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Sample records for cancer decapoda brachyura

  1. The complete mitogenome of the hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) and comparison with brachyuran crabs.

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    Ki, Jang-Seu; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) obtained from the hydrothermal vents off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan, which extend from the deep sea Okinawa Trench. The mitogenome of X. testudinatus was 15,796 bp in length and contained the same 37 genes (e.g. 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 PCGs) found in other metazoan mitogenomes. Analysis of the structural mt gene order in X. testudinatus revealed that the 13 PCGs, excluding a translocation of ND6-Cyt b cluster, were similarly ordered when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern; however the tRNAs were severely rearranged. Phylogenetic analysis of decapod mitogenomes showed that the molecular taxonomy of the vent crab was in accordance with its morphological systematics. Together, these findings suggest that the vent crab studied here has little mitochondrial genetic variation when compared with morphologically defined conspecifics from other marine habitats.

  2. Efectos del rizocéfalo Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura en Chile Effects of the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala on the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura in Chile

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    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas asociaciones biológicas de amplia distribución y alta especificidad en el ambiente marino han pasado casi desapercibidas para los estudiosos en Chile. Aquí se describe cuantitativamente la infección por Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura y se evalúa si el parásito produce efectos semejantes a los descritos para asociaciones similares. Para ello, 513 ejemplares del cangrejo fueron recolectados manualmente desde el submareal somero, entre septiembre y octubre de 2003, en Lenga, Octava Región de Chile. La prevalencia de rizocéfalos alcanzó valores máximos cercanos al 60 % en hospedadores de pequeño tamaño corporal, provocando castración, inhibiendo el desarrollo gonadal de las hembras y modificando el tamaño de los caracteres sexuales secundarios en ambos sexos, lo que sugiere que impone una gran demanda sobre su hospedador. Estos resultados muestran una gran similitud con otros estudios que involucran a rizocéfalos, y podrían, al incorporar a las simbiosis en el estudio de las comunidades bentónicas en Chile, conducir a que se reinterprete, por ejemplo, la abundancia y patrones de reproducción de P. barbiger, una especie de depredador prominente de esas comunidades bentónicasIn the marine realm, several biological associations are distributed worldwide and are highly specific, but remain poorly studied in Chile. Here, we describe quantitatively the infection by the barnacle Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala in the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura, and assess if the parasite effects are similar to rhizocephalan-decapod associations elsewhere. To do this, 513 crabs were collected by hand while scuba diving between September and October, 2003 in the shallow subtidal zone of Lenga (37° S, Chile. Maximum prevalence reached ca. 60 % in small body size hosts, producing total

  3. Evolutionary history of true crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) and the origin of freshwater crabs.

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    Tsang, Ling Ming; Schubart, Christoph D; Ahyong, Shane T; Lai, Joelle C Y; Au, Eugene Y C; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ng, Peter K L; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-05-01

    Crabs of the infra-order Brachyura are one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans with approximately 7,000 described species in 98 families, occurring in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. The relationships among the brachyuran families are poorly understood due to the high morphological complexity of the group. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogeny of Brachyura to date using sequence data of six nuclear protein-coding genes and two mitochondrial rRNA genes from more than 140 species belonging to 58 families. The gene tree confirms that the "Podotremata," are paraphyletic. Within the monophyletic Eubrachyura, the reciprocal monophyly of the two subsections, Heterotremata and Thoracotremata, is supported. Monophyly of many superfamilies, however, is not recovered, indicating the prevalence of morphological convergence and the need for further taxonomic studies. Freshwater crabs were derived early in the evolution of Eubrachyura and are shown to have at least two independent origins. Bayesian relaxed molecular methods estimate that freshwater crabs separated from their closest marine sister taxa ~135 Ma, that is, after the break up of Pangaea (∼200 Ma) and that a Gondwanan origin of these freshwater representatives is untenable. Most extant families and superfamilies arose during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  4. Aspectos ecológicos dos Brachyura (Crustacea: Decapoda no manguezal do Itacorubi, SC - Brasil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological studies including occurrence, relative abundance and spatial distribution of 15 species of Brachyura, as well as the fluctuation in the annual cycle are carried out in mangrove (27º 34' 14" and 27º 35' 31" L.S.; 48º 30' 07"and 48º 31' 33" L. W., during the year 1986. The hydrological parameters temperature, salinity and pH of surface and intersticial waters were also studied. Chasmagnathus granulata was the most abundant specie, followed by Uça uruguayensis, Aratus pisonii and Callinectes danae. The number of males was higher than females. In the spring a larger rate of Catches occurred. The species Eurytium limosum, Cardisoma guanhumi that had the state of São Paulo as their austral boundaru and Uça maracoani the state of Paraná, have now their boundaries of distribution expanded is for as the City of Florianópolis, in the state of Santa Catarina.

  5. Muscular anatomy of the legs of the forward walking crab, Libinia emarginata (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majoidea).

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    Vidal-Gadea, A G; Belanger, J H

    2009-05-01

    Decapod crustaceans have been the focus of neuroethological studies for decades. With few exceptions, however, their musculature remains scarcely described. We study the neuroethology of legged locomotion in the portly spider crab, Libinia emarginata (Brachyura, Majoidea), which preferentially walks forward. Majoid crabs are thought to be among the first to have adopted the crab form (carcinification) from lobster-like ancestors, making them interesting subjects for comparative and phylogenetic studies. The radial arrangement of the legs around the thorax, coupled with its unidirectional walking modality makes L. emarginata a good candidate for the presence of anterior and posterior limb specializations. Here we describe the complete muscular anatomy of all the pereopods of L. emarginata and compare our findings with other decapods described in the literature. The number of proximal muscle bundles differs between the anterior and posterior pereopods of L. emarginata. We describe an intersegmental bundle of the flexor muscle similar to the one present in distantly related, forward walking macruran species. The behavioral repertoire, amenability to experimental investigations, and phylogenetic position make spider crabs useful species for the study of the neural control of legged locomotion. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of a complete description and comparison of the musculature in all the locomotor appendages of one species.

  6. Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda associated to Schizoporella unicornis (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata in Ubatuba bay (SP, Brazil

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    Fernando L. M. Mantelatto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work characterizes the composition of Brachyura from Schizoporella unicornis. The samples were collected in 1995 at Itaguá Beach, Ubatuba (SP, at three month intervals, during all seasons from January to December. The Bryozoa colonies were obtained by snorkeling at a depth of five meters in daylight. A total of 323 specimens were collected from four families (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae and Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti, and Menippe nodifrons occurred in all seasons. The highest and lowest number of individuals occurred during the spring and autumn, respectively. Xanthidae exhibited the highest density during the summer, autumn, and spring, while Grapsidae exhibited the highest density in winter. It was noted the presence of Charibdis hellerii, an portunid from Indo-Pacific ocean. The diversity of species obtained, in addition to an accentuated number of immature and ovigerous females specimens, suggested that Schizoporella colonies were a place of reproduction and development.Este trabalho caracterizou a composição dos braquiúros em Schizoporella unicornis. As amostras foram coletadas na Praia do Itaguá, Ubatuba (SP, em intervalos de três meses, durante as estações climáticas de Janeiro a Dezembro/1995. As colônias de briozoários foram obtidas por mergulho livre, coletadas pela manhã. Um total de 323 espécimes foram coletados dentro de quatro famílias (Xanthidae, Portunidae, Majidae e Grapsidae. Pachygrapsus transversus, Hexapanopeus schimitti e Menippe nodifrons ocorreram em todas as estações. O maior e o menor número de indivíduos foram registrados na primavera e no outono, respectivamente. Xanthidae exibiu maior densidade no verão, outono e primavera, enquanto Grapsidae foi no inverno. Registrou-se a ocorrência de Charibdis hellerii, espécie originária do Indo-Pacífico. A diversidade de espécies obtida, juntamente com o acentuado número de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas ov

  7. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

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    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    it is lost in all other raninoid extant members. New evidence shows that the abdominal holding was an early occurrence for a brachyuran crab. The Raninoidea, sister to Palaeocorystoidea, is characterised by gymnopleurity, a condition that results from the lifting of the carapace and thus the exposure of several pleurites. The narrowing of the body and thoracic sternum, almost certainly associated with their burrowing behaviour, is a diagnostic feature of raninoid evolution, in contrast to the widening observed in the remaining Brachyura. The monophyly of Heterotremata is discussed. Although the correct assignment of the coxal male gonopore and sternal female gonopore (vulva) at the base of Decapoda and Eubrachyura, respectively, left no synapomorphies to support the Heterotremata, the group nevertheless should be regarded as the sister group to Thoracotremata. The controversial monophyly of Podotremata is discussed and arguments are presented against the suppression of this taxon. The distinction of Homoloidia from Dromioidia is argued, and a classification of Podotremata, which considers the fossil record whenever possible, is presented. The earliest brachyurans are re-examined, and a new interpretation of the phylogeny of several basal eubrachyuran groups (Dorippoidea, Inachoididae, Palicoidea, Retroplumoidea) is proposed. Stenorhynchus shares a number of characters with the Inachoididae that differentiate them from Inachidae, and also has some distinctive features that warrants its assignment to a separate inachoidid subfamily, Stenorhynchinae, which is resurrected. The concealment strategies among Brachyura are documented and discussed. Podotremes use carrying behaviour, often combined with burying and concealment under substrates, whereas living within a host, burying, and decoration are used by heterotremes, burrowing being essentially a thoracotreme strategy. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  8. Male internal reproductive structures of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae): vas deferens morphology and spermatozoal ultrastructure.

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    Becker, Carola; Klaus, Sebastian; Tudge, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Pea crabs of the subfamily Pinnotherinae (Pinnotheridae) have a high investment in reproduction and an outstanding reproductive output, probably as an adaptation to the required increase in reproductive rate due to the pinnotherids small size and their parasitic, host-dependant way of life. In the present study, we investigate the male internal reproductive structures and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Pinnotheres pisum and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres by histological methods and both scanning- and transmission electron microscopy. In the Brachyura, the male internal reproductive systems generally consist of paired testes and corresponding vasa deferentia where spermatozoa develop and mature. Spermatozoal ultrastructure of the investigated pinnotherids conforms to the thoracotreme type, however, N. pinnotheres has an accessory opercular ring and a periopercular rim, neither of which are present in spermatozoa of P. pisum. Spermatozoa are enclosed within spermatophores in the secretory proximal vas deferens. Two types of secretions were observed in P. pisum and N. pinnotheres: an electron dense substance secreted in the proximal vas deferens involved in spermatophore formation, and large electron-luscent vesicles constituting the seminal plasma in the medial and distal vas deferens. The medial vas deferens is strongly widened compared to other brachyurans to purpose storing spermatophores embedded in seminal plasma. Tubular appendices, which produce and store large amounts of seminal plasma, arise from the distal region of the vas deferens. The appendices extend into the ventral cephalothorax and also in the first pleomere. The latter being an exceptional location for reproductive structures among male brachyurans.

  9. Further observations on zooplankton of the Potengi Estuary (Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil with special reference to the larvae of Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda

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    C Sankarankutty

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with data on zooplankton collected from the estuary of Potengi, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil covering a period of one year from October 1992 to October 1993. Three fixed stations within the estuary located at varying distances from the mouth of the river were sampled. Sampling was done monthly when the tide was lowest. Analysis of the samples has shown clear pattern of seasonal variations in abundance of the dominant zooplankton components which are composed of Copepoda, Appendicularia, larvae of Brachyura, larvae of Cirripedia and Chaetognalha. A detailed study of the larvae of Brachyura was also attempted which showed that seven species can be identified in the samples, of which those of Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards and Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille have already been described. Other five species are designated here numerically and description of various stages present in the samples are given.

  10. Characterization and sequence analysis of manganese superoxide dismutases from Brachyura (Crustacea: Decapoda): hydrothermal Bythograeidae versus littoral crabs.

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    Marchand, J; Leignel, V; Moreau, B; Chénais, B

    2009-06-01

    Hydrothermal vent conditions are particular and organisms living in these environments may have developed detoxification mechanisms and/or genetic adaptations. In particular, physico-chemical conditions are thought to generate reactive oxygen species, highly toxic for organisms. The enzyme superoxide dismutase constitutes the first line of defense against oxidative damage. To improve our understanding of the environmental impacts exerted on the vent organisms, we have characterized the two manganese superoxide dismutase cDNAs (mitochondrial: mMnSOD and cytoplasmic: cMnSOD) of three members of the Bythograeidae (Bythograea thermydron, Cyanagraea praedator and Segonzacia mesatlantica), the only endemic crab family living in hydrothermal vents. In comparison, the isolation of manganese superoxide dismutase cDNAs was also carried out in several littoral crab families. MnSOD signatures were found in both sequences from each species studied, as well as different residues involved in metal coordination and protein activity. The phylogenetic analysis performed confirms the probable ancient duplication that gave rise to the two MnSODs (cMnSOD and mMnSOD). This study describes two potential distinct mMnSOD isoforms presenting particular peptide signals. Nevertheless, no sequence particularity that could support the hypothesis of a genetic adaptation was found in Bythograeidae's MnSODs compared to the other sequences. The mRNA expression analysis performed by real-time PCR on B. thermydron and S. mesatlantica compared to Cancer pagurus and Necora puber revealed a higher cMnSOD and mMnSOD mRNA expression in hydrothermal crabs compared to littoral crabs.

  11. Larval development of Cyrtograpsus affinis (Dana (Decapoda, Brachyura, Varunidae from Río de la Plata estuary, reared in the laboratory

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    Eduardo D. Spivak

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The complete larval development of the crab Cyrtograpsus affinis (Brachyura, Varunidae was obtained by culture in the laboratory. Five zoeal stages, the megalopa and the first crab are described and illustrated. Larval development from hatching to first crab took 29 days at 20° C and 35 PSU. The genus Cyrtograpsus only consists of three species. Larval development of C. altimanus and C. angulatus had been described previously. In the present study, morphological larval characters of the three species are compared. Generic larval features are also compared with those of other Varunidae genera.

  12. Names and publication dates of the Brachyura in F.É. Guérin (Guérin-Méneville) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

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    Low, Martyn E Y; Ng, Peter K L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-11-12

    The names and dates of the publications of Brachyura of Guérin (Guérin-Méneville from 1836) are reviewed, and previously unidentified or overlooked names are identified. Several identical new names used in multiple publications by Guérin (also under the name Guérin-Méneville), and others that appeared in the same year necessitated the accurate determination of publication dates to establish priority. The authorships of three names should be credited to Guérin (1832): Gecarcinus lateralis (Gecarcinidae), Halimus aries (Majidae), and Libinia spinosa (Epialtidae), the first previously attributed to Fréminville (1835), the last two to H. Milne Edwards (1834). The overlooked genus- and species-group names Cyclocarcinus pinnotheroides Guérin-Méneville, 1838, are determined to be senior subjective synonyms of the genus- and species-group names Hapalonotus reticulatus (De Man, 1879) (Pilumnidae). Applying Article 23.9.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, precedence is reversed between the genus-group names and the correct name is Hapalonotus pinnotheroides (Guérin-Méneville, 1838). Current and widespread use of the genus-group name Thalamita Latreille, 1829 (31 March) (Portunidae) is threatened by the overlooked Thalamites Guérin, 1829 (21 March), and the precedence of the names is also reversed to maintain usage of the former. The genus-group name Eurypodius Guérin (Inachidae) is shown to have been established in 1828, not 1825. Included is a complete bibliography of the publications in which Guérin (also under Guérin-Méneville) established new names for Brachyura, with their accurate publication dates.

  13. Dinâmica espacial e temporal de zoeas de Brachyura (Crustacea, Decapoda no estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, Itamaracá, Pernambuco, Brasil Spatial and temporal dynamics of Brachyura zoeae (Crustacea, Decapoda in the Jaguaribe river estuary, Itamaracá, Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Elisabeth C. Silva-Falcão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo da distribuição fotoperiódica e sazonal das zoeas de Brachyura foi realizado no estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, Pernambuco, Brasil. Amostras de plâncton foram obtidas bimestralmente, durante o ano de 2001, em diferentes marés e nos períodos noturno e diurno em duas estações de coleta. Foram identificados 14 táxons, onde a família Ocypodidae, representada pelas larvas de Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 e Uca spp., foi a mais abundante, seguida de Xanthidae e Grapsidae. Na estação próxima à foz, os táxons estiveram bem distribuídos, além de ter apresentado um maior número de famílias identificadas. As larvas de Ocypodidae, Grapsidae e Morfotipo B indicaram um movimento de dispersão para áreas costeiras, enquanto que os Pinnotheridae indicaram uma provável retenção nas águas do estuário. A elevada ocorrência de zoeas no primeiro estágio larval reforça o importante papel dos estuários como berçários para diversas espécies de crustáceos.A survey regarding the diel and seasonal distribution of brachyuran zoea was accomplished in the Jaguaribe estuary, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Plankton samples were obtained bimonthly, throughout the year of 2001, in different tides and during day and night periods, at two sampling stations. Fourteen taxa were identified, among which Ocypodidae, represented by Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 and Uca spp. zoea, was the most abundant one, followed by Xanthidae and Grapsidae. In the station close to the estuary opening, the taxa were well distributed, besides presenting a larger number of identified families. Ocypodidae, Grapsidae and Morphotype B zoea indicated a dispersion movement into coastal areas, while Pinnotheridae indicated a probable retention within the estuarine waters. The high occurrence of zoea in the first larval stages reinforces the important role of estuaries as nursery grounds for several crustacean species.

  14. Cymonomid crabs of the MAINBAZA Expedition (Decapoda: Brachyura).

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    Ahyong, Shane T

    2014-06-23

    Cymonomid crabs collected from the Mozambique Channel off Madagascar by the 2011 MAINBAZA Expedition are reported. Two species of Cymonomus A. Milne Edwards, 1880, are represented, of which one is new to science and the other, C. valdiviae Lankester, 1903, is rediscovered, being previously known only from the holotype. Three species of Cymonomidae are now known from the western Indian Ocean, including C. trifurcus Stebbing, 1920, from South Africa. 

  15. The Crustacea Decapoda of Cyprus

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    Lewinsohn, Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    An account of the species of Crustacea Decapoda so far known from Cyprus, based on (1) material collected during the 1967-1970 Hebrew University - Smithsonian Institution Joint Program "Biota of the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean", (2) Cyprus material from other sources, and (3) published rec

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of trypsin-like proteases from the gastric fluid of the marine crab Cancer pagurus

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    Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Redecke, Lars [Center of Experimental Medicine, Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, c/o DESY, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Perbandt, Markus [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Saborowski, Reinhard [Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 27483 Helgoland (Germany); Betzel, Christian, E-mail: betzel@unisgi1.desy.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-03-01

    Two trypsins from the gastric fluid of the marine crab C. pagurus were purified and crystallized and X-ray data were collected to 0.97 and 3.2 Å resolution. The digestive fluid of the marine crab Cancer pagurus (Decapoda, Brachyura) contains highly stable proteases which display enhanced activity in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents. Three trypsins were isolated from the gastric fluid and two of them, C.p.TryII and C.p.TryIII, were purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography and crystallized by hanging-drop vapour diffusion. Diffraction data were collected at a synchrotron to 0.97 and 3.2 Å resolution, respectively. The crystal of C.p.TryII belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.06, b = 62.00, c = 71.66 Å. Based on the Matthews coefficient, one protein molecule per asymmetric unit is suggested. In contrast, crystals of C.p.TryIII, which belong to the cubic space group P2{sub 1}3 with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 215.4 Å, are assumed to contain 12 molecules per asymmetric unit.

  17. Composição e distribuição dos Crustácea (Decapoda na Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition and distribution of Crustácea (Decapoda from Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Sandro Santos

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lagoa do Peixe ("Peixe's Lagoon" is located between Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa dos Patos and is 30 Km long and 0,5-2,0 Km wide (31º13'S, 50º55'W -31º26'S, 51º09'. For one year, the composition and distribution of Crustácea Decapoda were analyzed monthly (from July/1994 to June/1995, in seven subareas (terrestrial border and aquatic area and physical and chemical parameters (depth, salinity, sediment texture, oxygen in water, organic material of sediment and water temperature were registered. Decapoda from the families Grapsidae, Ocypodidae, Portunidae (Brachyura, Diogenidae (Anomura and Penaeidae (Penaeidea were captured. Chasmagnathus granulata Dana 1851 was found ali months near the canal connecting Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa do Peixe, but inside the lagoon it was collected only in October/94 and June/95, and in extreme subareas it was sampled in February/95 when the salinity was 31 ‰ at these sites. Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 were captured throughout the year, except October/94 and April/95, respectively. Both species were found in ali áreas of sample, indicating a high plasticity in relation to the factors analyzed in this study. Another species captured probably come in the lagoon in specific months, when the environment provides ideal conditions for their develo-pments.

  18. Microcassiope minor (Dana, 1852: a description of the first stage zoea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Xanthidae

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    P.F. CLARK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first stage zoea of Microcassiope minor (Dana, 1852 is described, illustrated and compared with thirteen other known Xanthinae. This comparison suggests that M. minor is closely related to another Atlantic Ocean xanthid, Nanocassiope melanodactyla (A. Milne-Edwards, 1867. Such an affinity may indicate that the genus Nanocassiope Guinot, 1967 is not a homogenous taxon.

  19. Lunar rhythms in the egg hatching of the subtidal crustacean: Callinectes arcuatus Ordway (Decapoda: Brachyura)

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    DeVries, M. C.; Epifanio, C. E.; Dittel, A. I.

    1983-12-01

    Gravid female portunid crabs, Callinectes arcuatus, were held in a recirculating seawater system and the development of the eggs was observed. Based on morphological criteria, nine developmental stages were noted. The relationship between a given stage and the subsequent time to hatching was determined. Based on this, an index was devised that predicted hatching date from microscopic observation of an egg mass. This index was used to predict the date of hatching of eggs from 439 crabs collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Central America, and the frequency of hatching was analysed in relation to the lunar and tidal cycles. Significantly more eggs hatched during periods of spring than neap tides. The adaptive significance of this rhythmicity is unclear at present.

  20. Bornean freshwater crabs of the genus Arachnothelphusa gen. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae)

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    Ng, P.K.L.

    1991-01-01

    A new genus, Arachnothelphusa gen. nov., is established for five species of Bornean freshwater crabs (Gecarcinucidae) previously placed in Thelphusula Bott, 1969. One species from Sabah, A. terrapes, is here described as new. The genus is characterised by its long ambulatory legs, shape of the carap

  1. On two species of Archipelothelphusa Bott, 1969 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Sundathelphusidae) from Luzon, Philippines

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    Ng, P.K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The taxonomic problems concerning freshwater crabs of the genus Archipelothelphusa Bott, 1969 (Gecarcinucoidea: Sundathelphusidae) are discussed. The identity of Para-Bary-thelphusa grapsoides subsp. longipes Balss, 1937, is clarified, and a new species, A. celer spec. nov. is described from Luzon,

  2. Leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Taiwan, with three new records.

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    Shih, Yi-Jia; Ho, Ping-Ho; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2015-12-01

    Four leucosiid species from Taiwan are presented. Ebalia nudipes Sakai, 1963, with its male first gonopod figured for the first time. Galilia petricola Komai & Tsuchida, 2014, is recorded on the basis of a larger specimen, and distinguishing features with its only congener, G. narusei Ng & Richer de Forges, 2007, reappraised. Nursia rhomboidalis (Miers, 1879), previously known only from Japan, Korea, and mainland China, is also recorded from Taiwan. Myra fugax (Fabricius, 1798) is now formally recorded from Taiwan, and female characters identified to help separate the three known Taiwanese species of Myra.

  3. Eight new species of the genus Sinopotamon from Jiangxi Province, China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

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    Ai-Yun, Dai; Xian-Min, Zhou; Wei-Dong, Peng

    1995-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater crabs belonging to the genus Sinopotamon are recorded from Jiangxi Province, S.E. China. Eight species are new to science and these are described: S. xiushuiense, S. jiujiangense, S. wanzaiense, S. anyuanense, S. siguqiaoense, S. linhuanense, S. yushanense and S ninggan

  4. First complete mitochondrial genome of primitive crab Homologenus malayensis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Podotremata: Homolidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy and phylogeny of brachyuran crabs, and particularly of the Podotremata, have been the subjects of controversy due to their morphological diversity and complexity. The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of primitive crab Homologenus malayensis has been determined. The mitogenome is 15,793 bp in length, with A + T content 71.7%. The gene content and order are consistent with those in typical brachyuran crabs. A putative control region of 883 bp is identified due to its position (between srRNA and tRNA(Ile)) and AT richness (75.5%). Notably, the control region in H. malayensis contains nine identical specific repeat units of 42 bp and 11 identical repeat units of 2 bp with a total length of 400 bp, which is different from other crabs. These results are expected to provide useful information on both genomics and the future phylogenetic study of primitive crabs.

