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Sample records for cancer cytology potential

  1. Exfoliative cytology for diagnosing oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sayánsm, M; Somoza-Martín, J M; Barros-Angueira, F; Reboiras-López, M D; Gándara-Vila, P; Gándara Rey, J M; García-García, A

    2010-04-28

    Exfoliative cytology is a minimally invasive technique for obtaining oral cell specimens from patients for diagnostic purposes. Classical applications of oral cytology studies, such as oral candidiasis, have been extended to include oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. A number of analytical methods are available for studying cytology specimens. The development of molecular analysis techniques, the oral cancer etiopathogenic process, and improvements in liquid-based exfoliative cytology are leading to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology. Results sometimes are disputed, so the aim of our review was to clarify the applicability of exfoliative cytology to the diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions.

  2. Improvement of the cytological diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Leonov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the comparative results of cytological examination of alcohol-induced bladder washouts by liquid-based cytology and conventional cytology in 323 patients, including 150 with suspected bladder cancer (BC and 173 patients after performed combination or combined treatment for BC. The performed investigation has established that the diagnostic value of liquid-based cytology in diagnosing BC and its local recurrences is 1.3-fold higher than that of conventional cytology.

  3. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

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    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  4. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  5. Applications of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral cancer.

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    Diniz-Freitas, Márcio; García-García, Abel; Crespo-Abelleira, Antonio; Martins-Carneiro, José Luis; Gándara-Rey, José Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology is a simple non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and that is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypias and especially squamous cell carcinoma. However, traditional exfoliative cytology methods show low sensitivity (i.e. a high proportion of false negatives) in the diagnosis of these pathologies. This low sensitivity is attributable to various factors, including inadequate sampling, procedural errors, and the need for subjective interpretation of the findings. More recently, the continuing development of automated cytomorphometric methods, DNA content determination, tumour marker detection, and diverse molecular-level analyses has contributed to renewed interest in exfoliative cytology procedures for the diagnosis of oral cancer. The present study briefly reviews developments in these areas.

  6. Correlation between cytological and histological grading of breast cancer and its role in prognosis

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    Pal, Shweta; Gupta, Mohan Lal

    2016-01-01

    Context: Assigning grade to breast cancer on FNAC provides prognostic information and guides optimal therapy. Aims: The present study was undertaken to grade breast carcinoma on cytology by Robinson's grading system and correlate it with Elstons modified Bloom Richardson histological grading system. Settings and Design: It is a prospective study done on fifty cases of breast cancer reported on cytology. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients who underwent FNAC and mastectomy for breast carcinoma were cytologically and histologically graded. Correlation between cytological and histological grading system was determined. Sensitivity and specificity of Robinson's cytological grading system was calculated in each grade. All cases evaluated for presence of metastasis to axillary lymph nodes. Statistical Analysis Used: Correlation between cytological and histological grading was established using the non parametric Spearman’ s correlation coefficient. Results: Concordance rate between cytological and histological grade was 78%. The coefficient of correlation between cytological grade and histological grade was 0.804 and P value was <0.001 which indicated a strong correlation and significant association between the cytological and histological grade. Sensitivity was maximum in cytological grade I tumors (100%) and least in cytological grade III tumors (45.45%). Specificity was maximum in cytological grade III tumors (94.87%) and least in cytological grade II tumors (72.72%). The incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis was maximum in cytological grade III tumors and grade I tumors. Conclusions: Cytological grade strongly predicts histological grade and is useful in selecting neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28028331

  7. DNA methylation analysis in liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer screening.

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    Apostolidou, Sophia; Hadwin, Richard; Burnell, Matthew; Jones, Allison; Baff, Donna; Pyndiah, Nitisha; Mould, Tim; Jacobs, Ian J; Beddows, Simon; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Widschwendter, Martin

    2009-12-15

    Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women worldwide. Preinvasive disease can be detected by cervical cytology. All currently available cytology technologies rely on the visual analysis of exfoliated cells from the uterine cervix. Improvement of conventional cytological screening has been proposed by the introduction of molecular-based markers applied to liquid-based cytology (LBC), the suspension of cells collected from the cervix. DNA methylation changes occur very early in carcinogenesis and identification of appropriate DNA methylation markers in such samples should be able to distinguish high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) from nonspecific cytology changes and the normal cervix. To address this potential, we have undertaken a proof-of-principle study of methylation status of LBC samples from HSIL cytology cases compared against matched normal controls. Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR on 28 genes, we found SOX1, HOXA11 and CADM1 to significantly discriminate between the groups analyzed (p<0.01). Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) demonstrated that methylation of SOX1, HOXA11 and CADM1 could discriminate between HSIL cases and controls with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC 0.910, 0.844 and 0.760, respectively). The results were further validated in an independent set. This proof-of-principle study is the first to validate the results in an independent case/control set and presents HOXA11, a gene that is important for cervical development, as a potentially useful DNA marker in LBC samples. Further assessment of these preliminary estimates will need to be performed in a larger cohort to confirm clinical utility.

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of hTERT in urothelial lesions: a potential adjunct to urine cytology

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    Khalbuss Walid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urine cytology has a critical role in evaluation for bladder carcinoma. Due to the low sensitivity of this technique, ancillary modalities such as the detection of markers of malignancy by immunochemistry are desirable. Promising factors in this context are components of the human telomerase enzyme complex. Telomerase repairs and extend telomeres, which when eroded beyond a critical limit trigger a senescence checkpoint. Accordingly, while absent in normal somatic cells, telomerase activity has been detected in the great majority of malignant tumor specimens tested, and so has potential value for the recognition of malignant cells in clinical specimens. Methods In this study, we investigated whether the immunohistochemical detection of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT can aid cytology in the diagnosis of bladder lesions. Findings from the retrospective evaluation of over 100 cell blocks, including urine sediments from confirmed malignant and benign conditions, were compared with routine urine cytology data. Results The presence of hTERT protein was indicative of the transformation of urothelia to a malignant phenotype. Nucleolar hTERT was expressed in 27 (93% of 29 samples obtained from patients with confirmed primary bladder cancer. Conversely, hTERT was detectable in only 3 (0.8% of 39 samples from benign conditions. The hTERT assay showed higher diagnostic sensitivity (84.8% than published urine cytology data (~65% for confirmed bladder carcinoma, however, the hTERT assay was less specific than cytology (65.2% vs. ~95% respectively. Conclusion As a highly sensitive marker, immunohistochemical hTERT detection in urine sediments represents a reliable adjunct to cytology in the accurate diagnosis of urothelial neoplasms.

  9. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

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    Zolotarevskiĭ, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell.

  10. Classification of breast cancer cytological specimen using convolutional neural network

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    Żejmo, Michał; Kowal, Marek; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a deep learning approach for automatic classification of breast tumors based on fine needle cytology. The main aim of the system is to distinguish benign from malignant cases based on microscopic images. Experiment was carried out on cytological samples derived from 50 patients (25 benign cases + 25 malignant cases) diagnosed in Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra. To classify microscopic images, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) of two types: GoogLeNet and AlexNet. Due to the very large size of images of cytological specimen (on average 200000 × 100000 pixels), they were divided into smaller patches of size 256 × 256 pixels. Breast cancer classification usually is based on morphometric features of nuclei. Therefore, training and validation patches were selected using Support Vector Machine (SVM) so that suitable amount of cell material was depicted. Neural classifiers were tuned using GPU accelerated implementation of gradient descent algorithm. Training error was defined as a cross-entropy classification loss. Classification accuracy was defined as the percentage ratio of successfully classified validation patches to the total number of validation patches. The best accuracy rate of 83% was obtained by GoogLeNet model. We observed that more misclassified patches belong to malignant cases.

  11. Usefulness of liquid-based cytology in hormone receptor analysis of breast cancer specimens.

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    Nishimura, Rieko; Aogi, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Tamami; Takabatake, Daisuke; Takashima, Seiki; Teramoto, Norihiro; Kagawa, Akihiro; Morita, Sachiko

    2011-02-01

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of the hormone receptor (HR) in breast cancer cytology is an important issue nowadays. Several studies have shown discrepancy in the HR status between the primary tumor and metastases. Cytology can be used for patients with metastatic disease. Although cytological assessment of HR is an excellent method, it has not been routinely used because of the difficulty in consistently preparing multiple good quality slides. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation is considered as the key to resolving the aforementioned problem; however, few studies have reported the HR assessment in breast cancer using LBC. Therefore, the HR status of LBC slides from 82 breast cancers was compared with that of the corresponding surgical specimens. The HR assay in both the LBC slides and surgical specimens was conducted by IHC using an autostainer. For the IHC staining, the protocol recommended by the manufacturer for paraffin-embedded sections was used for both the cytology and histology specimens. The HR results of the cytology agreed with those of the histology in 80 of the 82 cases (accuracy rate, 98%) for estrogen receptor, and in 78 of the 82 cases (accuracy rate, 95%) for progesterone receptor. The overall accuracy of the HR status on the cytology and the histology was 99% in 81 of the 82 cases. In conclusion, in HR analysis of breast cancers, LBC followed by IHC using an autostainer was useful for the standard processing of cytological specimens and showed a good correlation with the results of analysis on the histology specimens.

  12. Potential applications of oral brush cytology with liquid-based technology: results from a cohort of normal oral mucosa.

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    Kujan, Omar; Desai, Mina; Sargent, Alexandra; Bailey, Andrew; Turner, Andrew; Sloan, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Fifty healthy volunteers were studied to assess the potential applications of oral brush sampling using liquid-based cytology. Three specimens from the buccal mucosa and lateral border of tongue were collected from each subject by using cervical brushes and brooms. The brush was immersed in a preservative fluid. The sample in the preservative fluid was processed according to the manufacturer's directions (SurePath, UK). Slides were stained by the Papanicolaou method and assessed for squamous cell adequacy by the same criteria used for cervical cytology screening. Immunocytochemical staining for FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad) was applied in liquid-based preparations following the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Human papillomavirus (HPV) detection was performed using the Hybrid Capture 2 assay (Digene) and the PCR-based Roche AMPLICOR HPV Test. LBC preparation slides showed good sample preservation, specimen adequacy and visualization of cell morphology. Interestingly, nine cases showed borderline cytological abnormalities from apparently normal oral mucosa. All cases showed good quality positive FHIT immunoreactivity staining. All studied cases were high-risk HPV negative using HC2 assay method. However, the AMPLICOR Roche Test detected four samples with positive results for high-risk HPVs. Liquid-based cytology has potential as a screening tool for oral cancer and precancer. The method may also have applications for research and practice in the field of oral cancer and precancer. However a special custom-designed oral cytobrush is required.

  13. Screening for urinary tract cancer with urine cytology in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrhøj, T; Andersen, M-B; Bernstein, I

    2008-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate if Urine Cytology (UC) is an appropriate screening procedure for detecting urinary tract neoplasia at an early stage in persons at risk in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer families. METHOD: In the National Danish HNPCC-register persons at risk ...

  14. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both cerv

  15. Comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional cytology for detection of cervical cancer precursors: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebers, A.G.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Grefte, J.M.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Vedder, J.E.; Beijers-Broos, A.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Liquid-based cytology has been developed as an alternative for conventional cervical cytology. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, controversy remains about its diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of liquid-based cytology compared with conventional cytolog

  16. Detection of telornerase activity and cytology in diagnosis of cardiac cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Qing Ming Wu; Sheng Bao Li

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the diagnostic significance of cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells ofcardia obtained from endoscopic brushing in the cardiac cancer.METHODS The techniques of the qualitative TRAP-silver staining and quantitative TRAP-PCR-ELISAwere employed to detect telomerase activity in the exfoliated cells of cardia obtained from endoscopicbrushing in 72 cases with cardial lesions, cytological diagnosis was made at the same time.RESULTS Telomerase activity with cardiac cancer group (1.521 ± 0. 192) was significantly higher than thatwith cardialitis group (0.065± 0.014). Positive rate of telomerase activity detected in cardiac cancer group(88.89%) was significantly higher than that with cardialitis group (11.11%), the former was significantlyhiger than cytological examination (77.78%). The diagnostic rate of cardiac cancer reached 93.33% iftelomerase activity and cytology were examined at the same time.CONCLUSION Cytology and telomerase activity in the exfoliated cardiac cells may be an effective andsensitive methods in the diagnosis of cardiac cancer. This research can be a basis for the mass screening ofcardiac cancer.

  17. Specific detection of prostate cancer cells in urine by multiplex immunofluorescence cytology.

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    Fujita, Kazutoshi; Pavlovich, Christian P; Netto, George J; Konishi, Yuko; Isaacs, William B; Ali, Syed; De Marzo, Angelo; Meeker, Alan K

    2009-07-01

    Prostate cancer biomarkers are enriched in urine after prostatic manipulation, suggesting that whole cells might also be detectable for diagnosis. We tested multiplex staining of urinary sediments as a minimally invasive method to detect prostate cancer. Urine samples were collected from 35 men who had prostatic massage (attentive digital rectal examination) in a urology clinic and from 15 control men without urologic disease and without massage, for a total of 50 specimens (27 cancer-positive cases and 23 cancer-negative cases). LNCaP prostate cancer cells spiked into urine were used for initial marker optimization. Urine sediments were cytospun onto glass slides and stained. Multiplex urine cytology was compared with conventional urine cytology for cancer detection; anti-alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase antibody was used as a marker of prostate cancer cells, anti-Nkx3.1 as a marker of prostate epithelial cells, anti-nucleolin as a marker of nucleoli, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to highlight nuclei. Prostate cancer cells were successfully visualized by combined staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, and nucleolin. Of the 25 informative cases with biopsy-proven prostate cancer, 9 were diagnosed as suspicious or positive by multiplex immunofluorescence urine cytology, but only 4 were similarly judged by conventional cytology. All cases without cancer were read as negative by both methods. The multiplex cytology sensitivity for cancer detection in informative cases was 36% (9/25), and specificity was 100% (8/8). In conclusion, we have successfully achieved multiple staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, Nkx3.1, nucleolin, and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole to detect prostate cancer cells in urine. Further refinements in marker selection and technique may increase sensitivity and applicability for prostate cancer diagnosis.

  18. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

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    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  19. Clinical correlative study on early detection of oral cancer and precancerous lesions by modified oral brush biopsy and cytology followed by histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that modified oral brush biopsy has higher efficacy than routine cytology and can be used as a potentially practical oral cancer screening tool in resource challenged settings. However, clinical judgment is of prime importance. Immediate biopsy is mandatory in highly suspicious lesions proposed under the diagnostic criteria of "clinically diagnosed carcinoma in situ".

  20. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for cervical cytology terminology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbert, A.; Bergeron, C.; Wiener, H.; Schenck, U.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Arbyn, M.

    2007-01-01

    There are many different systems of cytology classification used in the member states of the European Union (EU) and many different languages. The following short annexe to Chapter 3 of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening provides a framework that will allow di

  1. Subtyping of nonsmall cell lung cancer on cytology specimens: Reproducibility of cytopathologic diagnoses on sparse material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haukali, O. S.; Henrik, H.; Olsen, Karen Ege;

    2014-01-01

    Cytologic examination of fine-needle aspiration (material is increasingly used in diagnosing lung cancer. High interobserver agreement in distinguishing small-cell lung cancer from nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on cytologic material has been demonstrated. Because of new treatment......-modalities, subclassification of NSCLC into squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and non-SQC has clinical impact. Subclassification based on morphology alone may be difficult, but applying immunohistochemistry (IHC) to clot-material has proved helpful. When insufficient material is available to make a clot from the aspirate......-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) stained smears and CS with IHC on material from 79 patients suspected of having lung cancer was included. The material was circulated twice to four pathologists. The diagnoses were categorized in five groups: SQC, adenocarcinoma of the lung, non-SQC, benign lesion and other forms of malignancy...

  2. European guidelines for quality assurance in cervical cancer screening: recommendations for collecting samples for conventional and liquid-based cytology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbyn, M.; Herbert, A.; Schenck, U.; Nieminen, P.; Jordan, J.; Mcgoogan, E.; Patnick, J.; Bergeron, C.; Baldauf, J.J.; Klinkhamer, P.; Bulten, J.; Martin-Hirsch, P.

    2007-01-01

    The current paper presents an annex in the second edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. It provides guidance on how to make a satisfactory conventional Pap smear or a liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample. Practitioners taking samples for cytology should

  3. Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutation by Pyrosequencing Analysis in Cytologic Samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, So-Young; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Oh, Seo-Young; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Kye-Young; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2016-08-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutations are two of the most common mutations that are present in lung cancer. Screening and detecting these mutations are of issue these days, and many different methods and tissue samples are currently used to effectively detect these two mutations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations by pyrosequencing method, and compared the yield of cytology versus histology specimens in a consecutive series of patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR and KRAS mutation results of 399 (patients with EGFR mutation test) and 323 patients (patients with KRAS mutation test) diagnosed with lung cancer in Konkuk University Medical Center from 2008 to 2014. Among them, 60 patients had received both EGFR and KRAS mutation studies. We compared the detection rate of EGFR and KRAS tests in cytology, biopsy, and resection specimens. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 29.8% and 8.7% of total patients, and the positive mutation results of EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive. The detection rate of EGFR mutation in cytology was higher than non-cytology (biopsy or resection) materials (cytology: 48.5%, non-cytology: 26.1%), and the detection rate of KRAS mutation in cytology specimens was comparable to non-cytology specimens (cytology: 8.3%, non-cytology: 8.7%). We suggest that cytology specimens are good alternatives that can readily substitute tissue samples for testing both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Moreover, pyrosequencing method is highly sensitive in detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients.

  4. Comparison of FFPE histological versus LBP cytological samples for HPV detection and typing in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Lee, Jiyoung; Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Sunghyun; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-02-27

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely associated with cervical cancer. This study analyzed HPV genotype prevalence in 75 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from patients diagnosed with cervical cancer. Genotype prevalence was assessed using Reverse Blot Assay (REBA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which target the HPV L1 and HPV E6/E7 genes, respectively. HPV DNA chip tests were also performed using liquid based preparation (LBP) cytological samples from the same patients who provided the FFPE histological samples. We observed a slight difference in HPV genotype distribution as assessed by DNA chip versus REBA. One possible explanation for this difference is that normal regions could be mixed with lesion regions when cytological samples are extracted from each patient with cancer. For the detection of moderate dysplasia, the main target of diagnosis, this difference is anticipated to be greater. We also made several unexpected observations. For example, HPV multi-infection was not detected. Moreover, the rate of HPV positivity varied radically depending on the cancer origin, e.g. squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma. Our results imply that it is important to determine whether cytological specimens are suitable for HPV genotyping analysis and cervical cancer diagnosis. Future research on the mechanisms underlying cervical cancer pathogenesis is also necessary.

  5. [Health technology assessment report. Use of liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer precursors screening].

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    Ronco, Guglielmo; Confortini, Massimo; Maccallini, Vincenzo; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Sideri, Mario; Zappa, Marco; Zorzi, Manuel; Calvia, Maria; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT: Purpose of this Report is to evaluate the impact of the introduction of liquid-based cytology (LBC) in cervical cancer screening in terms of efficacy, undesired effects, costs and implications for organisation. EFFICACY AND UNDESIRED EFFECTS: LBC WITH MANUAL INTERPRETATION: The estimates of cross-sectional accuracy for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 or more severe and CIN3 or more severe) obtained by a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2008 were used. This review considered only studies in which all women underwent colposcopy or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with complete verification of test positives. A systematic search of RCTs published thereafter was performed. Three RCTs were identified. One of these studies was conducted in 6 Italian regions and was of large size (45,174 women randomised); a second one was conducted in another Italian region (Abruzzo) and was of smaller size (8,654 women randomised); a third RCT was conducted in the Netherlands and was of large size (89,784 women randomised). No longitudinal study was available. There is currently no clear evidence that LBC increases the sensitivity of cytology and even less that its introduction increases the efficacy of cervical screening in preventing invasive cancers. The Italian randomised study NTCC showed a decrease in specificity, which was not observed in the other two RCTs available. In addition, the 2008 meta-analysis observed a reduction - even if minimal - in specificity just at the ASC-US cytological cut-off, but also a remarkable heterogeneity between studies. These results suggest that the effect of LBC on specificity is variable and plausibly related to the local style of cytology interpretation. There is evidence that LBC reduces the proportion of unsatisfactory slides, although the size of this effect varies remarkably. LBC WITH COMPUTER-ASSISTED INTERPRETATION: An Australian study, based on double testing, showed a statistically

  6. Peritoneal lavage cytology and carcinoembryonic antigen determination in predicting peritoneal metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Kun Li; Miao Zheng; Chuan-Wen Miao; Jian-Hai Zhang; Guang-Han Ding; Wen-Shen Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) determination of peritoneal washes (pCEA) in predicting the peritoneal metastasis and prognosis after curative resection of gastric cancer.METHODS: PLC and radioimmunoassay of CEA were performed in peritoneal washes from 64 patients with gastric cancer and 8 patients with benign diseases.RESULTS: The positive rate of pCEA (40.6%) was significantly higher than that of PLC (23.4%) (P<0.05).The positive rates of PLC and pCEA correlated with the depth of tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). pCEA was found to have a higher sensitivity and a lower false-positive rate in predicting peritoneal metastasis after curative resection of gastric cancer as compared to PLC. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates of patients with positive cytologic findings or positive pCEA results were significantly lower than those of patients with negative cytologic findings or negative pCEA results (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that pCEA was an independent prognostic factor for the survival of patients with gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Intraoperative pCEA is a more sensitive and reliable predictor of peritoneal metastasis as well as prognosis in patients with gastric cancer as compared to PLC method.

  7. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kędra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has
    led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,
    as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both
    typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any
    of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological
    features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the
    symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological
    picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with
    that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda
    system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological
    Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In
    both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the
    mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions
    typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and
    there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal
    cancer. (The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has
    led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The

  8. The advantages of incorporating liquid-based cytology (TACAS™) in mass screening for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Futagami, Masayuki; Watanabe, Jun; Sakuraba, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Kazuma; Maruyama, Hidetoshi; Sato, Shigemi

    2016-04-01

    We incorporated liquid-based cytology (LBC) in population-based screening for cervical cancer. The usefulness of using LBC in mass screening for cervical cancer was examined. From 2009 to 2014, 157,061 individuals underwent mass screening for cervical cancer in Aomori Prefecture. From 2009 to 2011, cells were collected from 82,218 individuals and the specimens were conventionally prepared (CP). From 2012 to 2014, cells were collected from 74,843 individuals and the specimens were prepared using LBC (TACAS™). Cytology results for the 2 sets of specimens were compared and differences in cytologic features were examined. ASC-US and more severe lesions were detected at a rate of 1.13 % by CP and 1.44 % by LBC, so LBC had a 1.3-fold higher rate of detection. LBC had a 1.6-fold higher rate of LSIL detection and a 1.2-fold higher rate of HSIL detection. CP detected cancer in 20 cases at a rate of 0.024 % while LBC detected cancer in 18 cases at a rate of 0.024 %. Cytodiagnosis of the 18 cases of SCC that LBC identified revealed that 7 were SCC, 8 were HSIL, and 3 were ASC-H. Atypical cells tended to be smaller with TACAS™. LBC reduced the time needed for microscopic examination of a single specimen by 42 % in comparison to CP. LBC using TACAS™ allowed the detection of slight lesions and slight changes in cells. LBC can lessen the burden on medical personnel and may lead to improved accuracy.

  9. Comparison of urine cell characteristics by flow cytometry and cytology in patients suspected of having bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlandas-Rendón, Eric; Müller, Mathias M; García-Latorre, Ethel; Heinschink, Angelika

    2002-08-01

    The diagnosis of bladder cancer is confirmed by histological analysis of tissue biopsies. Cytology of urine samples is a noninvasive alternative. The aim of this work was to find out whether flow cytometry of urine samples is more sensitive than cytology. For this purpose we studied 115 patients suspected of having bladder cancer. Cells isolated from urine samples were analyzed by cytometry for the expression of cytokeratin and CD 45 and for DNA measurements such as: DNA index, synthesis phase fraction and proliferative index (SPF + G2/M phase). At the same time we carried out cytological analysis. All positive cases were confirmed by histology (21/115), 18 were diagnosed by flow cytometry and 16 by cytology, with a sensitivity of 85.7% and 76.1%, respectively. Two cases were found to be positive by flow cytometry, which were not confirmed by histology, while no false positives were detected by cytology. We found that both techniques gave almost identical results for the diagnosis of bladder cancer, although there were differences in non-malignant samples. In conclusion, flow cytometry is slightly more sensitive than cytology but the combination of the two techniques improves the diagnosis.

  10. Case Report: Liquid-based cytology aids in primary fallopian tube cancer diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo REN; Yun-ping ZHANG; Hui-xia YANG; Li-rong ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is a rare malignant carcinoma among all genital tract malignancies. It occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women and is similar to ovarian malignancy historically and clinically. Because of its insidious onset and silent course, the diagnosis is made usually postoperatively. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a type of method for cervical cancer screening, but sometimes it may aid in making PFTC diagnosis. We report a 47-year-old woman with PFTC, whose diagnosis was made with the aid of LBC.

  11. Cytological grading of breast cancers and comparative evaluation of two grading systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani Farooq

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate and compare the cytograding of breast cancers using Robinson′s and Mouriquand′s grading methods. Materials and Methods: A 5-year retrospective (from Oct 2000 to Sept 2005 and 1-year prospective study (from Oct 2005 to Oct 2006. A total of 110 fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC cases of breast cancers were studied. These were graded according to Robinson′s and Mouriquand′s grading methods (grade I-III followed by comparison of the two methods. Results: Of the 110 cases graded according to Robinson′s method, 28 (25.45% cases were grade I, 46 (41.81% grade II, and 36 (32.72% were grade III, whereas using Mouriquand′s grading methods, 28 (25.45%, 42 (38.18%, and 40 (36.36% cases were graded as grade I, II, and III, respectively. A high degree of concordance was observed between the two grading methods (90.9%. A highly significant relationship between the scores obtained by two methods was also observed (P=0.004. Conclusions: A comprehensive cytological grading of breast cancers is possible by using two different methods proposed by Robinson and Mouriquand. In spite of a high degree of concordance between the two methods, the Robinson′s grading system has been found to be easier and better because of more objective set of criteria and easy reproducibility.

  12. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędra, Bożena; Chomczyk, Monika; Złotkowski, Marcin; Stokowska, Wanda; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Bicz, Mieczysław; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Czajka, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech; Zimnoch, Lech; Kędra, Bogusław

    2012-10-08

    The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  13. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hur Jin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytological fluid from a needle aspiration biopsy (NAB is obtained directly from tumor tissue, therefore many biomarker candidates will be present in high concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess and validate the tumor markers CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC in cytological fluid obtained from NAB samples to determine if they improved the performance of NAB for diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods A total of 194 patients (M:F = 128:66, mean age 63.7 years with suspected malignant pulmonary lesions were prospectively enrolled and underwent percutaneous NAB. Levels of CYFRA 21–1, CEA, and SCC were measured by immunoassay in serum and cytological fluid obtained during aspiration biopsy. Cut-off values to determined malignancy were 3.3 ng/mL in serum and 15.7 ng/mL in cytological fluid for CYFRA 21–1, 5 ng/mL and 0.6 ng/mL for CEA, and 2 ng/mL and 0.86 ng/mL for SCC. Results Of 194 patients, 139 patients (71.6% had NSCLC and 55 (28.4% had benign lesions. Sensitivity increased significantly for NAB combined with cytological tumor markers compared with NAB alone (CYFRA 21–1: 95% versus 83.5%, p Conclusion Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21–1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC.

  14. Tissue polypeptide antigen in the follow-up of patients with urinary bladder cancer compared with conventional urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantis, Athanasios; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Sountoulides, Petros; Giannakopoulos, Stilianos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Athanassiadou, Paulina; Agelonidou, Eleni; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer has demonstrated a rapid increase during the last decades. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical value of serum tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) as a tumour marker for urinary bladder cancer in comparison with conventional urine cytology. Urine and blood samples were obtained from a total of 108 patients (group A) with a known history of bladder cancer, who presented for their routine 3 month follow-up. These 108 patients included 45 patients with high grade and 63 patients with low grade bladder cancer, and 30 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and no history of bladder cancer (group B). Urine and blood samples from fifty healthy adults (group C) were also tested; this group served as the control group for estimating the normal range of serum TPA values. In all group A patients cystoscopy and/or bladder biopsies were performed. All blood and urine samples were tested for TPA and conventional urine cytology respectively. Results showed that the upper normal range for TPA was 1.0 ng/mL(0.9 ± 0.04) in the control group. For the subgroups of patients with high and low grade bladder cancer elevated serum TPA levels were found in 52% and 40% of the patients respectively. The overall serum TPA sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 85% respectively for patients with known bladder cancer (group A). We found the sensitivity of cytology for high grade bladder (GIII) carcinomas to be 72%; however when urine cytology was combined with serum TPA the overall sensitivity reached 80%. We conclude that serum TPA combined with urine cytology may be used as a prognostic marker for bladder cancer.

  15. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology Evaluation for Classifying Breast Cancer Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor A.M.   Isa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen cytology of fine needle aspiration image (i.e. cellularity, background information, cohesiveness, significant stromal component, clump thickness, nuclear membrane, bare nuclei, normal nuclei, mitosis, nucleus stain, uniformity of cell, fragility and number of cells in cluster are evaluated their possibility to be used as input data for artificial neural network in order to classify the breast pre-cancerous cases into four stages, namely malignant, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic disease, and other benign diseases. A total of 1300 reported breast pre-cancerous cases which was collected from Penang General Hospital and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia was used to train and test the artificial neural networks. The diagnosis system which was developed using the Hybrid Multilayered Perceptron and trained using Modified Recursive Prediction Error produced excellent diagnosis performance with 100% accuracy, 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity.

  16. Initiation of an anal cancer screening in HIV+MSM: results of cytology, biopsy and determination of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Libois

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of anal cancer is increasing and risk of anal cancer is higher in MSM, especially if they are HIV+. European guidelines for treatment of HIV-infected adults recommend anal cancer screening by digital rectal exam±Pap test with anuscopy if Pap test is abnormal. A systematic anal cancer screening in HIV+MSM with anal cytology (Pap smears was established in June 2011 in our reference centre in Brussels. If anal cytology was abnormal, high-resolution anuscopy (HRA with biopsy was performed. 353 MSM HIV+were screened by anal smears between June 2011 and May 2012. 90% were Caucasians, median age was 44.5 years, 83% were on HAART and 74% had an undetectable viral load, median CD4 was 632/µl and 33% had a nadir CD4<200. Thirty-three (9.3% were excluded because of poor quality. Cytology was abnormal in 46% of the 320 remaining patients: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL 3%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL 24%, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US 16%, and atypical squamous cells / cannot rule out a high-grade lesion (ASC-H 3%. Viral load (VL was more frequently undetectable (82% vs 64%, p=0.0003 and median duration of HAART was longer (111 vs 61 months, p=0.0145 in patients with normal cytology. 80 HRA with biopsies have been performed. 12.5% were normal, 44% showed anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 1, 24% AIN 2 and 19% AIN 3. For this analysis, high-grade AIN (2 and 3 were put together (AIN 2+. Among patients with AIN 2+(n=33, cytology had showed 8 (24% ASC-US, 3 (9% ASC-H, 19 (57% LSIL, 3 (9% HSIL. When patients with normal cytology or normal biopsy and patients with AIN 2+were compared, the only significant risk factor found for AIN 2+was a nadir CD4<100/µl (32% of the patients with AIN 2+vs 14% in patients with normal smear, p=0.0073. Anal precancerous lesions are frequent and at different stages. Among 46% abnormal cytology, 87% had abnormal biopsy including half AIN 2+.Cytology

  17. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Jaitley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken with an aim of determining the cytological features observed in mucosal smears of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF patients and comparing them with that of features of normal mucosal cells. The observed features were than analyzed for their reliability in detecting malignant changes in this premalignant condition. Objective of the study was to conduct an oral exfoliative cytology (OEC study on 30 clinically diagnosed cases of OSF and 30 cases of clinically normal mucosa with no other systemic disease. We observed that all the smears from clinically normal buccal mucosa showed Class I cytology. The exfoliated cells were of normal size and shape with normal staining intensity and normal nuclear characteristics. All the 30 cases of our study group showed features suggestive of benign atypical cytological changes (Class II cytology. In the present study, despite the small number of cases, cytological features consistently observed in all the cases, were indicative of a premalignant change and emphasized a regular follow-up of patients. Early detection of a premalignant oral lesion promises to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from these conditions.

  18. Role of oral exfoliative cytology in predicting premalignant potential of oral submucous fibrosis: A short study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaitley, Shweta; Agarwal, Pankaj; Upadhyay, Ramballabh

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with an aim of determining the cytological features observed in mucosal smears of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients and comparing them with that of features of normal mucosal cells. The observed features were than analyzed for their reliability in detecting malignant changes in this premalignant condition. Objective of the study was to conduct an oral exfoliative cytology (OEC) study on 30 clinically diagnosed cases of OSF and 30 cases of clinically normal mucosa with no other systemic disease. We observed that all the smears from clinically normal buccal mucosa showed Class I cytology. The exfoliated cells were of normal size and shape with normal staining intensity and normal nuclear characteristics. All the 30 cases of our study group showed features suggestive of benign atypical cytological changes (Class II cytology). In the present study, despite the small number of cases, cytological features consistently observed in all the cases, were indicative of a premalignant change and emphasized a regular follow-up of patients. Early detection of a premalignant oral lesion promises to improve the survival rate of patients suffering from these conditions.

  19. Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer by cytology and telomerase activity in exfoliated cells obtained by pancreatic duct brushing during endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xiong Zhou; Jie-Fei Huang; Hong Zhang; Jian-Ping Chen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Telomerase activity is reported to be speciifc and frequent in human pancreatic cancer. We conducted this study to assess the usefulness of monitoring telomerase activity in exfoliated cells obtained by pancreatic duct brushing during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. METHODS:Exfoliated cells obtained by pancreatic duct brushing during ERCP from 21 patients (18 with pancreatic cancer, 3 with chronic pancreatitis) were examined. Telomerase activity was detected by polymerase chain reaction and telomeric repeat ampliifcation protocol assay (PCR-TRAP-ELISA). RESULTS:D450 values of telomerase activity were 0.446± 0.2700 in pancreatic cancer and 0.041±0.0111 in chronic pancreatitis. 77.8% (14/18) of patients with pancreatic cancer had cells with telomerase activity. None of the samples from patients with chronic pancreatitis showed telomerase activity, when the cutoff value of telomerase activity was set at 2.0. Cytological examination showed cancer cells in 66.7%(12/18) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS:Telomerase activity may be an early malignant event in pancreatic cancer development. Cytology and telomerase activity in cells obtained by pancreatic duct brushing may complement each other for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Increased number of cancer cells in bronchial washing fluid detected by combining conventional cytology and high-resolution flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicconetti, F; Teodori, L; Persiani, M; Di Tondo, U; Alò, P; Marci, A; Brun, S; Göhde, W

    1997-01-01

    The present study was performed to improve early lung cancer diagnosis in bronchial washing fluid, thereby increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of bronchoscopy by means of high-resolution flow cytometry (FC). We combined dual-parameter DNA/protein FC and conventional cytology in bronchial washing fluid samples from 112 patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lung diseases and found 43% of histologically confirmed tumor cases to be cytologically positive; 63% of the tumor samples were aneuploid, 52% of the aneuploid cases were cytologically positive and 48% were negative. In the negative cases, FC was an independent diagnostic factor. In 32% of the cases, FC also failed to detect abnormalities. However, the combination of both techniques increased the sensitivity in detecting neoplastic cells to 73%. Furthermore, simultaneous DNA/protein analysis allowed the recognition of aneuploid cell lines not detectable by single DNA measurement. Identification of aneuploid subpopulations by dual-parameter analysis in cytologically negative one-parameter FC "diploid" samples assumes an important diagnostic value. Dual-parameter DNA/protein FC is a valuable technique that increases the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy with no risk for the patient and a low additional cost.

  1. Screening for cervical cancer precursors with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikenberg, Hans; Bergeron, Christine; Schmidt, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections...

  2. Frozen section is superior to imprint cytology for the intra-operative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastasis in Stage I Breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita Masujiro

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A standard intra-operative procedure for assessing sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients has not yet been established. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty-eight patients with stage I breast cancer who underwent sentinel node biopsy using both imprint cytology and frozen section were analyzed. Results Seventeen of the 138 patients had sentinel node involvement. Results of imprint cytology included nine false negative cases (sensitivity, 47.1%. In contrast, only two cases of false negatives were found on frozen section (sensitivity, 88.2%. There were two false positive cases identified by imprint cytology (specificity, 98.3%. On the other hand, frozen section had 100% specificity. Conclusion These findings suggest that frozen section is superior to imprint cytology for the intra-operative determination of sentinel lymph node metastasis in stage I breast cancer patients.

  3. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M; Hansen, B; Hjortebjerg, A; Rygaard, C; Schledermann, D; Wåhlin, A; Rebolj, M

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6.1%, relative proportion (RP): 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.61], and a decrease in women aged 45-59 years from 2.9 to 2.0%, RP: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83). Implementation of ThinPrep LBC was followed by a decrease in abnormal cytology both in women aged 23-29 years from 7.7 to 6.8%, RP: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.

  4. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in ...... with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.......Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends...... and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6...

  5. Validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cytology and HPV testing for cervical cancer screening: findings from a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E Jones

    Full Text Available Self-sampling could increase cervical cancer screening uptake. While methods have been identified for human papillomavirus (HPV testing, to date, self-sampling has not provided adequate specimens for cytology. We piloted the validity and reliability of using a self-lavaging device for cervical cytology and HPV testing. We enrolled 198 women in New York City in 2008-2009 from three ambulatory clinics where they received cervical cancer screening. All were asked to use the Delphi Screener™ to self-lavage 1-3 months after clinician-collected index cytological smear (100 normal; 98 abnormal. Women with abnormal cytology results from either specimen underwent colposcopy; 10 women with normal results from both specimens also underwent colposcopy. We calculated sensitivity of self-collected cytology to detect histologically confirmed high grade lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN, 2+; specificity for histology-negative (CIN 1 or lower, paired cytology negative, or a third cytology negative; and kappa for paired results. One hundred and ninety-seven (99.5% women self-collected a lavage. Seventy-five percent had moderate to excellent cellularity, two specimens were unsatisfactory for cytology. Seven of 167 (4% women with definitive results had CIN2+; one had normal and six abnormal cytology results with the self-lavage (sensitivity = 86%, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 42, 100. The kappa for paired cytology was low (0.36; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.47 primarily due to clinician specimens with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL coded as normal using Screener specimens. However, three cases of HSIL were coded as ASC-US and one as normal using Screener specimens. Seventy-three women had paired high-risk HPV tests with a kappa of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.84. Based on these preliminary findings, a larger study to estimate the performance of the Screener for co-testing cytology and

  6. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ...-based technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  7. Cytologic diagnosis of low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms (low malignant potential and low-grade carcinoma) in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, Richard E; Bastacky, Sheldon I; Ohori, N Paul

    2003-04-01

    The 1998 World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) classification of urothelial neoplasms introduced a category called papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential (LMP) and separated it from low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (LGPUC), which was thought to yield abnormal cells in cytology specimens. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of urine cytology in diagnosing these lesions. Eighty-six paired transurethral surgical biopsy and corresponding urine cytology specimens representing the spectrum of urothelial papillary lesions were examined. Consensus diagnosis on each biopsy was made, and the distribution was as follows: 16 benign urothelium, 27 LMP, 28 LGPUC, and 15 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (HGPUC). This was followed by a blinded independent review of the urine cytology specimens by three observers. Each cytology case was marked as negative, atypical, suspicious, or positive for malignant cells by using previously published cytologic criteria. When the negative and atypical diagnoses were grouped together as "benign" and the suspicious and malignant diagnoses as "malignant," the detection rate of "malignancy" of the lesions was as follows: LMP, 37%; LGPUC, 25%; and HGPUC, 53%. The false positive rate was 6%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 94%. Detection rates of cells that were at least "atypical" were as follows: LMP, 74%; LGPUC, 79%; and HGPUC, 100%. While most of the LMP and LGPUC cases yielded cells that were at least "atypical," there was no significant difference in the distribution of cytologic diagnoses for LMP and LGPUC cases (P > 0.05). Urine cytology in the context of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification appears to be useful as a screening tool but does not appear to discriminate LMP effectively from LGPUC.

  8. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  9. p53 protein expression and CA19.9 values in differential cytological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer complicated with chronic pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Qing Mu; Guo-Feng Wang; Shu-You Peng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate p53 protein overexpression and to measure serum CA19.9 concentrations in cytological diagnosis of patients with suspected pancreatic cancer.METHODS: 24 patients with suspected pancreatic cancer due to chronic pancreatitis, had a pancreatic mass determined by imaging methods. The serum CA19.9 concentration was measured by solid phase radioimmunoassay. On laparotomy,puncture biopsy was performed, and specimens were divided into two parts for cytological diagnosis and detection of p53 protein.RESULTS: Cytology offered a sensitivity of 0.63, a specificity of 1.00, and an accuracy of 0.63. p53 protein analysis offered a sensitivity of 0.44, a specificity of 1.00, and an accuracy of 0.73. CA19.9 offered a sensitivity of 0.44, a specificity of 0.80, and an accuracy of 0.67. The combined cytology and p53 protein analysis showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 1.00, and an accuracy of 0.92. Cytology and CA19.9showed a sensitivity of 0.67, a specificity of 0.80, an accuracy of 0.67. combined cytology and p53 protein analysis and CA19.9 showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.80,and an accuracy of 0.79.CONCLUSION: Superior to any single test, the combined approach is helpful for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic cancer complicated with chronic pancreatitis.The combined cytology and p53 protein analysis offers the best diagnostic efficacy.

  10. Bladder tumour antigen (BTA stat) test compared to the urine cytology in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aiye; Wang, Xiuhua; Gao, Lan; Shi, Juan; Sun, Changyi; Wan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluate the diagnostic value of bladder tumour antigen (BTA stat) tests compared with urine cytology test in detecting bladder cancer. Methods: We searched public databases including PubMed, MEDLINE Springer, Elsevier Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar before December 2012. To collect relevant data of BTA stat tests and urine cytology tests in patients with bladder cancer, we studied meta-analyses of sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR), negative LR and diagnostic odds ratios (DOR) of BTA stat tests and cytology tests from published studies. We applied the software of Rev. Man 5.1 and Stata 11.0 to the meta-analysis. Results: A total of 13 separate studies consisting of 3462 patients with bladder cancer were considered in the meta-analysis. We found that the BTA stat test had a higher sensitivity than the urine cytology test (0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64 to 0.69 vs. 0.43, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.46), but the specificity, positive LR, negative LR, DOR, the area under the curve (AUC) and Q index of the BTA stat test were lower compared with the urine cytology test. The results of the Egger’s linear regression test showed no publication bias (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Specificity, positive LR, negative LR, DOR, the AUC and the Q index of the urine cytology test may be superior to the BTA stat test, but the BTA stat test has greater sensitivity than the urine cytology test. PMID:24940462

  11. [Risk factors for uterine cervical cancer according to results of VIA, cytology and cervicography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos, Saiwori de Jesus Silva Bezerra; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Franco, Eugênio Santana; de Almeida, Paulo César; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between risk factors for uterine cervical neoplasms and cervical lesions by HPV by comparison of the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), cytology and cervicography results. A prevalence research was made with 157 women in a health center of Fortaleza in the period of June to September 2006. The SPSS program was used to codify the data. Inferences were made through statistical tests (chi2 = chi square and LR = likelihood ratio). The VIA, cervicography and cytology obtained 43.3%, 10.19% and 3.2% of altered results. The variables with important association to cervical lesions in the VIA were: aged less than 20 years old (p = 0.0001); one or more partners in the last three months (p = 0.015); use of contraceptives (p = 0.0008); presence of vaginal discharge (p = 0.0001) and moderate or accentuated inflammatory process (p = 0.0001). In the cytology: low instructional level (p = 0.0001) and high pH (p = 0.001). It wasn't found any significant association in the cervicography.

  12. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...

  13. Fusion of freehand SPECT and ultrasound to perform ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of sentinel nodes in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bree, R.; Pouw, B.; Heuveling, D. A.; Castelijns, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Criteria for ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (USgFNAC) for the detection of occult lymph node metastasis in patients with clinically negative head and neck cancer are based on the morphology of cervical lymph nodes. To improve the selection of lymph nodes fo

  14. Automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in manual liquid-based cytology with hematoxylin and eosin staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Kong, Hui; Ting Chin, Chien; Liu, Shaoxiong; Fan, Xinmin; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2014-03-01

    Current automation-assisted technologies for screening cervical cancer mainly rely on automated liquid-based cytology slides with proprietary stain. This is not a cost-efficient approach to be utilized in developing countries. In this article, we propose the first automation-assisted system to screen cervical cancer in manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) slides with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, which is inexpensive and more applicable in developing countries. This system consists of three main modules: image acquisition, cell segmentation, and cell classification. First, an autofocusing scheme is proposed to find the global maximum of the focus curve by iteratively comparing image qualities of specific locations. On the autofocused images, the multiway graph cut (GC) is performed globally on the a* channel enhanced image to obtain cytoplasm segmentation. The nuclei, especially abnormal nuclei, are robustly segmented by using GC adaptively and locally. Two concave-based approaches are integrated to split the touching nuclei. To classify the segmented cells, features are selected and preprocessed to improve the sensitivity, and contextual and cytoplasm information are introduced to improve the specificity. Experiments on 26 consecutive image stacks demonstrated that the dynamic autofocusing accuracy was 2.06 μm. On 21 cervical cell images with nonideal imaging condition and pathology, our segmentation method achieved a 93% accuracy for cytoplasm, and a 87.3% F-measure for nuclei, both outperformed state of the art works in terms of accuracy. Additional clinical trials showed that both the sensitivity (88.1%) and the specificity (100%) of our system are satisfyingly high. These results proved the feasibility of automation-assisted cervical cancer screening in MLBC slides with H&E stain, which is highly desirable in community health centers and small hospitals.

  15. Manual liquid based cytology in primary screening for cervical cancer--a cost effective preposition for scarce resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandini, N M; Nandish, S M; Pallavi, P; Akshatha, S K; Chandrashekhar, A P; Anjali, S; Dhar, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Conventional pap smear (CPS) examination has been the mainstay for early detection of cervical cancer. However, its widespread use has not been possible due to the inherent limitations, like presence of obscuring blood and inflammation, reducing its sensitivity considerably. Automated methods in use in developed countries may not be affordable in the developing countries due to paucity of resources. On the other hand, manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) is a technique that is cost effective and improves detection of precursor lesions and specimen adequacy. Therefore the aim of the study was to compare the utility of MLBC with that of CPS in cervical cancer screening. A prospective study of 100 cases through MLBC and CPS was conducted from October 2009 to July 2010, in a Medical College in India, by two independent pathologists and correlated with histopathology (22 cases). Morphological features as seen through MLBC and CPS were compared. Subsequently, all the cases were grouped based on cytological diagnosis according to two methods into 10 groups and a subjective comparison was made. In order to compare the validity of MLBC with CPS in case of major diagnoses, sensitivity and specificity of the two methods were estimated considering histological examination as the gold standard. Increased detection rate with MLBC was 150%. The concordance rate by LBC/histopathology v/s CPS/histopathology was also improved (86% vs 77%) The percentage agreement by the two methods was 68%. MLBC was more sensitive in diagnosis of LSIL and more specific in the diagnosis of inflammation. Thus, MLBC was found to be better than CPS in diagnosis of precursor lesions. It provided better morphology with increased detection of abnormalities and preservation of specimen for cell block and ancillary studies like immunocytochemistry and HPV detection. Therefore, it can be used as alternative strategy for cervical cancer prevention in limited resource settings.

  16. HPV triage for low grade (L-SIL) cytology is appropriate for women over 35 in mass cervical cancer screening using liquid based cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Guglielmo; Cuzick, Jack; Segnan, Nereo; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Folicaldi, Stefania; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Giubilato, Pamela; Naldoni, Carlo; Polla, Enzo; Iossa, Anna; Zorzi, Manuel; Confortini, Massimo; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo

    2007-02-01

    In the experimental arm of a randomised trial, women were tested both for liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and referred for colposcopy if cytology was ASCUS (atypical cells of undetermined significance) or more severe. We considered those with ASCUS (757) or LSIL (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) (485) and a valid HPV test who received colposcopy. We computed sensitivity, specificity and ROC curves with different values of relative light units (RLU, that are related to viral load) as cut off, using cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe (CIN2+) at blind histology review as the endpoint. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was significantly less among women aged 25-34 years than in those older, both considering ASCUS/AGUS (atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance) (p=0.0355) and LSIL (p=0.0009). At age 35-60 the curves for ASCUS and LSIL were similar, while at age 25-34 the area under the curve for LSIL was significantly less than for ASCUS (p=0.0084). With LSIL cytology, specificity of Hybrid Capture 2 with 2 RLU cut-off was 35.0% (95%CI 28.4-42.1) at age 25-34 and 64.5% (95%CI 58.3-70.3) at age 35-60. In conclusion, triaging by HPV testing performed better in women aged over 35 years than those younger. For older women, HPV triaging should also be considered for managing those with LSIL cytology.

