival varies according to cancer type and gender. There has been no report on the impact of MS on survival in male breast cancer (MBC). This study aims to determine the influence of MS on tumor stage at diagnosis and survival in MBC. Men with MBC ≥18 years of age in the SEER database from 1990 to 2011 were included in the study. MS was classified as married and unmarried (including single, divorced, separated, widowed). Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the 5-year cancer-specific survival. Multivariate regression analyses were done to determine the effect of MS on presence of Stage IV disease at diagnosis and on cancer-specific mortality. The study included 3,761 men; 2,647 (70.4%) were married. Unmarried men were more often diagnosed with Stage IV MBC compared with married (10.7% vs. 5.5%, p Unmarried men (compared with married) were significantly less likely to undergo surgery (92.4% vs. 96.7%, p unmarried males with Stages II, III, and IV MBC have significantly worse 5-year cancer-specific survival compared with married. On multivariate analysis, being unmarried was associated with increased hazard of death (HR = 1.43, p Unmarried males with breast cancer are at greater risk for Stage IV disease at diagnosis and poorer outcomes compared with married males.

  17. The clinical significance of CT in the preoperative diagnosis of colon and rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itano, Satoshi; Fuchimoto, Sadanori; Hamada, Fumihiro; Kimura, Takanobu; Orita, Kunzo

    1986-01-01

    The clinical significance of CT in the preoperative diagnosis of colon and rectal cancer was studied. Thirty four patients were investigated in this series. The diagnostic criteria of the CT examination were previously established in a study of wall invasion (S factor), lymph node metastasis (N factor), liver metastasis (H factor) and peritoneal dissemination (P factor). The CT diagnosis was done prospectively according to these criteria, and the CT diagnosis was compared with the macroscopic and histological diagnosis. The accuracy of the prospective diagnosis as to H, S, N and P factors was 79.4 %, 55.9 %, 41.2 % and 20.6 %, respectively. The diagnostic value of CT seemed to be acceptable as to the H factor, but limited to some extent to the S and N factors. (author)

  18. A retrospective analysis of delays in the diagnosis of lung cancer and associated costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildea TR

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas R Gildea,1 Stacey DaCosta Byfield,2 D Kyle Hogarth,3 David S Wilson,4 Curtis C Quinn5 1Department of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine and Transplant Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Optum, Eden Prairie, MN, 3Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 4The Lung Institute, Columbus Regional Hospital, Columbus, IN, 5Cardiothoracic Surgery/Thoracic Surgery, Cardiothoracic Surgery of Charleston, Roper St. Francis Physician Partners Group, Charleston, SC, USA Purpose: Diagnosis of lung cancer at advanced stages can result in missed treatment opportunities, worse outcomes, and higher health care costs. This study evaluated the wait time to diagnose non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC and the cost of diagnosis and treatment based on the stage at diagnosis. Patients and methods: Adult patients diagnosed with NSCLC between January 2007 and September 2011 were identified from a proprietary oncology registry and linked to health insurance claims from a large US health insurance company. Continuous enrollment in the health plan was required for at least 12 months prediagnosis (baseline and at least 3 months postdiagnosis (follow-up. Use of diagnostic tests and time to diagnosis were examined. The rates of health care utilization and per-patient per-month (PPPM health care costs were calculated. Results: A total of 1,210 patients with NSCLC were included in the analysis. Most patients (93.6% had evidence of diagnostic tests beginning 5 to 6 months prior to diagnosis, and most were diagnosed at an advanced stage (23% Stage IIIb and 46% Stage IV. The PPPM total health care costs in USD pre- and postdiagnosis were $2,407±$3,364 (mean±standard deviation and $16,577±$33,550, respectively. PPPM total health care costs and utilization after lung cancer diagnosis were significantly higher among patients diagnosed at Stage

  19. Self-disclosure of breast cancer diagnosis by Iranian women to friends and colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Azarkish, Fatemeh; Latifnejadroudsari, Robab; Shandiz, Fatemeh Homaei; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Kermani, Ali Taghizadeh; Esmaily, Habib Ollah

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common form of cancer in Iranian women, and it remains a major health problem. An increasing number of young women are being diagnosed with BC, and therefore, there is an increasing likelihood that more women will survive breast cancer for many years. Many opine that self-disclosure of BC diagnosis is important because talking about cancer helps people to make sense of their experiences; in fact, self-disclosure appears to play an important role in many health outcomes. However, this has not yet been studied in BC patients in Iran. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the status of self-disclosure of BC diagnosis by Iranian women to friends and colleagues. All BC records for 2001-2011 of employed women were studied at five hospitals in Mashhad. Data about the self-disclosure of BC diagnosis were gathered through telephone interviews, and the participants filled out a questionnaire about their status of self-disclosure of BC diagnosis to various groups of people. The mean age of employed women at the time of diagnosis was 44.3 ± 6.7 years. Over 60% self-disclosed to work colleagues and over 90% to bosses/managers. Seventy per cent reported that they had support from their family and husband's family, while 95% reported that they had support from parents, siblings, children and friends. Most employed women self-disclosed freely to family, friends, colleagues and bosses/managers. Apparently, self-disclosure of breast cancer diagnosis may have negative effects at work. About half of patients reported that they had support from family, managers and colleagues; however, for nearly 28% of employed women, disclosure had less positive effects. In particular, it altered their perception of others, produced difficulties with work and family and diminished closeness with the people who were told. However, the stigma of BC is far less than it once was.

  20. Prognostic factors and diagnosis of extent of the bile duct cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Masahiro; Chijiiwa, Kazuo; Otani, Kazuhiro; Ouchida, Jiro; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Nagano, Motoaki; Hiyoshi, Masahide; Imamura, Naoya

    2009-01-01

    To improve the survival of the patients with extrahepatic bile duct cancer, the factors influencing survival and the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis were examined. The factors influencing survival were retrospectively analyzed in 115 patients (mid and lower; n=61, hilar and superior; n=44, diffusely spread; n=10) with extrahepatic bile duct cancer who underwent surgical resection from 1990 to 2008. The preoperative diagnosis of the tumor extension using multi detector row CT (MDCT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) was compared with the final pathological diagnosis in patients underwent surgical resection (mid and lower; n=32, hilar and superior; n=11, diffusely spread; n=8) from 2003 to 2008. In patients with mid and lower bile duct cancer (n=61), lymph node metastasis and surgical margin were the independent prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis. Whereas none was found in hilar and superior bile duct cancer (n=44). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the preoperative diagnosis for the depth of tumor invasion (serosal and/or pancreas invasion) was 66.7%, 69.4% and 68.6%, and for the liver invasion was 100%, 88.0%, 88.2%, and for the lymph node metastasis was 76.9%, 71.0%, 72.5%, respectively. More than a few cases were under diagnosed the tumor extension. In patients with mid and lower bile duct cancer, the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis for the depth of tumor invasion (serosal and/or pancreas) was 59.4%. In patients with hilar and superior bile duct cancer, the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis for the serosal and hepatic invasion is 81.8% and 54.5%. Positive surgical margin was 9.1% for hilar and superior, 9.4% for mid and lower and 50.0% for diffusely spread bile duct cancer. Especially, The horizontal spread was difficult to evaluate in patients with diffusely spread bile duct cancer. From 2003 to 2008, the rate of positive surgical margin

  1. Lived experiences of breast cancer survivors after diagnosis, treatment and beyond: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Faustine; Jeanetta, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors has increased since 1990 due to advances in biomedical technology that lead to an increase in early diagnosis and treatment. Research on survivorship has focused on the psychological and treatment aspects of the disease. The goal of this study was focused on exploring the lived experiences of breast cancer survivors from diagnosis, treatment and beyond. To understand the lived experiences of women who are breast cancer survivors. A purposive sampling strategy was used to recruit participants from two Missouri cancer centres. A total of 15 women breast cancer survivors were interviewed. Three major themes emerged that described the lived experiences of the women. These were factors from the diagnosis and treatment management impacting survivorship, relationship and support system and implication of survivorship. Participants noted that coping with the diagnosis and treatment was a stressful journey and required lots of adjustment and changes. Some developed various techniques such as journaling their activities which provided comfort. In addition, support from family was shared as the key which gave them strength and courage through the different stages of treatment. However, they found it difficult to articulate what survivorship meant. Using in-depth interview techniques, this study shed light on the experiences of women who were diagnosed with breast cancer and have completed treatment. They acknowledged frustration with their diagnosis and body changes. Support received from family and friends helped them cope through their treatment. However, they felt abandoned once the treatment phase was over and were uncertain what survivorhood meant to them. © 2015 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Laboratory diagnosis of pancreatitis and cancer of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyareva, I.I.; Gajsenko, A.V.; Putseva, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    The content of fibrin fibrinogen splitting products (FSP), radioimmune trypsine, C-peptide and carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 in the blood of 82 patients with acute pancreatitis (edematous and hemorrhagic), and chronic recurrent pancreatitis at the stage of exacerbation, 42 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 34 patients with cancer of the pancreas (stages 3-4) and 22 healthy persons were studied. Results indicate a high diagnostic value of determination FSP, trypsin and C-peptide in patients with acute pancreatitis and chronic recurring pancreatitis at the stage of exacerbation, trypsin and C-peptide in patients with chronic pancreatitis associated with severe exocrinous insufficiency of the pancreas, KA 19-9 in patients with cancer of the pancreas

  3. Low dose CT in early lung cancer diagnosis: prevalence data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, Luciano; Cortese, Giancarlo; Ferraris, Fabrizio; Perotto, Fabio; Fava, Cesare; Borasio, Piero; Dogliotti, Luigi; Novello, Silvia; Scagliotti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Lung cancer has a high mortality rate and its prognosis largely depends on early detection. We report the prevalence data of the study on early detection of lung cancer with low-dose spiral CT underway at our hospital. Materials and methods. Since the beginning of 2001, 519 asymptomatic volunteers have undergone annual blood tests, sputum tests, urinalyses and low-dose spiral CT. The inclusion criteria were age (55 years old), a history of cigarette smoking and a negative history for previous neoplastic disease. The diagnostic workup varied depending on the size and CT features of the nodules detected. Results. At baseline, the CT scan detected nodules> 5 mm in 22% of subjects; the nodules were single in 42 and multiple in 71. In 53% of cases the findings were completely negative, while in 122 (23.4%) nodules with a diameter [it

  4. Postdiagnosis Weight Change and Survival Following a Diagnosis of Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M; Kroenke, Candyce H; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Chen, Wendy Y; Prado, Carla M; Weltzien, Erin K; Castillo, Adrienne L; Caan, Bette J