  5. Morphology of the female reproductive system of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carola; Brandis, Dirk; Storch, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Commensal pea crabs inhabiting bivalves have a high reproductive output due to the extension andfecundity of the ovary. We studied the underlying morphology of the female reproductive system in the Pinnotheridae Pinnotheres pisum, Pinnotheres pectunculi and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eubrachyura have internal fertilization: the paired vaginas enlarge into storage structures, the spermathecae, which are connected to the ovaries by oviducts. Sperm is stored inside the spermathecae until the oocytes are mature. The oocytes are transported by oviducts into the spermathecae where fertilization takes place. In the investigated pinnotherids, the vagina is of the "concave pattern" (sensu Hartnoll1968): musculature is attached alongside flexible parts of the vagina wall that controls the dimension of its lumen. The genital opening is closed by a muscular mobile operculum. The spermatheca can be divided into two distinct regions by function and morphology. The ventral part includes the connection with vagina and oviduct and is regarded as the zone where fertilization takes place. It is lined with cuticle except where the oviduct enters the spermatheca by the "holocrine transfer tissue." At ovulation, the oocytes have to pass through this multilayered glandular epithelium performing holocrine secretion. The dorsal part of the spermatheca is considered as the main sperm storage area. It is lined by a highly secretory apocrine glandular epithelium. Thus, two different forms of secretion occur in the spermathecae of pinnotherids. The definite role of secretion in sperm storage and fertilization is not yet resolved, but it is notable that structure and function of spermathecal secretion are more complex in pinnotherids, and probably more efficient, than in other brachyuran crabs.

  6. New record of Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae from the east coast of Nicaragua

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    Michel E. Hendrickx

    Full Text Available The pinnotherid crab Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918, previously known from Florida, USA, Colombia and Brazil, is reported for the first time from Central America, on the east coast of Nicaragua. A single female specimen was collected on the sand dollar Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray, 1825, at 4 m depth, among turtle grass on sandy bottom. The specimen fits well with the description provided by M.J. Rathbun and observations made on photographs of the male holotype. Comparison of the material described from Florida (including the type material, Colombia and Brazil to the Nicaragua specimen, however, indicates that C. stebbingi shows some variation in the shape of the third maxilliped.

  7. The Dakoticancridae (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Late Cretaceous of North America and Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishop, G.A.; Feldmann, R.M.; Vega, F.

    1998-01-01

    The podotrematous crab family Dakoticancridae includes four genera: Dakoticancer Rathbun, Tetracarcinus Weller, Avitelmessus Rathbun, and Seorsus Bishop, all known solely from the Late Cretaceous of North America. Lathelicocarcinus Bishop, originally referred to the family, must be reassigned. Fine

  8. A new species of Achaeus Leach, 1817 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Inachidae from Easter Island

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    Peter K.L. Ng

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present paper, a new species of Achaeus Leach, 1817, is described from Easter Island and dedicated to the memory of Michael Türkay. This record represents the first inachid spider crab and the sixth endemic brachyuran to be described from the island. It can be differentiated from congeners by its relatively short carapace, with the postorbital region not elongated, the arrangement and number of tubercles on the dorsal carapace surface, prominent hepatic lobe, presence of a large anterodistal lobe on the ocular peduncle, as well as structures of the third maxilliped and ambulatory legs.

  9. New records of coral-associated crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura: Carpilioidea, Trapezoidea) from Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Christopher B; Mendoza, Jose C E; Castro, Peter

    2017-01-10

    A review is made of those brachyurans that are symbiotic or otherwise associated with scleractinian corals on Easter Island, southeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of seven species is reported, including three species from two families not previously known from the island. Earlier records of Trapezia are analyzed and, although as many as six species have been previously reported, we conclude that only three species are known to occur on the island with certainty.

  10. On Parathelphusa ceophallus spec. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphiisidae) from Pulau Buton, Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1993-01-01

    A new species of parathelphusid freshwater crab, Parathelphusa ceophallus, is described from Pulau Buton, a small island southeast of the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. The species is differentiated from its allies in the P. celebensis complex by the form of its anterolateral margin, postorbital c

  11. Progress on the fossil Xanthoidea MacLeay, 1838 (Decapoda, Brachyura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, Carrie E.

    2003-01-01

    Identification and utilization of proxy characters in extant families has been accomplished with success for fossil members of the Calappidae, Hepatidae, Necrocarcinidae, Matutidae, and Hexapodidae. The fossil and extant Raninidae have been revised using primarily hard-part morphology preserved in t

  12. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  13. Juvenile development of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolla, Eduardo A; Fransozo, Vivian; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia

    2014-03-01

    The juvenile development of Callinectes danae was investigated from megalopae obtained in neuston samples at Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The individuals were raised in the laboratory under constant temperature (25 ± 1°C), filtered sea water from the collection location (35‰), and natural photoperiod. Newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii were offered as food on a daily basis and ornamental-fish food was also provided for the juveniles from the 4th stage on. Twelve stages of the juvenile phase were obtained. The main morphological features that allowed recognition of the first juvenile stage were drawn and described. All the subsequent stages obtained were examined and measured, and the main changes in relation to the first stage were recorded. Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent from the fourth juvenile stage onwards. Some appendages and morphological features proved to be of great importance in the identification of species, including the number of segments of the antennal flagellum and the number of setae on the maxilla and on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds. These can probably be used for future comparisons and species identifications.

  14. Juvenile development of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO A. BOLLA Jr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The juvenile development of Callinectes danae was investigated from megalopae obtained in neuston samples at Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The individuals were raised in the laboratory under constant temperature (25 ± 1°C, filtered sea water from the collection location (35‰, and natural photoperiod. Newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii were offered as food on a daily basis and ornamental-fish food was also provided for the juveniles from the 4th stage on. Twelve stages of the juvenile phase were obtained. The main morphological features that allowed recognition of the first juvenile stage were drawn and described. All the subsequent stages obtained were examined and measured, and the main changes in relation to the first stage were recorded. Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent from the fourth juvenile stage onwards. Some appendages and morphological features proved to be of great importance in the identification of species, including the number of segments of the antennal flagellum and the number of setae on the maxilla and on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds. These can probably be used for future comparisons and species identifications.

  15. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-10-06

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species.

  16. Occurrence of the family Pinnotheridae De Haan (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura on the coast of Ceará State, Brazil Ocorrência da família Pinnotheridae De Haan (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura no litoral do Ceará, Brasil

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    Luis Ernesto A. Bezerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrence of Austinixa bragantina Coelho, 2005; A. leptodactyla (Coelho, 1997 and Zaops ostreum (Say, 1817 for the State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. These records represent the first account of the family Pinnotheridae de Haan, 1883 for the coast of Ceará. A. bragantina was collected on May and June 1995 at Futuro Beach, municipality of Fortaleza (3°42'S, 38°27'W. This species was previously known only for the type locality, Canela Island, Bragança, Pará, Brazil. A. leptodactyla was collected on November 2004 at Baleia Beach, municipality of Itapipoca (3°08'S, 39°27'W and Z. ostreum was obtained from the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae Guilding, 1828, collected on November 2005 at the Jaguaribe River estuary, municipality of Fortim (4°24'S, 37°46'W. Biogeographic considerations regarding the three species and an updated list of all known Brazilian pinnotherid species along with their_geographic distribution are also provided.Este trabalho reporta a ocorrência de Austinixa bragantina Coelho, 2005; A. leptodactyla (Coelho, 1997 e Zaops ostreum (Say, 1817 para o litoral do Estado do Ceará, sendo estes os primeiros registros de representantes da família Pinnotheridae De Haan, 1883 para a costa cearense. A. bragantina foi coletada em maio e junho de 1995, na praia do Futuro, município de Fortaleza (3°42'S, 38°27'W. Esta espécie era conhecida, até o momento, apenas de sua localidade tipo, Ilha Canela, município de Bragança, Pará. A. leptodactyla foi coletada em novembro de 2004, na praia da Baleia, município de Itapipoca (3°08'S, 39°27'W e Z. ostreum foi obtido a partir do exame de ostras da espécie Crassostrea rhizophorae Guilding, 1828, coletadas em novembro de 2005 no estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, município de Fortim (4°24'S, 37°46'W. São apresentadas considerações biogeográficas sobre as três espécies assim como uma lista atualizada de todos os pinoterídeos do litoral brasileiro e sua distribuição geográfica.

  17. Estrutura populacional de Armases angustipes (Dana (Decapoda, Brachyura, Grapsidae na Ilha do Farol, Matinhos, Paraná Population structurc of Armases angustipes (Dana (Decapoda, Brachyura, Grapsidae from Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia G.L. Kowalczuk

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual fluetuation of densities and population strueture of Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852 from a rocky shore at Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil (25º51'S and 48º32'W were studied. The population strueture was treated in the following aspects: sexual proportion, dial intensity of activities, size composition and its fluetuation, and general condition of the crabs. The collections were made monthly, from January to December 1991. The samples were obtained handly, in the morning and at night, at the supratidal zone during low tides. There were caught 1,139 crabs, among which 34 were juveniles, 544 males, 555 females and 4 ovigerous females. Population density was highest in April (19.56 ind.m"² and in October (23.86 ind.m"² . The sexual proportion was 1:1 in eleven months. Although the male crabs were more abundant than the females in May, there was not any statistical significam difference between the sexes. The activity of the population is intenser at night than at morning for both sexes. The recruitment of juveniles oceurs mainly in March, April and July. The condition factor in females is related to the reproduetive period. The population can migrate to the terrestrial habitat near the supratidal zone.

  18. Observações sobre a ocorrência de Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae na costa do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Remarks about the Pilumnus floridanus Stimpson (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pilumnidae occurrence in Rio de Janeiro coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M. S. Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os espécimes foram coletados na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro no inverno. Sua distribuição era conhecida para Off Cape Lookout, Carolina do Norte até a Flórida, Golfo do México, Canal de Yucatan, Honduras, Antilhas, Venezuela e Brasil (Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia.The specimens were collected in Sepetiba Bay during the winter. Their distribution was formerly known from Off Cape Lookout, North Carolina until Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Yucatan Channel, Honduras, Antilles, Venezuela and Brazil (Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia.

  19. Estrutura populacional de Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná Population structure of Uca maracoani (Decapoda, Brachyura, Ocypodidae from the tidal flat of Baixio Mirim, Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil

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    Mariângela Di Benedetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre a flutuação anual da abundância, composição de tamanho dos indivíduos, proporção de sexos, período reprodutivo e de recrutamento dos juvenis de uma população de Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 foi realizado no Baixio Mirim, Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Os animais foram coletados mensalmente, de fevereiro/2005 a janeiro/2006, durante as marés baixas de sizígia, e a sua largura da carapaça (LC medida. A temperatura pontual do ar variou de 17 a 29ºC, a luminosidade de 8.740 a 151.300 lux, a salinidade de 8 a 25 e a temperatura do solo (superfície, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm e 20 cm de profundidade de 18,3 a 28,9ºC. Foram analisados 7.120 indivíduos, dos quais, 2.578 juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2.377 machos e 2.165 fêmeas. A abundância da população variou de 341 (abril a 994 indivíduos (janeiro, mas a sua flutuação anual não esteve relacionada com a das variáveis abióticas estudadas. A proporção de sexos foi de 1:1 e a reprodução da espécie é do tipo contínuo, com dois picos de intensidade: um em abril e outro em novembro. O recrutamento de juvenis, também, é contínuo com dois períodos mais intensos no ano, um em julho e outro em dezembro-janeiro. A LC da população variou de 1,14 a 2,62 mm para juvenis sexualmente indefinidos, 2,58 a 17,83 mm para machos juvenis, 2,60 a 11,72 mm para fêmeas juvenis, 17,85 a 35,81 mm para machos maduros e 11,75 a 31,76 mm para fêmeas maduras. Os machos atingem tamanhos maiores do que as fêmeas.A study about the annual fluctuation of the abundance, size composition, sexual proportion, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment of the fiddler crab Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 was carried out in a population living in a tidal flat at Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, Brazil (48º36'W e 25º52'S. Crabs were obtained from February 2005 to January 2006, during low spring tides, in monthly collections, and their carapace width was measured. Air temperature oscillated from 17 to 29ºC, luminosity from 8,740 to 151,300 lux, salinity from 8 to 25 and soil temperature (on surface, 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm depth from 18.3 to 28.9ºC. A total of 7,120 individuals were analyzed, among them, 2,578 were sexually indefinite juveniles, 2,377 males (1,113 juveniles and 1,264 mature males and 2,165 females (944 juveniles, 1,135 mature and 86 ovigerous females. Population abundance oscillated 341 (April to 994 individuals (January, but its annual fluctuation was not correlated to the oscillation of the abiotic variables. The sexual proportion was 1:1 and the reproduction of the species is continuous type, with two peaks of intensity in the year: one in April and another in November. Juvenile recruitment is also continuous with two periods of intensity in the year: in July and in December-January. Sexually indefinite juveniles measured from 1.14 to 2.62 mm carapace width, juvenile males from 2.58 to 17.83 mm, juvenile females from 2.60 to 11.72 mm, mature males from 17.85 to 35.81 mm and mature females from 11.75 to 31.76 mm. Males reach larger sizes than females.

  20. Sacculina nectocarcini, a new species of rhizocephalan, a new species of rhizocephalan(Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) parasitising the red rock crabNectocarcinus integrifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)(Decapoda: Brachyura: Portunidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurney, Robert H.; Rybakov, Alexey V.; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2006-01-01

    The parasitic barnacles, Rhizocephala, are a little known group within Australia with only seven described species from a coastline stretching approximately 59763 km. This study describes a new species of Rhizocephala, Sacculina nectocarcini. The description is based on a unique combination...

  1. Re-evaluation of the Cancridae Latreille, 1802 (Decapoda: Brachyura) including three new genera and three new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, Carrie E.; Feldmann, Rodney M.

    2000-01-01

    New fossils referable to the Cancridae Latreille, 1802 extend the known stratigraphic range of the family into the middle Eocene and the geographic range into South America. Each genus within the family has been reevaluated within the context of the new material. A suite of diagnostic characters for

  2. A new species of the genus Kingsleya from Amazonia, with a modified key for the Brazilian Pseudothelphusidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhaes, C.

    1990-01-01

    Abstract: A new species of Pseudothelphusid crab, Kingsleya besti spec. nov., is described from Serra do Curicuriari, northwest of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. A modified dey for identification of the Pseudothelphusid crabs occurring in Brazil is given. Resumo: É descrita uma nova espécie de

  3. Morfología comparada del esqueleto axial en la familia de cangrejos de agua dulce Trichodactylidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura

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    Manuel Pedraza

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El esqueleto axial es una estructura compleja de origen cuticular, formada a partir de las láminas esclerotizadas de los esternitos y pleuritos torácicos así como por sus invaginaciones internas. Los caracteres de la parte ventral del esqueleto axial, que se reflejan externamente en las líneas de sutura del esternón torácico, son criterios importantes en el actual sistema de supragenerico de Trichodactylidae: (Trichodactylinae y Dilocarcininae (Dilocarcinini + Valdiviini. Con el objetivo de probar esa hipótesis de clasificación fue realizado el estudio anatómico del esqueleto axial de 43 individuos adultos, tanto machos como hembras, pertenecientes a 17 especies de 10 géneros de Trichodactylidae. Para la preparación del material, los individuos fueron diseccionados y sus esqueletos sumergidos, por un periodo de 24 a 48 horas, en una solución caliente de Hidróxido de Potasio (KOH. El análisis anatómico permitió describir un grupo de variaciones en la forma, orientación y conformación del esternón torácico, techo pleural, fragmas ventrales y dorsales, así como de la lámina de unión. De acuerdo con esas características las especies estudiadas fueron reunidas en tres grupos, siendo esas agrupaciones consistentes con la actual propuesta de clasificación de Trichodactylidae en subfamilias y tribus. El presente trabajo resalta la importancia informativa de la morfología del esqueleto axial para la taxonomía de Trichodactylidae.

  4. The leucosiid crabs described by Thomas Bell in 1855: original description and dates of publication (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B Y; Low, Martyne E Y

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Bell proposed 37 species- and 5 genus-group names for the Leucosiidae in four publications that appeared in 1855. The version appearing in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London is the earliest of these publications and the first available description of these taxa.

  5. On a collection of calappid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Fiji, with a description of a new species of Mursia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, Bella S

    2013-11-07

    Seven species of calappid crabs were identified from material collected during four IRD-MNHN expeditions conducted in 1998 and 1999 in shallow and deep waters off Fiji. Six species are reported for the first time from the islands. One new species, Mursia murimura n. sp., is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the closely related M. diwata Galil & Takeda, 2004, with which it shares a stout, distally auriculated first male pleopod, by possessing much longer lateral carapacial and cheliped spines.

  6. Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Sundathelphusa Bott, 1969 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from caves in Luzon, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husana, Daniel Edison M; Yamamuro, Masumi; Ng, Peter K L

    2014-06-17

    Two cave species of Sundathelphusa are described from a karst area in southern Luzon, Philippines. Both species have elongated ambulatory legs but the eyes and carapace pigmentation are well developed, indicating they are not troglobites. Sundathelphusa danae sp. nov. is superficially more similar to S. longipes (Balss, 1937) than to S. holthuisi Ng, 2010, which was described from the same locality. Sundathelphusa danae sp. nov. is distinguished from its closest congeners by its strongly convex anterolateral margin, more swollen branchial regions, possession of a complete frontal median triangle, laterally inflated subbranchial region and the more slender ambulatory legs. Sundathelphusa vienae sp. nov. is unusual among Sundathelphusa species in that its carapace is more quadrate, with the slender and almost straight male first gonopod tapered and having a pointed terminal segment. 

  7. Insular species of Afrotropical freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamonautidae and Potamidae) with special reference to Madagascar and the Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumberlidge, N.

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary relationships between island and mainland faunas of the 24 species of insular freshwater crabs in the Afrotropical region are reviewed in the light of phylogenetic studies. Twenty insular species of freshwater crabs are endemic, and four are also found on the neighboring mainland of

  8. Out of the Sichuan Basin: Rapid species diversification of the freshwater crabs in Sinopotamon (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) endemic to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yongkun; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Chu, Kelin; Wang, Ruicong; Zhao, Qiang; Sun, Hongying

    2016-07-01

    Sinopotamon Bott, 1967 is the most speciose and widely distributed freshwater crab genus in East Asia. Our extensive sampling includes about 76% of the known Sinopotamon taxa, and nearly covers its entire distribution area. Based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA, as well as nuclear 28S rRNA and histone H3, we reconstructed the Sinopotamon phylogeny using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The divergence time was estimated and multiple methods were used to conduct diversification analyses. The ancestral geographic distribution and character state were reconstructed. Three main clades (Clades I, II and III) that roughly correspond to their main geographic distribution ranges were recovered. Our results challenge the current view of the four major species groups based on the morphological differences in the male first gonopod (G1). The most recent common ancestor of Sinopotamon most likely originated from the Sichuan Basin and surrounding mountains (SBSM) and subsequently dispersed throughout central and eastern China. The exceptionally rapid, recent diversification was detected in Clade II. The high incidence of species-level non-monophyly found in Clade II can be explained by recent rapid radiation. Climatic changes, morphological innovations, range expansion and geographical heterogeneity may all contribute to the diversification in Sinopotamon. This study contributes to our knowledge on diversification of freshwater benthic macro-invertebrates in the East Asian inland ecosystem.

  9. Reproductive cycle of the swimming crab Portunus spinimanus Latreille (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura from Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses some reproductive aspects of Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, a crab usually commercialized in Ubatuba region. Monthly otter-trawl collections were taken for two years along the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. The reproductive period was studied based on the frequency of ovigerous females in the population along the year; the frequency of physiologically mature swimming crabs and the type of spawn. The condition of development of ovigerous females ovary was associated with the stage of eggs development. This species presents continuous reproduction in Ubatuba region and total spawn, but with successive broods, which suggests a multiple spawn during the reproduction period.

  10. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

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    de Magalhães Henrique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State.

  11. Acute and chronic effects of parathion and 2,4 D on the oxygen consumption of Chasmagnathus granulata (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E M; Monserrat, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of two pesticides widely used in Argentina on the oxygen consumption of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata was studied. Constant pressure respirometers were employed to estimate the rate of oxygen consumption per weight unit of animals treated previously with each pesticide, both acute (96 h) and chronically (15 and 30 days). Crabs exposed to parathion -an organophosphorate insecticide that causes the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase- show an increase of oxygen consumption at 0.5 ppm under acute exposure, and at 10 ppb under a chronic one. On the other hand, crabs exposed to 2,4 D (an herbicide) did not show changes in their consumption after an acute exposure, but those exposed chronically did show an increase at low concentration (5 ppm) followed by a relative decrease at the highest concentration (50 ppm). The results obtained for parathion are in accordance with the abnormal cholinergic excitation that it may exert on crustacean nervous system. The effect of 2,4 D was consistent with its uncoupler action at respiratory chain level, at low concentrations, while a possible Krebs cycle enzymes inhibition might be occurring at higher concentrations of that pesticide, as in other crustacean species. The faster action of parathion, respect to 2,4 D, is explained by its neurotoxic nature.

  12. On the morphology of the central nervous system in larval stages of Carcinus maenas L. (Decapoda, Brachyura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzsch, S.; Dawirs, R. R.

    1993-02-01

    We investigated the morphology of the central nervous system throughout the larval development of Carcinus maenas. For that purpose single larvae were reared in the laboratory from hatching through metamorphosis. Complete series of whole mout semithin sections were obtained from individuals of all successive larval stages and analysed with a light microscope. Morphological feature and spatial arrangement of discernable neural cell clusters, fibre tracts and neuropile are described and compared with the adult pattern. We found that most of the morphological features characterizing the adult nervous system are already present in the zoea-1. Nevertheless, there are marked differences with respect to the arrangement of nerve cell bodies, organization of cerebral neuropile, and disposition of ganglia in the ventral nerve cord. It appears that complexity of the central nervous neuropile is selectively altered during postmetamorphotic development, probably reflecting adaptive changes of sensory-motor integration in response to behavioural maturation. In contrast, during larval development there was little change in the overall structural organization of the central nervous system despite some considerable growth. However, the transition from zoea-4 to megalopa brings about multiple fundamental changes in larval morphology and behavioural pattern. Since central nervous integration should properly adapt to the altered behavioural repertoire of the megalopa, it seems necessary to ask in which respect synaptic rearrangement might characterize development of the central nervous system.

  13. Relative growth, sexual dimorphism and morphometric maturity of Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Trichodactylidae from Santa Terezinha, Bahia, Brazil

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    Tiago Rozário da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are important elements in the aquatic biota of brooks, rivers, lakes and ponds, from both ecological and the socio-economic aspects. Trichodactylidae comprises 51 endemic species from the Neotropical region. Among all the species of this family, Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828 has the widest geographic distribution throughout Brazil. Despite that, there are few published contributions on the biology of this species. The present study investigated the following aspects of T. fluviatilis: relative growth, mean size at onset of morphometric maturity, sexual dimorphism, laterality and heterochely. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2010 through August 2011, from the Velha Eugênia Brook, municipality of Santa Teresinha, State of Bahia. Carapace width (CW, carapace length (CL, major cheliped length (MaCL and minor cheliped length (MiCL, major cheliped height (MaCH and minor cheliped height (MiCH, and width of the fifth abdominal segment (5AB were measured to evaluate the presence of sexual dimorphism; the major difference between the sexes was in the CW vs. 5AB ratio. Heterochely was observed in males and females,with the right cheliped larger than the left in 89% of males and 81% of females. Crab size at the onset of morphometric maturity (= puberty molt was estimated based on the ratio between CL, cheliped dimensions, 5AB and CW (independent variable. Females were larger than males when they reached morphometric maturity in all studied relations. We recommend the use of chelipeds and abdominal width relationships to estimate the size at the morphometric maturity in males and females, respectively.

  14. Description of a new genus of Cryptochiridae (Decapoda: Brachyura associated with Siderastrea (Anthozoa: Scleractinia, with notes on feeding habits

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    Marcelle F.S. Badaro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Cryptochiridae are small gall-crabs that live as obligate symbionts of scleractinian corals. Only two species have so far been recorded in the western Atlantic Ocean. Herein a new Cryptochiridae genus and species is described, and new information is added on the life history of cryptochirids. The new genus is characterized by having the carapace with the lowest deflection angle among the genera, and also shows the following features: thoracic sternite 4 with setules and constriction smaller than half of the width of the basis, anterior margin curved with apical row of granules; third maxilliped with subcircular exopod reaching medially the lateral margin of the ischium; pereiopod 2 with prominent distomesial and anterolateral expansion on the merus, propodus almost twice larger than dactylus; thoracic sternite 7 with complete medial suture, female pleopod 3 uniramous with longitudinal opening. Male first pleopod straight with subdistal curvature of approximately 90°. Individuals belonging to the new genus are found in galls in massive corals although this structure is cited as being characteristic of ramified corals. The long plumose setae of the maxilliped 3 suggest a filter-feeding function, but the toothless chelae suggest that they are used to gather mucus.