  17. Solitary metastatic cancer to the thyroid: a report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoroev Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Three men and 2 women with ages ranging from 37 to 70 years, clinically and histologically confirmed solitary, palpable metastatic cancers to the thyroid (SMCT and preoperative cytologic investigation of their thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration (FNA, were reviewed. Four patients were known to have a solid cancer treated by radical surgery 1 to 4 years prior [1 bronchogenic squamous cell carcinoma, 1 parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 renal cell carcinoma (RCC and 1 cutaneous melanoma], and 1 patient had no past history of cancer. Direct smears prepared from the patients' thyroid FNAs were fixed in 95% ethanol and stained with the Papanicolaou method. In 3 cases, immunostaining of the aspirated tumor cells with thyroglobulin antibody was performed, and in 1 case an aspiration smear was stained with commercial HMB-45 antibody. A correct cytodiagnosis of metastatic cancer to the thyroid was made in all 5 cases. In 1 patient the thyroid FNA revealed a metastatic RCC that led to the discovery of a clinically occult RCC. All 5 patients died of metastatic disease 27 to 40 months after surgical resection of their SMCTs.

  18. Human papillomavirus testing versus cytology in primary cervical cancer screening: End-of-study and extended follow-up results from the Canadian cervical cancer screening trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidean, Sandra D; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Gilbert, Laura; Reid, Stephanie L; Rodrigues, Isabel; Ferenczy, Alex; Ratnam, Sam; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-12-01

    The Canadian Cervical Cancer Screening Trial was a randomized controlled trial comparing the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and Papanicolaou cytology to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women aged 30-69 years attending routine cervical cancer screening in Montreal and St. John's, Canada (n = 10,154). We examined screening and prognostic values of enrollment cytologic and HPV testing results. Extended follow-up data were available for St. John's participants (n = 5,754; 501,682.6 person-months). HPV testing detected more CIN2+ than cytology during protocol-defined (82.9 vs. 44.4%) and extended (54.2 vs. 19.3%) follow-up periods, respectively. Three-year risks ranged from 0.87% (95% CI: 0.37-2.05) for HPV-/Pap- women to 35.77% (95% CI: 25.88-48.04) for HPV+/Pap+ women. Genotype-specific risks ranged from 0.90% (95% CI: 0.40-2.01) to 43.84% (95% CI: 32.42-57.24) among HPV- and HPV16+ women, respectively, exceeding those associated with Pap+ or HPV+ results taken individually or jointly. Ten-year risks ranged from 1.15% (95% CI: 0.60-2.19) for HPV-/Pap- women to 26.05% (95% CI: 15.34-42.13) for HPV+/Pap+ women and genotype-specific risks ranged from 1.13% (95% CI: 0.59-2.14) to 32.78% (95% CI: 21.15-48.51) among women testing HPV- and HPV16+, respectively. Abnormal cytology stratified risks most meaningfully for HPV+ women. Primary HPV testing every 3 years provided a similar or greater level of reassurance against disease risks as currently recommended screening strategies. HPV-based cervical screening may allow for greater disease detection than cytology-based screening and permit safe extensions of screening intervals; genotype-specific testing could provide further improvement in the positive predictive value of such screening.

  19. Comparison of cervical cell morphology using two different cytology techniques for early detection of pre-cancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Najla Yussuf; Khattak, Nuzhat; Alam, Muhammad Irfan; Sher, Alam; Shah, Walayat; Mobashar, Shumaila; Alam, Muhammad Imran; Javid, Asima

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is an issue of foremost importance globally, specifically affecting the developing nations. Significant advances have taken place with regard to diagnosis of cervical cancer, especially with screening. Appropriate screening measures can thus reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The most desirable screening technique should be less invasive, easy to perform, cost-effective and cover a wide range of diagnostic icons. Manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) can be considered as one of the suitable technique for screening with the above-mentioned benefits. The aim of the current study was to compare two cervical screening techniques on the basis of different morphological parameters and staining parameters by using modified acetic acid Pap staining to see the possibility of reducing time economy involved in conventional Pap staining (CPS). The study was conducted on a total 88 cases and all were analyzed with both MLBC and CPS. Forty eight cases that were regarded as satisfactory on the basis of Bethesda system by both methods were further recruited for investigation. Their morphological parameters and staining quality were compared and scored according to a scoring system defined in the study. Quality indices was calculated for both staining procedures and smear techniques.

  20. Metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland: a case diagnosed on fine-needle aspirate by a combined cytological, immunocytochemical, and molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Malapelle, Umberto; Carlomagno, Chiara; Palombini, Lucio; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with cytological evaluation reliably diagnoses primary and secondary thyroid neoplasms. However, identifying the primary origin of a metastatic process involving the thyroid gland is challenging. In particular, metastasis of colon cancer to the thyroid gland is very rare. In this case report, a right lobe solid thyroid nodule in a 66-year-old male was aspirated. FNA cytology showed necrosis and atypical tall columnar cells; since, the patient at age 60 had undergone surgery for a sigmoid-rectal cancer metastasizing to the liver and subsequently to the lung, a suspicion of metastasis from colon cancer was raised. This was corroborated by cell-block immunocytochemistry showing a cytokeratin (CK) 7 negative/CK20-positive staining pattern; thyreoglobulin and TTF-1 were both negative. Since KRAS codon 12/13 mutations frequently occur in colon cancer, whereas they are extremely uncommon in primary thyroid tumors, DNA was extracted from the aspirated cells, and KRAS mutational analysis was carried out. The codon 12 G12D mutation was found; the same mutation was evident in the primary cancer of the colon and in its liver and lung metastasis. Thus, a combined cytological, immunocytochemical and molecular approach unquestionably correlated metastatic adenocarcinoma cells aspirated from the thyroid to a colo-rectal origin.

  1. Improving the Utilization of Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cytology Co-testing for Cervical Cancer Screening in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Kurt; Karimoto, Maxine; Marzo, Christina; Kaneshiro, Bliss; Hiraoka, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing in combination with cervical cytology (HPV co-testing) has been recommended for cervical cancer screening for women 30 to 65 years of age. In several studies, HPV co-testing increased sensitivity for detecting high grade dysplasia and resulted in cost-savings. This retrospective cohort study assessed the prevalence of HPV co-testing in an obstetrics and gynecology resident clinic before and after a brief educational intervention which was designed to reinforce current cervical cancer screening recommendations. The intervention consisted of a short presentation that was given to all residents and medical assistants in October 2011. The proportion of women age 30-65 years of age who had cervical cancer screening with HPV co-testing as compared to cervical cytology alone was compared before and after the intervention using chi-square tests. The goal of the intervention was to increase the percentage of patients receiving co-testing from 0.5% to 7.8%. Each arm (pre- and post-intervention) required 130 subjects to achieve 80% power with a significance of P = .05. No significant differences in demographics including age, insurance type, and cytology were noted. HPV co-testing increased from 0% to 55% (P cervical cancer screening for another 5 years. HPV co-testing represents an underutilized cervical cancer screening modality for women 30 years and older. This brief educational intervention, adaptable to any clinical setting, significatnly increased co-testing at the clinical site.

  2. Clinical impact of bladder biopsies with TUR-BT according to cytology results in patients with bladder cancer: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Kazuhiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There seems to be no consensus concerning taking bladder biopsies during transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT. We investigate the clinical significance of bladder biopsy with TUR-BT and the relationship between urinary cytology and the biopsy results. Methods We reviewed a total of 424 patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treated with TUR-BT between 1998 and 2005. Of the total, 293 patients also underwent a bladder biopsy. Biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium (N = 59 and those from normal-appearing urothelium (N = 234 were evaluated separately. Results Bladder cancer was observed in 23 cases (39.0% who underwent a biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium. Among these 23 cases, 9 cases with visible tumor resection had carcinoma in situ (CIS only in the biopsies from suspicious-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was negative in 3 of the 9 cases. Bladder cancer was observed in 26 cases (11.1% who underwent a biopsy of normal-appearing urothelium. Of them, 5 cases with visible tumors had CIS only in the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium. Urinary cytology was positive in all of the 5 cases. No upstaging or upgrading cases were found in these patients by the addition of these two types of biopsy. Furthermore, therapy was not altered in these patients. With or without bladder biopsy was not a significant factor for tumor recurrence in either the univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusions Based on the results, it is concluded the multiple biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary in patients with negative cytology results because of the low detection rate and lack of influence on therapeutic decisions. Meanwhile, biopsy of suspicious-appearing urothelium is needed in patients with negative cytology results in order to detect CIS due to staging properties. This result supports a recent EAU guideline.

  3. Usefulness of the UBC{sup TM} (urinary bladder cancer) test compared to urinary cytology for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in patients with hematuria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Myung Cheol; Kang, Do Young; Seong, Youl Koon [School of Medicine, Donaga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2001-06-01

    Urinary cytology and cystoscopic exam are effective methods for diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). But the former shows drawbacks such as the need for a well-trained examiner, and wide imprecision related to the variability of microscopic exam; the latter is a invasive method. UBC{sup TM} test detects the epitope on specific cytokeratin fragments released from epithelium of bladder cancer by immunoradiometric assay. We compared UBC{sup TM} test with urinary cytology for diagnosis of TCC to evaluate the utility of UBC{sup TM} test. Eighty-four patients with hematuria were included in our study, UBC{sup TM} tests (IDL Biotech, Sweden) were assayed in mid-stream urine according to the ordinary assay protocol. Nineteen patients were confirmed as TCC by cystoscopic examination and underwent transurethral resection (Group A). Other patients had various benign urinary tract conditions (Group B). Samples were considered positive as the UBC{sup TM} concentration was greater than 12 {mu}g/L. UBC{sup TM} levels were significantly different between group A (95.9 {+-}166.4 {mu}g/L) and group B (19.2 {+-} 85.6 {mu}g/L)(p<0.001). Sensitivity for diagnosis of TCC was 89.5% (17/19) in UBC test and 47.4% (9/19) in cytology (p<0.05). Specificity for diagnosis of TCC was 81.5% (53/65) in UBC{sup TM} test and 100% (65/65) in cytology. UBC{sup TM} test was significantly more sensitive in stage Ta, T{sub 1} tumors (84.6 vs 38.5%, p<0.05) and in grade I (83.3% vs 16.7%, p<005) than cytology. UBC{sup TM} test showed a tendency to be more sensitive as the grade was higher (83.3% in Grade 1, 90% in Grade II and 100% in Grade III). UBC{sup TM} test could be a useful method in distinguishing TCC from other benign genitourinary diseases. Moreover, UBC{sup TM} test could be an especially valuable marker for diagnosis of TCC in patients with early TCC of low grade TCC compared to urinary cytology. Therefore, mbined use of UBC{sup TM} test in association with cytology is helpful to

  4. Analysis of silver binding nucleolar organizer regions in exfoliative cytology smears of potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, G V; Nahar, P; Astekar, M; Agarwal, H; Singh, M P

    2017-01-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions are nucleolar components that contain proteins that are stained selectively by silver methods; they can be identified as black dots throughout the nucleolus and are known as silver binding nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR). The number of AgNOR is related to the cell cycle and the proliferative activity of the cells. We investigated AgNOR using exfoliative cytology smears of potentially malignant oral lesions. Eighty individuals were divided into four equal groups: healthy controls, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The mean number of AgNOR in each study group gradually increased from control to oral leukoplakia to oral submucous fibrosis to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The proliferative index was increased in the oral premalignant and malignant patients compared to normal subjects. The mean AgNOR size gradually increased from control to oral leukoplakia to oral submucous fibrosis to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Spherical shaped AgNOR were most common in controls, whereas large, clustered and kidney shapes were most common in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Multiparameter analysis of AgNOR in oral exfoliative smears is a simple, sensitive and cost-effective method for differentiating premalignant from malignant lesions and can be used in conjunction with routine cytomorphological evaluation.

  5. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CYTOLOGIC AND COLPOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PRECLINICAL CERVICAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penagaluru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The cytologic diagnosis of cervical smears has become a very important screening test for the detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical epithelial abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study conducted for a period of 1 year in 100 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Colposcopy, PAP smear and biopsy were done. RESULTS Majority 70.5% i.e., (12/17 of CIN occurred in the age group of 30-49 years. Among the 9 women who took OCP, 12% (2/17 had CIN. Incidence of CIN in the permanently sterilized group was 59% (10/17 and among IUCD user was 5.9% (1/17. Among women who were diagnosed to have CIN, 70.5% (12/17 complained of excessive vaginal discharge 11.7% (2/17 of women had post-coital bleeding. PAP smear had a sensitivity of 29% and a specificity of 88% which was attributed to the high number of false, negative smears. Colposcopy showed a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 81%. Sensitivity was more than pap smear but specificity was less than pap smear. Accuracy of Colposcopy was found to be 82% which was comparatively more accurate than pap smear (78%. CONCLUSIONS COLPOSCOPY offers an excellent tool in evaluating cervical lesions. It is an easy and perspective method and its importance lies in teaching, diagnosis and management of cervical lesions, both neoplastic and non-neoplastic.

  6. Translational potential of cancer stem cells: A review of the detection of cancer stem cells and their roles in cancer recurrence and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y

    2015-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells with many clinical implications in most cancer types. One important clinical implication of CSCs is their role in cancer metastases, as reflected by their ability to initiate and drive micro and macro-metastases. The other important contributing factor for CSCs in cancer management is their function in causing treatment resistance and recurrence in cancer via their activation of different signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Hedgehog, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT pathways. Thus, many different therapeutic approaches are being tested for prevention and treatment of cancer recurrence. These may include treatment strategies targeting altered genetic signalling pathways by blocking specific cell surface molecules, altering the cancer microenvironments that nurture cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation of CSCs, immunotherapy based on CSCs associated antigens, exploiting metabolites to kill CSCs, and designing small interfering RNA/DNA molecules that especially target CSCs. Because of the huge potential of these approaches to improve cancer management, it is important to identify and isolate cancer stem cells for precise study and application of prior the research on their role in cancer. Commonly used methodologies for detection and isolation of CSCs include functional, image-based, molecular, cytological sorting and filtration approaches, the use of different surface markers and xenotransplantation. Overall, given their significance in cancer biology, refining the isolation and targeting of CSCs will play an important role in future management of cancer.

  7. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth.

  8. Etiologic factors related to unsatisfactory ThinPrep® cervical cytology: Evaluation and potential solutions to improve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Kalinicheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In cervical cytology, the unsatisfactory rates for ThinPrep (TP are slightly higher compared to SurePath. We examined various causes and explored potential for resolution of this discrepancy. Materials and Methods: Totally, 19,422 cases were reviewed and 1000 unsatisfactory specimens were selected and analyzed. 531 specimens were available for wash protocol. Out of 114 unsatisfactory specimens associated with atrophic cellular changes (ACC, 48 were resubmitted by provider and reevaluated. Results: Lubricant and lubricant-like debris/contamination (LUBE was the most common cause of unsatisfactory specimens (68%; 681/1000 followed by blood (7.5%; ACC only (without other interfering factors (2.4%; inflammation (3.0%; and combinations thereof (1.9%. 11.5% showed scant cellularity without an identifiable cause. 3.3% were virtually acellular. Wash protocol improved cellularity in 48% (256/531 of cases. However, only 29% (73/256 of those were satisfactory (with more than 5000 cells. Quantitative reduction in LUBE after wash protocol varied with different morphological subtypes. Interpretation patterns on satisfactory specimens after wash protocol were comparable to the results on selected cohort of specimens during the same study period. Out of 114 ACC, wash protocol was performed on 68 ACC specimens leading to satisfactory TP in 24% (16/68. Totally, 48 cases reported as unsatisfactory with ACC, were resubmitted by the providers between 2 weeks and 2 years. 44 (92% showed increased cellularity, out of which 52% (23/44 did not show ACC. Conclusion: LUBE was the most common cause of unsatisfactory TP in addition to interference by blood and association with atrophic changes. Knowing the morphological spectrum of LUBE would help to identify it as the cause of "unsatisfactory" TP. Communicating the cause of unsatisfactory TP such as LUBE, ACC, and blood would hint the provider to take appropriate precaution during submission of the repeat

  9. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening: Cytology versus human papillomavirus DNA testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To determine the most cost-effective screening programme for cervical cancer. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Setting The Netherlands. Population Dutch women who have not been invited for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods We calibra

  10. The influence of urine cytology on our practice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Bladder cancer is a common malignancy. It is ranked ninth among male population in Saudi Arabia. Urine cytology is used by some physicians routinely in the workup for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with urothelial cancer. Our objective is to determine whether urine cytology is still essential in the work up of suspected urothelial cancer patients and to measure its cost-effectiveness. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all urine cytology reports that were performed over a ...

  11. Outcome of patients with early stage oral cancer managed by an observation strategy towards the N0 neck using ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology: No survival difference as compared to elective neck dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, G.B.; Tenhagen, M.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; van der Waal, I.; Bloemena, E.; Kuik, D.J.; Castelijns, J.A.; Leemans, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Management of the clinically N0 neck in oral cancer patients remains controversial. We describe the outcome of patients with T1-T2 oral cancer and N0 neck based on ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (USgFNAC) who were treated by transoral excision and followed by a ‘wait an

  12. Does pleural fluid appearance really matter? The relationship between fluid appearance and cytology, cell counts, and chemical laboratory measurements in pleural effusions of patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcakar Bulent

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested that the appearance of pleural effusions (i.e., the presence or absence of blood might help to establish the etiology of the effusions. This study explores the relationship between pleural fluid appearance and the results of chemical and cytological analyses in a group of patients with recurrent symptomatic pleural effusions and a diagnosis of cancer. Methods Medical records were reviewed from all 390 patients who were diagnosed with cancer, who underwent thoracentesis before placement of an intrapleural catheter (IPC between April 2000 and January 2006. Adequate information for data analysis was available in 365 patients. The appearance of their pleural fluid was obtained from procedure notes dictated by the pulmonologists who had performed the thoracenteses. The patients were separated into 2 groups based on fluid appearance: non-bloody and bloody. Group differences in cytology interpretation were compared by using the chi square test. Cellular counts, chemical laboratory results, and survival after index procedure were compared by using the student's t test. Results Pleural fluid cytology was positive on 82.5% of the non-bloody effusions and on 82.4% of the bloody ones. The number of red blood cells (220.5 × 103/μL vs. 12.3 × 103/μL and LDH values (1914 IU/dl vs. 863 IU/dl were statistically higher in bloody pleural effusions. Conclusion The presence or absence of blood in pleural effusions cannot predict their etiology in patients with cancer and recurrent symptomatic pleural effusions.

  13. Meta-analysis of type-specific human papillomavirus prevalence in Iranian women with normal cytology, precancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer: Implications for screening and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Tohidi, Hamid Reza; Hamkar, Rasool

    2015-02-01

    To predict the impact of current vaccines on cervical cancer and for the improvement of screening programs, regional data on distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with or without cervical cancer is crucial. The present meta-analysis intend to comprehensively evaluate the HPV burden in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology, as these data will help decision making in regards with screening programs and HPV vaccination in Iran. To determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in Iranian women with or without cervical cancer, 20 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. In total, 713, 124, 104, 60, and 2577 women invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal were reviewed, respectively. Overall HPV prevalence in women with invasive cervical cancer, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 and 3), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and normal cytology were 77.4%, 71.8%, 65.3%, 61.7%, and 8.4%, respectively. The six most common types were HPV 16, 18, 6/11, 31, and 33; among them HPV 16 was the most frequent type in all five different groups. According to this study, it was estimated that HPV vaccines could have a great impact on prevention of cervical cancer in Iran. In conclusion, this meta-analysis highlights the necessity of introducing vaccination program in Iran.

  14. Prognostic factors of T4 gastric cancer patients undergoing potentially curative resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoto Fukuda; Yasuyuki Sugiyama; Joji Wada

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prognostic factors of T4 gas-tric cancer patients without distant metastasis who could undergo potentially curative resection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 71 consecutive patients diagnosed with T4 gas-tric cancer and who underwent curative gastrectomy at our institutions. The clinicopathological factors that could be associated with overall survival were evalu-ated. The cumulative survival was determined by the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate comparisons be-tween the groups were performed using the log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model and a step-wise procedure.RESULTS: The study patients comprised 53 men (74.6%) and 18 women (25.4%) aged 39-89 years (mean, 68.9 years). Nineteen patients (26.8%) had postoperative morbidity: pancreatic fistula developed in 6 patients (8.5%) and was the most frequent compli-cation, followed by anastomosis stricture in 5 patients (7.0%). During the follow-up period, 28 patients (39.4%) died because of gastric cancer recurrence, and 3 (4.2%) died because of another disease or accident. For all patients, the estimated overall survival was 34.1% at 5 years. Univariate analyses identified the following statis-tically significant prognostic factors in T4 gastric cancer patients who underwent potentially curative resection: peritoneal washing cytology (P < 0.01), number of met-astatic lymph nodes (P < 0.05), and venous invasion (P < 0.05). In multivariate analyses, only peritoneal wash-ing cytology was identified as an independent prognos-tic factor (HR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.37-9.57) for long-term survival. CONCLUSION: Positive peritoneal washing cytology was the only independent poor prognostic factor for T4 gastric cancer patients who could be treated with potentially curative resection.

  15. The Effects of Instrumentation on Urine Cytology and CK-20 Analysis for the Detection of Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegelin, Olivier; Bartels, Diny W M; Tromp, Ellen; Kuypers, Karel C.; Van Melick, Harm H E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of cystoscopy on urine cytology and additional cytokeratin-20 (CK-20) staining in patients presenting with gross hematuria. Patients and Methods For 83 patients presenting with gross hematuria, spontaneous and instrumented paired urine samples were analyzed. Three p

  16. Touch imprint cytology of prostate core needle biopsy specimens: A useful method for immediate reporting of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aytac

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: TIC smears can provide an immediate and reliable cytological diagnosis of prostate carcinoma. It may clearly help the rapid detection of carcinoma, particularly in highly suspected cases that had negative routine biopsy results for malignancy with abnormal serum prostate specific antigen (PSA levels and atypical digital rectal examination.

  17. Abnormal cervical cytology and health care use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Maria Eiholm; Baillet, Miguel Vázquez-Prada; Dugué, Pierre-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized cervi...... they have the abnormal cytology. This difference is further enhanced after the abnormal cytology result.......OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the long-term use of health care services in women with abnormal cytology results compared to women with normal cytology results. METHODS: We did a nationwide population-based study, using women aged 23 to 59years participating in the national organized...... cervical cancer screening program. We included a study population of 40,153 women with abnormal cytology (exposed) and 752,627 women with normal cytology (non-exposed). We retrieved data from the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Pathology Data Bank, the National Health Service, the National...

  18. p16 INK4a immunocytochemistry on cell blocks as an adjunct to cervical cytology: Potential reflex testing on specially prepared cell blocks from residual liquid-based cytology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod B Shidham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: p16 INK4a (p16 is a well-recognized surrogate molecular marker for human papilloma virus (HPV related squamous dysplasia. Our hypothesis is that the invasive interventions and related morbidities could be avoided by objective stratification of positive cytologic interpretations by p16 immunostaining of cell block sections of cytology specimens. Materials and Methods: Nuclear immunoreactivity for p16 was evaluated in cell block sections in 133 adequate cases [20 negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, 28 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, 50 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, 21 atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H, and 14 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS] and analyzed with cervical biopsy results. Results: (a HSIL cytology (28: 21 (75% were p16 positive (11 biopsies available - 92% were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 1 and above and 7 (25% were p16 negative (3 biopsies available - all showed only HPV with small atypical parakeratotic cells. (b LSIL cytology (50: 13 (26% cases were p16 positive (12 biopsies available - all were CIN1 or above and 37 (74% were p16 negative (12 biopsies available - all negative for dysplasia. However, 9 (75% of these biopsies showed HPV. (c ASC-H cytology (21: 14 (67% were p16 positive (6 biopsies available - 5 showed CIN 3/Carcinoma in situ/Ca and 1 showed CIN 1 with possibility of under-sampling. Cytomorphologic re-review favored HSIL and 7 (33% were p16 negative (5 biopsies available - 3 negative for dysplasia. Remaining 2 cases - 1 positive for CIN 3 and 1 showed CIN 1 with scant ASC-H cells on cytomorphologic re-review with possibility under-sampling in cytology specimen. (d ASCUS cytology (14: All (100% were p16 negative on cell block sections of cervical cytology specimen. HPV testing performed in last 6 months in 7 cases was positive in 3 (43% cases. Conclusion: p16 immunostaining on cell block

  19. 液基细胞学检测在肺癌诊断中的价值%Clinical Value of Liquid-based Cytology Test in Brushing Examination of Patients with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉娟

    2011-01-01

    液基细胞学检测(LCT)是在传统细胞涂片的基础上,从标本收集、保存、制片、染色到诊断等各方面进行了重大改进,已成功应用于宫颈细胞学诊断.用于肺癌的细胞学诊断报道并不多,液基细胞学可以检测肺癌患者不同标本(包括脱落细胞学、黏膜刷检细胞学、肺泡灌洗和针吸细胞学等)的敏感度和符合率,现就LCT在肺癌诊断中的价值予以综述.%Liquid-based cytology test ( LCT ) was developed greatly based on coventional smear in sample collection, sample preservation, staining method, preparation method and diagnosis. It has been applied for cervical cytological diagnosis successfully. However, there are few reports about LCT for cytological diagnosis of lung cancer at present. Here is to review the research progress of LCT applied in cytological diagnosis of patients with lung cancer by detecting sputum, pleural effusion, bronchial brushing specimen, bronchioalveolar lavage fluid and find needle aspiration cytology.

  20. Analysis on liquid-based cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer%宫颈癌筛查中液基细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赫

    2009-01-01

    目的:评价液基细胞学(LPT)薄片制片对宫颈癌筛查的准确性.方法:对3 600例和2 200例受检者分别进行LPT制片和传统宫颈细胞涂片法进行宫颈癌筛查.细胞诊断采用TBS分级系统,阳性诊断包括意义不明的不典型鳞状上皮(ASCUS)以上病变.所有ASCUS以上病变的受检者全部在阴道镜下活检.结果:LPT薄片法和传统涂片法对ASCUS以上病变检出阳性率分别为10.5%和5.2%,两种检测方法的阳性率差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);两种制片方法的阳性结果与病理检查符合率比较:LPT薄片法检出SCC、HSIL、LSIL与阴道镜活检阳性符合率分别为100%、91%、82%,传统宫颈巴氏涂片法检出SCC、HSIL、LSIL与阴道镜活检阳性符合率分别为100%、60%、53%,两种方法比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:LPT液基细胞学检查敏感性明显高于传统宫颈细胞涂片法,能大大提高检出率,尤其是对宫颈癌前筛查的患者.%Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of liquid-based cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer. Methods: 3 600 and 2 200 subjects were screened for cervical cancer by liquid-based cytology test and traditional cervical cells smears, respectively. Cell diagnosis adopted TBS-group system, positive diagnosis included above-ASCUS pathological changes. All the subjects of above-ASCUS pathological changes were examined under colposcopo. Results: The detection rates of above-ASCUS pathological changes identified by liq-uid-based cytology test and traditional smears were 10. 5% and 5.2 %, respectively (P < 0. 01) . The coincidence rates of SCC, HSIL and LSIL detected by liquid-based cytology test and biopsy under eolposcepe were 100%, 91% and 82%, respectively, while the coinci-dence rates detected by traditional cervical cells smears and biopsy under colposcope were 100%, 60% and 53%, respectively (P <0. 05)Conclusion: The sensitivity and detection rate of liquid-based cytology test are higher than those

  1. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II/III and cervical cancer in patients with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells when high-grade intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H cannot be ruled out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cytryn

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The latest update of the Bethesda System divided the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS into ASC-US (undetermined significance and ASC-H (high-grade intraepithelial lesion cannot be ruled out. The aims here were to measure the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN II/III and cervical cancer among patients referred to Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF with ASC-H cytology, and compare them with ASC-US cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, at the IFF Cervical Pathology outpatient clinic. METHODS: ASCUS cases referred to IFF from November 1997 to September 2007 were reviewed according to the 2001 Bethesda System to reach cytological consensus. The resulting ASC-H and ASC-US cases, along with new cases, were analyzed relative to the outcome of interest. The histological diagnosis (or cytocolposcopic follow-up in cases without such diagnosis was taken as the gold standard. RESULTS: The prevalence of CIN II/III in cases with ASC-H cytology was 19.29% (95% confidence interval, CI, 9.05-29.55% and the risk of these lesions was greater among patients with ASC-H than with ASC-US cytology (prevalence ratio, PR, 10.42; 95% CI, 2.39-45.47; P = 0.0000764. Pre-invasive lesions were more frequently found in patients under 50 years of age with ASC-H cytology (PR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.38-18.83; P = 0.2786998. There were no uterine cervical cancer cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CIN II/III in patients with ASC-H cytology was significantly higher than with ASC-US, and division into ASC diagnostic subcategories had good capacity for discriminating the presence of pre-invasive lesions.

  2. HPV检测联合液基细胞学对宫颈癌筛查的临床研究%Clinical Study on HPV Test Combined With Thinprep Cytologic Test in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长虹

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析HPV检测联合液基细胞学在宫颈癌筛查中的临床应用。方法8000例接受宫颈癌筛查的女性分别对其进行HPV检测和液基细胞学检查,比较HPV检测联合液基细胞学检查、HPV检测及液基细胞学检查三种检查方法对各期宫颈病变的检测阳性率。结果HPV+TCT检测对早期瘤样病变和癌变的检出率为69.6%,高于HPV检测的55.6%和TCT检测的64.1%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 HPV检测联合液基细胞学检查对宫颈癌早期病变和癌变检出率高。%ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical use of HPV test combined with liquid-based cytology in cervical cancer screening.Methods 8 000 women undergoing cervical cancer screening received HPV test and liquid-based cytology test,the positive rate of al stages of cervical lesion detected by HPV test combined with liquid-based cytology,HPV test and liquid-based cytology were compared.ResultsThe detection rate of early neoplasia and canceration rate by HPV+CT detection was 69.6%,higher than that of HPV detection(55.6%)and TCT detection(64.1%),the difference was significant(P<0.05).Conclusion HPV detection combined with liquid-based cytology has high detection rate of early cervical neoplasia and canceration rate.

  3. 纤维支气管镜术后痰细胞学检查在肺癌诊断中的意义%Value of Sputum Cytology for Postoperative Patients Underwent Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马家兰; 黄晓霞; 肖卫; 许菊秀; 陈振平; 李芬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of sputum cytology in the diagnosis of lung cancer for postoperative patients who underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Methods 120 patients accepted 2-3 sputum cytological examinations before fiberoptic bronchoscopy and 1 -4 days after fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Results Among the 120 cases 79 cases were diagnosed as lung cancer ,75 cases were confirmed by different examinations including sputum cytology before fiberoptic bronchoscopy, brush cytology, biopsy, liquid washing and postoperative sputum cytology- 23 cases of cancer were found in p/eoperative sputum cytology. the positive rale was 29. 1% ,the cytotyping accuracy was 63. 6% in squamous carcinoma,60. 0% in adenocarcinoma and 66. 7% in small cell carcinoma. 42 cases of cancer were found in postoperative sputum cytology,the positive rate was 53. 2% ,the cytotyping accuracy was 87.5% in squamous carcinoma,88.2% in adenocarcinoma and 83.3% in small cell carcinoma. Conclusion Sputum cytology for postoperative patients who underwent fiberoptic bronchoscopy can increase the detectable rate of lung cancer. The positive rate and accuracy of postoperative sputum cytology are better than that of preoperative sputum cytology. The postoperative sputum cytology is noninvasive, safe and repeatable, it is worthy of clinical application.%目的 观察纤维支气管镜术后痰细胞学检查对肺癌的诊断价值.方法 对120例行纤维支气管镜患者术前送2~3次痰细胞学,术后第1~4天送2~3次痰细胞学检查.结果 120例有79例确诊为肺癌,其中75例通过术前痰检,纤支镜刷检、活检、冲洗液及术后痰检联合检查确诊肺癌,术前痰细胞学检出癌23例,阳性率29.1%,其细胞学分类与组织学活检分类符合率鳞癌63.6%、腺癌60.0%、小细胞癌66.7%.术后痰细胞学检出癌42例,阳性率53.20%,术后痰检与组织活检符合率鳞癌87.5%、腺癌88.2%、小细胞癌83.3%%.结论 纤维支气管镜检结

  4. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyazadeh SR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology. Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to express a large amount of telomerase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible application of voided urine human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT mRNA assay in detecting low-grade bladder carcinoma in comparison with urine cytology. "nMethods: Voided urine samples were collected from 49 patients who were supposed to go under operation. Samples were examined by both Quantitative Real-time RT-PCR (for measuring hTERT mRNA level and cytology; the results were then compared to the final pathologic studies. "nResults: Regardless of clinical stage and or pathological grade of tumor, sensitivity of telomerase test and urine cytology was 74% and 16% respectively. There was a strong correlation between results of urine cytology and stage and/or grade of tumor; however, sensitivity of telomerase test was acceptable regardless of stage and or grade of tumor. There was a statistically significant difference between sensitivity of urine cytology and telomerase test (p<0.001. "nConclusion: Detection of hTERT-mRNA can potentially be used as a non-invasive method for diagnosis and follow up of bladder carcinoma instead of urine cytology.

  5. Telomere Length Polymorphisms: A Potential Factor Underlying Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in African American Men and Familial Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    markers to allow specific identification of prostate cancer cells in urine cytology specimens. 10 Role: PI Patrick C. Walsh Prostate Cancer Research...Detection of Prostate Cancer in Urine by Multiplex Immunofluorescence and Telomere FISH – Guiding Clinical Decisions Following Negative Prostate

  6. "Comparison of ultrasound findings with cytologic results in Thyroid nodules "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Razmpa E

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The nodular thyroid diseas is one of the most common disturbances o the thyroid gland wheras malignant tumors are among the most unusual entities of it. Not only differentiation of these two spectra but also the problems to achieve early diagnosis and treatment, have been a matter of concern, research, and controversy. Two hundred patients were assessed at the Cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital as a retrospective research, considering the aim of evaluating and comparing the results of ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology with the postoperative histopathologic report. The ultrosound findings included location, number, size, feature, echogenicity, and presence of calcification; and those of the fine needle aspiration cytology consisted of benign, malignant, and suspicious samples. The cases mentioned as recurrent cancer or metastases of previous thyroid cancer were omitted from the study. In this research we found a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 92.3% , 76.4% and 88.1%, respectively , for fine needle aspiration cytology and also showed that the sensitivity and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of malignant lesions of solid nodules was more than in cystic or mixed nodules of thyroid. Moreover, the incidence of false negatives in malignant cases of the studied sample was 7.7% (11/43. This rate was very higher in mixed and cystic lesions compared to benign ones (20% versus 5.7%. According to ultrasound findings, we showed that micro-calcificantion had a significant higher frequency in malignant nodules in comparision with the benign ones (4% in benign lesions versus 35% in malignant ones. The rate of malignancy in solid lesions revealed a significant increment compared to cystic and mixed nodules (P<0.0001. Moreover, the potential for malignancy in nodules with low echogenicity was very higher than high echogenicity producting nodules.

  7. Nipple aspirate fluid and ductoscopy to detect breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Edward R; Klein-Szanto, Andres; Macgibbon, Brenda; Ehya, Hormoz

    2010-04-01

    We prospectively performed cytologic assessment and image analysis (IA) on matched nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and mammary ductoscopy (MD) specimens to determine (1) the accuracy of these methods in cancer detection and (2) whether the two collection methods provide complementary information.NAF and MD specimens were collected from 84 breasts from 75 women (nine bilateral samples) who underwent breast surgery. Cytologic evaluation was performed on all samples. IA was performed on slides with sufficient epithelial cells.Cytologic evaluation proved more accurate in patients without pathologic spontaneous nipple discharge (PND) than those with PND, mainly because of the potential false positive diagnosis in the latter. While the sensitivity of NAF and MD cytology was low (10% and 14%, respectively), both were 100% specific in cancer detection in the non-PND cohort. Combining NAF and MD cytology information improved sensitivity (24%) without sacrificing specificity. Similar to cytology, IA was more accurate in patients without PND having high specificity (100% for aneuploid IA), but relatively low sensitivity (36%). Combining NAF and MD cytology with aneuploid IA improved the sensitivity (45%) while maintaining high specificity (100%). The best predictive model was positive NAF cytology and/or MD cytology combined with IA aneuploidy, which resulted in 55% sensitivity and 100% specificity in breast cancer detection.Cytologic evaluation and IA of NAF and MD specimens are complementary. The presence of atypical cells arising from an intraductal papilloma in ductoscopic specimens is a potential source of false positive diagnosis in patients with nipple discharge.

  8. 纤支镜下液基细胞学检查对肺癌患者的诊断效果%The diagnostic effect of liquid based cytology test with fiberoptic bronchoscopy in lung cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 陈张琴; 李瑛; 王晓苏; 费春利

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨纤支镜下液基细胞学检查对肺癌患者的诊断效果.方法 选择本院临床怀疑和诊断肺癌患者288例为研究对象,所有患者的纤支镜刷检标本同时送液基细胞学和传统细胞学检测,并与组织病理诊断结果比较.结果 液基细胞学诊断的特异性为97.3%(36/37),敏感性为75.3%(189/251),准确性为78.1%(225/288).传统细胞学诊断的特异性为91.9%(34/37),敏感性为59.0%(148/251),准确性为63.2%(182/288).液基细胞学诊断的敏感性和准确性高于传统细胞学诊断(P<0.005).结论 纤支镜下液基细胞学检查有较高的特异性和分析准确性,优于传统细胞学检查,在临床中有较高的应用价值.%Objective To explore the diagnostic effect of liquid based cytology test with fiberoptic bronchos-copy in lung cancer patients. Methods 288 lung cancer patients were selected as the research object, all patients were examined by the test of liquid based cytology and conventional cytology at the same time. Results The specific-ity of liquid based cytological diagnosis was 97. 3% (36/37), the sensitivity was 75. 3% (189/251), and the accu-racy was 78. 1% (225/288). The specificity of the diagnosis was 91. 9% (34/37), the sensitivity was 59% (148/251), and the accuracy was 63. 2% (182/288). The sensitivity and accuracy of liquid based cytology were higher than that of conventional cytology ( P<0. 005 ) . Conclusion The liquid based cytology test has a high specificity and accuracy, which is superior to the conventional cytology, and it has a high application value in clinic.

  9. Biospectroscopy insights into the multi-stage process of cervical cancer development: probing for spectral biomarkers in cytology to distinguish grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purandare, Nikhil C; Patel, Imran I; Trevisan, Júlio; Bolger, Noel; Kelehan, Ronan; von Bünau, Günther; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Prendiville, Walter J; Martin, Francis L

    2013-07-21

    Cervical cancer screening programmes have greatly reduced the burden associated with this disease. However, conventional cervical cytology screening still lacks sensitivity and specificity. There is an urgent need for the development of a low-cost robust screening technique. By generating a spectral "biochemical-cell fingerprint", Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been touted as a tool capable of segregating grades of dysplasia. A total of 529 specimens were collected over a period of one year at two colposcopy centres in Dublin, Ireland. Of these, n = 128 were conventionally classed as high-grade, n = 186 as low-grade and n = 215 as normal. Following FTIR spectroscopy, derived spectra were examined for segregation between classes in scores plots generated with subsequent multivariate analysis. A degree of crossover between classes was noted and this could be associated with imperfect conventional screening resulting in an inaccurate diagnosis or an incomplete transition between classes. Maximal crossover associated with n = 102 of 390 specimens analyzed was found between normal and low-grade specimens. However, robust spectral differences (P≤ 0.0001) were still observed at 1512 cm(-1), 1331 cm(-1) and 937 cm(-1). For high-grade vs. low-grade specimens, spectral differences (P≤ 0.0001) were observed at Amide I (1624 cm(-1)), Amide II (1551 cm(-1)) and asymmetric phosphate stretching vibrations (νasPO2(-); 1215 cm(-1)). Least crossover (n = 50 of 343 specimens analyzed) was seen when comparing high-grade vs. normal specimens; significant inter-class spectral differences (P≤ 0.0001) were noted at Amide II (1547 cm(-1)), 1400 cm(-1) and 995 cm(-1). Deeper understanding of the underlying changes in the transition between cervical cytology classes (normal vs. low-grade vs. high-grade) is required in order to develop biospectroscopy tools as a screening approach. This will then allow for the development of blind classification algorithms.

  10. Clinical comparison between traditional Bethesda smears and liquid-based cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer%两种宫颈癌筛查方法对比研究及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新敏; 古雅丽

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨传统巴氏涂片法和液基细胞学法在宫颈癌筛查中的临床意义.方法:分别对12302例和15750例患者分别进行传统巴氏涂片法和液基细胞学检测的宫颈癌筛查.对细胞学阳性者进行阴道镜下活检并分析结果.结果:传统巴氏涂片法和液基细胞学检测的阳性检出率分别为5.45%和6.06%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);两种方法与活检符合率分别为22.84%和55.57%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两种方法的假阳性率分别为77.16%和44.42%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:液基细胞学检测用于宫颈癌的筛查与活检的符合率高,假阳性率低,优于传统巴氏涂片,值得在临床推广应用.%Objective: To explore clinical value of traditional Bethesda smears and liquid - based cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer. Methods: Traditional Bethesda smears and liquid-based cytology test were used to screen 12302 and 15750 subjects with cervical cancer, respectively. Biopsy under the colposcope was performed for the subjects with the positive outcome of cytological examination. Results: The positive rates identified by traditional Bethesda smears and liquid-based cytology test were 5.45% and 6.06%, respectively (P>0.05). The coincidence positive rate for traditional Bethesda smear and biopsy under the colposcope was 22.84%. The coincidence positive rate for liquid-based cytology test and biopsy under the colposcope was 55.57% (P<0.05). The fake positive rates for traditional Bethesda smear and liquid-based cytology test were 77.16% and 44.42%, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Liquid-based cytology test is worth to be recommended in the clinical examination of cervical cancer due to its higher coincidence rate with pathological examination and its lower fake-positive rate.

  11. A review of reporting systems and terminology for urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Christopher L; Vandenbussche, Christopher J; Burroughs, Frances H; Rosenthal, Dorothy L

    2013-01-01

    Urine cytology continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma, a common cancer of adults with significant morbidity and mortality. Because of its high sensitivity for high-grade urothelial tumors, including lesions that may be cystoscopically occult, urine cytology nicely compliments cystoscopic examination, a method that detects most low-grade tumors. Over the decades, several reporting schemes for urine cytology have been published in the literature, each of which has relative strengths and weaknesses. Unlike cervical cytology, there has not been widespread acceptance and use of any particular reporting scheme for urine cytology studies. Thus, terminology and criteria for urine cytology reporting are not uniform among pathologists, which can frustrate clinicians and hinders interlaboratory comparisons.

  12. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  13. Gene Methylation and Cytological Atypia in Random Fine-Needle Aspirates for Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Vered; Fackler, Mary Jo; Hafeez, Sidra; Bujanda, Zoila Lopez; Chatterton, Robert T; Jacobs, Lisa K; Khouri, Nagi F; Ivancic, David; Kenney, Kara; Shehata, Christina; Jeter, Stacie C; Wolfman, Judith A; Zalles, Carola M; Huang, Peng; Khan, Seema A; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-08-01

    Methods to determine individualized breast cancer risk lack sufficient sensitivity to select women most likely to benefit from preventive strategies. Alterations in DNA methylation occur early in breast cancer. We hypothesized that cancer-specific methylation markers could enhance breast cancer risk assessment. We evaluated 380 women without a history of breast cancer. We determined their menopausal status or menstrual cycle phase, risk of developing breast cancer (Gail model), and breast density and obtained random fine-needle aspiration (rFNA) samples for assessment of cytopathology and cumulative methylation index (CMI). Eight methylated gene markers were identified through whole-genome methylation analysis and included novel and previously established breast cancer detection genes. We performed correlative and multivariate linear regression analyses to evaluate DNA methylation of a gene panel as a function of clinical factors associated with breast cancer risk. CMI and individual gene methylation were independent of age, menopausal status or menstrual phase, lifetime Gail risk score, and breast density. CMI and individual gene methylation for the eight genes increased significantly (P breast cancer risk biomarker, warranting larger prospective studies to establish its utility for cancer risk assessment. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 673-82. ©2016 AACR.

  14. Comparative study of the results from conventional cervico-vaginal oncotic cytology and liquid-based cytology

    OpenAIRE

    Stabile,Sueli Aparecida Batista; Evangelista,Dilson Henrique Ramos; Talamonte,Valdely Helena; Lippi,Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two oncotic cervical cytology techniques, the conventional and the liquid-based cytology, in low risk patients for uterine cervical cancer. METHODS: Comparative prospective study with 100 patients who came to their annual gynecological exam, and were submitted simultaneously to both techniques. We used the McNemar test, with a significance level of p

  15. The role of cytology in oral lesions: a review of recent improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Historically, sensitivity and specificity of oral cytology is poor. Using conventional oral cytology for the diagnosis of cancer and its precursors has not had the success that cytologists had hoped for; however, with improved methodology, oral cytology has enjoyed a resurgence of interest. This renewed interest is partly due to the introduction of a specialized brush that collects a full-thickness epithelial sample and not just superficially sloughed cells, as well as analysis of that sample with computer assistance; in addition, a variety of adjunctive techniques have been introduced to potentially enhance the diagnosis of the cytologic specimens including DNA analysis, immunocytochemistry, molecular analysis, and liquid-based preparations. An increase in sensitivity (>96%) and specificity (>90%) of the oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted diagnosis has been reported for identification of malignant and premalignant lesions. Brush cytology is valuable to prevent misdiagnosing doubtful oral lesions, i.e., those lesions without a definitive etiology, diagnosing large lesions where excision of the entire tissue is not possible or practicable, evaluating patients with recurrent malignancies, and monitoring premalignant lesions.

  16. Use of Core Needle Biopsy rather than Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnostic Approach of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, Paola; Spunticchia, Flaminia; Barberi, Simona; Caprio, Giuliana; Paglicci, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims In the following study case, we reviewed breast ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB), using Mammotome (vacuum-assisted breast biopsy) and Tru-cut, carried out on palpable and nonpalpable uncertain breast lumps or malignant large lesions to be submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Material and Methods Examinations were conducted during a 4-year period of clinical activity in a highly specialized center, from December 2009 to December 2013, in 712 patients previously subjected to fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Results The results demonstrated that among the 712 breast biopsies, in many cases FNAC was not conclusive, and therefore we proceeded with the echo-guided biopsy, through which we were able to collect sufficient material for the histological examination in order to direct patients to surgery or follow-up. Conclusions CNB is far superior to FNAC, especially in cases of uncertainty, where it is preferable to proceed directly with CNB, which may also determine additional prognostic and predictive markers. Initially FNAC is less expensive, but the actual costs involved tend to be higher for FNAC as it is less accurate and a CNB is often required. In accordance with recent publications, we can confirm the full validity of CNB in the diagnostic approach of breast lesions. PMID:25120471

  17. Use of Core Needle Biopsy rather than Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnostic Approach of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pagni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In the following study case, we reviewed breast ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (CNB, using Mammotome (vacuum-assisted breast biopsy and Tru-cut, carried out on palpable and nonpalpable uncertain breast lumps or malignant large lesions to be submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Examinations were conducted during a 4-year period of clinical activity in a highly specialized center, from December 2009 to December 2013, in 712 patients previously subjected to fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Results: The results demonstrated that among the 712 breast biopsies, in many cases FNAC was not conclusive, and therefore we proceeded with the echo-guided biopsy, through which we were able to collect sufficient material for the histological examination in order to direct patients to surgery or follow-up. Conclusions: CNB is far superior to FNAC, especially in cases of uncertainty, where it is preferable to proceed directly with CNB, which may also determine additional prognostic and predictive markers. Initially FNAC is less expensive, but the actual costs involved tend to be higher for FNAC as it is less accurate and a CNB is often required. In accordance with recent publications, we can confirm the full validity of CNB in the diagnostic approach of breast lesions.

  18. The value of preoperative ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of radiologically suspicious axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torill Sauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preoperative ultrasound (US and eventually US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of suspicious axillary lymph nodes (ALN is a standard procedure in the work-up of suspicious breast lesions. Preoperative US FNAC may prevent sentinel node biopsy (SNB procedure in 24-30% of patients with early stage breast carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the institutional results of this preoperative diagnostic procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 cases of preoperative FNAC of suspicious ALN where retrieved from the pathology files. The results were compared with the final histology and staging. False negative (FN FNAC cases were reviewed and possibly missed metastatic cases (2 were immunostained with the epithelial marker AE1/AE3. Results: There were no false positives, whereas 16 cases were FN. In all but one case the FN′s represented sampling error. Half of the 16 FN cases in this series were macrometastases. Discussion: About 83% of the preoperatively aspirated cases were N+, indicating that a radiologically suspicious ALN has a very high risk of being metastatic. Preoperative US guided FNAC from radiologically suspicious ALN is highly efficient in detecting metastases. Depending on national guidelines, a preoperative, positive ALN FNAC might help to stratify the patients as to SNB and/or ALN dissection.