    2017-01-01

    Achieving a healthy weight is recommended for all breast cancer survivors. Previous research on postdiagnosis weight change and mortality had conflicting results. We examined whether change in body weight in the 18 months following diagnosis is associated with overall and breast cancer-specific mortality in a cohort of n = 12,590 stage I-III breast cancer patients at Kaiser Permanente using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Follow-up was from the date of the postdiagnosis weight at 18 months until death or June 2015 [median follow-up (range): 3 (0-9) years]. We divided follow-up into earlier (18-54 months) and later (>54 months) postdiagnosis periods. Mean (SD) age-at-diagnosis was 59 (11) years. A total of 980 women died, 503 from breast cancer. Most women maintained weight within 5% of diagnosis body weight; weight loss and gain were equally common at 19% each. Compared with weight maintenance, large losses (≥10%) were associated with worse survival, with HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all-cause death of 2.63 (2.12-3.26) earlier and 1.60 (1.14-2.25) later in follow-up. Modest losses (>5%-breast cancer-specific death. Large postdiagnosis weight loss is associated with worse survival in both earlier and later postdiagnosis periods, independent of treatment and prognostic factors. Weight loss and gain are equally common after breast cancer, and weight loss is a consistent marker of mortality risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 44-50. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL THE ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "THE OBESITY PARADOX IN CANCER EVIDENCE AND NEW DIRECTIONS". ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Smoking habits of relatives of patients with cancer: cancer diagnosis in the family is an important teachable moment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayran, Mutlu; Kilickap, Saadettin; Elkiran, Tamer; Akbulut, Hakan; Abali, Huseyin; Yuce, Deniz; Kilic, Diclehan; Turhal, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the rate and habitual patterns of smoking, intentions of cessation, dependence levels and sociodemographic characteristics of relatives of patients with a diagnosis of cancer. This study was designed by the Turkish Oncology Group, Epidemiology and Prevention Subgroup. The relatives of cancer patients were asked to fill a questionnaire and Fagerstrom test of nicotine dependence. The median ages of those with lower and higher Fagerstrom scores were 40 years and 42 years, respectively. We found no evidence of variation between the two groups for the remaining sociodemographic variables, including the subject's medical status, gender, living in the same house with the patient, their educational status, their family income, closeness to their cancer patients or spending time with them or getting any help or wanting to get some help. Only 2% of the subjects started smoking after cancer was diagnosed in their loved ones and almost 20% of subjects had quit smoking during the previous year. The Fagerstrom score is helpful in determining who would be the most likely to benefit from a cigarette smoking cessation program. Identification of these people with proper screening methods might help us to pinpoint who would benefit most from these programs.

  6. Clinical relevance of hormone receptors in breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapstein, P.

    1981-01-01

    After an outline of the epidemiology of breast cancer, risk factors such as age, family history, ethnic factors, environmental effects, pregnancy, and hormonal factors are presented. The most efficient methods of early detection are palpation, mammography, and xeroradiography, although repeated mammography involves a risk of tumour induction. Further methods not suited for screeening are puncture cytology and thermography, of which the latter often yields wrong findings. New ways of mass screening may be found in sonography and microwave thermography. (MG) [de

  7. Cellular autofluorescence imaging for early diagnosis of cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkeste, Karine; Deniset, Ariane; Lecart, Sandrine; Leveque-Fort, Sandrine; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre; Ferlicot, Sophie; Eschwege, Pascal

    2005-08-01

    Urinary cytology is employed in diagnostic guidelines of bladder cancer in anatomo-pathological laboratories mostly for its ability to diagnose non detectable cancers using cystoscopy, but also because it is a non-invasive and non-constraining technique for a regular follow-up of the more exposed populations. The impossibility to detect such cancers is mainly due to their localization either in the bladder or in the upper urinary tract and the prostate. However, urinary cytology lacks sensitivity, especially for the detection of low grade low stage tumors due to inherent limitation of morphological criteria to distinguish low grade tumor cells from normal urothelial cells. For this purpose, we developed, in addition to urinary cytology, an original screening of these cytological slides by using spectrally-resolved and time-resolved fluorescence as a contrast factor, without changing any parameters in the cytological slide preparation. This method takes advantage of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, continuously tunable in the spectral range 700-950 nm allowing the observation of most endogenous cellular chromophores by biphotonic excitation. A commercial confocal microscope was also used in the measurements allowing an excitation of the samples between 458 nm and 633 nm. We observed that the fluorescence emission is differentially distributed in normal and pathological urothelial cells. Spectral- and time-resolved measurements attested this difference over about one hundred cases which have been tested to confirm the high accuracy of this non-invasive technique.

  8. Low 25-OH vitamin D levels at time of diagnosis and recurrence of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Teresa; Manganaro, Lucia; Petri, Luca; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Viggiani, Valentina; Angeloni, Antonio; Anastasi, Emanuela

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between 25-OH vitamin D and ovarian cancer as a diagnostic marker or recurrence disease marker. We studied the following: (1) 61 women without gynecologic diseases, (2) 45 women affected by benign ovarian disease, (3) 46 women with recent diagnosis of ovarian cancer, (4) 26 follow-up women with recurrent ovarian cancer, and (5) 32 follow-up women with stable ovarian cancer. The 25-OH vitamin D was quantified with LUMIPULSE® G 25-OH vitamin D on LUMIPULSE® G 1200 (Fujirebio, Japan). As a threshold value, identified by ROC curve analysis, 20.2 ng/mL (sensitivity 73.3 %, specificity 84 %) was chosen corresponding to the limit between sufficient and insufficient 25-OH vitamin D according to the WHO. Low 25-OH vitamin D levels were observed in 26 % of women without gynecologic diseases, in 80 % of women with recent diagnosis of ovarian cancer and in 24 % women affected by benign ovarian diseases (p < 0.001). The follow-up study showed an insufficient level of 25-OH vitamin D in 73 % women with recurrent ovarian cancer and in 47 % women with stable ovarian cancer (p < 0.0003). This study showed that patients with ovarian cancer are often insufficient in 25-OH vitamin D compared to women with benign ovarian diseases. The women with recurrent ovarian cancer presented more often low levels compared to women with stable ovarian cancer. This study suggests that 25-OH vitamin D, due to its antiproliferative properties, can be a good marker for ovarian cancer also.

  9. PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    degradation of several cancer -related proteins, including the androgen receptor , which is dysregulated in certain prostate cancers . Overall, the goal of my...Behavior of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Cells Turner, Williamson D., Xavier University of Louisiana, Class...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0677 TITLE: PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy L. Weigel

  10. Increased diagnostic activity in general practice during the year preceding colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pernille Libach; Hjertholm, Peter; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Accurate diagnostic activity in general practice before colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis is crucial for an early detection of CRC. This study aimed to investigate the rates of daytime consultations, hemoglobin (Hb) measurements and medicine prescriptions for hemorrhoids in general practice in the year preceding CRC diagnosis. Using Danish registries, we conducted a population-based matched cohort study including CRC patients aged 40-80 years (n = 19,209) and matched references (n = 192,090). We calculated odds ratios (ORs) using a conditional logistical regression model and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) using a negative binomial regression model. The CRC patients had significantly more consultations from 9 months before diagnosis and significantly increased rates of Hb measurements from up to 17 months before diagnosis compared with references. Furthermore, up to 18 months before diagnosis, CRC patients had significantly higher rates of prescriptions for hemorrhoids; and 2 months before diagnosis, the IRR was 12.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.29-14.55) for men. The positive predictive value (PPV) of CRC for having a first-time prescription for hemorrhoids was highest among men aged 70-80 years [PPV = 3.2% (95% CI: 2.8-3.7)]. High prescription rates were predominantly seen among rectal cancer patients, whereas colon cancer patients had higher rates of consultations and Hb measurements. This study revealed a significant increase in healthcare seeking and diagnostic activity in general practice in the year prior to CRC diagnosis, which indicates the presence of a "diagnostic time window" and a potential for earlier diagnosis of CRC based on clinical signs and symptoms. © 2015 UICC.

  11. [Current situation and thinking of diagnosis and treatment in some types of thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Y; Yu, Y; Li, D P; Dong, L

    2017-04-07

    As arising incidence of thyroid cancer, the treatment for thyroid carcinoma is becoming increasingly standardized. But there are different opinions on the treatment for some types of thyroid cancers, including the determination of operative opportunity, surgical method, and follow-up observation plan. There are mainly two categories of patients, namely the patients diagnosed as familial thyroid cancer mutation carriers through family screening, including medullary thyroid carcinoma and familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma, and the patients with thyroid microcarcinoma that can be observed after diagnosed by fine needle biopsy cytology. We will discuss current situation for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients.

  12. Use of radioimmunodetection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ferritin in diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, S.S.; Zakharychev, V.D.

    1989-01-01

    To study the diagnostic value of radioimmunoassay (RIA) of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and ferritin the level of this markers under lung cancer depending on the tumor localization and the process stage is determined. It is shown that determination of CEA and ferritin level in a number of patients with the peripheral lung cancer allows on the confirm the diagnosis. In case of the central cancer an increase of CEA level testifies to the tumor germination into the adjacent organs and lung tissue and allows one to determine the stage and operability of the disease. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  13. Application of monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of human digestive cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, Eigo

    2007-01-01

    Radioimmunoscintigraphic applications of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) for noninvasive detection and visualization of target tumors have grown immensely, and it suggests that Mabs can reach specifically to the targeted tumors in the human body. Radionuclides, cytotoxic drugs and anti-cancer drugs can be coupled to these specific MAbs to detect the extent of disease and/or to treat the tumors. Many of such immunoconjugates were studied for targeting therapy for cancer in animal experiments and some of them have applied to human. In this paper, we described the existing status of application of Mabs for diagnosis and immunotargeting therapy of digestive cancers. (author)

  14. Quantification of hemoglobin and its derivatives in oral cancer diagnosis by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyappan, Udayakumar; Gnanatheepam, Einstein; Aruna, Prakasarao; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2017-02-01

    Cancer is one of the most common threat to human beings and it increases at an alarming level around the globe. In recent years, due to the advancements in opto-electronic technology, various optical spectroscopy techniques have emerged to assess the photophysicochemical and morphological conditions of normal and malignant tissues in micro as well as in macroscopic scale. In this regard, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is considered to be the simplest, cost effective and rapid technique in diagnosis of cancerous tissues. In the present study, the hemoglobin concentration in normal and cancerous oral tissues was quantified and subsequent statistical analysis has been carried out to verify the diagnostic potentiality of the technique.