  15. Morphology of the first zoeal stages of five species of the portunid genus Callinectes (Decapoda, Brachyura hatched at the laboratory

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    FERNANDO L. MANTELATTO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Callinectes Stimpson, 1860 currently consists of 16 species, six of which are reported in Brazilian coast. In the present study, the first zoeal stages of Callinectes bocourti,C. danae, C. exasperatus, C. ornatus and C. sapidus from Brazil were obtained from ovigerous females. The morphological and meristic characters of all these larval stages are described and illustrated. Those of C. bocourti, C. danae and C. sapidus are redescribed and compared with the previous descriptions, and differences are listed. Larval characters of these species were examined for interspecific differences, as well as larval features to distinguish the genus Callinectes within Portunidae. In addition, other portunid genera and species with a known first zoeal stage are compared, with special attention to those species present in the same geographical area. Our findings concord with some previous molecular studies, and we discuss the complexity within the group.

  16. Morphology of the first zoeal stages of five species of the portunid genus Callinectes (Decapoda, Brachyura) hatched at the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelatto, Fernando L; Reigada, Alvaro L D; Gatti, Aline C R; Cuesta, José A

    2014-05-23

    The genus Callinectes Stimpson, 1860 currently consists of 16 species, six of which are reported in Brazilian coast. In the present study, the first zoeal stages of Callinectes bocourti, C. danae, C. exasperatus, C. ornatus and C. sapidus from Brazil were obtained from ovigerous females. The morphological and meristic characters of all these larval stages are described and illustrated. Those of C. bocourti, C. danae and C. sapidus are redescribed and compared with the previous descriptions, and differences are listed. Larval characters of these species were examined for interspecific differences, as well as larval features to distinguish the genus Callinectes within Portunidae. In addition, other portunid genera and species with a known first zoeal stage are compared, with special attention to those species present in the same geographical area. Our findings concord with some previous molecular studies, and we discuss the complexity within the group.

  17. On a collection of Leucosioidea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura from Papua New Guinea, with the description of a new species

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    Bella S. Galil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The collection of deep-sea pebble crabs (Leucosioidea during the BIOPAPUA Expedition, comprising 8 species, including a species new to science, is significant because although the previously described species had not been recorded from the Bismarck and western Solomon Seas, they occurred in at least one nearby location (New Caledonia, Vanuatu, Solomon Is. Praebebalia fungifera sp. nov. is described and illustrated. It differs from its closest congener, P. septemspinosa Sakai, 1983, in bearing fungiform granules dorsally on carapace, shorter chelipeds, the relatively stout male first gonopod with a preapical row of setae and the beak-like tip, as compared to the rounded granules dorsally on the carapace, greatly elongate chelipeds and the slim, elongate, distally curved gonopod of P. septemspinosa, preapically set with very long setae and a hook-like tip.

  18. A new species of portunid crab of the genus Charybdis (De Haan, 1833) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    on the Crabs obtained by the F.I.S. “Endeavour” on the coasts of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania. Commonwealth of Australia, Fisheries 5:95-155, Plates XVII-XLII. Rathbun M. 1923b. Descriptions of new species of crabs from...

  19. Great unexpected differences between two populations of the intertidal crab Neohelice granulata inhabiting close but contrasting habitats (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura

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    Eduardo D. Spivak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two populations of the Southwestern Atlantic burrowing crab, Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851, are separated by only 190 km. They inhabit bays that drain into a Patagonian gulf in the southernmost limit of the geographical distribution of the species: San Antonio Bay (SAO and San José Gulf (RSJ. The population from SAO has been extensively studied, whereas that of RSJ has not. The main goal of this study is to compare the ecological and habitat characteristics of the two populations, based on samples collected on successive days during the middle of the reproductive season of the crab. The substrate of SAO is composed of a high proportion of gravel and scarce organic matter, whereas the substrate of RSJ presents twice as much silt and clay, and greater organic matter content. Crabs of both sexes were larger at RSJ. Fecundity and reproductive output were greater at RSJ. The size of females at maturity was smaller and their range was shorter at RSJ. Burrows were longer and wider at RSJ. Our results indicate that there are strong differences between the two populations, which might be correlated with local environmental differences, mainly substrate granulometry and food availability.

  20. First occurrence of a Hymenosomatid crab Elamena mathoei (Desmarest, 1823 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura in the Mediterranean Sea

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    J. ZAOUALI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean fauna is undergoing drastic modifications as a result of anthropogenic activities and global warming. The most important of these is the colonization of the Mediterranean Sea by alien species, many of them entering through the Suez Canal. While many of them are still confined to the Levant Basin, several have extended their distribution westwards to Tunisian waters. The presence of the Indo-west Pacific hymenosomatid crab Elamena mathoei on a rocky shore at Sidi Daoud, Cape Bon Peninsula, Tunisia, is the first Mediterranean record of this species. It is a testimony to the changes in the patterns of invasion in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Comparative brain architecture of the European shore crab Carcinus maenas (Brachyura) and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus (Anomura) with notes on other marine hermit crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jakob; Sombke, Andy; Seefluth, Florian; Kenning, Matthes; Hansson, Bill S; Harzsch, Steffen

    2012-04-01

    The European shore crab Carcinus maenas and the common hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus are members of the sister taxa Brachyura and Anomura (together forming the taxon Meiura) respectively. Both species share similar coastal marine habitats and thus are confronted with similar environmental conditions. This study sets out to explore variations of general brain architecture of species that live in seemingly similar habitats but belong to different major malacostracan taxa and to understand possible differences of sensory systems and related brain compartments. We examined the brains of Carcinus maenas, Pagurus bernhardus, and three other hermit crab species with immunohistochemistry against tyrosinated tubulin, f-actin, synaptic proteins, RF-amides and allatostatin. Our comparison showed that their optic neuropils within the eyestalks display strong resemblance in gross morphology as well as in detailed organization, suggesting a rather similar potential of processing visual input. Besides the well-developed visual system, the olfactory neuropils are distinct components in the brain of both C. maenas and P. bernhardus as well as the other hermit crabs, suggesting that close integration of olfactory and visual information may be useful in turbid marine environments with low visibility, as is typical for many habitats such as, e.g., the Baltic and the North Sea. Comparing the shape of the olfactory glomeruli in the anomurans showed some variations, ranging from a wedge shape to an elongate morphology. Furthermore, the tritocerebrum and the organization of the second antennae associated with the tritocerebrum seem to differ markedly in C. maenas and P. bernhardus, indicating better mechanosensory abilities in the latter close to those of other Decapoda with long second antennae, such as Astacida, Homarida, or Achelata. This aspect may also represent an adaptation to the "hermit lifestyle" in which competition for shells is a major aspect of their life history. The shore

  2. Contenido de metales en Cancer polyodon (Crustacea: Decapoda en un sistema de bahías del norte de Chile (27°S Metal contents in Cancer polyodon (Crustacea: Decapoda in a bay system of northern Chile (27°S

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    Alexis Castillo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe, Al y Ni fue analizado en tejido muscular de Cancer polyodon en las bahías de Caldera, Calderilla, Inglesa y Salada (Atacama, Chile. Los resultados fueron comparados con estudios similares desarrollados por otros autores y la normativa de carácter nacional e internacional relacionada con el contenido de metales pesados en crustáceos para consumo humano. El orden de abundancia de los metales analizados en C. polyodon fue CdThe contents of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe, Al and Ni in the muscle tissue of Cancer polyodon from Caldera, Calderilla, Inglesa, and Salada bays (Atacama, Chile were quantified. The results were compared with similar studies by other authors and with the national and international regulatory standards for heavy metal contents in crustaceans for human consumption. In increasing order, the metal contents in C. polyodon were: Cd< Ni< Cu< Pb< Zn

  3. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In additi...

  4. Descrição de um Novo Decapoda (Natantia, Malacostraca, Crustacea

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    Márcia Aparecida Fernandes dos Reis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A “lobster” fossil from the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Sub-basin, is here described and placed in the Decapoda, Infraorder Palinura, based on the flattened carapace and the well-developed abdomen. The specimen is characterized by a dorsal median keel and a keel in each margin of the carapace and abdomen. Field data and petrographic studies suggest that the environment in which the Decapoda lived was probably a place with waves and moderate currents, located behind a sand barrier or in within a lagoon. Apparently, the carbonization process was responsible for specimen preservation.

  5. Changes during late-stage embryonic development from egg-juvenile to free-living hatchling in Chinese freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Junzeng; Liu, Yan; Cumberlidge, Neil; Wu, Huixian

    2013-05-01

    This study expands on recent reports that direct development in the Chinese potamid freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense involves the completion of all brachyuran larval stages (nauplius, zoea, and megalopa) inside the egg case during embryonic development. Detailed studies of embryonic development in this species revealed the presence of an additional larval stage (the egg-juvenile) between the megalopa and the free-living hatchling crab. We described and compared the appendages of the head, thorax, and abdomen of the egg-juvenile with those of the hatchling crab in S. yangtsekiense. Significant differences were found between most of the appendages of these two stages with a soft exoskeleton in the egg-juvenile, no joint articulation, a slimmer appearance, and a lack of setae when compared with the newly emerged free-living hatchling crab. These modifications of the appendages are related to the confinement within the egg case of the egg-megalopa and egg-juvenile during direct development, and the need for the free-living hatchling freshwater crab to move, feed, and respire. In marine crabs, the megalopa gives rise to the first crab stage whereas in freshwater crabs the egg-juvenile follows the megalopa and immediately precedes the free-living first crab stage.

  6. Effect of environmental salinity and dopamine injections on key digestive enzymes in hepatopancreas of the euryhaline crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Decapoda: Brachyura: Varunidae

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    María Soledad Michiels

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the occurrence and characteristics of lipase activity and the response of lipase and proteolytic activity to salinity and dopamine injections in hepatopancreas of the euryhaline crab (Cyrtograpsus angulatus. Lipase activity was maximal at pH 8.5; it exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics (apparent Km=0.019 mM, was higher at 37°C and appeared to be cold tolerant, being also high at 4°C. In 10 psu (hyper-regulation conditions, lipase and proteolytic activity were about 3 and 5 times higher, respectively, than in 35 psu (osmoconformation. In 40 psu (hypo-regulation, lipase activity was about three times higher than in 35 psu, while proteolytic activity was similar. Lipase activity was inhibited in vivo by 10–4 M dopamine in 35 psu but not in 10 or 40 psu. Proteolytic activity was not affected by 10–4 M dopamine. The differential responses of lipase and proteolytic activity to salinity and dopamine suggest the occurrence of distinct digestive adjustments and mechanisms of regulation upon osmoregulatory conditions. This study contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of the biochemical adaptations to salinity in euryhaline crabs. The fact that higher digestive enzyme activities could be associated with a differential digestive capacity potentially leading to enhanced availability of energy substrates is discussed.

  7. First record of marine crab, Eucrate alcocki Serne, in Serène and Lohavanijaya, 1973 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Euryplacidae) from India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. RAJKUMAR; K. P. KUMARAGURU VASAGAM; LI Xinzheng; SUN Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of a marine brachyuran crab species Eucrate alcocki Serène, in Serène et al., 1973, of the family Euryplacidae Stimpson, 1871, for first time from India, based on a male specimen from Parangipettai fish landing centre in Bay of Bengal, Southeast Coast of India. Although morphologically corresponding with what is currently defined as E. alcocki, the color pattern of the carapace of the present specimen is rather different from that of the Chinese material-only the anterior fifth of the carapace is marked with scattered red spots, the rest of the surface is yellowish, with four unusually shaped red blotches which almost look like Sanskrit characters.

  8. The larval development of Pilumnoides hassleri (Decapoda: Brachyura: Pilumnoididae reared in the laboratory, with a review of pilumnoidid systematics using larval characters

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    Tomás A. Luppi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pilumnoides is an interesting taxon because its systematic position, based on adult characters, remains unclear. These xanthoid crabs have been related to the Carpiliidae, Goneplacidae and Eriphioidea. P. hassleri A. Milne Edwards, 1880 lives in Brazilian, Uruguayan and Argentinian coasts as far south as the Magellan Strait (southwestern Atlantic. Larvae of P. hassleri from females collected in the harbour of Mar del Plata were reared in the laboratory from zoea I to megalopa and the first larval stage, and described. The species passed through 5 zoeal stages and a megalopa. Larval characters were compared with the previous description of larvae from the southeastern Pacific species P. perlatus and with species of Carpilius, Goneplax and Eriphia in order to review the relationships between these taxa.

  9. Crabs of the families Palicidae and Crossotonotidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Palicoidea) from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masatsune; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-10

    Four species of palicoid crabs, Neopalicus jukesii (White, 1847) and Rectopalicus ampullatus Castro, 2000 of the family Palicidae, and Crossotonotus spinipes (De Man, 1888) and a new species of Pleurophricus A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 of the family Crossotonotidae, are recorded from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Diagnostics for the new species are the protruded bilobed front, six subacute lobate teeth at each lateral margin of the carapace, six rounded lobes at the posterior margin of the carapace, a crested armature of the cheliped carpus, and the strongly depressed ambulatory legs, which readily distinguish it from its two congeners, P. cristatipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 known by two males from Australia and the Kai Islands in Indonesia, and P. longirostris (Moosa & Serène, 1981) known by a female from the Sunda Strait, Indonesia.

  10. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

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    Timoteo T. Watanabe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay from March 2007 through February 2008. Specimens caught were identified, sexed and measured. Samples of bottom water were collected and the temperature and salinity measured. A total of 618 crabs were captured (332 males, 267 females and 19 ovigerous females, with a sex ratio close to 1:1. A large number of juveniles were captured (77.67%. Crab spatial distributions were positively correlated with salinity (Rs = 0.73, p = 0.0395 and temperature (Rs = 0.71, p = 0.0092. Two peaks of recruitment occurred, in summer and autumn, and ovigerous females were mostly captured during summer, showing a seasonal reproductive pattern. The results showed that C. ornatus uses the bay as a nursery area for juvenile development. Callinectes ornatus is not yet a legally protected species, and the minimum allowed size of crabs caught in the area, although already restricted, should be carefully evaluated since the removal of large numbers of juveniles could negatively impact the local population.

  11. Two new potamid crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus new genus, new species and Minutomon shanweiense new genus, new species, (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Mao, Si Ying

    2014-02-12

    Two new Chinese genera and species of freshwater crabs, Yuexipotamon arcophallus, new genus, new species, and Minutomon shanweiense, new genus, new species, are described from Zhaoqing City and Shanwei City, respectively. The former is superficially closest to Huananpotamon Dai & Ng, 1994, while the latter resembles Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, and Mediapotamon Dai, 1995. The two new genera, however, possess distinctive combinations of carapace, third maxilliped, male thoracic sternal and first gonopodal characters that easily distinguish them from other genera. Notes on the general biology of the two new species are also given.

  12. On one new genus and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae and Grapsidae) from Lanjak-Entimau, Sarawak, East Malaysia, Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, P.K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The freshwater crabs obtained from the Lanjak-Entimau area in Sarawak, East Malaysia, Borneo, are reported upon. One new genus (Ibanum) and two new species of Potamidae (Ibanum aethes and Isolapotamon stuebingi) and a new species of Grapsidae (Geosesarma katibas) are described. The identity of Potam

  13. Patterns of diversity, areas of endemism, and multiple glacial refuges for freshwater crabs of the genus Sinopotamon in China (Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Sun, Hongying; Zhao, Qiang; Lin, Congtian; Sun, Yufang; Gao, Wei; Xu, Juanjuan; Zhou, Junying; Ge, Feng; Liu, Naifa

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the geographical distribution patterns of freshwater fishes and amphibians have been influenced by past climatic oscillations in China resulting from Pleistocene glacial activity. However, it remains unknown how these past changes have impacted the present-day distribution of Chinese freshwater crabs. This work describes the diversity and endemism of freshwater crabs belonging to Sinopotamon, a highly speciose genus endemic to China, and evaluates its distribution in terms of topography and past climatic fluctuations. Species diversity within Sinopotamon was found to be concentrated in an area from the northeastern edge of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau to the Jiangnan Hills, and three areas of endemism were identified. Multiple regression analysis between current climatic variables and Sinopotamon diversity suggested that regional annual precipitation, minimum temperature in the coldest month, and annual temperature range significantly influenced species diversity and may explain the diversity patterns of Sinopotamon. A comparison of ecological niche models (ENMs) between current conditions and the last glacial maximum (LGM) showed that suitable habitat for Sinopotamon in China severely contracted during the LGM. The coincidence of ENMs and the areas of endemism indicated that southeast of the Daba Mountains, and central and southeastern China, are potential Pleistocene refuges for Sinopotamon. The presence of multiple Pleistocene refuges within the range of this genus could further promote inter- and intraspecific differentiations, and may have led to high Sinopotamon species diversity, a high endemism rate and widespread distribution.

  14. Five new species of freshwater crabs of the genera Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014, and Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae Rathbun, 1904) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, S K; Thackeray, T; Khaire, A

    2016-02-23

    Five new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crabs, Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp., Ghatiana splendida n. sp., Gubernatoriana alcocki Pati n. sp., Gubernatoriana thackerayi Pati n. sp., and Gubernatoriana waghi Pati n. sp. are described from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and Goa states of India. Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp. can be differentiated from other species of Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014 by the shape and colour of its carapace, and the sigmoid-shaped male first pleopod (G1). Ghatiana splendida n. sp. is separated from its congeners mainly by its long anterolateral margin of the carapace and short terminal article of the G1. Besides, the colour pattern (deep pink carapace and chelipeds, orange ambulatory legs) of G. splendida n. sp. is exceptional among its congeners. Gubernatoriana alcocki n. sp. is unique among species of Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 due to its inwardly curved tip of the terminal article of the G1. The stout and cone-shaped terminal article of the G1 of G. thackerayi n. sp. is characteristic among its congeners. In addition, G. thackerayi n. sp. has a unique colouration amongst congeners (violet-red carapace and ambulatory legs, orange-red chelipeds). Gubernatoriana waghi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the quadrate-shaped carapace, narrow frontal margin, pointed tips of the cheliped fingers, short terminal article of the G1 and very short or vestigial terminal article of the male second pleopod (G2). The body colour (burnt orange carapace and ivory coloured chelipeds and ambulatory legs) of G. waghi n. sp. is also important to distinguish live crabs of the genus. Key to the species of Ghatiana and Gubernatoriana is provided.

  15. Two new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Heterochelamon Türkay & Dai, 1997 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Tohru; Zhu, Chunchao; Zhou, Xianmin

    2013-01-01

    Heterochelamon tessellatum n. sp. and H. castanea n. sp. are described trom the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China. Heterochelamon tessellatum n. sp. and H. castanea n. sp. are morphologically most similar to H. yangshuoense Türkay & Dai, 1997, and H. guangxiense Türkay & Dai, 1997, respectively. The new species can be differentiated from these allied species by differences in the shape of external orbital tooth, epibranchial tooth, and male first gonopod. The present study brings the number of Heterochelamon species to five. A key to species of the genus Heterochelamon is provided.

  16. The land crabs of the Discoplax longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1867 species group, with description of a new species from Guam (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Peter K L; Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-06-30

    Specimens of the gecarcinid land crab Discoplax longipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1867, from the western Pacific, can be separated into two distinct groups on the basis of DNA (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and structure of the male first gonopod. On the basis of this data, the material that occurs from the Loyalty Islands to French Polynesia is shown to be D. longipes s. str., whereas specimens from Guam are here referred to a new pseudocryptic species, D. michalis n. sp. The two species are described and figured; and a revised key to the long-legged Discoplax species is provided.

  17. A new species of decorator crabs, genus Menaethiops Alcock, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Epialthidae), from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-03-02

    Menaethiops abumusa n. sp. is closely similar to M. bicornis Alcock, 1985, and M. gadaniensis Kazmi & Tirmizi, 1999, regarding the relatively contiguous rostral spines. The new species is easily distinguishable from its two congeners by having distinctly round angles of orbital eaves and distally divergent rostral spines. Whereas in M. bicornis, and M. gadaniensis, the angles of orbital eaves are anteriorly produced and rostral spines are closely attached to each other along their entire length.  Other morphological differences include the carapace spination/granulation, basal antennal segments, and morphology of the male's first gonopod. Menaethiops gadaniensis was described from Gadani, Pakistan and was only known from the type locality, but is here recorded for the first time from the Gulf of Oman.

  18. Resurrection of Rhynchoplax Stimpson, 1858, with the description of two new species from Japan and Australia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Poore, Gary C B

    2016-03-24

    Rhynchoplax Stimpson, 1858, is resurrected from synonymy with Halicarcinus White, 1846. Rhynchoplax hondai Takeda & Miyake, 1971, a species based on an immature female, is rediagnosed and two new species, R. magnetica n. sp. from northeastern Australia and R. minutula n. sp. from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are described. They differ from R. hondai in the shape of the rostrum, form of the subhepatic region and the armature of the pereopodal meri. All differ from the type species R. messor Stimpson, 1858, in having a longer and simple rostrum without supraocular pseudorostral spines and the absence of a postocular spine.

  19. New distribution records of the gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Meij, Sancia E. T.

    2016-11-12

    The gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 has been reported from various localities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Recent surveys in the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan yielded additional specimens of O. cathyae, considerably expanding the known distribution range of this species to the east and west. The identity of O. cathyae was confirmed based on COI sequence data, revealing identical haplotypes for the Red Sea, Maldivian and Japanese material and three haplotypes in the Indonesian material. Opecarcinus cathyae has one of the widest known recorded distribution ranges for all gall crab species.

  20. New records of xanthid crabs Atergatis roseus (Rüppell, 1830 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura from Iraqi coast, south of Basrah city, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khassaf Al-Khafaji

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the The Brachyuran crab Atergatis roseus (Ruppell, 1830, were collected for first times from Iraqi coast, south Al-Faw, Basrah city, Iraq, in coast of northwest of Arabian Gulf. Morphological features and distribution pattern of this species are highlighted and a figure is provided. The material was mostly collected from the shallow subtidal and intertidal areas using trawl net and hand.

  1. A Kinetic Characterization of the Gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase from the Semi-terrestrial Mangrove Crab Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825 (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Daniel L; Lucena, Malson N; Garçon, Daniela P; Mantelatto, Fernando L; McNamara, John C; Leone, Francisco A

    2017-08-24

    We provide a kinetic characterization of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in a posterior gill microsomal fraction from the semi-terrestrial mangrove crab Cardisoma guanhumi. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation reveals two distinct membrane fractions showing considerable (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity, but also containing other microsomal ATPases. The (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase, notably immuno-localized to the apical region of the epithelial pillar cells, and throughout the pillar cell bodies, has an M r of around 110 kDa and hydrolyzes ATP with V M = 146.8 ± 6.3 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1) and K M = 0.05 ± 0.003 mmol L(-1) obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. While stimulation by Na(+) (V M = 139.4 ± 6.9 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K M = 4.50 ± 0.22 mmol L(-1)) also follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, modulation of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity by MgATP (V M = 136.8 ± 6.5 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.27 ± 0.04 mmol L(-1)), K(+) (V M = 140.2 ± 7.0 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.17 ± 0.008 mmol L(-1)), and NH4(+) (V M = 149.1 ± 7.4 nmol Pi min(-1) mg protein(-1), K 0.5 = 0.60 ± 0.03 mmol L(-1)) shows cooperative kinetics. Ouabain (K I = 52.0 ± 2.6 µmol L(-1)) and orthovanadate (K I = 1.0 ± 0.05 µmol L(-1)) inhibit total ATPase activity by around 75%. At low Mg(2+) concentrations, ATP is an allosteric modulator of the enzyme. This is the first study to provide a kinetic characterization of the gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase in C. guanhumi, and will be useful in better comprehending the biochemical underpinnings of osmoregulatory ability in a semi-terrestrial mangrove crab.

  2. Changes during late-stage embryonic development from egg-juvenile to free-living hatchling in Chinese freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense (Decapoda, Brachyura,Potamidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Junzeng; LIU Yan; Neil CUMBERLIDGE; WU Huixian

    2013-01-01

    This study expands on recent reports that direct development in the Chinese potamid freshwater crab Sinopotamon yangtsekiense involves the completion of all brachyuran larval stages (nauplius,zoea,and megalopa) inside the egg case during embryonic development.Detailed studies of embryonic development in this species revealed the presence of an additional larval stage (the egg-juvenile) between the megalopa and the free-living hatchling crab.We described and compared the appendages of the head,thorax,and abdomen of the egg-juvenile with those of the hatchling crab in S.yangtsekiense.Significant differences were found between most of the appendages of these two stages with a soft exoskeleton in the egg-juvenile,no joint articulation,a slimmer appearance,and a lack of setae when compared with the newly emerged free-living hatchling crab.These modifications of the appendages are related to the confinement within the egg case of the egg-megalopa and egg-juvenile during direct development,and the need for the free-living hatchling freshwater crab to move,feed,and respire.In marine crabs,the megalopa gives rise to the first crab stage whereas in freshwater crabs the egg-juvenile follows the megalopa and immediately precedes the free-living first crab stage.