  19. Comprehensive evaluation of early screening of cervical cancer cytological examination%宫颈癌早期筛查细胞学检查方法综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉瑰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To appraise the comprehensive evaluation of early screening of cervical cancer cytological examination.Methods From October 2012 to October 2014, 1000 cases of gynecology clinic admissions were selected, and they were randomly divided into group A and group B, with 500 cases in each group, group A was given Pap cytology, while B group was given ThinPrep cytology (TCT), comparative analysis of test results, while the colposcopic biopsy histology results were analyzed.Results CIN and cervical cancer diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was significantly higher in group B than those in group A (P < 0.05).Conclusions Early cervical cancer screening to take ThinPrep cytology diagnosis can be achieved relatively good sensitivity and specificity, it is worth learning from.%目的 综合评价宫颈癌早期筛查细胞学检查方法.方法 抽取2012年10月至2014年10月妇科门诊接诊的患者1000例,随机分为A组与B组,每组500例,其中A组采取巴氏细胞学检查,而B组采取液基薄层细胞学检查(TCT),对比分析检查结果,同时与阴道镜组织学活检结果进行对比分析.结果 B组诊断CIN及宫颈癌的敏感性与特异性皆高于A组(P<0.05).结论 宫颈癌早期筛查采取液基薄层细胞学检查诊断可取得比较好的敏感性与特异性,值得借鉴.

  20. 宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛选宫颈癌中的应用分析%Application Analysis the Cervical Scraping Cytology in Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸥

    2016-01-01

    目的:对宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛选宫颈癌中的应用进行观察分析。方法选取我院2014年1月~2015年12月收治的214例进行宫颈癌筛查患者作为研究对象,进行宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查,将宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查结果同宫颈活组织病理检查相比较,观察分析宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在诊断宫颈癌、癌前病变的敏感度、特异度、阴性预测值和阳性预测值等。结果宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查诊断宫颈癌、癌前病变敏感度为90.43%,特异度为89.17%,阳性预测值为86.73%,阴性预测值为92.24%,诊断准确率为89.72%。结论宫颈刮片脱落细胞学检查在筛查宫颈癌方面具有较高的敏感度。%Objective To observe and analyze the application of cervical scraping cytology in screening of cervical cancer.Methods Selected 214 cases of patients with cervical cancer screening from January 2014 to December 2015 in our hospital, for example, cervical scraping cytology, cervical scraping cytology results with cervical biopsy compared toobserve and analyze the cervical scraping off cytology in the diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of sensitivity, speciifcity, negative predictive and positive predictive value.Results The sensitivity of cervical cancer and precancerous lesion was 90.43%, the speciifcity was 89.17%, the positive predictive value was 86.73%, the negative predictive value was 92.24%, the diagnostic accuracy rate was 89.72%.Conclusion Cervical scraping cytology test in the screening of cervical cancer has a high sensitivity.

  1. 液基细胞学和巴氏涂片在宫颈癌筛查中的对比研究%Comparative study of liquid-based cytology and Pap smear in the screening of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵章树

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of liquid-based cytology and Pap smear in cervical cancer screening of the general population. Methods: Retrospective analysis on 9562 cases of liquid-based cytology specimens were collected by our hospital from 2010-2011, cytology diagnosis using TBS (2001) classification reporting system; and 30 370 cases of Pap smears, cytology diagnosis using Palestine's five classification report; for the part of positive cytology cases, they were all under colposcopy with cervical biopsy and were sent for pathological diagnosis. Results: Among 9 562 cases of liquid-based, the positive were 403 cases, the detection rate was 4.21%, the pathological diagnosis of biopsy-positive rate is 90.3%; Among 30 370 cases of Pap smear, the positive were 187 cases, the detection rate was 0.62%, the pathological diagnosis of biopsy-positive rate is 88.2%. Conclusion: The positive detection rate of liquid-based cytology is much higher than that of Pap smear, but there is no obvious difference in pathological diagnosis of biopsy-positive rate between liquid-based cytology and Pap smear.%目的:探讨液基细胞学(TCT)和巴氏涂片检查在普通人群宫颈癌筛查中的价值.方法:回顾性分析2010-2011年本院收集的TCT标本9 562例,细胞学诊断以TBS (2001)分级系统报告;巴氏涂片标本30 370例,细胞学诊断以巴氏五级分类法报告;对细胞学阳性者,在阴道镜下行宫颈活检,送病理诊断.结果:9 562例TCT标本中阳性者403例,检出率为4.21%,和组织病理学诊断阳性符合率为90.3%;30 370例巴氏涂片标本中阳性者187例,检出率为0.62%,和组织病理学诊断阳性符合率为88.2%.结论:TCT阳性检出率明显高于巴氏涂片组,和组织病理学诊断阳性符合率两者无明显差异.

  2. Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Prostate 35: 185-192, 1998 osteoblasts on prostate carcinoma proliferation and chemo- 32. Trikha M, Cai Y, Grignon D, Honn KV: Identification taxis ...Markers for Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bruce R. Zetter, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Children’s Hospital Boston, Massachusetts...March 2001 Final (1 Sep 98 - 28 Feb 01) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer DAMD17-98-1

  3. Management of Cervical Cytology with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about ASCCP's 2006 Consensus Guidelines on the management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Lung cancer nanomedicine: potentials and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölükbas, Deniz Ali; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Nanoparticle-based therapies enable targeted drug delivery for lung cancer treatment with increased therapeutic efficiency and reduced systemic toxicity. At the same time, nanomedicine has the potential for multimodal treatment of lung cancer that may involve 'all-in-one' targeting of several tumor-associated cell types in a timely and spatially controlled manner. Therapeutic approaches, however, are hampered by a translational gap between basic scientists, clinicians and pharma industry due to suboptimal animal models and difficulties in scale-up production of nanoagents. This calls for a disease-centered approach with interdisciplinary basic and clinical research teams with the support of pharma industries.

  5. The Significance of Urinary Cytology in the Diagnosis of Primary Ureter Uroepithelium Cancer%尿脱落细胞学检查在原发性输尿管癌诊断中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 吴长利; 胡海龙

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨尿脱落细胞学检查(免疫荧光法)阳性率与原发性输尿管癌分级、分期关系.方法:对手术证实原发性输尿管癌的104个病例的临床资料进行回顾性分析,对术前尿脱落细胞学检查阳性率与术后病理分级、分期进行比较并做统计学处理.结果:原发性输尿管癌的尿脱落细胞学检查总阳性率为34.26%,高恶性组的尿脱落细胞学检查总阳性率为43.59%,低恶性组的尿脱落细胞学检查总阳性率为11.54%,其差异有统计学意义x2=8.740,P=0.003.输尿管下段、高恶性的原发癌尿脱落细胞学检查其高分期与低分期的阳性率差异有统计学意义x2-10.628.P=0.001.高恶性的原发性输尿管癌其高分期与低分期的阳性率差异有统计学意x2=5.678,P=0.017.对于低分期(Ⅰ~Ⅱ)的原发性输尿管癌高恶性与低恶性的阳性率的差异有统计学意义,X2=12.860,P=0.001.结论:高分级、低分期的原发性输尿管癌尿中更易找到癌细胞,即阳性率更高.%Objective:To research the relationship of urinary cytology positive rate with the grade and stage of primary ureter uroepithelium cancer.Methods:A total of 104 cases of primary ureter uroepithelium cancer were recruited in this study.The urine of all paitents was collected for preoperative urinary cytology de-tection.The urinary cytology detection rates were compared among different grades and stages of primary ureter uroepithelium cancer.Results:The overall unnary cytology positive rate of primary ureter uroepithelium cancer was 34.26%.The overall urinary cytology positive rate was 43.59%in the advanced stage group and 11.54%in the low stage group,with a significant difference(X2=8.740, P=0.003).The difference in positive rate between the advanced stage group and the low stage group in the high grade with inferior segment group of primary ureter uroepithelium cancer was statistically significant(X2=10.628,P=0.001).The difference in positive rate between

  6. Next-generation sequencing of lung cancer EGFR exons 18-21 allows effective molecular diagnosis of small routine samples (cytology and biopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario de Biase

    Full Text Available Selection of lung cancer patients for therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors directed at EGFR requires the identification of specific EGFR mutations. In most patients with advanced, inoperable lung carcinoma limited tumor samples often represent the only material available for both histologic typing and molecular analysis. We defined a next generation sequencing protocol targeted to EGFR exons 18-21 suitable for the routine diagnosis of such clinical samples. The protocol was validated in an unselected series of 80 small biopsies (n=14 and cytology (n=66 specimens representative of the material ordinarily submitted for diagnostic evaluation to three referral medical centers in Italy. Specimens were systematically evaluated for tumor cell number and proportion relative to non-neoplastic cells. They were analyzed in batches of 100-150 amplicons per run, reaching an analytical sensitivity of 1% and obtaining an adequate number of reads, to cover all exons on all samples analyzed. Next generation sequencing was compared with Sanger sequencing. The latter identified 15 EGFR mutations in 14/80 cases (17.5% but did not detected mutations when the proportion of neoplastic cells was below 40%. Next generation sequencing identified 31 EGFR mutations in 24/80 cases (30.0%. Mutations were detected with a proportion of neoplastic cells as low as 5%. All mutations identified by the Sanger method were confirmed. In 6 cases next generation sequencing identified exon 19 deletions or the L858R mutation not seen after Sanger sequencing, allowing the patient to be treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In one additional case the R831H mutation associated with treatment resistance was identified in an EGFR wild type tumor after Sanger sequencing. Next generation sequencing is robust, cost-effective and greatly improves the detection of EGFR mutations. Its use should be promoted for the clinical diagnosis of mutations in specimens with unfavorable tumor cell

  7. Targeting Membrane Lipid a Potential Cancer Cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Wai-Leng; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2017-01-01

    Cancer mortality and morbidity is projected to increase significantly over the next few decades. Current chemotherapeutic strategies have significant limitations, and there is great interest in seeking novel therapies which are capable of specifically targeting cancer cells. Given that fundamental differences exist between the cellular membranes of healthy cells and tumor cells, novel therapies based on targeting membrane lipids in cancer cells is a promising approach that deserves attention in the field of anticancer drug development. Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a lipid membrane component which exists only in the inner leaflet of cell membrane under normal circumstances, has increased surface representation on the outer membrane of tumor cells with disrupted membrane asymmetry. PE thus represents a potential chemotherapeutic target as the higher exposure of PE on the membrane surface of cancer cells. This feature as well as a high degree of expression of PE on endothelial cells in tumor vasculature, makes PE an attractive molecular target for future cancer interventions. There have already been several small molecules and membrane-active peptides identified which bind specifically to the PE molecules on the cancer cell membrane, subsequently inducing membrane disruption leading to cell lysis. This approach opens up a new front in the battle against cancer, and is of particular interest as it may be a strategy that may be prove effective against tumors that respond poorly to current chemotherapeutic agents. We aim to highlight the evidence suggesting that PE is a strong candidate to be explored as a potential molecular target for membrane targeted novel anticancer therapy. PMID:28167913

  8. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities.

  9. Comparison of the mucin 7 mRNA test and urine cytology for detection bladder cancer%尿脱落细胞黏蛋白7 mRNA检测在膀胱癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣荣; 廖洪; 唐国民; 卢一平; 张林

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨尿脱落细胞黏蛋白7(Muc 7)mRNA检测在膀胱尿路上皮癌诊断中的价值.方法 采用RT-PCR方法检测52例膀胱癌患者和34例泌尿系非肿瘤患者尿脱落细胞中Muc7 mRNA表达情况,同时行尿细胞学检查,比较两种方法诊断膀胱癌的敏感性和特异性.膀胱癌患者52例,男30例,女22例.年龄41~87岁,平均65岁.TNM分期:Ta 1例、T1 22例、≥T2 29例.WHO分级:G1 18例、G2 14例、G3 20例.泌尿系非肿瘤患者34例,男23例,女11例.年龄30~75岁,平均58岁.结果 52例膀胱癌患者中Muc 7 mRNA检测阳性44例,敏感性为84.6%;34例非泌尿系肿瘤患者Muc 7 mRNA阴性29例、假阳性5例,特异性为85.2%,假阳性率为14.7%.膀胱癌患者尿脱落细胞检测阳性18例,敏感性为34.6%;非泌尿系肿瘤患者尿脱落细胞检测阴性31例、假阳性3例,特异性为91.2%,假阳性率为8.8%.尿Muc 7 mRNA检测诊断膀胱癌的敏感性优于尿脱落细胞学检查,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 尿Muc 7 mRNA检测诊断膀胱尿路上皮癌的敏感性优于尿脱落细胞学检查,可以作为膀胱癌的辅助检测指标.%Objective To compare the sensitivity and specificity of mucin 7(Muc7) mRNA test with urine cytology in detection bladder cancer.Methods In 86 patients suspected with bladder cancer,RT-PCR for Muc7 mRNA and urine cytology were conducted in the same urine samples.Fif-ty-two patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma were confirmed histologically.The sensitivity and specificity of Muc7 mRNA and urine cytology were analyzed.Results The overall sensitivity,specificity and false positive of Mue7 mRNA test were 84.6%,85.2% and 14.7% respectively.Those of urine cytology were 34.6%,91.2% and 8.8% respectively.There were no significant differences between urine cytology and Muc7 mRNA test in the specificity and false positive; however,Muc7 mRNA had significantly higher sensitivity than urine cytology in detection of bladder cancer.Conclusion The

  10. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  11. Potential usefulness of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative pancreatic biopsy or juice cytology specimens in the determination of treatment strategies for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaka, Toru; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Shinji; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kawahara, Ryuichi; Kawashima, Yusuke; Akashi, Masanori; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Yusuke; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Nakayama, Masamichi; Naito, Yoshiki; Yano, Hirohisa; Taira, Tomoki; Kawahara, Akihiko; Kage, Masayoshi; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Shirozu, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    We classified resected intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) into four subtypes (gastric, intestinal, pancreatobiliary and oncocytic) according to their morphological features and mucin expression, determined their clinicopathological characteristics and investigated the possibility of preoperatively diagnosing these subtypes. Sixty resected tumors, 4 preoperative tumor biopsies and 10 preoperative pancreatic juice cytology specimens were analyzed. The gastric and intestinal types accounted for the majority of IPMNs. Non-gastric type IPMNs were of high-grade malignancy. Many of the pancreatobiliary-type IPMNs were in an advanced stage and were associated with a poor prognosis. The results of mucin immunohistochemical staining of preoperative biopsy and surgically resected specimens were in agreement with each other, and in close agreement with those for pancreatic juice cytology specimens obtained from 10 patients during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The immunostaining of preoperative biopsy specimens and ERCP-obtained pancreatic juice cytology specimens may be useful in the differential diagnosis of gastric and intestinal types of IPMN. If such techniques enable the preoperative diagnosis of IPMN subtypes, their use in combination with conventional preoperative imaging modalities may lead to surgical treatment best suited for the biological characteristics of the four subtypes.

  12. HPV for cervical cancer screening (HPV FOCAL): Complete Round 1 results of a randomized trial comparing HPV-based primary screening to liquid-based cytology for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gina S; Krajden, Mel; van Niekerk, Dirk; Smith, Laurie W; Cook, Darrel; Ceballos, Kathy; Lee, Marette; Gentile, Laura; Gondara, Lovedeep; Elwood-Martin, Ruth; Peacock, Stuart; Stuart, Gavin; Franco, Eduardo L; Coldman, Andrew J

    2017-01-15

    Complete Round 1 data (baseline and 12-month follow-up) for HPV FOCAL, a randomized trial establishing the efficacy of HPV DNA testing with cytology triage as a primary screen for cervical cancer are presented. Women were randomized to one of three arms: Control arm - Baseline liquid-based cytology (LBC) with ASCUS results triaged with HPV testing; Intervention and Safety arms - Baseline HPV with LBC triage for HPV positives. Results are presented for 15,744 women allocated to the HPV (intervention and safety combined) and 9,408 to the control arms. For all age cohorts, the CIN3+ detection rate was higher in the HPV (7.5/1,000; 95%CI: 6.2, 8.9) compared to the control arm (4.6/1,000; 95%CI: 3.4, 6.2). The CIN2+ detection rates were also significantly higher in the HPV (16.5/1,000; 95%CI: 14.6, 18.6) vs. the control arm (10.1/1,000; 95%CI: 8.3, 12.4). In women ≥35 years, the overall detection rates for CIN2+ and CIN3+ were higher in the HPV vs. the control arm (CIN2+:10.0/1,000 vs. 5.2/1,000; CIN3+: 4.2/1,000 vs. 2.2/1,000 respectively, with a statistically significant difference for CIN2+). HPV testing detected significantly more CIN2+ in women 25-29 compared to LBC (63.7/1,000; 95%CI: 51.9, 78.0 vs. 32.4/1,000; 95%CI: 22.3, 46.8). HPV testing resulted in significantly higher colposcopy referral rates for all age cohorts (HPV: 58.9/1,000; 95%CI: 55.4, 62.7 vs.

  13. Are isothiocyanates potential anti-cancer drugs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang WU; Qing-hua ZHOU; Ke XU

    2009-01-01

    Isothiocyanates are naturally occurring small molecules that are formed from glucosinolate precursors of cruciferous vegetables. Many isothiocyanates, both natural and synthetic, display anticarcinogenic activity because they reduce activation of carcinogens and increase their detoxification. Recent studies show that they exhibit anti-tumor activity by affecting multiple pathways including apoptosis, MAPK signaling, oxidative stress, and cell cycle progression. This review summarizes the current knowledge on isothiocyanates and focuses on their role as potential anti-cancer agents.

  14. Carcinogenic HPV prevalence and age-specific type distribution in 40,382 women with normal cervical cytology, ASCUS/LSIL, HSIL, or cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Susanne K; Munk, Christian; Junge, Jette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of the prevaccination type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the general population is important for the prediction of the impact of HPV vaccination. METHODS: We collected consecutively residual specimens from liquid-based cytology samples from 40,382 women...... from the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark, during 2002-2005. All samples were tested for high-risk HPV using the Hybrid Capture 2 technique, and genotyping was done using LiPa (Innogenetics). Through linkage with the Pathology Data Bank, we obtained information on the cytology result...

  15. Potential role of tetrandrine in cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Jen

    2002-01-01

    Tetrandrine, a bisbenylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the dried root of Stephenia tetrandra S Moore, exhibits very broad pharmacological actions, including anti-tumor activity. The beneficial effects of tetrandrine on tumor cell cytotoxicity and radiosensitization, multidrug resistance, normal tissue radioprotection, and angiogenesis are most promising and deserve great attention. Tetrandrine has potential either as a tumoricidal agent or as an adjunct to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To evaluate the potential clinical efficacy of tetrandrine for cancer therapy,more mechanism-based pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic studies are required.

  16. Clinical Value of the SurePath Liquid-based Cytology Test in Cytological Screening of Bronchial Brush- ing for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer%支气管镜刷检标本液基细胞学检测在肺癌诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余碧芸; 吴宏成; 沈世茉; 潘登

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical value of the SurePath liquid-based cytology test (LCT) in cytologi⁃cal screening of bronchial brushing for the diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods: Bronchial brushing specimens from 159 patients who were diagnosed as having lung cancer and 370 patients who were diagnosed as having be⁃nign lung disease were studied. The diagnostic sensitivity and cytological findings of LCT were compared with those of conventional smear (CS) method for diagnosing lung cancer. Results: LCT slides showed decreased areas of cell monolayers, a clearer background and distinct, stereoscopic cytological features. LCT had a significantly higher diagnostic sensitivity for lung cancer (43.4%) than the CS method (18.3%, P<0.05). The specificity was the same between the 2 methods. Of the 69 cases which had both LCT and histopathological results, LCT and pathology concordance rate was 76.8%. Conclusions: LCT in cytological screening of bronchial brushing has more diagnostic value of lung cancer and can be easily performed.%  目的:探讨对支气管镜毛刷标本进行液基细胞学检测(LCT)在肺癌诊断中的应用价值.方法:收集159例肺癌患者和同期370例非肺癌患者的支气管镜刷检标本,同时进行LCT和直接涂片法检测,比较两种方法的涂片质量及诊断的阳性率.结果:LCT检测的标本切片质量高,LCT诊断肺癌的敏感度为43.4%,特异度为99.7%.直接涂片法诊断肺癌的敏感度为18.3%,特异度为99.7%.LCT的敏感度高于直接涂片法(P<0.01),特异度与直接涂片法无差异.159例肺癌患者中同时有LCT分类诊断和病理组织学诊断结果者69例,其中LCT分类诊断与病理组织学诊断相符53例,总符合率为76.8%.结论:LCT检测技术能提高肺癌诊断率,支气管镜刷检标本的LCT检测可推广应用于临床.

  17. Cytological features of carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini in voided urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Haba, Reiji

    2009-09-01

    Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini (CCDB) is a rare histological type of renal cell carcinoma. This article describes the cytological features of CCDB in voided urine, confirmed on the basis of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The CCDB cells occurred singly in loose aggregates and in small clusters, occasionally in a rosette-like structure. There were various types of cancer cells, including round to oval, spindle, and tadpole-like cells. The nuclei usually showed coarse chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and lacy to vacuolated cytoplasm. CCDB of the kidney is a rare cytodiagnostic challenge in voided urine cytology alone. When the cytological diagnosis is considered, it is necessary to perform immunocytochemistry and correlate the clinical history and imaging studies.

  18. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

    OpenAIRE

    Vikrant Bhar Singh; Nalini Gupta; Raje Nijhawan; Radhika Srinivasan; Vanita Suri; Arvind Rajwanshi

    2015-01-01

    Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS) have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC) and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sa...

  19. 薄层液基细胞学在宫颈癌及其癌前病变筛查中的价值%The value of Thin prep cytology test in cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷静; 万霖; 李惠新; 蒋瑛; 李瑞萍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the detecting technology of thin layers of liquid base cytology (TCT) on the diagnosis of precancerous lesions of uterine cervix and the clinical value, accuracy of the cervical cancer screening. Methods: To collect and analysis 7340 patients who were did examine of TCT in gynecological clinic line of our hospital from May, 2009 ~ November, 2010. Take cytology diagnosed ASC - US and higher as positive results, and the positive results do pathohistological. Take histological diagnosis as gold standard. Results: Thin prep cytology test specimens of SCC, and satisfaction LSIL accuracy HSIL, respectively, 76.8% 97.3%, 100%. Conclusion: TCT combination diagnostic systems of TBS are ideal method of current diagnosis precancerous lesions of uterine cervix (CIN) and cervical cancer screening. Also it can be used as an indicator for cervical cancer detecting. There is some risk of precancerous lesions of young In ASC-US patients.%目的:评价薄层液基细胞学(Thin prep cytology test,TCT)检测技术对宫颈癌前病变的诊断和宫颈癌筛查的准确性及临床价值.方法:收集分析2009年5月~2010年11月在我院妇科门诊行TCT检查的受检者7340例,以细胞学诊断为未明确意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞(ASC-US)及以上者为阳性结果,并对阳性结果行病理组织学诊断,以组织学诊断作为金标准.结果:液基细胞学标本满意度高,对SCC、HSIL、LSIL的准确率分别为76.8%、97.3%、100%.结论:TCT结合TBS诊断系统是目前诊断宫颈癌前病变和筛查宫颈癌的理想方法 [1],同时也可以作为一项宫颈癌术后随访的检测指标 [2].ASC-US患者中存在部分年轻的高危癌前病变者.

  20. 观察HPV联合液基细胞学检查在宫颈癌筛查中的应用效果%To observe the effect of HPV combined with liquid based cytology testin cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐利华

    2015-01-01

    Objective Application of HPV in cervical cancer screening joint liquid based cytology effects were observed. Methods From the hospital outpatient service of department of gynaecology in from January 2012 to December 2012 received line in patients with cervical cancer screening randomly 320 cases were studied, and randomly divided into control group 160 cases, liquid based cytology examination and observation group 160 cases, HPV joint liquid based cytology, compare the positive detection rate of two groups of patients.Results The positive detection rate of 59.375% in the control group and observation group was 74.375%, by comparison, the observation group is significantly higher than the control group, the differences between groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Combined use of HPV in cervical cancer screening and liquid based cytology, can improve the diagnostic accuracy, has high clinical value.%目的:对宫颈癌筛查中应用HPV联合液基细胞学检查的效果进行观察。方法选取2012年1月~2013年12月在我院妇科门诊行宫颈癌筛查患者320例为研究对象,将其随机分成对照组和观察组,各160例。对照组行液基细胞学检查,观察组行HPV联合液基细胞学检查,比较两组患者的阳性检出率。结果对照组的阳性检出率为59.375%,观察组为74.375%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在宫颈癌筛查中联合应用HPV和液基细胞学检查,可以提高诊断准确率,具有较高的临床应用价值。

  1. The value of liquid-based cytology combined with colposcopy in cervical cancer screening%液基细胞学联合阴道镜筛查在宫颈癌防治中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of liquid-based cytology combined with colposcopy in cervical cancer screening. Methods 400 cases were randomly divided into two groups, each 200 cases, the observation group used liquid-based cytology combined with colposcopy, the control group simply used liquid-based cytology, then pathological findings diagnostic results and analyzed the false positive rate and false negative rate were compared in the two groups. Results The observation group with cervical cancer diagnosed was 95.4%, and then were significantly higher than 63.1% in control group (P < 0.05), the observation group with false negative rates of false-positive rate was significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion The liquid-based cytology combination with colposcopy can improve cervical cancer screening rates and reduce the misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis rate, so it is worthy of promotion.%目的:探讨液基细胞学联合阴道镜筛查在宫颈癌防治中的应用价值。方法选择400例患者,随机分为两组,各200例,观察组使用液基细胞学联合阴道镜检术,对照组则单纯使用液基细胞学检查,比较两组患者诊断结果与病理检查结果,并分析假阳性率和假阴性率。结果观察组宫颈癌确诊率为95.4%,显著高于对照组的63.1%(P<0.05),观察组假阳性率和假阴性率均显著低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论液基细胞学检查联合阴道镜检能有效提高宫颈癌筛查率,减少误诊和漏诊率,值得临床推广。

  2. 不同细胞学检查方法在宫颈癌筛查中的应用%Applications of different methods for cytological examination in cervical cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 张丽华; 胡争光; 徐爱娣

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To evaluate the effects of different methods for cytological examination in cervical cancer screening, explore the appropriate techniques for screening of cervical cancer, in order to conduct early diagnosis and early treatment, improve the detection rate of precancgrous lesions of uterine cervix. Methods: Liquid - based cytological test and traditional Papanicolaou smear were used for cervical cancer screening among 1 091 cases and 4 784 cases respectively from October 2005 to June 2007, then the cases with positive results of cytological examination underwent biopsy under colposcope and pathological examination. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and coincidence rate of traditional Papanicolaou smear were 44. 44% , 83. 33% , 30. 0% , 83. 33% , and 77. 95 % , respectively; the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and coincidence rate of traditional Papanicolaou smear were 92. 11% , 88. 37% , 77. 78, 88. 37% , and 89. 52% , respectively. The detection rate of precancerous lesions of uterine cervix by liquid - based cytological test was 91. 67% , which was significantly higher than that by traditional Papanicolaou smear (40. 00% ) ( P < 0. 05) . Conclusion: The sensitivity of liquid - based cytological test is significantly higher than that of traditional Papanicolaou smear, liquid - based cytological test can improve the detection rate obviously, especially for the cases with low - grade squa-mous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and high -grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) .%目的:评价不同细胞学检查方法在宫颈癌筛查中的作用,探讨宫颈癌筛查的适宜技术,以便做到早诊、早治,有效提高宫颈癌前病变的检出率.方法:采用液基薄层细胞学检测技术(LCT)及传统宫颈细胞涂片(巴氏涂片)法,分别对2005年10月~ 2007年6月1 091名及4 784名受检者进行宫颈癌筛查,根据细胞学

  3. The vaginal stump cytology role in follow-up after treatment of cervical cancer%阴道残端超薄细胞学检查在宫颈癌治疗后随访中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春红; 殷超

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical role of vaginal stump cytology in follow-up of cervical cancer patients who had surgery treatment. Method A retrospective analysis of these patients underwent cervical cancer surgery in our hospital between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005, and the data of the vaginal stump ultra-thin cytology about these patients were intact during postoperative follow-up. Result Totally, 1244 cases of cervical vaginal exam-inations from 300 female patients were involved in our research. Abnormalities in the vaginal cytology stump exami-nation was showed by 187 cases from 93 patients, which including 83 cases of atypical squamous cells without defi-nitely diagnostic significance, 58 cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 34 cases of highly squamous intraepithelial lesion , 6 cases of atypical glandular cell lesions,6 patients of tumor tendency. 25 patients had CINⅡ or worse lesions were showed in colposcopy examination of these abnormal cases. No recurrence or CINⅢof col-poscopy biopsy was not found in these patients which was also better vaginal stump cytological results than HSIL. Conclusion During follow-up, 1/3 cervical cancer survivors may have abnormal cytology; cytological results for HSIL patients should accept the colposcopy. If there is no visible lesions, ASC-US or LSIL patients cannot to col-poscopy in follow up, unless the abnormalities persist.%目的:评估阴道残端细胞学在宫颈癌随访中的作用。方法回顾分析2002年1月至2005年12月在本院因宫颈癌行手术治疗的患者,对300例患者的1244个阴道残端细胞学结果进行分析。结果93例患者的187个细胞学结果异常,包括83个诊断意义尚不明确的非典型鳞状上皮改变( atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance,ASC-US),58个低度鳞状上皮内病变(low grade squamous intraepithelial le-sion,LSIL),34个高度鳞状上皮内病变( high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion,HSIL),6

  4. Organometallic iron complexes as potential cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojžišová, Gabriela; Mojžiš, Ján; Vašková, Janka

    2014-01-01

    Metal-containing drugs have long been used for medicinal purposes in more or less empirical way. The potential of these anticancer agents has only been fully realised and explored since the discovery of the biological activity of cisplatin. Cisplatin and carboplatin have been two of the most successful anti-cancer agents ever developed, and are currently used to treat ovarian, lung and testicular cancers. They share certain side effects, so their clinical use is severely limited by dose-limiting toxicity. Inherent or acquired resistance is a second problem often associated with platinum-based drugs, with further limits of their clinical use. These problems have prompted chemists to employ different strategies in development of the new metal-based anticancer agents with different mechanisms of action. There are various metal complexes still under development and investigation for the future cancer treatment use. In the search for novel bio-organometallic molecules, iron containing anti-tumoral agents are enjoying an increasing interest and appear very promising as the potential drug candidates. Iron, as an essential cofactor in a number of enzymes and physiological processes, may be less toxic than non essential metals, such as platinum. Up to now, some of iron complexes have been tested as cytotoxic agents and found to be endowed with an antitumor activity in several in vitro tests (on cultured cancer cell lines) and few in vivo experiments (e. g. on Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma). Although the precise molecular mechanism is yet to be defined, a number of observations suggest that the reactive oxygen species can play important role in iron-induced cytotoxicty. This review covers some relevant examples of research on the novel iron complexes.

  5. 尿生存素联合液基细胞学检测对膀胱癌的诊断价值%Diagnostic value of combined detection of urinary survivin and liquid-based cytology in bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁彦; 崔飞伦

    2016-01-01

    目的:膀胱癌是最常见的泌尿系恶性肿瘤,但关于如何提高它的诊断率的研究较少。文中旨在探讨采用尿生存素、液基细胞学联合检验提高膀胱尿路上皮癌的诊断率。方法收集2012年1月至2014年12月镇江市第一人民医院泌尿外科48例膀胱癌患者为试验组,另收集48例正常人尿液为对照组。取所有研究对象晨尿,进行尿液生存素检测和液基细胞学检验,应用ROC曲线分析上述单种检测方法及联合检验对膀胱癌诊断的临床价值。结果试验组中尿液生存素检测30例诊断为膀胱癌(真阳性),对照组中4例诊断为膀胱癌(假阳性)。联合检测敏感度(91.7%)较尿生存素检测、液基细胞学检验(62.5%、60.4%)显著升高(P<0.05)。尿生存素检测、尿液基细胞学检验曲线下面积[0.771(0.673~0.868)、0.781(0.685~0.877)]较联合检测[0.906(0.839~0.974)]显著降低(P<0.05)。结论尿生存素检测联合尿液基细胞学检测可以显著提高膀胱癌的检出率。%Objective Bladder carcinoma is the most common urological malignancy , however there is less study on how to improve its diagnostic rate .The study was to improve the diagnosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma by combined detection of urinary sur -viving and liquid-based cytology . Methods 48 cases of bladder cancer patients were chosen as the experiment group , while urine samples of 48 normal people were collected as the control group .Combined detection of urinary surviving and liquid-based cytology was done on the morning urine of all subjects .ROC analysis was applied to analyze the clinical value of single detection and combined de -tection in bladder cancer . Results There were 30 cases of bladder cancer ( true positive ) in experiment group by urinary survivin detection and 4 cases of bladder cancer (false positive) in control group.The sensitivity of

  6. 非小细胞肺癌细胞学标本EGFR检测的研究进展%Research advancement on EGFR mutation detection in cytological samples of non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂阳; 荣福; 刘静

    2013-01-01

    The main therapies of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are surgery,chemotherapy,radiotherapy and targeted therapy.With development of targeted therapy,it is found that tyrosine kinase inhibitor is effective for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations.Screening of such drugs before treatment is a premise of individualized treatment,and genetic testing of tissue samples is currently gold standard.In most cases,the diagnosis of lung cancer is performaed on cytological specimens,therefore,there is a need to obtain a complete and reliable molecular diagnosis on cytological specimens.In recent years,EGFR mutation detection in cytological samples of NSCLC has become a trend,and major cytogenetic specimen types include peripheral blood,pleural effusion and fine needle aspiration.This review aims to present an overview of the current knowledge of the use of cytological specimens for the evaluation of EGFR gene states in NSCLC.%非小细胞肺癌治疗手段以手术、化疗、放疗和靶向治疗为主.随着靶向治疗研究的进展,发现表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)突变患者接受小分子酪氨酸激酶抑制剂靶向治疗效果佳.进行这类药物治疗前的筛选是个体化治疗的前提,目前以组织标本基因检测为金标准.但是进展期患者的病理诊断很多时候是根据细胞学标本,部分细胞学标本是惟一的标本来源.近年来肺癌细胞学标本行EGFR检测已经成为一种趋势,主要细胞学标本类型包括外周血、胸腔积液及细针穿刺标本.本文旨在对目前使用细胞学标本评价非小细胞肺癌EGFR基因状态方面做一个概述.

  7. MicroRNAs: Potential biomarkers in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    George, G. P.; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2010-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved small noncoding RNAs, also known as micromanagers of gene expression. Polymorphisms in the miRNA pathway (miR-polymorphisms) are emerging as powerful tools to study the biology of a disease and have the potential to be used in disease prognosis and diagnosis. Advancements in the miRNA field also indicate a clear involvement of deregulated miRNA gene signatures in cancers, and several polymorphisms in pre-miRNA, miRNA binding sites or targets hav...

  8. Evaluation of metastatic potential of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitomo Chihara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to establish a method for evaluating malignant potential of prostate cancer using prostatic core needle biopsy (PCNB before prostatectomy. If we can know the final pathological stage before treatment, we can select the most suitable therapeutic tactics. We then examined the expression of E-cadherin and type IV collagenase (MMP-9/-2, which play essential role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The expression ratio of MMP-9/-2 to E-cadherin (MER is revealed as the relevant marker correlated with the final pathological stage and Gleason score by prostatectomy specimens. We next confirmed the significance of MER in PCNB, which means PCNB MER enables the prediction of the final pathologic stage at the cancer diagnosis. However, the methodology measuring MER is complicated to produce an observer-to-observer deviation. We then establish a bicolor fluorescent ISH (bicolor FISH with a computerized fluorescence detector- based system. By this method, we can reduce an observer-to-observer deviation and a slide-to-slide deviation. The bicolor FISH-based MER is a useful tool for the preoperative evaluation of the final pathologic stage, by which we can assure a decision of prostatectomy indication.

  9. Role of Liquid-based Cytology and Cell Block in the Diagnosis of Endometrial Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhang; Jia Wen; Pi-Li Xu; Rui Chen; Xi Yang; Lian-Er Zhou; Ping Jiang; An-Xia Wan; Qin-Ping Liao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) offers an alternative method to biopsy in screening endometrial cancer. Cell block (CB), prepared by collecting residual cytological specimen, represents a novel method to supplement the diagnosis of endometrial cytology. This study aimed to compare the specimen adequacy and diagnostic accuracy of LBC and CB in the diagnosis of endometrial lesions. Methods: A total of 198 women with high risks of endometrial carcinoma (EC) from May 2014 to April 2015...

  10. Application Value of Liquid Based Cytology Test in the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer%液基细胞学检测在肺癌支气管刷片诊断中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 房新志; 白合尼莎·阿不都热西提; 倪良凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨纤维支气管镜刷片(bronchofiberscopic (BFS) washing cytology,BWC)液基细胞学检测(Liquid-based Cytology test,LCT)在肺癌诊断中的价值。方法:收集同时进行LCT和传统涂片检查的纤支镜刷片的病例543例,分析LCT和传统涂片对肺癌诊断的敏感度,特异性和分型的准确性。结果:LCT和传统涂片法诊断肺癌的敏感度分别为87.2%和81.8%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。特异性分别为91.2%和94.8%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。细胞学分型诊断与组织学的符合率,在LCT中,鳞癌为94.4%,腺癌95.7%,小细胞癌90.9%,总符合率为93.4%。结论:LCT是在支气管刷检制片,染色等方面便于实施质量控制的一项新技术,在肺癌诊断中具有较高的敏感度和分型诊断符合率。%Objective: To explore the diagnostic value of Liquid-based cytology test ( LCT) for lung cancer in bronchoscopically biopsied specimens.Methods 543 cases of bronchoscopically biopsied specimens were identified for lung cancer with LCT as well as conventional smear test .The results were analyzed for the sensitivity,specificity and concordance with pathology in the two methods. Results The sensitivity of LCT and conventional smear for lung cancer identification were 87.2% and 81.8%,respectively,the difference was significant (P <0.05), whereas the specificity were 91.2%and 94.8%,respectively.Analysis for the concordance between cytology and pathology in 289 specimens revealed that the identity rate of LCT was 94.4%in squamous carcinoma,95.7%in adenocarcinoma and 90.9%in small cell carcinoma. Conclusion LCT was an effective and practicable method for the identification of lung cancer with higher sensitivity and specificity comparable with conventional smear test.

  11. The use of Liquid Based Cytology Test for the Screening of Endometrial Cancer%液基细胞学检查在子宫内膜癌筛查中的应用价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜博; 刘露; 李春东; 周向东; 童英

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨子宫内膜液基细胞学检查在筛查子宫内膜癌的应用价值。方法对72例异常子宫出血和或超声提示宫内膜异常的患者行子宫内膜细胞采集术收集宫腔细胞,采用子宫内膜液基细胞学检查,同时做诊断性刮宫术行组织病理检查,对两者结果进行比较分析。结果与诊断性刮宫术相比较,子宫内膜细胞采集术患者疼痛程度轻、平均出血量少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。以诊刮组织病理为标准,子宫内膜细胞学筛查子宫内膜癌诊断符合率为91.3%,敏感度为77.3%,特异度为97.9%,阳性预测值为94.4%,阴性预测值为90.2%。结论子宫内膜液基细胞学检查筛查子宫内膜癌具有较高的可行性和临床应用价值,适用于有症状和无症状高危人群子宫内膜癌的筛查。%Objective To investigate the value of Liquid based cytology test for the screening of endometrial cancer.Methods Totally 72 cases of abnormal uterine bleeding or ultrasonic patients with abnormal intrauterine membrane were included, endometrial sampling device for Cytology was used for collecting uterine cavity cells,histopathologic diagnosis of dilation &curettage was Used as the gold standard to investigate the value of liquid based cytology test. Results Compared to Dilation &curettage ,liquid based cytology test has light pain degree and less bleeding,the signiifcance was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).for the liqid based cytology test :acuuracy was at 91.3%,sensitivity at 77.3%,speciifcity at 97.9%,positive predictive value at 94.4%,negative predictive value at 90.2%.Conclusion The current study indicated that liquid based cytylogy test for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer could be a usefulTool for the screening of endometrial cancer..,which is Suitable for symptomatic and asymptomatic high-risk population screening of endometrial carcinoma.

  12. 北京市大兴区宫颈癌筛查宫颈细胞学结果分析%Analysis of cervical cytology results in cervical cancer screening in Daxing District of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂艳华; 于洪艳; 贾国华; 刘爽

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解北京市大兴区适龄妇女的生殖健康状况。方法对2013至2014年北京市大兴区35~64岁户籍妇女进行妇科及宫颈细胞学检查,记录个人基本信息、个人病史及检查结果。结果宫颈癌筛查39224人,进行传统巴氏细胞学检查的妇女共有25544人,阳性(未明确诊断意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞及以上)检出率为2.22%。国产液基细胞学技术检查13680人,阳性检出率为2.84%。液基细胞学检查与巴氏涂片相比,不满意涂片率低,经比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=20.00,P<0.01)。液基细胞学检查在癌前病变和癌的阳性检出率均高于巴氏涂片,主要体现在未明确诊断意义的不典型鳞状上皮细胞、鳞状上皮内低度病变、鳞状上皮内高度病变的阳性检出率高,差异均有统计学意义(χ2值分别为6.78、6.68、5.83,均P<0.01)。在细胞学结果为鳞状上皮内高度病变的51人中,有1人被最终确诊为宫颈癌,并且有22人最终诊断为宫颈上皮内瘤变。在细胞学结果为鳞状细胞癌的2人中,均被最终确诊为宫颈癌。结论宫颈细胞学检查在早期发现和及时治疗宫颈癌及癌前病变中起到了非常重要的作用,但由于阅片人员有限及其能力水平的问题,使得细胞学阅片结果阳性率偏低。%Objective To investigate the reproductive health status of women in Daxing District of Beijing.Methods From 2013 to 2014 women aged 35-64 years old accepted cervical cytological and gynecological examination, and personal basic information, personal history and examination results were recorded.Results Totally 39 224 women received cervical cancer screening and a total of 25 544 people received traditional pap cytological examination.The positive detection rate ( ASC-US and above) was 2.22%.Domestic technology of liquid based cytology check was performed among 13 680 people with positive

  13. Pancreatic cancer vaccine: a unique potential therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Francesco Novelli Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is a lethal disease and is one of the cancers that is most resistant to traditional therapies. Historically, neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy has provided any significant increase in the survival of patients with PDA. Despite intensive efforts, any attempts to improve the survival in the past 15 years have failed. This holds true even after the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their involvement in pathways that are considered to be important in PDA development and progression. Recently, however, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin treatment has provided a limited survival advantage in patients with advanced PDA. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival rate of patients with PDA. Results from the last 10 years of research in the field of PDA have helped to identify new immunological targets and develop new vaccines that are capable of stimulating an immune response. In addition, the information obtained about the role of the tumor microenvironment in suppressing the immune response and the possibility of targeting PDA microenvironment to limit immune suppression and enhance the response of effector T-cells has opened new avenues for treating this incurable disease. The time is ripe for developing new therapeutic approaches that are able to effectively counteract the progression and spreading of PDA. This review discusses the potential prospects in the care of patients with pancreatic cancer through vaccination and its combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor microenvironment, and inhibition of immunological

  14. Informatics applied to cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory.

  15. 液基细胞学在宫颈癌筛查中的应用分析%Applied Analysis of Liquid-base Cytology in Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical value of liquid-base cytology application in screening of cervical cancer. Methods We chose 44 cervical cancer patients who are treated in hospital from January 2013 to January 2014. Patients in study group were given liquid-base cytology examination,while patients in control group were given pap smear examination. And then make a comparison between these two groups in terms of positive detection rate,patients’ satisfaction rate and positive coincidence rate. Results The positive detection rate(54.55%),patients’satisfaction rate(90.91%)and positive coincidence rate(93.18%)in study group rather higher than counterparts in control group(22.73%)、(68.18%)、(52.27%),there was a treatment differential between two groups and such a differential had statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Applying liquid-base cytology in cervical cancer screening is effective to increase detection rate,such a method is of application value.%目的:分析宫颈癌筛查中应用液基细胞学检查的临床价值。方法选取我院2013年1月~2014年1月间收治的宫颈癌患者44例,实验组给予液基细胞学检查,对照组给予巴氏涂片法检查,比较两组阳性检出率、满意率、阳性符合率。结果实验组阳性检出率(54.55%)、满意率(90.91%)与阳性符合率(93.18%)与对照组(22.73%)、(68.18%)、(52.27%)比较相对较高,两种检查结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论宫颈癌筛查应用液基细胞学检查可以提高检出率,应用价值高。

  16. A Virtual Microscopy System to Scan, Evaluate and Archive Biomarker Enhanced Cervical Cytology Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Grabe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytological screening for cervical precancers has led to a reduction of cervical cancer incidence worldwide it is a subjective and variable method with low single-test sensitivity. New biomarkers like p16 that specifically highlight abnormal cervical cells can improve cytology performance. Virtual microscopy offers an ideal platform for assisted evaluation and archiving of biomarker-stained slides.

  17. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  18. A case of bronchial/lung carcinoid cytological, histological and immunohistochemical corroboration

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    Sarita Asotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung carcinoids tumors are uncommon tumors that start in the lung. They tend to grow slower than other types of lung cancers. Carcinoids tumors start from cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. It is widely recognized that cytology is superior to small biopsy in diagnosing small cell lung carcinoma since the crush artefacts limiting small biopsy interpretation is minimized in cytology. Similarly, carcinoids can be accurately diagnosed in cytology and small biopsy specimen. A correct preoperative cytological diagnosis helps in planning early and optimal surgery. We received the fine-needle aspiration cytology sample of bronchial mass of 46-year-old patient presenting with cough and hemoptysis for 2 months. Diagnosis of carcinoid tumor was given on cytology that was confirmed on histopathology and immunohistochemistry.

  19. Cytologic features of pulmonary blastoma

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    Sai Shalini C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary blastomas are rare lung neoplasms constituting 0.5% of all lung tumors. This tumor has an aggressive course and needs to be recognized on cytology. A preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary blastoma is difficult to obtain by cytopathologic methods. A diagnosis of biphasic pulmonary blastoma should be considered when there is a dimorphic population of cells on cytology. A 30-year-old male presented with gradually progressing breathlessness and left-sided chest pain for the past one month. Chest radiograph and computed tomography of thorax revealed an anterior mediastinal mass that was subjected to ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology. Aspiration cytology showed a highly cellular lesion with a dimorphic population of tumor cells in a necrotic background. The possibility of a non-small cell carcinoma was suggested. Subsequent histopathology revealed the tumor to be a pulmonary blastoma. The importance of recognizing the dimorphic population of cells in cytology is discussed.

  20. Applied Analysis of Liquid-base Cytology in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer%液基细胞学检查在肺癌诊断中的应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical value of liquid-base cytology application in screening of lung cancer. Methods Chose 33 patients with lung cancer who were treated in our hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 and had patients of two groups checked by CS an LCT examination respectively to compare detection rate with regarding to lung cancer cel s between two groups. Results 2 cases of suspected cancer cel and 23 cases of malignant cel s were detected by CS examination,and its positive detection rate was up to 75.76%; while,there were 3 cases of suspected cancer cel and 26 cases of malignant cel s detected by LCT examination,and its positive detection rate was up to 87.88%,there was a differential between two groups in terms of positive detection rate and such a differential had statistic value(P<0.05). Conclusion Applying liquid-base cytology in diagnosis of lung cancer is effective to provide accurate guidance for clinical diagnosis,such a method is practical and easy to utilize and,which is quite worthwhile to be promoted.%目的:探析肺癌诊断中应用液基细胞学检查的临床价值。方法选取我院2013年10月~2014年10月间收治的肺癌患者33例,分别给予 CS 与 LCT 技术检查,比较两组肺癌细胞检出率。结果 CS 法检出2例癌疑细胞,23例恶性细胞,阳性检出率为75.76%;LCT 法检出3例癌疑细胞,26例恶性细胞,检出率为87.88%。两种检查方式的阳性检出率差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论肺癌诊断中应用液基细胞学检查可为临床诊断提供准确信息,操作简单,切实可行。

  1. A lectin-based diagnostic system using circulating antibodies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yingji; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Ju, Woong; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we developed serological strategies using immunoglobulin fractions obtained by protein A chromatography to screen for cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN I). The reactivities of the immunoglobulins purified from sera of women with normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer were compared in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and enzyme-linked lectin assays (ELLAs). To capture the immunoglobulins, ELISAs and ELLAs were performed in protein A immobilized microplates. The reactivity of immunoglobulin in ELISA was in the increasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer, while that in ELLAs for detecting fucosylation was in the decreasing order normal cytology, CIN I and cervical cancer. It was confirmed that women with CIN I were distinguishable from women with normal cytology or women with cervical cancer in the ELISA or the ELLA for detecting fucosylation with considerable sensitivity and specificity. Women with cervical cancer were also distinguishable from women with normal cytology with high sensitivity (ELISA: 97%, ELLA: 87%) and specificity (ELISA: 69%, ELLA: 72%). Moreover, the logistic regression model of the ELISA and the ELLA discriminated cervical cancer from normal cytology with 93% sensitivity and 93% specificity. These results indicate that the ELISAs and the ELLAs have great potential as strategies for primary screening of cervical cancer and CIN. It is expected that the ELISA and the ELLA can provide new insights to understand systemic changes of serum immunoglobulins during cervical cancer progression.