  15. The detection, diagnosis, therapy, and pre-clinical biology of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram covers clinical aspects of cancers of the mammary glands, the fat pads and the supporting tissues. Abstracts included concern certain specific types of neoplasms which occur in the breast, and in ancillary tissues related to the breast (axillary lymph nodes, etc.). Also included are selected studies on receptors and the physiological aspects of lactation, pregnancy, and ontogeny related to cancer of the breast. The topic includes clinically relevant aspects of the prevention, detection, diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of breast cancer. With certain exceptions, pre-clinical studies of tissue culture systems or animal model studies which are not directly related to primary human disease are excluded

  16. Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Sylvest Bergholt, Mads; Zheng, Wei; Yu Ho, Khek; Teh, Ming; Guan Yeoh, Khay; Bok Yan So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-08-01

    Optical spectroscopic techniques including reflectance, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy have shown promising potential for in vivo precancer and cancer diagnostics in a variety of organs. However, data-analysis has mostly been limited to post-processing and off-line algorithm development. In this work, we develop a fully automated on-line Raman spectral diagnostics framework integrated with a multimodal image-guided Raman technique for real-time in vivo cancer detection at endoscopy. A total of 2748 in vivo gastric tissue spectra (2465 normal and 283 cancer) were acquired from 305 patients recruited to construct a spectral database for diagnostic algorithms development. The novel diagnostic scheme developed implements on-line preprocessing, outlier detection based on principal component analysis statistics (i.e., Hotelling's T2 and Q-residuals) for tissue Raman spectra verification as well as for organ specific probabilistic diagnostics using different diagnostic algorithms. Free-running optical diagnosis and processing time of based on the randomly resampled training database (80% for learning and 20% for testing) provide the diagnostic accuracy of 85.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.9% to 88.2%] [sensitivity of 80.5% (95% CI: 71.4% to 89.6%) and specificity of 86.2% (95% CI: 83.6% to 88.7%)] for the detection of gastric cancer. The PLS-DA algorithms are further applied prospectively on 10 gastric patients at gastroscopy, achieving the predictive accuracy of 80.0% (60/75) [sensitivity of 90.0% (27/30) and specificity of 73.3% (33/45)] for in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristics curves further confirmed the efficacy of Raman endoscopy together with PLS-DA algorithms for in vivo prospective diagnosis of gastric cancer. This work successfully moves biomedical Raman spectroscopic technique into real-time, on-line clinical cancer diagnosis, especially in routine endoscopic diagnostic applications.

  17. Impact of Medicaid disenrollment in Tennessee on breast cancer stage at diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, Wafa W; Bradley, Cathy J; Bear, Harry D; Harless, David W; Sabik, Lindsay M

    2017-09-01

    States routinely may consider rollbacks of Medicaid expansions to address statewide economic conditions. To the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the effects of public insurance contractions on health outcomes. The current study examined the effects of the 2005 Medicaid disenrollment in Tennessee on breast cancer stage at the time of diagnosis and delays in treatment among nonelderly women. The authors used Tennessee Cancer Registry data from 2002 through 2008 and estimated a difference-in-difference model comparing women diagnosed with breast cancer who lived in low-income zip codes (and therefore were more likely to be subject to disenrollment) with a similar group of women who lived in high-income zip codes before and after the 2005 Medicaid disenrollment. The study outcomes were changes in stage of disease at the time of diagnosis and delays in treatment of >60 days and >90 days. Overall, nonelderly women in Tennessee were diagnosed at later stages of disease and experienced more delays in treatment in the period after disenrollment. Disenrollment was found to be associated with a 3.3-percentage point increase in late stage of disease at the time of diagnosis (P = .024), a 1.9-percentage point decrease in having a delay of >60 days in surgery (P = .024), and a 1.4-percentage point decrease in having a delay of >90 days in treatment (P = .054) for women living in low-income zip codes compared with women residing in high-income zip codes. The results of the current study indicate that Medicaid disenrollment is associated with a later stage of disease at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, thereby providing evidence of the potential negative health impacts of Medicaid contractions. Cancer 2017;123:3312-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Breast Cancer Disparities: A Multicenter Comparison of Tumor Diagnosis, Characteristics, and Surgical Treatment in China and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramaniam, Priya G; Zhang, Bai-Lin; Zhang, Qian; Smith, Jennifer S; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Guo-Ji; Xie, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Zhou; Yang, Hong-Jian; He, Jian-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Jia-Yuan; Fan, Jin-Hu; Qiao, You-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of and mortality rates for breast cancer continue to rise in the People's Republic of China. The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in characteristics of breast malignancies between China and the U.S. Data from 384,262 breast cancer patients registered in the U.S. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program from 2000 to 2010 were compared with 4,211 Chinese breast cancer patients registered in a Chinese database from 1999 to 2008. Outcomes included age, race, histology, tumor and node staging, laterality, surgical treatment method, and reconstruction. The Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare rates. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most common type of malignancy in the U.S. and China. The mean number of positive lymph nodes was higher in China (2.59 vs. 1.31, p China (stage IIA vs. I, p China (32.63 vs. 21.57 mm). Mean age at diagnosis was lower in China (48.28 vs. 61.29 years, p China, and 0.02% in China underwent reconstructive surgery. Chinese women were diagnosed at younger ages with higher stage and larger tumors and underwent more aggressive surgical treatment. Prospective trials should be conducted to address screening, surgical, and tumor discrepancies between China and the U.S. Breast cancer patients in China are diagnosed at later stages than those in America, which might contribute to different clinical management and lower 5-year survival rate. This phenomenon suggests that an earlier detection and treatment program should be widely implemented in China. By comparing the characteristics of Chinese and Chinese-American patients, we found significant differences in tumor size, lymph nodes metastasis, and age at diagnosis. These consequences indicated that patients with similar genetic backgrounds may have different prognoses due to the influence of environment and social economic determinates. ©AlphaMed Press.

  19. Is low survival for cancer in Eastern Europe due principally to late stage at diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Walsh, Paul M; Sánchez, Maria-José; Trama, Annalisa; Innos, Kaire; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Dimitrova, Nadya; Botta, Laura; Johannesen, Tom B; Rossi, Silvia; Sant, Milena

    2018-04-01

    Cancer survival has persistently been shown to be worse for Eastern European and UK/Ireland patients than those of other European regions. This is often attributed to later stage at diagnosis. However, few stage-specific survival comparisons are available, so it is unclear whether poorer quality treatment or other factors also contribute. For the first time, European cancer registries have provided stage-at-diagnosis data to EUROCARE, enabling population-based stage-specific survival estimates across Europe. In this retrospective observational study, stage at diagnosis (as TNM, condensed TNM, or Extent of Disease) was analysed for patients (≥15 years) from 15 countries grouped into 4 regions (Northern Europe: Norway; Central Europe: Austria, France, Germany, Switzerland, The Netherlands; Southern Europe: Croatia, Italy, Slovenia, and Spain; and Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, and Slovakia), diagnosed with 7 malignant cancers in 2000-2007, and followed to end of 2008. A new variable (reconstructed stage) was created which used all available stage information. Age-standardised 5-year relative survival (RS) by reconstructed stage was estimated and compared between regions. Excess risks of cancer death in the 5 years after diagnosis were also estimated, taking age, sex and stage into account. Low proportions of Eastern European patients were diagnosed with local stage cancers and high proportions with metastatic stage cancers. Stage-specific RS (especially for non-metastatic disease) was generally lower for Eastern European patients. After adjusting for age, sex, and stage, excess risks of death remained higher for Eastern European patients than for European patients in general. Late diagnosis alone does not explain worse cancer survival in Eastern Europe: greater risk of cancer death together with worse stage-specific survival suggest less effective care, probably in part because fewer resources are allocated to health care than in the rest of

  20. Lung cancer stage at diagnosis: Individual associations in the prospective VITamins and lifestyle (VITAL cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au David H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Identifying factors associated with stage of diagnosis can improve our understanding of biologic and behavioral pathways of lung cancer development and detection. We used data from a prospective cohort study to evaluate associations of demographic, health history, and health behaviors with early versus late stage at diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods We calculated odds ratios (ORs for the association of patient-level characteristics with advanced stage of diagnosis for NSCLC. The OR's were then adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, income, education, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a comorbidity index. Results We identified 612 cases of NSCLC among 77,719 adults, aged 50 to 76 years from Washington State recruited in 2000-2002, with followup through December 2007. In univariate analyses, subjects who quit smoking Conclusions Smoking status, education, and a screening activity were associated with stage at diagnosis of NSCLC. These results may guide future studies of the underlying mechanisms that influence how NSCLC is detected and diagnosed.

  1. Primary vaginal cancer: role of MRI in diagnosis, staging and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, J; Klopp, A H; Devine, C E; Sagebiel, T; Viswanathan, C; Bhosale, P R

    2015-01-01

    Primary carcinoma of the vagina is rare, accounting for 1–3% of all gynaecological malignancies. MRI has an increasing role in diagnosis, staging, treatment and assessment of complications in gynaecologic malignancy. In this review, we illustrate the utility of MRI in patients with primary vaginal cancer and highlight key aspects of staging, treatment, recurrence and complications. PMID:25966291

  2. Lifestyle after Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis in Relation to Survival and Recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutphen, van Moniek; Kampman, Ellen; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Duijnhoven, van Fränzel J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the evidence regarding diet, physical activity, smoking, and body composition after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis in relation to all-cause and CRC-specific mortality and disease recurrence and gives suggestions for future research directions. Recent

  3. Lifestyle after Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis in Relation to Survival and Recurrence: A Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutphen, M. van; Kampman, E.; Giovannucci, E.L.; Duijnhoven, F.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the evidence regarding diet, physical activity, smoking, and body composition after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis in relation to all-cause and CRC-specific mortality and disease recurrence and gives suggestions for future research directions. Recent

  4. Statistical classifiers on multifractal parameters for optical diagnosis of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Pratiher, Sawon; Kumar, Rajeev; Krishnamoorthy, Vigneshram; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2017-06-01

    An augmented set of multifractal parameters with physical interpretations have been proposed to quantify the varying distribution and shape of the multifractal spectrum. The statistical classifier with accuracy of 84.17% validates the adequacy of multi-feature MFDFA characterization of elastic scattering spectroscopy for optical diagnosis of cancer.

  5. Diagnosis of breast cancer: contribution of US as an adjunct to mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, H. M.; Coerkamp, E. G.; Hermans, J.; van de Vijver, M. J.; van Voorthuisen, A. E.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the value of ultrasonography (US) as an adjunct to mammography for the diagnosis of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a 2-year prospective study, 4,811 mammograms were classified according to level of suspicion of malignancy. Targeted US was performed to analyze (a)

  6. Increased risk of breast cancer development after diagnosis of salivary gland tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    In der Maur, Caroline D.; Klokman, Willem J.; van Leeuwen, Floor E.; Tan, I. Bing; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th; Balm, Alfons J. M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether patients with salivary gland tumours are at increased risk of developing breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Female patients (n = 439) with a salivary gland tumour (major and minor) were included. The diagnosis was confirmed

  7. Experiences of women with a diagnosis of breast cancer: a clinical pathway approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindop, E; Cannon, S

    2001-06-01

    The study presented in this paper formed the first part of a large survey of breast cancer patients in one health authority in England, UK looking at individual needs expressed by women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. The paper provides an account of the experiences of 12 women with a diagnosis of breast cancer. The women represent a wide age range and different stages of illness. The transcribed accounts of the women were analysed by means of Qualitative Solutions and Research, Non-Numerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theorising (QSR*NUDIST). The study examined the individual experiences of women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and its aftermath as they passed through different stages related to it. The women's experiences are presented within the conceptual framework of the clinical pathway and their accounts represent their journey along the pathway. Various significant points in this journey are portrayed representing the women's reactions to diagnosis, treatment, femininity and body image, support, family and friends, information and after care.