  3. Molt and reproduction enhancement together with hemolymph ecdysteroid elevation under eyestalk ablation in the female fiddler crab, Uca triangularis (Brachyura: Decapoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Nagathinkal T.; Sudha, Kappalli; Krishnakumar, Velayudhannair; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of eyestalk extirpation experiments performed on the fiddler crab, Uca triangularis at seasons of molting and reproduction, with a view to have a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of these two highly energy-demanding processes. Bilateral eyestalk ablation resulted in precocious acceleration of both molting and reproduction, irrespective of the season at which each experiment was conducted. The rate of accelerated ovarian growth, however, was maximum if the eyestalk ablation was conducted during August-January, the breeding season in the wild, or in February-May (molting-reproductive season), wherein a section of the wild population would be engaged in molting and another section in breeding. The highest degree of precocious molt acceleration, on the other hand, was obtained during June-July when the population was primarily engaged in molting, but with no reproductive activity. The precocious oocyte maturation (due to de-eyestalking) was minimal in June-July. Significantly, the eyestalk ablation also resulted in a dramatic increase in the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer, revealing that a high ecdysteroid titer would have no restraining influence on vitellogenesis. No spawning was, however, observed among de-eyestalked females, even though their final oocyte size surpassed the size of the normal mature oocytes, implying that spawning is not exclusively under the control of eyestalk hormones. A comparative study performed on the vitelline components of the experimentals and the controls revealed that the precociously incorporated yolk under eyestalk ablation was biochemically impoverished. These results indicate that throughout the annual cycle, both the somatic and the reproductive growth of U. triangularis are under the influence of inhibitory principles from the eyestalks. It is also revealing that mere deprival of the inhibitory principles does not culminate into successful vitellogenesis. Arguably, the inhibitory influence from the eyestalks could be a prerequisite for normal healthy maturation of the oocytes and spawning.

  4. Feeding habits of the spider crab Libinia spinosa H. Milne Edwards, 1834 (Decapoda, Brachyura in Ubatuba bay, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara de Paiva Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the identification of the items of the diet of the L. spinosa, based on the stomach contents analysis. The crabs were obtained from Ubatuba region north-eastern shore of São Paulo State. In the laboratory, all the individuals were dissected, the stomach was retreated and fixed in 10% formaline. The alimentary items were identified under stereomicroscope and analysed by the method of Frequency of Occurrence. A total of 194 stomachs was analysed and nine alimentary items were obtained. Unindentified material was found in 98% of analysed stomach and poriferan were present in less then 1% of stomachs. These results pointed a diversified diet explored by this crab, as well as the employment of some different methods for food intake. This suggested that these crabs could occupy different position in the trophic chain.O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os itens alimentares que compõem a dieta de L. spinosa, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. Os caranguejos foram coletados no litoral norte paulista (23º25’S-45º00’W. No laboratório, todos indivíduos foram dissecados, os estômagos foram retirados e fixados em formol 10%. Os itens alimentares foram identificados sob estereomicroscópio, sendo que para a análise foi utilizado o método Freqüência de Ocorrência. Foram analisados 194 estômagos, nos quais foram encontrados nove itens alimentares. A maior freqüência foi para material não identificado, ocorrendo em 98% dos estômagos analisados e Porifera foi o item com a menor freqüência, ocorrendo em menos de 1% dos estômagos. Com base nos resultados obtidos, sugere-se que o caranguejo L. spinosa apresenta uma dieta diversificada, sugerindo a utilização de diferentes métodos para a obtenção de alimento e por conseqüência podendo ocupar vários níveis na cadeia trófica.

  5. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura: evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Krieger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura, a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  6. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T; Schubart, Christoph D; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the "true crabs" (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal's life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  7. Studies on planktonic decapoda and stomatopoda (Crustacea) from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Goswami, S.C.; Nair, V.R.

    An account of a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the planktonic decapoda and stomatopoda collected during R.V Gaveshani Cruises 10, 12, 13 in the Arabian Sea is given. Area surveyed lies between latitudes 07 degrees 00' and 20 degrees 00'N...

  8. Optics and phylogeny: is there an insight? The evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda (Crustacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaten, Edward

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of eye structure and optics in the construction of crustacean phylogenies and presents an hypothesis for the evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda, based on the distribution of eye types in extant decapod families. It is suggested that reflecting superposition

  9. Some notes on the associated occurrence of the crab Cycloes Cristata (Brullé, 1837) (Brachyura: Calappidae) and two types of Benthic fish in the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A concise survey is presented of the species of the crab genus Cycloes De Haan, 1837 (Brachyura: Calappidae). Notes are presented on the associated ocurrence, on shallow sandy bottoms in the Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Gran Canaria), of the eastern Atlantic Cycloes cristata (Brullé, 1837) and the fis

  10. Shallow-water anomuran and brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda from southern Bahia, Brazi l Cangrejos anomuros y braquiuros (Crustacea: Decapoda de aguas someras del sur de Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre O Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the taxonomic composition and ecological aspects of decapods crustacean species belonging to the infraorders Anomura and Brachyura in shallow marine and estuarine waters from southern Bahia, a coastline about 640 km in extent, corresponding to approximately 7% of the Brazilian coast. Sixteen species of the infraorder Anomura and 68 of the infraorder Brachyura are reported for the study area. The most important families in terms of number of species were the Panopeidae with 11 species, and the Ocypodidae and Portunidae with 9. Among the Brachyura, the southern distribution of the species Austinixa leptodactyla Coelho, 1997 (Pinnotheridae, endemic to Brazil, is extended from the coast of Sergipe to Bahía (Prado, Cumuruxatiba Beach, 17°06'18.6"S, 39°10'50.4"W. The ocypodid Uca (Leptuca cumulanta Crane, 1943 and also the pinnotherids Austinixa aidae (Righi, 1967 and Fabia byssomiae (Say, 1818 are reported for the first time from the Bahia coast. The specimen of F. byssomiae examined was collected in the mantle cavity of the clam Macoma constrict (Bruchiére, 1792 (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, a new host record for the species.El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la composición taxonómica y aspectos ecológicos de los crustáceos decápodos pertenecientes a los infraórdenes Anomura y Brachyura, en aguas someras, marinas y estuarinas del sur de Bahia, Brasil, una línea costera con cerca de 640 km de extensión, que corresponde aproximadamente al 7% de la costa brasileña. Para esta area de estudio se registraron 16 especies del infraorden Anomura y 68 del infraorden Brachyura. Las familias más representativas en términos de número de especies fueron Panopeidae, con 11 especies, y Ocypodidae y Portunidae, ambas con nueve especies. Entre los Brachyura, la distribución meridional de Austinixa leptodactyla Coelho, 1997 (Pinnotheridae, endémica del Brasil, se extiende desde la costa de Sergipe

  11. Biologia do caranguejo-uçá, Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura, na Baía da Babitonga, Santa Catarina, Brasil Biology of the mangrove uçá crab, Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura, in Babitonga Bay, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C. Wunderlich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar pela primeira vez alguns aspectos da reprodução do caranguejo-uçá em manguezais da Baía da Babitonga (Santa Catarina. Além disso, a densidade e o tamanho do estoque deste recurso pesqueiro foram também estimados. Os exemplares foram coletados mensalmente, de maio de 2002 a abril de 2003, em duas áreas distintas: Iperoba e Palmital; um total de 2265 espécimes (1623 machos e 642 fêmeas foi analisado. Os machos com gônadas maturas foram registrados durante todo o ano, enquanto as fêmeas com gônadas maturas ocorreram em apenas cinco meses. As fêmeas ovígeras foram registradas apenas em dezembro e janeiro. O etograma do fenômeno de migração reprodutiva ("andada" esteve em concordância com a maior atividade de caranguejos associada às luas cheias e novas, com maior intensidade em dezembro e janeiro, relacionados ao verão austral. A densidade total no Manguezal de Iperoba foi de 2,05 ± 0,97 ind./m², não diferindo significativamente daquela registrada para o Manguezal do Palmital (2,06 ± 1,08 ind./m² (p The aim of this work is to characterize, for the first time, aspects of the reproduction of the mandrove-land crab in mangroves of the Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina. Furthermore, density and stock size of this fishery resource were also estimated. The specimens were sampled from May 2002 to April 2003, from two distinct locations: Iperoba and Palmital; a total of 2265 specimens (1623 males and 642 females were analyzed. Males with mature gonads were recorded throughout the year, while females with mature gonads were only recorded during a five-month period. Ovigerous females were recorded in December and January. The ethogram of the reproductive migration phenomenon ("andada" is in agreement of high crab activity associated to full- and new-moon, with higher intensity during December and January, also related to the austral summer season. The total sampling density on Iperoba Mangrove was 2.05 ± 0.97 individuals.m-2 and did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 from the density recorded on Palmital Mangrove (2.06 ± 1.08 individuals.m-2. The overall average of density estimation at Babitonga Bay was 2.05 ± 1.00 individuals.m-2, which corresponded to the density of open (1.42 ± 0.89 individuals.m-2 and closed burrows (0.64 ± 0.63 individuals.m-2.

  12. Dimensionamento e sobreposição de nichos dos portunídeos (Decapoda, Brachyura, na Enseada da Fortaleza, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brasil Breadth and overlap niches of the portunid crabs (Decapoda, Brachyura, in Fortaleza Bay, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcelo Antonio Amaro Pinheiro

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The niche breadth of the Portunidae and their overlap on the subtidal sediments of Fortaleza bay, Ubatuba (São Paulo was analyzed. Samples were made monthly from November/1988 to October/1989, inseven areas of the bay using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with two otter-trawls. Each area was characterized based on environmental factors such as depth, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter and granulometric composition of the sediment. The number of individuais of each species was registered to each area (resource. Levins's standardized measure (BA and niche percentage were calculated. Five species of swimming crabs were recorded in this study: Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck, 1818, Portunus spinimanus Latreille, 1819, Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and Portunus spinicarpus (Stimpson, 1871. The widest ecological niche occurred to C. ornatus, present in all sampled areas (generalist species. Such fact can be related to high sediment tolerance when it is compared to P. spinimanus (especialist species which was limited to the areas with coarse granulometric fractions. Highest niche overlap was verified between C. danae and A. cribrarius may be due to greater salinity tolerance of these species. The low occurrence of P. spinicarpus and its reduced niche size in Fortaleza Bay are due to association of this species to cold water currents (ACAS more evidente in smaler depths during summer months. One future evaluation of the portunid diet can be useful to complement informations about this important aspect of the marine ecology.

  13. Reproductive biology of the sesarmid crab Armases rubripes (Decapoda, Brachyura from an estuarine area of the Sahy River, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva do caranguejo sesarmídeo Armases rubripes (Decapoda, Brachyura de uma área estuarina do rio Sahy, Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Giovana V. Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain knowledge about reproductive biology of the crab Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 from an estuarine area of the Sepetiba Bay. Samples were taken monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 in the Sahy River estuary (22º56'S; 44º01'W, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The crabs were collected by hand during 15-minute catch-effort sessions conducted by two people. In the laboratory, the specimens were separated by sex, carapace width was measured and gonadal stage was checked macroscopically. A total of 830 individuals were caught - 304 males, 373 females (60 ovigerous females and 153 juveniles. The ovigerous females were found almost year-round, except in November and April, showing a continuous reproductive period. They presented a size range from 8.2 to 15.0 mm carapace width (12.1 ± 1.7 mm. Color and macroscopical aspects determined five gonadal stages for males and females (immature, rudimentary, intermediary, developed and resting. First sexual maturity was estimated at 6.5 mm of carapace width for males and 8.1 mm for females. Individual fecundity varied from 200 to 11,460 eggs (4,458 ± 2,739 eggs. Mean egg size was 0.248 ± 0.026 mm, varying from 0.213 to 0.333 mm, while the volume ranged from 0.0051 to 0.0188 mm³ (0.0082 ± 0.0029 mm³.O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter informações sobre a biologia reprodutiva do caranguejo Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 numa área estuarina da Baía de Sepetiba. Exemplares foram obtidos mensalmente de fevereiro 2003 a janeiro 2004 no estuário do rio Sahy (22º56'S; 44º01'W, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os caranguejos foram coletados manualmente durante 15 minutos por estação de coleta e por dois coletores. Em laboratório, os indivíduos foram separados por sexos, mensurados em relação à largura da carapaça e os estágios gonadais observados macroscopicamente. Um total de 830 indivíduos foram obtidos - 304 machos, 373 fêmeas (60 fêmeas ovígeras e 153 juvenis. As fêmeas ovígeras foram encontradas durante todo o período de estudo, exceto em novembro e abril, demonstrando um período reprodutivo contínuo. O tamanho das fêmeas ovígeras variou entre 8,2 e 15,0 mm de largura da carapaça (12,1 ± 1,7 mm. As gônadas observadas apresentaram cinco estágios de desenvolvimento, de acordo com a coloração e o aspecto macroscópico (imatura, rudimentar, intermediária, desenvolvida e desovada. A maturidade sexual foi estimada aos 6,5 mm de largura da carapaça entre os machos e 8,1 mm entre as fêmeas. A fecundidade individual variou entre 200 e 11.460 ovos (4.458 ± 2.739 ovos. O tamanho médio dos ovos foi de 0,248 ± 0,026 mm, variando entre 0,213 e 0,333 mm, enquanto o volume variou entre 0,0051 e 0,0188 mm³ (0,0082 ± 0,0029 mm³.

  14. Recent advances in the biology of the Neotropical freshwater crab family Pseudothelphusidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura Avanços recentes no estudo da biologia dos caranguejos de água doce neotropicais da família Pseudothelphusidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura

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    Gilberto Rodríguez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudothelphusidae is a well diversified group of Neotropical freshwater crabs currently comprising 40 genera and at least 255 species and subspecies. The biology of these crabs has been an active field of research in the last 20 years. The aim of the present contribution is to discuss the significance of the new knowledge on the biology of these freshwater crabs after September 1992, to stress the interconnection of the diverse lines of research and at the same time to suggest promising new lines of investigation. All taxa described from September 1992 to October 2004 are listed, including one genus, one subgenus, 62 species and five subspecies. The implications of this new knowledge on the taxonomy, systematic and biogeography of the family are commented.Pseudothelphusidae é um grupo bem diversificado de caranguejos de água doce neotropicais que compreende atualmente 40 gêneros e pelo menos 255 espécies e subespécies. A biologia desses caranguejos vem sendo um ativo campo de pesquisa nos últimos 20 anos. O objetivo desta contribuição é discutir o significado do conhecimento adquirido sobre a biologia desses caranguejos dulcícolas após setembro de 1992, enfatizar a relação das diversas linhas de pesquisa e, ao mesmo tempo, sugerir novas linhas promissoras de investigação. São relacionados todos os táxons descritos de setembro de 1992 a outubro de 2004, compreendendo um gênero, um subgênero, 62 espécies e cinco subespécies. São comentadas as implicações desse novo conhecimento na taxonomia, sistemática e biogeografia da família.

  15. BIODIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS (DECAPODA: NATANTIA FROM VANUATU, A COMPARISON WITH FIJI AND NEW CALEDONIA.

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    MARQUET G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.

  16. New records of Decapod Crustaceans (Decapoda: Pontoniinae and Inachidae associated with sea anemones in Turkish waters

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    Z. DURIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three anemone-associated decapod crustaceans, two shrimp species, Periclimenes amethysteus and P. aegylios (Caridea: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, and the crab Inachus phalangium (Brachyura: Inachidae, all collected from the Dardanelles, are reported for the first time from Turkish coasts. Another inachid crab, Macropodia czernjawskii is also reported for the first time to occur in association with the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. Periclimenes scriptus was the fifth decapod species recorded associated with sea anemones within the present study, and while this species has already been reported from Turkish waters, this is the first time it is recorded from the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System.

  17. Local distribution and abundance of Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1928 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, J F; Batista, E; Metri, R; Metri, C B

    2014-02-01

    The blue land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1828 (Brachyura: Gecarcinidae) is officially included in the list of over-exploited species in Brazil, although still abundantly found in the state of Santa Catarina, the southern limit of its distribution. This species was found in forested areas, gardens, and grassy areas, including crabs with carapace width larger than 80mm. The existence of this population with these characteristics is surprising, since there is only one official record of the species in the southern region. The objectives of this study are to estimate the abundance and occupation patterns of C. guanhumi in this region. Correlations with conservation were discussed. The absolute abundance of crabs in the middle of summer activity was established for an area of 100,000 m2. A smaller area was mapped and divided into sampling units for statistical analyses. We distributed approximately 240 crabs in a forested area of about 3,000 m2 and 150 crabs in grassy areas (90,000 m2). The statistical test of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that there are significant differences between the sizes of the openings of the galleries inside the forest and that located in grassy areas. In the forest, the openings tend to be much larger. Burrows were found at a distance of 150 metres from the channel. The number of galleries was higher in the forested area, although the burrows were more densely grouped in grassy areas. Although C. guanhumi seems to be adjusting well to changes caused by human occupation, small forested areas are more conducive to growth and conservation of this species.

  18. Typtonomenaeusformosanus gen. et sp. nov., a new sponge-associated pontoniine shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) from northern Taiwan.

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    Marin, Ivan; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of sponge-associated pontoniine shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) is described from northern part of Formosa Island (Taiwan). The new species can be clearly recognized by convex robust nail-like apices on dactyli of both pereiopods II--a unique morphological structure among pontoniine shrimps. Morphological differences from all known sponge-associated pontoniine genera are discussed.

  19. Note on a Collection of Decapoda Branchyura from the Coasts of Mexico, includung the Description of a new Genus and Species

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    Buitendijk, A.M.

    1950-01-01

    The material of Brachyura on which this paper is based was collected during some years on the Mexican coasts and I am greatly indebted to Dr. F. Bonet of the Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas in Mexico, D. F., for the opportunity he offered me to study this interesting material and for his

  20. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia.

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    Wardiatno, Yusli; Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters.

  1. First stage larva of the mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Olga M; Kornienko, Elena S; Golubinskaya, Darya D

    2016-02-19

    First stage larva of a new mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained from the ovigerous female is described and illustrated for the first time. The first zoea of N. makarovi is well distinguished from the first larvae of N. japonica and N. petalura, sympatric callianassid species inhabiting Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, only by the greater size and by the presence of two terminal setae on the antennal endopod.

  2. Occurence of the Asian shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus in the Southern bight of the North Sea, with a key to the Palaemonidae of North-western Europe (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Udekem d'Azoc, C.; Faasse, M.; Dumoulin, E.; Blauwe, de H.

    2005-01-01

    Het voorkomen van de rugstreepsteurgarnaal Palaemon macrodactylus in de zuidelijke bocht van de Noordzee, met een determinatiesleutel tot de Palaemonidae van Noordwest-Europa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) In 1999 werd de rugstreepsteurgarnaal Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902, een soort

  3. Cancer

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    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  4. A new species of Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006 from northern Madagascar (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamoidea, Potamonautidae, with a redescription of F. goudoti (H. Milne Edwards, 1853 comb. n., and comments on Skelosophusa prolixa Ng & Takeda, 1994

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    Neil Cumberlidge

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foza ambohitra sp. n. is described from Ambohitra, Antsiranana Province, northern Madagascar at 421 m elevation. This species is distinguished by characters of the carapace, the male anterior thoracic sternum, and the form of the male major cheliped and first gonopod. Thelphusa goudoti H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is transferred to Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006, and redescribed, and a key to the three species of this genus is provided. Comments on the rare cave crab Skelosophusa prolixa Ng & Takeda, 1994, from Antsiranana Province are also included based on newly obtained material.

  5. Correct date and authorship of taxa of Middle American freshwater crabs described by Rodríguez & Smalley (1972) (not 1969) and included in Smalley (1970) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Danièle; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-06-24

    One subgenus and one genus of Pseudothelphusidae described by Gilberto Rodríguez and Alfred E. Smalley from Mexico have been erroneously referred to for over 40 years as variously described in 1968 and 1969. The review of the original publication indicates that these taxa were published in a journal dated 1969 that became available for distribution only in 1972. Smalley (1970), who believed that the original manuscript had been previously published, referred to some of these new taxa (i.e., Epithelphusa, E. mixtepensis, Tehuana and T. veracruzana) and provided sufficient information to make these names available in 1970, thus becoming the correct authorship for these four taxa. Therefore they must be referred to as "Rodríguez & Smalley in Smalley 1970". A list of all affected taxa with the correct publication date and authorship is given. A list of publications in which the taxa authored by Rodríguez and Smalley were erroneously referred to as published in 1969 is also provided.

  6. Acute toxicity of sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate, and potassium chloride and their effects on the hemolymph composition and gill structure of early juvenile blue swimmer crabs(Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae).

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    Romano, Nicholas; Zeng, Chaoshu

    2007-09-01

    Various nutrients, including K+ and NO3-, are increasingly being discharged into aquatic systems via anthropogenic sources, which may impact marine organisms. The present study was conducted on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) early juveniles to determine the acute toxicity of NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl; if a toxicity interaction exists between K+ and NO3-; the hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ changes; and the gill histopathological alterations following exposure to elevated NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl levels. A total of 20 replicate crabs were exposed to each of the five NaNO3, KNO3, and KCl concentrations for 96 h. After 96 h, the surviving crabs were sampled for hemolymph Na+, K+, and Ca2+ levels and fixed for histological examination of the anterior gills. The 96-h median lethal concentration of NaNO3-N, KNO3-N, KNO3-K, and KCl-K was 3,452, 112, 312, and 356 mg/L, respectively, for early P. pelagicus juveniles. The toxicity of NaNO3-N was significantly less (p crabs had significantly higher (p crabs had significantly higher (p crabs appeared to be similar, including lamellae swelling, epithelial thickening, pillar cell disruption, necrosis, and distortion.

  7. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-12-13

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea. 

  8. Phylogenetics of the brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda): the status of Podotremata based on small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyong, Shane T; Lai, Joelle C Y; Sharkey, Deirdre; Colgan, Donald J; Ng, Peter K L

    2007-11-01

    The true crabs, the Brachyura, are generally divided into two major groups: Eubrachyura or 'advanced' crabs, and Podotremata or 'primitive' crabs. The status of Podotremata is one of the most controversial issues in brachyuran systematics. The podotreme crabs, best recognised by the possession of gonopores on the coxae of the pereopods, have variously been regarded as mono-, para- or polyphyletic, or even as non-brachyuran. For the first time, the phylogenetic positions of the podotreme crabs were studied by cladistic analysis of small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA sequences. Eight of 10 podotreme families were represented along with representatives of 17 eubrachyuran families. Under both maximum parsimony and Bayesian Inference, Podotremata was found to be significantly paraphyletic, comprising three major clades: Dromiacea, Raninoida, and Cyclodorippoida. The most 'basal' is Dromiacea, followed by Raninoida and Cylodorippoida. Notably, Cyclodorippoida was identified as the sister group of the Eubrachyura. Previous hypotheses that the dromiid crab, Hypoconcha, is an anomuran were unsupported, though Dromiidae as presently composed could be paraphyletic. Topologies constrained for podotreme monophyly were found to be significantly worse (P < 0.04) than unconstrained topologies under Templeton and S-H tests. The clear pattern of podotreme paraphyly and robustness of topologies recovered indicates that Podotremata as a formal concept is untenable. Relationships among the eubrachyurans were generally equivocal, though results indicate the majoids or dorippoids were the least derived of the Eubrachyura. A new high level classification of the Brachyura is proposed.

  9. Estructura del aparato reproductor masculino de Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae Structure of the male reproductive tract of Uca uruguayensis (Decapoda, Ocypodidae

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    Elena Irene Cuartas

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las estructuras del sistema reproductor de machos de Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 y estudiar los cambios relacionados con la madurez sexual. Se trabajó con observación estereoscópica de material fresco, técnica histológica de rutina y observaciones en Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido. Se incluyó la caracterización de los gonopodos 1 (G1 y 2 (G2. El tracto reproductor del macho se compone de un par de testículos (T, un vaso deferente (VD tubular y sinuoso y una ampolla terminal (AT. El VD tiene tres secciones, la anterior (VDA, la media (VDM y la posterior (VDP. El VDA y VDM están conformadas por un epitelio simple de células cúbicas. El epitelio del VDP es columnar y con núcleos basales y alongados. El diseño tubular se modifica al ocuparse el lumen del VDP con líquido espermático durante el verano y la musculatura circular se hace más evidente. La porción terminal del VDP se ensancha formando una ampolla (AT que comprende cuatro cámaras interconectadas. Todas las estructuras están rodeadas de una capa de tejido conectivo de poco espesor. Se identifican las modificaciones observadas en la histología de T y VD, definiendo como mas relevantes las observadas desde el mes de noviembre hasta marzo. Estas modificaciones sugieren que U. uruguayensis tiene, en la localidad estudiada, una única estación reproductiva durante el verano en esta latitud. La AT, tal como es descripta, es una estructura que hasta el momento no ha sido mencionada para los Brachyura.The structure of the male reproductive tract was described in Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, by using histological methods, scanning electron microscopy techniques, and stereoscopic observations of fresh material. The aim of this work was to establish the functional changes associated with sexual maturation. The morphology of the first (G1 and second (G2 pair of gonopods was described. The male reproductive tract consists of paired

  10. Isotopic determination of the trophic ecology of a ubiquitous key species - The crab Liocarcinus depurator (Brachyura: Portunidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careddu, Giulio; Calizza, Edoardo; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge of the trophic ecology of predators is key to understanding how they affect food web structure and ecosystem functioning. The harbour crab Liocarcinus depurator (L.) (Brachyura: Portunidae) is one of the most abundant decapod species in soft-bottom areas of the Mediterranean Sea and northeast Atlantic Ocean. It is both a common prey and predator of commercial and non-commercial marine species and its predation pressure appears to have little effect on the subtidal community assemblage. However, there are few studies of its diet and little is known about its role in mediating energy flows in marine ecosystems. In this study, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope analysis (SIA) and Bayesian analytical tools were used to characterise the trophic niche of L. depurator and to quantify the most important prey supporting this species under various environmental conditions. Specimens of L. depurator, their potential prey and basal resources were collected from two different subtidal areas of the Gulf of Gaeta, one affected by human activities (north side) and the other seasonally influenced by freshwater inputs originating from the River Garigliano (south side). While there were differences between the two sampling areas in terms of the abundance and δ15N and δ13C values of the macrobenthic prey community, no differences in the δ15N values and trophic position of L. depurator were observed. Specifically, Bayesian mixing models showed Polychaeta Errantia as the main source of crab diets in both areas. The observed differences in the δ13C values and the analysis of trophic pathways also indicate that the terrestrial organic matter originating from the discharge of the River Garigliano was integrated along the food web up to L. depurator. Although this species is usually considered an opportunistic feeder, it appears to be highly selective and its trophic habits did not influence food web topology, which in contrast was found to be strongly

  11. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

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    Lin Feng-Jiau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea, Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea. All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome

  12. The northernmost and latest occurrence of the fossil porcupine (Hystrix brachyura vinogradovi Argyropulo, 1941) in the Altai Mountains in the Late Pleistocene (ca. 32,000-41,000 cal BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Vasiliev, Sergei K.; Fadeeva, Tatyana V.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2017-04-01

    Several new finds of the Late Pleistocene porcupine (Hystrix brachyura vinogradovi) in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia and the Urals occur far north of previously assigned range for porcupine. These finds have necessitated a renewed study of this species's chronology and spatial distribution. We conclude that the oldest records of this porcupine in the Ural Mountains date to MIS 5e, and its geographic range possibly included also the Altai at that time. Directly radiocarbon-dated porcupine bones in the Altai fall in MIS 3 (ca. 32,000-41,000 cal BP). It is the northernmost record of this species and the youngest find outside its current geographic range.

