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Sample records for cancer dbcg 89c

  1. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers...... cancer incident cases are reported and registered in the national data base. Today, the data base includes approximately 80 000 incidents of primary breast cancer. Annually, the Secretariat receives roughly 1.5 million parameters to be entered into the data base. Over time DBCG has generated seven......DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration...

  2. The clinical database and the treatment guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG); its 30-years experience and future promise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, S.; Jensen, M.B.; Ejlertsen, B.;

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Since 30 years, DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) has maintained a clinical database allowing the conduct of quality control studies, of randomised trials, examination of the epidemiology of breast cancer and of prognostic and predictive factors. Material and methods. The...

  3. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.;

    2008-01-01

    studies included 3,083 high-risk Danish breast cancer patients. The women were randomly assigned to postmastectomy radiotherapy plus systemic therapy (cyclophosfamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil in premenopausal women; and tamoxifen in postmenopausal women) or to systemic therapy alone. Cores from......Introduction A significant survival improvement after postmastectomy radiotherapy was identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG82) b and c studies and in the British Columbia Randomized Radiation Trial. Recently, potential predictive value regarding response to postmastectomy...

  4. Carbonic anhydrase IX and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: a subgroup analysis of the DBCG82 b and c trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, Helle;

    2008-01-01

    studies included 3,083 high-risk Danish breast cancer patients. The women were randomly assigned to postmastectomy radiotherapy plus systemic therapy (cyclophosfamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil in premenopausal women; and tamoxifen in postmenopausal women) or to systemic therapy alone. Cores from......INTRODUCTION: A significant survival improvement after postmastectomy radiotherapy was identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG82) b and c studies and in the British Columbia Randomized Radiation Trial. Recently, potential predictive value regarding response to postmastectomy...

  5. The value of TOP2A gene copy number variation as a biomarker in breast cancer: Update of DBCG trial 89D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.V.; Ejlertsen, B.; Moller, S.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of TOP2A and HER2 in the Danish Breast Cancer Coopererative Group (DBCG) trial 89D suggested that TOP2A amplifications and possible also deletions are predictive markers for the effect of adjuvant epirubicin in patients with primary breast cancer. We present an updated...... and extended statistical analysis, requested for IVD-labeling of TOP2A testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the DBCG trial 89D 980 Danish patients were randomly assigned to nine cycles of intravenous CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil) or CEF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and...... patients with primary breast cancer, favoring treatment with epirubicin in patients with TOP2A amplifications, and perhaps deletions. Additional studies are needed to clarify the exact importance of TOP2A deletions on outcome, but deletions have proven to be associated with a very poor prognosis...

  6. DBCG trial 89B comparing adjuvant CMF and ovarian ablation: similar outcome for eligible but non-enrolled and randomized breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, B.; Jensen, M.B.; Mouridsen, H.T.;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A cohort of premenopausal patients with primary hormone receptor positive breast cancer was prospectively identified to be eligible for the DBCG 89B trial. We perform a long-term follow-up and evaluate the external validity of the trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Following registration in...... a population-based registry, patients were invited to be randomized to ovarian ablation (OA) versus nine courses of three-weekly cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF). The same procedures were used in all patients, including report forms, central review, querying, and analysis of...

  7. Impact of BCL2 and p53 on postmastectomy radiotherapy response in high-risk breast cancer. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Alsner, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To examine p53 and BCL2 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients randomized to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Patients and methods. The present analysis included 1000 of 3 083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the DBCG82 b&c studies. Tissue microarray...... randomization status. Significant reductions in LRR probability after PMRT were recorded within both the BCL2 positive and BCL2 negative subgroups. Conclusion. p53 was not associated with survival after radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer, but BCL2 might be Udgivelsesdato: 2008...... sections were stained with immunohistochemistry for p53 and BCL2. Median potential follow-up was 17 years. Clinical endpoints were locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastases (DM), overall mortality, and overall survival (OS). Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, chi(2) or exact tests...

  8. Impact of BCL2 and p53 on postmastectomy radiotherapy response in high-risk breast cancer. A subgroup analysis of DBCG82 b&c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, Helle;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine p53 and BCL2 expression in high-risk breast cancer patients randomized to postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present analysis included 1 000 of 3 083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the DBCG82 b&c studies. Tissue...... randomization status. Significant reductions in LRR probability after PMRT were recorded within both the BCL2 positive and BCL2 negative subgroups. CONCLUSION: p53 was not associated with survival after radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer, but BCL2 might be....... microarray sections were stained with immunohistochemistry for p53 and BCL2. Median potential follow-up was 17 years. Clinical endpoints were locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastases (DM), overall mortality, and overall survival (OS). Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, chi(2) or exact...

  9. Adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil in premonopausal patients with node-positive breast cancer: indirect comparison of dose and schedule in DBCG trials 77, 82, and 89

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, H.T.; Jensen, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant reduction in the risk of recurrence and death was achieved three decades ago with adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with operable breast. The major pivotal trials used oral cyclophosphamide (C) days 1-14 with intravenous methotrexate (M) and fluorouracil (F) on days 1 and 8, repeated...... Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), and two succeeding randomised trials in premenopausal patients with node positive breast cancer used three-weekly or four-weekly intravenous CMF in one of the treatment arms. RESULTS: Between November 1977 and January 2001 these trials included 2 213 patients who in...... effect in premenopausal patients with node positive breast cancer when shifting from classical CMF to intravenous regimens with lower dose-intensity. Caution is required in the interpretation of these results due to the non-experimental study design Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  10. Long-term results of breast conserving surgery vs. mastectomy for early stage invasive breast cancer: 20-year follow-up of the Danish randomized DBCG-82TM protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Nielsen, M.; During, M.;

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of the present study aims at comparing the long-term efficacy of breast conserving surgery (BCS) vs. mastectomy (M) based on a randomized design. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) conducted the trial (DBCG-82TM) from January 1983 to March 1989 recruiting 1154...... patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Follow-up time ended 1(st) May 2006 with a median follow-up time of 19.6 years (time span 17.1-23.3 years). Eligibility criteria included a one-sided, unifocal, primary operable breast carcinoma, patient age below 70 years, probability of satisfactory cosmetic...... complete series. 10-year recurrence free survival (RFS) and 20-year overall survival (OS) based on intent to treat did not reveal significant differences in outcome between breast conserving surgery vs. mastectomy, p=0.95 and p=0.10, respectively. Including the complete series comprising 1133 eligible...

  11. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic......, Gunnarsdottir KA, Rasmussen BB, Moeller S, Lanng C. The prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. Breast 2004;13:188-193]....... factors. We found a small but significant influence on disease-free survival (HR=1.16 [1.03-1.31]) and a strong correlation between multifocality and known prognostic factors. This was in accordance with an earlier study done on a smaller population and in a different period of time [Pedersen L...

  12. High local recurrence risk is not associated with large survival reduction after postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: A subgroup analysis of DBCG 82 b&c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Overgaard, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne M;

    2008-01-01

    radiotherapy in the DBCG82 b&c trials. Tissue microarrays had been constructed and sections stained for estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors. Median potential follow-up time was 17years. Endpoints were LR as isolated first event, breast cancer mortality and overall survival. RESULTS: Among patients......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: International consensus reports recommend postmastectomy radiotherapy only to patients at high risk of a local recurrence (LR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present analysis included 1000 out of 3083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to postmastectomy...... in 15-year breast cancer mortality after radiotherapy (11%) was seen. The largest absolute reduction in 5-year LR probability after radiotherapy was seen for the poor prognosis group (36%). However, this large LR reduction did not translate into any reduction in 15-year breast cancer mortality (0...

  13. Tamoxifen for one year versus two years versus 6 months of Tamoxifen and 6 months of megestrol acetate: A randomized comparison in postmenopausal patients with high-risk breast cancer (DBCG 89C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørn; Kamby, C.; Ejlertsen, B.;

    2008-01-01

    6 months followed by megestrol acetate for 6 months (TAM/MA). When the preplanned sample size of 1 500 patients was reached it was decided to continue randomisation to TAM1 or TAM2 and the study was finally closed December 31, 1996. With a median follow-up of more than 10 years, there was no...

  14. Second primary cancers after adjuvant radiotherapy in early breast cancer patients: A national population based study under the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To analyze the long-term risk of second primary solid non-breast cancer in a national population-based cohort of 46,176 patients treated for early breast cancer between 1982 and 2007. Patients and methods: All patients studied were treated according to the national guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. The risk of second primary cancers was estimated by Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among irradiated women compared to non-irradiated. All irradiated patients were treated on linear accelerators. Second cancers were a priori categorized into two groups; radiotherapy-associated- (oesophagus, lung, heart/mediastinum, pleura, bones, and connective tissue) and non-radiotherapy-associated sites (all other cancers). Results: 2358 second cancers had occurred during the follow-up. For the radiotherapy-associated sites the HR among irradiated women was 1.34 (95% CI 1.11–1.61) with significantly increased HRs for the time periods of 10–14 years (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.08–2.24) and ⩾15 years after treatment (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14–2.81). There was no increased risk for the non-radiotherapy-associated sites (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.94–1.1). The estimated attributable risk related to radiotherapy for the radiotherapy-associated sites translates into one radiation-induced second cancer in every 200 women treated with radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy treated breast cancer patients have a small but significantly excess risk of second cancers

  15. Postoperative radiotherapy in DBCG during 30 years. Techniques, indications and clinical radiobiological experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overgaard, Marie; Juul Christensen, Jens (Dept. of Oncology and Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2008-05-15

    During the time period 1977-2007 postoperative radiotherapy in DBCG has varied considerably with regard to techniques and indications together with changes in the extent of surgery and adjuvant systemic therapy. The radiation treatment has been developed on the basis of clinical, radiophysical and radiobiological principles, encompassing also practical problems such as available equipment in the different centres and at times lack of sufficient machine capacity. The paper focus especially on the comprehensive work done prior to the DBCG 82 b and c studies, in order to optimize radiotherapy in all aspects prior to the evaluation of the efficacy of this treatment modality. The results from these trials did succeed in clear evidence that radiotherapy has an important role in the multidisciplinary treatment of early breast cancer. In parallel to these studies a new and challenging use of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery was evaluated in the DBCG TM 82 protocol. The experience obtained with different techniques in this study formed the basis for the current principles of radiotherapy after lumpectomy. Reduction of radiation related morbidity has been a major issue for the DBCG radiotherapy group, and in this aspect several studies, including quality control visits, have been carried out to make the relevant modifications and to evaluate deviations from the guidelines between the centres. The background for the changes in radiotherapy is described for each of the programme periods as well as future perspectives which will include further refinements of the target and adjustments of dose and fractionation in selected patients

  16. Loco-regional recurrence after mastectomy in high-risk breast cancer-risk and prognosis. An analysis of patients from the DBCG 82 b and c randomization trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: In the DBCG 82 b and c trials, 3083 patients with stages II and III breast cancer were randomised to receive post-mastectomy radiotherapy (RT) versus no RT in addition to systemic therapy. The study showed a decrease in loco-regional recurrences and an improved survival in patients receiving RT. The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for loco-regional recurrence (LRR), to evaluate the treatment of LRR and to examine the prognosis after LRR. Patients and methods: The 18-year probabilities of LRR were calculated for different prognostic factors using the Kaplan-Meier method. The efficacy of different LRR treatments was compared. The 5-year survival and distant metastases (DM) probability after LRR was calculated with regard to initial randomization group, primary tumor and recurrence related variables. Results: Of the 3083 patients, 535 had a LRR alone as first site of failure. In univariate analyses, large primary tumor size, ductal carcinoma, high malignancy grade, fascia invasion, few removed nodes, many positive nodes and extracapsular invasion were all risk factors for developing LRR. Combined treatment with surgery and RT at the time of LRR increased the persistent loco-regional control. The 5-year probability of subsequent DM was 73% irrespective of initial randomization group. In multivariate analysis, large primary tumor size, many positive nodes, extracapsular invasion, supra/infraclaviculary failures, multiple LRR and a short interval less than 2 years to first LRR were poor prognostic factors for survival. Conclusions: Twenty-seven percent of LRR patients had no DM 5 years after failure. Initial randomization group did not alter the prognosis after LRR. Combined treatment of the LRR with surgery and RT improved persistent loco-regional control compared with surgery or RT alone

  17. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.;

    2008-01-01

    rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites with...... significantly elevated risks included corpus uteri (SIR=1.23), ovary (1.39), soft tissues (2.24), acute leukaemia (2.02), and sites potentially inducible by breast cancer radiotherapy combined (1.11). For irradiated patients compared to non-irradiated the risk was increased for all sited combined, radiotherapy......-related sites, colon and soft tissues. Tamoxifen treated had, compared to non-treated, elevated risk for cancer of corpus uteri (SIR=1.83 vs 1.04). Patients given adjuvant chemotherapy had, compared to those not, elevated risks for all sites combined (SIR=1.24 vs 1.01) and for ovary (2.16 vs 1.24). Risk for...