  2. Cytological diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cutaneous involvement

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    Sushama A Chandekar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare disease affecting predominantly children. The course of the disease varies, from spontaneous resolution to a progressive multisystem disorder with organ dysfunction and potential life-threatening complications. Diagnosis of LCH is often difficult and may be delayed because of its rarity and especially so if it occurs with unusual presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a 4 year old male child, a case of LCH is presented with a purpose of highlighting the characteristic cytological features. A high index of suspicion, awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH and its differential diagnoses is necessary. This can obviate the need of biopsy and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemistry if available can be performed on cytology smear and cell block.

  3. Cytology of the oral cavity: a re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navone, R

    2009-02-01

    Oral exfoliative cytology, while an economical and practical tool for diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, is not extensively used. The results of conventional (n = 89) and liquid-based (n = 411) oral diagnostic cytology cases are reported and compared to histological diagnosis. Cells were collected using either a Cytobrush device for conventional smears or a dermatological curette (AcuDispo) for liquid-based (Thin Prep) cytology. The "curette technique" allowed for the collection of "accidental" tissue fragments, utilized as microbiopsies. The sensitivity was 86.5% in conventional and 94.7% in liquid-based cytology; specificity was 94.3% and 98.9%, respectively; inadequate samples were present in 12.4% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. Although conventional cytology may be useful in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant lesions, liquid-based cytology gives better results, enhances both the sensitivity and specificity, and also provides material for further investigations, e.g. DNA ploidy studies, microhistology, etc.

  4. Cytological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Rajni; Gulati, Anchana; Vedant, Deepak; Kaushal, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous reaction can occur in any organ but the most common sites are kidney and gallbladder. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA) is a rare clinical entity. There are a few case reports of XA diagnosed on histopathology but none on cytology. Here we report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with acute abdomen and was found to have a mass lesion in the right iliac fossa. She was diagnosed with XA intraoperatively on imprint cytology that was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination. Due to the rarity of XA itself and the use of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis the case is being presented. PMID:28182060

  5. Pitfalls in cytological diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, M P; De Silva, S

    1999-02-01

    The aims of this study are to document pitfalls in cytologic diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) and highlight possible ways to minimize them. One hundred consecutive thyroid aspirates with features diagnostic or suggestive of AT, performed and reported by the first author, were included in the study. Follow-up was traced and cytologic features responsible for indecisiveness were re-assessed in those reported as suggestive of AT. The features were then correlated with the results of serologic and thyroid function tests and clinical features, and an attempt was made to amend the final diagnosis using an integrated approach. Seventy eight were diagnostic and 22 were suggestive of AT. In the latter 22, features responsible for the indecisiveness were: cytologic atypia, in the form of nuclear enlargement, irregularity and grooves and altered chromatin texture, in 14 (64%); nucleoli with suspicion of a coexisting neoplasm in three (13.6%), two of which showed epithelial preponderance, crowding and discohesion; sparse inflammation in four (18%); a predominant lymphoid population without epithelial cells resembling a reactive lymph node in one (4.5%); co-existing toxic features in two (9%); and scanty smears in one (4.5%). Eighteen of the 22 suspected of AT had follow-up. Six had been assessed histologically; three with features suspicious of a neoplasm were diagnosed respectively as a papillary carcinoma (PC), Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC) and a multinodular goitre (MNG) with degenerate changes. The other three were confirmed as AT; one with cytologic atypia, one with sparse inflammation and the third as cytologically resembling a reactive lymphnode. In ten of the remaining 12, the final diagnosis could be revised following an integrated approach with possible reduction of the indecisiveness. Potential pitfalls are: cytologic atypia occurring in AT; abundance or scarcity of background inflammation; low cell yield; and co-existing toxicity and malignancies. Epithelial

  6. Rastreamento anterior para câncer de colo uterino em mulheres com alterações citológicas ou histológicas Previous screening for cervical cancer among women with cytological and histological abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Rama

    2008-06-01

    do último exame citológico anterior.OBJECTIVE: To examine previous Pap smear history in women screened for cervical cancer with cytological or histological abnormalities. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a sample of 5,485 women (15-65 years old who self-referred to cervical cancer screening in Sao Paulo and Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between February 2002 and March 2003. A behavioral questionnaire was applied and cervical specimens were obtained for testing by Pap smears or liquid-based cytology. Women who had abnormal cytology were referred for colposcopic examination and, if abnormal, for cervical punch biopsy. To explore factors associated to cervical abnormalities Pearson's chi-was conduted square test at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Cytological abnormalities were found in 354 women (6.4% and included 41 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions and 3 carcinomas; 92.7% were normal results. Colposcopy was performed in 289 women, and 145 (50.2% showed abnormal results. Punch biopsies showed 14 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 and 4 carcinomas. Previous Pap smears were reported in all women who had cytology suspected of carcinoma, 97.6% of those with high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions, all women with histological diagnosis of carcinoma and 92.9% of those who had cervical intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 histologically. Previous Pap smear in the last tree years was reported by 86.5% and 92.8% of women with abnormal cytology and biopsy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference regarding the number of Pap tests and time since their last test between women with histologically diagnosed carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 compared with those with normal cytology.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening System and Liquid Based Cytology Test in ervical Lesion Screening Study%宫颈癌筛查系统与液基细胞学检测在宫颈病变初筛中的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 黄俊霞

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈癌筛查系统(TruScreen)与液基细胞学检测(TCT)在宫颈病变初筛中的应用价值.方法:对1 201例患者依次进行TruScreen、TCT及宫颈活检病理学检查,将其病理结果与TruScreen和TCT结果对照分析.结果:TruScreen、TCT阳性结果分别为316例和207例,病理学检查阳性结果为115例.TruScreen、TCT检测的敏感度分别为81.7%、71.3%,特异度分别为79.6%、88.5%,假阴性率分别为18.3%、28.7%,假阳性率分别为20.4%、11.5%.TruScreen检查敏感度略高于TCT,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:TruScreen的效果评价略优于TCT,具有较低的假阴性率及相对不高的假阳性率,有望成为我国宫颈病变初筛的独立方法.%Objective:To study the value of cervical cancer screening system and liquid based cytology test in detection of cervical lesions.Methods:Cervical cancer screening system,liquid based cytology test and pathological test were performed in a 1201 cases,and the results of the former two were compared with pathological outcomes.Results:A total of 316,207 and 115 cases were shown as positive according to cervical cancer screening system, liquid based cytology test and pathological test respectively indicating sensitivity of 81.7%,71.3%;specificity of 79.6%,88.5%;false negative rate of 18.3%,28.7%;and false positive rate of 20.4%,11.5% for cervical cancer screening system and liquid based cytology test.Sensitivity of cervical cancer screening system was slightly higher than that of the liquid based cytology test,while the difference was insignificant (P>0.05).Conclusion: Efficacy of cervical cancer screening system is better than that of liquid based cytology test. With low false negative rate and comparatively low false positive rate,it might be used alone as primary screening method for cervical lesions in China.

  8. Quantitative risk stratification of oral leukoplakia with exfoliative cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Jianying; Liu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xudong; Khawar, Waqaar; Zhang, Xinyan; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Test outcome is reported as "negative", "atypical" (defined as abnormal epithelial changes of uncertain diagnostic significance), and "positive" (defined as definitive cellular evidence of epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma). The major challenge is how to properly manage the "atypical" patients in order to diagnose OSCC early and prevent OSCC. In this study, we collected exfoliative cytology data, histopathology data, and clinical data of normal subjects (n=102), oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients (n=82), and OSCC patients (n=93), and developed a data analysis procedure for quantitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This procedure involving a step called expert-guided data transformation and reconstruction (EdTAR) which allows automatic data processing and reconstruction and reveals informative signals for subsequent risk stratification. Modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Among the several models tested using resampling methods for parameter pruning and performance evaluation, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to be optimal with a high sensitivity (median>0.98) and specificity (median>0.99). With the SVM model, we constructed an oral cancer risk index (OCRI) which may potentially guide clinical follow-up of OLK patients. One OLK patient with an initial OCRI of 0.88 developed OSCC after 40 months of follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed a statistical method for qualitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This method may potentially improve cost-effectiveness of clinical follow-up of OLK patients, and help design clinical chemoprevention trial for high-risk populations.

  9. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  10. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Palaniselvam; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Maniam, Gaanty Pragas; Ichwan, Solachuddin Jauhari Arief; Soundharrajan, Ilavenil; Govindan, Natanamurugaraj

    2014-06-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment of various chronic diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer׳s disease. Nutraceuticals are derived from various natural sources such as medicinal plants, marine organisms, vegetables and fruits. Nutraceuticals have shown the potential to reduce the risk of colon cancer and slow its progression. These dietary substances target different molecular aspects of colon cancer development. Accordingly, this review briefly discusses the medicinal importance of nutraceuticals and their ability to reduce the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  11. Sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma of kidney diagnosed with urine and renal pelvic lavage cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Akihiro; Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    A case of sarcomatoid collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) of kidney is presented, in which the diagnosis was made cytologically with voided urine and renal pelvis lavage. Cytology of hemorrhagic voided urine revealed highly atypical adenocarcinoma cells with reminiscent ductal structure, which suggested CDC as the most likely diagnosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left renal tumor, and selective lavage of left renal pelvis yielded spindle-shaped, highly atypical cells that indicated sarcomatoid carcinoma. The diagnosis of renal cancer with urine cytology is challenging because of small number of tumor cells in the urine, which are often associated with degeneration. As the urinary cytologic findings of sarcomatoid CDC have not been reported, the characteristic cytologic findings of sarcomatoid CDC are described in detail, and the differential diagnoses with diagnostic pitfalls were discussed.

  12. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

  13. Thinprep液基细胞学在中山市大规模宫颈癌筛查中的应用%Application of Thinprep liquid based cytology in large-scale screening of cervical cancer in Zhongshan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 陈昂; 米贤军; 沈铿; 余艳红; 肖琳; 徐秀梅; 孪峰; 钟守军; 段立锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of Thinprep liquid based eytologic test (TCT) in large —scale screening of cervical cancer. Methods: The cervical cells of 44 936 cases were detected by TCT, then TBS classification was performed; the cases with cervical lesions above atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance ( ASCUS) /atypical glandular cells ( AGC) were designed as cytological positive cases, and colposcopic multiple punch biopsy was conducted, the cases with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or a-bove CIN lesions were designed as histopathological positive cases, the pathological results were designed as gold standards, then the cytolog-ical results were compared with pathological results after biopsy. Results: Among 44 936 cases, 1 413 cases were diagnosed as cytological positive cases, the total detection rate was 3. 14% , including 202 eases with LSIL (0. 45% ) , 128 cases with HSIL (0. 28% ) , 4 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0. 09‰) , one case with AC (0. 02‰) , 119 cases with ASC - H (0. 27% ) , 919 cases with ASCUS (2. 05% ) , and 40 cases with AGC (0. 09% ) . A total of 761 cases underwent pathological examination, then the results were compared with cytological results, the pathological positive rates of ACC, AC, HSIL, LSIL, ASC - H, ASCIIS, and AGS detected by TCT were 100.00% (4/4), 100.00% (1/1), 90.40% (66/73), 47.27% (52/110), 67.69% (44/65), 16. 32% (79/484), and 41.66% (10/24) , respectively. The pathological accurate ra.es of SCC, AC, HSIL, and LSIL detected by TCT were 100.00% (4/4) , 100.00% ( 1/1) , 60 01% (46/73) , ard 37. 20% (41/110) , respectively. Conclusion: TCT is a convenient and power - efficient screening method for cervical cancer and cervicd precmcerous lesion, which is useful for early diagnosis and early treatment of cervical cancer and cervical precancerous lesion.%目的:评价Thinprep液基细胞学检测技术(TCT)在大规模宫颈癌筛查中的应用价值.方法:对44 936例

  14. 液基细胞学筛查宫颈癌临床研究应用%Liquid-based cytology screening for cervical cancer of clinical research and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彩华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To make a comparative study between the Liquid-based cervical cytology and the Papanicolaou stain cytology,to evaluate the sensitivity of Liquid-based cytology to cervical pathology screening and its clinical value.Methods To apply the cytological analysis on 511 patients in two ways by using the TBS standards to let the two results be analyzed and compared with each other.Results Among the patients who are abnormal both in the Liquid-based cytology and the Papanicolaou cytology,the positive rate of the Liquid-based cytology is obviously higher than the Papanicolaou cytology' s,compared to the tissue biopsy.Conclusion Liquid-based cytology has a higher sensitivity compared with Papanicolaou cytology.It be can able to enhance the rate of detecting,thus achieve the goal of early detection,diagnosis and treatment.%目的 将宫颈液基细胞学与巴氏细胞学染色进行比较研究,评价液基细胞学对宫颈病变筛查的敏感性与临床价值.方法 对511例患者经过两种方法进行细胞学分析采用TBS标准,将其结果进行比较分析.结果 在液基细胞学与巴氏细胞学两种方法均见异常的患者中,以组织学活检做对照,液基细胞学阳性率明显高于巴氏细胞学.结论 液基细胞学与巴氏细胞学诊断相比,具有更高的敏感性,能提高检出率,从而使患者得到早发现、早诊断及早治疗.

  15. Clinical value of NMP22 and cytology in bladder cancer%膀胱癌患者尿NMP22与尿脱落细胞学检测的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菁菁; 李俊

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究核基质蛋白22(NMP22)与尿脱落细胞学在膀胱癌早期诊断、监测复发及判断预后中的临床价值.方法 收集96份尿液标本,其中包括45例膀胱癌术前患者(经术后病理证实),20例膀胱癌术后复测患者及31例良性泌尿系疾病患者,均通过酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)检测NMP22值,将其结果与尿脱落细胞学通过x2检验的形式进行对比.结果 45例膀胱癌术前患者NMP22的含量为9.3~112.5 U/mL,中位数为48.7 U/mL;31例良性泌尿系患者NMP22的含量为2.1~ 14.7 U/mL,中位数为7.9 U/mL;20例膀胱癌术后患者NMP22的含量为4.3~18.7 U/mL,中位数为8.9 U/mL,膀胱癌术前患者NMP22中位数明显高于良性泌尿系患者NMP22中位数,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.05).以NMP22≥10 U/mL为临界值,NMP22诊断膀胱癌的敏感性为82.2%,特异性为70.9%;尿细胞学的敏感性为31.1%,特异性为100%.20例膀胱癌术后患者经膀胱镜证实复发有9例.结论 NMP22可以作为膀胱癌的早期筛查和术后随访的有效标志物.%Objective To investigate the clinical applications of nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) and urine cytology in early diagnosis,monitoringrecurrence and determining prognosis of bladder cancer.Methods Ninty-six urine specimens,including 45 cases before the resection of bladder cancer (pathologically confirmed),20 cases after the resection of bladder cancer and 31 cases with benign urinary tract condition,were both selected in detecting NMP22 by enzyme-linked i mmunosorbent assay (ELISA),and the results were compared with urinary cytology by x2 test.Results The NMP22 content of 45 cases before the resection of bladder cancer was 9.3 to 112.5 U/mL,the median was 48.7 U/mL.The NMP22 content of 31 cases with benign urinary tract condition was from 2.1 to 14.7 U/mL,the median was 7.9 U/mL.The NMP22 content of 20 cases after the resection of bladder cancer was from 4.3 to 18.7 U/mL,the median was 8.9 U/mL.The median

  16. Application of fresh first morning midstream urine in cytological study of bladder cancer patients%晨起第一次新鲜中段尿用于膀胱癌细胞学诊断的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岳; 徐勇; 王锦; 刘冉录; 杨阔; 张昌文; 马宝杰; 张志宏; 乔宝民

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of the application of the fresh first morning midstream urine in cytological study of bladder cancer patients. Methods The results of the fresh first and second morning midstream urine cytological studies for 52 bladder cancer patients were analyzed.Continual three urine samples and single urine sample were treated as study objects respectively. The positive rates in different tumor stages and grades were evaluated. Results The positive rate of overall 52 patients was 78. 8 % (41/52) in fresh first morning midstream urine and 80. 8% ( 42 / 52) in the fresh second morning midstream urine. While in 156 single urine samples, the positive percentages were 56.4%(88/156) and 60. 9% (95/156). The positive rates of the fresh first and second morning midstream urine were 69.7% (23/33) and 72.7% (24/33) respectively in grade 1- 2 patients, and 44.4 % (44/99) and 48. 5 % (48/99) in 99 single urine samples. The positive rates of 42 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were 73. 8% (31/42) and 76.2% (32/42) in the fresh first and second morning midstream urine, while in 126 single urine samples, the positive rates were 54.8% (69/126)and 57.1% (72/126). There were no significant differences between positive rate of the fresh first and second morning midstream urine in diagnosis of bladder cancer, low grade bladder cancer and nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Conclusion The fresh first morning midstream urine can be used for urine cytological study in the diagnosis of bladder cancer, even in the diagnosis of low stage and low grade bladder cancer.%目的 探讨晨起第一次中段尿脱落细胞学检查诊断膀胱癌的临床价值. 方法 分析52例经活检或手术病理确诊为膀胱癌患者晨起第一、二次新鲜中段尿脱落细胞学检查结果,以连续3 d标本结果和单次标本结果为研究对象,按总体、病理分级及临床分期分别计算2个时段尿脱落细胞阳性率,并进行统计学分析.

  17. Epigenetic Modifications: Therapeutic Potential in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sachan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications and alterations in chromatin structure and function contribute to the cumulative changes observed as normal cells undergo malignant transformation. These modifications and enzymes (DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and demethylases related to them have been deeply studied to develop new drugs, epigenome-targeted therapies and new diagnostic tools. Epigenetic modifiers aim to restore normal epigenetic modification patterns through the inhibition of epigenetic modifier enzymes. Four of them (azacitidine, decitabine, vorinostat and romidepsin are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This article provides an overview about the known functional roles of epigenetic enzymes in cancer development.

  18. [Cytological methods for the diagnosis of pleuritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoruk, O G; Bazulina, L M; Lazarev, A F

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented on a cytological examination of 2948 patients with pleuritis carried out during 7 years. Routine methods alongside centrifuging, cytological material staining, immunocytochemical and morphometric procedures were used. Each stage of the investigation was evaluated. Thanks to use of complex procedures, sensitivity of cytological methods for pleuritis diagnosis was raised to 95.2%, specificity--to 100%.

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology of rectal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochhar, R; Rajwanshi, A; Wig, J D; Gupta, N M; Kesiezie, V; Bhasin, D K; Malik, A K; Gupta, S K; Mehta, S K

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the results of transproctoscopic fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of rectal lesions. Fifty one consecutive patients referred with a presumptive diagnosis of rectal mass were subjected to proctoscopic examination when fine needle aspiration cytology, brush cytology and biopsy samples were taken. Of the 30 patients of malignancy of rectum in whom all the three sampling techniques were applied, the biopsy was positive in 27 (90%), brush cytology in 25 (83.3%) and fine needle aspiration cytology in 29 (96.6%). A combination of fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a positive yield in 96.6% while that fine needle aspiration cytology with brush cytology gave a yield of 100%. Fine needle aspiration cytology was most helpful in infiltrative tumours. All 10 patients with secondaries in the pouch of Douglas or rectovesical pouch, and the single patient with submucosal rectal carcinoma were correctly diagnosed at fine needle aspiration cytology. There were no false positive results with fine needle aspiration cytology and no complications were encountered with the procedure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2323600

  20. The oncogenic potential of human cytomegalovirus and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges eHerbein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related death among women. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. Numerous articles indicate that breast tumors exhibit diverse phenotypes depending on their distinct physiopathological signatures, clinical courses and therapeutic possibilities. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a multifaceted highly host specific betaherpesvirus that is regarded as asymptomatic or mildly pathogenic virus in immunocompetent host. HCMV may cause serious in utero infections as well as acute and chronic complications in immunocompromised individual. The involvement of HCMV in late inflammatory complications underscores its possible role in inflammatory diseases and cancer. HCMV targets a variety of cell types in vivo, including macrophages, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, stromal cells, neuronal cells, smooth muscle cells, and hepatocytes. HCMV can be detected in the milk after delivery and thereby HCMV could spread to adjacent mammary epithelial cells. HCMV also infects macrophages and induces an atypical M1/M2 phenotype, close to the tumor associated macrophage phenotype, which is associated with the release of cytokines involved in cancer initiation or promotion and breast cancer of poor prognosis. HCMV antigens and DNA have been detected in tissue biopsies of breast cancers and elevation in serum HCMV IgG antibody levels has been reported to precede the development of breast cancer in some women. In this review, we will discuss the potential role of HCMV in the initiation and progression of breast cancer.

  1. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature.

  2. Cancer-specific Therapeutic Potential of Resveratrol: Metabolic Approach against Hallmarks of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Suh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCancer hallmarks include evading apoptosis, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, tissue invasion and metastasis. Cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming and inevitably take advantage of glycolysis to meet the increased metabolic demand: rapid energy generation and macromolecular synthesis. Resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin, is known to exhibit pleiotropic anti-cancer effects most of which are linked to metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. This review summarizes various anti-cancer effects of resveratrol in the context of cancer hallmarks in relation to metabolic reprogramming.

  3. Microfilaria in hydrocele fluid cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Patricia Ann; Jayaram, Gita; Mahmud, Rohela; Anuar, A Khairul

    2004-12-01

    Filariasis, a parasitic infection endemic in parts of India, Myanmar, islands of the South Pacific, West and East Africa and Saudi Arabia can be diagnosed from various types of cytopathological specimens. This case documents the detection of filarial infection from hydrocele fluid cytology in a 30-year-old Myanmar migrant worker in Malaysia.

  4. Potential of food modification in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, C; Lisk, D J; Scimeca, J A

    1994-04-01

    This presentation focuses on research that could theoretically be applied to implement the strategy of general population chemoprevention. The concept is based on the premise of enhancing foods with known anticarcinogens through either agricultural methods or food-processing technologies. Two areas of our work are described: (a) garlic cultivated with selenium fertilization and (b) foods high in conjugated linoleic acid. Both selenium and conjugated linoleic acid are powerful chemopreventive agents in the animal tumor model. The rationale of delivering these two specific compounds through the food system will be developed. Preliminary studies will be summarized to show the feasibility of this approach in suppressing carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats. Finally, the advantages of using foods to provide anticarcinogens to the general population as part of a chemopreventive strategy will also be discussed.

  5. Potential Anti-cancer Activity of Furanodiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-zhen Ba; Yan-ping Zheng; Hui Zhang; Xiu-yan Sun; Dong-hai Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-tumor activities of furanodiene (C15H20O), a primary sesquiterpene compound isolated from the essential oil of the rhizome of Curcuma wenyujin YH Chen et C. Ling(Wen Ezhu), in vitro and in vivo.Methods: In vitro MTT assay was used to further study the effects of time and dosage on anti-proliferation of furanodiene against the sensitive Hela, Hep-2,HL-60, U251 cells, based on the cytotoxic effects of furanodiene on 12 human malignant tumor cell lines with the essential oil of Wen Ezhu as control., and the half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) was observed. In vivo uterine cervix (U14) tumor cell was selected and the conventional assay method of anti-tumor activity was employed. Furanodiene liposome was administered intraperitoneally, and tumor-inhibitory rate, thymus and spleen indexes were observed.Results: The inhibitive effects on cell proliferation were shown in all of the twelve cell lines and the cytotoxic effects of furanodiene against Hela, Hep-2, HL-60, U251 cells were observed after 12 h of administration, the effect could last for at least 48 h in a dose dependent manner, and the IC50 values were 0.6, 1.7, 1.8, 7.0 μg/ml, respectively. Furanodiene was also found to show inhibitive effects on the proliferation of uterine cervix (U14) tumor induced in mice. The tumor inhibition rates were 36.09% (40 mg/kg), 41.55% (60 mg/kg), 58.29% (80 mg/kg), respectively.Conclusion: Furanodiene is one of primary anti-cancer active components in the essential oil of Wen Ezhu, and also a very effective agent against uterine cervix cancer, and has protection effect on the immune function.

  6. Proteoglycans as potential microenvironmental biomarkers for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhovskih, Anastasia V; Aidagulova, Svetlana V; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Grigorieva, Elvira V

    2015-09-01

    Glycosylation changes occur widely in colon tumours, suggesting glycosylated molecules as potential biomarkers for colon cancer diagnostics. In this study, proteoglycans (PGs) expression levels and their transcriptional patterns are investigated in human colon tumours in vivo and carcinoma cells in vitro. According to RT-PCR analysis, normal and cancer colon tissues expressed a specific set of PGs (syndecan-1, perlecan, decorin, biglycan, versican, NG2/CSPG4, serglycin, lumican, CD44), while the expression of glypican-1, brevican and aggrecan was almost undetectable. Overall transcriptional activity of the PGs in normal and cancer tissues was similar, although expression patterns were different. Expression of decorin and perlecan was down-regulated 2-fold in colon tumours, while biglycan and versican expression was significantly up-regulated (6-fold and 3-fold, respectively). Expression of collagen1A1 was also increased 6-fold in colon tumours. However, conventional HCT-116 colon carcinoma and AG2 colon cancer-initiating cells did not express biglycan and decorin and were versican-positive and -negative, respectively, demonstrating an extracellular origin of the PGs in cancer tissue. Selective expression of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans syndecan-1 and perlecan in the AG2 colon cancer-initiating cell line suggests these PGs as potential biomarkers for cancer stem cells. Overall transcriptional activity of the HS biosynthetic system was similar in normal and cancer tissues, although significant up-regulation of extracellular sulfatases SULF1/2 argues for a possible distortion of HS sulfation patterns in colon tumours. Taken together, the obtained results suggest versican, biglycan, collagen1A1 and SULF1/2 expression as potential microenvironmental biomarkers and/or targets for colon cancer diagnostics and treatment.

  7. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Pediatric Thyroid Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayper KAÇAR

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objectives were to evaluate fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients, and the pathologies that cause childhood thyroid nodules, and to review the literature on the subject.Material and Method: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology results of 39 pediatric patients were retrospectively reviewed. Associated diseases, thyroid functions, anti-thyroid antibody levels, ultrasonographic findings and number of nodules were also evaluated.Results: The vast majority of patients with thyroid nodules were cytopathologically diagnosed as benign (97.3%. Of these patients, 64.8% (24 patients were diagnosed as nodular goiter and 35.2% (13 patients as lymphocytic thyroiditis. Thyroid malignancy was found in two patients; one was diagnosed as follicular neoplasm/ minimal invasive follicular carcinoma on surgical evaluation while the other was a secondary tumor (Burkitt's lymphoma. The majority of our subjects were females (66.6%: the female/male ratio was 2:1 for nodular goiter and 3.3:1 for thyroiditis. Surgical resection was performed in 5 patients (4 cases of nodular goiter, 1 suspicious for malignancy and cytological diagnoses were confirmed by histology.Conclusion: Our study confirmed the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology in childhood thyroid disorders along with a possible higher incidence of nodular thyroiditis in childhood. Nodular autoimmune thyroiditis, focal thyroiditis and thyroid cancer in children are discussed and attention is drawn to some special subtypes of thyroid cancer and some benign lesions that can cause difficulty in interpreting fine needle aspiration cytology and frozen sections at this age.

  8. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of normal and abnormal oral mucosal squames: preliminary communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowpe, J G

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been applied to the exfoliative cytology of normal and abnormal human oral mucosal squames. This study is ongoing but early results indicate that a normal baseline for clinically normal oral squames, related to age and site, may be difficult to achieve. However, results obtained for the pathological smears suggest that these techniques may improve the diagnostic sensitivity of cytology in the management of oral cancer.

  9. Evaluating the Cancer Therapeutic Potential of Cardiac Glycosides

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    José Manuel Calderón-Montaño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies.

  10. PARATHYROID CYTOLOGY: A DIAGNOSTIC DILEMMA

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    Naval Kishore Bajaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Neck nodules are common in clinical practice which are accessible to Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. Thyroid being the commonest organ to present as the nodular lesions. Parathyroid lesions can be incidentally encountered during FNA of a thyroid nodule Fine needle aspiration cytology is a safe economical and leading investigation in the diagnosis of neck nodules. Thyroid and parathyroid nodules are indistinguishable clinically. An attempt is made to familiarise the pathologist about the cytomorphological features of parathyroid nodules and simple approach to differentiate from thyroid nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a retrospective study conducted over a period of 5 years from 2011-2016. Twelve cases of histologically proven parathyroidal lesions are the subjects of study of which 4 cases were diagnosed as parathyroidal cyst and rest as parathyroid adenoma. All the cases underwent fine needle aspiration cytology under ultrasound guidance, Smears were made, stained by H & E and PAP staining method, the slides were reviewed by two cytopathologists. Biochemical and radiological findings were evaluated before giving definitive cytological diagnosis. RESULTS A total number of 12 cases which were histologically proven as parathyroidal lesion. Out of which 4 were cystic lesions which were excluded from the study. Rest of the 8 cases confirmed as parathyroid adenoma which had FNAC were evaluated. 5 cases had positive cytohistological correlation. Three out of 8 cases were diagnosed as papillary carcinoma of thyroid, Toxic nodular goitre and Hurthle cell neoplasm due to varied cytomorphology. CONCLUSION Parathyroidal lesions has got low sensitivity and specificity in cytology. The confident diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasm was made in conjunction with biochemical and advanced radiological imaging. In neck nodules which are asymptomatic and at abnormal locations, FNAC through its cytomorphological features has an edge in

  11. The Role of Negative Pressure Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnosis of Fibroadenoma of Breast and Breast Cancer%负压针穿刺细胞学在诊断乳腺纤维腺瘤与乳腺癌中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑平; 杨霞; 彭柳英; 王影

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨负压针穿刺对乳腺纤维腺瘤与乳腺癌的诊断应用价值及细胞病理学特征表现。方法回顾性分析本院2014年4月至8月87例可触及乳腺肿块行一次性10mL负压注射器穿刺细胞学检查结果,结合术后病理检查,比较分析乳腺纤维腺瘤与乳腺癌的细胞病理学特征。结果本组87例患者一次穿刺成功率100%。确诊乳腺癌患者40例,纤维腺瘤患者47例,负压针吸细胞学与术后活检的诊断符合率95.4%,负压针吸细胞学对乳腺癌诊断的敏感性为100%,假阳性4.6%,漏诊率为0。结论负压针穿刺细胞学安全无痛苦,创伤小,单人操作,简单方便,对乳腺纤维腺瘤和乳腺癌的术前的诊断和鉴别诊断具有重要的应用价值。%Objective To study the application value of negative pressure fine needle aspiration cytology in breast fibro-adenoma and breast cancer and compare with their cytological features. Methods 87 cases of breast lumps received negative pressure fine needle aspiration cytology and compared the cytological features between breast fibroadenoma and breast cancer. Re-sults All cases were proved by postoperative patholgy. 40 cases were breast cancer,and 47 cases were fibroadenoma of breast. The diagnose accordance rate was 95. 4%. The sensitivity of diagnosis of malignant tumor was 100%, and the false positive rate was 4. 6%, the misdiagnosis rate was 0. Conclusion Negative pressure needle aspiration cytology is safe without pain, small trauma, single operation, simple and convenient, It has important application value in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of breast fi-broadenoma and breast cancer before operation.

  12. Liquid Based Cytology and Colposcopy in the Screening of Cervical Cancer and Precancerous Lesions%宫颈液基细胞学及阴道镜在宫颈癌及癌前病变中的筛查作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清; 胡霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析液基细胞学和阴道镜在宫颈癌及癌前病变中的筛查作用,评估液基细胞学和阴道镜在宫颈癌及癌前病变筛查中的临床应用价值。方法回顾性分析2013年5月-2014年8月接受宫颈癌筛查的500例女性的临床资料,所有体检者都接受阴道镜检查和液基细胞学检查。结果阴道镜检测假阳性患者有11例,阴道镜检测的特异性为97.39%(412/423),漏诊率为1.00%(5/500);液基细胞学诊断的假阳性患者有15例,由检测结果可知液基细胞学检测宫颈癌的检测特异性为96.45%(408/423),漏诊率为6.40%(32/500)。结论液基细胞学和阴道镜在宫颈癌及癌前病变筛查中具有临床应用价值,阴道镜对宫颈癌及癌前病变的检出率较液基细胞学高。%Objective To study the application value of liquid based cytology and colposcopy in the screening of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions .Methods Retrospective analysis of clinical data of 500 female patients who underwent cervical cancer screening were conducted .All subjects received colposcopy and liquid based cytology .Results Colposcopy results showed that false positive were 11 cases,the specificity of colposcopy was 97.39%(412 /423),the rate of missed diagnosis was 1.00%(5 /500);liquid based cytology diagnosis showed that false positive were 15 cases,specificity was 96.45%(408/423),the rate of missed diagnosis was 6.40%(32 /500).Conclusion Liquid based cytology and colposcopy has clinical application value in the screening of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions ,Colposcopy for cervical cancer and precancerous lesions has higher detec -tion rate compared with liquid based cytology .

  13. 宫颈脱落细胞中的DNA甲基化研究%Study of DNA Methylation in Cervical Cytology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲肇基

    2012-01-01

    在宫颈病变发生、发展的过程中,DNA甲基化水平发生一系列改变.以往的研究多是基于宫颈组织的,而近来检测宫颈脱落细胞甲基化的研究越来越多.与宫颈组织相比,用宫颈脱落细胞作为研究对象进行检测安全无创,更方便临床应用,可能成为筛查、诊断宫颈病变和判断宫颈病变预后的有利工具.讨论研究较多的宫颈脱落细胞中基因的甲基化水平与宫颈病变等级的关系及其临床应用.%Aberrant promoter methylation has been detected in pathogenesis of many cancers,including cervical cancer. During cervical carcinogenesis,there is a series of alteration in the methylation status of host genes. Recently,the role of promoter hypermethylation as a diagnostic tool for cervical cancer screening has been examined in liquid-based cytology samples. Detection of DNA methylation in exfoliated cervical cytology samples is more convenient and minimally invasive than in biopsy tissues. In those samples .researchers are searching for DNA methylation markers selectively indicating high-grade precancerous lesions, in order to increase the accuracy of cervical cytological diagnosis. The methylation markers might be used as a potential biomarker for cancer screening,diagnosis and predicting clinical outcomes. Here,we discuss methylation status of host genes in foliated cervical cytology samples during cervical carcinogenesis and its clinical impact.

  14. Human papillomavirus infections in Mexican women with normal cytology, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer: type-specific prevalence and HPV coinfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Salgado-Bernabé, Manuel Eduardo; Ramos-González, Norma Patricia; Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Arias-Flores, Rafael; Medina-Díaz, Irma M; Hernández-Garza, Fernando; Santos-López, Gerardo; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) provides the basis for designing HPV prevention programs. The prevalence rates of type-specific HPV and coinfections in samples of Mexican women were investigated in 822 women aged 18-87 years. HPV detection was performed using a Linear Array™ genotyping test. HPV infection was found in 12.4% of controls, 46.3% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, and 100% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all diagnosis groups. The HPV types most frequently found in cervical cancers were 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, and 39; HPV types 16, 62, 51, 84, 18, 53, and CP6108 were the most prevalent in control women. Considering HPV-positive samples only, coinfections occurred most often in controls (63%) and were less frequent in those with cervical cancer (26%). The most frequent viral types in coinfections with HPV 16 in control women were HPV 62, 51, and 84; in women with cervical cancers, HPV 18, 39, and 70 were most common. In conclusion, in addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 45, 39, 58, 52, and 71 were found in cervical cancers in Mexican women (78%); among them, only 65% were attributable to HPV types 16 and 18. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these viral types in the design of new vaccines, and to determine whether certain HPV types coinfecting with HPV 16 in precursor lesions determine tumor progression or regression.

  15. Potential anti-cancer drugs commonly used for other indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusova, Veronika; Skalova, Lenka; Kralova, Vera; Matouskova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    An increasing resistance of mammalian tumor cells to chemotherapy along with the severe side effects of commonly used cytostatics has raised the urgency in the search for new anti-cancer agents. Several drugs originally approved for indications other than cancer treatment have recently been found to have a cytostatic effect on cancer cells. These drugs could be expediently repurposed as anti-cancer agents, since they have already been tested for toxicity in humans and animals. The groups of newly recognized potential cytostatics discussed in this review include benzimidazole anthelmintics (albendazole, mebendazole, flubendazole), anti-hypertensive drugs (doxazosin, propranolol), psychopharmaceuticals (chlorpromazine, clomipramine) and antidiabetic drugs (metformin, pioglitazone). All these drugs have a definite potential to be used especially in combinations with other cytostatics; the chemotherapy targeting of multiple sites now represents a promising approach in cancer treatment. The present review summarizes recent information about the anti-cancer effects of selected drugs commonly used for other medical indications. Our aim is not to collect all the reported results, but to present an overview of various possibilities. Advantages, disadvantages and further perspectives regarding individual drugs are discussed and evaluated.

  16. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning

    2016-06-01

    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  17. Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin III is a Potential Target for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Doo Rhee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are involved either directly or indirectly in oncogenesis and the alteration of metabolism in cancer cells. Cancer cells contain large numbers of abnormal mitochondria and produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Oxidative stress is caused by an imbalance between the production of ROS and the antioxidant capacity of the cell. Several cancer therapies, such as chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation, disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis and release cytochrome c, leading to apoptosome formation, which activates the intrinsic pathway. This is modulated by the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress. The peroxiredoxin (Prx system is a cellular defense system against oxidative stress, and mitochondria in cancer cells are known to contain high levels of Prx III. Here, we review accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress is involved in cancer, and discuss the role of the mitochondrial Prx III antioxidant system as a potential target for cancer therapy. We hope that this review will provide the basis for new strategic approaches in the development of effective cancer treatments.

  18. Plant phytochemicals: potential anticancer agents against gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, Anders; Zhao, Chun-Mei; Chen, Duan

    2014-12-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) are plant phytochemicals derived from vegetables consumed by human. ITCs comprise potent anti-carcinogenic agents of which the consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of cancer at several locations in the body. However, the studies on coping with gastric cancer remain unsatisfied. In the present review, ITCs are discussed in this context as ITCs may target gastric tumorigenesis at multiple levels. ITCs are taken up in the stomach, exposing mucosal and muscle layer cells as well as affecting Helicobacter pylori residing in the stomach. The natural and potent anti-cancer ITCs from vegetables have a great potential against gastric cancer, a disease in need of new treatment or preventive modalities.

  19. The potential role of breast ductoscopy in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakbi, W Al; Escobar, Pedro F; Mokbel, Kefah

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy among women in the Western world. Mammography, which is currently the main screening modality for early detection, has a low positive predictive value of only 25%, especially in young women with very dense breasts. Therefore, new screening approaches are needed for the early detection of breast cancer in all age groups. Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is a newly developed endoscopic technique that allows direct visualization and biopsy of the mammary ductal epithelium where most cancers originate. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia in the office setting. At present, MD is used as a diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge and to guide duct excision surgery. This article focuses on the potential of this technique in breast cancer screening and highlights its limitations in this context.

  20. CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GELATINOUS ASCITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samith

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP is a condition characte rized by the accumulation of mucinous material in the peritoneal cavity (gela tinous ascites. Pseudomyxoma peritonei is an uncommon condition in which mucinous ascites causes progressive abdominal distension and gastrointestina l dysfunction. We present a case of 44 year old female who presented with gradually progres sive abdominal distension since 6 months. An ascitic tap was performed and the fluid wa s sent for cytological study. Cytology showed pools of acellular mucin. On laparotomy there was mucinous material in the abdomen that was evacuated. Appendix and omentum were found t o be thickened, hence appendicectomy was done and omental biopsy taken. Histopathological diagnosis of well differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of appendix with rupture and mucinous ascitis was made.

  1. Prospective study of fine needle aspiration cytology of clinically palpable breast lump with histopathological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin K. Hebbar

    2013-06-01

    cancer can be managed directly by mastectomy (or any other definitive therapy. A diagnosis of suspicious for cancer must be confirmed by an open biopsy or intraoperative frozen section or rapid hemotoxyline and eosine staining (depending on availability. Since the accuracy of the needle tip in localizing the lump is very high (98%, the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology can be increased by performing repeat aspiration on the lump for which previously being reported as inadequate or unsatisfactory sampling before advising for open biopsy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 257-262

  2. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional Papanicolaou smears in cervical dysplasia diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Ataee, Marziee; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Najafi-Semnani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality. This study aimed to compare the strength of the Pap smear test with fluid cytology and conventional tests in detecting cervical dysplasia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 366 women who attended private laboratories for a Pap smear. The Pap smear sampling was conducted simultaneously using two methods: conventional Pap (CP) smear and LBC), from the cervix. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32 ± 8.8 years. Diagnostic results of endocervical cells, epithelial cells, vaginitis cells, and metaplastia were consistent with both conventional and liquid cytology smears, and the kappa coefficient was determined to be significant (P < 0.001). In total, 40.5% of diagnostic cases indicated bacterial inflammation 80.3% of the diagnoses in both methods were P1 and 3.9% of cases diagnosed were P2, the overall diagnostic consistency was 83.9% between the two sampling methods. The inflammation diagnosis was 40.5% and this was consistent in both methods of LBC and CP. There was one case of a false-negative diagnosis in the LBC method and 14 cases in the CP method. Conclusion: Results showed that the LBC may improve the sample's quality and reduce the number of unsatisfactory cases more than with the CP method. PMID:27995101

  3. 249例细胞学、HPV-DNA分型检测在宫颈癌初筛中的意义分析%Analysis on significances of cytology and HPV-DNA genotyping in primary screening of 249 cases with cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林莉; 林清平; 陈小苑; 徐朝斌

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and understand the significances of cytology and HPV-DNA genotyping in primary screening of cervical cancer by conducting cytology test,HPV-DNA genotyping,and biopsy among patients from the hospital from August 10th,2010 to October 1 st,2011.Methods:Cytological screening:all the patients were detected by liquid-based Thin Prep cytology test (TCT) ; the diagnostic criterion of TCT was TBS classification; HPV-DNA genotyping:cervical canal samples of all the patients were collected by sampling kit of dot blot,supervising technicians conducted dot blot and analyzed the results,21 kinds of cancer type HPV DNA currently known were detected,including 13 high risk HPV types and 8 low risk and common HPV subtype.All the women underwent electronic colposcopy (SLC-2000,Shenzhen),the operation was conducted by specialized obstetricians and gynecologists,and suspicious lesions underwent colposcopic localization and biopsy.Results:The total sensitivity of joint detection of cytological test and HPV-DNA genotyping was 91.82%,which was significantly higher than those of simple cytological test and simple HPV-DNA genotyping,especially for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Ⅱ or above lesions,the sensitivity was as high as 100.00%,so joint detection of cytological test and HPV-DNA genotyping was the most reliable method for screening of cervical cancer,which could reduce the missed diagnostic rate to a minimal level.Conclusion:Cytological test is the most reliable method for primary screening of cervical cancer currently,HPV-DNA genotyping only can assist cytological test for primary screening,but it cant replace cytological test completely.HPV-DNA genotyping is a best method for treatment of ASCUS,which can isolate high risk population of ASCUS effectively.Compared with simple cytological test,the sensitivity of joint detection of cytological test and HPV-DNA genotyping increases,but the screening cost increases greatly,it is recommended to use the method

  4. c-erbB2/neu gene and chromosome 17 analysis in breast cancer by FISH on archival cytological fine-needle aspirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzelani, A; Alasio, L; Bartoli, C; Bonora, M G; Pierotti, M A; Rilke, F; Pilotti, S

    1999-01-01

    The detection of specific genetic alterations in breast cancer is useful for diagnosing, predicting prognosis and planning preoperative treatment. c-erbB2/neu overexpression is usually detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC), although this technique is neither completely reproducible nor highly reliable, owing to specimen and methodologic variability and antibody sensitivity. Here, we combine two well-established techniques, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to detect c-erbB2/neu amplification in patients candidate to primary chemotherapy and, in part, previously analysed for c-erbB2/neu overexpression. Sixty smears from FNA were used to simultaneously detect c-erbB2/neu and chromosome 17 centromere. FISH was successful in 58 cases and detected 24 amplified cases, three of which were negative by immunophenotyping, 28 negative cases, with evidence of two normal c-erbB2/neu/ signals, two cases with deletion of c-erbB2/neu, and four cases with polysomy, thus providing more reliable and informative results than ICC. This study underlines the advantages offered by the FNA and FISH combination which are two rapid, reliable, simple and informative techniques, to analyse one of the most important genetic markers for predicting prognosis and chemotherapy planning for breast carcinoma in particular in the light of the recently proposed trials of primary chemotherapy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408862

  5. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  6. Hashimoto thyroiditis is more frequent than expected when diagnosed by cytology which uncovers a pre-clinical state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staii Anca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our Thyroid-Multidisciplinary Clinic is a large referral site for thyroid diseases. Thyroid biopsies are mainly performed for thyroid cancer screening. Yet, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT is being too frequently diagnosed. The prevalence of HT is reported as 0.3-1.2% or twice the prevalence of type 1 diabetes. However, the prevalence of HT confirmed by cytology is still uncertain. To evaluate different aspects of thyroid physiopathology including prevalence of Hashimoto's, a database of clinical features, ultrasound images and cytology results of patients referred for FNA of thyroid nodules was prospectively developed. Methods We retrospectively studied 811 consecutive patients for whom ultrasound guided thyroid FNA biopsies were performed at our clinic over 2.5 year period (Mar/2006-Sep/2008. Results The analysis of our database revealed that from 761 patients, 102 (13.4% had HT, from whom 56 (7.4% were euthyroid or had sub-clinical (non-hypothyroid disease, and 46 (6% were clinically hypothyroid. Conclusions This is the first study to show such a high prevalence of HT diagnosed by ultrasound-guided FNA. More strikingly, the prevalence of euthyroid HT, appears to be >5% similar to that of type 2 diabetes. Based on our results, there might be a need to follow up on cytological Hashimoto's to monitor for thyroid failure, especially in high risk states, like pregnancy. The potential risk for thyroid cancer in patients with biopsy-proven inflammation of thyroid epithelium remains to be established prospectively. However, it may explain the increased risk for thyroid cancer observed in patients with elevated but within normal TSH.

  7. Nutritional supplements and cancer: potential benefits and proven harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Large-scale, randomized cancer prevention trials have mainly been negative, with some notable adverse and beneficial effects. For example, these trials showed that beta-carotene increases the risk of lung and stomach cancer, vitamin E increases prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma, and selenium reduces gastric and lung cancer in populations with low selenium levels but increase rates in those with higher levels. Both beta-carotene and vitamin E supplementation increase overall mortality. This article reviews phase II and III trials that examine the effects of multivitamins, antioxidants, vitamin D, and n-3 supplements on outcome and toxicity from cancer treatments. Although vitamin E and beta-carotene reduce toxicity from radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancer, it has been found to increase recurrence, especially among smokers. Antioxidants have mixed effects on chemotherapy toxicity, but there are no data on outcome. Vitamin D deficiency is relatively common among patients with cancer, and ongoing phase III trials are studying the effect of vitamin D on outcome as well as optimum vitamin D and calcium intakes for bone health. Docosahexanoic and eicosopentanoic acid supplements have mixed effects on cachexia and are currently being tested as potential adjuncts to maximize response to chemotherapy. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  8. Comparison between endoscopic brush cytology performed before and after biliary stricture dilation for cancer detection Comparação entre citologia por escovado endoscópico realizada antes e depois da dilatação das estenoses biliares para detecção de câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cotta Ornellas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Confirmation of malignancy within biliary strictures is endoscopically challenging. Dilation of strictures has been reported to enhance cytological diagnosis. AIM: To compare brush cytology results before and after biliary stricture dilation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with extra-hepatic biliary stricture at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were included in the study. Brushing was performed before and immediately after dilation using a 10 Fr dilating catheter. Cytology samples were classified as: negative for malignancy, presence of atypical cells, insufficient material, suspicious for malignancy or positive for malignancy. Final diagnosis was established by surgery, biopsy or follow-up. RESULTS: Biliary brush cytology was performed in 50 patients, with an overall sensitivity of 40% and 27.5%, before and after dilation, respectively. The combination of results increased cancer detection rate to 45%. There were 5/50 (10% minor complications and one death related to the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Brush cytology performed before biliary stricture dilation has a similar cancer detection rate to that following dilation, although the combination of results enhances sensitivity.RACIONAL: A citologia por escovado apresenta baixa sensibilidade na detecção de câncer em estenoses biliares, mas manipulação endoscópica prévia poderia aumentar a esfoliação de células tumorais. OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados dos escovados obtidos antes e depois da dilatação de estenoses biliares. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Pacientes com estenose biliar extra-hepática diagnosticada durante colangiopancreatografia endoscópica retrógada foram submetidos a citologia por escovado. Em seguida, a estenose foi dilatada com cateter de 10 French e o escovado foi repetido. A citologia foi classificada como: negativa para malignidade, presença de células atípicas, material insuficiente, suspeita para malignidade ou positiva para malignidade. O

  9. The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannelly, Grainne

    2010-02-01

    The management of women with abnormal cytology in pregnancy represents both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge for colposcopists. The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer). Following an initial assessment, careful follow-up is essential. This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium. The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy and pitfalls of fine needle aspiration cytology and scrape cytology in oral cavity lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nesreen H. Hafez; Mohamed I. Fahim

    2014-01-01

    Background — The oral cavity can be home for a wide variety of lesions. To date, biopsy has remained the gold standard for diagnosing these lesions. Purpose — This study was carried out to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cytology in the oral lesions and to address the cytologic-histologic correlation. Patients and Methods — This prospective study included 72 patients with intraoral lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or scrap cytology was performed. The smears were immediate...