  8. CONCLUSION It is obvious that a diagnosis of breast cancer causes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    Hack, T.F. and Degner, L.F. Coping responses following breast cancer diagnosis predict psychological adjustment three years later. Journal of Psychoncology 2004; 13 (4): 235-. 247. 15. Zakowski, S., Hall, A., Klein, L. and Baum, A. Appraised control, coping and stress in a community Sample. A test of the goodness-of-fit.

  9. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg Evelyne, C. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light

  10. Overview of current multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging approach in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aydın

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily based on the utility and validity of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and staging of prostate gland tumors. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging, useful approach for evaluating and detecting prostate cancers. It also aids in the management of a tumor and improve the care and follow-up of patients.

  11. Using nuclear medicine technique in thyroid cancer diagnosis with comparison to ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: We used the following tests- thyroid uptake with I-131, Thyroid imaging with I-131 and Thyroid ultrasound and lymph node metastasis ultrasound. The results are as follows: 1.Thyroid uptake with I-131: This test was for the evaluation of normal thyroid tissue and function of thyroid cancer: The mean of uptake were: 12,7% at 2h and 28,53 % at 24 h after addition I-131. There was no relation to I-131 uptake with tumor size. (2) Thyroid imaging with I131: Diagnosis sensitivity was 98,1%. The cold nodules on scintigram were 92,5%. The warm nodules were 16,8%. And there were no hot nodules. (3) Thyroid ultrasound and lymph node metastasis ultrasound. Diagnosis sensitivity was 98,3%. Diagnosis sensitivity of lymph node metastasis is 94,1%, accuracy 96,6%. Nuclear medicine technique contributed very much to the diagnosis of thyroid cancer and other cancer diseases. We are using SPECT and other nuclear medicine technique in oncology diagnosis and follow-up therapy. (author)

  12. A systematic review of computer-assisted diagnosis in diagnostic cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadie, Leila H.; Taylor, Paul; Gibson, Adam P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study reviews the evidence for the effectiveness of computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) in cancer imaging. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the impact of CAD on radiologists’ detection and diagnosis of cancer lesions. Methods: Online databases were searched and 48 studies from 1992 to 2010 were included: 16 with radiologists using CAD to detect lesions (CADe) and 32 with radiologists using CAD to classify or diagnose lesions (CADx). Weighted means, statistics, summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC) curves, and related measures were used for analysis. Results: There is evidence that CADx significantly improves diagnosis in mammography and breast ultrasound. In contrast, studies of CADx applied to lung CT and dermatologic imaging show an adverse impact on diagnosis. Overall, there is no evidence of a benefit due to the use of CADe. The area under the SROC curves was not significantly increased for radiologists using either CADe or CADx. Conclusions: From this analysis it seems CADx can offer some benefit to radiologists in specific imaging applications for breast cancer diagnosis. There is no evidence of a beneficial effect in other applications of CAD and some evidence of a detrimental one.

  13. Evaluation of a cancer exercise program: patient and physician beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, C; Stewart, A; Segal, R; Wouterloot, E; Scott, C G; Aubry, T

    2009-08-01

    Participation in an exercise intervention during cancer treatment diminishes the side effects associated with cancer therapies, although such benefits vary according to the disease and the patient characteristics. A structured exercise program providing an individualized fitness program tailored to the patients' illness, treatment, and fitness level would address this variability. However, the need, desired components, and anticipated barriers of such a program have not been systematically explored from either the point of view of cancer patients or treating oncologists. Sixty-six cancer patients and 18 medical and radiation oncologists were surveyed on the above variables. Cancer patients and oncologists alike perceived a need for a structured exercise program during and after medical treatment for cancer. Among cancer patients, the most commonly preferred feature was access to consultation with an exercise specialist who could take into account the patient's previous exercise and medical history. Over a third of patients reported interest in a hospital-based fitness program. Oncologists were in favor of appropriate supervision of patients during exercise, and noted insufficient time to discuss exercise in their practice. Respondents noted time and parking as barriers to participation. Overall, results support the need for a supervised exercise program during active treatment for cancer and highlight the desired features of such a program.

  14. A network-based biomarker approach for molecular investigation and diagnosis of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bor-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Many studies have investigated the carcinogenic process and identified the biomarkers for signature classification. However, based on the research dedicated to this field, there is no highly sensitive network-based method for carcinogenesis characterization and diagnosis from the systems perspective. Methods In this study, a systems biology approach integrating microarray gene expression profiles and protein-protein interaction information was proposed to develop a network-based biomarker for molecular investigation into the network mechanism of lung carcinogenesis and diagnosis of lung cancer. The network-based biomarker consists of two protein association networks constructed for cancer samples and non-cancer samples. Results Based on the network-based biomarker, a total of 40 significant proteins in lung carcinogenesis were identified with carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs. In addition, the network-based biomarker, acting as the screening test, proved to be effective in diagnosing smokers with signs of lung cancer. Conclusions A network-based biomarker using constructed protein association networks is a useful tool to highlight the pathways and mechanisms of the lung carcinogenic process and, more importantly, provides potential therapeutic targets to combat cancer.

  15. Role of MicroRNA in the Diagnosis and Therapy of Hepatic Metastases from Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorti, Angeliki; Bangeas, Petros; Papavramidis, Theodossis S; Tsoulfas, Georgios

    2018-05-24

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in both genders and liver metastasis appear in more than 50% of patients with colorectal cancer, worsening its morbidity and mortality rates. The existing methods for the diagnosis and prognosis of colorectal cancer seem to be insufficient to predict its aggressiveness, leading to poor outcomes for the patient. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which interact with mRNAs in a post-transcriptional stage, and have been found to be involved in pathogenesis of cancer and its metastases. Their utility in diagnosis of colorectal liver metastasis gains ground through serum or tissue examination. Several miRNAs are related to colorectal cancer and its liver metastasis. Some of them have oncogenic and other tumor suppressive role in the development of colorectal liver metastasis, while many of them have been proved to be correlated with the overall survival and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. The aim of the present review is to give a detailed account of the different miRNAs that have been described as playing a role in hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer, emphasizing their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. MicroRNA: a new and promising potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Manish K.; Jaiswar, Shyam P.; Dwivedi, Vinaya N.; Tripathi, Amit K.; Dwivedi, Ashish; Sankhwar, Pushplata

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death among all gynecological malignancies. Despite the technological and medical advances over the past four decades, such as the development of several biological markers (mRNA and proteins biomarkers), the mortality rate of ovarian cancer remains a challenge because of its late diagnosis, which is specifically attributed to low specificities and sensitivities. Under this compulsive scenario, recent advances in expression biology have shifted in identifying and developing specific and sensitive biomarkers, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. MiRNAs are a novel class of small non-coding RNAs that deregulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, either by translational repression or by mRNA degradation. These mechanisms may be involved in a complex cascade of cellular events associated with the pathophysiology of many types of cancer. MiRNAs are easily detectable in tissue and blood samples of cancer patients. Therefore, miRNAs hold good promise as potential biomarkers in ovarian cancer. In this review, we attempted to provide a comprehensive profile of key miRNAs involved in ovarian carcinoma to establish miRNAs as more reliable non-invasive clinical biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer compared with protein and DNA biomarkers

  17. Breast cancer and menopause: perceptions of diagnosis, menopausal therapies and health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, P; Vincent, A; Teede, H

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception and experience of menopause diagnosis and therapies, the information provided and health behaviors in younger women with breast cancer. The questionnaire study was completed by 114 women, aged 40-51 years, with non-metastatic breast cancer. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics and the community. Descriptive statistics were completed. Most women were satisfied with the manner in which they were informed of the breast cancer (69%) and the menopause (59%) diagnoses. Although 80% of women were given breast cancer information, only 54% were given menopause information at diagnosis. Women were least satisfied (26%) with information regarding the long-term complications of menopause. Women perceived exercise (68%) and improving lifestyle (61%) as most effective in alleviating symptoms of menopause. The majority of women reported that they did not understand the risks/benefits of 'bioidentical' hormones (79%) and herbal therapies (78%), while 58% perceived hormone replacement therapies as associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Most women reported weight gain (68%) and osteoporosis (67%) as the most common problems/fears regarding menopause. However, regarding health behaviors, only 56% reported having relevant tests including a blood sugar test or a bone density test. While information needs regarding breast cancer appear well met in younger women, unmet information needs regarding menopause after breast cancer persist. Further education and support are required for these women to optimize health screening and prevention behaviors and to ensure informed decision-making regarding menopause treatment options.

  18. Semiquantitative diagnosis of cancer using short-lived radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Tomio; Oriuchi, Noboru; Endo, Keigo [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-03-01

    The accuracy and usefulness of semiquantitative diagnoses of SPECT using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with colorectal cancer and PET using FDG in patients with recurrent lung cancer were investigated. The tumor to normal tissue count ratio (T/N ratio) was determined with SPECT and compared with the same index (T/N ratio) obtained by measuring radioactivity in tumor and normal tissue of the resected specimens. Significant correlation between SPECT T/N ratios and tissue T/N ratio was observed (r=0.92, p<0.001, n=8). In PET study, standardized uptake value (SUV) was obtained with PET images and assessed the difference in SUV between recurrent tumors and noncancerous lesions. The relationship between the SUV threshold and diagnostic accuracy in differentiating recurrent tumors from post-treatment changes was also assessed. The maximum SUV in recurrent tumor ranged from 3.0 to 25.8 with a mean {+-} s.d. of 11.2 {+-} 5.7 (n=16) and in the noncancerous lesion ranged from 2.0 to 7.5 with a mean {+-} s.d. of 3.5 {+-} 1.8 (n=9). The SUV was significantly higher in the recurrent cancer (P<0.0001). A threshold SUV of 5.0 provided optimal diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 93.8%, specificity 88.9%, accuracy 92.0%). It was superior to visual interpretation of FDG PET (sensitivity 100%, specificity 55.6%, accuracy 84%). In conclusion, semiquantitative diagnoses with SPECT using radiolabeled monoclonal antibody and PET using FDG were accurate and useful in detecting malignant tumors. (author)

  19. Emerging biomarkers in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filella X

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xavier Filella, Esther Fernández-Galan, Rosa Fernández Bonifacio, Laura Foj Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics (CDB, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCa is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. A large proportion of PCa are latent, never destined to progress or affect the patients’ life. It is of utmost importance to identify which PCa are destined to progress and which would benefit from an early radical treatment. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA remains the most used test to detect PCa. Its limited specificity and an elevated rate of overdiagnosis are the main problems associated with PSA testing. New PCa biomarkers have been proposed to improve the accuracy of PSA in the management of early PCa. Commercially available biomarkers such as PCA3 score, Prostate Health Index (PHI, and the four-kallikrein panel are used with the purpose of reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies and providing information related to the aggressiveness of the tumor. The relationship with PCa aggressiveness seems to be confirmed by PHI and the four-kallikrein panel, but not by the PCA3 score. In this review, we also summarize new promising biomarkers, such as PSA glycoforms, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene, microRNAs, circulating tumor cells, androgen receptor variants, and PTEN gene. All these emerging biomarkers could change the management of early PCa, offering more accurate results than PSA. Nonetheless, large prospective studies comparing these new biomarkers among them are required to know their real value in PCa detection and prognosis. Keywords: prostate cancer, PSA, PHI, four-kallikrein panel, PCA3, miRNAs