  18. Tissue microarrays compared with whole sections and biochemical analyses. A subgroup analysis of DBCG 82 b&c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Knudsen, H;

    2008-01-01

    with by increasing the size and number of cores punched from each tumor. No consensus exists on the most optimal size, number, and position of TMA cores in the donor paraffin block and no information exist regarding agreement between TMA cores from two different paraffin blocks from the same tumor or...... between TMA cores and biochemical analyses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A central and a peripheral 1mm core and a whole section from each of 54 paraffin blocks from 27 breast cancers included in a one-institution cohort, and a single 1mm central TMA core, from each breast tumor from 1000 patients included in...... the DBCG82 b&c trials, were IHC stained for ER, PgR and HER2. In addition, ER and PgR were measured in the DBCG82 b&c trials by a biochemical analysis. Statistical analyses included Kappa statistics, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, Log-rank tests, and Cox regression hazards analyses. RESULTS AND...

  19. Estrogen receptor, Progesterone receptor, HER2 status and Ki67 index and responsiveness to adjuvant tamoxifen in postmenopausal high-risk breast cancer patients enrolled in the DBCG 77C trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Ann; Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke; Jensen, M. B.;

    2014-01-01

    from 1515 patients was analysed and the hormone receptor positive (estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR)) cancers were defined as luminal A if Ki67 low and HER2-negative; as luminal B if Ki67 high or HER2-positive; and otherwise as non-luminal-HER2 positive or triple negative...

  20. Application Of AT89C51 Micro controller For Nuclear Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation is to design and develop a micro controller system for nuclear radiation detection. The system to be constructed consists of GM detector, 9 Volt alkaline battery, 500 Volt DC high voltage, preamplifier , AT89C51 micro controller and 4.5 digits LCD seven segment. The AT89C51 micro controller is provided with 16 bit counter/timer, RAM memory, reprogammable flash memory system, parallel and serial I/O ports. By using an AT89C51 micro controller software in assembly language, the result of count testing is displayed on the 4.5 digit LCD seven segment

  1. Application of VFD Display Module Based on AT89C52%基于AT89C52的VFD显示模块应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张猛; 王瑞光; 郑喜凤

    2012-01-01

    介绍了三星20T202DA1J VFD显示模块的特点、基本结构和工作原理,给出了该模块与AT89C52单片机组成系统的硬件连接和软件流程的设计方案.该方案采用通用I/O口对读写时序进行模拟,利用C语言具体的实现方法以及VFD模块丰富的显示功能,实现了单片机与VFD显示模块的良好接口,并在实际工作场合得到了应用.测试结果表明,该显示系统工作稳定,显示效果较好,刷新速度快,达到了上位机通过串口控制VFD显示的目的.%The characteristics,basic structure and working principle of VFD display module is introduced. A design of hardware connection and software processes is given for the system, which is composed by the module with AT89C52 SCM. In this display program, the timing sequence of writing and reading is simulated by using general I/O port. Using specific implementation methods of C language,and rich display of LCD module,a better interface between SCM and VFD display module is realized,and has been applied to the actual workplace. Test result shows that the display system is stable,and has better display quality and faster refresh rate,it can achieve the objectives that use a host computer to control the VFD display module through serial ports.

  2. Based on AT89C51 MCU Wireless Remote Control System of Electric Vehicle%基于AT89C51单片机的电动车无线遥控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建国

    2011-01-01

    采用AT89C51单片机作为控制核心,通过红外遥控方式实现无线遥控。系统主要包括红外遥控收发电路、信号处理电路和电机控制电路等,由控制软件实现对小车电机的快速启动、制动和反转等自动遥控功能。%This paper introduces a kind of use AT89C51 MCU as control core,using infrared remote control mode design wireless remote control system.The system includes ir remote-controlled transceiver circuit,signal processing circuit,motor control circuit,by applying a control software to realize fast start to car motor reverse,braking and automatic control function.

  3. Greenhouse Temperature and Humidity Controller Based on STC89 C52%基于STC89 C52的温室大棚温湿度控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙建明; 熊刚; 张争刚; 何国荣; 牛甲

    2015-01-01

    Against on low efficiency, high salary cost about greenhouse in some farmers and small agricultural enterprises, we de-signed a kind of controller which put single chip STC89C52 as core and combined temperature and humidity sensor, it had some functions such as real-time display, real-time control, out of limit alarming, parameter setting and so on. The test results show that the controller had simple operation, high stability, and better control performance. It can meet the requirement of tempera-ture and humidity control and has better social and economic benefits.%针对一般农户、小型农业企业的温室大棚效率低、人力成本高等问题,以单片机STC89C52为核心,结合温湿度传感器,设计一种具有温湿度实时显示、实时调控、超限报警、参数设定等功能的控制器,测试结果表明,该控制器操作简单、稳定性高、控制性能好,能满足温室大棚温湿度调控需要,具有良好的社会和经济效益。

  4. Design of MP3 Player Based on AT89C51SND1C Microcontroller%AT89C51SND1C单片机的 MP3播放器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐阳; 徐爱钧

    2015-01-01

    A MP3 player design scheme based on 51 microcontroller is proposed after analyzing the working principle and system compo‐sition of the portable MP3 player .The design uses the AT89C51SND1C microcontroller as the MP3 decoder ,the K9F1208 flash as exter‐nal memory ,the CS4330 as the sound playing circuit .The music file can be downloaded from PC through USB interface of the player .The scheme is simple ,cost‐effective ,low power consumption and easy to expand .%首先分析了便携式M P3播放器的工作原理及其系统构成,接着介绍了一种基于51单片机的M P3播放器设计方案。采用AT89C51SND1C单片机,其片内集成了 MP3解码器,使用 K9F1208闪存作为外存储器,放音电路采用CS4330,音乐文件通过播放器上的U SB接口从PC机上直接下载。该方案设计简单,性价比高、低功耗、易扩展。

  5. 基于MCGS/89C51的罐区多罐液位监控系统设计%Design of multi tank liquid level measurement and display system based on MCGS/89C51 microcontroller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳春

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, refinery tank farm multi-tank liquid level monitoring needs of the reliability of the application configuration control technology proposed MCGS configuration software based on multitank liquid level monitoring system design. 89C51 single chip system for multi-tank liquid level monitoring system master, with the configuration software MCGS friendly man-machine conversation interface, to monitor the tank level control system and more real-time operating status. Experiments show that the system has practical application value.%针对炼厂储油罐区的多罐液位监控可靠性的需要,提出了基于MCGS组态软件的多罐液位监控系统的设计方案.系统以89C51单片机为多罐液位监控系统的主控器,用MCGS组态软件设计友好的人机对话界面,来实时监控多罐液位控制系统的运行状态.实验证明,该系统具有实际应用价值.

  6. 基于STC89C58的PID控制电动车翘翘板%Electric Car Seesaw Controlled by PID Algorithm Based on STC89C58 MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇

    2013-01-01

    本设计采用STC89 C58作为核心处理器,以步进电机为驱动电机。主要功能包括PID算法对步进电机运动控制,角度信号采集与处理,红外循迹。本系统实验最终结果为电动车沿引黑线运动至翘翘板平衡点,经过一定的动态平衡后在翘翘板中间平衡。%This design uses a STC89C58 as the core processor and the stepper motor as the driving motor .The key features include stepper motor motion control with PID algorithm;signal acquisition and processing , and the infrared tracking .The end result of experi-ments on the system for electric motor car shows that when it moves along the black line to the seesaw balance point and after a certain amount of dynamic equilibrium , the motor car will be balanced between the seesaw .

  7. Design of an Intelligent Car Based on STC89C52 MCU%基于STC89C52单片机的智能小车的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董琪; 闫艳波; 胡伯桐

    2014-01-01

    主要介绍了一种具有红外遥控、智能寻迹、自动避障等功能的智能小车的设计。本小车采用STC89C52单片机为系统控制核心,单向PWM的直流电机为系统驱动,辅助红外反射式传感器和红外接收器,实现了小车智能寻迹、自动避障和遥控导航,并通过1602液晶显示屏显示信息。%This paper introduces the design of an intelligent electric car, which has different functions such as IR remote control, intelligent tracking, and automatic obstacle-avoiding. The intelligent car employs STC89C52 as the control core, one way PWM DC motor as the driving system. In addition, infrared reflection sensor and infrared receiver is used, so as to achieve the intelligent tracking, automatic obstacle-avoiding, and remote-control navigation of intelligent car, and the information is shown through the 1602 LCD screen.

  8. Adjuvant chemotherapy in early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsen, Bent

    2016-05-01

    With long-term follow-up, the DBCG 77B trial demonstrates that oral single-agent cyclophosphamide significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and mortality as compared with no systemic therapy in pre-menopausal patients with high-risk early breast cancer. DBCG 77B is the only randomised trial assessing single-agent cyclophosphamide; and a second comparison suggests that its benefits are comparable to what may be achieved by classic CMF. The lack of benefits from adding methotrexate and fluorouracil to cyclophosphamide paved the way for combining cyclophosphamide with anthracyclines and later taxanes. DBCG 89D showed an incremental benefit in DFS and OS from substituting methotrexate with epirubicin. The advantage of anthracycline-containing three-drug combinations over CMF was confirmed by others and in the individual-patient EBCTCG meta-analysis, while standard AC or EC for four cycles not was superior to classic CMF. A further reduction in breast cancer mortality appeared in the EBCTCG meta-analysis from the addition of a taxane to a standard AC, while the substitution of cycles or drugs with a taxane was not associated with a reduction in mortality. No apparent benefit was observed in an early analysis of the DBCG 82C evaluating the addition of CMF to tamoxifen in post-menopausal high-risk breast cancer patients. Apart from menopausal status, the two trials had identical selection criteria, and the differences in outcome warranted a long-term follow-up of the 82C trial. After ten years of follow-up, CMF in the DBCG 82C was associated with a significant improvement in DFS; but even with 24 years of follow-up, mortality was not significantly improved. The diversity in outcome from the 77C and the 82B trials triggered further studies. The 77B trial used classic CMF with oral cyclophospamide, while a four-weekly intravenous CMF regimen was used in the 82B and C trials, and a three-weekly CMF regimen was used in the succeeding 89B and D trials. The outcome following

  9. TAXTOX - a retrospective study regarding the side effects of docetaxel given as part of the adjuvant treatment to patients with primary breast cancer in Denmark from 2007 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckhoff, Lise; Nielsen, Mette; Moeller, Susanne;

    2011-01-01

    given as three cycles of cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) and epirubicin (90 mg/m(2)) followed by three cycles of docetaxel (100 mg/m(2)). Because of an apparent high incidence of side effects, especially febrile neutropenia (FN) and non-hematologic side effects, the DBCG (The Danish Breast Cancer...