  13. New distribution ranges and records of caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the west coast of Mexico Nuevos intervalos de distribución y registros de camarones carideos (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de la costa oeste de México

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    Michel E. Hendrickx

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographic records are presented for 24 species of Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda along Pacific coast of Mexico, in the East Pacific. New records are presented for Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (from Peru to Mexico, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900, and Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (within the Gulf of California, and Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (from the Gulf of California to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Aditional records are given that establish the presence of species at intermediate localities within the Gulf of California and along the southwestern coast of Mexico.Se recolectaron especímenes de 24 especies de Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda en la costa del Pacífico de México, en el Pacífico Este. Nuevos registros geográficos son señalados para Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (desde Perú hasta México, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900 y Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (en el Golfo de California y para Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (del Golfo de California hasta el Golfo de Tehuantepec, México. Se proporciona información adicional acerca de la presencia de algunas especies en localidades intermedias en el Golfo de California y a lo largo de la costa suroeste de México.

  14. Distribuição e ecologia dos decapoda numa área estuarina de Ubatuba (SP

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    Jorge de Abreu

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macro fauna (Decapoda was sampled by beam trawl at 6 stations in Bay of Fortaleza and adjacents Escuro e Claro rivers (São Paulo, Ubatuba, Brasil. Samples were taken monthly during 1973-1974. Diversity was high in muddy sand sites of Bay of Fortaleza and low at very shallow stations located in the rivers, where the effects of extreme fluctuations of salinity were evident. The changes in species composition appeared to correspond most clearly to differences in salinity. The total number of species of decapods collected in the areas was 27 (14 species of Natantia and 13 of Reptantia. Juveniles of Penaeus brasiiiensis and Penaeus paulensis reach the rivers. Callinectes danae live in the Bay and in the rivers. Xiphopeneus kroyeri is a specie who inhabit the Bay of Fortaleza in high populational density.

  15. Width-weight relationship and condition factor of Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ucididae at tropical mangroves of Northeast Brazil

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    Marina S.L.C. Araújo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims at evaluating the carapace width vs. humid weight relationship and the condition factor of Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763, in the mangrove forests of the Ariquindá and Mamucabas rivers, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. These two close areas present similar characteristics of vegetation and substrate, but exhibit different degrees of environmental conservation: the Ariquindá River is the preserved area, considered one of the last non-polluted of Pernambuco, while the Mamucabas River suffers impacts from damming, deforestation and deposition of waste. A total of 1,298 individuals of U. cordatus were collected. Males were larger and heavier than females, what is commonly observed in Brachyura. Ucides cordatus showed allometric negative growth (p < 0.05, which is probably related to the dilatation that this species develops in the lateral of the carapace, which stores six pairs of gills. The values of b were within the limit established for aquatic organisms. Despite of the condition factor being considered an important feature to confirm the reproductive period, since it varies with cyclic activities, in the present study it was not correlated to the abundance of ovigerous females. However, it was considered a good parameter to evaluate environmental impacts, being significantly lower at the impacted area.

  16. Desenvolvimento e morfologia funcional dos estÃmagos de larvas e pÃs-larvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda

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    Marlon Aguiar Melo

    2005-01-01

    O conhecimento sobre o correto regime alimentar das larvas e pÃslarvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda à considerado essencial para o sucesso no cultivo larval. InformaÃÃes sobre o desenvolvimento e morfologia dos apÃndices bucais e estÃmago destes crustÃceos tÃm auxiliado na identificaÃÃo de alimentos e condiÃÃes de cultivo satisfatÃrias para o aumento da sobrevivÃncia e do crescimento durante o desenvolvimento larval. O desenvolvimento da estrutura do estÃmago e da funÃÃo digestiva f...

  17. Breeding period in the mangrove crab Goniopsis cruentata (Decapoda: Grapsidae in Northeast Brazil

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    José Jonathas Pereira Rodrigues de Lira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachyuran crabs are iteroparous species which present a high diversification of reproduction patterns, which may have evolved as a species-specific response to environmental conditions. Tropical species commonly present a year-round reproduction due to stable environment conditions. Goniopsis cruentata is a crab species widely distributed along the Western Atlantic, inhabiting practically every microhabitat in the mangrove ecosystem. The aim of the present study is to determine the breeding period of the crab Goniopsis cruentata in Northeastern Brazil and also to evaluate the influence of water salinity, rainfall and air and water temperature on it. A total of 71 ovigerous females, captured from August-2007 to July-2008, were used to assess the breeding period of this species. It was analyzed by the monthly proportion of ovigerous females. A correlation was applied to verify the influence of the abiotic factors on the breeding period. The present population bred seasonal-continuously with peaks in the dry period, which was not associated with monthly variations of salinity, rainfall and air and water temperatures. Therefore, according to statistical analyses, our hypothesis was refuted. However, breeding was intensified in the dry period, when salinity and temperatures were higher and rainfall was lower. We conclude that, even though breeding is not related to monthly variation of environmental factors, it occurs in periods of higher salinity and temperatures and lower rainfall.Los cangrejos Brachyura son especies iteróparas, que presentan alta diversificación en los patrones de reproducción, que pueden haber evolucionado como una respuesta específica de la especie a las condiciones ambientales. Las especies tropicales frecuentemente presentan una reproducción en todo el año debido a las condiciones estables del medio. El cangrejo Goniopsis cruentata es una especie ampliamente distribuida en largo del Atlántico occidental, y que

  18. Crustacea Decapoda captured through a passive collection in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil

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    Rafael Ribeiro Teixeira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to carry out, through passive collection, a survey of Crustacea Decapoda species present in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil, during spring season of 2009. The collections were carried out in five sites, distributed over the final 10km of the river, using traps containing biological bait left underwater for 15h. To assess the abiotic variables, temperature, pH, and conductivity values were measured. A total of 135 individuals was registered, belonging to three species: the shrimps Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 and M. olfersi (Wiegman, 1836, besides the crab Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828. In addition to these, two other crab species were collected: Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803 and Panopeus lacustris Desbonne, 1867. The highest values were registered in P4 (34.07% of individuals, P1 (23.70%, and P3 (22.96%. Temperature and pH presented a small variation throughout the analyses (respectively, 5.1-5.8 and 25.7-29.1°C. In turn, conductivity differed the estuary point (P5 from the other ones (respectively, 886mS and 41-48mS. No individual was registered in P2. The distribution of species was related to the type of microhabitat and the habit of each of them.

  19. Descripción y distribución geográfica de una nueva especie para el archipiélago Juan Fernández: Platymera gaudichaudii (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda, Calappidae

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    Marco A Retamal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se identifica una nueva especie en aguas del archipiélago Juan Fernández: Platymera gaudichaudii (Decapoda, Calappidae, ampliándose su distribución geográfica conocida en el hemisferio sur. Se entrega una diagnosis de la especie y se actualiza el status taxonómico de otras tres especies de decápodos en este archipiélago.

  20. Crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae de la Isla de Margarita, Venezuela

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    Jesylén Castillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Callinectes sostienen pesquerías importantes en varias partes del mundo. En el occidente de Venezuela, Callinectes sapidus es capturado con palangre y sostiene una pesquería artesanal importante en el Lago de Maracaibo; mientras que en la Isla de Margarita, Callinectes danae es capturado con nasa en zonas cercanas a lagunas costeras y su pesca está limitada por la oferta y la demanda. Estos recursos son de considerable importancia económica entre los crustáceos comestibles; sin embargo, pocos estudios han sido reportados sobre la dinámica poblacional y potencialidad pesquera en ambientes costeros de Venezuela que contribuyan a la toma de decisiones en la administración pesquera. En este documento se presenta información de los parámetros de crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, con el fin de obtener un conocimiento detallado del patrón de crecimiento y lograr estimaciones más precisas sobre el tamaño de la población y su disponibilidad para la explotación. Se analizó una muestra constituida por 3 623 ejemplares capturados con nasa cangrejera por la flota artesanal, entre octubre 2007 y septiembre 2008. Se estableció la relación longitud-peso y se estimaron los parámetros de crecimiento de las curvas en longitud y peso del modelo de von Bertalanffy. La proporción sexual global mostró que no existe diferencia significativa entre machos y hembras (χ2=0.04, p>0.05. Los valores de las pendientes b entre machos y hembras presentaron diferencias significativas (ts=2.75, pDana Swimming crab growth Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae from Margarita Island, Venezuela. Callinectes danae is a common species captured with crab traps in nearby areas of coastal lagoons in Margarita Island. Although its considerable economic importance as a fishery resource, few studies have been done on population dynamics and its fishery potential in local coastal environments to support decision making in

  1. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  2. Systematic and evolutionary insights derived from mtDNA COI barcode diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca.

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    Joana Matzen da Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decapods are the most recognizable of all crustaceans and comprise a dominant group of benthic invertebrates of the continental shelf and slope, including many species of economic importance. Of the 17635 morphologically described Decapoda species, only 5.4% are represented by COI barcode region sequences. It therefore remains a challenge to compile regional databases that identify and analyse the extent and patterns of decapod diversity throughout the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We contributed 101 decapod species from the North East Atlantic, the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea, of which 81 species represent novel COI records. Within the newly-generated dataset, 3.6% of the species barcodes conflicted with the assigned morphological taxonomic identification, highlighting both the apparent taxonomic ambiguity among certain groups, and the need for an accelerated and independent taxonomic approach. Using the combined COI barcode projects from the Barcode of Life Database, we provide the most comprehensive COI data set so far examined for the Order (1572 sequences of 528 species, 213 genera, and 67 families. Patterns within families show a general predicted molecular hierarchy, but the scale of divergence at each taxonomic level appears to vary extensively between families. The range values of mean K2P distance observed were: within species 0.285% to 1.375%, within genus 6.376% to 20.924% and within family 11.392% to 25.617%. Nucleotide composition varied greatly across decapods, ranging from 30.8 % to 49.4 % GC content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Decapod biological diversity was quantified by identifying putative cryptic species allowing a rapid assessment of taxon diversity in groups that have until now received limited morphological and systematic examination. We highlight taxonomic groups or species with unusual nucleotide composition or evolutionary rates. Such data are relevant to strategies for conservation of

  3. A review of Epipenaeon ingens Nobili, 1906 (Isopoda: Bopyridae) host species and documentation of a new host, Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Alcock, 1905) (Decapoda: Penaeidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. RAJKUMAR; S.MANOKARAN; SUN Jun; J.P.TRILLES

    2011-01-01

    We collected 3 596 Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from the southeast coast of India between January and December 2007. Sixty three specimens (43 females and 18 males) were parasitized by the bopyrid isopod Epipenaeon ingens (Isopoda: Bopyridae). This is the first report of the occurrence of E. ingens in this host; therefore, it was considered as a new host record. The highest level of infestation (3.2%) occurred in October 2007, coincident with observations of gravid females (9). The total prevalence and presence of gravid females were 17.46% and 28%, respectively. Infestation caused a characteristic bulge of the branchial chamber, growth retardation, and degeneration of the sex organs, but had no effect on the host weight.

  4. First inventory of the Crustacea (Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of Juan de Nova Island with ecological observations and comparison with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel (Europa, Glorieuses, Mayotte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, J.

    2016-04-01

    Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda are inventoried for the first time in Juan de Nova Island, Iles Eparses, Mozambique channel. In total, 112 species are reported: 69 crabs, 28 anomurans, 11 shrimps, 3 mantis shrimps and 1 lobster. A comparison is made with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel: Glorieuses Islands (157 species), Europa Island (178 species), and Mayotte Island (505 species). The lower species richness at Juan de Nova is explained by the small size of the island and by the difficulties to collect the crustaceans on the reef flat hardly accessible at low tide. The crustaceans are listed by main habitats from land to outer reef (2-20 m). The presence of the coconut crab (Birgus latro), an endangered species vulnerable to human predation, is confirmed.

  5. Brachyuran crustaceans from the bycatch of prawn fisheries at the mouth of the Amazon river Crustáceos Brachyura da fauna acompanhante da pesca artesanal de camarões de água doce na foz do rio Amazonas

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    Jô de Farias Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a pioneering study on the Brachyura bycatch associated with the artisan prawn fisheries at the mouth of the Amazon River. The study was conducted at four collection sites distributed along the mouth of the Amazon River between the months of January/2009 and January/2010. The animals were caught using handcrafted traps called "matapi", which are used by prawn fisherman in the region. Twenty matapis were used at each collection site. A total of 145 specimens were captured and six species were identified, all belonging to the Trichodactylidae family - Sylviocarcinus maldonadoensis, S. pictus, S. devillei, Valdivia serrata, Dilocarcinus septemdentatus and D. pagei. The most representative species, S. maldonadoensis, S. pictus and S. devillei were classified as regular. Regarding the composition of the capture, there were three specimens of D. pagei , only one male specimen of D. septemdentatus, forty-eight specimens of S. maldonadoensis, sixty-eight specimens of S. pictus, twenty-two specimens of S. devillei and three specimens of V. serrata. In all months, the brachyuran fauna showed a considerably lower biomass when compared to the prawns, representing only 5% of the catch, in a ratio of 1:0.06. For most species, the number of males was always higher than the number of females in almost all collection months.O presente trabalho constitui um estudo inédito sobre a fauna de Brachyura associada à pesca artesanal de camarões na foz do rio Amazonas. Este estudo foi realizado em quatro pontos de coleta distribuídos na foz do Rio Amazonas, entre os meses de janeiro/2009 e janeiro/2010. Os animais foram capturados utilizando armadilhas artesanais denominadas "matapis" usados por pescadores de camarão na região. Em cada ponto da coleta foram usados 20 matapis. Foram identificados seis espécies em um total de 145 indivíduos capturados, sendo todos pertencentes a família Trichodactylidae: Sylviocarcinus maldonadoensis, S. pictus

  6. El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology

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    Sergio R. Martorelli

    1989-12-01

    in the females (Spivak & Politis, in press appeared correlated with prevalence; c in the studied crabs the pervalence fo F. chasmagnathi is higher in males than in females; d the intensity did not appear correlated with size and sex of the intermediate host; e M. szidati and F. chasmagnathi are closely associated with the intermediate host; f C. angulatus and Himantopus melanurus Vieillot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae are reported as new intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively, for F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 (Cruscea; Brachyura is reported as new intermediate host for M. szidati.

  7. Cancer

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    ... uses a surgical tool to remove the tumor.Mohs' surgery. Layers of cancer cells are removed one ... usually have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicine may have ...

  8. Biodiversidad, morfometría y alimentación de los cangrejos del género Callinectes (Decapoda: Portunidae en Santiago de Cuba

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    Liliana Gómez Luna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del género Callinectes en la zona costera del municipio de Santiago de Cuba. Se realizó una recolecta de 257 ejemplares durante marzo de 2007 a abril de 2008, en ocho estaciones a lo largo de la costa. El género resultó estar ampliamente distribuido en el litoral y representado al menos por cuatro especies: C. sapidus, C. similis, C. rathbunae y C. larvatus, las dos últimas no incluidas en la lista publicada de crustáceos (Crustacea: Decapoda cubanos. Las especies más abundantes resultaron ser C. sapidus y C. similis. C. rathbunae fue la más ampliamente distribuida. El análisis del contenido estomacal permitió identificar nueve categorías alimentarias, siendo las más importantes los peces y las macroalgas. Las especies de Callinectes tienen un amplio espectro trófico; comen no sólo lo disponible, sino también lo más abundante.Biodiversity, morphometry and diet of Callinectes crabs (Decapoda: Portunidae in Santiago de Cuba. On the basis of fishery intensity and proximity to river mouth, a total of 257 swimming Callinectes crabs were collected from March 2007 to April 2008 in eight localities. Captures were made with hanging nets, to a maximal depth of 1.5m, establishing a top time of 2 hr. The genus was widely distributed, and it is represented at least by four species: C. sapidus, C. similis, C. rathbunae and C. larvatus, the last two not included in the last list of Cuban crustaceans (Crustacea: Decapoda. The size and shape of the gonopods were very useful as taxonomical criteria, considering the prevalence of males. The most abundant species were C. sapidus (47.08%, and C. similis (30.35%. C. rathbunae, which was identified at 75% (6 of the localities, showed a better distribution, followed by C. sapidus, which appears in the 63% (5. Sex rate (Rs by species (male:female was 6.20 for C. rathbunae, 3.58 for C. similis, 1.40 for C. larvatus and 0.40 for C. sapidus. The most abundant

  9. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Günter

    2013-02-01

    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded

  10. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  11. Species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica

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    Luis Rólier Lara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, knowledge on biodiversity of freshwater decapods has increased considerably; however, information about ecology of these crustaceans is scarce. Currently, the freshwater decapod fauna of Costa Rica is comprised by representatives of three families (Caridea: Palaemonidae and Atyidae; Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae. The present study aims to describe the species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica, where the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE plans to implement one of the largest damming projects in the region. Samples were collected in 39 locations at an altitude ranging from 20 to 1,225 m. Sampling was carried out during several months in 2007, 2009 and 2010. We collected a total of 661 crabs, comprising eight species of Pseudothelphusidae of three genera, representing 53% of the 15 pseudothelphusid crab species currently recorded from Costa Rica. The most common species was Ptychophallus paraxanthusi followed by P. tristani. Freshwater crabs were more frequently encountered in the middle-low region of the basin (between 311 and 600 m and less frequently in the medium-high basin (between 601 and 1,225 m. Ptychophallus paraxanthusi showed the widest distribution and was collected in altitudes ranging from 20 to 700 m. The Rio Grande de Térraba region can be considered as a relatively small, but highly diverse system. Therefore, any alteration of the basin of Rio Grande de Térraba, and especially the possible construction of a hydroelectric power plant, needs to be carefully analyzed to mitigate the damaging effects of this project on the freshwater crabs. More ecological information about freshwater crabs from Costa Rica and the Central American region are needed to reach a first reasonable overview on the ecological role of these decapods in freshwater systems.

  12. Composition and spatial distribution of subtidal decapoda on the "Reef Coast", northeastern Brazil, evaluated through a low-impact visual census technique

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    Bruno W. Giraldes

    Full Text Available This study investigated the composition and spatial distribution of the sublittoral decapods on the reefs of Porto de Galinhas Beach, southern coast of Pernambuco, Brazil, through the Underwater Visual Census technique. Data were collected monthly, at night during full-moon tides in low tide periods from June 2004 to May 2005, using SCUBA diving and a visual census with a fixed belt transect (20 m long. Three sampling areas were defined: Confined Waters (low hydrodynamics with shallow sites (up to 2.5 m deep; Semi-open Water (3 to 6 m deep, influenced by waves and tidal currents (moderate hydrodynamics; and Open Water (7 to 10 m deep, in the breaker zone (high hydrodynamics. A total of 6,287 individuals of 34 species belonging to the infraorders Brachyura (19 species, Achelata and Anomura (5 species each, Caridea (3 species, and Stenopodidea and Astacidea (1 species each were collected. Two decapod assemblages were distinguished: in a habitat with low hydrodynamics and shallow (Confined water; and in a habitat with moderate to high hydrodynamics and depths of 3 to 10 m (Semi-open and Open water. At the sites with high hydrodynamics, i.e., the Open-water Area in the breaker zone, decapod diversity was significantly lower than in the other, protected areas on the reef bench. These results suggest that the distribution of subtidal decapods on coastal reefs is influenced by depth and exposure to water stress caused by waves and currents (hydrodynamics. The visual census technique with SCUBA proved to be suitable for ecological studies on subtidal decapods.

  13. Dynamic patterns of zooplankton transport and migration in Catuama Inlet (Pernambuco, Brazil, with emphasis on the decapod crustacean larvae Patrones dinámicos de transporte y migración de zooplancton en el estuario Catuama (Pernambuco, Brasil, con énfasis en las larvas de crustáceos decápodos

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    Ralf Schwamborn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to quantify and to model zooplankton transport with emphasis on decapod crustacean larvae. Sampling was carried out at three depths with a plankton pump coupled to a 300-/¿m mesh. Current data were obtained with an ADCP. Our data showed the existence of vertically and horizontally heterogeneous current and transport fields. We identified 27 groups of Decapoda (larvae of Sergestidae, Porcellanidae, Upogebiidae, Cari dea, Brachyura. Most of the species and larval phases showed characteristic vertical migration patterns, in phase with the diurnal tidal cycles, thus enhancing retention or export from the estuary.Esta investigación tiene como objetivo cuantificar y modelar el transporte de zooplancton, con énfasis en las larvas de Crustacea Decapoda. El muestreo se realizó a tres profundidades con una bomba de plancton acoplada a una red con malla de 300 /¿m. Se obtuvieron los datos de corrientes con un ADCP. Los datos mostraron la existencia de campos de corrientes y de transporte vertical y horizontal heterogéneos. Se identificaron 27 grupos de Decapoda (larvas de Sergestidae, Porcellanidae, Upogebiidae, Caridea, Brachyura. La mayoría de las especies y fases larvales mostraron patrones de migración vertical característicos, en fase con los ciclos de la marea diurnos, favoreciendo la retención o exportación del estuario.

  14. Distribución espacial de Ocypode quadrata (Decapoda: Ocypodidae en ocho playas de la zona norte oriental de Cuba

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    Frank A. Ocaña

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los organismos más comunes en las playas arenosas son los miembros del género Ocypode conocidos como cangrejos fantasmas, están ampliamente distribuidos en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales; además tienen un importante papel en la transferencia de energía en diferentes niveles tróficos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar a conocer aspectos relacionados con la variación espacial de la densidad de O. quadrata en playas con diferente nivel de influencia humana en la costa norte oriental de Cuba. En mayo de 2010, fueron contadas un total de 355 galerías en 360 unidades de muestreo. La composición por clases de tallas fue de 237 galerías de jóvenes y 118 de adultos. Del total de galerías contadas el 74% ocuparon el nivel P1, 20% el nivel P2 y 6% el nivel P3. La densidad varió entre 0.06-0.52galerías/m2. A pesar del nivel de influencia humana, la mayoría de las playas no mostró diferencias significativas en la densidad de galerías (Scheffé, p>0.05. La densidad de individuos en la zona superior de resaca del oleaje es mayor (Scheffé, pSpatial distribution of Ocypode quadrata (Decapoda: Ocypodidae in eight beaches of NorthEastern Cuba. Studies on the ecology of Ocypode quadrata have been mostly carried out in the Northern and Southern part of its distribution range. In despite that this species is common in Cuban beaches, there are no quantitative studies regarding its abundance and spatial distribution. The aim of this study was to report some aspects about the spatial variation of O. quadrata density in sandy beaches, with different levels of human influence, in the North coast of Eastern Cuba. For this, on May 2010, eight beaches with different levels of human influence were surveyed. On each beach, the number of crabs burrows were counted in 45 quadrats of 4m2 located in three different strata (P1, P2 and P3. According to burrow opening diameter, crabs were separated into young and adults forms. To determine the

  15. TECHNICAL NOTE A NEW, VOLUNTEER-BASED, COST EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR ZOOLOGICAL MAPPING: THE PHOTO IDENTIFICATION OF FRESHWATER CRAYFISH (CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA SPECIES AND THE IMPORTANCE OF VOLUNTEERS IN CRAYFISH RESEARCH

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    PUKY M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the European Crayfish Atlas within the framework of the CRAYNET programme is a major breakthrough in Decapoda mapping in Europe. The current data base contains information from approximately 60-70% of the 50 km × 50 km squares covering the continent. A new method to improve this situation further is the use of photo identification involving volunteers in the collection of distribution data. The crayfish identification ability of two potential user groups, astacologists and biology teachers/students, was tested using the questionnaire given in Figure 2. One picture (Astacus leptodactylus male was correctly identified by everyone, the others were recognised by 59-94% (astacologists and 30-88% (non-crayfish specialised biology teachers and students. The first European Decapoda photo identification survey proved that the necessary expertise exists in the continent to determine crayfish species from pictures and also that the quality of the pictures is less important than the presence of key details. Photo identification is a low cost and environmental-friendly approach but it also needs special considerations. Volunteers need to be supported in several ways, such as by providing precise and interesting educational material in an easily understandable language describing e.g. the key parts of the body to photograph. However, the general use of digital cameras and even mobile phones/cameras and the Internet is an effective way to launch such surveys as it gives, on one hand, an opportunity for the specialists to check, and if necessary correct, the field identification of less experienced people and, on the other hand, it provides a much larger data base than what is available now by using the data collected by students, conservationists, scouts or other volunteers.