  20. MRI of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain. Differential diagnosis of colorectal and pulmonary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusumi, Akio; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takayama, Katsutoshi

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the characteristic features of MR imagings of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain and search for differential points between the lesions from colorectal cancer and those of lung cancer, we evaluated retrospectively intraparenchymal metastatic lesions of 13 colorectal origins and 13 pulmonary origins on MR imagings, compared with resected specimens. Metastatic lesions from colorectal cancer showed marked hypointense solid components on T2WI, which correspond to the dense tumor cells and coagulated necrosis pathologically. Metastatic lesions from lung cancers showed mixed intensity and various components on T2WI, which correspond to various histological components, such as solid tumor cell's nests, hemorrhage, necrosis and cystic fluid collection. Pathological specimens suggested that the low signal intensity on T2WI of MRI derived from concentration of tumor cells and coagulated necrosis including macrophages and lymphocytes. This study may contribute to make the differential diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain from colorectal and pulmonary cancers. (author)

  1. Potential Applications of Nanotechnology for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eMcCarroll

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in our understanding of pancreatic cancer and the emerging concept of personalized medicine for the treatment of this disease, it is still the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world. It is established that pancreatic cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease with a complex tumor microenvironment. Indeed the extensive stroma surrounding the cancer cells has been shown to be important in promoting tumor growth and metastases, as well as sequestering chemotherapeutic agents consequently decreasing delivery to the tumor cells. Nanotechnology has come to the forefront in the areas of medical diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic drug delivery. This review will focus on the potential applications of nanotechnology for diagnosis, imaging, and delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  2. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality......, and pooled analysis of European CT screening trials, we discuss the main topics that will need consideration. These unresolved issues are risk prediction models to identify patients for CT screening; radiological protocols that use volumetric analysis for indeterminate nodules; options for surgical resection...

  3. Lymphoscintigraphic diagnosis of the lymph node metastasis of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terui, Shoji; Kawai, Hideo; Hirashima, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kato, Hoichi; Iizuka, Norifumi

    1985-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled rhenium sulfur colloid was performed preoperatively in 30 patients with esopohageal cancer. It showed hot nodes in a total of 267 lymph nodes, 176 mediastinal nodes and 91 celiac artery nodes. Of these 267 nodes, 47 (18 %) were found to have metastasis, including 34 (19 %) mediastinal nodes and 13 (14 %) celiac artery nodes. On the other hand, the number of non-visualized lymph nodes (cold nodes) was 542. Of them, 78 (14 %) had metastasis; 46 (15 %) were mediastinal nodes and 32 (14 %) were celiac artery nodes. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. MRl of prostate cancer antigen expression for diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor antigen (TA-targeted monoclonal antibody (mAb immunotherapy can be effective for the treatment of a broad range of cancer etiologies; however, these approaches have demonstrated variable clinical efficacy for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer (PCa. An obstacle currently impeding translational progress has been the inability to quantify the mAb dose that reaches the tumor site and binds to the targeted TAs. The coupling of mAb to nanoparticle-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI probes should permit in vivo measurement of patient-specific biodistributions; these measurements could facilitate future development of novel dosimetry paradigms wherein mAb dose is titrated to optimize outcomes for individual patients. METHODS: The prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA is broadly expressed on the surface of prostate cancer (PCa cells. Anti-human PSCA monoclonal antibodies (mAb 7F5 were bound to Au/Fe(3O(4 (GoldMag nanoparticles (mAb 7F5@GoldMag to serve as PSCA-specific theragnostic MRI probe permitting visualization of mAb biodistribution in vivo. First, the antibody immobilization efficiency of the GoldMag particles and the efficacy for PSCA-specific binding was assessed. Next, PC-3 (prostate cancer with PSCA over-expression and SMMC-7721 (hepatoma cells without PSCA expression tumor-bearing mice were injected with mAb 7F5@GoldMag for MRI. MRI probe biodistributions were assessed at increasing time intervals post-infusion; therapy response was evaluated with serial tumor volume measurements. RESULTS: Targeted binding of the mAb 7F5@GoldMag probes to PC-3 cells was verified using optical images and MRI; selective binding was not observed for SMMC-7721 tumors. The immunotherapeutic efficacy of the mAb 7F5@GoldMag in PC-3 tumor-bearing mice was verified with significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to untreated control animals. CONCLUSION: Our promising results suggest the feasibility of using mAb 7F5@GoldMag probes as a

  5. Cooperative nanomaterials systems for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Ho

    The unique electromagnetic and biologic properties of nanomaterials are being harnessed to build powerful new medical technologies. Particularly, there have been recently increasing interests in cancer nanotechnology, wherein nanomaterials play an important role in ultrasensitive imaging, targeting, and therapy of cancer. However, these nanomaterials typically function as individual units and are designed to independently perform their tasks. In this dissertation, new cooperative nanosystems consisting of two distinct nanomaterials that work together to target, identify, or treat tumors in vivo were studied. In the first two chapters, the synthesis of worm-shaped dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (nanoworms, NW) exhibiting substantial in vivo circulation times and significant tumor targeting when coated with tumor-homing peptides were studied. NWs are also found to display a greater magnetic resonance (MR) response than the spherical nanoparticles. Next, two types of multifunctional nanoparticles were fabricated for simultaneous detection and treatment of cancer. Micellar hybrid nanoparticles (MHN) that contain magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) within a single PEG-modified phospholipid micelle were first prepared. Simultaneous multimodal imaging (MR and fluorescence) and targeted drug delivery in vitro and in vivo was performed using DOX-incorporated targeted MHN. Secondly, luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (LPSINP) that were drug-loadable, biodegradable and relatively non-toxic were prepared. In contrast to most inorganic nanomaterials, LPSINP were degraded in vivo in a relatively short time with no noticeable toxicity. The clearance and degradation of intravenously injected LPSINP in the bladder, liver, and spleen were established by whole-body fluorescence imaging. Finally, two types of cooperative nanomaterials systems to amplify targeting and deliver drugs efficiently to regions of tumor invasion were

  6. Detection Accuracy of Collective Intelligence Assessments for Skin Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Jens; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Wolf, Max

    2015-12-01

    Incidence rates of skin cancer are increasing globally, and the correct classification of skin lesions (SLs) into benign and malignant tissue remains a continuous challenge. A collective intelligence approach to skin cancer detection may improve accuracy. To evaluate the performance of 2 well-known collective intelligence rules (majority rule and quorum rule) that combine the independent conclusions of multiple decision makers into a single decision. Evaluations were obtained from 2 large and independent data sets. The first data set consisted of 40 experienced dermoscopists, each of whom independently evaluated 108 images of SLs during the Consensus Net Meeting of 2000. The second data set consisted of 82 medical professionals with varying degrees of dermatology experience, each of whom evaluated a minimum of 110 SLs. All SLs were evaluated via the Internet. Image selection of SLs was based on high image quality and the presence of histopathologic information. Data were collected from July through October 2000 for study 1 and from February 2003 through January 2004 for study 2 and evaluated from January 5 through August 7, 2015. For both collective intelligence rules, we determined the true-positive rate (ie, the hit rate or specificity) and the false-positive rate (ie, the false-alarm rate or 1 - sensitivity) and compared these rates with the performance of single decision makers. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of group size on true- and false-positive rates. One hundred twenty-two medical professionals performed 16 029 evaluations. Use of either collective intelligence rule consistently outperformed single decision makers. The groups achieved an increased true-positive rate and a decreased false-positive rate. For example, individual decision makers in study 1, using the pattern analysis as diagnostic algorithm, achieved a true-positive rate of 0.83 and a false-positive rate of 0.17. Groups of 3 individuals achieved a true-positive rate of 0.91 and a

  7. Influence Of Smoking Habit On Age At Diagnosis Of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaei Mehrdad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No studies have yet investigated the influence of smoking on age at diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, the present study was carried out. This study consisted of 605 females with pathologically confirmed primary adenocarcinoma of the breast and 438 healthy females matched by age. Among our participants, 86 (14.2% patients and 62 (14.1% control subjects, respectively, were smokers. Based on a Cox regression model, evidence suggested that smoking status influenced the age at diagnosis of breast cancer (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.99, P=0.040. After stratification of the patients according to their menopausal status, the same results were obtained. The present study indicated that non-smokers have a lower age at diagnosis in comparison with patients who smoke.

  8. Adjusting to a Diagnosis of Cancer: Processes for Building Patient Capacity for Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Linda; Johnson, Rebecca; Taromino, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    This short report contributes to the expanding body of qualitative research literature about the cognitive processes of newly diagnosed cancer patients as they adjust to a diagnosis of cancer. The study is based on secondary qualitative analysis of audio records collected as part of a larger NIH study (RO1D: An Interdisciplinary Perspective: A Social Science Examination of Oncofertility RL1 HD058296). Core categories illustrate the processes of "naming it," "dealing with dealing with it," and finding the "new norm" and were based on nine patient experiences. We observe that our substantive conceptual categories have equivalents in bereavement and grief literature where researchers have posited the theory that processing the diagnosis of a terminal illness is the equivalent to adjusting to a bereavement. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding real-time patient thoughts and feelings as soon after diagnosis as was possible with full patient consent.

  9. The Combination of the Tumor Markers Suggests the Histological Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor markers are beneficial for the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of lung cancer. However, the value of tumor markers in lung cancer histological diagnosis is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the serum levels of six tumor markers (CEA, CYFRA21-1, SCC, NSE, ProGRP, and CA125 in 2097 suspected patients with lung cancer and determined whether the combination of the tumor markers was useful for histological diagnosis of lung cancer. We found that CYFRA21-1 was the most sensitive marker in NSCLC. ProGRP showed a better clinical performance than that of NSE in discriminating between SCLC and NSCLC. The serum level of CYFRA21-1 or SCC was significantly higher in squamous carcinoma (p<0.05, and the levels of ProGRP and NSE were significantly higher in SCLC (p<0.05. According to the criteria established, SCLC and NSCLC were discriminated with sensitivity of 87.12 and 62.63% and specificity of 64.61 and 99.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity in the differentiation of adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma were 68.1 and 81.63% and 70.73 and 65.93%, with NPV of 46.03 and 68.97% and PPV of 85.82 and 79.47%, respectively. Our results suggested the combination of six tumor markers could discriminate the histological types of lung cancer.

  10. Optimization of C4.5 algorithm-based particle swarm optimization for breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, M. A.; Rukmana, S. H.; Sugiharti, E.; Prasetiyo, B.; Alimah, S.