  10. 基于单片机STC89C52温湿度测控系统的设计%Design of Temperature and Humidity Measurement and Control System Based on STC89C52

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于军; 隋韧锋

    2012-01-01

    The temperature and humidity measurement and control system regards Single Chip Microcomputer STC89C52 as the core controller. It adopts the temperature and humidity sensor SHT71 as the measuring element, and is composed of the temperature and humidity sensor, keyboard, liquid crystal display, real time clock circuit, the alarming circuit, executive circuit, communication circuit etc. The hardware circuit of system is introduced in detail in this paper. Through the software and hardware of system on-line debugging, the measure of the environmental temperature and humidity are realized. It is proved that the system circuit is simple, stable, high integration, debugging convenient, high measuring precision and certain practical value. The system can meet the demand of the environmental temperature and humidity measurement.%温湿度测控系统以单片机STC89C52为核心控制器,采用温湿度传感器SHT71为测量元件,由温湿度传感器、键盘、液晶显示、实时时钟电路、报警电路、执行电路、串口通讯电路等组成.详细介绍了硬件电路的设计,通过系统软件、硬件联机调试,实现了对环境温湿度的测量.实践证明,该系统电路简单、工作稳定、集成度高、调试方便、测量精度高,具有一定的实用价值,能达到对环境温湿度测量要求.

  11. The Design of Remote Control Electric Car Control System Based on Bluetooth and 89C52 MCU%基于89C52单片机的遥控电动小车控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘星

    2013-01-01

    The remote control electric car system with 89C52 as the core controller, consists of main controller module, motor drive module, LCD module, keyboard module, ranging module, Bluetooth communication module, power module, etc. On this basis, an intelligent car control system is designed. This system adopts two stepper motors as the drive, uses various kinds of sensor to collect all kinds of information, and utilizes the 2.4 GHz Bluetooth communication module to achieve the forwarding, back-warding, returning, automatically turning and positioning of the car under the control of handhold wireless remote controller. The intelligent car system has high sensitivity and accuracy, and its manipulation is simple and convenient.%遥控电动小车系统以89C52单片机为核心控制器,包含了主控制器模块、电机驱动模块、液晶显示模块、键盘模块、测距模块、蓝牙通信模块、电源模块等。进而设计制作出一台具有自动运行的智能小车控制系统。本系统以两个步进电机作为驱动,通过各类传感器件来采集各类信息,通过2.4GHz蓝牙通信模块实现小车在手持无线遥控器的控制下前进、转向、倒退、小车精确转弯、自动定位等功能。智能小车系统具有很高的灵敏度和精确度,操控简单、便捷。

  12. Is the benefit of postmastectomy irradiation limited to patients with four or more positive nodes, as recommended in international consensus reports? A subgroup analysis of the DBCG 82 b & c randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Numerous consensus reports recommend that postmastectomy radiotherapy (RT) in addition to systemic therapy is indicated in high-risk patients with 4+ positive nodes, but not in patients with 1-3 positive nodes. A subgroup analysis of the DBCG 82 b&c trials was performed to eva...

  13. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.;

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... (DCIS) treated with wide local excision. The form however, also provided information on lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), atypia and benign lesions. In 1989 the reporting form for DCIS was extended and now provided information on histological subtype, malignancy grade, growth pattern and both Estrogen......-risk and high-risk CIS lesions. A major point is that without the thirty years of outstanding efforts by the DBCG, future research would not be able to meet expectations Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  14. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kroman, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... (DCIS) treated with wide local excision. The form however, also provided information on lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), atypia and benign lesions. In 1989 the reporting form for DCIS was extended and now provided information on histological subtype, malignancy grade, growth pattern and both Estrogen......-risk and high-risk CIS lesions. A major point is that without the thirty years of outstanding efforts by the DBCG, future research would not be able to meet expectations....

  15. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials

  16. Prediction of metastasis from low-malignant breast cancer by gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua; Eiriksdottir, Freyja;

    2007-01-01

    Promising results for prediction of outcome in breast cancer have been obtained by genome wide gene expression profiling. Some studies have suggested that an extensive overtreatment of breast cancer patients might be reduced by risk assessment with gene expression profiling. A patient group hardly...... examined in these studies is the low-risk patients for whom outcome is very difficult to predict with currently used methods. These patients do not receive adjuvant treatment according to the guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). In this study, 26 tumors from low-risk patients...

  17. AT89C51单片机在汽车四轮定位仪中的应用设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符红霞; 陈勇华

    2006-01-01

    本文运用ATS89C51单片机和VTT-1501双轴倾角传感器设计了汽车四轮定位仪检测系统,并通过实验对倾角传感器机械零点校准进行了软件补偿,经预测该控制定位系统具有较高的性价比。为解决用户在安装时需要进行机械零点校准的难题,设计了该系统进行自动检测,并输出数据显示。该系统比市面上的检测系统简单,基本满足了检测要求。

  18. AT89C51单片机在汽车四轮定位仪中的应用设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符红霞; 陈勇华

    2006-01-01

    本文运用ATS89C51单片机和VTT-1501双轴倾角传感器设计了汽车四轮定位仪检测系统,并通过实验对倾角传感器机械零点校准进行了软件补偿,经预测该控制定位系统具有较高的性价比.为解决用户在安装时需要进行机械零点校准的难题,设计了该系统进行自动检测,并输出数据显示,该系统比市面上的检测系统简单,基本满足了检测要求.

  19. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focu...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  20. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.;

    2008-01-01

    present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years......+/HER-2+, Rec-/HER-2- (triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. Results A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall...

  1. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming B; Knudsen, Helle;

    2008-01-01

    present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years......+/HER-2+, Rec-/HER-2-(triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. RESULTS: A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall...

  2. Is the benefit of postmastectomy irradiation limited to patients with four or more positive nodes, as recommended in international consensus reports? A subgroup analysis of the DBCG 82 b and c randomized trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and aim: Numerous consensus reports recommend that postmastectomy radiotherapy (RT) in addition to systemic therapy is indicated in high-risk patients with 4+ positive nodes, but not in patients with 1-3 positive nodes. A subgroup analysis of the DBCG 82 b and c trials was performed to evaluate the loco-regional recurrence rate and survival in relation to number of positive nodes. Materials and methods: In the DBCG 82 b and c trials 3083 pre- and postmenopausal high-risk women were randomized to postoperative RT in addition to adjuvant systemic therapy. Since many patients had relatively few lymph nodes removed (median 7), the present analysis was limited to 1152 node positive patients with 8 or more nodes removed. Results: The overall 15-year survival rate in the subgroup was 39% and 29% (p = 0.015) after RT and no RT, respectively. RT reduced the 15-year loco-regional failure rate from 51% to 10% (p < 0.001) in 4+ positive node patients and from 27% to 4% (p < 0.001) in patients with 1-3 positive nodes. Similarly, the 15-year survival benefit after RT was significantly improved in both patients with 1-3 positive nodes (57% vs 48%, p = 0.03) and in patients with 4+ positive nodes (21% vs 12%, p = 0.03). Conclusion: The survival benefit after postmastectomy RT was substantial and similar in patients with 1-3 and 4+ positive lymph nodes. Furthermore, it was not strictly associated with the risk of loco-regional recurrence, which was most pronounced in patients with 4+ positive nodes. The indication for RT seems therefore to be at least equally beneficial in patients with 1-3 positive nodes, and future consensus should be modified accordingly

  3. 基于AT89C51单片机的定时器控制音乐门铃的仿真与实现%Simulation and Realization of Timer Controlling Music Doorbell Based on AT89C51 Microcontroller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巧莉; 冯于户

    2011-01-01

    AT89C51是由ATMEL公司推出的一种小型单片机,用它实现播放音乐功能的电子门铃,并且外加显示屏显示欢迎信息,是一种新式门铃的设计方案,值得在新式住宅或智能化楼宇系统推广使用.Proteus是一款功能强大的EDA仿真软件,它拥有丰富的仿真库元件,尤其是动态外设的仿真极大地补充了其他仿真软件的不足;而且虚拟工具箱的引入为仿真测试提供了方便.本文以51单片机为例具体分析了该软件在仿真微处理器及其外设硬件方面的、新的、独到的用途.%AT89C51 is a small singlechip launched by ATMEL company, and we can use it to achieve electronic doorbell which can play music and has external screen to display welcome message and is a new bell design, so the small microcontroller is worthy of widely using in intelligent residential or in the intelligent building system.Proteus is the powerful EDA simulation software, it has rich simulation components, especially it is the dynamic simulation of peripherals which greatly complements deficiencies of other simulation software; and the introduction of the virtual toolbox provides a convenient test for the simulation.This paper analyzes the new, unique uses of 51 singlechip in small simulation processor and its peripheral hardware.

  4. Lack of independent prognostic and predictive value of centromere 17 copy number changes in breast cancer patients with known HER2 and TOP2A status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Vang; Ejlertsen, Bent; Møller, Susanne;

    2011-01-01

    The clinical benefit of anthracyclines has been connected to HER2 status, TOP2A status and centromere 17 copy numbers (CEN-17). Data from a clinical trial randomizing patients to anthracyclines was used to assess whether the number of CEN-17 in breast cancers may predict incremental responsiveness...... determined in normal breast were applied to data on 767 patients with known HER2 and TOP2A status randomized to anthracyclines in the DBCG 89D trial. CEN-17 ploidy levels were in cut sections from the 767 breast cancer patients established as: Haploid: ≤1.25 (10%), diploid: 1.26-2.09 (60%), triploid: 2...

  5. HER2,TOP2A, and TIMP-1 and responsiveness to adjuvant anthracycline-containing chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Kirsten V.;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate whether the combination of HER2 with TIMP-1 (HT) or TOP2A with TIMP-1 (2T) more accurately identifies patients who benefit from cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (CEF) compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) than these markers do when...... analyzed individually. PATIENTS AND METHODS The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 89D trial randomly assigned 980 high-risk Danish breast cancer patients to CMF or CEF. Archival tumor tissue was analyzed TIMP-1, and HER2-negative and TIMP-1 immunoreactive tumors were classified as HT...

  6. HER2, TOP2A, and TIMP-1 and responsiveness to adjuvant anthracycline-containing chemotherapy in high-risk breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Nielsen, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate whether the combination of HER2 with TIMP-1 (HT) or TOP2A with TIMP-1 (2T) more accurately identifies patients who benefit from cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil (CEF) compared with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) than these markers do when...... analyzed individually. PATIENTS AND METHODS The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 89D trial randomly assigned 980 high-risk Danish breast cancer patients to CMF or CEF. Archival tumor tissue was analyzed TIMP-1, and HER2-negative and TIMP-1 immunoreactive tumors were classified as HT...

  7. Equity and improvement in outcome of breast cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Mouridsen, H T; Andersen, K W;

    1994-01-01

    The trend in the prognosis for female breast cancer patients was investigated by comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves of different patient cohorts diagnosed during the period 1948-87. The study is based on 71,448 patients from the Danish Cancer Registry. The cohorts were defined by age at...... other parts of Denmark. For patients diagnosed in 1978-87 the prognosis, however, reached an equal level in all parts of the country. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that the national programme introduced in 1977 by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) has played an important role and not...... only brought about therapeutic improvements in breast cancer treatment in Denmark, but also ensured equity in the outcome on a national scale....