  11. Comparison of centrifuged liquid based cytology method with conventional brush cytology in oral lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Dwivedi; Akhil Agarwal; Vineet Raj; Bina Kashyap; Shaleen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the study of cells that are shed or scrapped off from mucosal surfaces. Centrifuged Liquid based cytology is a modified technique employed in the present study. Aims: To compare the utility of centrifuged liquid based cytology with conventional cytology in oral lesions after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: 50 cases of oral lesions comprising of normal mucosa (n=14), hyperkeratotic lesions (n=17), ulcerated lesions (n=7) and at...

  12. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by cervical cytology among women in Brasov, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Irimie, Marius; Oanta, Alexandru; Pascu, Alina; Burtea, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in triggering cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, is well established. Romania ranks in first place in Europe in terms of the incidence of cervical cancer. Geographical widespread data on HPV type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programmes. In this study we aimed to identify the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to establish correlations with abnormal cervical cytology among the female population of Brasov County, Romania. A total of 1,000 women aged 17.3-57 years, attending routine cervical examination in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Brasov, Romania, and undergoing both cytological examination and HPV genotyping were screened. Infection with 35 different HPV genotypes was detected in 39.6% of cytological specimens. Overall HPV infections were highest in young women under 25 years (p<0.0001), in which cervical cytological abnormalities also reached the highest prevalence. Patients infected by HPV-16 or HPV-18 showed the highest prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities. Some 48.2% of women with abnormal cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types whereas less than 3% of them were infected only with low-risk HPV types. Our study showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among Romanian women is higher compared to other studies in other geographic areas. Thus, we consider that in areas where there is an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV infections, HPV genotyping should be performed in all women aged between 18 and 45 years, and Pap test should be performed every 6 months in women with high-risk HPV infection, even those with previous normal cervical cytology.

  13. Targeting nuclear transporters in cancer: Diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelma, Tamara; Chi, Alicia; van der Watt, Pauline J; Verrico, Annalisa; Lavia, Patrizia; Leaner, Virna D

    2016-04-01

    The Karyopherin superfamily is a major class of soluble transport receptors consisting of both import and export proteins. The trafficking of proteins involved in transcription, cell signalling and cell cycle regulation among other functions across the nuclear membrane is essential for normal cellular functioning. However, in cancer cells, the altered expression or localization of nuclear transporters as well as the disruption of endogenous nuclear transport inhibitors are some ways in which the Karyopherin proteins are dysregulated. The value of nuclear transporters in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer is currently being elucidated with recent studies highlighting their potential as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  14. Cyr61 is a potential prognostic marker for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki Terada; Prakash Kulkarni; Robert H Getzenberg

    2012-01-01

    Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (Cyr61) is an extracellular matrix protein involved in the transduction of growth factor and hormone signaling that is frequently altered in expression in several types of cancers.In prostate cancer (PCa),Cyr61 is highly expressed in organ-confined disease.Further,Cyr61 expression levels are associated with a lower risk of disease recurrence,and can be quantitatively measured in the serum.Considered together,these results indicate that Cyr61 is a potential and clinically useful tissue,as well as serum-based biomarker for differentiating lethal and non-lethal PCa.

  15. Imprint cytology on microcalcifications excised by Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A rapid preliminary diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drouveli Theodora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate imprint cytology in the context of specimens with microcalcifications derived from Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB. Patients and methods A total of 93 women with microcalcifications BI-RADS 3 and 4 underwent VABB and imprint samples were examined. VABB was performed on Fischer's table using 11-gauge Mammotome vacuum probes. A mammogram of the cores after the procedure confirmed the excision of microcalcifications. For the application of imprint cytology, the cores with microcalcifications confirmed by mammogram were gently rolled against glass microscope slides and thus imprint smears were made. For rapid preliminary diagnosis Diff-Quick stain, modified Papanicolaou stain and May Grunwald Giemsa were used. Afterwards, the core was dipped into a CytoRich Red Collection fluid for a few seconds in order to obtain samples with the use of the specimen wash. After the completion of cytological procedures, the core was prepared for routine histological study. The pathologist was blind to the preliminary cytological results. The cytological and pathological diagnoses were comparatively evaluated. Results According to the pathological examination, 73 lesions were benign, 15 lesions were carcinomas (12 ductal carcinomas in situ, 3 invasive ductal carcinomas, and 5 lesions were precursor: 3 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH and 2 cases of lobular neoplasia (LN. The observed sensitivity and specificity of the cytological imprints for cancer were 100% (one-sided, 97.5% CI: 78.2%–100%. Only one case of ADH could be detected by imprint cytology. Neither of the two LN cases was detected by the imprints. The imprints were uninformative in 11 out of 93 cases (11.8%. There was no uninformative case among women with malignancy. Conclusion Imprint cytology provides a rapid, accurate preliminary diagnosis in a few minutes. This method might contribute to the diagnosis of early breast cancer and possibly attenuates

  16. Nuclear matrix protein 22 and urinary cytology test in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: a meta analysis%核基质蛋白22与尿细胞学检测对膀胱癌诊断价值的meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海洋; 胡自力; 王宏权; 刘川; 于圣杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 系统评价核基质蛋白22(NMP22)和尿细胞学对膀胱癌诊断价值.方法 制定纳入、排除标准和检索策略,检索相关文献,根据纳入、排除标准筛选文献并评价质量和提取数据,用MetaDiSc 1.4进行meta分析.结果 共检索到相关文献266篇,排除256篇,对符合纳入标准的10篇文献行meta分析,共4895例.NMP22检测膀胱癌的总灵敏度为0.76(95% CI:0.74~0.77)、总特异度为0.80(95% CI:0.79 ~0.82)、总受试者工作特征曲线下面积(AUC)为0.8533;尿细胞学检测总灵敏度0.36(95% CI:0.34~0.38),总特异度0.94(95% CI:0.93~0.95),总受试者工作特征曲线下面积为0.8628.总诊断精确度Q*指数分别为0.7863和0.7934.结论 NMP22对膀胱癌诊断的灵敏度较尿细胞学明显增高,特异度比细胞学检测低,总体诊断效能中等,与尿细胞学无明显差异,目前不能取代尿细胞学检测.%Objective Systematic reviews of diagnostic value of the nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) and urine cytology for bladder cancer.Methods Development of inclusion criteria,exclusion criteria and search strategy to retrieve relevant literature.Screening the literature according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria.Quality evaluation of the screening and data extraction,using MetaDiSc 1.4software for Meta analysis.Results In total,266 relevant studies were searched,exeluted 256 studies,and then 10 studies were included,with 4895 patients involved.The pooled sensitivity and specificity of NMP22 to detect bladder cancer were 0.76 (95% CI:0.74-0.77),0.80 (95% CI:0.79-0.82),respectively.The pooled sensitivity and specificity of urine cytology were 0.36 (95% CI:0.34-0.38),0.94 (95% CI:0.93-0.95),respectively.The area under curve (AUC) for NMP22 and urine cytology were 0.8533 and 0.8628,and Q * index were 0.7863 and 0.7934,respectively.Conclusions For the diagnosis of bladder cancer,the sensitivity of NMP22 was higher than urine cytology,but the

  17. Application of cytology and molecular biology in diagnosing premalignant or malignant oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ravi; Gupta, Anurag; Singh, Mamta; Ibrahim, Rahela

    2006-03-23

    Early detection of a premalignant or cancerous oral lesion promises to improve the survival and the morbidity of patients suffering from these conditions. Cytological study of oral cells is a non-aggressive technique that is well accepted by the patient, and is therefore an attractive option for the early diagnosis of oral cancer, including epithelial atypia and squamous cell carcinoma. However its usage has been limited so far due to poor sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing oral malignancies. Lately it has re-emerged due to improved methods and it's application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. Newer diagnostic techniques such as "brush biopsy" and molecular studies have been developed. Recent advances in cytological techniques and novel aspects of applications of scraped or exfoliative cytology for detecting these lesions and predicting their progression or recurrence are reviewed here.

  18. Education and training in cytology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tötsch, M

    2016-10-01

    Education and training in cytology in Europe is hampered by the fact that there is no homogenous programme across Europe. This can be observed for (Cyto)Pathologists and Cytotechnologists. However, lack of workforce and lack of a pan-European Cytology diploma are decreasing motivation among junior staff to dedicate their professional interests to cytology. Cytology and histology are complementary approaches for the diagnosis or exclusion of disease in patients and there are many individual efforts of National Societies to maintain competencies in cytology by workshops, seminars, tutorials and congresses. Furthermore, professional organizations such as the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) - Section Pathology are working together in order to develop a pan-European Cytology diploma. The EFCS is part supported by EU funding in this endeavour. Activities are ongoing in the fields of training (Eurocytology) and examination (QUATE Aptitude Test - Quality Assurance, Training and Examination) or both (Cy-Test). Modern techniques such as Webatlas with teaching modules in cytology and Tele(cyto)pathology are more and more integrated in daily teaching activities resulting in standardization of cytology in Europe.

  19. Circulating DNA as Potential Biomarker for Cancer Individualized Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shaorong; Liu Baorui; Lu Jianwei; Feng Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Cancer individualized therapy often requires for gene mutation analysis of tumor tissue. However, tumor tissue is not always available in clinical practice, particularly from patients with refractory and recurrence disease. Even if patients have sufifcient tumor tissue for detection, as development of cancer, the gene status and drug sensitivity of tumor tissues could also change. Hence, screening mutations from primary tumor tissues becomes useless, it’s necessary to ifnd a surrogate tumor tissue for individualized gene screening. Circulating DNA is digested rapidly from blood, which could provide real-time information of the released fragment and make the real-time detection possible. Therefore, it’s expected that circulating DNA could be a potential tumor biomarker for cancer individualized therapy. This review focuses on the biology and clinical utility of circulating DNA mainly on gene mutation detection. Besides, its current status and possible direction in this research area is summarized and discussed objectively.

  20. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  1. Is Selenium a Potential Treatment for Cancer Metastasis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chi Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient that functions as a redox gatekeeper through its incorporation into proteins to alleviate oxidative stress in cells. Although the epidemiological data are somewhat controversial, the results of many studies suggest that inorganic and organic forms of Se negatively affect cancer progression, and that several selenoproteins, such as GPXs, also play important roles in tumor development. Recently, a few scientists have examined the relationship between Se and metastasis, a late event in cancer progression, and have evaluated the potential of Se as an anti-angiogenesis or anti-metastasis agent. In this review, we present the current knowledge about Se compounds and selenoproteins, and their effects on the development of metastasis, with an emphasis on cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. In the cancers of breast, prostate, colorectal, fibrosarcoma, melanoma, liver, lung, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and brain glioma, there is either clinical evidence linking selenoproteins, such as thioredoxin reductase-1 to lymph node metastasis; in vitro studies indicating that Se compounds and selenoproteins inhibited cell motility, migration, and invasion, and reduced angiogenic factors in some of these cancer cells; or animal studies showing that Se supplementation resulted in reduced microvessel density and metastasis. Together, these data support the notion that Se may be an anti-metastastatic element in addition to being a cancer preventative agent.

  2. Review of Natural Compounds for Potential Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawona N. Chinembiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer drugs are derived from natural resources such as marine, microbial and botanical sources. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with a high mortality rate. Various treatments for malignant melanoma are available, but due to the development of multi-drug resistance, current or emerging chemotherapies have a relatively low success rates. This emphasizes the importance of discovering new compounds that are both safe and effective against melanoma. In vitro testing of melanoma cell lines and murine melanoma models offers the opportunity for identifying mechanisms of action of plant derived compounds and extracts. Common anti-melanoma effects of natural compounds include potentiating apoptosis, inhibiting cell proliferation and inhibiting metastasis. There are different mechanisms and pathways responsible for anti-melanoma actions of medicinal compounds such as promotion of caspase activity, inhibition of angiogenesis and inhibition of the effects of tumor promoting proteins such as PI3-K, Bcl-2, STAT3 and MMPs. This review thus aims at providing an overview of anti-cancer compounds, derived from natural sources, that are currently used in cancer chemotherapies, or that have been reported to show anti-melanoma, or anti-skin cancer activities. Phytochemicals that are discussed in this review include flavonoids, carotenoids, terpenoids, vitamins, sulforaphane, some polyphenols and crude plant extracts.

  3. Is selenium a potential treatment for cancer metastasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chi; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Mastro, Andrea M

    2013-04-08

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient that functions as a redox gatekeeper through its incorporation into proteins to alleviate oxidative stress in cells. Although the epidemiological data are somewhat controversial, the results of many studies suggest that inorganic and organic forms of Se negatively affect cancer progression, and that several selenoproteins, such as GPXs, also play important roles in tumor development. Recently, a few scientists have examined the relationship between Se and metastasis, a late event in cancer progression, and have evaluated the potential of Se as an anti-angiogenesis or anti-metastasis agent. In this review, we present the current knowledge about Se compounds and selenoproteins, and their effects on the development of metastasis, with an emphasis on cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. In the cancers of breast, prostate, colorectal, fibrosarcoma, melanoma, liver, lung, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and brain glioma, there is either clinical evidence linking selenoproteins, such as thioredoxin reductase-1 to lymph node metastasis; in vitro studies indicating that Se compounds and selenoproteins inhibited cell motility, migration, and invasion, and reduced angiogenic factors in some of these cancer cells; or animal studies showing that Se supplementation resulted in reduced microvessel density and metastasis. Together, these data support the notion that Se may be an anti-metastastatic element in addition to being a cancer preventative agent.

  4. Potential Effects of Pomegranate Polyphenols in Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Eleonora; Ferruzzi, Lorenzo; Fimognari, Carmela

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death and is becoming the leading one in old age. Vegetable and fruit consumption is inversely associated with cancer incidence and mortality. Currently, interest in a number of fruits high in polyphenols has been raised due to their reported chemopreventive and/or chemotherapeutic potential. Pomegranate has been shown to exert anticancer activity, which is generally attributed to its high content of polyphenols. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of known targets and mechanisms along with a critical evaluation of pomegranate polyphenols as future anticancer agents. Pomegranate evokes antiproliferative, anti-invasive, and antimetastatic effects, induces apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 proteins, upregulates p21 and p27, and downregulates cyclin-cdk network. Furthermore, pomegranate blocks the activation of inflammatory pathways including, but not limited to, the NF-κB pathway. The strongest evidence for its anticancer activity comes from studies on prostate cancer. Accordingly, some exploratory clinical studies investigating pomegranate found a trend of efficacy in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. However, the genotoxicity reported for pomegranate raised certain concerns over its safety and an accurate assessment of the risk/benefit should be performed before suggesting the use of pomegranate or its polyphenols for cancer-related therapeutic purposes.

  5. Aptamer nanomedicine for cancer therapeutics: barriers and potential for translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Phua, Kyle K L; Leong, Kam W

    2015-03-24

    Aptamer nanomedicine, including therapeutic aptamers and aptamer nanocomplexes, is beginning to fulfill its potential in both clinical trials and preclinical studies. Especially in oncology, aptamer nanomedicine may perform better than conventional or antibody-based chemotherapeutics due to specificity compared to the former and stability compared to the latter. Many proof-of-concept studies on applying aptamers to drug delivery, gene therapy, and cancer imaging have shown promising efficacy and impressive safety in vivo toward translation. Yet, there remains ample room for improvement and critical barriers to be addressed. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progress in clinical trials of aptamer nanomedicine, followed by a discussion of the barriers at the design and in vivo application stages. We will then highlight recent advances and engineering strategies proposed to tackle these barriers. Aptamer cancer nanomedicine has the potential to address one of the most important healthcare issues of the society.

  6. 探讨宫颈液基细胞学与HPV检测在宫颈癌筛查中的联合作用%The Discussion about the Combined Effect of Cervical Liquid Based Cytology and HPV Test in Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴艳; 付雯; 刘蔚; 陈加来

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the application value of Thin prep cytologic test and high-risk human papilloma virus HPV-DNA test in the diagnosis of cervical lesions. Method:1194 patients in our hospital department of gynaecology clinic were selected as the research object,who should do cervical liquid based cytology and HPV test routinely. Cytology positive or HPV-DNA positive did pathology biopsy test under colposcope and regarded the pathology diagnosis as the gold standard. Result:The sensitivity,specificity,accuracy,and Youden index of each diagnostic test was listed respectively as follows:89.66%,90.49%,90.45%,0.801 for liquid-based cytology,79.31%,91.90%,91.29%,0.712 for HPV DNA test,94.83%,89.70%,89.95%,0.845 for combine liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA test in parallel,87.93%, 95.16%,94.81%,0.831 for combine liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA test in series. The diagnosis value of combine liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA test in series and in parallel was higher than the others through the analysis of the area under ROC curve. Conclusion:LPT combined with HPV-DNA testing for cervical cancer screening can improve not only the sensitivity and specificity of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions,but also detection rate.%目的:探讨液基细胞学检查(LPT)与高危型人乳头状瘤病毒HPV-DNA检测在子宫颈病变诊断中的应用价值。方法:选取1194例在本院妇科门诊就诊的妇女作为研究对象,常规行宫颈液基细胞学及HPV-DNA检查,以活检的病理诊断为金标准。结果:以组织病理学结果作为标准,液基细胞学检查方法的敏感性、特异性、准确性及约登指数分别为89.66%、90.49%、90.45%、0.801,HPV-DNA检测方法的敏感性、特异性、准确性及约登指数分别为79.31%、91.90%、91.29%、0.712,并联液基细胞学检查和HPV DNA检测方法的敏感性、特异性、准确性及约登指数分别为94.83%、89.70%、89.95%、0.845,串

  7. Comparing SurePath, ThinPrep, and conventional cytology as primary test method: SurePath is associated with increased CIN II+ detection rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten); C. Penning (Corine); A.G. Siebers (Albertus); S.K. Naber (Steffie); S.M. Matthijsse (Suzette); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); F.J. van Kemenade (Folkert); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Within the last decade, SurePath and ThinPrep [both liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests] have replaced conventional cytology (CC) as primary test method in cervical cancer screening programs of multiple countries. The aim of our study was to examine the effect in the Dutch screeni

  8. Age-specific patterns of unsatisfactory results for conventional Pap smears and liquid-based cytology: data from two randomised clinical trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castle, P.E.; Bulten, J.; Confortini, M.; Klinkhamer, P.; Pellegrini, A.; Siebers, A.G.; Ronco, G.; Arbyn, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the rate of unsatisfactory cervical cell samples in liquid-based cytology (LBC) versus conventional cytology (CC) by age. DESIGN: Randomised clinical trials. SETTING: Population-based cervical cancer screening in the Netherlands and Italy. POPULATION: Asymptomatic women inv

  9. Effects of streamlining cervical cancer screening the Dutch way: consequences of changes in the Dutch KOPAC-based follow-up protocol and consensus-based limitation of equivocal cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briët, Martijn C; Berger, Thomas H D; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein;

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the impact of the 1995 revision of the Dutch cervical screening program guidelines (e.g., the introduction of more stringent criteria for cytologic diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]) on the negative side effects of screening in Region West....

  10. Cytological diagnosis of myoepithelial carcinoma of minor salivary gland: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Vandana U Grampurohit; Hephzibah Rani; S S Parinitha; U S Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic cells with myoepithelial differentiation are often present in both benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms. Potential diagnostic problems may arise due to morphologic heterogeneity of myoepithelial cell-rich lesions in fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Myoepithelial carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor composed exclusively of cells with myoepithelial differentiation. Histopathologically, it is a well-established entity but its cytological features have rarely b...

  11. Evaluation of a cervical cancer screening program based on HPV testing and LLETZ excision in a low resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret McAdam

    Full Text Available We conducted studies in Vanuatu to evaluate potential screening and treatment strategies to assist with control of cervical cancer. In a pilot study of 496 women, visual inspection and cytology were evaluated as screening tests for detection of CIN 2 or worse (CIN2+, observed in 21 of 206 subjects biopsied on the basis of abnormal visual inspection or cytology. Sensitivity of visual inspection with Lugol's Iodine for detection of CIN2+ on biopsy was 0.63, specificity was 0.32, and the positive predictive value was 0.09. For HSIL cytology, sensitivity was 0.99, specificity was 0.77, and the positive predictive value was 0.88. HSIL cytology was significantly more sensitive and had a significantly higher PPV for CIN 2+ than visual inspection (p<0.01. In a further study of 514 women, we compared testing for HR HPV and cytology as predictors of biopsy proven CIN 2+. Sensitivity of HSIL cytology for CIN2+ as established by loop excision of the cervix was 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.48. Sensitivity of a positive test for HR HPV for detection of CIN2+ was non-significantly different from cytology at 0.81, specificity was 0.94, and positive predictive value was 0.42. Combining the two tests gave a significantly lower sensitivity of 0.63, a specificity of 0.98, and a positive predictive value of 0.68. For women over 30 in a low resource setting without access to cytology, a single locally conducted test for high risk HPV with effective intervention could reduce cervical cancer risk as effectively as intervention based on cytology conducted in an accredited laboratory.

  12. Re: Engineered Nanoparticles Induce Cell Apoptosis: Potential for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi Narter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs have been widely applied in industry, biology and medicine recently (i.e. clothes, sunscreens, cosmetics, foods, diagnostic medicine, imaging and drug delivery. There are many kinds of manufactured nanomaterial products including TiO2, ZnO, CeO2, Fe2O3, and CuO (as metal oxide nanoparticles as well as gold, silver, platinum and palladium (as metal nanoparticles, and other carbon-based ENP’s such as carbon nanotububes and quantum dots. ENPs with their sizes no larger than 100 nm are able to enter the human body and accumulate in organs and cause toxic effects. In many researches, ENP effects on the cancer cells of different organs with related cell apoptosis were noted (AgNP, nano-Cr2O3, Au-Fe2O3 NPs, nano-TiO2, nano-HAP, nano-Se, MoO3 nanoplate, Realgar nanoparticles. ENPs, with their unique properties, such as surface charge, particle size, composition and surface modification with tissue recognition ligands or antibodies, has been increasingly explored as a tool to carry small molecular weight drugs as well as macromolecules for cancer therapy, thus generating the new concept “nanocarrier”. Direct induction of cell apoptosis by ENPs provides an opportunity for cancer treatment. In the century of nanomedicine that depends on development of the nanotechnology, ENPs have a great potential for application in cancer treatment with minimal side effects.

  13. Diagnostic value of cytology of voided urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicić, Valerija; Prvulović, Ivana; Panda, Natalija; Bilić-Kirin, Vesna; Kraljik, Nikola; Serić, Vatroslav

    2014-06-01

    There are 961 new cases and approximately 366 deaths from urothelial carcinoma registered annually in Croatia. Exfoliative urinary cytology has important role in detection of high grade urinary tumors, invasive and in situ lesions respectively. In contrast to cystoscopy and biopsy, cytology is a noninvasive method which is easily repeated. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess value of urinary cytology in our institution. For this purpose only patients with histological diagnosis and clinical follow up were considered. There were 138 urine specimens with cytological diagnosis of dyskaryosis, suspicious for malignancy or malignant and histology and follow up data examined at our Department of Clinical Cytology between 2004 and 2011. Cytological diagnosis suspicious for malignancy and malignant were considered positive and the results were correlated with histological diagnosis according to the WHO histological classification of tumors of the urinary tract. Patients with negative histological findings were followed for the next two years. The positive predictive value of cytological detection of malignant urothelial lesions was 91.8%. In 10 cases cytological diagnosis of malignancy was not confirmed histologically or clinically which makes the total of 8.2% of false positive reports. Of the total of detected malignant urothelial lesions 90.9% are high grade lesions and only 9.1% low-grade lesions; 67.3% are invasive lesions and 32.7% non-invasive lesions. Cytological findings of dyskariotyc cells requires further urological investigation because such findings in further processing prove the presence of tumor in 93.8% of cases. In conclusion: cytology is very good diagnostic tool for detection of high grade invasive and noninvasive carcinomas of the urinary tract. In order to make it more efficient we need to study its limits carefully, define diagnostic criteria and reach consensus in nomenclature.

  14. Quality control analysis on cervical cytology of free cervical cancer screening for 35-64-year-old women in Beijing in 2013%北京市2013年适龄妇女免费宫颈癌筛查宫颈细胞学阅片质量控制结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洁; 张月; 高丽丽; 韩历丽

    2015-01-01

    control among women accepted free cervical cancer screening in Beijing in 2013.Methods Collected 286 781 cervical cytology smears information of free cervical cancer screening in medical screening units of 1 6 districts and counties in Beijing in 2013.Use probability random sampling method to get 9 907 cervical cytology smears for quality control analysis.Took the pathologists′diagnosis as golden standards.Detection positive rate,various indicators of quality control and unsatisfactory rate of smears were compared statistically between traditional Pap smear and liquid-based cervical cytology smear.Results ① The total detection positive rate and the detection positive rate of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion(HSIL)of liquid-based cytology smear were higher than those of traditional Pap smear,and the differences were statistically significant(2.41% vs 2.05%,χ2 =39.885,P =0.000;0.58% vs 0.31%,χ2 =1 13.772,P = 0.000;0.14% vs 0.1 1%,χ2 = 4.464,P = 0.035 ).② There were no significant differences between Pap smears and liquid-based cytology smears in false negative rate,specificity and coincidence rate (P >0.05).The false positive rate of Pap smears was lower than that of liquid- based cytology smears, while the sensitivity rate were higher,and the differences were statistically significant(0 vs 0.55%,χ2 =18.342,P =0.000;100.00% vs 75.00%,χ2 =98.980,P =0.000).③The dissatisfaction rate of smears was 4.1 7%(413/9 907)among 9 907 cervical cytology smears,and the primary reason was lighter dyeing and (or)unclear structure of cell (54.24%),followed by the lack of cell mass(43.09%).The dissatisfaction rate of Pap smears caused by lack of cell mass was higher than that of liquid-based cytology smears(2.45% vs 1.44%),while the dissatisfaction rate of liquid-based cytology smears caused by lighter dyeing and (or) unclear structure of cell was higher than that of Pap smears (3.34% vs 0.26%),and the differences were

  15. Nano-bio-chip sensor platform for examination of oral exfoliative cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigum, Shannon E; Floriano, Pierre N; Redding, Spencer W; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Westbrook, Stephen D; McGuff, H Stan; Lin, Alan; Miller, Frank R; Villarreal, Fred; Rowan, Stephanie D; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Williams, Michelle D; McDevitt, John T

    2010-04-01

    Oral cancer is a deadly and disfiguring disease that could greatly benefit from new diagnostic approaches enabling early detection. In this pilot study, we describe a nano-bio-chip (NBC) sensor technique for analysis of oral cancer biomarkers in exfoliative cytology specimens, targeting both biochemical and morphologic changes associated with early oral tumorigenesis. Here, oral lesions from 41 dental patients, along with normal epithelium from 11 healthy volunteers, were sampled using a noninvasive brush biopsy technique. Specimens were enriched, immunolabeled, and imaged in the NBC sensor according to previously established assays for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarker and cytomorphometry. A total of 51 measurement parameters were extracted using custom image analysis macros, including EGFR labeling intensity, cell and nuclear size, and the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. Four key parameters were significantly elevated in both dysplastic and malignant lesions relative to healthy oral epithelium, including the nuclear area and diameter (P oral cancer and precancerous conditions (area under the curve, 0.94) with high sensitivity and specificity. Further clinical trials are necessary to validate the regression model and evaluate other potential biomarkers, but this pilot study supports the NBC sensor technique as a promising new diagnostic tool for early detection of oral cancer, which could enhance patient care and survival.

  16. Role of cytology, colposcopy and biopsy in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja H. Khakhla

    2013-08-01

    Results: Colposcopy was well-correlated with histology in 69.70% cases. Cytology was well-correlated with histology in 65.15% of cases & with major discrepancy in 18.18% cases. Conclusion: The incidence of cervical cancer will continue to be very high in our population because of the constant high incidence of early marriage, multiparity, poor nutrition, poor hygiene, and low living standards. Thus there is a need for screening of these patients for cervical cancer and till date exfoliative Cytology has been found to be the Gold Standard for detection of early malignancy. Universal cytologic screening of all sexually active women should be done, especially in cases of parous women in lower socio-economic groups. Treatment & follow-up of dysplasia could prevent malignancies in future. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 550-554

  17. Histological Correlation of Glandular Abnormalities in Cervical Liquid-Based Cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Papanicolaou smear method is still commonly used for cervical cancer screening in Japan, despite the liquid-based cytology (LBC that has become a global tendency in the world recently. One of the obstacles in the way of popularization of this method seems to be the confusion as to diagnosis upon cervical glandular lesions. We performed comparison study between LBC and conventional Papanicolaou smear about cytological diagnosis using split-sample method in 4522 patients. In 13 cases analyses, which were reported with either AGC or adenocarcinoma by either method, LBC tends to be milder than that by conventional smear, however, the credibility of LBC is considered to be near to that of conventional smear with regard to screening for glandular abnormalities. These results indicate that cervical cancer screening should shift to LBC under the enough experience and appropriate dealing with the cytological diagnosis.

  18. [Performance by cytology and hybrid capture II in screening for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in women with HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Letícia Martins; Velasque, Luciane; Luz, Paula Mendes; Friedman, Ruth Khalili; Cytryn, Andrea; Andrade, Angela Cristina Vasconcelos de; Vanni, Tazio; Brasil, Pedro E A A; Russomano, Fabio; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2011-07-01

    HIV-infected women are at increased risk of developing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), the precursor lesions for cervical cancer. This study estimated and compared the performance of cytology and hybrid capture II in screening for precursor lesions of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women. The study population consisted of women from the open prospective cohort at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (IPEC/Fiocruz). Colposcopy and histology were considered jointly in defining the gold standard. Cytology showed 31.8% sensitivity and 95.5% specificity, while hybrid capture II showed higher sensitivity (100%) and lower specificity (52%). The positive likelihood ratio was 7.1 for cytology and 2.1 for hybrid capture II, while the negative likelihood ratio was 0.7 for cytology and 0.0 for hybrid capture II.

  19. 兰陵地区子宫颈液基细胞学筛查结果分析%Liquid-based cytology screening for cervical cancer in Lanling district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽冉; 王新国; 谢凤祥; 赵东曼; 范波涛; 李欣; 祁德波

    2015-01-01

    目的:收集和分析兰陵地区子宫颈癌筛查结果,为子宫颈癌防治提供科学依据。方法以2015年上半年兰陵地区已婚女性入组研究,收集子宫颈脱落细胞标本,采用液基细胞学制片,巴氏染色,在严格诊断质量控制下按子宫颈细胞学Bethesda报告系统的诊断标准进行判读。结果收集标本13832例,标本满意率达99.96%。微生物检出情况:真菌感染99例(0.72%),滴虫感染120例(0.87%),放线菌感染30例(0.22%),细菌性阴道病770例(5.57%),共1019例(7.37%)。子宫颈液基细胞学检测(liquid-based cytology testing,LCT)情况:不能明确意义的不典型鳞状细胞(atypical squamous cells of unknown significance,ASC-US)479例(3.46%),不除外高级别鳞状上皮内病变的不典型鳞状上皮细胞(atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL,ASC-H)25例(0.18%),低级别鳞状上皮内病变(low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions ,LSIL)235例(1.70%),高级别鳞状上皮内病变(high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions ,HSIL)90例(0.65%),鳞状细胞癌(squamous cell carcinomas,SCC)1例(0.01%),不典型腺细胞(atypical glandular cells,AGC)4例(0.03%)。细胞学检查异常共834例,占6.03%。细胞学检查异常人群集中在25~55岁。诊断质量控制结果:不典型鳞状上皮细胞与上皮内病变的比值(ASC/SIL)为1.546;27例HSIL宫颈活检病理结果显示26例为子宫颈上皮内瘤变( cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,CIN)Ⅱ级、Ⅲ级,符合率为96.3%。结论子宫颈液基细胞学检测能发现子宫颈微生物感染及癌前病变,为子宫颈癌筛查工作提供科学依据。%Objective To screen married women in Lanling District for cervical cancer using liquid-based cytology testing(LCT). Methods Married women in Lanling district were enrolled into this study in the first half of 2015 based

  20. Conjunctival impression cytology in contact lens wearers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Priya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the cytological changes in conjunctiva following regular contact lens wear and to determine the correlation, if any, between severity of cytological alteration and symptoms related to contact lens wear. METHODS: One hundred eyes (50 normal asymptomatic subjects who served as a control group were studied by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC. These subjects were fitted with rigid gas permeable (RGP or soft contact lenses and were followed up at the end of 3 and 6 months. At each follow-up visit the CIC was repeated. A filter paper with the impression specimen was stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS and haematoxylin stain to study goblet cell loss. Papanicolaou stain was done to study squamous metaplasia. The cytological changes were graded using the system described by Natadisastra et al. RESULTS: Severity of cytological changes increased with the duration of contact lens wear (P = 0.00001. At the end of 6 months, 60% of symptomatic eyes wearing soft contact lens and RGP lens showed abnormal CIC changes. None of the asymptomatic RGP contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes whereas 33.4% of the asymptomatic soft contact lens wearing eyes showed abnormal CIC changes (P = 0.033. Epithelial changes occurred within 3-6 months of contact lens fitting. CONCLUSION: Severity of cytological changes increased with duration of lens wear (P = 0.00001. Prevalence and severity of cytological alteration is more in symptomatic contact lens wearers. Soft contact lens wearers although asymptomatic showed severe CIC changes.

  1. Indicação da anuscopia de alta resolução e citologia anal na prevenção de HPV e câncer colorretal em pacientes portadores de HIV Indication of high resolution anoscopy and anal cytology for prevention of HPV and colorectal cancer in HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Leonardo Madeiro Arcanjo Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rastreamento do papilomavírus humano (HPV assim como sua correlação com a neoplasia anorretal nos pacientes portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV por meio da anuscopia de alta resolução (AAR e da citologia anal. MÉTODOS: Desenvolvemos um estudo observacional, transversal e duplo-cego em que participaram 31 pacientes portadores do HIV independente de queixas proctológicas. Os pacientes foram submetidos à AAR e citologia anal cujas lâminas foram enviadas ao setor de anatomia patológica para coloração e posterior análise. RESULTADOS: Verificamos 22 pacientes do sexo masculino e 9 do sexo feminino entre 20 e 67 anos. Dos 31 analisados, quatro encontravam-se em estágio de imunodepressão, 23 utilizavam terapia antirretroviral, 16 com passado de sexo anal receptivo e 12 com passado de condiloma acuminado. À AAR 11 pacientes tinham alterações e 7 foram confirmados pela citologia. Verificamos ainda oito pacientes com alterações à citologia os quais possuíam ausência de alterações à AAR. À citologia apresentaram três células escamosas atípicas de significância (Ascus, do inglês atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, cinco com paraceratose e/ou hiperceratose, seis lesões intraepiteliais de baixo grau e uma lesão intraepitelial de alto grau. CONCLUSÃO: Sugerimos a utilização da AAR aliada à citologia anal para rastreamento nos pacientes portadores do HIV, visto que esses exames complementam-se para a detecção de lesões que estejam relacionadas ao câncer anorretal.OBJECTIVE: Screening for HPV as well as its correlation with anorectal cancer in patients carrying the human immuno deficiency virus (HIV through high-resolution anoscopy (HRA and anal cytology. METHODS: We developed an observational study, double-blind attended by 31 patients with HIV independent proctologic complaints. Patients underwent HRA and anal cytology slides were sent to which sector pathology staining and

  2. Clinical Significance of HC2-HPV Assay Combined with Liquid Based Cytology in the Screen of Cervical Cancer and Precancerous Lesions%HC2-HPV 检测法联合液基细胞学在宫颈癌及癌前病变筛查中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艺; 杨静秀; 王玉平

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨HC2-HPV检测法联合液基细胞学在筛查宫颈癌及癌前病变中的意义。方法应用HC2-HPV检测法联合液基细胞学技术对体检的患者进行免费宫颈癌及癌前病变的筛查。对不典型增生患者或(和) HC2-HPV检测阳性的患者行阴道镜下宫颈活检。结果液基细胞学检查对宫颈高度病变的检出率为11.0%(11/100);HC2-HPV检测对宫颈高度病变的检出率为27.2%(22/81),对宫颈癌的检出率高达100.0%。 HC2-HPV检测法联合液基细胞学检测阳性与病理检查阳性符合率为64.2%(52/81),显著优于TCT(52.0%)单独检查时的阳性符合率(P<0.05,χ2=11.39)。结论 HC2-HPV检测法联合液基细胞学检测对宫颈癌及癌前病变的筛查具有重要的临床推广价值。%Objective To investigate the significance of HC 2-HPV assay combined with liquid based cytology in the screen of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions .Methods HC2-HPV assay combined with liquid based cytology was used in the screen of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions .Cervical biopsy was performed in patients with atypical hyperplasia or (and) HC2-HPV positive patients.Results Detection rate of liquid based cytology for cervical lesion was 11.0%(11/100),and detection rates of HC2-HPV for cervical lesion and cervical cancer were 27.2%(22/81) and 100.0%.The coincidence rate of HC2-HPV combined with liquid based cytology and biopsy results was 64.2%(52/81),which was significantly higher than that of TCT(52.0%)(P<0.05,χ2 =11.39).Conclusion HC2-HPV assay combined with liquid based cytology test has important clinical value in the screen of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions .

  3. 探讨毛细式液基细胞学薄层染色技术对宫颈癌筛查应用价值研究%Sutdy on the Application Value of the Capillary Liquid- based Cytology Thin Layer Staining Technique (TCT) in the Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新梅

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical application value of the capillary liquid- based cytology thin layer staining technique (TCT) in the screening of cervical cancer. Methods 480 cases of patients undergoing cervical cancer screening in our hospital from June 2011 to July 2013 were randomly selected and were given TCT examination, the equivocal atypical squamous epithelial cells (ASCUS) or above were regarded as the positive lesions and they were given the biopsy by col-poscopy, and the biopsy results and cytological test results were compared and analyzed. Results There were 102 positive specimens of the 480 cases of patients, and the positive rate was 21.25%; the coincidence rate of TCT examination and biopsy by colposcopy of the 35 cases abnormal was 88.57%. Conclusion Capillary liquid-based cytology thin layer staining technique (TCT) in the screening of cervical cancer can effectively improve the screening quality, which is of important sig-nificance to the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer.%目的 探讨毛细式液基细胞学薄层染色技术(TCT)对宫颈癌筛查的临床应用价值. 方法 随机选取2011年6月—2013年7月期间在该院行宫颈癌筛查的患者480例,所有患者均行TCT检查,将其中意义不明确的不典型鳞状上皮细胞(ASCUS)以上病变视为阳性病变,并对其进行阴道镜活检,将活检结果和细胞学检测结果进行对比分析.结果 480例患者中,共计得到102例阳性标本,阳性率为21.25%;其中35例异常者的TCT检查的同阴道镜活检的符合率为88.57%. 结论 在宫颈癌筛查中应用毛细式液基细胞学薄层染色检查,可有效提高筛查质量,对于宫颈癌的预防和治疗具有十分重要的意义.

  4. Frizzled-7 as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ueno

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether one of the Wnt receptors, frizzled-7 (FZD7, functions in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway of colorectal cancer (CRC cells harboring an APC or CTNNB1 mutation and may be a potential therapeutic target for sporadic CRCs. The expression level of FZD gene family members in colon cancer cells and primary CRC tissues were determined by real-time PCR. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway was evaluated by TOPflash assay. The expression level of Wnt target genes was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and/or Western blot analysis. Cell growth and cell invasion were assessed by MTS and matrigel assays, respectively. Among 10 FZD gene family members, FZD7 mRNA was predominantly expressed in six colon cancer cell lines with APC or CTNNB1 mutation. These six cell lines were transfected with FZD7 cDNA together with a TOPflash reporter plasmid, resulting in a 1.5- to 24.3-fold increase of Tcf transcriptional activity. The mRNA expression levels of seven known Wnt target genes were also increased by 1.5- to 3.4-fold after transfection of FZD7 cDNA into HCT-116 cells. The six cell lines were then cotransfected with FZD7-siRNA and a TOPflash reporter plasmid, which reduced Tcf transcriptional activity to 20% to 80%. FZD7-siRNA was shown to significantly decrease cell viability and in vitro invasion activity after transfection into HCT-116 cells. Our present data demonstrated that FZD7 activates the canonical Wnt pathway in colon cancer cells despite the presence of APC or CTNNB1 mutation and that FZD7-siRNA may be used as a therapeutic reagent for CRCs.

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Steroidal Alkaloids in Cancer and Other Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi-Wei; Chen, Mei-Wan; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yu, Pei-Zhong; Wei, Xing; Shi, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Steroidal alkaloids are a class of secondary metabolites isolated from plants, amphibians, and marine invertebrates. Evidence accumulated in the recent two decades demonstrates that steroidal alkaloids have a wide range of bioactivities including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, etc., suggesting their great potential for application. It is therefore necessary to comprehensively summarize the bioactivities, especially anticancer activities and mechanisms of steroidal alkaloids. Here we systematically highlight the anticancer profiles both in vitro and in vivo of steroidal alkaloids such as dendrogenin, solanidine, solasodine, tomatidine, cyclopamine, and their derivatives. Furthermore, other bioactivities of steroidal alkaloids are also discussed. The integrated molecular mechanisms in this review can increase our understanding on the utilization of steroidal alkaloids and contribute to the development of new drug candidates. Although the therapeutic potentials of steroidal alkaloids look promising in the preclinical and clinical studies, further pharmacokinetic and clinical studies are mandated to define their efficacy and safety in cancer and other diseases.

  6. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: Towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.; Krul, C.A.M.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived fr

  7. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Krul, C.A.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived fr

  8. Lung malignancy: Diagnostic accuracies of bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing, and fine needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rateesh Sareen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early diagnosis of lung cancer plays a pivotal role in reducing lung cancer death rate. Cytological techniques are safer, economical and provide quick results. Bronchoscopic washing, brushing and fine needle aspirations not only complement tissue biopsies in the diagnosis of lung cancer but also comparable. Objectives: (1 To find out diagnostic yields of bronchioalveolar lavage , bronchial brushings, FNAC in diagnosis of lung malignancy. (2 To compare relative accuracy of these three cytological techniques. (3 To correlate the cytologic diagnosis with clinical, bronchoscopic and CT findings. (4 Cytological and histopathological correlation of lung lesions. Methods: All the patients who came with clinical or radiological suspicion of lung malignancy in two and a half year period were included in study. Bronchoalveolar lavage was the most common type of cytological specimen (82.36%, followed by CT guided FNAC (9.45% and bronchial brushings (8.19%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value for all techniques and correlation with histopathology was done using standard formulas. Results: The most sensitive technique was CT FNAC – (87.25% followed by brushings (77.78% and BAL (72.69%. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield (90.38%, followed by brushings (86.67% and BAL (83.67%. Specificity and positive predictive value were 100 % each of all techniques. Lowest false negatives were obtained in CT FNAC (12.5% and highest in BAL (27.3%. Highest negative predictive value was of BAL 76.95 % followed by BB 75.59% and CT FNAC 70.59%. Conclusion: Before administering antitubercular treatment every effort should be made to rule out malignancy. CT FNAC had highest diagnostic yield among three cytological techniques. BAL is an important tool in screening central as well as in accessible lesions. It can be used at places where CT guided FNAC is not available or could not be done due to technical or financial limitations

  9. Mitochondrial DNA as a potential tool for early cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parr Ryan L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent surge in mitochondrial research has been driven by the identification of mitochondria-associated diseases and the role of mitochondria in apoptosis. Both of these aspects have identified mitochondrial analysis as a vital component of medical research. Moreover, mitochondria have been implicated in the process of carcinogenesis because of their vital role in energy production, nuclear-cytoplasmic signal integration and control of metabolic pathways. Interestingly, at some point during neoplastic transformation, there is an increase in reactive oxygen species, which damage the mitochondrial genome. This accelerates the somatic mutation rate of mitochondrial DNA. It has been proposed that these mutations may serve as an early indication of potential cancer development and may represent a means for tracking tumour progression. The purpose of this review is to explore the potential utility that these mutations may afford for the identification and monitoring of neoplasia and malignant transformation where appropriate body fluids or non-invasive tissue access is available for mitochondrial DNA recovery. Specifically, prostate, breast, colorectal, skin and lung cancers are discussed.

  10. Adenomatatoid tumor: Cytological diagnosis of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatoid tumor is a benign neoplasm of mesothelial cell origin that occurs in both male and female genital tracts. Fine needle aspiration cytology has an important role in the preoperative diagnosis of the male genital adenomatoid tumor and is a rapid, reliable, conclusive, and cost-effective diagnostic tool that can be used to take appropriate surgical decisions. Pathologists should be aware of the cytological features of such lesions so as to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. We present here two cases, one in the testis and another in the epididymis in a 35 year-old and a 30 year-old male respectively, which were diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and later confirmed by histopathology. We present the cytological features and histopathological correlation of these cases.

  11. Gastric mucormycosis: Diagnosis by imprint cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathe, Shilpa P; Dani, Aarti A; Chawhan, Sanjay M; Meshram, Saroj A; Randale, Archana A; Raut, Waman K

    2016-10-01

    The fungi in the order of Mucorales commonly target diabetics and other immunocompromised hosts, producing fatal respiratory and or CNS infections. Gastrointestinal mucormycosis is uncommon and seldom diagnosed in living patients due to nonspecific clinical manifestations. We report a case of gastric mucormycosis in an immmunocompetent male patient, diagnosed by imprint cytology-a rare site and a rare setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of gastric mucormycosis being diagnosed on cytology. As the disease is rapidly progressive and often fatal, early diagnosis is critical to the patient survival. Imprint cytology or brush cytology is extremely useful for the rapid diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis as these organisms are morphologically distinct. Familiarity with the cytomorphology of these organisms assists in the correct diagnosis of this disease. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:820-822. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Detection of Cervical Liquid Based Cytology in the Meaning of the Lotus Pond Town Women Cervical Cancer Screening%宫颈液基细胞学检测在荷塘镇妇女宫颈癌筛查中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍喜兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨宫颈液基细胞学检查技术(TCT)在荷塘镇宫颈癌筛查中的应用价值。方法:对1328例本镇及外来务工已婚妇女使用液基细胞学检测(LCT)进行宫颈癌筛查。采用TBS诊断系统选择TCT报告ASCUS以上患者428例行电子阴道镜检并活检病理,将两者结果进行比对分析。结果:宫颈液基细胞学检查1328例中428例阳性,阳性率32.2%。ASCUS 128例,LSIL 86例,ASC-H 90例,HSIL 124例。对TCT检查阳性的428例进行阴道镜病理检查,正常164例,CIN Ⅰ级102例,CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ级154例,鳞癌8例。宫颈液基细胞学检查结果与组织病理结果符合率,LSIL与CINⅠ级符合率84.3%(86/102),HSIL与CINⅡ/Ⅲ级符合率80.5%(124/154)。结论:基层医院积极开展宫颈癌筛查LCT检测,有助于癌前病变的早发现、早诊断、早治疗。%Objective:To study the cervical liquid based cytology examination technology (TCT) in the lotus pond,the value of cervical cancer screening. Method:The town and migrant workers,1328 cases of married women with a Liquid based cytology test (Liquid-based cytology test,LCT) for cervical cancer screening. Patients with ASCUS by TBS diagnosis system choice TCT report 428 routine electron microscopic examination of the vagina and biopsy pathology,to compare the two results were analyzed. Result:In 1328 patients with cervical liquid based cytology,428 cases of positive,positive rate was 32.2%. ASCUS 128 example, LSIL 86,ASC-H 90,HSIL 124 cases. For TCT examination of 428 patients with colposcope pathologic examination,the result:164 patients with normal,CINⅠgrade 102 cases,CINⅡ/Ⅲlevel of 154 cases squamous carcinoma,8 cases of cervical liquid based cytology examination results and the histopathological results coincidence rate,LSIL and CINⅡ/Ⅲlevel coincidence rate 84.3%(86/102),HSIL and CINⅡ/Ⅲlevel coincidence rate 80.5%(124/154). Conclusion:Basic-level hospital actively carry out cervical cancer

  13. Pancreatic cytology: standardised terminology and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Machado, M A

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cytology can make a real difference to the management of patients. However it is a challenge in those cases where a definitive diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made with confidence. This creates the need for a unified terminology and nomenclature system that provides intra- and interdepartmental guidance for diagnosis. The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (PSC) has published new guidelines for pancreaticobiliary cytology, addressing indications, techniques, terminology and nomenclature, ancillary studies, and postprocedure management.