    2018-03-01

    Data mining has become a basic methodology for computational applications in the field of medical domains. Data mining can be applied in the health field such as for diagnosis of breast cancer, heart disease, diabetes and others. Breast cancer is most common in women, with more than one million cases and nearly 600,000 deaths occurring worldwide each year. The most effective way to reduce breast cancer deaths was by early diagnosis. This study aims to determine the level of breast cancer diagnosis. This research data uses Wisconsin Breast Cancer dataset (WBC) from UCI machine learning. The method used in this research is the algorithm C4.5 and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as a feature option and to optimize the algorithm. C4.5. Ten-fold cross-validation is used as a validation method and a confusion matrix. The result of this research is C4.5 algorithm. The particle swarm optimization C4.5 algorithm has increased by 0.88%.

  11. Arab American women's lived experience with early-stage breast cancer diagnosis and surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2012-01-01

    Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.

  12. Factors affecting professional delay in diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaelbeigi, Farhad; Hadji, Maryam; Harirchi, Iraj; Omranipour, Ramesh; vand Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    Oral cancer is the most common malignant tumor among head and neck cancers. Delay in diagnosis affects the treatment and prognosis of oral cancer. We measured the professional delay in the diagnosis and its attributes in the Cancer Institute of Iran, the largest referral center for oral cancer patients in the country.  We interviewed oral cancer patients to measure the delay and used case-control approach to study association of various prognostic factors with professional delay and tumor stage. Out of 206 patients, 71.4% were diagnosed at the advanced stage. The median of the patient, professional and total delays were 45, 86 and 140 day, receptively. In the univariate model, prescription of medicines like analgesics (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 2.2-12.9) and history of dental procedure (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.7-26.9) were associated with higher risk of delay compared to patient who were biopsied from the beginning. History of loose teeth increased risk of delay 4 times (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.8). Patients with primary education had 70% lower risk of delay compared to the illiterate patients (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7) and the risk was lower among patients who had diploma (OR = 0.04, 95% CI 0-0.7) and college education (OR = 0.1, 95% CI 0-0.4). The delayed patients were diagnosed in more advanced stage compared to the patients without delay (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.4). Development of a national guideline for follow-up of oral lesions, training and awareness of health care professionals about oral cancer diagnosis may decrease the delay and improve the oral cancer outcome in Iran.

  13. Prerequisite programs at schools: diagnosis and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockis, Victor R; Cruz, Adriano G; Walter, Eduardo H M; Faria, Jose A F; Granato, Daniel; Sant'Ana, Anderson S

    2011-02-01

    In this study, 20 Brazilian public schools have been assessed regarding good manufacturing practices and standard sanitation operating procedures implementation. We used a checklist comprised of 10 parts (facilities and installations, water supply, equipments and tools, pest control, waste management, personal hygiene, sanitation, storage, documentation, and training), making a total of 69 questions. The implementing modification cost to the found nonconformities was also determined so that it could work with technical data as a based decision-making prioritization. The average nonconformity percentage at schools concerning to prerequisite program was 36%, from which 66% of them own inadequate installations, 65% waste management, 44% regarding documentation, and 35% water supply and sanitation. The initial estimated cost for changing has been U.S.$24,438 and monthly investments of 1.55% on the currently needed invested values. This would result in U.S.$0.015 increase on each served meal cost over the investment replacement within a year. Thus, we have concluded that such modifications are economically feasible and will be considered on technical requirements when prerequisite program implementation priorities are established.

  14. A approach for differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer and breast cancer relapse presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule in patients after breast surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takashi; Iwata, Hiroharu; Yatabe, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer from metastatic breast cancer is crucial in patients presenting with a solitary pulmonary nodule after breast surgery. However definitive diagnosis of these nodules is often difficult due to similar radiological and pathological features in primary lung and metastatic breast cancer nodules. We assessed the feasibility of our diagnostic approach for these nodules by morphopathological and immunohistochemical examination (thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), surfactant pro-protein B (SPPB), estrogen receptor (ER), mammaglobin-1 (MGB1)), and estimated the frequency of primary lung cancer occurrence in 23 breast cancer patients. Biopsy specimens were obtained using CT-guided needle biopsy (NB) and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) in 21 patients (91.3%). Surgical resection was performed for diagnosis and treatment in two patients. Differential diagnosis was obtained by morphopathological methods alone in 17 patients (73.9%, primary lung cancer: 6 cases, metastatic breast cancer: 11 cases) and by immunohistochemical examination in the remaining 6 (26.1%, primary lung cancer: 1 case, metastatic breast cancer: 5 cases). Our results show the clinical feasibility of our approach to the differential diagnosis of breast cancer relapse and primary lung cancer presenting as a solitary nodule in breast cancer patients. (author)

  15. Efficacy of storage phosphor-based digital mammography in diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahama, Hiroyuki

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present efficacy of storage phosphor-based digital mammography (CR-mammography) in diagnosis of breast cancer. Ninety-seven cases with breast cancer including 44 cases less than 2 cm in macroscopic size (t1 cases) were evaluated using storage phosphor-based digital mammography (2000 x 2510 pixels by 10 bits). Abnormal findings on CR-mammography were detected in 86 cases (88.7%) of 97 women with breast cancer. Sensitivity of CR-mammography was 88.7%. It was superior to that of film-screen mammography. On t1 breast cancer cases, sensitivity on CR-mammography was 88.6%. False negative rate in t1 breast cancer cases was reduced by image processing using CR-mammography. To evaluate microcalcifications, CR-mammograms and film-screen mammograms were investigated in 22 cases of breast cancer proven pathologically the existence of microcalcifications and 11 paraffin tissue blocks of breast cancer. CR-mammography was superior to film-screen mammography in recognizing of microcalcifications. As regards the detectability for the number and the shape of microcalcifications, CR-mammography was equivalent to film-screen mammography. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis by eight observers was performed for CR-mammography and film-screen mammography with 54 breast cancer patients and 54 normal cases. The detectability of abnormal findings of breast cancer on CR-mammography (ROC area=0.91) was better than that on film-screen mammography (ROC area=0.88) (p<0.05). Efficacy of storage phosphor-based digital mammography in diagnosis of breast cancer was discussed and demonstrated in this study. (author)

  16. Results of diagnosis of pancreatic cancer by computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazue; Okuaki, Koji; Ito, Masami; Katakura, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Kenji

    1981-01-01

    Results of examination of pancreatic diseases, especially pancreatic cancer, conducted by CT during the past 3 years are summarized. The EMI CT Type 5000 or 5005 were used. During the 3 years from September 1976 to August 1979, a total of 1961 patients were examined by CT, and the upper abdomen was examined in 772 of these patients. In 97 patients, positive findings were obtained in the CT image of the pancreas. In 52 of these patients, the findings were confirmed operatively or by autopsy. Though cancer of the pancreas was diagnosed by CT in 30 patients, it was confirmed in 20 by surgical operation and in 1 by autopsy. Of the 9 misdiagnosed cases, 4 were cases of infiltration of the pancreas by carcinoma of the stomach or bile duct, and the other 5 were one case each of lipoma of the abdominal wall, normal pancreas, hyperplasia of Langerhans's islets of the pancreas tail, abscess between the pancreas and the posterior wall of the stomach, and choledocholithiasis. A case diagnosed by CT as cholelithiasis was a carcinoma measuring 5 x 5 x 6 cm located on the head of the pancreas, complicated by choledocholithiasis. The 22 patients with carcinoma of the pancreas were 9 with lesions less than 3.5 x 3.0 x 3.0 cm in size who could be radically operated, 6 who underwent exploratory laparotomy or autopsy, and 7 in whom operation was impossible. False negative and false positive CT results are also discussed. (author)

  17. Hyperspectral microscopy and cluster analysis for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Anneliese; Manickavasagam, Arunthathi; Hosny, Neveen; Festy, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Oral cancer incidences have been increasing in recent years and late detection often leads to poor prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has been identified has a valuable diagnostic tool for cancer but its time consuming nature has prevented its clinical use. For Raman to become a realistic aid to histopathology, a rapid pre-screening technique is required to find small regions of interest on tissue sections [1]. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging in the visible spectral range as a fast imaging technique before Raman is performed. We have built a hyperspectral microscope which captures 300 focused and intensity corrected images with wavelength ranging from 450- 750 nm in around 30 minutes with sub-micron spatial resolution and around 10 nm spectral resolution. Hyperstacks of known absorbing samples, including fluorescent dyes and dried blood droplets, show excellent results with spectrally accurate transmission spectra and concentration-dependent intensity variations. We successfully showed the presence of different components from a non-absorbent saliva droplet sample. Data analysis is the greatest hurdle to the interpretation of more complex data such as unstained tissue sections.

  18. Bladder cancer diagnosis during cystoscopy using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Draga, R. O. P.; van Diest, P.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. H. L. R.

    2009-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to obtain specific molecular information of biological tissues. It has been used successfully to differentiate normal and pre-malignant tissue in many organs. The goal of this study is to determine the possibility to distinguish normal tissue from bladder cancer using this system. The endoscopic Raman system consists of a 6 Fr endoscopic probe connected to a 785nm diode laser and a spectral recording system. A total of 107 tissue samples were obtained from 54 patients with known bladder cancer during transurethral tumor resection. Immediately after surgical removal the samples were placed under the Raman probe and spectra were collected and stored for further analysis. The collected spectra were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. In total 2949 Raman spectra were recorded ex vivo from cold cup biopsy samples with 2 seconds integration time. A multivariate algorithm allowed differentiation of normal and malignant tissue with a sensitivity and specificity of 78,5% and 78,9% respectively. The results show the possibility of discerning normal from malignant bladder tissue by means of Raman spectroscopy using a small fiber based system. Despite the low number of samples the results indicate that it might be possible to use this technique to grade identified bladder wall lesions during endoscopy.

  19. Implications of microRNAs in Colorectal Cancer Development, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eZhai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs with critical regulatory functions as post-transcriptional regulators. Due to the fundamental importance and broad impact of miRNAs on multiple genes and pathways, dysregulated miRNAs have been associated with human diseases, including cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is among the most deadly diseases, and miRNAs offer a new frontier for target discovery and novel biomarkers for both diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we summarize the recent advancement of miRNA research in CRC, in particular, the roles of miRNAs in colorectal cancer stem cells, EMT, chemoresistance, therapeutics, diagnosis and prognosis.

  20. [KIM-1 and NGAL as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and cancer progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, Zofia; Tacik, Aneta; Piwowar, Agnieszka

    2016-04-18

    On the basis of scientific literature, there is growing evidence that KIM-1 and NGAL are interesting and promising biomarkers not only in acute and chronic inflammatory processes but also in oncogenesis. There are a number of studies which investigate their possible use in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of therapy effectiveness. The results of recent research suggests that they may play an important role in standard oncology practice. Simultaneous measurement of KIM-1 and NGAL in urine can play a crucial role in carcinogenesis assessment and cancer progression. In the future, they can become rapid diagnostic indicators, which allow one to determine cancer subtype leading to biopsy replacement and therapy improvement. In the present work, beside biochemical characteristics of KIM-1 and NGAL, we will also discuss their role in the diagnosis and assessment of development of cancer.