  8. Breast cancer in Denmark. Incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertz, M

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark, incidence of female breast cancer remained constant from 1943 to around 1960, whereafter a steady increase has occurred, the level today being about 50% higher than in 1960. No equivalent rise has been observed for breast cancer mortality. Influence of hormonal and dietary factors on breast cancer risk and survival was evaluated in a combined population-based case-control and follow-up study, including 2,445 women, aged less than 70 years, diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark between 1 March 1983 and 31 August 1984, identified from the files of the nation-wide clinical trial of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group (DBCG) and the Danish Cancer Registry. The control group was an age-stratified random sample of the general female population, selected from the Central Population Register. Data on risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Clinical and pathological tumour characteristics derived from DBCG. The case-control analysis confirmed an overall increased risk of breast cancer associated with urban residence, high social status, nulliparity, early age at menarche, late age at natural menopause, hormonal replacement therapy, high dietary fat intake, and high alcohol consumption in a subgroup. It failed to detect an association with age at first childbirth, oral contraceptives, smoking, intake of vegetables, tea, coffee, and sweeteners. Survival was determined by tumour size, skin invasion, number of positive lymph nodes, and grade. There was no relation between survival and reproductive or hormonal factors, dietary variables, alcohol consumption, or smoking. However, a complex relationship may exist between survival and body mass index. PMID:8260176

  9. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil; oral cyclophosphamide; levamisole; or no adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk, premenopausal breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, Henning Torbøl; Jensen, M.B.;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 77B trial examined the relative efficacy of levamisole, single-agent oral cyclophosphamide, and the classic combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) against no adjuvant systemic therapy in high-risk breast...... cancer patients. The authors report the results from that trial after a potential follow-up of 25 years. METHODS: Between 1977 and 1983, 1146 premenopausal patients who had tumors >5 cm or positive axillary lymph nodes were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 options: no systemic therapy, levamisole 5 mg weekly...... for 48 weeks (the levamisole arm), oral cyclophosphamide 130 mg/m(2) on Days 1 through 14 every 4 weeks for 12 cycles (the C arm), or oral cyclophosphamide 80 mg/m(2) on Days 1 through 14 plus methotrexate 30 mg/m(2) and fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2) intravenously on Days 1 and 8 every 4 weeks for 12...

  10. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil; oral cyclophosphamide; levamisole; or no adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk, premenopausal breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent Laursen; Mouridsen, Henning T; Jensen, Maj-Britt;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 77B trial examined the relative efficacy of levamisole, single-agent oral cyclophosphamide, and the classic combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) against no adjuvant systemic therapy in high-risk breast...... for 48 weeks (the levamisole arm), oral cyclophosphamide 130 mg/m(2) on Days 1 through 14 every 4 weeks for 12 cycles (the C arm), or oral cyclophosphamide 80 mg/m(2) on Days 1 through 14 plus methotrexate 30 mg/m(2) and fluorouracil 500 mg/m(2) intravenously on Days 1 and 8 every 4 weeks for 12...... CMF arm or between the levamisole arm and the control arm. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with controls, both cyclophosphamide and CMF significantly improved disease-free survival and OS, and the benefits persisted for at least 25 years in premenopausal patients who had high-risk breast cancer....

  11. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark: From 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines of The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Berg, Martin; Nielsen, Hanne M.;

    2008-01-01

    , it was investigated whether it was possible to find a treatment technique alternative to the one recommended by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). A dosimetric comparison of a combined photon/electron 3-field technique (3F) and a partial wide tangent technique (PWT) was carried out on individual......This paper describes the procedure of changing from 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines for post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark. The aim of introducing 3D planning for post-mastectomy radiotherapy was to optimize the target coverage and minimize the dose to the normal tissues. Initially...... to 3F. It was concluded that PWT was an appropriate choice of technique for future radiation treatment of post-mastectomy patients. A working group was formed and guidelines for 3D planning were developed during a series of workshops where radiation oncologists and physicists from all radiotherapy...

  12. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  13. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  14. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  15. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  16. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  17. Why did the breast cancer lymph node status distribution improve in Denmark in the pre-mammography screening period of 1978-1994?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Danish breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1978-1994 experienced a trend over time towards a more favourable distribution of lymph node status at time of diagnosis, which was not due to mammography screening. We investigated how this trend could be explained by patient characteristics at diagnosis: age (biological processes), calendar period (e.g. environmental changes), birth cohort (living conditions over a life time), post-menopausal status (a predictor of less favourable nodal status), and tumour diameter (a marker of detection time). Material and methods. The data set consisted of 22 955 patients aged 30-69 years at time of diagnosis with known lymph node status, known tumour diameter, known menopausal status, and clinically detected tumours, available from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). Age, period, cohort, menopausal status, and tumour diameter were used as predictors in generalised linear models with either node-positive status (at least one of the excised lymph nodes being tumour-positive) or severely node-positive status (at least half of the excised lymph nodes being tumour-positive) as outcomes. Lymph node status was assessed both empirically and estimated using an EM algorithm in order to reduce misclassification. Results and discussion. We found that the improved lymph node status distribution was most likely a period effect due to a combination of earlier detection of clinical tumours, explaining most of the trend in node-positive breast cancer and half of the trend in severely node-positive breast cancer, and some unknown factor affecting lymph node status but not necessarily other tumour characteristics

  18. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  19. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advanced melanoma. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 12 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  2. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  3. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  4. Vulva cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  5. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  7. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  8. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  9. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... often lead to a complete cure. Almost all colon cancers start in the lining of the colon and ...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  13. Appendix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Appendix Cancer Appendix Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Appendix Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Appendix Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  14. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  17. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...

  18. Cancer Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer) 59,940 8,110 Gynecologic (Cervical, Endometrial, Ovarian) 72,660 26,350 Source: American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2007 : NCI Cancer Screening Tests Screening tests can find diseases and conditions ...

  19. Gynaecological cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffcoate, T. N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Gynaecological cancer encompasses a number of tumours with different epidemiology, pathology and treatment strategies. This article reviews the principal clinical advances and areas of development in cancer of the ovary, cervix, endometrium and vulva.


Keywords: ovarian cancer; cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; vulval cancer

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  1. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma ... need for different kinds of information about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this ...

  8. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  9. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  10. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  11. Cancer Moonshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  12. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  13. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  14. Bone Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another part of the body is more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 ...

  15. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  16. Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  17. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  18. Anal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - anus; Squamous cell carcinoma - anal; HPV - anal cancer ... is unclear. However, there is a link between anal cancer and the human papillomavirus or HPV infection. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that ...

  19. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that makes ...

  20. Integrated Molecular Profiling in Advanced Cancers Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Breast Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cancer; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancer; Gynecological Cancers; Melanoma Cancers; Rare Cancers; Unknown Primary Cancers

  1. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  2. Cancer of the Uterus (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Home For Patients Search FAQs Cancer of the ... Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] FAQ097, May 2011 PDF Format Cancer of the Uterus [Endometrial Cancer] Gynecologic Problems What ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research ...

  4. Vaginal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  5. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer. Cancer clusters can help scientists identify cancer-causing substances in the environment. For example, in the early 1970s, a cluster ... the area and time period over which the cancers were diagnosed. They also ask about specific environmental hazards or concerns in the affected area. If ...

  6. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spreads in different ways, and each is treated differently. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer grows more quickly and is more likely to spread to other organs in the body. Learn more about non-small cell lung cancer. Learn ...

  7. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  8. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  10. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  12. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  13. What Causes Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this section you can get information on cigarette, cigar, and smokeless tobacco use, and learn how it ... Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer ...

  14. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  15. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ... Using Trusted Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening ...

  20. What Is Colorectal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Key statistics for colorectal cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? How does colorectal cancer start? Most colorectal cancers begin as a growth ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  3. Cancer treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... focused beam of light to destroy cancer cells. Laser therapy can be used to: Destroy tumors and precancerous growths Shrink tumors that are blocking the stomach, colon, or esophagus Help treat cancer symptoms, such as bleeding Seal nerve endings after ...

  4. Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  6. Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  7. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  8. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  9. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  10. Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  11. Thymus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  12. Occupational Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Carcinogens NIOSH Pocket Guide Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) Recent NIOSH Research on Cancer Risk Factors Regulation and Policy OSHA Standards Surveillance NIOSH Data & Statistics by Industry Sector - Cancer Click on one ...

  13. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... men younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  14. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  15. Cancer Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells grow and die in a controlled way. Cancer cells keep forming without control. Chemotherapy is drug ... Your course of therapy will depend on the cancer type, the chemotherapy drugs used, the treatment goal ...

  16. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health care provider if you have symptoms of testicular cancer. Prevention Performing a testicular self-examination (TSE) each month may help detect testicular cancer at an early stage, before it spreads. Finding ...

  17. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  18. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  19. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  20. Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... both men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  1. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the relationship between A-bomb radiation and thyroid cancer in the literature. The previous studies have showed a similar outcome; that is, the incidence of thyroid cancer is higher with increasing radiation doses. Risk for thyroid cancer is significantly high in women. Latent cancer found at autopsy is also found to be significantly increased with increasing radiation doses, especially for women. (N.K.)

  2. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  3. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results

  4. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  5. Uterine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is the fourth most common cancer in women in the United States and it is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic cancer. Inside Knowledge is an initiative that supports the Gynecologic Cancer Education and Awareness Act of 2005, or Johanna’s Law, which was ...

  6. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  7. Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  8. Pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Hemant M.; Alrawashdeh, Wasfi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in higher-income countries, with 5-year survival only 10% (range 7%–25%), even in people presenting with early-stage cancer. Risk factors include age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, a family history, and dietary factors. Diabetes mellitus may also increase the risk.

  9. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to see your doctor. www.cdc.gov/cancer/knowledge 1-800-CDC-INFO Are there tests that can prevent cervical cancer or find it early? There are two tests that can either help prevent cervical cancer or find it early: • The Pap test (or Pap smear)looks for precancers, cell changes, on the cervix ...

  10. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  11. Cancer Triptych.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Sandra L

    2016-08-01

    The author uses personal narrative to show how the cold cloak of cancer covered her family during the polar vortex of 2013-2014. The use of a triptych form hinges together related themes of containment, coping, communicative responses, and social support after a cancer diagnosis. This narrative demonstrates the multiple responses and communicative coping strategies to a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26752448

  12. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Financial Toxicity ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  15. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  17. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Information on Prostate Cancer What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in American ... of page Additional Resources of Information on Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer [nlm.nih.gov] From Medline Plus Medical ...

  18. What is Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » Detailed Guide » What is prostate cancer? Share ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ... Statistics Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening ...

  20. Throat or larynx cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What ... Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources What Is ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... the Precision Medicine Initiative® Cancer Moonshot Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer Choices For Care Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/ ... Medicine Initiative® National Cancer Moonshot Initiative Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer ...

  8. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  9. SKIN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Putri Hendaria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases was happened in United States, which makes it become the most common cancer type in that country. Skin cancer diagnosis is build from anamnesis, physic examination about skin eufloressence, using dermoscopy, and histopatologic examination as the gold standar. Therapy for skin cancer is classified to surgery and non surgery therapy and its prognostic is depend to the types of the skin cancer itself.

  10. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  11. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  12. SKIN CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Made Putri Hendaria; AAGN Asmarajaya; Sri Maliawan

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ which protect the human body from the environment. It was build by milion cells. According to the changes in human lifestyle which tends to unhealthy life, increasing ultraviolet radiation, toxins, and genetics makes the cells who build the skin do the abnormal growth being cancer cells. Classification of skin cancer is according the most common three types, they are Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma. More than 3,5 milion skin cancer cases ...

  13. Cancer cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Raghu Dhanapal; T R Saraswathi; N Govind Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The pathogenicity of this syndrome is multifactorial, due to a complex interaction of tumor and host factors. The signs and symptoms of cachexia are considered as the prognostic parameters in cancer patients. This review gives an emphasis on the various mechanisms involved in cachexia and an insight into head and neck cancer cachexia.

  14. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ...