  16. CARDISOMA ARMATUM (DECAPODA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    armatum may be useful in food formulations involving beverages and meat products. Calcium recorded the ... analyzed for by employing the method reported by. Vanado Molybate and ... advantageous in terms of the shelf-life of the sample.

  17. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  18. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: A new genus and species of raninoidian crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new raninoidian crab, Bellcarcinus aptiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is described from the upper Aptian of Colombia. The new genus displays a combination of traits seen among some ancient species within the Necrocarcinidae and Orithopsidae, obscuring its family placement. This taxon represents the si

  19. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: A new genus and species of raninoidian crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new raninoidian crab, Bellcarcinus aptiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is described from the upper Aptian of Colombia. The new genus displays a combination of traits seen among some ancient species within the Necrocarcinidae and Orithopsidae, obscuring its family placement. This taxon represents the

  20. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hyžný, M.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and co

  1. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: New data on mid-Cretaceous dromioid crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura) from northwest Germany and southwest Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J.W.M.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Fraaije, R.H.B.; Neumann, C.

    2014-01-01

    A single, slightly laterally compressed carapace of a dromioid crab from the middle/upper Albian part of the Kazhdumi Formation in the Hamiran area (Hormozgan Province, southwest Iran) is described as a new species, which is tentatively assigned to the brachyuran genus Distefania Checchia-Rispoli, 1

  2. [Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland, 2013: A tribute to Pál Mihály Müller / R.H.B. Fraaije, M. Hyžný, J.W.M. Jagt, M. Krobicki & B.W.M. van Bakel (eds.)]: A new genus and species of raninoidian crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Lower Cretaceous of Colombia, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luque, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new raninoidian crab, Bellcarcinus aptiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is described from the upper Aptian of Colombia. The new genus displays a combination of traits seen among some ancient species within the Necrocarcinidae and Orithopsidae, obscuring its family placement. This taxon represents the si

  3. Crecimiento y reproducción del camarón Atya margaritacea (Decapoda: Atyidae en el Río Presidio, Sinaloa, México

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    Jesús Sánchez Palacios

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron el crecimiento y reproducción de de Atya margaritacea, con base en 542 organismos capturados en cinco sitios distribuidos desde la parte media de la cuenca hasta la desembocadura del río Presidio (Sinaloa, NW de México. La recolecta se realizó mediante el empleo de una red Surber, recolectándose organismos cuya longitud total y peso total variaron de 15 a 96 mm y 0.1 a 25.2 g respectivamente. La proporción macho:hembra fue 1.96:1 y los machos alcanzaron las mayores tallas y pesos. La relación entre la longitud total (Lt y el peso total (Pt se estableció mediante el modelo Pt = 1.02x10-5 (Lt3.2089 para los machos y por Pt = 2.29x10-5 (Lt3.0159 para las hembras. El crecimiento en machos resultó alométricamente positivo mientras que en hembras fue isométrico. La regresión entre la longitud total y longitud cefalotórax (Lc fue Log Lc = 1.1118 (Log Lt- 0.6087 en machos y Log Lc = 0.9945 (Log Lt- 0.4321 en hembras. El crecimiento relativo entre estas partes del cuerpo resultó alométrico positivo en machos e isométrico en hembras, indicando un claro dimorfismo sexual de estos organismos. Hembras ovígeras se presentaron en la época de lluvias (julio a noviembre. La fecundidad absoluta varió de 1 860 a 22 400 huevos en hembras de 43 y 59 mm de longitud y de 1.9 a 6.0 g de peso. La ecuación que relacionó el número de huevos con la longitud y peso, fue Fec = 8.3x10-7 (Lt5.8053 y Fec = 732 (Pt1.836 respectivamente.Growth and reproduction of the shrimp Atya margaritacea (Decapoda: Atyidae in Río Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico. Some growth and reproduction parameters of the population of the shrimp Atya margaritacea in Presidio River (Sinaloa, NW Mexico were studied using 542 organisms collected with a Surber net in five sampling locations distributed from mid- to low river. Total lengths and gross weights ranged from 15 to 96 mm and 0.1 to 25.2 g. The male:female ratio was 1.96:1 and males had larger sizes and weights. The

  4. Efecto tóxico de DDT y endosulfan en postlarvas de camarón blanco, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda:Penaeidaede Chiapas,México

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    Vicente Castro-Castro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de conocer la toxicidad del DDT y endosulfan sobre postlarvas de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannaei, se realizaron pruebas de toxicidad aguda en condiciones de laboratorio por 168 h, con temperatura de 29 ± 1 °C, salinidad de 3 ± 1 ‰ y pH en 8 ± 1.Se calculó la concentración letal media (LC50 , la LC50 "incipiente", los tiempos medios de muerte (LT50 , la Máxima Concentración Aceptable del Tóxico (MACT y el "Nivel de Seguridad" (LS; así mismo, en los organismos sobrevivientes se determinó la concentración a la que el crecimiento de los organismos se reduce en un 5 y 50% (CE5 y CE50 . Se evaluaron además las alteraciones en el consumo de oxígeno. El DDT fue 3 veces más tóxico que el endosulfan; sin embargo, los organismos resultaron ser muy sensibles a ambos compuestos. La tasa de crecimiento de las postlarvas disminuyó en un 80 y 50% para el DDT y endosulfan respectivamente. La baja resistencia de las postlarvas al DDT y endosulfan, y las concentraciones de estos compuestos en la laguna, sugieren que si se diera un ingreso adicional de estos plaguicidas al sistema, es muy probable un potencial impacto en la producción de camarón del sistemaToxic efect of DDT and endosulfan in white shrimp postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae from Chiapas, Mexico .We analized acute toxicity in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae exposed to two chlorinated pesticides, DDT and endosulfan, under laboratory conditions during 168 hours, with controlled temperature (29 ± 1°C, salinity (3 ± 1 ‰ and pH (8 ± 1. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 , "incipient" LC50, median lethal time (LT50 the "maximum acceptable concentration of the toxic compound" (MACT and "the safety level" (SL were determined. The concentration of the compounds at which organism growth was reduced by 5 and 50% (EC5 and EC50 , as well as changes in oxygen consumption patterns were determined in the surviving postlarvae.They were very

  5. Padrão de deslocamento do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae nas fases clara e escura ao longo de 24 horas Displacement pattern of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in light and dark phases during a 24-hour period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O padrão diário de atividade de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae é ainda pouco entendido. Com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios para otimizar o manejo nas fazendas de cultivo através do estudo do comportamento deste animal, foram desenvolvidos experimentos com juvenis (7,57 ± 1,01 g, mantidos em aquários (30 l. Para registro da atividade, os aquários foram submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial (fase do claro e do escuro, 12h:12 h, sendo monitorados 16 camarões (33 m² em cada fase, durante 20 dias, em janelas de 15 min a cada hora. A alimentação foi fornecida em horários aleatórios, sendo registrados os deslocamentos horizontal e vertical (focal contínuo e os comportamentos de natação e exploração (focal instantâneo. Os deslocamentos horizontal e vertical dos camarões foram mais acentuados na fase escura, predominando o comportamento de natação. A exploração do substrato ocorreu em ambas fases, acentuando-se entre cinco e sete horas após o acendimento das luzes.Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 daily behavior pattern is still poorly understood. With the aim of optimizing the management of shrimp farms through the study of this animal behavior, experiments were performed with juvenile (7.57 ± 1.01, which were marked and kept in aquariums (30 l. To record activity, the aquariums were submitted to an artificial photoperiod (light and dark phases, 12h:12 h, with 16 shrimp (33 m² monitored in each phase for 20 days, for 15-minute periods every hour. Food was provided at random times and a record kept of horizontal and vertical displacement (continuous focal, swimming and exploration behavior (instantaneous focal. The horizontal and vertical displacements of the shrimp were greater during the dark phase, with a predominance of the swimming behavior. Exploration of the substrate occurred in both phases, with a peak between five and seven hours after the lights were turned on.

  6. Life on the beach for a sand crab (Emerita rathbunae (Decapoda, Hippidae: parasite-induced mortality of females in populations of the Pacific sand crab caused by Microphallus nicolli (Microphallidae

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    Juan Violante-González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasites, by definition, can affect mortality of their host, making parasitism an important biotic determinant of animal population dynamics and community structure. Reduction in the number of larger, reproductive age females in populations of the Pacific sand crab, Emerita rathbunae (Decapoda, Hippidae, was observed in studies of the helminth community of this host. The aim of this study was to determine if high abundance of the metacercaria of the trematode, Microphallus nicolli (Microphallidae, causes mortality in this host. Females of E. rathbunae were collected from four sandy beaches in Guerrero State, Mexico, and helminths were collected from each crab. An analysis of variance (Anova was applied to these data in order to identify differences in abundance between sizes of crabs, and an analysis of covariance (Ancova was applied to identify differences in the abundance of metacercariae between locations. Parasite-related mortality was inferred by a decrease in abundance in older hosts. Linear and polynomial regressions of mean abundance of helminths (log x+1 transformed data vs. cephalothorax length of crabs were significant for the four populations of E. rathbunae, indicating increased mortality of older, more heavily infected female crabs and resultant removal from the population. Encapsulation and melanization of cysts by crabs was observed, indicating that an immune response by crabs also killed a portion of the cysts from subsequent exposures. Mortality of hosts through behavioral modification favoring transmission of highly infected crabs was suggested as the driving force behind this process.

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types ...

  8. Distribución espacial y temporal del cangrejo Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda: Portunidae en la Bahía de Chetumal, Quintana Roo, México

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    Héctor J Ortiz-León

    2007-03-01

    sapidus (Decapoda: Portunidae in Chetumal Bay, Quintana Roo, Mexico. In order to determine temporal and spatial distribution patterns of Callinectes sapidus, samplings were carried out during the cold-front (January-February, dry (May-June and rainy (August-September, 2002 climatic seasons, in 30 sampling stations of Chetumal Bay, grouped in sectors A (14 stations, B (eight stations and C (eight stations. In each sampling station crabs were collected from two transects parallel to the coast, each with three traps, separated by 30 m. Sediments were calcareous coarse and medium sand, white or lightly gray. A total of 1 031 specimens were collected. CPEU (Capture Per Effort Unit differed spatially and temporally. Highest CPEU was found in sector C with 1.3 ind∙trap-1, and in the rainy season with 1.1 ind∙trap-1. Population was predominantly composed of male individuals. The male:female ratio was 15:1. Males and adults (group II CPEU was significant different between sectors and climatic seasons. Both males and adults (group II had a greater CPEU in sector C (1.2 ind∙trap-1 and in the rainy season (1.1 ind∙trap-1. Abundance of female and juvenile individuals (group I was low during the sampling period whereas group 0 juvenile individuals were not found. A greater relative frequency between sectors and climatic seasons were observed in 130-139 mm and 140-149 mm size interval (CW. C. sapidus occurred on sandy sediments in Chetumal Bay. Pearson product moment correlations exhibited significant relationships between CPEU and temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen. In Chetumal Bay, the spatial and temporal distribution of C. sapidus can be related to salinity, temperature, habitat quality, food availability, recruitment and reproduction events of individuals. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 235-245. Epub 2007 March. 31.

  9. Colon cancer

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    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  10. Pesquería y parámetros biométricos de los cangrejos del género Calappa (Brachyura: Calappidae en el oriente de Venezuela

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    José J Alió

    2005-09-01

    para ser comercializadas, mientras que el ejemplar vivo es devuelto al mar, para fines prácticos una relación común para las tres especies, que permitiría convertir el peso de las quelas a peso total del ejemplar sería: Peso total = 3 x peso quelas. No se observa una tendencia descendente significativa en la relación entre las capturas por unidad de esfuerzo y el esfuerzo. La variación de las capturas tiende a seguir la del esfuerzo de pesca, con una tendencia descendente de ambos parámetros en los últimos años. No se encontraron hembras ovadas en las tres especies, por lo que pudieran ocurrir migraciones reproductivas hacia aguas más profundas durante los meses de octubre a enero, cuando la abundancia de los cangrejos es menor en el área de estudio. Se recomienda que la práctica de extraer una sola quela, devolviendo el resto del animal vivo al mar, debe promoverse entre los pescadores, mientras que debería evitarse la extracción de quelas en las hembras.Fishery and biometrics of genus Calappa crabs (Brachyura: Calappidae in northeastern Venezuela. The box crabs, genus Calappa, are important crab species landed by the industrial trawl fleet in Venezuela. These crabs have a wide distribution in the country, from the Gulf of Venezuela to the Orinoco River, but major landings take place in such gulf, near Margarita Island and northern Sucre State. Average annual landing in the eastern region was 69 t during 1970-2001, with a maximum of 221 t. For this study a sample of 2 398 box crabs was collected by observers on board of industrial trawl vessels, which operated in eastern Venezuela from 1994 to 2000. Three species were found in the landings, Calappa sulcata and C. flammea, each represented 47% of the sample, and C. nítida, which accounted for 5% of the sample. Sex ratio was strongly biased towards males in C. sulcata (2.8:1 and in C. flammea (1.9:1, while it was only slightly biased in C. nitida (1.4:1. Due to its large size, C. sulcata is of great

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer ...

  12. Testicular cancer

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    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... There are two main types of testicular cancer: Seminomas Nonseminomas These cancers grow from germ cells, the ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

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    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The ...

  14. Variaciones en la condición nutricional de langostas Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la región este del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba

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    Alexander Lopeztegui Castillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, la región del Golfo de Batabanó es la más importante zona de pesca de langosta debido a que de ella se extrae anualmente alrededor del 70% de la captura nacional. Con el objetivo de determinar variaciones espacio-temporales en la condición nutricional (K de langostas Panulirus argus del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, se calculó dicha condición mediante una relación pesolargo (K=Pt/Lt, para lo que se utilizaron ejemplares de cuatro zonas (uno, dos, cuatro y cinco del este del golfo, capturados en los años 1981 y 2010. Se encontró que en todos los casos analizados la condición nutricional fue significativamente mayor en machos que en hembras. Se detectaron variaciones significativas entre zonas en 1981 y 2010. También entre años el estado nutricional de las langostas presenta variaciones significativas, de manera que en 1981 (2.34±0.84g/mm fue mayor que en 2010 (1.96±0.49g/mm. Tanto las variaciones interzonales como las interanuales parecen estar relacionadas con variaciones reportadas en el tipo de fondo y la cobertura vegetal. Variaciones estacionales en la abundancia y distribución de organismos bentónicos que constituyen alimento para las langostas también podrían estar influyendo. Las diferencias entre sexos en cambio, se suponen consecuencia de la metodología utilizada y del dimorfismo sexual característico de esta especie, por cuanto otros métodos de estimación de K que no involucran mediciones morfométricas, no detectan estas diferencias.Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Nutritional condition can affect survival and growth rate of crustaceans, and this is mostly affected by habitat conditions. This study describes the space-temporary nutritional changes in this commercially important species. With this aim, the variations in the nutritional condition (K of lobsters from four zones (1, 2, 4 and 5 in the Gulf

  15. Cancer Vaccines

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    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Vaccines On This Page What is the immune system? ... cells recognized by the immune system? What are vaccines? What are cancer vaccines? How do cancer preventive ...

  16. Statins and Cancer Prevention

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    ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  17. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and Cancer

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    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  18. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

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    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  19. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (June 2012

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    A. NICOLAIDOU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports on the extended distribution of nineteen species in the Mediterranean. These are: Upeneus pori(Fish:Turkey, Bursatella leachii (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: eastern coast of Spain, Sparisoma cretense (Fish: Ionian coastof Greece, Pseudobryopsis myura (Chlorophyta: Turkey, Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia: Karpathos island,and Kyklades Archipelago, Greece, Asparagopsis armata and Botryocladia madagascariensis (Rhodophyta: South Peloponnesos,Greece, Oxynotus centrina (Fish: Greece, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Chlorophyta , Stypopodium schimperi(Phaeophyta Siganus luridus and Stephanolepis diaspros (Fish Percnon gibbesi (Decapoda, Brachyura (Kyklades Archipelago,Greece, Cerithium scabridum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia: Anavissos: Greece and Cerithium renovatum (Mollusca, Prosobranchia:N. Κriti, Cassiopea andromeda (Scyphomedusa: Rhodos Island, Greece, Abra tenuis (Mollusca Bivalvia: VouliagmeniLake, Greece Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Fish: Calabrian coast, Italy and Plocamopherus ocellatus (Mollusca, Opisthobranchia:İskenderun Bay, Turkey.

  20. A new record of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium spinipes (Schenkel, 1902) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Taiwan, with notes on its taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shy, Jhy-Yun; Wowor, Daisy; Ng, Peter K L

    2013-11-04

    The giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium spinipes (Schenkel, 1902) is recorded from Taiwan for the first time and extends the distribution of the species to north of the Tropic of Cancer. The Taiwanese specimens differ slightly from material from Indonesian Papua in the density of the spination of the adult second pereipods, the relative length of the ridge of the posterior submedian plate of thoracite sternite 4, and the color of the carapace, abdomen and pleural condyles.

  1. Childhood Cancer

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    ... Cancer? Cancer Treatment Coping With Cancer en español Cáncer infantil Every cell in the body has a system that controls its growth, interaction with other cells, and even its life span. ... cancer . Different kinds of cancer have different signs, symptoms, ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  3. What Is Thymus Cancer?

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    ... Cancer? Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer What Is Thymus Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  6. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

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    ... Research? Colorectal Cancer About Colorectal Cancer What Is Colorectal Cancer? Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? How does colorectal cancer start? Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening ... Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role ...

  10. 瓯江口海域夏、秋季口足目和十足目虾类分布特征%Distribution of Hoplocarida and Decapoda shrimps in Oujiang estuary, East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆礼; 沈盎绿; 李新正

    2009-01-01

    采用2007年6月和9月瓯江口海域2个航次的渔业资源调查资料,研究瓯江口海域甲壳动物口足目(Hoplocarida)和十足目(Decapoda)中虾类的资源密度、种类组成和物种多样性等分布,探讨优势种、地形地貌、水团、温度和盐度等因素变化对这些分布的影响.结果表明,在2次拖网调查中,共鉴定口足目2种和虾类17种.口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)和哈氏仿对虾(Parapenaeopsis hardwickii)是6月的关键种,口虾蛄是9月的关键种.6月和9月2类优势甲壳动物平均质量密度分别为41.14 kg/km2和32.36 kg/km2,尾数密度为18.41×103ind/km2和10.66×103ind/km2.质量密度与尾数密度分布趋势一致,即调查水域东部高于西部,南部高于北部.6月,种问分布较均匀,物种数多,多样性指数值(H')较高;9月,在群岛外侧,由于口虾蛄在质量密度上形成单一优势种,导致质量多样性指数下降;但在尾数密度上,种间分布较均匀,尾数多样性指数值明显高于质量多样性指数值.无论是在6月还是9月,高密度区均出现在瓯江口洞头群岛外侧,特别是东南部受台湾暖流影响的海域.瓯江北口外的冲淡水水团是形成瓯江口北侧口足目和十足目虾类密度、种数和多样性低的重要原因.研究结果表明,瓯江冲淡水势力的季节变化是影响瓯江订海域口足目和虾类种类和多样性分布的主要水文因素.[中国水产科学,2009,16(1):104-112

  11. Thyroid Cancer

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    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  12. Bone Cancer

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    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  13. Stomach Cancer

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    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  14. Uterine Cancer

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    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  15. Cancer Immunotherapy

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    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  16. Anal Cancer

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    ... has just been diagnosed with anal cancer, this short, simple guide can help. More Resources Read more Cancer Basics Read more Finding Treatment Centers Read more Online Support Communities News & Stories Read More Latest Cancer News Read More Stories ...

  17. Cancer Moonshot

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    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  18. Cancer Chemotherapy

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    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  19. Ovarian Cancer

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    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  20. Throat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food. Surgery to remove cancerous lymph nodes (neck dissection). If throat cancer has spread deep within your ... neck cancers. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Freedman ND, et al. Fruit ...

  1. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  2. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  3. Cancer Technology - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on technologies that affect cancer research and care—including new technologies for detecting cancer, testing treatments, storing/analyzing data, and improving patient care—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  4. Cancer Treatment - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on cancer treatment research. Includes posts on new treatments for cancer and their effects, clinical trial results, and overcoming treatment resistance.

  5. Cancer Prevention - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    A catalog of posts from NCI’s Cancer Currents blog on research related to cancer prevention. Includes posts on behavioral interventions and other ways to prevent cancer and prevention-related research programs.

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... is unknown, but it is the second most common cause of death from cancer in men of ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... you should know about six of the most common cancers and some of the NCI funded research ...

  8. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... the United States, it is the third most common cancer in men and women. Caught early, it ...

  9. The complete mitochondrial genomes of Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons: The phylogenetic position of the family Raninidae within Brachyuran crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guohui; Cui, Zhaoxia; Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Chan, Tin-Yam; Song, Chengwen

    2015-06-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of two primitive crabs, Umalia orientalis and Lyreidus brevifrons (Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae) were determined. The mitogenomes of the two species are 15,466 and 16,112bp in length with AT content of 68.0% and 70.6%, respectively. Each genome contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes. The gene arrangement of U. orientalis is the same with those reported for most brachyuran species. Nevertheless, the gene arrangement of L. brevifrons differs from that of U. orientalis in having an additional non-coding region. The newly found non-coding region is located between nad3 and trnA with 641bp in length. Its nucleotide composition and secondary structure are similar to the typical control region. In L. brevifrons, the secondary structures of trnS-AGN and trnI are significantly different from those in U. orientalis and other brachyuran species. The start codon for cox1 is ATG in all reported Eubrachyura mitogenomes, while a common start codon ACG is found in the Podotremata. Phylogenetic analyses for crustacean decapods based on the nucleotide and amino acid of 13 PCGs indicate that Homolidae is more primitive in Brachyura, and Raninidae is a sister group to Eubrachyura. This implies that Raninidae is closer to Eubrachyura than to Homolidae, and Podotremata may be a paraphyletic assemblage. The results also indicate that the subfamily Lyreidinae is closer to Notopodinae than to Ranininae within Raninidae. The novel mitogenome data provides useful information for refining the phylogenetic relationships within Brachyura.

  10. How to research cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... summaries on pediatric cancer treatment -- www.cancer.gov/publications/pdq/information-summaries/pediatric-treatment American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org . The American Cancer Society (ACS) ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ... National Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators ...

  12. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  13. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ...

  15. National Comprehensive Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nervous System Cancers Cervical Cancer Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Colon Cancer Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans Esophageal and Esophagogastric Junction Cancers Gastric Cancer Hairy Cell Leukemia Head and Neck Cancer Hepatobiliary Cancers Hodgkin ...

  16. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Your Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types A to Z List of Cancers ... Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  20. Surgery for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Cervical Cancer Treating Cervical Cancer Surgery for Cervical Cancer Many women with cervical cancer will have some ... Options for Cervical Cancer, by Stage More In Cervical Cancer About Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  1. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What Is Thyroid Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... cell) Medullary Anaplastic (an aggressive undifferentiated tumor) Differentiated thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers. The cells ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Cancer Moonshot Genomic Data Commons ...

  5. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  6. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  7. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ...

  8. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  9. Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  10. Decapod larvae dynamics on Berlengas Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO - Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Da Fonseca Alexandre Rato

    2014-05-01

    Total decapoda abundance ranged from 0,06 ind.m-3 in May 2011 to 64,28ind.m-3 in August 2012, and significantly different between summer/winter and winter/spring months (P(perm≤0,05. The data obtained on this study revealed that Infraorders Brachyura, Anomura and Caridea are the most common. All three are significantly different between months (P(perm≤0,05 but not between sampling stations (P(perm>0,05. Brachyuran abundance was significantly affected by the Oceanograhic Conditions (P(perm≤0,05. Abundances were higher in spring and summer months, when Chlorophyl a values (mg.m-3, Temperature (ºC and Salinity (ppt were also higher. Decapoda community is directly affected by the surrounding environmental conditions in Berlengas Biosphere Reserve and abundance might also be related with specific larvae release throughout the year. Each sampling station was considered a replica from the study area. The ecological importance of Berlengas was also verified by the presence of non-frequent larvae of Achelata and Stomatopoda.