  1. KIM-1 and NGAL as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Marchewka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of scientific literature, there is growing evidence that KIM-1 and NGAL are interesting and promising biomarkers not only in acute and chronic inflammatory processes but also in oncogenesis. There are a number of studies which investigate their possible use in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of therapy effectiveness. The results of recent research suggests that they may play an important role in standard oncology practice. Simultaneous measurement of KIM-1 and NGAL in urine can play a crucial role in carcinogenesis assessment and cancer progression. In the future, they can become rapid diagnostic indicators, which allow one to determine cancer subtype leading to biopsy replacement and therapy improvement. In the present work, beside biochemical characteristics of KIM-1 and NGAL, we will also discuss their role in the diagnosis and assessment of development of cancer.

  2. Diagnosis and management of testicular cancer the European point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Krege, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the views of leading European experts on the diagnosis and management of testicular cancer, with coverage of current hot topics in the field. It opens by providing an overview of the recommendations in the most recent consensus paper from the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group, which is based on interdisciplinary cooperation among urologists, medical oncologists, radio-oncologists, pathologists, and basic scientists. The remainder of the book focuses on areas of controversy in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of testicular cancer. In each case the evidence base is discussed and results from the most recent studies are reviewed, drawing attention to new findings that might alter treatment recommendations. The treatment-related chapters cover a broad range of issues, including the best approach in patients with poor-prognosis and recurrent disease and those with long-term toxicities. Relevant aspects of survivorship care are also addressed. The book will help clinicians and prac...

  3. Mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of early breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun He; Guohui Xu; Jin Ren; Bin Feng; Xiaolei Dong; Hao Lu; Changjiu He

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the application of mammography combined with breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Methods Mammography and DCE-MRI were performed for 120 patients with breast cancer (malignant, 102; benign; 18). Results The sensitivity of mammography for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 66.67%, specificity was 77.78%, and accuracy was 68.33%. The sensitivity of MRI for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 94.12%, specificity was 88.89%, and accuracy was 93.33%. However, the sensitivity of mammography combined with DCE-MRI volume imaging with enhanced water signal (VIEWS) scanning for early diagnosis of breast cancer was 97.06%, specificity was 94.44%, and accuracy was 96.67%. Conclusion Mammography combined with DCE-MRI increased the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing early breast cancer.

  4. The endothelial lipase protein is promising urinary biomarker for diagnosis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xueyan; Wang, Guoqing; Zhang, Guoqing; Ni, Zhaohui; Suo, Jian; Cui, Juan; Cui, Ai; Yang, Qing; Xu, Ying; Li, Fan

    2013-03-19

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Finding effective diagnostic biomarkers in urine or serum would represent the most ideal solution to detecting gastric cancer during annual physical examination. This study was to evaluate the potential of endothelial lipase (EL) as a urinary biomarker for diagnosis of gastric cancer. The expression levels of EL was measured using Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining experiments on (tissue, serum, and urine) samples of gastric cancer patients versus healthy people. We also checked the EL levels in the urine samples of other cancer types (lung, colon and rectum cancers) and benign lesions (gastritis and gastric leiomyoma) to check if EL was specific to gastric cancer. We observed a clear separation between the EL expression levels in the urine samples of 90 gastric cancer patients and of 57 healthy volunteers. It was approximately 9.9 fold average decrease of the EL expression levels in the urine samples of gastric cancer compared to the healthy controls (P cancer. Interestingly, the expression levels of EL in tissue and serum samples were not nearly as discriminative as in urine samples (P = 0.90 and P = 0.79). In immunohistochemical experiments, positive expression of the EL protein was found in 67% (8/12) of gastric adjacent noncancerous and in 58% (7/12) of gastric cancer samples. There was no significant statistical in the expression levels of this protein between the gastric cancer and the matching noncancerous tissues (P =0.67). The urinary EL as a highly accurate gastric cancer biomarker that is potentially applicable to the general screening with high sensitivity and specificity. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4527331618757552.

  5. Advances in the diagnosis of hereditary kidney cancer: Initial results of a multigene panel test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Espenschied, Carin R; LaDuca, Holly; Bhagat, Ansh M; Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; O'Rourke, Timothy K; Brierley, Karina L; Hofstatter, Erin W; Shuch, Brian

    2017-11-15

    Panel testing has been recently introduced to evaluate hereditary cancer; however, limited information is available regarding its use in kidney cancer. The authors retrospectively reviewed test results and clinical data from patients who underwent targeted multigene panel testing of up to 19 genes associated with hereditary kidney cancer from 2013 to 2016. The frequency of positive (mutation/variant likely pathogenic), inconclusive (variant of unknown significance), and negative results was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for a positive test. Patients (n = 1235) had a median age at diagnosis of 46 years, which was significantly younger than the US population of individuals with kidney cancer (P kidney cancer. Panel tests may be particularly useful for patients who lack distinguishing clinical characteristics of known hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. The current results support the use of early age of onset for genetic counseling and/or testing. Cancer 2017;123:4363-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. An innovative art therapy program for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, K; Fitch, M; Carman, M

    2000-01-01

    Art therapy is a healing art intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating creative ways for patients to respond to their cancer experience. A new art therapy program was designed to provide cancer patients with opportunities to learn about the McMichael Canadian Art Collection and to explore personal feelings about their cancer experience through combined gallery and studio components. The role of the facilitator was to assist in the interpretation of a participant's drawing in order to reveal meaning in the art. This paper presents patients' perspectives about the new art therapy program. Content analysis of participant feedback provided information about the structure, process, and outcomes of the program. Evaluation of the art therapy/museum education program demonstrated many benefits for cancer patients including support, psychological strength, and new insights about their cancer experience.

  7. Utilisation of electrical impedance tomography in breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raneta, O; Ondruš, D; Bella, V

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer presents a serious medical and social problem worldwide. Early detection is key to effective breast cancer treatment. Therefore, scientists are consistently looking for new diagnostic techniques that would be more efficient, easy to use and safe for the patient. The main task of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel low-cost non-invasive technique called electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and to determine whether EIT can qualitatively supplement the existing traditional imaging techniques in the process of breast cancer diagnostics. Randomly selected patients with mammographic and/or sonographic abnormalities were involved into the study. In total, 808 patients aged 18-94 (mean 54) years participated in the survey. Exclusion criteria involved previous breast surgery, breast core biopsy or fine needle aspiration within the last 1 and 3 months, respectively. Furthermore, patients with implanted electrically powered devices (cardioverter, pacemaker) and patients previously treated by chemo-radiotherapy were also excluded. The EIT examination was performed using the electrical impedance computer mammograph MEIK developed by the Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences. The following results were obtained: sensitivity of EIT was 87%, X-ray mammography (MMG) 89% and ultrasonography (USG) 91%; specificity of EIT was 85%, MMG 91% and USG 84%. Negative predictive value (NPV) of all three modalities showed nearly equal values, with slight advantage of the USG. MMG had the highest positive predictive (PPV) value (83%), EIT had the lowest (63%). Sensitivity increased to 96% and 98%, respectively, when combinations EIT+MMG and EIT+USG were used. The specificity increased to 79% for EIT+MMG and 71% for EIT+USG. EIT+MMG and EIT+USG NPV remained the same. PPV was 65% and 58%, respectively for the EIT+MMG and EIT+USG combination. Our study findings are comparable to those of other similar studies. Although the EIT

  8. Cervical cancer in women under 25 years of age in Queensland, Australia: To what extent is the diagnosis made by screening cytology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Edwina L; Sanday, Karen; Budd, Alison; Hammond, Ian G; Nicklin, James

    2017-08-01

    The current Australian National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP) involves biennial, cytology-based screening of women from the age of 18 years. From December, 2017 this will change to a five-yearly human papilloma virus-based screening commencing at age 25. There is some concern that the new program may delay the opportunistic detection of cervical cancers in women under 25 years. (1) To review all cases of invasive cervical cancer in Queensland women under the age of 25 over the last 28 years. (2) To determine symptoms and screening history prior to diagnosis. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken at the Queensland Centre for Gynaecological Cancer (QCGC) and the Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR) of all women aged between 13 and 25 years diagnosed with cervical cancer in Queensland between 1984 and 2012. Demographic data and symptoms prior to diagnosis were extracted from the QCGC and QCR databases. A total of 56 women aged 13-25, were diagnosed with cervical cancer and treated at the QCGC between 1984 and 2012. The commonest reason for the diagnosis of cancer was investigation of abnormal symptoms (n = 22, 39%) rather than routine Pap smear abnormalities (n = 15, 26%). Consistent with the world literature, there is a very low incidence of cervical cancer in women under 25 years of age, irrespective of the age of commencement of screening, or the screening interval. Our study lends some support to the proposed commencement age of 25 years in the new NCSP. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. A new intelligent classifier for breast cancer diagnosis based on a rough set and extreme learning machine: RS + ELM

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Yılmaz

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death among women all around the world. Therefore, true and early diagnosis of breast cancer is an important problem. The rough set (RS) and extreme learning machine (ELM) methods were used collectively in this study for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The unnecessary attributes were discarded from the dataset by means of the RS approach. The classification process by means of ELM was performed using the remaining attributes. The Wisconsin B...

  10. Noninvasive diagnosis of oral cancer by Stokes shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Aruna, Prakasrao; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic potential of stokes shift (SS) spectroscopy (S3) for normal, precancer and cancerous oral lesions in vivo. The SS spectra were recorded in the 250 - 650 nm spectral range by simultaneously scanning both the excitation and emission wavelengths while keeping a fixed wavelength interval Δλ=20 nm between them. Characteristic, highly resolved peaks and significant spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions observed around 300, 355, 395, and 420 nm which are attributed to tryptophan, collagen, and NADH respectively. Using S3 technique one can obtain the key fluorophores in a single scan and hence they can be targeted as a tumor markers in this study. In order to quantify the altered spectral differences between normal and different pathological oral lesions are verified by different ratio parameters.