  15. Prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of prostate cancer. The techniques used are: transrectal ultrasound, laparascopy, bone scan, chest x-ray, radiography, chemoterapy and radiotherapy

  16. Contagious cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in dogs. There is a vast difference in prognosis between these two conditions. DFTD is often fatal within 6 months, whereas most cases of CTVT are eventually rejected by the host dog, who then is conferred lifelong immunity. In man, only scattered case reports exist about such communicable cancers, most often in the setting of organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cancers arising during pregnancy that are transmitted to the fetus. In about one third of cases, transplant recipients develop cancers from donor organs from individuals who were found to harbor malignancies after the transplantation. The fact that two thirds of the time cancer does not develop, along with the fact that cancer very rarely is transmitted from person to person, supports the notion that natural immunity prevents such cancers from taking hold in man. These observations might hold invaluable clues to the immunobiology and possible immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:21212437

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... on YouTube. Barbara’s attitude since her diagnosis with pancreatic cancer? No doctor is going to tell her how ...

  18. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives ...

  20. What Is Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our document called Osteosarcoma . Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma (KON-droh-sar-KOH-muh) is a cancer of cartilage cells. ... AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & ...

  1. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  3. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ... Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives ...

  6. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes ... Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer Diagnosis and Staging Diagnosis ...

  8. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapy and stem cell transplant for testicular cancer Chemotherapy for testicular cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) is the use ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  9. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Thyroid cancer risk factors What causes thyroid cancer? Can thyroid cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Next Topic Can thyroid cancer be prevented? What ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings ... to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Ovarian Cancer Home For Patients Search FAQs Ovarian Cancer ... Spanish Ovarian Cancer FAQ096, April 2015 PDF Format Ovarian Cancer Gynecologic Problems What is cancer? What is ...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... widgets/current/fahc.html/ Search Share Embed Ovarian cancer fact sheet Ovarian cancer is cancer that begins in the ovaries. ... make female hormones and produce a woman's eggs. Ovarian cancer is a serious cancer that is more ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced Cancer Choices for Care Talking about Advanced ... Cancer and Caregivers Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance ...

  19. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  20. What Is Eye Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissues are called orbital cancers. Adnexal structures Adnexal (accessory) structures include the eyelids and tear glands. Cancers ... common cancers that spread to the eye are breast and lung cancers . Most often these cancers spread ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  5. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  6. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms Next Topic Colorectal cancer stages Tests for colorectal cancer Colorectal cancer is often found after symptoms appear, ... of the cancer . Imaging tests to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic ...

  7. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  8. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...

  9. Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex painful and difficult. If found early, vulvar cancer has a high cure rate and the treatment options involve less surgery. ... people may also need radiation therapy. When vulvar cancer is found and treated early, the cure rate is over 90%. The key to a ...

  10. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special place in oncology belongs to thyroid cancer as it is a cancer originating from hormonally active tissue. 90 % of endocrine neoplasia are represented by thyroid cancer. It is a relatively rare cancer and due to its heterogeneity it encompasses spectrum of therapeutic approaches with interdisciplinary management which includes various implications for prognosis and lethality. Generally, the prognosis for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is good, a 10 years survival rate is at 85 %. Standard treatment includes surgical therapy, TSH suppressive therapy and ablation of the thyroid remnant with radioactive iodine. Patients with recurrent disease, disseminated disease present at the time of diagnosis, patients unsuitable for surgical treatment or for treatment with radioiodine still remain a therapeutic challenge. As there is no effective systematic treatment there is a hope for new therapy with multiple kinase inhibitors such as vandetanib, sorafenib, cabozantinib a lenvatinib which is based on promising results of several studies. (author)

  11. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There will be over 160,000 cases of lung cancer diagnosed in the US in 1991, and deaths from this disease account for a quarter of all cancer deaths in this country. The incidence of lung cancer has continued to increase, especially among women. With 31% of American men and 25% of American women identified in the 1985 census as cigarette smokers, it is likely that this trend will continue well into the next century. Unfortunately, the majority of patients present with locally advanced tumors or distant metastatic disease. Presently, most patients with lung cancer will receive radiation therapy either in an attempt to control inoperable or locally advanced disease, or for palliation of symptomatic intrathoracic or metastatic disease. Because of the poor prognosis of all patients excepting those with early stage resectable lesions, lung cancer is appropriately the subject of intense clinical investigation and controversy throughout the world

  12. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  13. Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  14. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  15. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... the affected area). Damage to the bowels, causing diarrhea and ... a second cancer caused by radiation exposure. Second cancers that develop ...

  16. Cancer world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author attempts to point out the relationships between various factors of our environment favouring disease (profession, chemicals, air pollution, nuclear power plants, ultra-violet rays etc.) respectively our ways of living (nutrition, drink, smoking), and the incidence and frequence of cancer. In his opinion, cancer is the toll man has to pay for industrialization and the destruction of the environment, and cancer therapy must begin long before the patient's treatment by changing that same einvironment. The different carcinogenous factors are discussed in detail and each chapter concludes with recommendations to those concerned and request for legislation. (MG)

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ...

  18. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...

  19. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck, just above your collarbone. It makes hormones that help ... There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater risk if you ...

  20. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the more common symptoms of cancer include: extreme exhaustion swelling or lumps in certain parts of the ... talk to therapists or professional counselors about the emotional side of dealing with a health problem. You ...

  1. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Laryngoscopy (looking inside the throat using a mirror or flexible tube called a laryngoscope placed through ... the neck, these will also be removed. Radiation therapy may be done with or without surgery. It ...

  3. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  4. Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 162 KB) This information in Spanish (en español) Female reproductive system Select image to view larger Related ... D., FACS, Captain, U.S. Public Health Service Medical Director, National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, ...

  5. Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of recurrent disease and assessment of prognosis. Clinical Radiology 2007; 62(1):28–34. [PubMed Abstract] Talmadge ... your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. National Cancer Institute at ...

  6. Endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endometrial biopsy Dilation and curettage ( D and C ) Pap smear (may raise a suspicion for endometrial cancer, but ... for more than 2 years. Frequent pelvic exams, Pap smears and endometrial biopsy may be considered in some ...

  7. Ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of 4 human ovarian cancer cell lines was investigated in vitro by a clonogenic assay and analyzed using the linear-quadratric model. 2 Cell lines were found to be highly radiosensitive (mean inactivation dose (D-bar) 0.82-0.92 Gy; surviving fraction 2 Gy (SF2)2 0.22-0.38). Although the use of external radiotherapy in ovarian cancer has been limited due to the pattern of metastatic spread of this cancer, the present data support the view that ovarian carcinomas are radiosensitive tumors. Investigations on the effects of new approaches, such as delivering radiation more specifically to intraperitoneal ovarian cancer cells, are warranted. (author). 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  9. Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical conditions such as severe high blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, or other types of cancer. These patients may not be able to safely have anesthesia. In these patients, imaging tests such as an ...

  10. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  11. Surviving Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his or her health status, when diagnosed with cancer may have an effect on their survival and recovery. Older adults are more likely to have other health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Managing these conditions can complicate ...

  12. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  13. Cancer nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  14. Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Criteria Screening and Interventional Trials Radiology Network (ACRIN) Phase I/II Trials CIP ARRA-Funded Clinical Trials Informatics The Cancer Imaging Archive Imaging Informatics Challenges TCGA Imaging Genomics Quantitative Imaging Network LIDC-IDRI Imaging Informatics Resources News & ...

  15. Vulvar Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or have a history of genital warts. Your health care provider diagnoses vulvar cancer with a physical exam and a biopsy. Treatment varies, depending on your overall health and ...

  16. Contagious Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, James S

    2011-01-01

    Although cancer can on occasion be caused by infectious agents such as specific bacteria, parasites, and viruses, it is not generally considered a transmissible disease. In rare circumstances, however, direct communication from one host to another has been documented. The Tasmanian devil is now threatened with extinction in the wild because of a fatal transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). Another example is canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT or Sticker's sarcoma) in ...

  17. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions ...

  20. American Cancer Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

  1. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  2. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  3. Cancer of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will die of this disease. Who Gets This Cancer? Prostate cancer occurs only in men, and it is ... Percent of New Cases by Age Group: Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is most frequently diagnosed among men aged ...

  4. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  5. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  6. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  8. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An inset shows cancer cells in the pelvic peritoneum. Also shown are the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, ... c) cancer cells are found in the pelvic peritoneum. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Ovarian Cancer ...

  9. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primary peritoneal cancer) shows cancer in the pelvic peritoneum. Also shown are the cervix and vagina. In ... peritoneal cancer, cancer is found in the pelvic peritoneum and has not spread there from another part ...

  10. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  11. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  12. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & ...

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Research Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative NCI and ... Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global Health Key Initiatives Read about some of NCI's ...

  17. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  18. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unneeded cells. Cancer cells may be able to influence the normal cells, molecules, and blood vessels that ... Cancers . We also have collections of information on childhood cancers and cancers in adolescents and young adults . ...

  19. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  1. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause one or more of these ...

  2. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which therapy (or therapies) should be used. Second, lung cancer staging tells how much your cancer has spread. Knowing ... your body. How good are these tests at staging lung cancer? If your biopsy finds cancer cells, this is ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, Medical Illustration Source: National Cancer Institute ...

  4. Uterine Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  5. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  6. Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Is pancreatic cancer hereditary? Cancer of the pancreas is a genetic ... found in cigarette smoke. The genetics of hereditary pancreatic cancer is a focus of research at Johns Hopkins. ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research ...

  9. Diet and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... daily. Lower your intake of processed meats, smoked, nitrite-cured, and salt-preserved foods; emphasize plant-based ...

  10. Dealing with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schoolwork and Hospital Stays Chemotherapy Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Radiation Therapy When Cancer Keeps You Home Can I Have Children After Cancer Treatments? Steroids and Cancer Treatment Cancer ...

  11. Epigenetic field cancerization in gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Kurashige, Junji; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetic alterations, including aberrant DNA methylation, play an important role in human cancer development. Importantly, epigenetic alterations are reversible and can be targets for therapy or chemoprevention for various types of human cancers. A field for cancerization, or a field defect, is formed by the accumulation of genetic and/or epigenetic alterations in normal-appearing tissues and can correlate with risk of cancer development. Thus, a better understanding of epigenetic field cancerization may represent a useful translational opportunity for cancer risk assessment, including previous history and exposure to carcinogenic factors, and for cancer prevention. In this article, we summarize current knowledge regarding epigenetic field cancerization and its clinical implications in gastrointestinal cancers, including colorectal cancer, gastric cancer and esophageal cancer. PMID:26971491

  12. Pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jorg; Korc, Murray; Apte, Minoti; La Vecchia, Carlo; Johnson, Colin D; Biankin, Andrew V; Neale, Rachel E; Tempero, Margaret; Tuveson, David A; Hruban, Ralph H; Neoptolemos, John P

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, with a dismal overall prognosis that has remained virtually unchanged for many decades. Currently, prevention or early diagnosis at a curable stage is exceedingly difficult; patients rarely exhibit symptoms and tumours do not display sensitive and specific markers to aid detection. Pancreatic cancers also have few prevalent genetic mutations; the most commonly mutated genes are KRAS, CDKN2A (encoding p16), TP53 and SMAD4 - none of which are currently druggable. Indeed, therapeutic options are limited and progress in drug development is impeded because most pancreatic cancers are complex at the genomic, epigenetic and metabolic levels, with multiple activated pathways and crosstalk evident. Furthermore, the multilayered interplay between neoplastic and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment challenges medical treatment. Fewer than 20% of patients have surgically resectable disease; however, neoadjuvant therapies might shift tumours towards resectability. Although newer drug combinations and multimodal regimens in this setting, as well as the adjuvant setting, appreciably extend survival, ∼80% of patients will relapse after surgery and ultimately die of their disease. Thus, consideration of quality of life and overall survival is important. In this Primer, we summarize the current understanding of the salient pathophysiological, molecular, translational and clinical aspects of this disease. In addition, we present an outline of potential future directions for pancreatic cancer research and patient management. PMID:27158978

  13. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...

  14. Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  15. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in ... but these effects are uncommon ( 1 , 3 , 7 ). Diarrhea , nausea, and vomiting ... a standard treatment for cancer ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 7 ). Many clinical trials are ...

  16. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer ... true that only people with light skin get skin cancer? No. Anyone can get skin cancer. It's more ...