  14. The virtual slide in the promotion of cytologic and hystologic quality in oncologic screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, Arrigo; Pierotti, Paola; Crucitti, Paola; Lega, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    A regional experience environment in virtual microscopy and digital pathology comprehending the digital cytology is presented. The project has been conducted in Emilia-Romagna and it has been planned for the promotion and the quality assessment in screening cytology and histology for the prevention of the tumors of uterine cervix, breast and colon-rectum cancers. During the project it has been envisaged the design of a dedicated picture archive and communication system (PACS) for cooperative diagnosis, didactics and training, teleconsulting, documentation of rare cases and pilot experiences; furthermore selected cases are catalogued in the PACS with the aim of the check of the diagnostic concordance in the oncologic screening.

  15. Prospects for controlling cervical cancer at the turn of the century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Eduardo L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer morbidity and mortality have decreased substantially during the last 50 years mostly due to success-ful organized or opportunistic screening with Pap cytology in high and middle income countries. In many low income countries Pap cytology screening is yet to be effectively implemented or has failed to reduce cervical cancer rates to an appreciable extent. The fact that infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV types is now recognized as a necessary cause of this disease has led to new research fronts on prevention of cervical cancer. Testing for HPV DNA has shown great promise as a screening tool with better sensitivity but somewhat lower specificity than Pap cytology. In combination with the latter, HPV testing has the potential to improve the negative predictive value of cytology, thus allowing for increased testing intervals, which would lower program costs with acceptable safety. Advances in cytology processing and automation have also led to new screening approaches that are increasingly gaining acceptance in high and middle income countries. For low income countries, visual inspection with acetic acid has proven to be an effective alternative to conventional Pap cytology, especially in settings where no screening programs have been implemented. Concerning primary prevention of cervical cancer, recent research on the safety and efficacy of candidate prophylactic vaccines against HPV have shown very promising results with nearly 100% efficacy in preventing persistent infections and development of cervical cancer precursors. However, policy makers are strongly cautioned to avoid deferring decisions concerning the implementation of cervical cancer screening under the expectation that a successful vaccine could obviate the need for secondary prevention strategies.

  16. A evaluation on cervical intraepithelial lesion and cervical cancer screening by DNA quantitative analysis and liquid-based monolayer cytology%液基薄层细胞学联合DNA定量方法对宫颈病变诊断试验的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯安丽; 张玉娟; 李秀芬; 邵雪斋; 王杏茶

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价采用液基薄层细胞学联合DNA定量分析方法进行宫颈癌普查的工作效率.方法 对参与宫颈癌普查的2 599名妇女用宫颈刷取材,进行液基薄层制片,分别进行巴氏染色和Feulgen染色,由细胞学医师对巴氏染色片做细胞学诊断,应用全自动DNA定量分析对Feulgen染色片进行自动扫描诊断.其中156例进一步做了宫颈组织病理诊断.结果 DNA定量分析方法的敏感度、特异度、准确度、阳性预测值、阴性预测值、阳性似然比均高于液基薄层细胞学方法,而误诊率、漏诊率及阴性似然比均低于液基薄层细胞学方法.液基薄层细胞学和DNA定量分析方法的平行诊断试验的联合敏感度和联合特异度分别是99.56%、44.52%,两种方法的系列诊断试验的联合敏感度和联合特异度分别是83.78%、89.61%.平行诊断试验的敏感度最高,系列诊断试验的特异度最高.结论 DNA定量分析方法与液基薄层细胞学联合筛查,可提高宫颈癌前病变及宫颈癌筛查的敏感度和特异度.%Objective To evaluate the working efficiency of cervical cancer screening by combining DNA quantitative analysis with liquid-based monoiaycr cytology. Methods A total of 2599 women were involved in this study and cervical samples were taken by a cervical brush. Monolaycr of cells were deposited onto microscopic slides by liquid-based sampling preparation. Two slides were prepared from each case: one slide was stained by Papanicolaou stain for conventional cytology examination, while the other slide was stained by Fculgcn method for determination of amount of DNA using an automated DNA imaging cytomctry. 156 women of the total were followed by pathological examination of cervical tissue. Results The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and positive likelihood ratio of DNA quantitative analysis arc higher than liquid-based monolaycr cytology,however the

  17. 克拉玛依地区11051例宫颈液基细胞学检查结果分析%Retrospective analysis of 11 051 cases of liquid-based cytology test in diagnosis of cervical cancer in Karamay district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜敏; 于民; 胡新梅; 王超; 郭国庆; 刁兆杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨液基细胞学在宫颈癌及癌前痛变筛查中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析克拉玛依市中心医院门诊11051例液基细胞检测和TBS分类系统结果,对异常结果与阴道镜下活组织检查病理诊断结果进行比较.结果 11051例液基细胞学检测中,筛检出不典型鳞状细胞(ASC-US)及以上病例451例,阳性检出率为3.25%,其中意义不明确的ASC-US216例(1.96%),不除外高度鳞状上皮内病变的不典型鳞状细胞(ASC-H)77例(0.70%),低度鳞状上皮内病变(LSIL)54例(0.49%),高度鳞状上皮内病变(HSIL)4例(0.02%).液基细胞学检测与阴道镜下病理活检结果的符合率为78.8%.结论 液基细胞学与宫颈组织病理学诊断有较高的诊断符合率,细胞学医生正确掌握TBS的诊断标准是提高宫颈细胞学诊断质量的保证.%Objective To investigate the application value of liquid-based cytology test in diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancerous lesion.Methods The results of liquid-based cyology test and TBS cytology subdivision from 11 051 patients were retrospectively analyzed,and the abnormal results and the results of biopsy pathological diagnosis underwent colposcopy were compared.Results Four hundred and fifty-one positive cases of abnormal epirthelial cells were diagnozed by TCT,the positive rate was 3.25%,216 cases ( 1.96% ) were atypical squamous cell ( ASC-US ) of undetermined significance,77 cases (0.70% ) were ASC-H,54 cases ( 0.49% )were LSIL,4 cases (0.02%) were HSIL.In 219 histopathological results,the accordance rate of liquid-based cytology and histopathological diagnosis was 78.8%.Conclusions Liquid-based cervical cytology has high diagnostic accordance rate with histopathological diagnosis.It's the key to improve the quality asccurance of cervical cytology that cytologic doctors master the diagnostic criteria of TBS.

  18. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jung Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP. The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells. These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells.

  19. 76 FR 21368 - Evaluation of the Potential Developmental Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy During Pregnancy: Call...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Pregnancy: Call for Information and Nomination of Scientific Experts AGENCY: National Institute of... scientific evidence regarding the potential developmental effects of cancer chemotherapy during pregnancy... pregnancy outcomes and long- term health of offspring exposed to cancer chemotherapy agents during...

  20. CD70: A Potential Target in Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrau, Camille; Cornic, Marie; Bertrand, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Marchand, Vinciane; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Jardin, Fabrice; Clatot, Florian

    2014-01-01

    CD70 is a co-stimulatory molecule involved in the immune response and also in cancer development and progression. Recent studies show that high CD70 expression in cancer cells may inhibit the anti-tumor response. Furthermore, CD70 expression has been reported as a predictive marker of resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. Some in vitro studies have shown that CD70 expression is epigenetically down-regulated through hypermethylation of its promoter during tumoral progression. This study evaluated the level of CD70 expression in surgical samples of breast invasive tumors and determined its correlation with CD70 promoter methylation. Twenty “luminal A” and 20 “basal-like” frozen samples from early breast tumors were retrospectively selected. CD70 expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Total DNA was bisulfite-treated, and methylation levels of 5 consecutive CG sites present in the proximal region (-464, -421) of the promoter were assessed by pyrosequencing analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney test. The median relative CD70 expression level was 0.37 and was significantly higher in the basal-like group (0.78 [0.24-31.7]) compared to the luminal A group (0.25 [0.03-1.83], p=0.0001). The median methylation level was 61%, with no significant difference between the basal-like (63%) and luminal A (58%) groups. No correlation was found between CD70 expression and CD70 methylation level. In this study, higher CD70 expression was observed in the basal-like group, but this expression was not related to promoter methylation. The higher expression in the poor-prognosis subgroup of patients makes CD70 a potential target for emerging anti-CD70 therapies. PMID:25368676

  1. Discoidin Domain Receptors: Potential Actors and Targets in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan eRammal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix critically controls cancer cell behavior by inducing several signaling pathways through cell membrane receptors. Besides conferring structural properties to tissues around the tumor, the extracellular matrix is able to regulate cell proliferation, survival, migration and invasion. Among these receptors, the integrins family constitutes a major class of receptors that mediate cell interactions with extracellular matrix components.Twenty years ago, a new class of extracellular matrix receptors has been discovered. These tyrosine kinase receptors are the two discoidin domain receptors DDR1 and DDR2. DDR1 was first identified in the Dictyostelium discoideum and was shown to mediate cell aggregation. DDR2 shares highly conserved sequences with DDR1. Both receptors are activated upon binding to collagen, one of the most abundant proteins in extracellular matrix. While DDR2 can only be activated by fibrillar collagen, particularly types I and III, DDR1 is mostly activated by type I and IV collagens. In contrast with classical growth factor tyrosine kinase receptors which display a rapid and transient activation, DDR1 and DDR2 are unique in that they exhibit delayed and sustained receptor phosphorylation upon binding to collagen. Recent studies have reported differential expression and mutations of DDR1 and DDR2 in several cancer types and indicate clearly that these receptors have to be taken into account as new players in the different aspects of tumor progression, from non-malignant to highly malignant and invasive stages. This review will discuss the current knowledge on the role DDR1 and DDR2 in malignant transformation, cell proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, migratory and invasive processes, and finally the modulation of the response to chemotherapy. These new insights suggest that DDR1 and DDR2 are new potential targets in cancer therapy.

  2. Ionizing Radiation Promotes the Migratory and Invasive Potential of Lung Cancer Cells by Different Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Jin Nyoung; Kang, Ga Young; Um, Hong Duck [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Although radiation therapy is a major therapeutic modality for cancer treatment, previous reports have suggested that ionizing radiation (IR) can promote the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells. It was consistently reported that IR can induce certain types of matrix metalloproteinases, which are critical to the degradation of extracellular matrix. Given that the motility of cancer cells is an additional requirement for their metastasis, this study investigated whether IR can also influence the migratory potential of cancer cells.

  3. Evaluating the cytotoxicity of flaxseed orbitides for potential cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis P. Okinyo-Owiti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaxseed as well as its oil component possess antitumor activities against different types of cancer and have been used by some patients as complementary and/or alternative medicine. Linoorbitides (LOBs are one family of flaxseed compounds that has implications for anticancer and antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity of [1-9-NαC]-linusorb-B3 (LOB3, [1-9-NαC]-linusorb-B2 (LOB2, [1-9-NαC],[1-Rs,Ss-MetO]-linusorb-B2 ([MetO]-LOB2 and [1-8-NαC],[1-Rs,Ss-MetO]-linusorb-B1 ([MetO]-LOB1 was measured against human breast cancer Sk-Br-3 and MCF7 cell lines and melanoma A375 cell line. Overall cytotoxicity is cell-type specific. It scales as the hydrophobicity and concentration of the LOBs with the most abundant LOB3 being the most cytotoxic. Oral administration of LOB3 as a potential therapeutic agent might not be applicable as a much too high and/or frequent dose would be required to achieve a serum concentration of 400–500 μg/mL due to bioavailability and pharmacokinetic factors. However, LOB3 may be suitable for topical treatment formulations or as a lead compound in developing anticancer LOB derivatives.

  4. Detection of bladder transitional cell carcinoma: urinary hTERT assay versus urine cytology

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC) of bladder is the second most common urogenital malignancy and because of its high rate of recurrence (two third of tumors recur) vigilant surveillance is necessary. There have been a lot of efforts to find a proper biomarker for detecting urothelial cancers because available methods are expensive and invasive (like cystoscopy) or have a low degree of sensitivity (like urine cytology). Urothelial malignancies, like other cancers tend to exp...

  5. Does subdivision of the "atypical" urine cytology increase predictive accuracy for urothelial carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar

    2014-12-01

    Urine cytology is routinely used for early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with hematuria or a history of urothelial carcinoma, but its clinical utility is greatly diminished by a high frequency of "atypical" specimens, reportedly around 20% in the literature. We compared our results with double-stained urine cytology specimens (papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stains) with published results with only a single or double papanicolaou stain. The acid hematoxylin stain enhanced nuclear chromatin staining, eliminated significant background debris, and improved visibility of diagnostic cells in the presence of obscuring blood. Medical records of all urine cytologies received between 2005 and 2012 in our laboratories were reviewed. The study group consisted of all cases with bladder biopsy follow-up within one year of cytology. Of 43,131 urine cytologies diagnosed in our laboratories, biopsy follow-up results were available within one year in 10,473 cases, including 852 for symptoms and 1,461 for follow-up of bladder cancer. An additional 6,427 cases had cystoscopy results in which no biopsy was obtained. Cases were classified as negative (81.6%), atypical, favor reactive (2.9%), atypical, favor neoplastic (7.3%), suspicious (5.7%), and malignant (2.5%), with subsequent frequencies for urothelial cancer on biopsy of 13.3%, 31.1%, 37.6%, 53.6%, and 74.3%, respectively. No significant difference was found if atypical was subdivided into two categories: favor reactive and favor neoplastic. Subdivision of the atypical category did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Addition of the acid hematoxylin stain decreased the incidence of atypical urine cytologies from about 20% to 10.2%.

  6. [The liquid cytology in clinical practice: a lecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalova, I P; Kasoian, K T; Savostikova, M V

    2011-12-01

    The lecture covers one of the most perspective directions in clinical cytology. The emergence of liquid cytology is related to preparation of thin-layer specimens of organism liquids. Nowadays, the liquid cytology spreads more and more due to eephi application in different areas of cytological diagnostics, including screening of cervix uteri diseases, automatic screening, punctate tests, endoscopic and other materials. The lecture presents the basics of method, the characteristics of pre-analytic stage, the approaches to preparation of cytological specimens and cell blocks. The main possibilities, characteristics and perspectives of liquid cytology on the stage of rapid development of molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  7. The dynamics and prognostic potential of DNA methylation changes at stem cell gene loci in women's cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Zhuang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation is an important cancer hallmark, yet the dynamics of DNA methylation changes in human carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. Moreover, the role of DNA methylation for prediction of clinical outcome is still uncertain and confined to specific cancers. Here we perform the most comprehensive study of DNA methylation changes throughout human carcinogenesis, analysing 27,578 CpGs in each of 1,475 samples, ranging from normal cells in advance of non-invasive neoplastic transformation to non-invasive and invasive cancers and metastatic tissue. We demonstrate that hypermethylation at stem cell PolyComb Group Target genes (PCGTs occurs in cytologically normal cells three years in advance of the first morphological neoplastic changes, while hypomethylation occurs preferentially at CpGs which are heavily Methylated in Embryonic Stem Cells (MESCs and increases significantly with cancer invasion in both the epithelial and stromal tumour compartments. In contrast to PCGT hypermethylation, MESC hypomethylation progresses significantly from primary to metastatic cancer and defines a poor prognostic signature in four different gynaecological cancers. Finally, we associate expression of TET enzymes, which are involved in active DNA demethylation, to MESC hypomethylation in cancer. These findings have major implications for cancer and embryonic stem cell biology and establish the importance of systemic DNA hypomethylation for predicting prognosis in a wide range of different cancers.

  8. Nutraceuticals as potential therapeutic agents for colon cancer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Palaniselvam Kuppusamy; Mashitah M. Yusoff; Gaanty Pragas Maniam; Solachuddin Jauhari Arief Ichwan; Ilavenil Soundharrajan; Natanamurugaraj Govindan

    2014-01-01

    Colon cancer is a world-wide health problem and the second-most dangerous type of cancer, affecting both men and women. The modern diet and lifestyles, with high meat consumption and excessive alcohol use, along with limited physical activity has led to an increasing mortality rate for colon cancer worldwide. As a result, there is a need to develop novel and environmentally benign drug therapies for colon cancer. Currently, nutraceuticals play an increasingly important role in the treatment o...

  9. Therapeutic potential of bryophytes and derived compounds against cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhijit Dey; Anuradha Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Bryophytes, taxonomically placed between the algae and the pteridophytes, are divided into three classes such as Liverworts, Hornworts and Mosses. Indigenous use involves this small group of plants to treat various diseases. Bryophytes have been investigated pharmacologically for active biomolecules. Several constituents with therapeutic potential have been isolated, characterized and investigated for antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidative, antiinflamatory and anticancerous efficacy. The present review deals with the literature covering the anticancerous potential of bryophytes. Apart from the examples of the compounds and the containing bryophyte genera, the authors have tried to include the examples of cancer cell lines on which the efficacy have been tested and the mode of action of certain cytotoxic agents. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from bryophytes were found to possess potent cytotoxic properties. Different types of terpenoids and bibenzyls have been reported among the most potent cytotoxic compounds. Most of these compounds were found to induce apoptosis by activating a number of genes and enzymes. Biochemical markers such as DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, proteolysis of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, activation of caspases, inhibition of antiapoptotic nuclear transcriptional factor-kappaB, activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase etc. have been found to be associated with apoptotic and necrotic response. This review summarizes recent scientific findings and suggests further investigations to evaluate the cytotoxic efficacy of bryophytes.

  10. Therapeutic potential of thalidomide for gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen Ta; Cheng, Chuan Chu; Chiu, Ted H; Lai, Pei Chun

    2015-11-01

    Controversial effects of thalidomide for solid malignancies have been reported. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of thalidomide for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), the most common type of bladder cancer. Thalidomide precipitates were observed when its DMSO solution was added to the culture medium. No precipitation was found when thalidomide was dissolved in 45% γ-cyclodextrin, and this concentration of γ-cyclodextrin elicited slight cytotoxicity on TCC BFTC905 and primary human urothelial cells. Thalidomide-γ-cyclodextrin complex exerted a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity in TCC cells, but was relatively less cytotoxic (with IC50 of 200 µM) in BFTC905 cells than the other 3 TCC cell lines, possibly due to upregulation of Bcl-xL and HIF-1α mediated carbonic anhydrase IX, and promotion of quiescence. Gemcitabine-resistant BFTC905 cells were chosen for additional experiments. Thalidomide induced apoptosis through downregulation of survivin and securin. The secretion of VEGF and TNF-α was ameliorated by thalidomide, but they did not affect cell proliferation. Immune-modulating lenalidomide and pomalidomide did not elicit cytotoxicity. In addition, cereblon did not play a role in the thalidomide effect. Oxidative DNA damage was triggered by thalidomide, and anti-oxidants reversed the effect. Thalidomide also inhibited TNF-α induced invasion through inhibition of NF-κB, and downregulation of effectors, ICAM-1 and MMP-9. Thalidomide inhibited the growth of BFTC905 xenograft tumors in SCID mice via induction of DNA damage and suppression of angiogenesis. Higher average body weight, indicating less chachexia, was observed in thalidomide treated group. Sedative effect was observed within one-week of treatment. These pre-clinical results suggest therapeutic potential of thalidomide for gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer.

  11. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered.

  12. CYTOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MALE BREAST LESIONS IN GREATER GWALIOR : A FIVE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Jagannath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Fine needle aspiration cytology is an effective modality for diagnosis of breast lesions. Usually male breast lesions are benign and affect the young male. Most common lesion is gynaecomastia. Male breast cancer accounts for a small proportion of breast cancers. Male breast cancer usually presents at an advanced age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the nature of male breast lesions and to determine the cytomorphologic patterns of these lesions. MET HODS: five year retrospective study was conducted in our institution and in that 112 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology of the palpable breast lump after thorough physical examination. The cytological diagnosis was classified as benign, inf lammatory, malignant and others. RESULTS: In 112 male patients diagnosed with breast lesions, the most common lesion was gynecomastia (103/112, 91.9%, followed by breast cancer (6/112, 5.4%, inflammatory (2/112, 1.8% and apocrine metaplasia (01/112, 0.9 %. Gynecomastia was commonly found in male patients less than 40 years of age, while breast cancer is seen in male patients over 40 years of age

  13. A 2015 survey of established or potential epigenetic biomarkers for the accurate detection of human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amacher, David E

    2016-07-01

    Context The silencing or activation of cancer-associated genes by epigenetic mechanisms can ultimately lead to the clonal expansion of cancer cells. Objective The aim of this review is to summarize all relevant epigenetic biomarkers that have been proposed to date for the diagnosis of some prevalent human cancers. Methods A Medline search for the terms epigenetic biomarkers, human cancers, DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs was performed. Results One hundred fifty-seven relevant publications were found and reviewed. Conclusion To date, a significant number of potential epigenetic cancer biomarkers of human cancer have been investigated, and some have advanced to clinical implementation.

  14. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in fibromatoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharopoulos, P; Wong, J Y

    1992-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed in seven cases of fibromatosis of variable types with tumorous clinical presentation. These included: four cases of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis, two in posterior neck muscles, one in anterior neck muscles and one in intercostal muscles; one case of fibromatosis of the breast; and two cases of fibromatosis colli in neonates. In all cases the specimens contained connective tissue with many fibroblast-like cells, lacking features which could indicate a malignant lesion. The findings in these cases indicate that, although by FNA cytology in fibromatoses a specific diagnosis for each pathologic entity may not be easily reached, in the proper clinical setting the cytologic findings can be of sufficient relevance to offset the need for an open tissue biopsy, where there are valid reasons against a surgical intervention.

  15. The marriage of cytology and cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cin, Paola; Qian, Xiaohua; Cibas, Edmund S

    2013-06-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed extraordinary advances in the field of cytogenetics, with the discovery that a multitude of neoplasms is characterized by identifiable chromosomal changes. The ability of Cytogenetics to aid in the identification and precise classification of a variety of neoplasms has not gone unnoticed by Cytology. In particular, Cytology has recognized Cytogenetics as a welcome companion in the evaluation of soft tissue tumors, lymphomas, renal and urothelial tumors, and mesothelioma. This relationship requires a good understanding of the proper handling of specimens for optimal evaluation by Cytogenetics. The marriage of Cytology and Cytogenetics will likely grow stronger as more solid tumors (eg, salivary gland neoplasms) are discovered that harbor characteristic chromosomal abnormalities.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy and pitfalls of fine needle aspiration cytology and scrape cytology in oral cavity lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesreen H. Hafez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background — The oral cavity can be home for a wide variety of lesions. To date, biopsy has remained the gold standard for diagnosing these lesions. Purpose — This study was carried out to assess the diagnostic accuracy of cytology in the oral lesions and to address the cytologic-histologic correlation. Patients and Methods — This prospective study included 72 patients with intraoral lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC or scrap cytology was performed. The smears were immediately fixed in 95% alcohol for Papanicolaou staining. If there was sufficient material, cell block was prepared. When indicated immunocytochemical study was ordered. Final cytologic results were then compared with the definitive histopathological diagnoses which were considered the gold standard. Results — Cytologically, 28 patients (38.9% were diagnosed as benign/atypical and 44 (61.1% as malignant/suspicious. The most common benign cytologic diagnosis was inflammation (42.9% of benign cases. The most common malignant cytologic diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma (36.4%. Cytologic diagnoses were compared with histopathologic ones. There were 3 false negative cases and one false positive case. The sensitivity was 93.5%; specificity was 96.2%; positive predictive value (PPV was 97.7%; negative predictive value (NPV was 89.3% with a diagnostic accuracy of 94.4%. P-value was <0.001. Kappa was 0.882. Conclusion — FNAC was found to be highly accurate in the diagnosis of oral lesions. Detailed cytomorphologic examination coupled with clinical data and appropriate immunocytochemical study, in some cases, can lead to an accurate diagnosis. Overlapping features of some tumors, especially in minor salivary gland, as well as limitation of sampling, were responsible for the inaccurate diagnoses.

  17. Respiratory Challenges in Breast Cancer: Potential for Enhanced Diagnostics and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    of cancer cachexia and abnormal glucose metabolism in humans with cancer J Am Coll Nutr 11 445-56 Teicher B A, Lazo J S and Sartorelli A C 1981...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0447 TITLE: Respiratory Challenges in Breast Cancer : Potential for Enhanced...07-2010 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) (1 JUL 2009-30 JUN 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Respiratory Challenges in Breast Cancer

  18. ERBB2 increases metastatic potentials specifically in androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells.

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    Jessica Tome-Garcia

    Full Text Available Despite all the blood-based biomarkers used to monitor prostate cancer patients, prostate cancer remains as the second common cause of cancer mortality in men in the United States. This is largely due to a lack of understanding of the molecular pathways that are responsible for the aggressive forms of prostate cancers, the castrate-resistant prostate cancer and the metastatic prostate cancer. Cell signaling pathways activated by the ERBB2 oncogene or the RAS oncogene are frequently found to be altered in metastatic prostate cancers. To evaluate and define the role of the ERBB2/RAS pathway in prostate cancer metastasis, we have evaluated the impact of ERBB2- or RAS-overexpression on the metastatic potentials for four prostate cancer cell lines derived from tumors with different androgen sensitivities. To do so, we transfected the human DU145, LnCaP, and PC3 prostate cancer cells and the murine Myc-CaP prostate cancer cells with the activated form of ERBB2 or H-RAS and assessed their metastatic potentials by three complementary assays, a wound healing assay, a transwell motility assay, and a transwell invasion assay. We showed that while overexpression of ERBB2 increased the metastatic potential of the androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells (i.e. PC3 and DU145, it did not affect metastatic potentials of the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells (i.e. LnCaP and Myc-CaP. In contrast, overexpression of H-RAS only increased the cell motility of Myc-CaP cells, which overexpress the human c-MYC oncogene. Our data suggest that ERBB2 collaborates with androgen signaling to promote prostate cancer metastasis, and that although RAS is one of the critical downstream effectors of ERBB2, it does not phenocopy ERBB2 for its impact on the metastatic potentials of prostate cancer cell lines.

  19. Cancer/Testis antigens as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy

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    Trock Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs are an important group of proteins that are typically restricted to the testis in the normal adult but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers. As a result of their restricted expression patterns, the CTAs could serve as unique biomarkers for cancer diagnosis/prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify promising CTAs that are associated with prostate cancer (PCa recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP. Methods The expression of 5 CTAs was measured by quantitative multiplex real-time PCR using prostate tissue samples obtained from 72 patients with apparently clinically localized PCa with a median of two years follow-up (range, 1 to 14 years. Results The expression of CTAs namely, CEP55, NUF2, PBK and TTK were significantly higher while PAGE4 was significantly lower in patients with recurrent disease. All CTAs with the exception of TTK were significantly correlated with the prostatectomy Gleason score, but none were correlated with age, stage, or preoperative PSA levels. In univariate proportional hazards models, CEP55 (HR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.50-8.60, p = 0.004; NUF2 (HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.11-4.67, p = 0.024; and PAGE4 (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.93, p = 0.031 were significantly associated with the risk of PCa recurrence. However, the results were no longer significant after adjustment for prostatectomy Gleason score. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify CTAs as biomarkers that can differentiate patients with recurrent and non-recurrent disease following RP and underscores its potential impact on PCa prognosis and treatment.

  20. Fat embolism syndrome and pulmonary microvascular cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castella, X; Vallés, J; Cabezuelo, M A; Fernandez, R; Artigas, A

    1992-06-01

    Pulmonary microvascular cytology consists of analysis of capillary blood sampled while a Swan-Ganz catheter is in the wedge position. This technique has proved to be useful in the diagnosis of lymphangitic spread of carcinoma in the lungs and there are case reports of their use in amniotic fluid embolism. Its usefulness in diagnosing fat embolism syndrome has been shown only rarely. We report a new case in which pulmonary microvascular cytologic study allowed a definite diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. We suggest obtaining routinely samples of capillary blood when a pulmonary catheter is in place and fat embolism is suspected on a clinical basis.

  1. [Urine cytology - update 2013. A systematic review of recent literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M; vom Dorp, F; Schostak, M; Hakenberg, O W

    2013-09-01

    Urine cytology is an important element of the diagnosis and follow-up of urothelial carcinomas and is recommended in most relevant guidelines. Urine-based marker systems are advocated as an adjunct to or a replacement of urine cytology. Urine cytology also has its place in the diagnosis of benign diseases. This systematic review describes and discusses the literature on urine cytology published since 2010.

  2. Stratification and therapeutic potential of PML in metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Martín, Natalia; Piva, Marco; Urosevic, Jelena; Aldaz, Paula; Sutherland, James D.; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Arreal, Leire; Torrano, Verónica; Cortazar, Ana R.; Planet, Evarist; Guiu, Marc; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Garcia, Stephane; Macías, Iratxe; Salvador, Fernando; Domenici, Giacomo; Rueda, Oscar M.; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Zúñiga-García, Patricia; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; Valcárcel-Jiménez, Lorea; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Varela-Rey, Marta; Martínez-Chantar, Maria Luz; Anguita, Juan; Ibrahim, Yasir H.; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Lawrie, Charles H.; Aransay, Ana M.; Iovanna, Juan L.; Baselga, Jose; Caldas, Carlos; Barrio, Rosa; Serra, Violeta; dM Vivanco, Maria; Matheu, Ander; Gomis, Roger R.; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2016-01-01

    Patient stratification has been instrumental for the success of targeted therapies in breast cancer. However, the molecular basis of metastatic breast cancer and its therapeutic vulnerabilities remain poorly understood. Here we show that PML is a novel target in aggressive breast cancer. The acquisition of aggressiveness and metastatic features in breast tumours is accompanied by the elevated PML expression and enhanced sensitivity to its inhibition. Interestingly, we find that STAT3 is responsible, at least in part, for the transcriptional upregulation of PML in breast cancer. Moreover, PML targeting hampers breast cancer initiation and metastatic seeding. Mechanistically, this biological activity relies on the regulation of the stem cell gene SOX9 through interaction of PML with its promoter region. Altogether, we identify a novel pathway sustaining breast cancer aggressiveness that can be therapeutically exploited in combination with PML-based stratification. PMID:27553708

  3. Potential health concerns of dietary phosphorus: cancer, obesity, and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John J B

    2013-10-01

    Adult Americans typically consume on average 1400 mg, or more, of phosphorus (P) daily in meals, which almost doubles the recommended dietary allowance. After a meal phosphorus is rapidly absorbed at a high efficiency and hormonal mechanisms act swiftly to maintain the serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration within fairly narrow limits. Both parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) reduce serum phosphate during postprandial periods through homeostatic actions on the kidney. However, it is speculated that exposure of cells to a brief high-serum Pi concentration may signal alterations in cell functions that lead to deleterious effects. Elevation of serum FGF-23 or PTH may also be harmful to specific cell types. Examples of possible adverse health effects include cancer, obesity, and hypertension. Here I review potential mechanisms through which high-P intake may contribute to cell metabolic abnormalities and the development of chronic disease; high-dietary phosphorus, especially from foods processed with phosphate salts, may be associated with these chronic diseases. Further investigation is needed to establish the significance of high-phosphate diets within a large segment of the U.S. population with normal renal function.

  4. Cytological changes in oral epithelium due to Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages

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    Awdah M. Al-hazimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the cytological changes in oral epithelium that might be induced by Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages. Material and methods: Oral Exfoliative Cytology (OEFC was applied to a case control study to assess the presence and severity of oral epithelial atypia (ET in 300 subjects (150 alcohol abuse individuals (cases; 150 non-alcohol abuse individuals (controls. All cases were using homemade alcoholic drinks, locally known as, Aragee, Marisa and others. Five patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCs were included as internal controls. Results: ET was detected in 7 subjects and was not observed in the remaining 293. All the 7 subjects with cytological atypia were cases. Cytological atypia were identified among those using Aragee, Marisa, and Aragee & Marisa together, representing 53%, 28.6%, 18%.4, respectively. Cytological atypia was found in all the 5 control cases with OSCCs. For the cytological atypia among alcohol abuse individuals, the adjusted OR and the 95% CI were found to be 5 (4.34-5.84 and P = 0.008. Inflammatory cells infiltrates were identified among 21 (14% of the cases and only 12 (8% of the controls and the adjusted OR and the 95% CI were found to be 5 (2.51-11.21 and P = 0.009. Conclusion: In view of these findings, Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages cause oral epithelial atypical changes, which lead to oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. OEFC is a useful procedure for detection and assessment of oral ET.

  5. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  6. Plasma YKL-40: a potential new cancer biomarker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Schultz, Nicolai A; Jensen, Benny V

    2009-01-01

    tissue remodeling. Plasma levels of YKL-40 are elevated in a subgroup of patients with primary or advanced cancer compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but also in patients with many different diseases characterized by inflammation. Elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are an independent prognostic...... by inflammation. Large prospective, longitudinal clinical cancer studies are needed to determine if plasma YKL-40 is a new cancer biomarker, or is mainly a biomarker of inflammation....

  7. Cost-effectiveness of conventional cytology and HPV DNA testing for cervical cancer screening in Colombia Costo-efectividad de la citología y la tamización con pruebas de ADN-VPH para cáncer de cuello uterino en Colombia

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    Oscar Andrés-Gamboa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess cost-effectiveness of conventional cytology and HPV DNA testing for cervical-cancer screening in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Cancer Institute of Colombia (NCIC in 2007 developed a Markov model on the natural history of cervical cancer; no screening, conventional cytology, and HPV DNA testing were compared. Only direct costs were used. Outcomes comprise cervical cancer mortality, years of life saved, and lifetime costs. Discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated and sensitivity analyses were conducted for key parameters. RESULTS: Depending on the screening strategy a 69-81% mortality reduction might be expected. The HPV DNA testing every five years is a cost-effective strategy (Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER: USD$44/YLS if the cost per test is under USD$31. The effectiveness was sensitive to coverage and primarily to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA testing is a cost-effective alternative for screening in Colombia. Not only high coverage but high follow-up rates are critical for successful screening programs.OBJETIVO: evaluar el costo-efectividad de la citología convencional y la prueba de ADN-VPH para tamización de cáncer cervical en Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: el Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia construyó en 2007 un modelo de Markov de historia natural del cáncer cervical. Se comparó "no tamización", citología convencional y prueba de ADN-VPH. Se utilizaron costos directos. Los desenlaces fueron mortalidad, años de vida ganados y costos. Se calcularon razones de costo-efectividad incremental. Se realizaron análisis de sensibilidad para parámetros clave. RESULTADOS: la mortalidad se redujo 69-81% según la estrategia. La tamización con ADN-VPH cada cinco años es costo-efectiva (ICER (Razón de Costo-Efectividad incremental por sus siglas en inglés: 44 dólares por año de vida saludable si los costos por prueba son menores a 31 dólares. La

  8. [The Functional Role of Exosomes in Cancer Biology and Their Potential as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets of Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yutaka; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-06-01

    Intercellular communication plays an important role in the regulation of various cellular events. In particular, cancer cells and the surrounding cells communicate with each other, and this intercellular communication triggers cancer initiation and progression through the secretion of molecules, including growth factors and cytokines. Recent advances in cancer biology have indicated that small membrane vesicles, termed exosomes, also serve as regulatory agents in intercellular communications. Exosomes contain functional cellular components, including proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs), and they transfer these components to recipient cells. This exosome-mediated intercellular communication leads to increased growth, invasion, and metastasis of cancer. Thus, researchers regard exosomes as important cues to understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer biology. Indeed, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that exosomes can explain multiple aspects of cancer biology. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that exosomes and their specific molecules are also attractive for use as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer. Recent reports showed the efficacy of a novel diagnosis by detecting component molecules of cancer-derived exosomes, including miRNAs and membrane proteins. Furthermore, clinical trials that test the application of exosomes for cancer therapy have already been reported. From these points of view, we will summarize experimental data that support the role of exosomes in cancer progression and the potential of exosomes for use in novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for cancer.

  9. Potential Protective Effects of Probiotics and Prebiotics Against Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsopp, Philip; Rowland, Ian

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer related mortality in the world. Approximately 944,000 new cases were diagnosed globally in 2000 and this accounts for 9.2% of all new cancer cases (IARC, 2000). In Western societies namely Europe, North America and Australasia, it is the second most prevalent cancer after lung/breast (Boyle and Langman, 2000). About 363,000 new cases were reported in Europe in 2000 and it affects 6% of men and women by age 75, in almost equal proportion.

  10. Liver cancer in Wisconsin: The potential for prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirkin, I.R.; Remington, P.L.; Moss, M.; Anderson, H. (Wisconsin Division of Health, Madison (USA))

    1990-02-01

    In this study liver cancer deaths that could be attributed to certain risk factors were calculated. Applying population attributable risk methodology, the attributable risk of liver cancer was estimated for alcohol use, hepatitis B viral exposure, and occupational and industrial exposures. We found that these three risk factors accounted for 38% of liver cancer mortality in Wisconsin; 29% was attributable to alcohol consumption, 7% to occupational exposures, and 2% to hepatitis B viral infection. More than half of liver cancer mortality, however, was not accounted for by the three risk factors studied.

  11. Dual-time FDG-PET/CT in patients with potential breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Christina; Falch Braas, Kirsten; Gerke, Oke;

    Dual-time FDG-PET/CT in patients with potential breast cancer recurrence: head-to-head comparison with CT and bonescintigraphy......Dual-time FDG-PET/CT in patients with potential breast cancer recurrence: head-to-head comparison with CT and bonescintigraphy...

  12. Comparative accuracy of anal and cervical cytology in screening for moderate to severe dysplasia by magnification guided punch biopsy: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wm Christopher Mathews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accuracy of screening for anal cancer precursors relative to screening for cervical cancer precursors has not been systematically examined. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to compare the relative accuracy of anal cytology to cervical cytology in discriminating between histopathologic high grade and lesser grades of dysplasia when the reference standard biopsy is obtained using colposcope magnification. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The outcome metric of discrimination was the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve area. Random effects meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed with examination of sources of heterogeneity that included QUADAS criteria and selected covariates, in meta-regression models. Thirty three cervical and eleven anal screening studies were found to be eligible. The primary meta-analytic comparison suggested that anal cytologic screening is somewhat less discriminating than cervical cytologic screening (ROC area [95% confidence interval (C.I.]: 0.834 [0.809-0.859] vs. 0.700 [0.664-0.735] for cervical and anal screening, respectively. This finding was robust when examined in meta-regression models of covariates differentially distributed by screening setting (anal, cervical. CONCLUSIONS: Anal cytologic screening is somewhat less discriminating than cervical cytologic screening. Heterogeneity of estimates within each screening setting suggests that other factors influence estimates of screening accuracy. Among these are sampling and interpretation errors involving both cytology and biopsy as well as operator skill and experience.

  13. Metformin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Recurrent Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Yu, Yingjie; Vasudevan, Anita; Farhana, Lulu; Rajendra, Sindhu G.; Levi, Edi; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, a biguanide class of anti-diabetic drugs, possesses anti-cancer properties. However, most of the studies to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of metformin have been on primary cancer. No information is available whether metformin could be effectively used for recurrent cancer, specifically colorectal cancer (CRC) that affects up to 50% of patients treated by conventional chemotherapies. Although the reasons for recurrence are not fully understood, it is thought to be due to re-emergence of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs). Therefore, development of non-toxic treatment strategies targeting CSCs would be of significant therapeutic benefit. In the current investigation, we have examined the effectiveness of metformin, in combination with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FuOx), the mainstay of colon cancer therapeutics, on survival of chemo-resistant colon cancer cells that are highly enriched in CSCs/CSLCs. Our data show that metformin acts synergistically with FuOx to (a) induce cell death in chemo resistant (CR) HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells, (b) inhibit colonospheres formation and (c) enhance colonospheres disintegration. In vitro cell culture studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment inhibits migration of CR colon cancer cells. These changes were associated with increased miRNA 145 and reduction in miRNA 21. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was also down-regulated indicating its pivotal role in regulating the growth of CR colon cancer cells. Data from SCID mice xenograft model of CR HCT-116 and CR HT-29 cells show that the combination of metformin and FuOX is highly effective in inhibiting the growth of colon tumors as evidenced by ∼50% inhibition in growth following 5 weeks of combination treatment, when compared with the vehicle treated controls. Our current data suggest that metformin together with conventional chemotherapy could be an effective treatment

  14. Metformin: a potential therapeutic agent for recurrent colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Nangia-Makker

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin, a biguanide class of anti-diabetic drugs, possesses anti-cancer properties. However, most of the studies to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of metformin have been on primary cancer. No information is available whether metformin could be effectively used for recurrent cancer, specifically colorectal cancer (CRC that affects up to 50% of patients treated by conventional chemotherapies. Although the reasons for recurrence are not fully understood, it is thought to be due to re-emergence of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs. Therefore, development of non-toxic treatment strategies targeting CSCs would be of significant therapeutic benefit. In the current investigation, we have examined the effectiveness of metformin, in combination with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FuOx, the mainstay of colon cancer therapeutics, on survival of chemo-resistant colon cancer cells that are highly enriched in CSCs/CSLCs. Our data show that metformin acts synergistically with FuOx to (a induce cell death in chemo resistant (CR HT-29 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells, (b inhibit colonospheres formation and (c enhance colonospheres disintegration. In vitro cell culture studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment inhibits migration of CR colon cancer cells. These changes were associated with increased miRNA 145 and reduction in miRNA 21. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was also down-regulated indicating its pivotal role in regulating the growth of CR colon cancer cells. Data from SCID mice xenograft model of CR HCT-116 and CR HT-29 cells show that the combination of metformin and FuOX is highly effective in inhibiting the growth of colon tumors as evidenced by ∼ 50% inhibition in growth following 5 weeks of combination treatment, when compared with the vehicle treated controls. Our current data suggest that metformin together with conventional chemotherapy could be an

  15. Liquid-based cytology versus conventional cytology for evaluation of cervical Pap smears: Experience from the first 1000 split samples

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    Vikrant Bhar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Aim: Screening programs using conventional cytology conventional Pap smear (CPS have successfully reduced cervical cancer, but newer tests like liquid-based cytology (LBC and human papillomavirus testing might enhance screening. The main aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBC versus CPS using "split samples." Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study comprising of 1000 consecutive cervical "split samples" over a period of 1 year. Split sample was obtained using cervex-brush. CPS was prepared from the brush and the brush head was suspended in the LBC vial and processed by SurePath™ LBC. Results: There were 4.3% unsatisfactory (U/S cases in CPS and 1.7% in LBC; the main cause is insufficient cells, and excess of blood in CPS. About 25/100 (2.5% split samples had epithelial abnormalities both in CPS and LBC (1.2%-atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; 0.4%-low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.2%-high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion; 0.5%-squamous cell carcinoma; 0.1%-atypical glandular cells favouring neoplasia; 0.2%-adenocarcinoma. Inflammatory organisms were almost equally identified in both techniques but were better seen in LBC samples. Conclusions: LBC technique leads to significant reduction of U/S rate. LBC samples offered better clarity, uniform spread of smears, less time for screening and better handling of hemorrhagic and inflammatory samples. LBC had equivalent sensitivity and specificity to CPS.

  16. Value of P16 expression in the triage of liquid-based cervical cytology with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yuan-ying; CHENG Xiao-dong; ZHOU Cai-yun; QIU Li-qian; CHEN Xiao-duan; L(U) Wei-guo; XIE Xing

    2011-01-01

    Background The management of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASCUS/LSIL) is still controversial and it is advisable to make a triage for these two cytological abnormalities. P16INK4 (P16)has been shown to be a potential biomarker for predicting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the value of P16 expression by immunostaining method compared with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA test in the triage of ASCUS/LSIL women.Methods Totally 86 eligible residual liquid-based cytological specimens with ASCUS and 45 with LSIL were obtained.All specimens were submitted to HR-HPV DNA test (HC2) and P16 immunocytochemical staining simultaneously. And all women underwent colposcopy and biopsy after cytology.Results The positive rate of P16 staining was 32.6% in ASCUS and 42.2% in LSIL, which was significantly lower than that of HR-HPV test in both ASCUS (P<0.05) and LSIL (P<0.05). Moreover, the positive rate of P16 staining was 12.7% in normal histology, 61.5% in CIN 1, 87.0% in CIN 2-3, and 100.0% in cancer, in which P16 positive rate was significantly lower than HR-HPV positive rate in normal group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of P16 staining for predicting ClN 2 or more were 87.5%, 68.6%, 38.9%, 96.0%, and 72.1%, respectively in the ASCUS; while 90.0%, 71.4%, 47.4%, 96.2% and 54.7%, respectively in the LSIL, in which the specificity and accuracy of P16 staining were significantly higher than those of HR-HPV test in both ASCUS and LSIL (P<0.05).Conclusion P16 immunostaining had significantly higher specificity and accuracy than HR-HPV DNA test for predicting for high-grade CIN and cervical cancer in ASCUS and LSlL and can be used for the tdage of women with ASCUS/LSlL cytological abnormality.

  17. Combined {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy and fine-needle aspiration cytology offers an accurate and potentially cost-effective investigative strategy for the assessment of solitary or dominant thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wale, Anita [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); Royal Sussex County Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); Miles, Kenneth A. [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Young, Barnaby [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Novena (Singapore); Zammit, Charles [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Surgery, Brighton (United Kingdom); Williams, Anthony [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Pathology, Brighton (United Kingdom); Quin, John [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has revolutionised the care of patients with thyroid nodules and is the initial investigation of choice. However, as a result of nondiagnostic (Thy1) and nonneoplastic (Thy2) specimens, it remains an imperfect sole solution with a range of sensitivities and a high inadequate ratio. Therefore the British Thyroid Association (BTA) guidelines recommend a second FNA immediately for Thy1 specimens and 3-6 months later for Thy2 specimens. Patients must be followed up to exclude malignancy. In this study we assessed the performance of MIBI scintigraphy for diagnosing thyroid malignancy and the cost-effectiveness of a combined FNA/MIBI investigative strategy for the management of thyroid nodules. The diagnostic performance of MIBI scintigraphy was calculated from a retrospective review of local data combined with a meta-analysis of the published literature. Decision tree analysis was used to calculate the cost-effectiveness of a combined FNA/MIBI investigative strategy compared to the BTA guidelines. From 712 patients, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MIBI scintigraphy for the diagnosis of malignancy were 96 %, 46 %, 34 % and 97 %, respectively. MIBI-based strategies were more accurate and associated with lower cost per patient (pound 1,855/EUR2,125 vs. pound 2,445/EUR2,801) and lower cost per cancer diagnosed (pound 1,902/EUR2,179 vs. pound 2,469/EUR2,828) with negligible change in life expectancy. Due to its high NPV, MIBI scintigraphy can usefully exclude malignancy for Thy1 and Thy2 lesions. Its low specificity means MIBI scintigraphy cannot be recommended as a first-line investigation, but as a second-line investigation MIBI scintigraphy may lead to a lower rate of unnecessary thyroidectomies. Combined FNA/MIBI strategies are potentially cost-effective in the management of solitary or dominant thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  18. The role and application of exfoliative cytology in the diagnosis of oral mucosa pathology - contemporary knowledge with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanowska, Krzysztofa; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Radwan-Oczko, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the current available literature, the authors have presented a short description of cytological examination and its application in the oral mucosa disease diagnostic process. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of this method are described. The available diagnostic tools used for oral smears were reviewed as well as more and more often available methods which aim at making the diagnosis process more accurate and more favorable for patients. Oral cytology analysis may, in the near future, be a very useful examination for patients in terms of diagnostics and monitoring, not only during the treatment but also afterwards. The authors would like to demonstrate what a beneficial tool this cytological examination could be as a fast and cheap cancer prophylactic test. This opinion is based on the fact that this cytological method has significantly improved the detection of uterine cervical cancer during a gynecological examination since the introduction of the Papanicolau technique in the 40s.