  11. Sonographic Diagnosis of Tubal Cancer with IOTA Simple Rules Plus Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, Theera; Wanapirak, Chanane; Tantipalakorn, Charuwan; Tinnangwattana, Dangcheewan

    2017-11-26

    Objective: To evaluate diagnostic performance of IOTA simple rules plus pattern recognition in predicting tubal cancer. Methods: Secondary analysis was performed on prospective database of our IOTA project. The patients recruited in the project were those who were scheduled for pelvic surgery due to adnexal masses. The patients underwent ultrasound examinations within 24 hours before surgery. On ultrasound examination, the masses were evaluated using the well-established IOTA simple rules plus pattern recognition (sausage-shaped appearance, incomplete septum, visible ipsilateral ovaries) to predict tubal cancer. The gold standard diagnosis was based on histological findings or operative findings. Results: A total of 482 patients, including 15 cases of tubal cancer, were evaluated by ultrasound preoperatively. The IOTA simple rules plus pattern recognition gave a sensitivity of 86.7% (13 in 15) and specificity of 97.4%. Sausage-shaped appearance was identified in nearly all cases (14 in 15). Incomplete septa and normal ovaries could be identified in 33.3% and 40%, respectively. Conclusion: IOTA simple rules plus pattern recognition is relatively effective in predicting tubal cancer. Thus, we propose the simple scheme in diagnosis of tubal cancer as follows. First of all, the adnexal masses are evaluated with IOTA simple rules. If the B-rules could be applied, tubal cancer is reliably excluded. If the M-rules could be applied or the result is inconclusive, careful delineation of the mass with pattern recognition should be performed. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. Development of a computer aided diagnosis model for prostate cancer classification on multi-parametric MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, R.; Soetemans, D.; Bauman, G. S.; Gibson, E.; Gaed, M.; Moussa, M.; Gomez, J. A.; Chin, J. L.; Pautler, S.; Ward, A. D.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-parametric MRI (mp-MRI) is becoming a standard in contemporary prostate cancer screening and diagnosis, and has shown to aid physicians in cancer detection. It offers many advantages over traditional systematic biopsy, which has shown to have very high clinical false-negative rates of up to 23% at all stages of the disease. However beneficial, mp-MRI is relatively complex to interpret and suffers from inter-observer variability in lesion localization and grading. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed as a solution as they have the power to perform deterministic quantitative image analysis. We measured the accuracy of such a system validated using accurately co-registered whole-mount digitized histology. We trained a logistic linear classifier (LOGLC), support vector machine (SVC), k-nearest neighbour (KNN) and random forest classifier (RFC) in a four part ROI based experiment against: 1) cancer vs. non-cancer, 2) high-grade (Gleason score ≥4+3) vs. low-grade cancer (Gleason score work will form the basis for a tool that enhances the radiologist's ability to detect malignancies, potentially improving biopsy guidance, treatment selection, and focal therapy for prostate cancer patients, maximizing the potential for cure and increasing quality of life.

  13. [Assisted Reproduction and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis in Patients Susceptible to Breast Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselá, K; Kocur, T; Horák, J; Horňák, M; Oráčová, E; Hromadová, L; Veselý, J; Trávník, P

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproduction, as well as pregnancy itself, in patients with breast cancer or other hereditary type of cancer, is a widely discussed topic. In the past, patients treated for breast cancer were rarely involved in the discussion about reproductive possibilities or infertility treatment. However, current knowledge suggests, that breast cancer is neither a contraindication to pregnancy, nor to assisted reproduction techniques. On the contrary, assisted reproduction and preimplantation genetic diagnosis methods might prevent the transmission of genetic risks to the fetus. In this review we summarize data concerning pregnancy risks in patients with increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, we introduce current possibilities and approaches to fertility preservation prior to assisted reproduction treatment as well as novel methods improving the safety of fertility treatment. In the second part of this review, we focus on karyomapping--an advanced molecular genetic tool for elimination of germinal mutations in patients with predisposition to cancer. Moreover, the rapid development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis methods contributes to detection of both chromosomal aneuploidy and causal mutations in a relatively short time-span.

  14. [Thinking from the end - Does the diagnosis "cancer" make a difference to patients and carers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausewein, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer is often associated with pain, suffering and dying. Many of these aspects also apply to patients dying from non-malignant disease. Being confronted with a malignancy posts an existential threat for many patients that is linked with loss of control, challenge of autonomy and fear of the future. In contrast, patients with non-malignant disease do not realise the scope of their diagnosis and the potentially life-limiting nature of their disease. The prognosis of patients with chronic organ failure is often shorter than that of some patients with malignancies. Patients with malignant and non-malignant disease suffer from pain and many other symptoms. Tumour-oriented therapies, side effects and changes of the body image add to the suffering of cancer patients. Although consequences of the disease and the therapies are often not visible in patients with non-malignant disease, the increasing functional decline, psychosocial burden, lack of co-ordination of care, and information needs burden patients. Wishes at the end of life are similar in cancer and non-cancer patients. Access to palliative care is much easier for cancer patients than for non-cancer patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. LED induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager with eight multi-filters for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. The simple oral visual screening by clinician can reduce 37,000 oral cancer deaths annually worldwide. However, the conventional oral examination with the visual inspection and the palpation of oral lesions is not an objective and reliable approach for oral cancer diagnosis, and it may cause the delayed hospital treatment for the patients of oral cancer or leads to the oral cancer out of control in the late stage. Therefore, a device for oral cancer detection are developed for early diagnosis and treatment. A portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager is developed by our group. It contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and the rotary filter ring of eight channels to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. The advantages of LIAF imager compared to other devices for oral cancer diagnosis are that LIAF imager has a probe of L shape for fixing the object distance, protecting the effect of ambient light, and observing the blind spot in the deep port between the gumsgingiva and the lining of the mouth. Besides, the multiple excitation of LED light source can induce multiple autofluorescence, and LIAF imager with the rotary filter ring of eight channels can detect the spectral images of multiple narrow bands. The prototype of a portable LIAF imager is applied in the clinical trials for some cases in Taiwan, and the images of the clinical trial with the specific excitation show the significant differences between normal tissue and oral tissue under these cases.

  16. Application of artificial neural network model combined with four biomarkers in auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoran; Yang, Yongli; Tan, Shanjuan; Wang, Sihua; Feng, Xiaolei; Cui, Liuxin; Feng, Feifei; Yu, Songcheng; Wang, Wei; Wu, Yongjun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the application of artificial neural network model in the auxiliary diagnosis of lung cancer and compare the effects of back-propagation (BP) neural network with Fisher discrimination model for lung cancer screening by the combined detections of four biomarkers of p16, RASSF1A and FHIT gene promoter methylation levels and the relative telomere length. Real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR was used to detect the levels of three-gene promoter methylation, and real-time PCR method was applied to determine the relative telomere length. BP neural network and Fisher discrimination analysis were used to establish the discrimination diagnosis model. The levels of three-gene promoter methylation in patients with lung cancer were significantly higher than those of the normal controls. The values of Z(P) in two groups were 2.641 (0.008), 2.075 (0.038) and 3.044 (0.002), respectively. The relative telomere lengths of patients with lung cancer (0.93 ± 0.32) were significantly lower than those of the normal controls (1.16 ± 0.57), t = 4.072, P < 0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) and 95 % CI of prediction set from Fisher discrimination analysis and BP neural network were 0.670 (0.569-0.761) and 0.760 (0.664-0.840). The AUC of BP neural network was higher than that of Fisher discrimination analysis, and Z(P) was 0.76. Four biomarkers are associated with lung cancer. BP neural network model for the prediction of lung cancer is better than Fisher discrimination analysis, and it can provide an excellent and intelligent diagnosis tool for lung cancer.

  17. Virtual bronchoscopy-guided transbronchial biopsy for aiding the diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwano, Shingo, E-mail: iwano45@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 4668550, Aichi (Japan); Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 4668550 (Japan); Okada, Tohru [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Science, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 2638555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Yoshinori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 4668550 (Japan); Naganawa, Shinji [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 4668550, Aichi (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of virtual bronchoscopy (VB) in aiding diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer by transbronchial biopsy (TBB). In addition, we sought to systematically analyze the factors that affect the diagnostic sensitivity of VB-guided TBB for the evaluation of peripheral lung cancers. Materials and methods: A hundred and twenty-two peripheral lung cancers from 122 patients (82 men and 40 women, 38-84 years; median 68.5 years) who were performed VB-guided TBB were evaluated retrospectively. VB was reconstructed from 1- or 0.5-mm slice thickness images of multi-detector CT (MDCT). Experienced pulmonologists inserted the conventional and ultrathin bronchoscopes into the target bronchus under direct vision following the VB image. Results: A definitive diagnosis was established by VB-guided TBB in 96 lesions (79%). The diagnostic sensitivity of small pulmonary lesions {<=}30 mm in maximal diameter (71%) was significantly lower than that of lesions >30 mm (91%, p = 0.008). For small pulmonary lesions {<=}30 mm (n = 76), internal opacity of the lesion was the independent predictor of diagnostic sensitivity by VB-guided TBB, and the non-solid type lung cancers were significantly lower than the solid type and part-solid type lung cancers for diagnostic sensitivity (odds ratio = 0.161; 95% confidence interval = 0.033-0.780; p = 0.023). Conclusion: Use of an ultrathin bronchoscope and simulation with VB reconstructed by high quality MDCT images is thought to improve pathological diagnosis of peripheral lung cancers, especially for solid and partly solid types. For small pulmonary lesions {<=}30 mm, the lesion internal opacity is a significant factor for predicting the diagnostic sensitivity, and the sensitivity was low for small non-solid type of lung cancers.

  18. The impact of age at diagnosis on socioeconomic inequalities in adult cancer survival in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Ula; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Rachet, Bernard; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the age at which persistent socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival become apparent may help motivate and support targeting of cancer site-specific interventions, and tailoring guidelines to patients at higher risk. We analysed data on more than 40,000 patients diagnosed in England with one of three common cancers in men and women, breast, colon and lung, 2001-2005 with follow-up to the end of 2011. We estimated net survival for each of the five deprivation categories (affluent, 2, 3, 4, deprived), cancer site, sex and age group (15-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 and 75-99 years). The magnitude and pattern of the age specific socioeconomic inequalities in survival was different for breast, colon and lung. For breast cancer the deprivation gap in 1-year survival widened with increasing age at diagnosis, whereas the opposite was true for lung cancer, with colon cancer having an intermediate pattern. The 'deprivation gap' in 1-year breast cancer survival widened steadily from -0.8% for women diagnosed at 15-44 years to -4.8% for women diagnosed at 75-99 years, and was the widest for women diagnosed at 65-74 years for 5- and 10-year survival. For colon cancer in men, the gap was widest in patients diagnosed aged 55-64 for 1-, 5- and 10-year survival. For lung cancer, the 'deprivation gap' in survival in patients diagnoses aged 15-44 years was more than 10% for 1-year survival in men and for 1- and 5-year survival in women. Our findings suggest that reduction of socioeconomic inequalities in survival will require updating of current guidelines to ensure the availability of optimal treatment and appropriate management of lung cancer patients in all age groups and older patients in deprived groups with breast or colon cancer. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. [Breast cancer incidence related with a population-based screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Caicoya, Martín; Prieto, Miguel; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-02-20

    To compare breast cancer cumulative incidence, time evolution and stage at diagnosis between participants and non-participant women in a population-based screening program. Cohort study of breast cancer incidence in relation to participation in a population screening program. The study population included women from the target population of the screening program. The source of information for diagnostics and stages was the population-based cancer registry. The analysis period was 1999-2010. The Relative Risk for invasive, in situ, and total cancers diagnosed in participant women compared with non-participants were respectively 1.16 (0.94-1.43), 2.98 (1.16-7.62) and 1.22 (0.99-1.49). The Relative Risk for participants versus non-participants was 2.47 (1.55-3.96) for diagnosis at stagei, 2.58 (1.67-3.99) for T1 and 2.11 (1.38-3.23) for negative lymph node involvement. The cumulative incidence trend had two joint points in both arms, with an Annual Percent of Change of 92.3 (81.6-103.5) between 1999-2001, 18.2 (16.1-20.3) between 2001-2005 and 5.9 (4.0-7.8) for the last pe