  17. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  18. Penile Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter E.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Greenberg, Richard E.; Herr, Harry W.; Inman, Brant A.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michalski, Jeff; Pagliaro, Lance; Pal, Sumanta K.; Patterson, Anthony; Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Pohar, Kamal S.; Porter, Michael P.; Richie, Jerome P.; Sexton, Wade J.; Shipley, William U.; Small, Eric J.; Trump, Donald L.; Wile, Geoffrey; Wilson, Timothy G.; Dwyer, Mary; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis represents approximately 0.5% of all cancers among men in the United States and other developed countries. Although rare, it is associated with significant disfigurement, and only half of the patients survive beyond 5 years. Proper evaluation of both the primary lesion and lymph nodes is critical, because nodal involvement is the most important factor of survival. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Penile Cancer provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this devastating disease based on evidence and expert consensus. PMID:23667209

  19. Cancer Data and Statistics Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Cancer Data and Statistics Tools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir United States Cancer Statistics The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS): Incidence and ...

  20. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  1. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of lung cancer. Before the treatment the histological samples allowing the diagnosis as well as its histological variety. The diagnosis include techniques such as bronchoscopy, ultrasound, tomography, puncture and endoscopic thoracotomy. The chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main techniques used for the treatment

  2. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motivation of the patient. In some cases, reconstructive plastic surgery or the use of prosthetic devices can restore ... cancers of the lip are highly curable by surgery or by radiation therapy, with cure rates of 90% to ... Development Learning More Than One Language Adult Speech and ...

  3. Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancers of the oropharynx are common lesions. Their treatment often includes radiation therapy either exclusively or in combination with chemotherapy or after surgery. The definition of target volumes is made difficult by the complex anatomy of this area. The aim of this work is to clarify the principles of 3D conformal radiation illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  4. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  5. Colon Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-11-05

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses colon cancer and the importance of early detection.  Created: 11/5/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  6. Esophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas in esophageal cancer (EC) has changed, and focus directed towards tumors of the distal esophagus and the esophagogastric junction. The genetic events leading to EC are not fully clarified, but important risk factors have been...

  7. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  8. The Cancer Genome Atlas ovarian cancer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of genomic changes in ovarian cancer has provided the most comprehensive and integrated view of cancer genes for any cancer type to date. Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tumors from 500 patients were examined by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Re

  9. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Venniyoor

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.

  10. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC therapy in pancreatic cancer

  11. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 ). Does smokeless tobacco cause cancer? Yes. Smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer, esophageal cancer, and pancreatic cancer ( 1 ). Does smokeless tobacco cause other diseases? Yes. Using smokeless tobacco may also cause ... other than cancer, such as leukoplakia (precancerous white patches in the ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics ... and Caregivers A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ...

  14. Esophageal Cancer Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate staging of esophageal cancer is very important to achieving optimal treatment outcomes. The AJCC (American Joint Committee on Cancer) first published TNM esophageal cancer staging recommendations in the first edition of their staging manual in 1977. Thereafter, the staging of esophageal cancer was changed many times over the years. This article reviews the current status of staging of esophageal cancer.

  15. Cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted to characterize the behavior of cervix cancer in a sample of 162 patients with this diagnosis during 2003-2009 in the Isla de la Juventud municipality. From the review of case reports from the National Unit of Cancer the individual medical records of Teaching General Hospital of this municipality and from the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology, as well as the deceased persons, it was possible to note that the 63% of cases were women aged 34-57 and that the 20% was in ages outside the screening program. The NIC and/or infection by HPV and smoking were the more frequent risk factors. There was predominance of large cells epidermoid non-keratinized carcinoma and the O stage or in situ. Most of patients were operated on is initial therapy. The great mortality was between fifth and sixth decades of life with a acceptable survival at 5 years

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Cancer Screenings: Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aged 50–75 need to be screened for colorectal cancer, and 7 million women aged 50–74 need ... aged 50–75 are up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening. 56% Only 56% of uninsured women aged ...

  17. Thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of ionizing radiation in the introduction of thyroid carcinoma is discussed. In the treatment of thyroid cancer, radioiodine administration is of value as an ablation procedure, completing the thyroidectomy and as a method to irradiate selectively functioning thyroid carcinoma tissue that cannnot be removed surgically. Results of the clinical management of 155 patients with malignant thyroid tumours are presented. The ablation dose of iodine-131 can be decreased to 40 millicuries thus effectively reducing the patients whole body radiation dose

  18. [Prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Morales-Bárrera, Rafael

    2016-02-01

    The Vall d'Hebron multidisciplinary prostate cancer (PC) team reviews recent advances in the management of this neoplasm. Screening studies with long follow-up show a reduction in mortality, whereas active surveillance is emerging as a therapeutic approach of non-aggressive cancers. New markers increase the specificity of PSA and also allow targeting suspected aggressive cancers. Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mMRI) has emerged as the most effective method in the selection of patients for biopsy and also for local tumor staging. The paradigm of random prostatic biopsy is changing through the fusion techniques that allow guiding ultrasonography-driven biopsy of suspicious areas detected in mMRI. Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are curative treatments of localized PC and both have experienced significant technological improvements. RP is highly effective and the incorporation of robotic surgery is reducing morbidity. Modern RT allows the possibility of high tumor dose with minimal adjacent dose reducing its toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogues remains the treatment of choice for advanced PC, but should be limited to this indication. The loss of bone mass and adverse metabolic effects increases the frequency of fractures and cardiovascular morbimortality. After castration resistance in metastatic disease, new hormone-based drugs have demonstrated efficacy even after chemotherapy resistance. PMID:25727526

  19. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  20. How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000845.htm How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers To use ... children with cancer can be cured. Types of Childhood Cancers Cancer in children is rare, but some ...

  1. Identifying cancer genes from cancer mutation profiles by cancer functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YanHui; GUO Zheng; PENG ChunFang; LIU Qing; MA WenCai; WANG Jing; YAO Chen; ZHANG Min; ZHU Jing

    2008-01-01

    It is of great importance to identify new cancer genes from the data of large scale genome screenings of gene mutations in cancers. Considering the alternations of some essential functions are indispensable for oncogenesis, we define them as cancer functions and select, as their approximations, a group of detailed functions in GO (Gene Ontology) highly enriched with known cancer genes. To evaluate the efficiency of using cancer functions as features to identify cancer genes, we define, in the screened genes, the known protein kinase cancer genes as gold standard positives and the other kinase genes as gold standard negatives. The results show that cancer associated functions are more efficient in identifying cancer genes than the selection pressure feature. Furthermore, combining cancer functions with the number of non-silent mutations can generate more reliable positive predictions. Finally, with precision 0.42, we suggest a list of 46 kinase genes as candidate cancer genes which are annotated to cancer functions and carry at least 3 non-silent mutations.

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  3. Snapshot of Pediatric Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Discovery Stories of Discovery A Snapshot of Pediatric Cancers Incidence and Mortality Cancer is the leading ... at the SEER Web site. NCI’s Investment in Pediatric Cancer Research To learn more about the research ...

  4. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only international organization devoted solely to ... About Us Contact Us © 2016 The Skin Cancer Foundation | 149 Madison Avenue Suite 901 New York, NY ...

  5. What Is Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the key statistics about stomach cancer? What is stomach cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... normal structure and function of the stomach. The stomach After food is chewed and swallowed, it enters ...

  6. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Discovery Stories of Discovery A Snapshot of Stomach Cancer Incidence and Mortality Stomach (gastric) cancer is ... at the SEER Web site. NCI’s Investment in Stomach Cancer Research To learn more about the research ...

  7. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  8. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no such thing as one type of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on ... very benevolent in its behavior. Men will develop prostate cancer and live the rest of their lives -- 20, ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

  10. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  11. Stages of Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body. Cancer can spread through tissue , the lymph system , and the blood : Tissue. The cancer spreads from where it began by growing into nearby areas. Lymph system. The cancer spreads from where it began by ...

  12. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of Discovery Grants & Training Research Grants Funding Opportunities Funding Strategy Research Program ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in ...

  15. What Is Vaginal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the uterus) to open up at the vulva (the external female genitals). The vagina is lined ... cancer. Likewise, if the cancer involves both the vulva and the vagina, it’s considered a vulvar cancer. ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Series This video series offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor. The videos explain ... Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients and their doctor, Anthony L. Back, ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research Advanced ... Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer Choices ...

  18. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... earliest form of squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type ... cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin Images Bowen's disease on the hand Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma Skin cancer, squamous ...

  19. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Caregivers A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  1. Stages of Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Age and family history can affect the risk of rectal cancer. Anything ... to flow from the body to a collection bag. After the cancer is removed, the surgeon will ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic ... can talk about it in a clear and supportive way. Two viewer guides are also available: for ...

  3. What Is Pancreatic Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... very important to distinguish between exocrine and endocrine cancers of the pancreas. They have distinct risk factors and causes, have ... are by far the most common type of pancreas cancer. If you are told you have pancreatic cancer, ...

  4. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  5. What Is Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Key statistics about liver cancer What is liver cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  6. Cancer Genetics Services Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory This directory lists professionals who provide services related to cancer genetics (cancer risk assessment, genetic counseling, genetic susceptibility testing, ...

  7. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in their lifetime. Age is the most important risk factor in prostate cancer -- the longer a man ... M.D.: There's no such thing as one type of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is really a ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  10. Skin Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Skin Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Ovarian Prostate Cancer Home Skin Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of Discovery Grants & Training Research Grants Funding Opportunities Funding Strategy Research Program ... Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grants Management Contacts Training Cancer Training at NCI Funding for Cancer Training ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Caregivers A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  13. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping ...

  15. Esophagus Cancer: Palliative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in our document Guide to Controlling Cancer Pain . Nutritional support Nutrition is another concern for many patients with esophagus cancer. The cancer or its treatment might affect how you swallow ... supplements and information about your individual nutritional needs. ...

  16. NCI Designated Cancer Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research ... Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  18. Laryngeal (Voice Box) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... laryngeal cancer can be severe with respect to voice, breathing, or swallowing. It is fundamentally a preventable ...

  19. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects of treatment The chance that treatment can cure your cancer or help you in other ways With stage ... III prostate cancer, the main goal is to cure the cancer by treating it and keeping it from coming ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... side effects from the cancer treatments you received. Video Series This video series offers the perspectives of ... care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three cancer patients ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Cancer Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information for Patients and Caregivers A to Z ... Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an ...

  3. 1985 Cancer Facts and Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Cancer Society, Inc., New York, NY.

    Information and statistical data about cancer are provided in seven categories. They include: (1) basic cancer data (considering how cancer works, trends in diagnosis and treatment, new cancer cases and deaths for 1985, and other areas); (2) major cancer sites (discussing lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, 5-year survival rates/trends…

  4. Biological Therapy in Treating Patients With Metastatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    Breast Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Metastatic Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  5. General Information about Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is ... the NCI website . Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy Treatment of cervical ...

  6. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  7. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics for melanoma skin cancer What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  8. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  10. Find a Cancer Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biostatistics/Epidemiology Developmental Therapeutics Endocrine Tumors Gastroenterology Gastrointestinal Cancer (not Liver & Pancreas) General Oncology Genetics/Gene Therapy Genitourinary Cancer Geriatrics ...

  11. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Secondhand Smoke and Cancer On This Page What is secondhand smoke? How is secondhand smoke exposure measured? Does secondhand ...

  12. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Small Intestine Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Or More after Being Diagnosed with Small Intestine Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  13. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Stomach Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Stomach Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  14. Cancer Statistics: Cancer of the Vulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... third party. HPF: SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Vulvar Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Vulvar Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  15. [Thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  16. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains outstanding papers presented at the 3rd International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer, 1985. The Symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultrasonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and very important contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist. (orig./MG)

  17. Cancer stem cells in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Moltzahn, Felix; Thalmann, George N

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (P-Ca) remains a leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Lately, increasing evidence for a hierarchically organized cancer stem cell (CSC) model emerged for different tumors entities, including P-Ca. CSCs are defined by several characteristics including self-renewal, pluripotency and tumorigenicity and are thought to be responsible for tumor recurrence, metastasis and cancer related death. In this review we discuss the recent research in the field of CSCs, its limitation...