  19. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 and pancreatic cancer: a new potential target therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadelli, Massimo; Dando, Ilaria; Dalla Pozza, Elisa; Palmieri, Marta

    2015-03-21

    Overall 5-years survival of pancreatic cancer patients is nearly 5%, making this cancer type one of the most lethal neoplasia. Furthermore, the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer has a growing trend that determines a constant increase in the number of deceases caused by this pathology. The poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer is mainly caused by delayed diagnosis, early metastasis of tumor, and resistance to almost all tested cytotoxic drugs. In this respect, the identification of novel potential targets for new and efficient therapies should be strongly encouraged in order to improve the clinical management of pancreatic cancer. Some studies have shown that the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer as compared to adjacent normal tissues. In addition, recent discoveries established a key role of UCP2 in protecting cancer cells from an excessive production of mitochondrial superoxide ions and in the promotion of cancer cell metabolic reprogramming, including aerobic glycolysis stimulation, promotion of cancer progression. These observations together with the demonstration that UCP2 repression can synergize with standard chemotherapy to inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth provide the molecular rationale to consider UCP2 as a potential therapeutic target for pancreatic cancer. In this editorial, recent advances describing the relationship between cancer development and mitochondrial UCP2 activity are critically provided.

  20. Cancer metabolic reprogramming:impor tance, main features, and potentials for precise targeted anti-cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liem Minh Phan; Sai-Ching Jim Yeung; Mong-Hong Lee

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells are well documented to rewire their metabolism and energy production networks to support and enable rapid proliferation, continuous growth, survival in harsh conditions, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to cancer treatments. Since Dr. Otto Warburg’s discovery about altered cancer cell metabolism in 1930, thousands of studies have shed light on various aspects of cancer metabolism with a common goal to find new ways for effectively eliminating tumor cells by targeting their energy metabolism. hTis review highlights the importance of the main features of cancer metabolism, summarizes recent remarkable advances in this ifeld, and points out the potentials to translate these scientiifc ifndings into life-saving diagnosis and therapies to help cancer patients.

  1. Cytological findings in scintigraphically nonfunctioning thyroid nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Branislava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The major one among the procedures for evaluating changes in the thyroid nodules is fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB. Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used in diagnostic algoritham of nodules. Less than 5% of examined nodules show to be malignant. Scintigraphically, nodules could be classified as functional and nonfunctional. It is estimated that the risk of malignacy in nonfunctional nodules ranges from 8% to 25% and more. Aspiration punction provides 100% specific and positive predictive value. The aim of the study was to establish the distribution of cytological findings in nonfunctioning thyroid nodules. Methods. The prospective study enrolled 112 patients, 104 women and 8 men, submitted to thyroid scintigraphy for known thyroid nodule disorder. Scintigraphy was performed about half an hour after iv administration of 74 MBq of sodium-pertehnetate. A pin hole collimator was used. Scintigrams were visually evaluated, and absence of radiopharmaceutic in a nodule was estimated as nonfunctional one. Such nodules were afterwards subjected to FNAB and material obtained was cytologically analyzed. Results. In our patients nonfunctioning nodules comprised tissue of colloid struma, thyroid cyst, regular thyroid tissue, follicular lesion, oxiphillic lesion, papillary carcinoma tissue and tissue of lymphocytic thyroiditis. The most frequent cytological finding were colloid cysts (52%. A total of 70% were female nodules. Five citological findings were histopathologically analyzed. Conclusion. Cytological finding of nonfunctional nodules determines of the decision on radical therapy, and our preliminary results imply the need of FNAB routine use in nuclear medicine practice.

  2. Eumycetoma versus actinomycetoma: Diagnosis on cytology

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    Afroz Nishat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous infection caused by various genera of fungi producing specific colored granules known as grains. A 45-year-old farmer presented clinically with a left foot mass with multiple discharging sinuses existing for last 3 years. Clinical and radiological findings suggested a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis with suspicion of tuberculosis. Imprints plus fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC smears exhibited distinct brown-black colonies of a fungus having branching and septate hyphae embedded in matrix like material against a mixed inflammatory background. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS stain gave positive staining and subsequent fungal culture confirmed the cytological diagnosis and aided in species identification as Madurella mycetomatis. Thus, eumycetoma can precisely be diagnosed and confidently differentiated from similar conditions such as actinomycetoma by simple and inexpensive cytological techniques such as FNAC and imprint smears, employing routine May-Grόnwald-Giemsa, Papanicolaou and simple PAS stains on cytological specimen, thus leading to rapid diagnosis for institution of correct treatment.

  3. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interpreted by individuals qualified under §§ 493.1469 or 493.1483, to be negative for epithelial cell... screening are not required to include tissue pathology slides and previously examined cytology slides... or reparative changes or any of the following epithelial cell abnormalities: (i) Squamous cell....

  4. Plasma DNA integrity index as a potential molecular diagnostic marker for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Azza M; Teama, Salwa; Fawzy, Amal; El Deftar, Mervat

    2016-06-01

    Plasma DNA integrity index is increased in various malignancies including breast cancer, the most common cancer in women worldwide; early detection is crucial for successful treatment. Current screening methods fail to detect many cases of breast cancer at an early stage. In this study, we evaluated the level of plasma DNA integrity index in 260 females (95 with breast cancer, 95 with benign breast lesions, and 70 healthy controls) to verify its potential value in discriminating malignant from benign breast lesions. The criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer were used for staging of breast cancer patients. DNA integrity index was measured by real-time PCR. DNA integrity index was significantly higher in breast cancer than in benign breast patients and healthy subjects (P = cancer group was 85.3 % at 0.55 DNA integrity index cutoff. In conclusion, the plasma DNA integrity index may be a promising molecular diagnostic marker of malignancy in breast lesions.

  5. Molecular biology of breast cancer stem cells: potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam P; Almeida, Fabio S; Chi, Alex; Nguyen, Ly M; Cohen, Deirdre; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated recently as responsible for failure of breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to review breast CSCs molecular biology with respect to their mechanism of resistance to conventional therapy, and to develop treatment strategies that may improve survival of breast cancer patients. A literature search has identified in vitro and in vivo studies of breast CSCs. Breast CSCs overexpress breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) which allows cancer cells to transport actively chemotherapy agents out of the cells. Radioresistance is modulated through activation of Wnt signaling pathway and overexpression of genes coding for glutathione. Lapatinib can selectively target HER-2 positive breast CSCs and improves disease-free survival in these patients. Metformin may target basal type breast CSCs. Parthenolide and oncolytic viruses are promising targeting agents for breast CSCs. Future clinical trials for breast cancer should include anti-cancer stem cells targeting agents in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Hypofractionation radiotherapy may be indicated for residual disease post chemotherapy.

  6. RECQL4 helicase has oncogenic potential in sporadic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek Ma; Lu, Huiming; Croteau, Deborah L; Moseley, Paul; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Yt; Ellis, Ian O; Wang, Lisa L; Zhao, Yongliang; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    RECQL4 helicase is a molecular motor that unwinds DNA, a process essential during DNA replication and DNA repair. Germ-line mutations in RECQL4 cause type II Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), characterized by a premature ageing phenotype and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is widely considered to be a tumour suppressor, although its role in human breast cancer is largely unknown. As the RECQL4 gene is localized to chromosome 8q24, a site frequently amplified in sporadic breast cancers, we hypothesized that it may play an oncogenic role in breast tumourigenesis. To address this, we analysed large cohorts for gene copy number changes (n = 1977), mRNA expression (n = 1977) and protein level (n = 1902). Breast cancer incidence was also explored in 58 patients with type II RTS. DNA replication dynamics and chemosensitivity was evaluated in RECQL4-depleted breast cancer cells in vitro. Amplification or gain in gene copy number (30.6%), high-level mRNA expression (51%) and high levels of protein (23%) significantly associated with aggressive tumour behaviour, including lymph node positivity, larger tumour size, HER2 overexpression, ER-negativity, triple-negative phenotypes and poor survival. RECQL4 depletion impaired the DNA replication rate and increased chemosensitivity in cultured breast cancer cells. Thus, although recognized as a 'safe guardian of the genome', our data provide compelling evidence that RECQL4 is tumour promoting in established breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Carnosol: A Phenolic Diterpene With Cancer Chemopreventive Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kundu, Juthika; Chae, In Gyeong; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is an unbeaten health challenge for the humankind. After striving for decades to find a cancer cure, attention has now been shifted to reduce the morbidity and mortality from cancer by halting the course of tumor development. Numerous bioactive phytochemicals, especially those present in edible and non-edible plant species, have been reported to reduce the risk of many cancers. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that carnosol, a phenolic diterpene present in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), holds the promise of preventing certain types of cancer. A remarkable progress has been made in delineating the biochemical mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effects of carnosol. Results from in vitro cell culture studies as well as animal model experiments have revealed that carnosol inhibits experimentally induced carcinogenesis and exhibits potent anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and apoptosis inducing properties. Moreover, carnosol enhances the sensitivity of chemoresistant cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the detailed mechanistic aspects of cancer chemoprevention with carnosol. PMID:25337578

  8. Diagnostic and prognostic value of SHOX2 and SEPT9 DNA methylation and cytology in benign, paramalignant and malignant pleural effusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo Dietrich

    Full Text Available Pleural effusions (PE are a common clinical problem. The discrimination between benign (BPE, malignant (MPE and paramalignant (PPE pleural effusions is highly important to ensure appropriate patient treatment. Today, cytology is the gold standard for diagnosing malignant pleural effusions. However, its sensitivity is limited due to the sometimes low abundance of tumor cells and the challenging assessment of cell morphology in cytological samples. This study aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic test, which allows for the highly specific detection of malignant cells in pleural effusions based on the DNA methylation biomarkers SHOX2 and SEPT9. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed which enabled the accurate and sensitive detection of SHOX2 and SEPT9 in PEs. Cytological and DNA methylation analyses were conducted in a case control study comprised of PEs from 114 patients (58 cases, 56 controls. Cytological analysis as well as SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylation resulted in 100% specificity. 21% of the cases were cytologically positive and 26% were SHOX2 or SEPT9 methylation positive. The combined analysis of cytology and DNA methylation resulted in an increase of 71% positively classified PEs from cancer patients as compared to cytological analysis alone. The absolute sensitivity of cytology and DNA methylation was not determinable due to the lack of an appropriate gold standard diagnostic for distinguishing between MPEs and PPEs. Therefore, it was unclear which PEs from cancer patients were malignant (containing tumor cells and which PEs were paramalignant and resulted from benign conditions in cancer patients, respectively. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis in PEs allowed the prognosis of the overall survival in cancer patients (Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, p=0.02 (SHOX2, p=0.02 (SEPT9. The developed test may be used as a diagnostic and prognostic adjunct to existing clinical and cytopathological investigations in patients

  9. Diagnostic and prognostic value of SHOX2 and SEPT9 DNA methylation and cytology in benign, paramalignant and malignant pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Dimo; Jung, Maria; Puetzer, Svenja; Leisse, Annette; Holmes, Emily Eva; Meller, Sebastian; Uhl, Barbara; Schatz, Philipp; Ivascu, Claudia; Kristiansen, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Pleural effusions (PE) are a common clinical problem. The discrimination between benign (BPE), malignant (MPE) and paramalignant (PPE) pleural effusions is highly important to ensure appropriate patient treatment. Today, cytology is the gold standard for diagnosing malignant pleural effusions. However, its sensitivity is limited due to the sometimes low abundance of tumor cells and the challenging assessment of cell morphology in cytological samples. This study aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic test, which allows for the highly specific detection of malignant cells in pleural effusions based on the DNA methylation biomarkers SHOX2 and SEPT9. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed which enabled the accurate and sensitive detection of SHOX2 and SEPT9 in PEs. Cytological and DNA methylation analyses were conducted in a case control study comprised of PEs from 114 patients (58 cases, 56 controls). Cytological analysis as well as SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylation resulted in 100% specificity. 21% of the cases were cytologically positive and 26% were SHOX2 or SEPT9 methylation positive. The combined analysis of cytology and DNA methylation resulted in an increase of 71% positively classified PEs from cancer patients as compared to cytological analysis alone. The absolute sensitivity of cytology and DNA methylation was not determinable due to the lack of an appropriate gold standard diagnostic for distinguishing between MPEs and PPEs. Therefore, it was unclear which PEs from cancer patients were malignant (containing tumor cells) and which PEs were paramalignant and resulted from benign conditions in cancer patients, respectively. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis in PEs allowed the prognosis of the overall survival in cancer patients (Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, p=0.02 (SHOX2), p=0.02 (SEPT9)). The developed test may be used as a diagnostic and prognostic adjunct to existing clinical and cytopathological investigations in patients with PEs of

  10. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  11. 宫颈细胞DNA倍体定量分析联合液基细胞学在宫颈癌早期筛查中的应用价值%Value of quantitative analysis is of DNA ploidy and cervical liquid-based cytology in the screening of ;cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志琴; 王蔼明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of DNA ploidy detection and cervical liquid-based cytology in the screen methods of cervical cancer and cervical precancerous lesion. Methods 12 630 women were detected by DNA ploidy and cervical liquid-based cytology, and in which of 1 146 cases with DNA aneuploidy and (or) abnormal cervical liquid-based cytology were given cervical biopsy. Pathological diagnosis was taken as gold standard. The clinical significance of two methods in the screen of cervical lesion was analyzed. Results The positive rates of DNA ploidy was significantly higher than cervical liquid-based cytology. Cases which were observed that LSIL and all above decided by cervical liquid-based cytology, and cases with DNA heteroploid cell more than 3 were sent to fixed point biopsy, the sensitivity of 73.28%and the specificity of 76.50%were cervical liquid-based cytology, while the sensitivity of 89.14%and the specificity of 75.80%by quantitative DNA. Conclusion DNA imaging cytometry is better for screening cervical dysplasia and carcinoma of the uterine cervix than conventional cytology.%目的:探讨宫颈细胞DNA倍体检测联合液基细胞学在宫颈癌早期筛查中的应用价值。方法对12630例患者采用宫颈细胞DNA倍体定量检测与液基细胞学联合进行宫颈病变的早期筛查,对其中1146例宫颈细胞DNA倍体定量检测阳性和(或)宫颈液基细胞学阳性者行阴道镜检查并取活检,以病理诊断为金标准,评价两种方法在宫颈癌早期筛查中的作用与意义。结果(1)宫颈DNA异倍体细胞的检出率和宫颈液基细胞学的阳性率分别为13.68%和8.97%,有统计学差异(P<0.01);(2)随着DNA异倍体细胞数量的增加,液基细胞学的阳性率也相应增加,且宫颈病变的严重程度也增加,两种方法检测结果均阳性者与活检病理诊断有较高的符合率;(3)以1~2个倍体异常细胞为宫颈活检标准,发现

  12. Diagnostic utility of p16 immunocytochemistry for Trichomonas in urine cytology

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    Pantanowitz Liron

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case in which p16 immunocytochemistry helped establish the diagnosis of Trichomonas in urine from a male patient. Based on this finding, we recommend p16 immunocytochemistry as a diagnostic tool for unexpected patients or specimen types in which potential trichomonads are identified following routine cytologic evaluation.

  13. Which urine marker test provides more diagnostic value in conjunction with standard cytology- ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ or Cytokeratin 20 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyuer Serdar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the poor sensitivity of urinary cytological findings for the diagnosis of especially low grade urinary bladder carcinoma, new molecular diagnostic methods have been proposed. We decided to verify the ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ (UCyt+™ test and cytology combination and cytokeratin 20 (CK20 and cytology combination in urine as possible diagnostic and monitoring tool for bladder cancer. Methods Evaluation of CK20 expression and UCyt+™ was performed in urine of 90 patients of which 54 with bladder cancer with primary/recurrent diagnosis (low grade urothelial carcinoma (LGUC = 23/8 patients, high grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC = 18/5 patients, and 36 patients as control; except of neoplastic bladder disease patients. For the evaluation of the three tests, CK20 and UCyt+™ tests were combined with urine cytology and compared with each other. Results The overall sensitivity detected for each tumor marker was as follows: for urine cytology was 75.9% and UCyt+™ was 83.3%, for CK20 70.4%, while the specificity was 66.7% for urine cytology and 86.1% for UCyt+™ and 83.3% for CK20. The sensitivity of cytology and UCyt+™ combination was higher (88.9% than the sensitivity cytology and CK20 combination (77.8%. The simultaneous use of the three markers, sensitivity was reaching 92.5%. Conclusion The UCyt+™ test and CK20 expression are valid tools for the performance of adjunctive analyses with conventional cytologic examination.

  14. Neem components as potential agents for cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Neelu; Chandra, Dhyan

    2014-08-01

    Azadirachta indica, also known as neem, is commonly found in many semi-tropical and tropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The components extracted from neem plant have been used in traditional medicine for the cure of multiple diseases including cancer for centuries. The extracts of seeds, leaves, flowers, and fruits of neem have consistently shown chemopreventive and antitumor effects in different types of cancer. Azadirachtin and nimbolide are among the few bioactive components in neem that have been studied extensively, but research on a great number of additional bioactive components is warranted. The key anticancer effects of neem components on malignant cells include inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell death, suppression of cancer angiogenesis, restoration of cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) balance, and enhancement of the host immune responses against tumor cells. While the underlying mechanisms of these effects are mostly unclear, the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway is, at least partially, involved in the anticancer functions of neem components. Importantly, the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects of neem components are tumor selective as the effects on normal cells are significantly weaker. In addition, neem extracts sensitize cancer cells to immunotherapy and radiotherapy, and enhance the efficacy of certain cancer chemotherapeutic agents. This review summarizes the current updates on the anticancer effects of neem components and their possible impact on managing cancer incidence and treatment.

  15. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbarya, Abed; Ruimi, Nili; Epelbaum, Ron; Ben-Arye, Eran; Mahajna, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  16. Natural products as potential cancer therapy enhancers: A preclinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Agbarya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multifactorial disease that arises as a consequence of alterations in many physiological processes. Recently, hallmarks of cancer were suggested that include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis, along with two emerging hallmarks including reprogramming energy metabolism and escaping immune destruction. Treating multifactorial diseases, such as cancer with agents targeting a single target, might provide partial treatment and, in many cases, disappointing cure rates. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that the regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Since ancient times, plants, herbs, and other natural products have been used as healing agents. Moreover, the majority of the medicinal substances available today have their origin in natural compounds. Traditionally, pharmaceuticals are used to cure diseases, and nutrition and herbs are used to prevent disease and to provide an optimal balance of macro- and micro-nutrients needed for good health. We explored the combination of natural products, dietary nutrition, and cancer chemotherapeutics for improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapeutics and negating side effects.

  17. RISK FACTORS FOR PANCREATIC CANCER: UNDERLYING MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKolodecik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the review:Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer.Recent Findings:Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the transcription factor NF-kB are important mechanisms that induce acute pancreatitis. Recurrent pancreatic injury due to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, and conditions such as obesity lead to increases in oxidative stress, impaired autophagy and constitutive activation of inflammatory pathways. These processes can stimulate pancreatic stellate cells, thereby increasing fibrosis and encouraging chronic disease development. Activation of oncogneic Kras mutations through inflammation, coupled with altered levels of tumor suppressor proteins (p53 and p16 can ultimately lead to development of pancreatic cancer. Summary:Although our understanding of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has tremendously increased over many years, much remains to be elucidated in terms of common pathways linking these conditions.

  18. Decoy cells in the urine cytology of a renal transplant recipient: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human polyoma virus causes renal dysfunction and graft loss as a result of tubulo-interstial nephritis in renal transplant recipients after reactivation of latent virus in renal epithelium. The infected cells in the urinary sediments are characterized by large homogenous inclusions, which may cause diagnostic error in urine cytology. The epithelial cells with polyoma viral inclusions in urine cytology specimens are termed Decoy cells to caution pathologists not to misdiagnose these cells as cancer cells. We present a case of polyoma viral changes detected the first time in our laboratory in the urine of a 46year old male who underwent renal transplantation six months back and followed by immunotherapy. Urine cytological examination showed decoy cells and subsequently revealed on histopathology. Immunoperoxidase staining for SV-40 LT antigen (LT ag, expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, p53 and Rb genes were also studied in the tissue sections for further observation. The expression of SV40 LT ag was negative, while PCNA showed strong positivity; p53 and Rb were expressed moderately in the nuclei of cells in the tubules. The report of a case of decoy cells in the urine of a patient with renal transplantation focuses the importance of cytologic analysis of urine as a diagnostic tool for screening renal transplant recipients at risk of polyoma viral infection.

  19. Decoy cells in the urine cytology of a renal transplant recipient: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, K Raveendran; Jayasree, K; Pisharody, Ramdas; Abraham, Elizabeth K

    2010-01-01

    Human polyoma virus causes renal dysfunction and graft loss as a result of tubulo-interstial nephritis in renal transplant recipients after reactivation of latent virus in renal epithelium. The infected cells in the urinary sediments are characterized by large homogenous inclusions, which may cause diagnostic error in urine cytology. The epithelial cells with polyoma viral inclusions in urine cytology specimens are termed Decoy cells to caution pathologists not to misdiagnose these cells as cancer cells. We present a case of polyoma viral changes detected the first time in our laboratory in the urine of a 46year old male who underwent renal transplantation six months back and followed by immunotherapy. Urine cytological examination showed decoy cells and subsequently revealed on histopathology. Immunoperoxidase staining for SV-40 LT antigen (LT ag), expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53 and Rb genes were also studied in the tissue sections for further observation. The expression of SV40 LT ag was negative, while PCNA showed strong positivity; p53 and Rb were expressed moderately in the nuclei of cells in the tubules. The report of a case of decoy cells in the urine of a patient with renal transplantation focuses the importance of cytologic analysis of urine as a diagnostic tool for screening renal transplant recipients at risk of polyoma viral infection.

  20. Targets and mechanisms of berberine, a natural drug with potential to treat cancer with special focus on breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarzadeh Kaboli, Parham; Rahmat, Asmah; Ismail, Patimah; Ling, King-Hwa

    2014-10-05

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide and novel therapeutic agents are needed to treat this disease. The plant-based alkaloid berberine has potential therapeutic applications for breast cancer, although a better understanding of the genes and cellular pathways regulated by this compound is needed to define the mechanism of its action in cancer treatment. In this review, the molecular targets of berberine in various cancers, particularly breast cancer, are discussed. Berberine was shown to be effective in inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in various cancerous cells. Some signaling pathways affected by berberine, including the MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, are critical for reducing cellular migration and sensitivity to various growth factors. This review will discuss recent studies and consider the application of new prospective approaches based on microRNAs and other crucial regulators for use in future studies to define the action of berberine in cancer. The effects of berberine on cancer cell survival and proliferation are also outlined.

  1. Comparisons of voided urine cytology, nuclear matrix protein-22 and bladder tumor associated antigen tests for bladder cancer of geriatric male patients in Taiwan, China%中国台湾老年男性膀胱癌检测中尿脱落细胞学、核基质蛋白22和膀胱癌相关抗原检测的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. H.Tsui; S.M.Chen; T. M. Wang; H. H. Juang; C. L.Chen; G.H.Sun; P. L.Chang

    2007-01-01

    目的:比较膀胱癌相关抗原(BTA TRAK),核基质蛋白22(NMP 22)和尿脱落细胞学(VUC)检测膀胱癌的结果.方法:共有135名老年人和50名健康志愿者参与了本研究并分为三组:(I)93名膀胱癌患者;(ii)42名尿良性症状患者;(iii)50名健康志愿者.用BTA TRAK和NMP 22试剂盒检测膀胱癌,用尿脱落细胞学比较筛查的灵敏性和特异性.结果:尿脱落细胞学、BTA TRAK和NMP 22的灵敏性和特异性分别为24%和97%、51%和73%、78%和73%.NMP 22的水平随肿瘤的级别升高而上升.在筛查检测中,BTA TRAK灵敏性最低,NMP22灵敏性最高,能辅助尿脱落细胞学检测膀胱癌.结论:NMP22比BTA TRAK更符合膀胱癌的分级.由于在医院或门诊无法获得细胞单位,NMP22很有希望成为一种筛查膀胱癌的工具.%Aim: To compare the results of bladder tumor associated antigen (BTA TRAK), nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP 22) and voided urine cytology (VUC) in detecting bladder cancer. Methods: A total of 135 elderly male and 50 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study were classified into three groups: (i) 93 patients with bladder cancer; (ii) 42 patients with urinary benign conditions; and (iii) 50 healthy volunteers. BTA TRAK and NMP 22 kits were used to detect bladder cancer. Voided urine cytology was used to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the screening tests.Results: The sensitivity and specificity of cytology, BTA TRAK and NMP 22 were 24% and 97%, 51% and 73%,78% and 73%, respectively. The level of NMP 22 increased with tumor grading. The BTA TRAK kit has the lowest sensitivity among the screening tests. The NMP 22 with the best sensitivity can be an adjunct to cytology for evaluating bladder cancer. Conclusion: The NMP 22 test has a better correlation with the grading of the bladder cancer than BTA TRAK. As cytology units are typically not available in hospitals or in outpatient clinics, NMP 22 might be a promising tool for screening bladder cancer

  2. Long Non-Coding RNA as Potential Biomarker for Prostate Cancer: Is It Making a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junli; Tang, Jie; Wang, Guo; Zhu, Yuan-Shan

    2017-01-01

    Whole genome transcriptomic analyses have identified numerous long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts that are increasingly implicated in cancer biology. LncRNAs are found to promote essential cancer cell functions such as proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, with the potential to serve as novel biomarkers of various cancers and to further reveal uncharacterized aspects of tumor biology. However, the biological and molecular mechanisms as well as the clinical applications of lncRNAs in diverse diseases are not completely understood, and remain to be fully explored. LncRNAs may be critical players and regulators in prostate cancer carcinogenesis and progression, and could serve as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer. This review focuses on lncRNA biomarkers that are already available for clinical use and provides an overview of lncRNA biomarkers that are under investigation for clinical development in prostate cancer. PMID:28272371

  3. Neurotensin and its high affinity receptor 1 as a potential pharmacological target in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zherui eWu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide health problem. Personalized treatment represents a future advancement for cancer treatment, in part due to the development of targeted therapeutic drugs. These molecules are expected to be more effective than current treatments and less harmful to normal cells. The discovery and validation of new targets are the foundation and the source of these new therapies.The neurotensinergic system has been shown to enhance cancer progression in various cancers such as pancreatic, prostate, lung, breast and colon cancer. It also triggers multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the PKC/ERK and AKT pathways. In this review, we discuss the contribution of the neurotensinergic system to cancer progression, as well as the regulation and mechanisms of the system in order to highlight its potential as a therapeutic target, and its prospect for its use as a treatment in certain cancers.

  4. Potential Biomarker of L type Amino Acid Transporter 1 in Breast Cancer Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zhongxing; Cho, Heidi T.; Williams, Larry; Zhu, Aizhi; Liang, Ke; Huang, Ke; Wu, Hui; Jiang, Chunsu; Hong, Samuel; Crowe, Ronald; Goodman, Mark M.; Shim, Hyunsuk [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta (United States)

    2011-06-15

    L type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is essential for the transport of large neutral amino acids. However, its role in breast cancer growth remains largely unknown. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether LAT1 is a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. LAT1 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cell lines and tissues were analyzed. In addition, the effects of targeting LAT1 for the inhibition of breast cancer cell tumorigenesis were assessed with soft agar assay. The imaging of xenograft with 1 amino 3 [{sup 18F}]fluorocyclo butane 1 carboxylic acid ([{sup 18F}]FACBC) PET was assessed for its diagnostic biomarker potential. Normal breast tissue or low malignant cell lines expressed low levels of LAT1 mRNA and protein, while highly malignant cancer cell lines and high grade breast cancer tissue expressed high levels of LAT1. In addition, higher expression levels of LAT1 in breast cancer tissues were consistent with advanced stage breast cancer. Furtermore, the blockade of LAT1 with its inhibitor, 2 amino bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane 2 carboxylic acid (BCH), or the knockdown of LAT1 with siRNA, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. A leucine analog, [{sup 18F}]FACBC, has been demonstrated to be an excellent PET tracer for the non invasive imaging og malignant breast cancer using an orthotopic animal model. The overexpression of LAT1 is required for the progression of breast cancer. LAT1 represents a potential biomarker for therapy and diagnosis of breast cancer. [{sup 18F}]FACBC that correlates with LAT1 function is a potential PET tracer for malignant breast tumor imaging.

  5. Vitamin D analogues: Potential use in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael J; Murray, Alyson; Synnott, Naoise C; O'Donovan, Norma; Crown, John

    2017-04-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the thyroid-steroid family of nuclear transcription factors. Following binding of the active form of vitamin D, i.e., 1,25(OH)2D3 (also known as calcitriol) and interaction with co-activators and co-repressors, VDR regulates the expression of several different genes. Although relatively little work has been carried out on VDR in human cancers, several epidemiological studies suggest that low circulating levels of vitamin D are associated with both an increased risk of developing specific cancer types and poor outcome in patients with specific diagnosed cancers. These associations apply especially in colorectal and breast cancer. Consistent with these findings, calcitriol as well as several of its synthetic analogues have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro and in diverse animal model systems. Indeed, some of these vitamin D analogues with low calcemic inducing activity (e.g., EB1089, inecalcitol, paricalcitol) have progressed to clinical trials in patients with cancer. Preliminary results from these trials suggest that these vitamin D analogues have minimal toxicity, but clear evidence of efficacy remains to be shown. Although evidence of efficacy for mono-treatment with vitamin D analogues is currently lacking, several studies have reported that supplementation with calcitriol or the presence of high endogenous circulating levels of vitamin D enhances response to standard therapies.

  6. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Running

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose.

  7. Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75-90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose.

  8. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewertz, Marianne (Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)); Bonde Jensen, Anders (Inst. of Clinical Research, Univ. of Southern Denmark (Denmark))

    2011-02-15

    Background. Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease among women world wide. Survival has been improving leading to an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, in the US estimated to about 2.6 million. Material and methods. The literature was reviewed with focus on data from the Nordic countries. Results. Local therapies such as breast cancer surgery and radiotherapy may cause persistent pain in the breast area, arm, and shoulder reported by 30-50% of patients after three to five years, lymphedema in 15-25% of patients, and restrictions of arm and shoulder movement in 35%. Physiotherapy is the standard treatment for the latter while no pain intervention trials have been published. Chemotherapy may cause infertility and premature menopause, resulting in vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, which are similar to the side effects of endocrine treatment in postmenopausal women. Awareness of cardiotoxicity is needed since anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy can damage the heart. Breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of a major depression and far from all receive adequate anti-depressive treatment. Other psychological symptoms include fear of recurrence, sleep disturbances, cognitive problems, fatigue, and sexual problems. Discussion. To improve rehabilitation, specific goals have to be formulated into national guidelines and high priority directed towards research into developing and testing new interventions for alleviating symptoms and side effects experienced by breast cancer survivors

  9. Hypnosis and music interventions (HMIs) inactivate HIF-1: A potential curative efficacy for cancers and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Li, Ling; Pan, Li-Lan; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Hypnosis and music interventions (HMIs) have shown positive influence on cancers for nearly 200years, but the underlying mechanisms were rarely explored systematically. The hypothesis suggests a potential curative efficacy of HMIs on cancers by inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which is a key mediator of cancer development, especially under hypoxic conditions. HMIs are sufficient to attenuate the pain and anxiety degree of individuals, improve multiple psychological and physiological parameters, and consequently, lead to increased oxygen saturation in vivo. Furthermore, abundant oxygen in vivo inhibits the activation of HIF-1 and potentially blockades kinds of HIF-1-induced oncogenic signaling pathways. The hypothesized efficacy of HMIs is very similar to anti-cancer medicines targeting HIF-1. The implication of the hypothesis in preventing hypertension is also discussed. In summary, the hypothesis clearly suggests the potential involvement of the convenient, safe, non-pharmaceutical, and low-cost HMIs in preventing HIF-1-mediated diseases, including cancers and hypertension.

  10. Exosomal miRNAs from Peritoneum Lavage Fluid as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Motohiko; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Yashiro, Masakazu; Hirakawa, Kosei; Kosaka, Takashi; Makino, Hirochika; Akiyama, Hirotoshi; Kunisaki, Chikara; Endo, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and is associated with poor prognosis. Peritoneal lavage cytology, used to evaluate the risk of peritoneal metastasis, has low sensitivity. Here, we assessed the diagnostic potential of exosomal miRNA profiles in peritoneal fluid for the prediction of peritoneal dissemination in GC. Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from six gastric malignant ascites (MA) samples, 24 peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) samples, and culture supernatants (CM) of two human gastric carcinoma cell lines that differ in their potential for peritoneal metastasis. Expression of exosomal miRNAs was evaluated with Agilent Human miRNA microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The microarray analysis indicated a low variability in the number and signal intensity of miRNAs detected among the samples. In the six MA fluids, miR-21 showed the highest signal intensity. We identified five miRNAs (miR-1225-5p, miR-320c, miR-1202, miR-1207-5p, and miR-4270) with high expression in MA samples, the PLF of serosa-invasive GC, and the CM of a highly metastatic GC cell line; these candidate miRNA species appear to be related to peritoneal dissemination. Differential expression of miR-21, miR-320c, and miR-1225-5p was validated in the PLF of serosa-invasive and non-invasive GC by qRT-PCR and miR-21 and miR-1225-5p were confirmed to be associated with serosal invasion in GC. PLF can be used to profile the expression of exosomal miRNAs. Our findings suggest that miR-21 and miR-1225-5p may serve as biomarkers of peritoneal recurrence after curative GC resection, thus providing a novel approach to early diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of GC.

  11. Exosomal miRNAs from Peritoneum Lavage Fluid as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers of Peritoneal Metastasis in Gastric Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiko Tokuhisa

    Full Text Available Peritoneal metastasis is the most frequent type of recurrence in patients with gastric cancer (GC and is associated with poor prognosis. Peritoneal lavage cytology, used to evaluate the risk of peritoneal metastasis, has low sensitivity. Here, we assessed the diagnostic potential of exosomal miRNA profiles in peritoneal fluid for the prediction of peritoneal dissemination in GC. Total RNA was extracted from exosomes isolated from six gastric malignant ascites (MA samples, 24 peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF samples, and culture supernatants (CM of two human gastric carcinoma cell lines that differ in their potential for peritoneal metastasis. Expression of exosomal miRNAs was evaluated with Agilent Human miRNA microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The microarray analysis indicated a low variability in the number and signal intensity of miRNAs detected among the samples. In the six MA fluids, miR-21 showed the highest signal intensity. We identified five miRNAs (miR-1225-5p, miR-320c, miR-1202, miR-1207-5p, and miR-4270 with high expression in MA samples, the PLF of serosa-invasive GC, and the CM of a highly metastatic GC cell line; these candidate miRNA species appear to be related to peritoneal dissemination. Differential expression of miR-21, miR-320c, and miR-1225-5p was validated in the PLF of serosa-invasive and non-invasive GC by qRT-PCR and miR-21 and miR-1225-5p were confirmed to be associated with serosal invasion in GC. PLF can be used to profile the expression of exosomal miRNAs. Our findings suggest that miR-21 and miR-1225-5p may serve as biomarkers of peritoneal recurrence after curative GC resection, thus providing a novel approach to early diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination of GC.

  12. Potential Anti-metastasis Natural Compounds for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvorachote, Pithi; Chamni, Supakarn; Ninsontia, Chuanpit; Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee

    2016-11-01

    As lung cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide and high mortalities are the result of metastasis, novel information surpassing the treatment strategies and therapeutic agents focusing on cancer dissemination are of interest. Lung cancer metastasis involves increased motility, survival in circulation and ability to form new tumors. Metastatic cells increase their aggressive features by utilizing several mechanisms to overcome hindrances of metastasis, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased in cellular survival and migratory signals. Sufficient amounts of natural product-derived compounds have been shown to have promising anti-metastasis activities by suppressing key molecular features upholding such cell aggressiveness. The knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms rendering cell dissemination together with the anti-metastasis information of natural product-derived compounds may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  13. MIM, a Potential Metastasis Suppressor Gene in Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Goo Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a modified version of the mRNA differential display technique, five human bladder cancer cell lines from low grade to metastatic were analyzed to identify differences in gene expression. A 316-bp cDNA (C11300 was isolated that was not expressed in the metastatic cell line TccSuP. Sequence analysis revealed that this gene was identical to KIAA 0429, has a 5.3-kb transcript that mapped to 8824.1. The protein is predicted to be 356 amino acids in size and has an actin-binding WH2 domain. Northern blot revealed expression in multiple normal tissues, but none in a metastatic breast cancer cell line (SKBR3 or in metastatic prostatic cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3. We have named this gene Missing in Metastasis (MIM and our data suggest that it may be involved in cytoskeletal organization.

  14. The therapeutic potential of MicroRNAs in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Susanne; Obad, S.; Jensen, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been uncovered as important posttranscriptional regulators of nearly every biological process in the cell. Furthermore, mounting evidence implies that miRNAs play key roles in the pathogenesis of cancer and that many miRNAs can function either as oncogenes or tumor...... suppressors. Thus, miRNAs have rapidly emerged as promising targets for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. The development of miRNA-based cancer therapeutics relies on restoring the activity of tumor suppressor miRNAs using double-stranded miRNA mimics or inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs using...... single-stranded antisense oligonucleotides, termed antimiRs. In the present review, we focus on recent advancements in the discovery and development of miRNA-based cancer therapeutics using these 2 approaches. In addition, we summarize selected studies, in which modulation of miRNA activity...

  15. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Following the UK “Brexit” vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised. PMID:28275394

  16. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Following the UK "Brexit" vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised.

  17. DDX3, a potential target for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Guus Martinus; Xie, Min; Raman, Venu

    2015-11-05

    RNA helicases are a large family of proteins with a distinct motif, referred to as the DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His). The exact functions of all the human DEAD/H box proteins are unknown. However, it has been consistently demonstrated that these proteins are associated with several aspects of energy-dependent RNA metabolism, including translation, ribosome biogenesis, and pre-mRNA splicing. In addition, DEAD/H box proteins participate in nuclear-cytoplasmic transport and organellar gene expression.A member of this RNA helicase family, DDX3, has been identified in a variety of cellular biogenesis processes, including cell-cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, cell survival, and apoptosis. In cancer, DDX3 expression has been evaluated in patient samples of breast, lung, colon, oral, and liver cancer. Both tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions have been attributed to DDX3 and are discussed in this review. In general, there is concordance with in vitro evidence to support the hypothesis that DDX3 is associated with an aggressive phenotype in human malignancies. Interestingly, very few cancer types harbor mutations in DDX3, which result in altered protein function rather than a loss of function.Efficacy of drugs to curtail cancer growth is hindered by adaptive responses that promote drug resistance, eventually leading to treatment failure. One way to circumvent development of resistant disease is to develop novel drugs that target over-expressed proteins involved in this adaptive response. Moreover, if the target gene is developmentally regulated, there is less of a possibility to abruptly accumulate mutations leading to drug resistance. In this regard, DDX3 could be a druggable target for cancer treatment. We present an overview of DDX3 biology and the currently available DDX3 inhibitors for cancer treatment.

  18. Prevalence of the B Type Raf Kinase V600E Mutation in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Correlation with Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Rho, Myong Ho Kook Shin Ho; Chung, Eun Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ji Sup [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To study the prevalence of B type Raf kinase (BRAF) mutations, and to evaluate the ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features associated with thyroid cytology of indeterminate nodules. We assessed the presence or absence of BRAF mutation in 44 specimens from patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules according to two consecutive preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology procedures. In 9 specimens, the test for BRAF mutation was not possible due to scant cellularity. DNA was extracted from the atypical cells and then analyzed for the BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. The ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of the patients were characterized according to their mutation status. The BRAF V600E mutation was present in 17 (48.6%) of 35 patients with indeterminate cytology results and in 17 (54.8%) of the 31 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Twenty two of 35 cytologically indeterminate nodules had calcifications, and among them 14 cases were proven to be positive for BRAF V600E mutations. Extrathyroid extension was significantly more frequent in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation (p = 0.027), while tumor size, lympho-vascular invasion, or lymph node metastasis were not associated with the mutation. Screening for BRAF V600E mutations in conjunction with cytology may increase the diagnostic accuracy for PTC with indeterminate cytology results.

  19. Self/not self, innate immunity, danger, cancer potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    Self/not self is an important hypothesis that has guided research in immunology. It is closely connected to adaptive immunity (restricted to vertebrates) and innate immunity (found in vertebrates and invertebrates). Self/not self is now being challenged and investigators are turning to the danger hypothesis to guide and open new areas of research. Emerging information suggests that genes involved in development of cancer are present in Drosophila and C. elegans. Short life span may not preclude the presence of genes that are related to the development of cancer.

  20. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Sandra; Grigioni, Mauro; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Balzano, Simone; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS) in the hospital information system (HIS) through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT) state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD). Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  1. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Morelli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS in the hospital information system (HIS through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS. Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD. Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM, introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA, has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  2. [Oral cytology: historical development, current status, and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullmann, M; Reichert, T E; Dahse, R; von Eggeling, F; Pistner, H; Kosmehl, H; Driemel, O

    2007-01-01

    Oral cytology has aroused new interest caused by introduction of the cytobrush as a sampling device and the use of additional analytical methods. By brushing it is possible to reach deeper layers of the oral mucosa where squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) begins. The biological potential of the oral epithelial cells obtained can be evaluated by the following additional methods: computer-assisted image analysis (OralCDx), DNA cytometry, immunohistochemistry, monolayer cytology, and molecular biological analysis. All of those methods can increase sensitivity (up to 100%) and specificity (up to 100%) of oral brush biopsy. Nevertheless, there are reports that oral epithelial carcinomas were not identified. No comparative study exists allowing conclusions to be drawn about the value of the single methods. Immunocytochemistry with commercial antibodies against laminin-5 is generally available and methodologically easy. Oral brush biopsy as a non invasive diagnostic method can be useful for the early detection of oral mucosal lesions. Positive findings or progression of the lesion despite negative findings are indications to refer the patient to a specialized clinic where a surgical biopsy should be performed, followed by histopathological analysis. Histopathology remains the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of oral malignant lesions.

  3. 76 FR 51034 - Availability of Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Chemotherapy During Pregnancy; Request for Comments; Announcement of a Panel Meeting To Peer Review Draft... of the Draft NTP Monograph on Potential Developmental Effects of Cancer Chemotherapy During Pregnancy... of Cancer Chemotherapy During Pregnancy, which has been prepared by the NTP Office of...

  4. A review of potential factors relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thora Grothe; Hansen, Susan Rydahl; Wagner, Lis

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to identify characteristics that are considered to describe coping in patients with advanced cancer, as seen from a patient perspective. Based on the identified characteristics, the second aim was to identify potential factors that are relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer....

  5. BYSTANDERS, ADAPTIVE RESPONSES AND GENOMIC INSTABILITY - POTENTIAL MODIFIERS OF LOW-DOSE CANCER RESPONSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystanders, Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability -Potential Modifiers ofLow-DoseCancer Responses.There has been a concerted effort in the field of radiation biology to better understand cellularresponses that could have an impact on the estin1ation of cancer...

  6. [The value of the triad: clinical examination, mammography and needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, C; Amato, C; Di Lisi, G; Graceffa, G; Cassano, T; Salanitro, L; Bajardi, G; De Simone, G F; Barberi, G; Tomasino, R M

    1990-11-01

    Based on the authors' personal experience of the use of the triad, clinical examination, mammography and needle-aspiration cytology, in the strategic diagnosis of breast cancer, the paper emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as the sole means of obtaining an improved outcome. Using this integrated methodology the authors have obtained a specificity of 99%, sensitivity of 97.8%, and a diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value for positive tests of 98%. In conclusion, the authors affirm that the comparative interpretation of clinical examination, mammography and cytology appears to be an extremely efficacious and reliable method for the diagnosis of the nature of breast nodules.

  7. Therapeutic Potential, Challenges and Future Perspective of Cancer Stem Cells in Translational Oncology: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gaurav; Khera, Harvinder Kour; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Khare, Piush; Patidar, Rahul; Saxena, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell research is a rapidly developing field that offers effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Stem cell is a regenerative medicine associated with the replacement, repair, and restoration of injured tissue. Stem cell research is a promising field having maximum therapeutic potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the cells within the tumor that posses capacity of selfrenewal and have a root cause for the failure of traditional therapies leading to re-occurrence of cancer. CSCs have been identified in blood, breast, brain, and colon cancer. Traditional therapies target only fast growing tumor mass, but not slow-dividing cancer stem cells. It has been shown that embryonic pathways such as Wnt, Hedgehog and Notch, control self-renewal capacity and involved in cancer stem cell maintenance. Targeting of these pathways may be effective in eradicating cancer stem cells and preventing chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Targeting CSCs has become one of the most effective approaches to improve the cancer survival by eradicating the main root cause of cancer. The present review will address, in brief, the importance of cancer stem cells in targeting cancer as better and effective treatment along with a concluding outlook on the scope and challenges in the implication of cancer stem cells in translational oncology.

  8. Clinical investigation of TROP-2 as an independent biomarker and potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Yu, Hai-Zheng; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is associated with a severe demographic and economic burden worldwide. The pathogenesis of colon cancer is highly complex and involves sequential genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Despite extensive investigation, the pathogenesis of colon cancer remains to be elucidated. As the third most common type of cancer worldwide, the treatment options for colon cancer are currently limited. Human trophoblast cell‑surface marker (TROP‑2), is a cell‑surface transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by several types of epithelial carcinoma. In addition, TROP‑2 has been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis and invasiveness in solid types of tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of TROP‑2 in colon cancer tissues, and further explore the association between the expression of TROP‑2 and clinicopathological features of patients with colon cancer. The expression and localization of the TROP‑2 protein was examined using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression of TROP‑2 expression was correlated to conventional clinicopathological features of colon cancer using a χ2 test. The results revealed that TROP‑2 protein was expressed at high levels in the colon cancer tissues, which was associated with the development and pathological process of colon cancer. Therefore, TROP‑2 may be used as a biomarker to determine the clinical prognosis, and as a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  9. N-myristoyltransferase: A potential novel diagnostic marker for colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeCoteau John

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the western world. If detected early, colorectal cancer is one of the most treatable forms of cancer. Unfortunately, very few people are screened. N-myristoyltransferase (NMT catalyzes myristoylation of various proteins including oncoproteins. We have demonstrated earlier the alteration of NMT activity during the progression of colorectal cancer and established NMT as a putative therapeutic target for cancer. Methods Peripheral blood samples and bone marrow were collected from the colon cancer patients and azoxymethane induced colonic tumor rats and their controls respectively. NMT activity and expression was determined as reported earlier. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out using standard procedures. Results In this study we demonstrate for the first time altered expression and localization of NMT in the peripheral blood and bone marrow in colon cancer patients. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed weak to negative staining for NMT in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of controls, whereas strong positivity was observed in PBMC colon cancer patients. In addition, we observed that NMT was localized mostly in the nuclei of the bone marrow (BM mononuclear cells of the colon cancer patients, whereas NMT remained cytoplasmic in the control bone marrow specimens. Conclusion The strikingly different NMT expression offers the basis of a potential adjunct investigative tool for screening or diagnosis of patients at risk for or suspected of having colon cancer. Furthermore, altered localization of NMT in BM of tumor bearing hosts may serve as an added investigative tool for the diagnostic purpose.

  10. Lipin-1 regulates cancer cell phenotype and is a potential target to potentiate rapamycin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohée, Laura; Demine, Stéphane; Willems, Jérome; Arnould, Thierry; Colige, Alain C; Deroanne, Christophe F

    2015-05-10

    Lipogenesis inhibition was reported to induce apoptosis and repress proliferation of cancer cells while barely affecting normal cells. Lipins exhibit dual function as enzymes catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol and as co-transcriptional regulators. Thus, they are able to regulate lipid homeostasis at several nodal points. Here, we show that lipin-1 is up-regulated in several cancer cell lines and overexpressed in 50 % of high grade prostate cancers. The proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells, but not of non-tumorigenic cells, was repressed upon lipin-1 knock-down. Lipin-1 depletion also decreased cancer cell migration through RhoA activation. Lipin-1 silencing did not significantly affect global lipid synthesis but enhanced the cellular concentration of phosphatidic acid. In parallel, autophagy was induced while AKT and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation were repressed. We also observed a compensatory regulation between lipin-1 and lipin-2 and demonstrated that their co-silencing aggravates the phenotype induced by lipin-1 silencing alone. Most interestingly, lipin-1 depletion or lipins inhibition with propranolol sensitized cancer cells to rapamycin. These data indicate that lipin-1 controls main cellular processes involved in cancer progression and that its targeting, alone or in combination with other treatments, could open new avenues in anticancer therapy.