  11. Cancer Patients Versus Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined the social and emotional implications of different linguistic classifications of individuals with cancer. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to rate their reactions to either cancer patients or cancer survivors. Across studies, participants held more favorable perceptions of the character of cancer survivors relative to cancer patients and displayed more positive attitudes toward the former group. In addition, participants in Study 1 reported greater willingness to interact with cancer survivors compared with cancer patients. Positive perceptions of prognosis did not appear to account for favorable attitudes toward cancer survivors; most participants in Study 2 did not assume that cancer survivors were beyond the treatment phase of their illness or cured of their disease. Findings point to a potentially powerful effect of word choice on reactions to individuals with cancer. PMID:24371366

  12. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  13. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  14. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  15. Examples of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... for cancer (for example, tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, excessive alcohol intake, and health status), as well ...

  16. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  17. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  18. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000901.htm Cancer treatments To use the sharing features on this page, ... or IV. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that relies on the body’s ability to fight ...

  19. Cancer Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor is to grow and spread The TNM Staging System The TNM system is the most widely used cancer staging system. Most hospitals and medical centers use the TNM system as their main method for cancer reporting. ...

  20. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  1. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  2. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  3. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  4. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  5. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  6. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  7. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  8. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  9. Endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be at a higher risk of endometrial cancer: Colon or breast cancer Diabetes Gallbladder disease High blood ... laparoscopic - discharge Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge Pelvic radiation - discharge Review Date 4/5/2016 Updated by: Irina Burd, ...

  10. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  11. Cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cervical cancer. Other strains can cause genital warts . Others do not cause any problems at all. ... or radiation. Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group . ...

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  13. Throat or larynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  14. Snapshot of Pediatric Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood ... Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood ...

  15. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  16. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ...

  17. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Cancer Resources Childhood Cancer Statistics Coping With Cancer CureSearch CancerCare App Late Effects ...

  18. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Cancer Resources Childhood Cancer Statistics Coping With Cancer CureSearch CancerCare App Late Effects ...

  19. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and ... Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery Stories of Discovery R& ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  2. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  3. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study ... Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  6. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  7. Surgery for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Surgery is typically the first treatment for all ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  8. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What Is Testicular Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... respond well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Secondary testicular cancers Cancers that start in another organ and then ...

  9. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  10. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  11. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  12. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  13. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  14. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staging Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information ... Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research ... Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  19. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  20. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  1. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  2. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  3. Cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Raghu; Saraswathi, Tr; Govind, Rajkumar N

    2011-09-01

    Cancer cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The pathogenicity of this syndrome is multifactorial, due to a complex interaction of tumor and host factors. The signs and symptoms of cachexia are considered as the prognostic parameters in cancer patients. This review gives an emphasis on the various mechanisms involved in cachexia and an insight into head and neck cancer cachexia.

  4. Cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Rotovnik Kozjek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents the Slovenian multidisciplinary agreement statement on the definition, staging, clinical classification and multimodal approach to the treatment of cachexia in cancer patients. The consensus was reached during a multidisciplinary plenary session, and is based on the international definition of cancer cachexia adopted in 2011. Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle with or without concomitant loss of fat, which cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterized by a negative energy and protein balance due to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. In cancer patients, the cachexia syndrome can develop progressively through various stages – from precachexia to cachexia and finally, to refractory cachexia–represent-ing a continuum of metabolic changes, clini-cal signs and symptoms. Patients can progress from precachexia to cachexia, and reverse from cachexia into precachectic stages, while (as the term itself implies, the condition of refractory or irreversible cachexia has poor therapeutic response. A clinical algorithm for recognition and treatment of cachexia in cancer patients is presented. All cancer patients should be screened for cachexia and precachexia on presentation. Patients who fulfil diagnostic criteria for cancer cachexia should have its clinical stage determined. According to phenotype / clinical stage, a multimodal approach should be adopted in the treatment of all cases of cancer cachexia. A typical multimodal management plan in cachectic patients consists of early dietary intervention, exercise, anti-inflammatory therapy and early cancer-related symptom relief. The cachexia treatment pathway should be adopted as a pathway parallel to conventional cancer treatment. Practical implementation of cancer cachexia

  5. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  6. Testicular Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ...). Postorchiectomy management options for stage I testis cancer include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, adjuvant radiotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, and initial active surveillance. Presented...

  7. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  8. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer ... clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment. Some clinical trials only include patients who have ...

  9. Children's cancer centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer ... your prognosis. Survival statistics most often come from studies that compare treatments with each other, rather than ...

  11. Tests for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Liver Cancer If you have some of the signs ... Health Care Team About Liver Cancer? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  16. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  18. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ...

  1. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  2. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  3. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  5. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Testicular Cancer Key Points Testicular cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Learning about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What do we know about heredity and colon cancer? Colon cancer, a malignant tumor of the large intestine, ... page Additional Resources for Information on Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Information [cancer.gov] The most ...

  7. Ontario-wide Cancer TArgeted Nucleic Acid Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Breast Cancer; Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Melanoma; Gynecological Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Rare Cancer; Unknown Primary Cancer

  8. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  9. Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

  10. Renal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, E.; Betti, M.; Gatta, G.; Roila, F.; Mulder, P.H.M. de

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  11. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all

  12. Occupational Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulation and Policy OSHA Standards Surveillance NIOSH Data & Statistics by Industry Sector - Cancer Click on one of the eight Sector Tabs at the top of the screen to find available cancer statistics for that Sector Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance ...

  13. Morfologia externa de Parastacus brasiliensis (Decapoda, Parastacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina M. Horn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869 é um lagostim de água doce endêmico da região meridional brasileira, ocorrendo nas bacias que formam o estuário do Guaíba, na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever e ilustrar a morfologia externa e a distribuição dos diferentes tipos de setas nos apêndices de exemplares adultos de P. brasiliensis. Em laboratório, os exemplares foram dissecados e detalhes da organização morfológica foram descritos e ilustrados com auxílio de câmara clara adaptada ao estereomicroscópio. Microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada para um melhor detalhamento no estudo das setas. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com outras espécies de lagostins e com estágios juvenis de P. brasiliensis. Os tipos de setas e o padrão de distribuição observados são similares ao encontrado em Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858. Diferenças foram encontradas no basipodito e no coxopodito do primeiro maxilípodo e na primeira maxila de P. brasiliensis, onde setas serradas são substituídas por formas plumodenticuladas e multidenticuladas.

  14. Zoological notes from port Dickson : III. Crustacea Anomura and Brachyura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitendijk, A.M.

    1947-01-01

    From his stay at Port Dickson on the Malay Peninsula at the beginning of 1946 Major Dr. L. D. Brongersma of the N I C A Detachment brought home several species of crabs. A list of this material which is now incorporated in the collections of the Museum of Natural History at Leiden is given below, wh

  15. Second Cancers After Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after colorectal cancer. To help maintain good health, colorectal cancer survivors should also: Get to and stay at a healthy weight Keep physically active Eat a healthy diet , with an emphasis on plant foods Limit alcohol to no more than 1 drink per day ...

  16. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cervical Cancer Pap ... Cervical Cancer 1 of 5 sections The Basics: Cervical Cancer What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer ...

  17. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  18. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  19. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  20. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Patient Breast Cancer Treatment Male Breast Cancer Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention Breast Cancer Screening Health Professional Breast Cancer Treatment Male ... Treatment Breast Cancer Treatment & Pregnancy Breast Cancer Prevention ...

  1. Embriologia do siri Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae Embryology of the swimming crab Arenaeus cribrarius (Lamarck (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A.A. Pinheiro

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovigerous females of Arenaeus cribrarius were collected at Ubatuba, São Paulo, and maintaining in aquaria under controlled temperature (25±1ºC, salinity (35±1‰ and photoperiod (12:12. A small sample of eggs was collected for each 24h, for morphological description, chromatic changes and biometric analysis throughout the embryonic development. Eight egg stages were photographed and had their small and large diameters measured under a microscope provided with camera lucida. The egg's shape was low elliptical during all the embryogenesis and showed size increase (24.4% and volume (91.1 %, when the last stage were compared with the first one. According to mean egg diameter and volume, the eggs should be pooled in three different groups (1-3; 4-6; 7-8 corresponding to initial, intermediate and final stages. The attained results were compared with the literature which emphasizing the species of Portunidae's family.

  2. Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae Macroepizoites on Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C. Winter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo de distribuição dos macroepizóicos foi realizado numa população do caranguejo-aranha Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 proveniente do litoral dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. O material biológico foi obtido junto aos pescadores, e faz parte do rejeito de pesca. Os caranguejos foram mensurados e os macroepizóicos identificados e contados. Os seguintes macroepizóicos sésseis foram registrados: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia e duas espécies tubícolas de Gammaridea (Crustacea. Além destes organismos ocorreram dois tubos desabitados e quatro animais vágeis. A anêmona C. tricolor foi a espécie mais abundante e freqüente, sendo, provavelmente, utilizada como mecanismo de camuflagem pelo caranguejo. O macroepizoísmo em L. ferreirae está relacionado com a idade ou tamanho do caranguejo, tendo maior incidência naqueles mais velhos ou de maior porte. Entretanto, a densidade dos macroepizóicos por caranguejo se mantém em torno de três. Não há relação entre o macroepizoísmo e o sexo do hospedeiro; somente fêmeas ovígeras utilizam desse recurso mais freqüentemente do que as não-ovígeras. Devido à maior área de fixação, os macroepizóicos colonizam principalmente a carapaça do caranguejo, enquanto nos pereiópodos há predominância de Bryozoa.A study of the distribution of the macroepizoites was carried out on a population of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 from the Southern Brazilian coast. Crabs were obtained from shrimps and fishes by-catch. They were measured, and their macroepizoites were identified and counted. The following sessile macroepizoites were registered: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia and two species of Gammaridea (Crustacea. The sea anemone C. tricolor was the most frequent species and probably it is used as a mechanism of camouflage by crabs. Macroepizoites on L. ferreirae are related to its age or size, therefore, bigger or older crabs had greater incidence of macroepizoites. However, the density of macroepizoites is about three per crab. There is not a relationship between macroepizoism and sex of the host, but ovigerous females use this resource more frequently than non-ovigerous ones. Due to larger setting area, macroepizoites colonize mainly the carapace of the host; bryozoans predominate in hosts' pereiopods.

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What ...

  5. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or testicles that aren't shaped normally.Have Klinefelter's syndrome (a genetic condition where male infants are born ... contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: cryptorehidism, Klinefelter's syndrome, malignancies, scrotal mass, scrotal masses, testicular cancer, testicular ...

  6. Cancer Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inactivity, nutrition, sun exposure, and even exposure to infectious agents, such as hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, or helicobacter ... The extramural research program reaches nearly 650 universities, hospitals, cancer centers, and other sites in the United ...

  7. Cancer nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  8. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you may be eligible to receive a medication (potassium iodide) that blocks the effects of radiation on the ... occur, you and your family could take the potassium iodide tablets to help prevent thyroid cancer. Contact your ...

  9. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  10. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  11. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  12. Esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakil, Nimish; Affi, Aboud

    2002-07-01

    Despite advances in our knowledge of esophageal cancer, 50% of patients present with incurable disease, and the overall survival after diagnosis is poor. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus is rising at a rapid rate in developed countries. Recent advances in the epidemiology of esophageal cancer offer insights into preventive strategies in patients who are at risk. New developments in diagnosis may help detect the disease at an early stage. New diagnostic modalities permit more accurate staging procedures and allow appropriate selection of therapy. New studies provide more information on multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer, and new endoscopic techniques allow resection of small lesions without surgery. New stent designs provide better palliation by providing tumor ingrowth. These developments in the treatment of esophageal cancer are the focus of this review.

  13. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help you cope with your distress, including: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/basics/definition/CON-20029597 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  14. Stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stomach for a long time (chronic atrophic gastritis ) Have pernicious anemia (low number of red blood ... HealthProfessional . Accessed December 21, 2016. Read More Cancer Gastritis Malignancy Pernicious anemia Review Date 11/10/2016 ...

  15. Bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way they grow: Papillary tumors look like warts and are attached to a stalk. Nonpapillary (sessile) ... urinary control. Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group . ...

  16. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... papillomavirus (HPV) infection (same virus that causes genital warts ) Taking medicines that weaken the immune system (immunosuppressants) ... dry mouth Support Groups You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group . ...

  17. Cancer - penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smelling substance under the foreskin History of genital warts , or human papillomavirus (HPV). Smoking. Injury to the ... common experiences and problems may help relieve the stress associated with diagnosis and treatment of cancer of ...

  18. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  19. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the ... cancer in adults. It begins when cells called melanocytes grow uncontrollably. Intraocular melanoma is also called uveal ...

  20. Mouth Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rich in fruits and vegetables. The vitamins and antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables may help reduce your risk of mouth cancer. Avoid excessive sun exposure to your lips. Protect the skin on your lips from the sun by staying ...

  1. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum: Epidemiology and risk factors. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 18, 2014. Havrilesky LJ, et al. Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: A systematic ...

  2. Adrenocortical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payabyab, Eden C.; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Edgerly, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The development of new therapies has lagged behind for rare cancers without defined therapeutic targets. Adrenocortical cancer is no exception. Mitotane, an older agent considered "adrenolytic," is used both to control symptoms in advanced disease and as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection....... Molecular characterization of adrenocortical cancer has deepened our understanding of this genetically complex disease while identifying subgroups whose importance remains to be determined. Unfortunately, such studies have yet to demonstrate a therapeutic target for drug development, and to date......, no targeted therapy has achieved meaningful outcomes. Consequently, first-line therapy for metastatic disease remains a combination regimen of etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatinum established in a randomized clinical trial. In addition to evaluating recent studies in adrenocortical cancer, we raise one...

  3. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include: Smoking Having HIV or reduced immunity Taking birth control pills for a long time ( ...

  4. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  5. Cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdale Swati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer nanotechnology is the latest trend in cancer therapy. It helps the pharmacist to formulate the product with maximum therapeutic value and minimum or negligible range side effects. Cancer is the disease in which the abnormal cells are quite similar to the normal cell with just minute functional or genetic change. Thus, it is very hard to target the abnormal cells by the conventional method of the drug delivery system. Nanotechnology is probably the only method that can be used for site-specific action without causing the side effects by killing the normal cells. This review article describes the possible way to exploit the nanotechnology to targeted drug therapy in cancer. The various methods used are: systemic delivery systems, passive targeting, active targeting, intracellular delivery, subcellular localization, and nanoparticle drugs. Different cancer detection techniques like carbon nanotubes, nanorods, and biosensors are also available. This review article gives an idea about the possible potential of nanotechnology in drug delivery, drug targeting, and the diagnosis of cancer.

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self ...

  8. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated July 31, ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  10. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  11. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  13. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about esophageal cancer: Esophageal Cancer Screening Esophageal Cancer Treatment Esophageal cancer is found more ...

  14. What Is Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What Is Liver Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung ... may have questions about how serious your cancer is and your chances of survival. The estimate of how the disease will go for you is called prognosis. It ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests ... Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  17. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is often found after symptoms appear, ... Report: Colon Pathology. Imaging tests to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic ...

  18. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Thyroid Cancer Treating Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer ... can talk about it in a clear and supportive way. Two viewer guides are also available: for ...

  20. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention What Causes Thyroid Cancer? Thyroid cancer is linked with a number of ... inside a cell, without an outside cause. Papillary thyroid cancer Several DNA mutations (changes) have been found in ...

  1. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  2. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  5. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... as an ultrasound, MRI, or a biopsy. Prostate cancer screening has risks: Finding prostate cancer may not improve ...

  6. Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... the esophagus and the stomach). Being overweight . Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  9. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  10. Cancer Surgery: Physically Removing Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in cancer diagnosis, staging, treatment and symptom relief. Robotic surgery. In robotic surgery, the surgeon sits away from the operating table ... to maneuver surgical tools to perform the operation. Robotic surgery helps the surgeon operate in hard-to-reach ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have revolutionized breast cancer treatment: tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Bernard Fisher, M.D., of the University of ... breast tumors. Dr. Slamon and his colleagues developed trastuzumab (Herceptin). Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody, was the first ...

  12. Epidemiology of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the pancreas remains one of the deadliest cancer types. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates, pancreatic cancer causes more than 331000 deaths per year, ranking as the seventh leading cause of cancer death in both sexes together. Globally, about 338000 people had pancreatic cancer in 2012, making it the 11th most common cancer. The highest incidence and mortality rates of pancreatic cancer are found in developed countries. Trends for pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality varied ...

  13. Species Composition, Temporal and Spatial Distributions and Diversity of Hoplocarida and Decapoda Shrimps in Summer and Winter in Sanmen Bay%三门湾海域冬夏季口足目和十足目虾类的种类组成、时空分布及多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蒙蒙; 徐兆礼

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data from two oceanographic survey in the Sanmen bay during Dec. 2007 and Jun. 2008,this paper discussed the population density of Hoplocarida and Decapoda shrimps in winter and summer, species dominancy and diversity, involved in some impact factors such as background of topography and geomorphy, as well as hydrological features. Results showed that eurythermal and eurysaline shrimp species prevailed in Sanmen Bay. Shrimp specie number in summer was higher than the one in winter, as well as the weight and number densities, which were 93.32 kg/km2and 31.97 kg/km2 ,32.34 × 103 ind/km2 and 19.32× 103ind/km2respectively. Parapenaeopsis tenella was the most important shrimp species in winter and Oratosquilla oratoria in summer according to index of relative significance (IRI). The species component in summer was more homogeneous than it in winter, so the weight and diversity index H'in winter( 1.58, 1.33 ) were both lower than those in summer( 1.78, 2. 18). The water temperature outside the bay mouth is relatively higher in winter so more shrimp species are found here. While in summer, the bay mouth is the intersection by waters with different salinities, therefore shrimp species is rich. In addition, the Decapoda shrimp species in Sanmen Bay reach 25.00% to the total shrimp species in Zhejiang offshore, which means specie richness in bay is much lower comparing with that in Zhejiang offshore.%根据2007年12月和2008年6月三门湾海域的2个航次的渔业资源调查资料,研究三门湾海域口足目与十足目中虾类在冬季和夏季的密度、优势种及多样性的时空分布,并结合该调查海区的地形地貌和水文等因素对虾类的分布进行分析.结果表明,三门湾海域虾类以广温、广盐种为主,其夏季种类数高于冬季,且夏季虾类质量和尾数密度均值亦高于冬季,夏季与冬季的虾类质量分别为93.32 kg/km2和31.97 kg/km2,而尾数密度分别为32.34×103ind/km2

  14. Afatinib in Advanced Refractory Urothelial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    Distal Urethral Cancer; Proximal Urethral Cancer; Recurrent Bladder Cancer; Recurrent Urethral Cancer; Stage III Bladder Cancer; Stage III Urethral Cancer; Stage IV Bladder Cancer; Stage IV Urethral Cancer; Ureter Cancer

  15. How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed? Stomach cancers are usually found when ... Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  16. How Is Thyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Tests for Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer may be diagnosed after a person ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  17. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  18. How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Ovarian Cancer Diagnosed? If you have symptoms of ovarian cancer ... Ask Your Doctor About Ovarian Cancer? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  19. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  20. [Gastrointestinal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yutaka

    2004-08-01

    Although their sensitivity is not high, SCC, TPA and IAP are useful for esophageal cancer. The sensitivity of CEA, CA 19-9, is relatively high, especially in well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric cancer with lymph node metastasis. AFP is specific to liver metastasis from gastric cancer, and CA 125 is also specific to peritoneal dissemination. CA 72-4 and NCC-ST-439 are useful markers for advanced staging. CEA, CA 19-9, is useful for colon cancer, especially for predicting preoperative staging. Half-life and doubling time of tumor markers is useful in some cases for the evaluation of operation and chemotherapy. We showed our data concerning postoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation for gastric cancer in 120 recurrent patients. Positivities of CEA and CA 19-9 for recurrence were 65.8% and 85.0%, respectively, both of which were significantly higher than the preoperative sensitivities (28.3% and 45.0%, respectively). In most patients with high levels of preoperative CEA and/or CA 19-9, these tumor markers increased again at recurrence. Recurrent diseases were detected between 5 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 12 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean of 3.1+/-3.6 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) and between 10 months after detection by diagnostic imagings and 13 months before detection by diagnostic imagings (mean 2.2+/-3.9 months before detection by diagnostic imagings) by CEA and CA 19-9 monitorings, respectively. These results suggest that CEA and/or CA 19-9 monitoring after operation was useful to predict the recurrence of gastric cancer, especially in almost all the patients with high preoperative levels of these markers.

  1. [Cervix cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointreau, Y; Ruffier Loubière, A; Denis, F; Barillot, I

    2010-11-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated.

  2. Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  3. Cancer cachexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze Philipp

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years many efforts of researchers and clinicians were made to improve our knowledge of cachexia syndrome. Not only cancer, but also many chronic or end-stage diseases such as AIDS, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis and Crohn's disease are associated with cachexia, a condition of abnormally low weight, weakness, and general bodily decline which deteriorates quality of life and reduces the prognosis of the patients who suffer from it. In the present editorial we will focus cachexia related on cancer and provide some insight into this prognosis-limiting syndrome.

  4. Cancer immunology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herberman, R.B. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

    1986-01-01

    This book contains seven chapters. They are: Immunlogy of human T-cell leukemia/lymphonma (lymphotropic) viruses (the HTLV 'family'); Tumor specific antigens induced by mutagens and DNA hypomethylating agents: implications for the immunobiology of neoplasia; Destruction of tumor cells by macrophages: mechanisms of recognition and lysis and their regulation; Mechanisms of NK-cell mediated cytotoxicity; Role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of tumor growth and metastatic spread; Monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer; preclinical models and investigations in humans; and Abnormalities in interleukin 2 production and response in cancer and possible therapeutic approaches.

  5. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  6. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . 2014;160:271-281. PMID: 24366376 www.ncbi. ... Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med . [Epub ahead of print 12 January 2016] doi: ...

  7. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  8. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  9. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  10. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  11. Esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  12. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  13. Feeding of guitarfish Rhinobatos percellens (Walbaum, 1972 (Elasmobranchii, Rhinobatidae, the target of artisanal fishery in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Bornatowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhinobatos percellens is one of three species of Rhinobatidae found on Brazilian shores and is one of the most abundant species on the shallow continental shelf of Paraná and Santa Catarina States. Specimens caught by artisanal fishery between July/2001 and March/2003 by fishing communities located on the frontier between two southern Brazilian States (Paraná and Santa Catarina had their stomach contents analyzed. According to the Alimentary Index (IAi, Decapoda (69% and Teleostei (22% were the main items consumed. Polychaeta, a common prey consumed by several benthonic fishes, was poorly represented in the feeding of R. percellens. This fact may be related to the availability of prey in the environment, or to the size of the guitarfish analyzed (ontogeny. Seasonal variance of main preys (with higher IAi was observed: Dendrobranchiata and Pleocyemata displayed higher percentages in spring and autumn, Teleostei in the winter and Brachyura during the summer.Rhinobatos percellens é uma das três espécies de Rhinobatidae encontrada na costa brasileira e uma das espécies de elasmobrânquio mais abundante na plataforma continental dos estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina. Indivíduos capturados pela pesca artesanal entre Julho/2001 e Março/2003 nas comunidades pesqueiras localizadas entre o Paraná e Santa Catarina tiveram seus conteúdos estomacais analisados. O Índice de Importância Alimentar (IAi mostrou que as principais presas consumidas foram Decapoda (69% e Teleostei (22%. Polychaeta, principal presa ingerida por várias espécies de peixes bentônicos foi pouco expressiva na alimentação de R. percellens. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada com a disponibilidade de presas no ambiente ou com o tamanho das raias analisadas (ontogenia. De acordo com análises sazonais, observou-se que os camarões Dendrobranchiata e Pleocyemata foram as principais presas consumidas durante a primavera e outono, Teleostei durante o inverno e Brachyura

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self-Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for ...

  15. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ...

  18. Engagement of Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    End of Life; Advanced Cancer; Lung Neoplasm; Gastric Cancer; Colon Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Rectum Cancer; Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Neoplasms; Liver Cancer; Cancer of Unknown Origin

  19. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  20. PANCREATIC CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Pleskovič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The pancreatic cancer is quite common malignant tumor of gastointestinal tract and its incidence is increasing in well developed part of the world. Despite of all advanced diagnostic methods the disease is in most cases recognised too late when the tumor is not resectable.Conclusions. Only in 20–30% of patients with pancreatic cancer surgical resection is possible, and even in this group 5year survival is very low. In the patients where the tumor is not resectable, sometimes only palliative procedures are indicated and sometimes only simptomatic therapy is possible. The average survival period in this group of patients is 12–20 months. Adjuvant chemo and radiotherapy has not shown much of benefit and the prognosis is still very bad.