  18. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Karl-Walter Jauch; Hendrik Seeliger; Hanno Niess; Qi Bao; Andrea Renner; Yue Zhao; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC t...

  19. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, S.; Grooters, H.G.; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kampman, E.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Vries, E. de; Wigger, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 com

  20. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for kidney cancer Targeted therapies for kidney cancer Biologic therapy (immunotherapy) for kidney cancer Chemotherapy for kidney cancer Pain control for kidney cancer Treatment choices by stage for ...

  1. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cancer someone has (the kind of abnormal cells causing the cancer) the stage of the tumor (meaning how much the cancer has spread within the ... be needed for a while to keep cancer cells from coming back. Reviewed by: Emi H. Caywood, MD Date reviewed: October ... For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  2. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  3. Report: Human cancer genetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Marilyn; ALBERTSON Donna

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  4. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  5. Colon cancer - Series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States. Risk factors include a diet low ... The treatment of colon cancer depends on the stage of the disease. Stage I cancer is limited to the inner lining of the colon; ...

  6. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Cancer Terms: After Treatment Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/2015 Cure: To fully restore health. This term is sometimes ... five years after treatment. However, the concept of “cure” is difficult to apply to cancer because undetected cancer cells can sometimes remain in ...

  8. Telomerers rolle i cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Laila; Kølvraa, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres are a double-edged sword when it comes to cancer. On one hand, telomeres limit the cells' ability to divide and thereby restrict the uninhibited growth seen in cancer. On the other hand, short telomeres can initiate the chromosome instability that characterizes cancer. Diseases...... with the combination of short telomeres and high cancer risk are seen, but until now the use of telomeres as predictors of cancer has, in general, been unsuccessful. Telomeres and telomerase play an important role in further cancer development. Researchers are trying to exploit this in the development of new cancer...

  9. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  10. Can Prostate Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Prostate Cancer » Detailed Guide » Can prostate cancer be found ... and symptoms of prostate cancer Tests for prostate cancer Prostate cancer stages Survival rates for prostate cancer Previous ...

  11. What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer » Detailed Guide » What are ... how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Oral cavity cancer, or just oral cancer, is cancer ...

  12. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although gastric cancers are localized and surgically resectable in approximately 50% of patients at the time of diagnosis, regional metastases and direct invasion of surrounding structures frequently preclude cure by surgery alone. With recurrent or metastatic disease, some palliation can be obtained by chemotherapy, surgery, or irradiation, but few patients can actually be cured. This chapter addresses the rationale for adjuvant treatment in resectable disease and discusses results with single or combined modalities in locally advanced disease. The chapter also discusses future possibilities for aggressive combined modality approaches in patients who have undergone resection but are at high risk, who have undergone resection but have residual disease, or who have locally unresectable or recurrent disease

  13. Human cancer databases (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlopoulou, Athanasia; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Michalopoulos, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the four major non-communicable diseases (NCD), responsible for ~14.6% of all human deaths. Currently, there are >100 different known types of cancer and >500 genes involved in cancer. Ongoing research efforts have been focused on cancer etiology and therapy. As a result, there is an exponential growth of cancer-associated data from diverse resources, such as scientific publications, genome-wide association studies, gene expression experiments, gene-gene or protein-protein in...

  14. Treatment of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; MABILIA, ANDREA; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically...

  15. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...

  16. Chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer remains a disease associated with a poor prognosis. Chemoradiotherapy is performed for unresectable stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and inoperable limited-disease small cell lung cancer. In this lecture, chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer is outlined primary according to the 2014 edition of the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Lung Cancer, and also referring to molecular targeted drugs, radiation pneumonitis, and particle radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  18. Pancreatic Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic Cancer; Pancreas Cancer; Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Familial Pancreatic Cancer; BRCA 1/2; HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome; Hereditary Pancreatitis; FAMMM; Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma; Peutz Jeghers Syndrome

  19. German cancer statistics 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziese Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For years the Robert Koch Institute (RKI has been annually pooling and reviewing the data from the German population-based cancer registries and evaluating them together with the cause-of-death statistics provided by the statistical offices. Traditionally, the RKI periodically estimates the number of new cancer cases in Germany on the basis of the available data from the regional cancer registries in which registration is complete; this figure, in turn, forms the basis for further important indicators. Methods This article gives a brief overview of current indicators - such as incidence, prevalence, mortality, survival rates - on the most common types of cancer, as well as important ratios on the risks of developing and dying of cancer in Germany. Results According to the latest estimate, there were a total of 436,500 new cancer cases in Germany in 2004. The most common cancer in men is prostate cancer with over 58,000 new cases per annum, followed by colorectal and lung cancer. In women, breast cancer remains the most common cancer with an estimated 57,000 new cases every year, also followed by colorectal cancer. These and further findings on selected cancer sites can be found in the current brochure on "Cancer in Germany", which is regularly published by the RKI together with the Association of Population-based Cancer Registries in Germany (GEKID. In addition, the RKI made cancer-prevalence estimates and calculated current morbidity and mortality risks at the federal level for the first time. According to these figures, the 5-year partial prevalence - i.e. the total number of cancer patients diagnosed over the past five years who are currently still living - exceeds 600,000 in men; the figure is about the same among women. Here, too, the most common cancers are prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women. The lifetime risk of developing cancer, which is more related to the individual, is estimated to be higher among

  20. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Min Zhu; Li-Hua Yuan; Ke-Feng Pu; Bing Dong; An-Xin Wang; Li-Sha Chen

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell resea...

  1. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Sha Chen; An-Xin Wang; Bing Dong; Ke-Feng Pu; Li-Hua Yuan; Yi-Min Zhu

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory,cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells.This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention.Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer.In this review,we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells,and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells,a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research.

  2. What are cancer registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinov-Mikov Marica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Population-based cancer registries attempt to collect, process, analyze, store and interpret data on persons with cancer in a certain population (most frequently a geographical area. Hospital-based cancer registries register all cases in a given hospital, usually without knowledge of the background population; the emphasis is to serve the needs of the hospital administration, the hospital cancer program, and, above all, the individual patient. History of Cancer Registries Registration of persons suffering from cancer is a slow process. Around the year 1900, England and Germany demanded improvement of statistical investigation on spread of cancer in population in order to undertake etiological researches. The oldest example of a modern cancer registry is that in Hamburg. Today there are more than 200 population-based cancer registries, but they cover only 5% of the world population, mainly in developed countries of the world. Cancer registry of Vojvodina Cancer registry of Vojvodina was established in 1966; it is a member of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC and it is still the only cancer registry from our country whose data are cited in scientific monographs of IARC. The main purpose of cancer registries is to produce statistics on the occurrence of cancer in a defined populatin and to provide a framework for assessing and controlling the impact of cancer on the community. Cancer registries are essential parts of any rational program of cancer control. Their data can be used in a wide variety of areas of cancer control, ranging from etiological research in epidemiology, through primary and secondary prevention to health-care planning and patient care, so benefiting both the individual and society.

  3. American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection + - Text Size Download Printable Version [ ... coverage for prostate cancer screening Additional resources for prostate cancer prevention and early detection References: Prostate cancer prevention and ...

  4. How Are Cervical Cancers and Pre-Cancers Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some find disturbing. Some places provide headphones with music to block this noise out. A mild sedative ... in Cervical Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms ...

  5. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  6. Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  7. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  8. [Cancer and health economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinuma, N

    1996-01-01

    Health economics on cancer medicine is a supportive tool of cancer care and is becoming one of the essential weapons against cancer. Its principal roles are to enhance the quality and efficacy and to secure the finance necessary to the cancer care. The economic aspects of cancer medicine and the methods of economic evaluation are overviewed with emphasis on cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis. The operational and interpretational checkpoints are introduced, and the problems and prospects of the practical use of the methods on clinical settings such as cancer chemotherapy are discussed. PMID:8546457

  9. Cancer rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption behind cancer rehabilitation in many Western societies is that cancer survivors can return to normal life by learning to deal with the consequences of their illness and their treatment. This assumption is supported by increasing political attention to cancer rehabilitation...... and a growth in residential cancer-rehabilitation initiatives in Denmark (Danish Cancer Society 1999; Government of Denmark 2003). On the basis of their ethnographic fieldwork in residential-cancer rehabilitation courses, the authors examine the new rehabilitation discourse. They argue that this...

  10. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  11. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview ... cancer screening tests . Does it hurt to get tested? Some people find the tests for colorectal cancer ...

  12. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  13. Whipple Procedure for Pancreatic Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD: In the list of cancers that cause death in this country, pancreas cancer is number four. ... it is the fourth leading cause of cancer death, principally because it is a very tough cancer ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Anal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Anal Cancer ... factors affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  15. Your Body After Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer , Coping with Cancer Your Body After Breast Cancer Article date: September 28, 2012 By Melissa Weber ... age 24, she was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in 2010. “I had no control over what ...

  16. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  18. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Treatment Bladder Cancer Screening Research Bladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Bladder Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colon Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Colon Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Cervical Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on ...

  2. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  3. What if cancer comes back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity. CA: A Cancer Journal ...

  4. Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for Colorectal Cancer Browse Sections The Basics Overview What to Expect ... section Overview 2 of 6 sections The Basics: Colorectal Cancer What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is a ...

  5. Cancer risks in thyroid cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, P.; Holm, L E; Lundell, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Larsson, L. G.; Lindberg, S.; Tennvall, J.; Wicklund, H.; Boice, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer risks were studied in 834 thyroid cancer patients given 131I (4,551 MBq, average) and in 1,121 patients treated by other means in Sweden between 1950 and 1975. Record-linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register identified 99 new cancers more than 2 years after 131I therapy [standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.75] vs 122 (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.88-1.42) in patients not receiving 131I. In females treated with 131I overall SIR was 1.45 (95% CI 1.14-1....

  6. Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhenlong; Li, Zhong; Jin, Huajun; Qian, Qijun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major leading death causes of diseases. Prevention and treatment of cancer is an important way to decrease the incidence of tumorigenesis and prolong patients' lives. Subversive achievements on cancer immunotherapy have recently been paid much attention after many failures in basic and clinical researches. Based on deep analysis of genomics and proteomics of tumor antigens, a variety of cancer vaccines targeting tumor antigens have been tested in preclinical and human clinical trials. Many therapeutic cancer vaccines alone or combination with other conventional treatments for cancer obtained spectacular efficacy, indicating the tremendously potential application in clinic. With the illustration of underlying mechanisms of cancer immune regulation, valid, controllable, and persistent cancer vaccines will play important roles in cancer treatment, survival extension and relapse and cancer prevention. This chapter mainly summarizes the recent progresses and developments on cancer vaccine research and clinical application, thus exploring the existing obstacles in cancer vaccine research and promoting the efficacy of cancer vaccine. PMID:27240458

  7. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what steps you can take to prevent colon cancer . Risk Factors We do not know what causes colon cancer, ... Society. Colorectal cancer: detailed guide. What are the risk factors for colorectal cancer? Available at: www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/ ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  9. General Information about Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the ... the cancer cells in the liver are actually pancreatic cancer cells. The disease is metastatic pancreatic cancer, not liver cancer. The ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions to Ask About ...

  11. Breast cancer (metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Stebbing, Justin; Slater, Sarah; Slevin, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered very unusual.

  12. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the more likely he is to develop the disease. Physician: Come on back, first room. Narrator: Most ... cancer. Prostate cancer is really a spectrum of diseases where on one end of the spectrum there ...