  1. cancers coliques

    OpenAIRE

    ali cherif, mohamed el amine; aliane, fatma

    2010-01-01

    - le cancer colique est un pathologie maligne de l'appareil digestif en plein recrudescence dont l'étiologies elle est polygénique = héréditaire et surtout le changement des habitudes alimentaires qui sont les principales causes d'apparition des polypes dont leurs dégénérescence évolue vers le cancer colique. D'après les étude faite dans notre service: - 07 cas sur oans d'étude (ig8i-i987). - 12 cas sur ians d' étude (1990-2002). Notre étude de oans (2005-2009) r...

  2. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term effects of Cancer Treatment on Children References: Cancer in Children If Your Child Has Cancer Cancer in Children Finding Cancer in ... term effects of Cancer Treatment on Children References: Cancer in Children If Your Child Has Cancer Back To Top Imagine a world ...

  3. 1985 Cancer Facts and Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Cancer Society, Inc., New York, NY.

    Information and statistical data about cancer are provided in seven categories. They include: (1) basic cancer data (considering how cancer works, trends in diagnosis and treatment, new cancer cases and deaths for 1985, and other areas); (2) major cancer sites (discussing lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, 5-year survival rates/trends…

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Program Cancer Reporting Fellowships Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents ... Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog ...

  5. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... The JPB Foundation 2016 Bladder Cancer ... 2016 Young Investigator Awardees The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) has announced the recipients of the 2016 ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer Currents Blog All Press Releases 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 ... Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer ...

  7. Working during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P 2 rovocative Questions PCCTC Scientific Retreat Coffey-Holden Research News Faces of Prostate Cancer [4] Survivors ... Foundation News The Prostate Cancer Foundation’s 2016 Coffey-Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Meeting accelerates advances in the ...

  9. Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is a group related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body's cells begin to divide ... can be benign or malignant. Benign tumorsaren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  10. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vegetables. There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Standard treatments for stomach cancer include surgery , ... NCI Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Home Page Information about stomach ... causes, screening, clinical trials, research and statistics from the National ...

  11. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  13. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  14. Dealing with chronic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000933.htm Dealing with chronic cancer To use the sharing features on this ... be controlled for a period of time. Controlling Chronic Cancer When you have a chronic cancer, the ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Training at NCI Funding for Cancer Training Building a Diverse Workforce Other Fellowships and Internships Program ... at NCI (Intramural) Funding for Cancer Training (Extramural) Building a Diverse Workforce Other Fellowships & Internships Training Program ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outreach Program Cancer Reporting Fellowships Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Events Cancer ... Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents ...

  17. Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Research Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Salivary Gland ... in diagnosing salivary gland cancer. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment ...

  18. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  20. Coping with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Most people face some degree of depression, anxiety, fear or distress when cancer becomes part of their ... who has cancer. Distress in People With Cancer Anxiety, Fear, and Depression Depression Anxiety, Fear, and Emotional Distress ...

  1. Cancer and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  2. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  3. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Myeloma Ovarian Prostate Skin Thyroid Uterine Vaginal and Vulvar How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early Screening Tests Vaccines (Shots) Healthy Choices Data and Statistics For Different Kinds of Cancer Cancer Rates by ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... greatly. Also, it takes years to see the benefit of new treatments and ways of finding cancer. ...

  6. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type and Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use of drugs to treat ... that is only in the testicle. Doctors give chemotherapy in cycles, with each period of treatment followed ...

  7. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. CA 125: A substance in the blood that may increase in the presence of some cancerous tumors. Colonoscopy: An exam of the entire colon using a small, lighted instrument. Computed Tomography: A ...

  8. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Dolmans DE, Fukumura D, Jain RK. Photodynamic therapy for cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer 2003; 3(5):380–387. [PubMed Abstract] Wilson BC. Photodynamic therapy for cancer: principles. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology 2002; ...

  9. SEER Cancer Stat Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Statistical Fact Sheets are summaries of common cancer types developed to provide an overview of frequently-requested cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival, stage, prevalence, and lifetime risk.

  10. Stages of Urethral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Urethral Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Urethral Cancer Go to Health Professional ... In men, the urethra also carries semen . Enlarge Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  13. Infectious Agents and Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these agents on subsequent risk of cancer. There are currently ... tween genetic and environmental factors (that include infectious agents) .... opment of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lym- phoma. However .... Lung cancer i. Skin cancers ...

  14. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks of other cancers (or other health problems). Examples of genetic syndromes that can cause exocrine pancreatic cancer include: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome , caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes Familial atypical ...

  16. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do I Stay Healthy Share this page: Nutrition for Lung Cancer Key Points There is no ... lung cancer symptoms, making them worse or better. Nutrition Goals Each person's nutritional needs during lung cancer ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  18. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breast cancer include exposure to radiation, a family history of breast cancer, and having high estrogen levels, which can happen with diseases like cirrhosis or Klinefelter's syndrome. Treatment for male breast cancer is usually ...

  19. Identifying cancer genes from cancer mutation profiles by cancer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is of great importance to identify new cancer genes from the data of large scale genome screenings of gene mutations in cancers. Considering the alternations of some essential functions are indispensable for oncogenesis, we define them as cancer functions and select, as their approximations, a group of detailed functions in GO (Gene Ontology) highly enriched with known cancer genes. To evaluate the efficiency of using cancer functions as features to identify cancer genes, we define, in the screened genes, the known protein kinase cancer genes as gold standard positives and the other kinase genes as gold standard negatives. The results show that cancer associated functions are more efficient in identifying cancer genes than the selection pressure feature. Furthermore, combining cancer functions with the number of non-silent mutations can generate more reliable positive predictions. Finally, with precision 0.42, we suggest a list of 46 kinase genes as candidate cancer genes which are annotated to cancer functions and carry at least 3 non-silent mutations.

  20. Breast cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Iris; Lindsay, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or in the first postpartum year. Breast cancer is one of the more common malignancies to occur during pregnancy and, as more women delay childbearing, the incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is expected to increase. This article provides an overview of diagnosis, staging, and treatment of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Recommendations for management of breast cancer in pregnancy are discussed.

  1. Obesity and Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gribovskaja-Rupp, Irena; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer based on its molecular and metabolic effects on insulin and IGF-1, leptin, adipocytokines, and sex hormones. Obese men have a higher risk of colorectal cancer compared with normal weight men, but the association between obesity and rectal cancer is weaker than with colon cancer. There is a weaker association between obesity and colon cancer in women than in men, and no appreciable association between obesity and rectal cancer in women. Although o...

  2. Living with Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Cancer is regarded as a formidable threat to mankind. Every yem’ in Shanghai, which has a high cancer rate, 15,000 people are diagnosed with the disease and 12,000 die of cancer. Because many people believe that "cancer equals death," a special cancer rehabilitation center has appeared in Shanghai. The center creates an environment where cancer patients can exchange experiences and receive psychological group therapy. In this way those patients

  3. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  4. Renal pelvis or ureter cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter; Kidney cancer - renal pelvis; Ureter cancer ... Cancer can grow in the urine collection system, but it is uncommon. Renal pelvis and ureter cancers ...

  5. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  6. How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Ovarian Cancer Staged? Staging is the process of finding out ... Ask Your Doctor About Ovarian Cancer? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  7. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  9. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed? Testicular cancer is usually found as a ... the tumor might have returned. Surgery to diagnose testicular cancer Most types of cancer are diagnosed by removing ...

  10. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  11. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  12. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  13. Global cancer statistics, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Bray, Freddie; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ferlay, Jacques; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-03-01

    Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Cancer beliefs in cancer survivors, cancer relatives and persons with no cancer experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Vedsted, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Negative cancer beliefs have been associated with late stage at cancer diagnosis. High levels of negative cancer beliefs have been found among individuals with low socioeconomic position and ethnic minority women, but the impact of cancer experience on cancer beliefs is unexamined. The aim...... of this study was to examine whether cancer beliefs are associated with cancer experience. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based study. Telephone interviews of 2992 Danish residents (30+) were carried out using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer Measure (ABC). Respondents reported whether...... they or someone close had been diagnosed with cancer and whether they agreed/disagreed with three positively and three negatively framed cancer beliefs. Results: Respondents with someone close diagnosed was reference group. Compared with these, respondents with no cancer experience (RRadj=0.91, 95% CI=0...

  17. Testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, M

    1988-01-01

    Testicular cancer, which predominantly occurs in young men, has become increasingly common; it is presently the most common malignancy in men aged 20-34. Despite a lack of knowledge of aetiology, empirical advances, particularly in the management of patients with advanced disease, have been dramatic. Prior to the development of effective chemotherapy in the 1970s, less than 10% of men with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours were cured; nowadays approximately 90% of patients are potentially curable. The introduction of effective chemotherapy has led to a reappraisal of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of early stage disease and the introduction of a policy of surveillance in patients without evidence of metastases at the time of removal of the primary tumour. Following chemotherapy, surgery is required in approximately 25% of patients with advanced disease to excise residual masses, which in one-fifth of cases will show evidence of residual malignancy. In a proportion of patients, testicular cancer develops on a background of long-standing infertility, whereas in many men there is temporary oligospermia, despite a previous history of fertility. The majority of patients with prior evidence of spermatogenesis recover this function following chemotherapy and there is no evidence that children fathered by such patients have an increased risk of malformation. Despite physician optimism and excellent prospects for cure, significant psycho-social morbidity is associated with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. Factors contributing to this are being identified and will lead, hopefully, to the minimisation of such problems by appropriate intervention.

  18. [Gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  19. Collection of Biospecimen & Clinical Information in Patients w/ Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Gynecologic Cancers; Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer; Gastric (Stomach) Cancer; Gastro-Esophageal(GE) Junction Cancer; Gastrointenstinal Stromal Tumor (GIST); Colon/Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Colon Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Rectal Cancer; Colon/Rectal Cancer Anal Cancer; Anal Cancer; Hepatobiliary Cancers; Hepatobiliary Cancers Liver; Pancreatic Cancer

  20. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer and other diseases? Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer of the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and lung. It may also cause cancer ... directly expose their lips, mouth, tongue, throat, and larynx to smoke and its toxic and cancer-causing chemicals. In addition, when saliva containing the ...

  2. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  3. Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4059 FWCinfo@sgo.org Copyright © 2017 Foundation for Women’s Cancer. All rights reserved. Site Design by Nov. 6, 2016 REGISTER ... to End Women’s Cancer Press Release: Foundation for Women’s Cancer ... Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Movement (GCAM) to be Featured on Times Square “Super ...

  4. Report: Human cancer genetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Marilyn; ALBERTSON Donna

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  5. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  6. Human cancer genetics*

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  7. Breast cancer awareness

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is rising among women in many European countries, affecting up to 1 in 16 women and has become the most common cause of cancer in European women. In Malta breast cancer is the commonest oncological cause of death in females. In fact 5.2% of all deaths in females in 2010 was from breast cancer.

  8. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver cancer . The following stages are used for gastric cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells are ... check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in ... Stage I Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage I gastric cancer may ...

  9. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  10. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Advanced Cancer Detection Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Coeur d’Alene, ID IASLC 9th World Conference on Lung Cancer, Cellular Targeting in the Molecular Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Tokyo, Japan The...World Conference on Lung Cancer, Cellular Targeting in the Molecular Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Tokyo, Japan The first International Conference on

  12. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What Is Kidney Cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  13. Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... En Español Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Early Detection and Diagnosis Breast cancer is sometimes ... cancer screening is so important. Learn more. Can Breast Cancer Be Found Early? Breast cancer is sometimes found ...

  14. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  15. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"175","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400","style":"width: 400px; height: 266px;","class":"i | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  16. Telomerers rolle i cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer. On one hand, telomeres limit the cells' ability to divide and thereby restrict the uninhibited growth seen in cancer. On the other hand, short telomeres can initiate the chromosome instability that characterizes cancer. Diseases...... with the combination of short telomeres and high cancer risk are seen, but until now the use of telomeres as predictors of cancer has, in general, been unsuccessful. Telomeres and telomerase play an important role in further cancer development. Researchers are trying to exploit this in the development of new cancer...

  17. Telomerers rolle i cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer. On one hand, telomeres limit the cells' ability to divide and thereby restrict the uninhibited growth seen in cancer. On the other hand, short telomeres can initiate the chromosome instability that characterizes cancer. Diseases...... with the combination of short telomeres and high cancer risk are seen, but until now the use of telomeres as predictors of cancer has, in general, been unsuccessful. Telomeres and telomerase play an important role in further cancer development. Researchers are trying to exploit this in the development of new cancer...

  18. Colon cancer associated transcripts in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yincong; Xie, Haibiao; Gao, Qunjun; Zhan, Hengji; Xiao, Huizhong; Zou, Yifan; Zhang, Fuyou; Liu, Yuchen; Li, Jianfa

    2017-08-02

    Long non-coding RNAs serve as important regulators in complicated cellular activities, including cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs occurs in the formation and progression of cancers. The family of colon cancer associated transcripts, long non-coding RNAs colon cancer associated transcript-1 and colon cancer associated transcript-2 are known as oncogenes involved in various cancers. Colon cancer associated transcript-1 is a novel lncRNA located in 8q24.2, and colon cancer associated transcript-2 maps to the 8q24.21 region encompassing rs6983267. Colon cancer associated transcripts have close associations with clinical characteristics, such as lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and short overall survival. Knockdown of them can reverse the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells, including proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, they can increase the expression level of c-MYC and oncogenic microRNAs via activating a series of complex mechanisms. In brief, the family of colon cancer associated transcripts may serve as potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for human cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  20. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast cancer survivorship research and is sparse for prostate and colorectal cancers. Overall, most studies support a relationship between body adiposity and site-specific mortality or cancer progression. However, most of the research was not specifically designed to study these outcomes and, therefore, several methodological issues should be considered before integrating their results to draw conclusions. Further research is urgently warranted to assess the long-term impact of obesity among the growing population of cancer survivors. PMID:22540252

  1. Inherited pancreatic cancer syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Sheila; Das, Siddhartha; Brand, Randall; Whitcomb, David C

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most challenging of all cancers. Genetic risk factors are believed to play a major role, but other than genes coding for blood group, genetic risks for sporadic cases remain elusive. However, several germline mutations have been identified that lead to hereditary pancreatic cancer, familial pancreatic cancer, and increased risk for pancreatic cancer as part of a familial cancer syndrome. The most important genes with variants increasing risk for pancreatic cancer include BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, CDKN2A, APC, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, PRSS1, and STK11. Recognition of members of high-risk families is important for understanding pancreatic cancer biology, for recommending risk reduction strategies and, in some cases, initiating cancer surveillance programs. Because the best methods for surveillance have not been established, the recommendation to refer at-risk patients to centers with ongoing research programs in pancreatic cancer surveillance is supported.

  2. National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalona, William J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Camp, Nicola J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooney, Kathleen A; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Freedman, Matthew L; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kittles, Rick A; Margulies, Elliott H; McGuire, Barry B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Witte, John S; Isaacs, William B

    2011-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports a genetic component to prostate cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. It remains unclear, however, whether such genetic variants are associated with disease aggressiveness--one of the most important questions in prostate cancer research today. To help clarify this and substantially expand research in the genetic determinants of prostate cancer aggressiveness, the first National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop assembled researchers to develop plans for a large new research consortium and patient cohort. The workshop reviewed the prior work in this area and addressed the practical issues in planning future studies. With new DNA sequencing technology, the potential application of sequencing information to patient care is emerging. The workshop, therefore, included state-of-the-art presentations by experts on new genotyping technologies, including sequencing and associated bioinformatics issues, which are just beginning to be applied to cancer genetics.

  3. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  4. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Crew, Katherine D.; Neugut, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has...

  5. Colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Randall W; Cannon, Jamie A; David, Donald S; Early, Dayna S; Ford, James M; Giardiello, Francis M; Halverson, Amy L; Hamilton, Stanley R; Hampel, Heather; Ismail, Mohammad K; Jasperson, Kory; Klapman, Jason B; Lazenby, Audrey J; Lynch, Patrick M; Mayer, Robert J; Ness, Reid M; Provenzale, Dawn; Rao, M Sambasiva; Shike, Moshe; Steinbach, Gideon; Terdiman, Jonathan P; Weinberg, David; Dwyer, Mary; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by early diagnosis and by cancer prevention through polypectomy. These NCCN Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening describe various colorectal screening modalities and recommended screening schedules for patients at average or increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. In addition, the guidelines provide recommendations for the management of patients with high-risk colorectal cancer syndromes, including Lynch syndrome. Screening approaches for Lynch syndrome are also described.

  6. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Hsu; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer are smoking, family history, chronic pancreatitis, and diabetes. There is controversy with regards to the causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer because many patients with pancreatic cancer have new onset diabetes. Abstracts presented at the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting highlighted and supported the positive association ...

  7. Compensation for Occupational Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    The legal scope and criteria for occupational cancer in Korea was out of date. The aim of this study was to review the current criteria for occupational cancer and amend the existent criteria on the basis of recent scientific evidence. The scientific evidence and the legal list of occupational cancer were analyzed to identify the causes of occupational cancer on a global scale. The relationship between compensated occupational cancer cases and carcinogen exposure in Korea was examined. The fa...

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  9. Triapine, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer or Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-21

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  10. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Sha Chen; An-Xin Wang; Bing Dong; Ke-Feng Pu; Li-Hua Yuan; Yi-Min Zhu

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory,cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells.This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention.Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer.In this review,we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells,and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells,a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  11. Women and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, K; Stjernswärd, J; Koroltchouk, V

    1987-01-01

    The primary cause of death in women in the world is cancer. In most developing countries cancer of the cervix is the most prevalent cancer. Breast cancer has this distinction in Latin America and the developed countries of North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. It is also the most prevalent cancer worldwide. The most common cancer in Japan and the Soviet Union is stomach cancer. Effective early detection programs can reduce both breast and cervical cancer mortality and also the degree and duration of treatment required. In Iceland, cervical cancer mortality declined 60% between the periods of 1959-1970 and 1975-1978. Programs consist of mammography, physician breast and self examination, and Pap smear. The sophisticated early detection equipment and techniques are expensive and largely located in urban areas, however, and not accessible to urban poor women and rural women, especially in developing countries. Tobacco smoking attributes to 80-90% of all lung cancer deaths worldwide and 30% of all cancer deaths. Passive smoking increases the risk of lung cancer to 25-35% in nonsmokers who breathe in tobacco smoke. Since smoking rates of women are skyrocketing, health specialists fear that lung cancer will replace cervical and breast cancers as the most common cancer in women worldwide in 20-30 years. Tobacco use also contributes to the high incidence of oral cancer in Southern and South Eastern Asia. For example, in India, incidence of oral cancer in women is 3-7 times higher than in developed countries with the smoking and chewing of tobacco in betel quid contributing. Techniques already exist to prevent 1/3 of all cancers. If cases can be discovered early enough and adequate treatment applied, another 1/3 of the cases can be cured. In those cases where the cancer cannot be cured, drugs can relieve 80-90% of the pain.

  12. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Victoria Valinluck; Grady, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It results from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes in colon epithelial cells that transforms them into adenocarcinomas. There have been major advances in our understanding of cancer epigenetics over the last decade, particularly regarding aberrant DNA methylation. Assessment of the colon cancer epigenome has revealed that virtually all colorectal cancers have aberrantly methylated genes and the average colorectal cancer methylome has hundreds to thousands of abnormally methylated genes. As with gene mutations in the cancer genome, a subset of these methylated genes, called driver genes, is presumed to play a functional role in colorectal cancer. The assessment of methylated genes in colorectal cancers has also revealed a unique molecular subgroup of colorectal cancers called CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP) cancers; these tumors have a particularly high frequency of methylated genes. The advances in our understanding of aberrant methylation in colorectal cancer has led to epigenetic alterations being developed as clinical biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Progress in the assessment of epigenetic alterations in colorectal cancer and their clinical applications has shown that these alterations will be commonly used in the near future as molecular markers to direct the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:22009203

  14. Genetic analyses determine connectivity among cave and surface populations of the Jamaican endemic freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum in the Cockpit Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Stemmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jamaican freshwater crab Sesarma fossarum (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae is endemic to western central Jamaica where it occurs in cave and surface streams of karst regions. In the present study, we examine the population genetic structure of the species, providing evidence for intraspecific differentiation and genetic substructure among twelve sampled populations. Interestingly, crabs from caves appear genetically undistinguishable from representatives of nearby surface waters, despite previously observed and described morphometric differentiation. In contrast, genetic isolation takes place among populations from rivers and caves belonging to different watersheds. In one case, even populations from different tributaries of the same river were characterized by different genotypes. Overall, the species shows low haplotype and nucleotide diversities, which indicates a high homogeneity and point towards a relatively recent intraspecific radiation and diversification. Our results on the genetic diversification of S. fossarum helps to reconstruct unknown subterranean water flow and cave connections in its native range, allowing prediction of its further dispersal and differentiation potential. Unfortunately, its natural habitat of Jamaican cockpit karst, which also is home to several other endemic species and is a globally-recognized Key Biodiversity Area, is under imminent threat of intensive bauxite mining.

  15. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  17. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What are my ... and neck cancer. For updated information on new cancer treatments that are available, you should discuss these issues ...

  18. Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Survival Rates for Thymus Cancer Survival rates are often used by doctors ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Colon ...

  20. General Information about Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Colon ...

  1. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  3. What Is Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the liver. Types of bile duct cancer by cell type Bile duct cancers can also be divided ... Our Volunteers More ACS Sites Bookstore Shop Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  5. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  6. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Gynecologic Cancers Uterine/Endometrial Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy for endometrial cancer is usually given intravenously (injected ...

  7. Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer

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    ... Back After Treatment Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Vaccine Treatment for Prostate Cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...

  8. Spirituality in Cancer Care (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as cancer, may cause spiritual distress. Religious and spiritual values are important to patients coping with cancer. ... both. Serious illness, such as cancer, may cause spiritual distress. Serious illnesses like cancer may cause patients ...

  9. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Prevention Esophageal Cancer Screening Research Esophageal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... the esophagus and the stomach). Being overweight . Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  10. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  11. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this discourse has...

  12. American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

  13. Cancer immunology and colorectal cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Luca

    2011-06-01

    The recurrence of a cancer - local or distant (metastasis) - is manifested by the persistence of cancer cells in the organism after the ablation of the primary lesion, an ineffective anticancer immune response, and by the activity of biological/immunological factors that can stimulate and sustain its development. This review focuses on colorectal carcinoma and discusses some aspects of cancer immunology regarding cancer development and its recurrence. It is addressed also to the clinician to provide new insights helpful for designing better therapeutic strategies and patient's follow up. Therapeutic approaches used during and after surgical treatments, found capable of modulating immunity (differently affecting disease outcome), will also be described.

  14. Meat, dairy, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007.

  15. Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghui

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is likely the third modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer after cigarette smoking and obesity. Epidemiological investigations have found that long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. A causal relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is also supported by findings from prediagnostic evaluations of glucose and insulin levels in prospective studies. Insulin resistance and associated hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation have been suggested to be the underlying mechanisms contributing to development of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer. Signaling pathways that regulate the metabolic process also play important roles in cell proliferation and tumor growth. Use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in diabetics and recognized as an antitumor agent with the potential to prevent and treat this cancer. On the other hand, new-onset diabetes may indicate subclinical pancreatic cancer, and patients with new-onset diabetes may constitute a population in whom pancreatic cancer can be detected early. Biomarkers that help define high-risk individuals for clinical screening for pancreatic cancer are urgently needed. Why pancreatic cancer causes diabetes and how diabetes affects the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer have yet to be fully determined. Improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms shared by diabetes and pancreatic cancer would be the key to the development of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for this cancer. PMID:22162232

  16. [Guideline "Cancer rehabilitation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Jan-Paul; Velthuis, Miranda J; Gijsen, Brigitte C M; Lindeman, Eline; van der Pol, Marjolein A; Hillen, Harry F P

    2011-01-01

    Initiated by IKNL (Integraal Kankercentrum Nederland), a multidisciplinary guideline for cancer rehabilitation for adult oncology patients has been developed. The guideline describes the rehabilitation care of adult patients with cancer, during and after treatment. The guideline focuses on (a) prevalence of complaints either resulting from cancer or the treatment, (b) detection of these complaints and indicated referral, (c) the intake procedure before cancer rehabilitation, (d) intervention and evaluation within cancer rehabilitation and (e) the importance of patient empowerment. The guideline is directed at all professionals giving care to patients with cancer. It concerns those (such as medical specialists, general practitioners and nurses) who are responsible for detecting cancer-related complaints and for referral to cancer rehabilitation, as well as health care professionals involved in cancer rehabilitation care (such as consultants in rehabilitation medicine, physiotherapists and psychologists). The main goal of the guideline is that every cancer patient or ex-cancer patient with (residual) complaints resulting from cancer or its treatment receives timely and appropriate cancer rehabilitation.

  17. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ... Policy . About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma ...

  18. Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants and Cancer Risk

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    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  19. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  20. Find a Cancer Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Find a Cancer Doctor Find a Cancer Doctor Status message Locating you... The Find an Oncologist ... and caregivers. The database includes the names of physicians and other health professionals from certain ASCO membership ...