  13. Cancer Treatment Scams

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Items Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Miracle Health Claims Discount Plan or Health Insurance? Cancer ... Talk to Your Doctor First. Tagged with: health , miracle claims , scam September 2008 You Might Also Like ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical records. Relative survival This statistic is another method used to estimate cancer-specific survival that does ... that cancer will come back later. For this reason, doctors cannot say for sure that you are ...

  15. Lung and Bronchus Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... copy to myself The information used on this page will not be used to send unsolicited emails or shared with a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Video Series Lung Cancer - Did you know that lung cancer is the ...

  16. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  17. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  18. Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  19. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  20. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  1. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large amount of arsenic has been linked to skin , bladder, and lung cancers. Studies have been done ...

  2. Detecting Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal and raises the index of suspicion that cancer may be present. Narrator: While the use of ... examination does not mean that they have prostate cancer. It means that we're concerned about it ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About ...

  4. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In the United States, one in ten men will develop prostate cancer in their lifetime. Age is ... disease that's very benevolent in its behavior. Men will develop prostate cancer and live the rest of ...

  5. Learning about Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Deadly Skin Cancers Spread 2000 News Release Learning About Skin Cancer What are the most common ... skin surface. When a melanoma becomes thick and deep, the disease often spreads to other parts of ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you have cancer, you and your loved ones face many unknowns. Understanding your cancer and knowing what ... make decisions. Some of the decisions you may face include: Which treatment is best for you If ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral ... Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You ...

  8. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... future bladder cancer research through the Patient Survey Network. Read More... Don’t Miss the 2016 BCAN ... Click here for more details Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network 4915 St. Elmo Avenue, Suite 202 Bethesda, Maryland ...

  9. Alcohol and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In addition, the combined use of alcohol and tobacco greatly increases the risk of oral, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancers. Written January 2016 ©2007, American Cancer Society, Inc. ...

  10. Cancer Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have many choices to make about your cancer treatment. One choice you might be thinking about ... are acupuncture, chiropractic, and herbal medicines. People with cancer may use CAM to Help cope with the ...

  11. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  12. Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in the cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, new cells form ... can form a tumor. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Malignant tumor cells can ...

  13. Cancer during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protection during x-rays. Computed tomography (CT or CAT) scans. CT scans are similar to x-rays ... a Baby After Cancer: Pregnancy Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Being a Young Adult with Cancer When the ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to other parts of your body The cancer’s grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about how quickly the cancer is ...

  15. HPV and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research HPV and Cancer On This Page What are human ... hpv/ E-mail: cdcinfo@cdc.gov Human Papillomavirus (HPV) | Did You Know? View this video on YouTube. ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ... Staging Prognosis Questions to Ask ... This statistic is another method used to estimate cancer-specific survival that does ...

  17. Gallbladder Cancer: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Offices Volunteer Employment Become a Supplier Report Fraud or ... reserved. The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of ...

  18. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedure done in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization (IVF). It allows people who carry a specific known ... gastric cancer before age 40 Personal or family history of both diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast ...

  19. Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancerous or benign. A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to other parts ... tumor’s size. Sometimes, a special dye called a contrast medium is given before the scan to provide ...

  20. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  1. CDC WONDER: Cancer Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) online databases in WONDER provide cancer incidence and mortality data for the United States for the years since 1999, by...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  3. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States, one in ten men will develop prostate cancer in their lifetime. Age is the most important risk factor in prostate cancer -- the longer a man lives the more likely ...

  4. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., ... find our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using ...

  6. Cancer of the Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see tailored statistics, browse the SEER Cancer Statistics Review . To see statistics for a specific state, go to the State ... which can be found in the SEER Cancer Statistics Review . In some cases, different year spans may be ...

  7. Stages of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information about colorectal cancer in children. Health history can affect the risk of developing colon cancer. ... through. This procedure is called a colostomy. A bag is placed around the stoma to collect the ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer ... Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  9. Cancer of the Testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1975-2013 Browse the Tables and Figures Access CSR Contents in PDF Generate Custom Reports About the ... Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/ , based on November 2015 SEER data ...

  10. Cancer of the Anus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1975-2013 Browse the Tables and Figures Access CSR Contents in PDF Generate Custom Reports About the ... Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/ , based on November 2015 SEER data ...

  11. Cancer of the Larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1975-2013 Browse the Tables and Figures Access CSR Contents in PDF Generate Custom Reports About the ... Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2013/ , based on November 2015 SEER data ...

  12. Cancer of the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are ... on statistics from SEER and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. ...

  13. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enlarged thyroid). Having a family history of thyroid disease or thyroid cancer. Having certain genetic conditions such as familial medullary thyroid cancer (FMTC), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

  14. Types of Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Media Contacts Multicultural Media Outreach Program Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents ... 2011 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outreach Program Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals ... Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview ...

  18. Surgery for pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007649.htm Surgery for pancreatic cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... surgery are used in the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer. Whipple procedure: This is the most common surgery ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Screening Overview–for health professionals Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Cancer Treatment ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meetings Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Previous ... Information Legislative Activities Hearings & Testimonies Current Congress Legislative History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ...

  2. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC View/Download: Small: 734x648 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC ...

  3. National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AZ Signs & Symptoms Potential signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer: Bloating Pelvic or abdominal pain Trouble eating ... to urinate urgently or often Other symptoms of ovarian cancer can include: Fatigue Upset stomach or heartburn ...

  4. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Ovarian Cancer Stage IV View/Download: Small: 576x641 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV ...

  5. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  6. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer increases as men get older. Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, ... some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice. Folic acid is a man-made form ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Cancer Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information for Patients and Caregivers A to ... Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & ...

  10. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  11. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells than in normal cells. For skin cancer, laser light is shined onto the skin and the drug becomes active and kills the cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. Biologic therapy ...

  12. What Is Prostate Cancer?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important risk factor in prostate cancer -- the longer a man lives the more likely he is to ... men confront the reality of prostate cancer on a visit to their urologist. John Bertini, M.D.: ...

  13. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  14. Tests for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has come back after treatment Alpha-fetoprotein blood (AFP) test AFP is normally present at high levels in the ... liver disease, liver cancer, or other cancers. If AFP levels are very high in someone with a ...

  15. Coping with Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  16. When Cancer Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contacts Multicultural Media Outreach Program Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research ... Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog About ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

  19. Cancer and Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏涓

    2011-01-01

    @@ Relationship between cancer and thromboembolic disease, the research has been going on for more than a century.Armand trousseau in 1865 first reported the formation of venous thrombosis prone patients with gastric cancer.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but the goal is not to try to cure the cancer. Staging laparoscopy To determine which type of surgery ... the planned operation would be very unlikely to cure the cancer and could still lead to major side effects. ...

  1. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevents symptoms but it is not expected to cure the cancer. The type of operation usually depends on what ... in the stomach, even if it does not cure the cancer. Because the goal of this surgery is not ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Contact Overview History of NCI Contributing to Cancer ... History Committees of Interest Legislative Resources Recent Public Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home About Cancer ...

  3. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K;

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer-specific survival is based on causes of death listed in medical records. Relative survival This statistic ... does not use information about the cause of death. It is the percentage of cancer patients who ...

  5. Prostate Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Faces of Prostate Cancer [4] Survivors Everyday Heroes PCF Researchers Share your story About PCF [1] ... in advanced prostate cancer patients regardless of family history, and are associated with poorer responses to hormonal ...

  6. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  7. Immortality of cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Duesberg, Peter; McCormack, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Immortality is a common characteristic of cancers, but its origin and purpose are still unclear. Here we advance a karyotypic theory of immortality based on the theory that carcinogenesis is a form of speciation. Accordingly, cancers are generated from normal cells by random karyotypic rearrangements and selection for cancer-specific reproductive autonomy. Since such rearrangements unbalance long-established mitosis genes, cancer karyotypes vary spontaneously but are stabilized perpetually by...

  8. Obesity and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WOLIN, KATHLEEN Y.; Carson, Kenneth; Colditz, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    Weight, weight gain, and obesity account for approximately 20% of all cancer cases. Evidence on the relation of each to cancer is summarized, including esophageal, thyroid, colon, renal, liver, melanoma, multiple myeloma, rectum, gallbladder, leukemia, lymphoma, and prostate in men; and postmenopausal breast and endometrium in women. Different mechanisms drive etiologic pathways for these cancers. Weight loss, particularly among postmenopausal women, reduces risk for breast cancer. Among canc...

  9. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Elias, Eldho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nanotechnological-Based Systems for CancerIn vivo Spectroscopy for Detection and Treatment of GBM with NPt® ImplantationNanobiotechnology for Antibacterial Therapy and DiagnosisChitosan NanoparticlesSynthesis and Biomedical Application of Silver NanoparticlesRecent Advances in Cancer Therapy Using PhytochemicalsMitochondrial Dysfunction and Cancer: Modulation by Palladium-Lipoic Acid ComplexUnity of Mind and Body: The Concept of Life Purpose DominantThuja Occidentalis and Breast Cancer ChemopreventionAntioxidants and Com

  10. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bahader Yasser; Jazieh Abdul-Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality attributed to lung cancer has risen steadily since the 1930s. Efforts to improve outcomes have not only led to a greater understanding of the etiology of lung cancer, but also the histologic and molecular characteristics of individual lung tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing the extent of the current lung cancer epidemic including contemporary incidence and mortality trends, the risk factors for development of lung cancer, and details of promisi...

  11. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  12. Cancer notification in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; B Guruprasad; Lokesh, K. N.; V S Veena

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common et...

  13. Urologic cancer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cheng; Guan, Youyan; Li, Hongbo; Chen, Wanqing; Zhu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains to be the second most common cause of death, and its incidence and mortality rates are increasing in China. According to the 2015 National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China, the incidence of bladder cancer and prostate cancer ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, in male cancers. The majority of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is the main treatment for localized prostate cancer, and a comprehensive therapy based on androgen deprivation therapy is the treatment for advanced disease. The most common histologic types of bladder cancer in China were urothelial carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The majority of patients were diagnosed using white-light cystoscopy with biopsy. Fluorescence and narrow-band imaging cystoscopy had additional detection rates and are becoming more popular. Following Chinese guidelines, most non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with diagnostic transurethral resection and more than half of the muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Due to the increased detection rate of kidney tumors by ultrasound in physical examination, the number of incidentally diagnosed renal cell carcinoma has increased. Localized kidney cancers are more and more often treated by nephron-sparing surgery. Radical nephrectomy is still the main treatment option for patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. Both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have been used in big medical centers. Both testicular cancer and penile cancer have lower incidence levels than that in Europe. As we have an enormous population base, the absolute patient number is big. The diagnosis and treatment follows the Chinese guidelines. In China, both medical professionals and public should concern

  14. AUTOPHAGY IN LUNG CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Jaboin, Jerry J.; Hwang, Misun; Lu, Bo

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The relatively poor cure rate in lung cancer patients has been associated with a resistance to chemotherapy and radiation that is at least in part related to defects in cellular apoptotic machinery. Exploitation of another form of cell death, autophagy, has the capacity to improve the therapeutic gain of current therapies. In an effort to develop novel treatment strategies to enhance the therapeutic ratio for lung cancer, we...

  15. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    MUNIRAJ, T.; Chari, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer is complex. Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance is present in more than 2/3rd of pancreatic cancer patients. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown a modest increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer in type 2 diabetes, with an inverse relationship to duration of disease. Additionally, recent studies suggest that anti-diabetic medications may modulate the risk of pancreatic cancer in type 2 diabetes. Subjects >50 years of age ...

  16. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  17. Epigenetics of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Langevin, Scott M; Kratzke, Robert A.; Kelsey, Karl T.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA expression, have widely been reported in the literature to play a major role in the genesis of lung cancer. The goal of this review is to summarize the common epigenetic changes associated with lung cancer to give some clarity to its etiology, and provide an overview of the potential translational applications of these ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and ... MORE INFORMATION About This Website Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI ...

  19. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  20. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed CDC’s Cervical Cancer Study Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... year. As part of CDC’s Cervical Cancer (Cx3) Study, we surveyed a sample of both health care ...