  11. Biomarkers for diet and cancer prevention research: potentials and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy D DAVIS; John A MILNER

    2007-01-01

    As cancer incidence is projected to increase for decades there is a need for effec-tive preventive strategies. Fortunately, evidence continues to mount that altering dietary habits is an effective and cost-efficient approach for reducing cancer risk and for modifying the biological behavior of tumors. Predictive, validated and sensitive biomarkers, including those that reliably evaluate "intake" or exposure to a specific food or bioactive component, that assess one or more specific bio-logical "effects" that are linked to cancer, and that effectively predict individual "susceptibility" as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics, are fundamental to evaluating who will benefit most from dietary interventions. These biomarkers must be readily accessible, easily and reliably assayed, and predictive of a key process(es) involved in cancer. The response to a food is determined not only by the effective concentration of the bioactive food component(s) reaching the target tissue, but also by the amount of the target requiring modification.Thus, this threshold response to foods and their components will vary from indi-vidual to individual. The key to understanding a personalized response is a greater knowledge of nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

  12. Potential for targeted therapy in prostate cancers with ERG abnormalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sean R Williamsont; Liang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Since the recent identification of recurrent gene fusions in prostate cancer between members of the ETS family of genes and transmembrane protease,serine 2 (TM PRSS2),1,2 a tremendous amount of interest has developed in the pathways through which these fusions contribute to prostatic carcinogenesis,as well as their diagnostic utility,prognostic value and therapeutic implications.

  13. Potential use of custirsen to treat prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higano CS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Celestia S Higano Department of Medicine, University of Washington, and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Over the last few years, five agents have demonstrated a survival benefit over a comparator treatment or placebo in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: sipuleucel-T (a dendritic cell immunotherapy; cabazitaxel; abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide (both hormonal agents; and radium 223 (an alpha emitter. The development of these agents pivoted on whether patients had been treated with docetaxel, which remains the first-line chemotherapy of choice. To date, no combination of docetaxel and another active agent has demonstrated superiority to docetaxel alone despite numerous Phase III trials. Clusterin is a cytoprotective chaperone protein that is upregulated in response to various anticancer therapies. When overexpressed, clusterin interferes with apoptotic signaling, thereby promoting cell survival and conferring broad-spectrum resistance in cancer cell lines. Custirsen (OGX-011 is a second-generation 2´-methoxyethyl modified phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide that inhibits expression of clusterin. This review presents the preclinical and clinical data that provided the rationale for the combination of custirsen with chemotherapy in ongoing Phase III trials. Keywords: castration-resistant prostate cancer, clusterin, custirsen, OGX-011, antisense, OGX-427, apoptosis

  14. UNRECOGNIZED OR POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS FOR CHILDHOOD CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional epidemiological studies suggest that the contribution of environmental agents to childhood cancer may be minor. However, epidemiological methods can only seldom identify causal factors associated with a relative risk of less than a factor of one and a half to two. App...

  15. Epigenetic potential of resveratrol and analogs in preclinical models of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is affected by lifestyle, particularly diet. Dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol possess anticancer properties and, therefore, chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials. Resveratrol has pleiotropic effect exerting its biological activity through multiple pathways and targets ass...

  16. Expanding the Playing Field: Immune-Based Therapy Shows Potential for Lung, Other Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from two early-phase clinical trials presented at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting provide further evidence that priming the immune system to attack tumors has potential as a treatment for certain cancers.

  17. Time for evidence-based cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed.

  18. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  19. Fine needle aspiration cytology in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory diagnosis of leprosy by slit skin smear and skin biopsy is simple but both techniques have their own limitations. Slit skin smear is negative in paucibacillary cases whereas skin biopsy is an invasive technique. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from skin lesions in leprosy with subsequent staining with May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG stain has been found useful. Aim: To evaluate the possible role of cytology in classifying leprosy patients. Methods: Seventy-five untreated cases of leprosy attending the outpatient department were evaluated. Smears were taken from their skin lesions and stained using the MGG technique. Skin biopsy was also done from the lesions, which was compared with cytology smears. Results: A correlation of clinical features with FNAC was noticed in 87.5% of TT, 92.1% of BT, 81% of BL, and 66% of LL cases. Correlation of clinical with histopathological diagnoses revealed 12.5% specificity in TT leprosy, 55.3% in BT, 52.4% in BL and 50% in LL, and 100% in neuritic and histoid leprosy cases. Both correlations were found to be statistically significant by paired t test analysis. Thus, it was possible to distinguish the tuberculoid types by the presence of epithelioid cells and the lepromatous types by the presence of lymphocytes and foamy macrophages. Conclusion: FNAC may be used to categorize the patients into paucibacillary and multibacillary types, but is not a very sensitive tool to classify the patients across the Ridley-Jopling spectrum.

  20. Sweet-P inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor β as a potential cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nwaneri, Assumpta C.; McBeth, Lucien; Hinds, Terry D.

    2016-01-01

    The need for the development of new cancer therapies and push for the design of new targeting techniques is on the rise, and would be useful for cancers that are resistant to current drug treatments. The understanding of the genome has significantly advanced cancer therapy, as well as prevention and earlier detection. This research highlight discusses a potential new type of cancer-targeting molecule, Sweet-P, which is the first of its kind. Sweet-P specifically targets the microRNA-144 bindi...

  1. ROS generation via NOX4 and its utility in the cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kiyohide

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS production via NADPH oxidase (NOX contributes to various types of cancer progression. In the present research, we examined the pathobiological role of NADPH oxidase (NOX4-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in urothelial carcinoma (UC of the urinary bladder, and demonstrated the utility of ROS labeling in urine cytology. Methods NOX4 gene was silenced in vivo and in vitro by NOX4 siRNA transfection with or without atlocollagen. Cell cycle and measurement of ROS were analyzed by flowcytometry. Orthotopic implantation animal model was used in vivo experiment. NOX4 expression in urothelial carcinoma cells was observed by immunohistochemical analysis using surgical specimens of human bladder cancer. Urine cytology was performed after treatment with ROS detection reagents in addition to Papanicolaou staining. Results NOX4 was overexpressed in several UC cell lines and the NOX inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium reduced intracellular ROS and induced p16-dependent cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Moreover, silencing of NOX4 by siRNA significantly reduced cancer cell growth in vivo as assessed in an orthotopic mouse model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated high expression of NOX4 in low grade/non-invasive and high grade/invasive UC including precancerous lesions such as dysplasia but not in normal urothelium. Then, we assessed the usefulness of cytological analysis of ROS producing cells in urine (ROS-C. Urine samples obtained from UC cases and normal controls were treated with fluorescent reagents labeling the hydrogen peroxide/superoxide anion and cytological atypia of ROS positive cells were analyzed. As a result, the sensitivity for detection of low grade, non-invasive UC was greatly increased (35% in conventional cytology (C-C vs. 75% in ROS-C, and the specificity was 95%. Through ROS-C, we observed robust improvement in the accuracy of follow-up urine cytology for cases with previously

  2. Clinical Application of Liquid-based Cytology, HPV-DNA or Colposcopy in Cervical Cancer Screening%液基细胞、HPV检测与阴道镜宫颈癌的筛查方面的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芳艳; 金志红; 刘国华; 杨金艳; 王艳芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnosis value of liquid-based cytology, HPV-DNA and colposcopy in early diagnosis of cervical cancer. Methods: 92 cases were retrospectively studied which liquid-based cytology were diagnosed as typical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS). All these patients were taken human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA detection, colposcopy and biopsies were taken. The results of the different tests were compared with the pathological examination of biopsy for further analysis. Results: The pathological and histological examination of biopsy was set as the standards, and all the results from other test were compared with them. Colposcopy had highest sensitivity in 3 methods (P<0.05), and plays an important role in screening of cervical lesions. The infection rate of HR-HPV increased significantly along with the increase of cervical lesion severity, there were obvious differences between ASCUS and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) (P<0.05). With the grade of biopsy increased, the incidence of positive rate increased in all three methods. The detection rate of CIN and cervical cancer in ASCUS patients were more commonly in the stage of age between 30 and 50. Conclusion: Liquid base cervical cytological examination (LCT) was a good method with higher detection rate for early detection of higher cervical lesions. High-risk type HPV-DNA testing and Colposcopy could reduce the omission diagnose rate and improve the diagnostic accuracy. The cervical lesion screening of women over 30 year-old should cause much attention, especially for the women of 30-50 years old.%目的:探讨液基薄层细胞学检查、HPV-DNA检测、阴道镜检查在宫颈癌早期诊断中的临床应用价值.方法:回顾性分析92例宫颈液基薄层细胞学检查未能明确诊断意义的宫颈非典型鳞状细胞病变患者,进行HPV-DNA检测与阴道镜检查,将检测的结果进行对比研究.结果:阴道镜与宫颈液基薄层细胞检查(TCT)

  3. Role of Liquid-based Cytology and Cell Block in the Diagnosis of Endometrial Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhang; Jia Wen; Pi-Li Xu; Rui Chen; Xi Yang; Lian-Er Zhou; Ping Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Liquid-based cytology (LBC) offers an altemative method to biopsy in screening endometrial cancer.Cell block (CB),prepared by collecting residual cytological specimen,represents a novel method to supplement the diagnosis of endometrial cytology.This study aimed to compare the specimen adequacy and diagnostic accuracy of LBC and CB in the diagnosis of endometrial lesions.Methods:A total of 198 women with high risks of endometrial carcinoma (EC) from May 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled in this study.The cytological specimens were collected by the endometrial sampler (SAP-1) followed by histopathologic evaluation of dilatation and curettage or biopsy guided by hysteroscopy.The residual cytological specimens were processed into paraffin-embedded CB after LBC preparation.Diagnostic accuracies of LBC and CB for detecting endometrial lesions were correlated with histological diagnoses.Chi-square test was used to compare the specimen adequacies of LBC and CB.Results:The specimen inadequate rate of CB was significantly higher than that of LBC (22.2% versus 7.1%,P < 0.01).There were 144 cases with adequate specimens for LBC and CB preparation.Among them,29 cases were atypical endometrial hyperplasia (11 cases) or carcinoma (18 cases) confirmed by histology evaluation.Taking atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma as positive,the diagnostic accuracy of CB was 95.1% while it was 93.8% in LBC.When combined LBC with CB,the diagnostic accuracy was improved to 95.8%,with a sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity of 97.4%.Conclusions:CB is a feasible and reproducible adjuvant method for screening endometrial lesions.A combination of CB and LBC can improve the diagnostic accuracy of endometrial lesions.

  4. The Impact of Pleural Lavage Cytology Before and After Resection on Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Ozkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Regardless of pleural effusion, presence of tumor in pleural cavity indicates presence of more aggressive tumor. In this study, we analysed positive tumor results in preoperative pleural lavage in operable malignant cases with no pleural fluid according to the mass and mediastinal lymph node characteristics. Material and Method: Pleural lavage before preoperative dissection and after resection was performed on 199 cases that underwent surgery for non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Findings of lavage were statistically evaluated based on gender, lesion shape and size, lymph node involvement in positron emission tomography- computed tomography (PET-CT, SUV-max value of lesion, localisation of the lesion, N1 and N2 metastases, local invasion findings, histopathological type of tumor and type of resection. Results: Cases included in this study were followed for four years. Ten of the cases (5% had tumor recurrence and 12 of them (6% had distant organ metastasis. In multivariable analysis, significant correlation was found between the first positive pleural lavage cytology and postoperative distant organ metastasis; the last pleural lavage cytology and tumor recurrence; postoperative distant organ metastasis and lymph node metastasis and the first positive lavage cytology; tumor recurrence and PET-CT lymph node uptake, lymph node metastasis and the last positive pleural lavage cytology. Discussion: Recently there has been an increase in studies on pleural lavage analysis and there is a need for standardization in lavage timing and sampling. We hope that positive lavage cytology, like malign effusion, will be accepted as a prognostic factor in staging as more studies based on wider series are conducted.

  5. Values of mutations of K-ras oncogene at codon 12 in detection of pancreatic cancer:15-year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Qing Mu; You-Shu Peng; Qiao-Jian Xu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To summarize progress in the study of K-ras gene studies in pancreatic cancer and its potential clinical significance in screening test for early detection of pancreatic cancer, and to differentiate pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis in recent decade.METHODS: Literature search (MEDLINE 1986-2003) was performed using the key words K-ras gene, pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and diagnosis. Two kind of opposite points of view on the significance of K-ras gene in detection early pancreatic cancer and differentiation pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis were investigated.The presence of a K-ras gene mutation at codon 12 has been seen in 75-100% of pancreatic cancers, and is not rare in patients with chronic pancreatitis, and represents an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. However, the significance of the detection of this mutation in specimens obtained by needle aspiration from pure pancreatic juice and from stools for its utilization for the detection of early pancreatic cancer, and differentiation pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis remains controversial. CONCLUSION: The value of K-ras gene mutation for the detection of early pancreatic cancer and differentiation pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis remains uncertains in clinical pratice. Nevertheless, K-ras mutation screening may increase the sensitivity of FNA and ERP cytology and may be useful in identifying pancreatitis patients at high risk for developing cancer, and as a adjunct with cytology to differentiate pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis.

  6. Estimation of cancer risks and benefits associated with a potential increased consumption of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Richard; Johnston, Jason; Tucker, Kevin; DeSesso, John M; Keen, Carl L

    2012-12-01

    The current paper provides an analysis of the potential number of cancer cases that might be prevented if half the U.S. population increased its fruit and vegetable consumption by one serving each per day. This number is contrasted with an upper-bound estimate of concomitant cancer cases that might be theoretically attributed to the intake of pesticide residues arising from the same additional fruit and vegetable consumption. The cancer prevention estimates were derived using a published meta-analysis of nutritional epidemiology studies. The cancer risks were estimated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methods, cancer potency estimates from rodent bioassays, and pesticide residue sampling data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The resulting estimates are that approximately 20,000 cancer cases per year could be prevented by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, while up to 10 cancer cases per year could be caused by the added pesticide consumption. These estimates have significant uncertainties (e.g., potential residual confounding in the fruit and vegetable epidemiologic studies and reliance on rodent bioassays for cancer risk). However, the overwhelming difference between benefit and risk estimates provides confidence that consumers should not be concerned about cancer risks from consuming conventionally-grown fruits and vegetables.

  7. Repeating cytological preparations on liquid-based cytology samples: A methodological advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alvaro P; Maia, Henrique Felde; di Loretto, Celso; Krunn, Patrícia; Túlio, Siumara; Collaço, Luis Martins

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the rule that repeating cytological preparations on liquid-based cytology improves sample adequacy, diagnosis, microbiological, and hormonal evaluations. We reviewed 156 cases of pap-stained preparations of exfoliated cervical cells in two slides processed by DNA-Cytoliq System. After sample repeat/dilution, limiting factors affecting sample adequacy were removed in nine cases and three unsatisfactory cases were reclassified as satisfactory. Diagnosis was altered in 24 cases. Of these, the original diagnosis in 15 was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance; after the second slide examination, diagnosis in 5 of the 15 cases changed to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 3 to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 7 to absence of lesion. Microbiological evaluation was altered, with Candida sp. detected in two repeated slides. Repeat slide preparation or dilution of residual samples enhances cytological diagnosis and decreases effects of limiting factors in manually processed DIGENE DCS LBC.

  8. The status of cervical cytology in Swaziland, Southern Africa: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonda Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer of the cervix is the most common cancer in women in Swaziland where most women never undergo cervical screening. The extremely high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland complicates the management of preinvasive and invasive cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of cervical cytology in Swaziland, its strengths and limitations. Methods: The study is a retrospective review of 12,188 conventional cervical smears received by the Central Public Health Laboratory in Swaziland from June 2004 to May 2006. Results: Review of results showed very high rates of cytologic abnormalities with 43.2% of smears screened reported as abnormal. The percentages of abnormalities were as follows: atypical squamous cells of undermined significance (ASC-US, 19.8%; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude HSILs (ASC-H, 8.8%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, 9.0%; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL, 4.6%; squamous cell carcinomas, 0.5%; atypical endocervical cells, 0.6%; and atypical endometrial cells, 0.4%. Just over 5% of smears were inadequate. The highest rates of HSILs and invasive squamous carcinoma occurred in women aged 50-59 years. Conclusions: This study underscores the need to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions in Swaziland women. Based on studies of human papillomavirus (HPV types in other Southern African countries, current HPV vaccines would reduce the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer in the future, but cervical screening would still be required, both for women already infected with the HPV and for HPV subtypes not covered by current vaccines. The most cost-effective combination of screening modalities such as visual inspection, HPV DNA testing, and cytology should be investigated. Cervical cancer reduction needs to be managed within the greater framework of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  9. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV and its relation with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrees Muhammad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, teenage pregnancies, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, having multiple sex partners, hormone replacement therapies and various other unknown factors lead to the onset of the disease. Awareness for various diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears screening prove to be an effective way in eradicating the oncogenic potential of HPV.

  10. Survivin: Potential role in diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Ting Wang; Xiao-Ping Qian; Bao-Rui Liu

    2007-01-01

    Survivin is a protein that is highly expressed in a vast number of malignancies, but is minimally expressed in normal tissues. It plays a role as an inhibitor of cell death in cancer cells, thus facilitating the growth of these cells.Tn the case of gastric cancer, survivin is over-expressed in tumor cells and plays a role in the carcinogenesis process. Several studies on gastric cancer have indicated that there is a relationship between survivin expression and the ultimate behavior of the carcinoma. Since the expression pattern of survivin is selective to cancer cells,it has been described as an "ideal target" for cancer therapy. Currently, several pre-clinical and clinical trials are on-going to investigate the effects of interfering with survivin function in cancer cells as a biologic therapy. Survivin is a potentially significant protein in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of gastric tumors.

  11. The Immunoregulatory Potential of Particle Radiation in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Daniel K.; Tinganelli, Walter; Helm, Alexander; Bisio, Alessandra; Yamada, Shigeru; Kamada, Tadashi; Shimokawa, Takashi; Durante, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Cancer treatment, today, consists of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and most recently immunotherapy. Combination immunotherapy-radiotherapy (CIR) has experienced a surge in public attention due to numerous clinical publications outlining the reduction or elimination of metastatic disease, following treatment with specifically ipilimumab and radiotherapy. The mechanism behind CIR, however, remains unclear, though it is hypothesized that radiation transforms the tumor into an in situ vaccine which immunotherapy modulates into a larger immune response. To date, the majority of attention has focused on rotating out immunotherapeutics with conventional radiation; however, the unique biological and physical benefits of particle irradiation may prove superior in generation of systemic effect. Here, we review recent advances in CIR, with a particular focus on the usage of charged particles to induce or enhance response to cancerous disease. PMID:28220126

  12. Tzanck Cytology in Diagnosis of Autoimmune Bullous Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Durdu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tzanck smear test is a simple, rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive diagnostic method based on the investigation of characteristics of individual cells. For diagnosis of cutaneous diseases, cytology was first used by Arnault Tzanck in 1947. After this date, Tzanck cytology has been used in the diagnosis of various erosive-vesiculobullous, nodular, and tumoral skin lesions. In daily dermatology practice, the most common use areas of cytology are diagnosis of herpetic infections, cutaneous leishmaniasis, leprosy, and autoimmune bullous diseases. The purpose of cytology in autoimmune bullous diseases is to rapidly distinguish pemphigus from subepidermal bullous disease. In this review article, taking and staining methods of cytologic specimen for the diagnosis of autoimmune bullous diseases, and the cytologic findings have been reviewed.

  13. Outcomes in cervical screening using various cytology technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Sidsel S; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2013-01-01

    signed out as normal, (3) liquid-based cytology (LBC) with 50% automatically signed out as normal, (4) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal, and (5) LBC with 25% automatically signed out as normal and with 16 preselected areas for attention in manual reading. We calculated proportion......Unlike for human papillomavirus screening, little is known about the possible age-dependent variation in the outcomes of cervical cytology screening. The aim of our study was to describe age-related outcomes of five cytological technologies in a population-based screening program targeting women...... aged 23-59 years. All cervical cytology from women residing in Copenhagen has been analyzed in the laboratory of the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre University Hospital. We studied five technology phases: (1) conventional cytology with manual reading, (2) conventional cytology with 50% automatically...

  14. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, A; Bailey, A; Almonte, M; Turner, A; Thomson, C; Peto, J; Desai, M; Mather, J; Moss, S; Roberts, C; Kitchener, H C

    2008-05-20

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24,510 women (age range: 20-64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women.

  15. Cancer vaccines: harnessing the potential of anti-tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckow, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Although the presence of cancer suggests failure of the immune system to protect against development of tumors, the possibility that immunity can be redirected and focused to generate an anti-tumor response offers great translational possibility. The key to this is identifying antigens likely to be present in any given tumor and functionally critical to tumor survival and growth. Such tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are varied and optimally should be absent from normal tissue. Of particular interest are TAAs associated with the tumor stroma, as immunity directed against the stroma may restrict the ability of the tumor to grow and metastasize. Important to directing the immune system toward an effect anti-tumor response is the understanding of how TAAs are processed and how the tumor is able to evade immune elimination. The process of immunoediting happens in response to the selective pressure that the immune system places upon tumor cell populations and allows for emergence of tumor cells capable of escaping immune destruction. Efforts to harness the immune system for clinical application has been aided by vaccines based on purified recombinant protein or nucleic acid TAAs. For example, a vaccine for canine melanoma has been developed and approved based on immunization with DNA components of tyrosinase, a glycoprotein essential to melanin synthesis. The performance of cancer vaccines has been aided in some cases when supplemented with immunostimulatory molecules such as interleukin 2 or a novel extracellular matrix vaccine adjuvant. Vaccines with the broadest menu of antigenic targets may be those most likely to succeed against cancer. For this reason, tissue vaccines produced from harvested tumor material may offer significant benefit. With several cancer vaccines on the veterinary and human markets, efforts to understand basic tumor immunology are soon to yield great dividends.

  16. Blue-Print Autophagy: Potential for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ruocco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment represents a very rich source of biologically active compounds with pharmacological applications. This is due to its chemical richness, which is claiming considerable attention from the health science communities. In this review we give a general overview on the marine natural products involved in stimulation and inhibition of autophagy (a type of programmed cell death linked to pharmacological and pathological conditions. Autophagy represents a complex multistep cellular process, wherein a double membrane vesicle (the autophagosome captures organelles and proteins and delivers them to the lysosome. This natural and destructive mechanism allows the cells to degrade and recycle its cellular components, such as amino acids, monosaccharides, and lipids. Autophagy is an important mechanism used by cells to clear pathogenic organism and deal with stresses. Therefore, it has also been implicated in several diseases, predominantly in cancer. In fact, pharmacological stimulation or inhibition of autophagy have been proposed as approaches to develop new therapeutic treatments of cancers. In conclusion, this blue-print autophagy (so defined because it is induced and/or inhibited by marine natural products represents a new strategy for the future of biomedicine and of biotechnology in cancer treatment.

  17. Blue-Print Autophagy: Potential for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Susan; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-21

    The marine environment represents a very rich source of biologically active compounds with pharmacological applications. This is due to its chemical richness, which is claiming considerable attention from the health science communities. In this review we give a general overview on the marine natural products involved in stimulation and inhibition of autophagy (a type of programmed cell death) linked to pharmacological and pathological conditions. Autophagy represents a complex multistep cellular process, wherein a double membrane vesicle (the autophagosome) captures organelles and proteins and delivers them to the lysosome. This natural and destructive mechanism allows the cells to degrade and recycle its cellular components, such as amino acids, monosaccharides, and lipids. Autophagy is an important mechanism used by cells to clear pathogenic organism and deal with stresses. Therefore, it has also been implicated in several diseases, predominantly in cancer. In fact, pharmacological stimulation or inhibition of autophagy have been proposed as approaches to develop new therapeutic treatments of cancers. In conclusion, this blue-print autophagy (so defined because it is induced and/or inhibited by marine natural products) represents a new strategy for the future of biomedicine and of biotechnology in cancer treatment.

  18. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  19. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  20. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique...

  1. The LTS liquid based cytology producer joint residue fluid HPV 16/18 in early cervical cancer screening test application value%LTS液基细胞学联合HPV16/18检测筛查早期宫颈癌的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰淼; 李艳红; 朱少君; 巩丽; 韩秀娟; 任拼; 姚丽; 张伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective > Explore the LTS liquid based cytology producer joint liquid based residual liquid HPV16/18 cervical cancer screening lesion before value of clinical application. Method t Using the LTS liquid based cells producer method to detect 1000 cases of patients with the mouth and obstetrics and gynecology cervical neck tube exfoliated cells and discharge,the remaining liquid based cells remain fluid HPV16/18 immune markmethod to detect. HPV16/18 positive and highly suspected patients with cervical lesions vaginal microscopically more biopsy, combined with the pathologic result analysis cervical lesions. Results: 1000 cases of sample analysis by the LTS detection in 870, 24 cases of ASCUS ASCUS-H 26 cases, LSIL 61 cases, H SIL 19 cases. 130 cases of vaginal cytology unusual person under mirror more tissue biopsies confirmed 71 cases of inflammatory, CINI18 example, CINII 21 example, CINIII 13 cases, invasive cancer in 3, 4 cases were wet wart. Immune markmethod to detect DNA found HPV16/18 infection rates for: normal or inflammation respectively 21. 1%, CINI16. 7 %, CINII 33. 3%, CINIII 69.2%, invasive cancer, wet wart 40.0% 100%. 65 cases of normal, HPV16/18 LTS positive patients with pathological test showed that inflammation 51 cases, CINI (19 cases), CINII5 cases. The LTS normal or inflammation and HPV16/18 positive patients with cervical lesions, the detection rate of 21. 5%. Conclusion: Liquid based cytology producer joint liquid based residual liquid HPV16 /18 cells detection can add cytology results, the screening early cer ical cancer to have the important meaning.%目的:探讨LTS液基细胞学联合液基细胞残留液HPV16/18检测筛查宫颈癌前病变的临床应用价值.方法:采用LTS液基细胞制片法检测1000例患者宫颈外口及颈管脱落细胞和分泌物,将剩余液基细胞残留液进行HPV16/18免疫印记法检测.HPV16/18阳性且高度怀疑宫颈病变患者进行阴道镜下多点活检,结合病理

  2. Molecular typing of lung adenocarcinoma on cytological samples using a multigene next generation sequencing panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Scarpa

    Full Text Available Identification of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to development of targeted agents that are already approved for clinical use or are in clinical trials. Therefore, the number of biomarkers that will be needed to assess is expected to rapidly increase. This calls for the implementation of methods probing the mutational status of multiple genes for inoperable cases, for which limited cytological or bioptic material is available. Cytology specimens from 38 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the simultaneous assessment of 504 mutational hotspots of 22 lung cancer-associated genes using 10 nanograms of DNA and Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. Thirty-six cases were successfully sequenced (95%. In 24/36 cases (67% at least one mutated gene was observed, including EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, TP53, PTEN, MET, SMAD4, FGFR3, STK11, MAP2K1. EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively found in 6/36 (16% and 10/36 (28% cases, were mutually exclusive. Nine samples (25% showed concurrent alterations in different genes. The next-generation sequencing test used is superior to current standard methodologies, as it interrogates multiple genes and requires limited amounts of DNA. Its applicability to routine cytology samples might allow a significant increase in the fraction of lung cancer patients eligible for personalized therapy.

  3. Molecular Typing of Lung Adenocarcinoma on Cytological Samples Using a Multigene Next Generation Sequencing Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassan, Matteo; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; Cappellesso, Rocco; Antonello, Davide; Amato, Eliana; Mafficini, Andrea; Lambiase, Matilde; Esposito, Claudia; Bria, Emilio; Simonato, Francesca; Scardoni, Maria; Turri, Giona; Chilosi, Marco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fassina, Ambrogio; Normanno, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Identification of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to development of targeted agents that are already approved for clinical use or are in clinical trials. Therefore, the number of biomarkers that will be needed to assess is expected to rapidly increase. This calls for the implementation of methods probing the mutational status of multiple genes for inoperable cases, for which limited cytological or bioptic material is available. Cytology specimens from 38 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the simultaneous assessment of 504 mutational hotspots of 22 lung cancer-associated genes using 10 nanograms of DNA and Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. Thirty-six cases were successfully sequenced (95%). In 24/36 cases (67%) at least one mutated gene was observed, including EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, TP53, PTEN, MET, SMAD4, FGFR3, STK11, MAP2K1. EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively found in 6/36 (16%) and 10/36 (28%) cases, were mutually exclusive. Nine samples (25%) showed concurrent alterations in different genes. The next-generation sequencing test used is superior to current standard methodologies, as it interrogates multiple genes and requires limited amounts of DNA. Its applicability to routine cytology samples might allow a significant increase in the fraction of lung cancer patients eligible for personalized therapy. PMID:24236184

  4. Automatic recognition of abnormal cells in cytological tests using multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertych, A.; Galliano, G.; Bose, S.; Farkas, D. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic disease-related death worldwide, but is almost completely preventable with regular screening, for which cytological testing is a method of choice. Although such testing has radically lowered the death rate from cervical cancer, it is plagued by low sensitivity and inter-observer variability. Moreover, its effectiveness is still restricted because the recognition of shape and morphology of nuclei is compromised by overlapping and clumped cells. Multispectral imaging can aid enhanced morphological characterization of cytological specimens. Features including spectral intensity and texture, reflecting relevant morphological differences between normal and abnormal cells, can be derived from cytopathology images and utilized in a detection/classification scheme. Our automated processing of multispectral image cubes yields nuclear objects which are subjected to classification facilitated by a library of spectral signatures obtained from normal and abnormal cells, as marked by experts. Clumps are processed separately with reduced set of signatures. Implementation of this method yields high rate of successful detection and classification of nuclei into predefined malignant and premalignant types and correlates well with those obtained by an expert. Our multispectral approach may have an impact on the diagnostic workflow of cytological tests. Abnormal cells can be automatically highlighted and quantified, thus objectivity and performance of the reading can be improved in a way which is currently unavailable in clinical setting.

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytology of thymic carcinoid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Y; Kuo, S H; Chang, D B; Yang, P C; Lee, Y C; Hsu, H C; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors of the thymus are very rare, and their cytologic findings have not been reported previously in English. Retrospective study of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features in four histopathologically verified thymic carcinoid tumors are described here in detail. The FNA cytology of thymic carcinoids is characterized by predominantly single and some loose clusters of small, round to oval cells with scanty cytoplasm, interspersed with some larger cells with moderate to abundant, granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis of the cytologic features between carcinoid tumor and other mediastinal tumors is also discussed.

  6. The virtual slide in the promotion of cytologic and hystologic quality in oncologic screenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrigo Bondi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A regional experience environment in virtual microscopy and digital pathology comprehending the digital cytology is presented. The project has been conducted in Emilia-Romagna and it has been planned for the promotion and the quality assessment in screening cytology and histology for the prevention of the tumors of uterine cervix, breast and colon-rectum cancers. During the project it has been envisaged the design of a dedicated picture archive and communication system (PACS for cooperative diagnosis, didactics and training, teleconsulting, documentation of rare cases and pilot experiences; furthermore selected cases are catalogued in the PACS with the aim of the check of the diagnostic concordance in the oncologic screening.

  7. Role of human papillomavirus testing and cytology in follow-up after conization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Huusom, Lene D; Deltour, Isabelle;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adequate follow-up of women who have undergone conization for high-grade cervical lesions is crucial in cervical cancer screening programs. We evaluated the performance of testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, cytology alone, and combined testing in predicting cervical...... after conization is more sensitive than ASCUS+ cytology for identifying women at risk for relapse of CIN2+ within 2 years. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether HPV testing could be a stand-alone test in follow up after conization....... detection of high-risk HPV. The women were passively followed until 2 years after first follow-up visit by linkage to the nationwide Pathology Data Bank. RESULTS: At first visit after conization (median time, 3.4 months), 20.4% were HPV-positive and 17.2% had atypical squamous intraepithelial lesions...

  8. Cytological detection of atypical cells by routine urinalysis in a cardiovascular center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwa, N; Yutani, C; Irie, A; Katayama, Y

    1991-01-01

    During the past 9 yr, 187,529 Sternheimer-Malbin-stained urinary sediments were examined as routine urinalysis specimens from patients attending the National Cardiovascular Center in Osaka, Japan. Abnormal cells were found in 20 patients who did not have clinical diagnoses of malignancy. Malignant cytological changes in 18 patients resulted in a rate of 1 case in 6,751 patients; the two remaining specimens with abnormal cells showed polyomavirus infection. This article describes our experience in the diagnosis of malignant cells of the urinary tract through the cooperation of the clinical and cytological laboratories. Since in Japan, the rate of death for bladder cancer is similar to 1 in 6,751, this method seems to be of great use in the diagnosis of urinary tract malignancies.

  9. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY OF RETROPERITONEAL GANGLIONEUROBLASTOMA – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ganglioneuroblastoma is an uncommon peripheral neurob lastic tumor. They have intermediate malignant potential, in between that of neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas. Histologically, they are considered to have interme diate malignant potential because they contain primitive neuroblasts along with mature gang lion cells. In literature, reports of this entity being diagnosed by fine needle aspiration and its cytological appearance are scarce. KEY WORDS: Ganglioneuroblastoma, FNA, Neuroblastoma

  10. 液基薄层细胞学检查与阴道镜活检在宫颈癌诊断中的应用对比研究%Application of liquid based thin-layer cytology and colposcopy biopsy in the diagnosis of cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继勋; 熊娟

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨液基薄层细胞学检查与阴道镜活检在宫颈癌诊断中的临床诊断效果。方法:选取2013年4月至2014年4月在我院妇科门诊接受宫颈癌筛查的1434患者为研究对象,对采取宫颈液基薄层细胞学检查(TCT)后结果呈阳性的202例患者行阴道镜下宫颈活检,对比诊断结果。结果:参与本次宫颈癌筛查的1434患者中,病理检验正常或炎症者1200例,阴性率为837%,检测结果呈阳性者234例,阳性率为163%;TCT检查结果呈阳性的患者202例,阳性检出率为863%,其中诊断结果为ASC-US、LSIL、HSIL或SCC者分别125例(619%)、53例(262%)、20例(99%)和4例(20%),两组检测方法对比无明显差异,P>005;阴道镜下活检结果与TCT检查结果相符率分别为SCC25%(1/4)、HSIL60%(12/20)、LSIL66%(35/53);ASC-US结果中,阴道镜下活检CINⅠ48例、CINⅡ7例、CINⅢ3例,共58例,占例数的464%。结论:液基薄层细胞学检查能有效提升宫颈癌及宫颈上皮内病变(CIN)等癌前病变检出率,对宫颈癌早期诊断意义重大。对于TCT检查结果为无明确意义的非典型细胞改变(ASC-US)患者,应引起临床重视,根据患者病情行阴道镜检查,以提升宫颈癌及癌前病变诊断准确率,争取宝贵的治疗时间。%Objectives:To investigate the diagnostic effect of liquid thin -layer cytology and colposcopy bi-opsy in the diagnosis of cervical cancer.Method:1434 patients received cervical cancer screening selection from A-pril 2013 -April 2014 in outpatient of gynaecology in our hospital were selected as the research objects.202 pa-tients with a positive result of cervical liquid thin -layer cytology (TCT)received cervical biopsy under colposcopy to compare the diagnosis results.Results:Among the 1434 patients received cervical cancer screening,there were 1200

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus genotypes in cytologic abnormalities from unvaccinated women living in north-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Motta, Ana Pastora; Ordóñez, José Luis; González-Celador, Rafael; Rivas, Belen; Macías, María Del Carmen García; Bullón, Agustín; Abad, María Del Mar

    2011-03-01

    Cervical cancer and its precursors low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular HPV 16 and 18. The distribution of the HPV genotype varies with the severity of cervical disease, age and the geographic location of the patients. We report the results of a population study carried out in a region of north-western (NW) Spain aimed at determining the prevalence of single and multiple infections by 35 types of HPV using low-density microarrays for 113 cases with negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancies; 588 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS)/LSIL; 183 with HSIL; and seven cases of squamous cell carcinomas. Of the 891 patients analysed, 50.2% had single infections and 49.8% had multiple HPV infections. In women aged below 30 years, there was a predominance of multiple infections (p = 0.027). ASCUS/LSIL was associated with multiple and HSIL with single infections (p = 0.025). We observed significant increases in the percentage of infections due to a high-risk (HR) type of HPV when the severity of the cytological lesion increased (p = 0.001). No relationship was found between greater aggressiveness in the cytological diagnosis and a higher number of HPV types involved in multiple infections. The five most frequent genotypes were HPV 16 (26.3%), 53 (18.2%), 51 (17.3%), 6 (14.8%) and 66 (13.1%). The prevalence of HPV 16, 33 and 58 increased significantly from ACUS/LSIL to HSIL and the prevalence of HPV 51, 53 and 66 decreased. HPV 16 was the only genotype that showed a significant increase in prevalence when the severity of the cytological disease increased in single infections (p = 0.0001). The implementation of bivalent prophylactic vaccination could potentially lead to prevention in 32% of the population included in the study - in at least a quarter of patients with ACUS/LSIL (26.7%), and in half

  12. Sugar-borate esters--potential chemical agents in prostate cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorei, Romulus Ion; Popa, Radu

    2013-07-01

    The potential value of sugar-borate esters (SBEs) in the chemo-preventive therapy of prostate cancer has been reviewed. We propose that SBEs act as boron (B) vehicles, increasing the concentration of borate inside cancer cells relative to normal cells. Increased intracellular concentration of borate activates borate transporters, but also leads to growth inhibition and apoptosis. The effects of SBEs on normal cells are less dramatic because SBEs are naturally-occurring biochemicals, common and abundant in some fruits and vegetables, and also because borate dissociated from SBEs in natural diet doses is easily exported from normal cells. Cancer cell lines that over-express sugar transporters or under-express borate export are potential targets for SBE-based therapy. With regard to efficiency against cancer cells and drug preparation requirements, trigonal cis-diol boric monoesters will be one of the most effective class of SBEs. Because negative correlation exists between borate intake and the incidence of prostate cancer, and because most cancer cells overexpress sugar transporters, SBEs are proposed as a potential chemopreventive avenue in the fight against primary and recurrent prostate cancer.

  13. The p53 Isoform Δ133p53β Promotes Cancer Stem Cell Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Arsic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSC are responsible for cancer chemoresistance and metastasis formation. Here we report that Δ133p53β, a TP53 splice variant, enhanced cancer cell stemness in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, while its depletion reduced it. Δ133p53β stimulated the expression of the key pluripotency factors SOX2, OCT3/4, and NANOG. Similarly, in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, aggressiveness was coupled with enhanced CSC potential and Δ133p53β expression. Like in MCF-7 cells, SOX2, OCT3/4, and NANOG expression were positively regulated by Δ133p53β in these cells. Finally, treatment of MCF-7 cells with etoposide, a cytotoxic anti-cancer drug, increased CSC formation and SOX2, OCT3/4, and NANOG expression via Δ133p53, thus potentially increasing the risk of cancer recurrence. Our findings show that Δ133p53β supports CSC potential. Moreover, they indicate that the TP53 gene, which is considered a major tumor suppressor gene, also acts as an oncogene via the Δ133p53β isoform.

  14. Trichostatin A Enhances the Apoptotic Potential of Palladium Nanoparticles in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer ranks seventh overall among all types of cancer in women. Although several treatments, including radiation, surgery and chemotherapy, are available to eradicate or reduce the size of cancer, many cancers eventually relapse. Thus, it is essential to identify possible alternative therapeutic approaches for cancer. We sought to identify alternative and effective therapeutic approaches, by first synthesizing palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs, using a novel biomolecule called saponin. The synthesized PdNPs were characterized by several analytical techniques. They were significantly spherical in shape, with an average size of 5 nm. Recently, PdNPs gained much interest in various therapies of cancer cells. Similarly, histone deacetylase inhibitors are known to play a vital role in anti-proliferative activity, gene expression, cell cycle arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various cancer cells. Therefore, we selected trichostatin A (TSA and PdNPs and studied their combined effect on apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. Cells treated with either TSA or PdNPs showed a dose-dependent effect on cell viability. The combinatorial effect, tested with 50 nM TSA and 50 nMPdNPs, had a more dramatic inhibitory effect on cell viability, than either TSA or PdNPs alone. The combination of TSA and PdNPs had a more pronounced effect on cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, caspase-3/9 activity and expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Our data show a strong synergistic interaction between TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells. The combinatorial treatment increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated relevant targeted therapy for cervical cancer. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence for the combinatory effect and cytotoxicity mechanism of TSA and PdNPs in cervical cancer cells.

  15. Urinary APE1/Ref-1: A Potential Bladder Cancer Biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sunga; Shin, Ju Hyun; Lee, Yu Ran; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Song, Ki Hak; Na, Yong Gil; Chang, Seok Jong; Lim, Jae Sung; Jeon, Byeong Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common urothelial cancers with still noticeable incidence rate. Early detection of BCa is highly correlated with successful therapeutic outcomes. We previously showed that apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) was expressed at an increased level in the serum of BCa patients when compared to the level in healthy controls. In this study, we investigated whether urinary APE1/Ref-1 was also elevated in patients with BCa. In this case-control study, voided urine was collected from 277 subjects including 169 BCa patients and 108 non-BCa controls. Urinary APE1/Ref-1 level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). APE1/Ref-1 levels were significantly elevated in BCa patients relative to levels in non-BCa controls and were correlated with tumor grade and stage. Urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels were also higher in patients with recurrence history of BCa. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of APE1/Ref-1 showed an area under the curve of 0.83, indicating the reliability and validity of this biomarker. The optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity was determined to be 82% and 80% at a cut-off value of 0.376 ng/100 μL for detection of APE1/Ref-1 in urine. In conclusion, urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels measured from noninvasively obtained body fluids would be clinically applicable for diagnosis of BCa.

  16. [New techniques and potential benefits for radiotherapy of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, L; Doré, M; Giraud, P

    2014-10-01

    Radiotherapy is used for inoperable lung cancers, sometimes in association with chemotherapy. Outcomes of conventional radiotherapy are disappointing. New techniques improve adaptation to tumour volume, decrease normal tissue irradiation and lead to increasing tumour dose with the opportunity for improved survival. With intensity-modulated radiation therapy, isodoses can conform to complex volumes. It is widely used and seems to be indicated in locally advanced stages. Its dosimetric improvements have been demonstrated but outcomes are still heterogeneous. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows treatment of small volumes with many narrow beams. Dedicated devices or appropriate equipment on classical devices are needed. In early stages, its efficacy is comparable to surgery with an acceptable toxicity. Endobronchial brachytherapy could be used for early stages with specific criteria. Hadrontherapy is still experimental regarding lung cancer. Hadrons have physical properties leading to very accurate dose distribution. In the rare published studies, toxicities are roughly lower than others techniques but for early stages its effectiveness is not better than stereotactic radiotherapy. These techniques are optimized by metabolic imaging which precisely defines the target volume and assesses the therapeutic response; image-guided radiation therapy which allows a more accurate patient set up and by respiratory tracking or gating which takes account of tumour respiratory motions.

  17. Zinc finger protein 278, a potential oncogene in human colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqing Tian; Danfeng Sun; Yanjie Zhang; Shuliang Zhao; Hua Xiong; Jingyuan Fang

    2008-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 278 (ZNF278) is a novel Krueppel Cys2-His2-type zinc finger protein that is ubiquitously distributed in human tissues. Whether ZNF278 is related to the development of colorectal cancer is still unclear. The transcriptional level of ZNF278 was studied in colorectal cancer by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that ZNF278 expression was increased in 53% of colorectal cancer tissues compared to corresponding non-cancerous tissues. The transcriptional down-regulation of ZNF278 was detected in only three (6%) human colorectal cancer tissues compared to corresponding non-cancer tissues. No significant difference was detected in 19 (41%) pairs of samples.However, we failed to find a significant association between the up-regulation of ZNF278 transcription and age, sex, the degree of infiltration, or the tumor size of colorectal cancer.To study the function of ZNF278 in colorectal carcinogenesis,the colon cancer cell line SW1116 was stably transfected with a wild-type ZNF278 plasmid to construct an overexpression system, and was transiently transfected with the small interfering RNA of ZNF278 to construct a ZNF278 knockdown system. Cell proliferation was assessed with 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye and a cell counter. The results show that ZNF278 promotes cell growth, and its knockdown suppresses cell proliferation. ZNF278 could be a potential proto-oncogene in colorectal cancer.

  18. [The Potential Role of an Academic Society for Oncology Specialists to Promote Cancer Education in Schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2015-08-01

    Cancer mortality in Japan is forecasted to become high; thus, learning about cancer, cancer prevention, and cancer treatment will be indispensable for the Japanese. Recognition of the increasing rates of cancer has initiated a discussion regarding the introduction of cancer education into the regular educational curriculum for the younger generation. The importance of cancer education is noww idely recognized, and the 2nd Basic Plan to Promote Cancer Control Programs is directed at early initiation of education. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology is nowreview ing the detailed plan, with an intention to draw a conclusion by the end of the 2016 business year. However, ongoing debates have revealed that there are many obstacles in the way of this practice. Much effort should be directed at solving these issues in the most realistic way. This paper reviews potential actions by oncology specialists, and attempts to clarify the possible role of an academic society for oncology specialists in the development of cancer education systems at school.

  19. Proton therapy of cancer: Potential clinical advantages and cost-effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundkvist, Jonas; Ekman, Mattias [Stockholm Health Economics, Stockholm (Sweden); Rehn Ericsson, Suzanne [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology; Joensson, Bengt [Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology and Pathology; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology

    2005-12-01

    Proton therapy may offer potential clinical advantages compared with conventional radiation therapy for many cancer patients. Due to the large investment costs for building a proton therapy facility, however, the treatment cost with proton radiation is higher than with conventional radiation. It is therefore important to evaluate whether the medical benefits of proton therapy are large enough to motivate the higher costs. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of proton therapy in the treatment of four different cancers: left-sided breast cancer, prostate cancer, head and neck cancer, and childhood medulloblastoma. A Markov cohort simulation model was created for each cancer type and used to simulate the life of patients treated with radiation. Cost and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were used as primary outcome measures. The results indicated that proton therapy was cost-effective if appropriate risk groups were chosen. The average cost per QALY gained for the four types of cancer assessed was about Euro 10,130. If the value of a QALY was set to Euro 55,000, the total yearly net benefit of treating 925 cancer patients with the four types of cancer was about Euro 20.8 million. Investment in a proton facility may thus be cost-effective. The results must be interpreted with caution, since there is a lack of data, and consequently large uncertainties in the assumptions used.

  20. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test.

  1. The non-small cell lung cancer diagnosis by thinprep cytology test and immunocytochemistry in sputum exfoliated cells%液基细胞学联合免疫细胞化学在痰液脱落细胞诊断非小细胞肺癌中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江帆; 李春英; 孙秀娟; 郑绍光

    2014-01-01

    背景与目的:肺癌中非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer,NSCLC)发病率最高,NSCLC痰液脱落细胞学诊断已成为肺癌早期诊断的重要辅助手段。本研究旨在探讨液基细胞学和免疫细胞化学方法在NSCLC恶性痰液脱落细胞学标本的分类与诊断中的应用价值。方法:应用液基薄层细胞学自动涂片技术方法筛查到可疑肿瘤细胞及肿瘤细胞的恶性痰液标本共530例进行细胞包埋连续切片,分别作NSCLC肿瘤细胞标志物细胞角蛋白7(cytokeratin-7,CK7)、细胞角蛋白5/6(cytokeratin-5/6,CK5/6)、甲状腺转录因子-1(thyroid transcription factor-1,TTF-1)、P63、上皮膜抗原(epithelial membrane antigen,EMA)免疫细胞化学染色。结果:530例NSCLC恶性痰液患者确诊为肺腺癌265例,鳞癌246例,腺鳞癌19例。TTF-1和CK7在腺癌中有明显高表达,阳性表达率为92.45%(245/265)和91.70%(243/265);CK5/6和P63在鳞癌中有明显高表达,阳性表达率为97.15%(239/246)和99.59%(245/246)。结论:液基细胞学与免疫细胞化学技术相结合在痰液标本诊断中有很重要的临床意义,CK7、CK5/6、TTF-1、P63、EMA联合可用于NSCLC恶性痰液的分类与诊断,值得在临床细胞病理学诊断中推广应用。%Background and purpose:The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been the highest disease incidence in lung cancer, sputum cytology diagnosis has become an important adjunct to the early diagnosis of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of thinprep cytological and immunocytochemical method in differentiatial diagnosis of exfoliated cells of malignant sputum in NSCLC. Methods:Sputum samples were detected with thinprep cytology test, a total of 530 cases suspicious tumor cells and malignant tumor cells sputum specimens were randomly selected in continuous paraffin-embedded sections, respectively, NSCLC tumor cell markers CK7, CK5/6, TTF-1, P63, EMA were

  2. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Giansanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues; the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities. The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  3. Cytology of 2n Pollen Formation in Nonastringent Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xian-ying; LUO Zheng-rong

    2002-01-01

    Cytological mechanisms of 2n pollen formation in ‘Zenjimaru' nonastringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.f. ) were studied. The following abnormalities in meiosis were found to be responsible for the production of 2n pollens: (1) disoriented spindles, including parallel, fused and tripolar spindles, were formed at metaphase Ⅱ and anaphase Ⅱ; (2) the nuclei at telophase Ⅱ were arranged to two poles, each of which contained two nuclei, or to three poles, one of which contained two nuclei, the other two contained one nucleus respectively; (3) dyads and triads were produced at the tetrad stage. The dyad would develop into two 2n pollens, and the triad would develop into one 2n and two n pollens. The 2n pollens produced by this mechanism were genetically equivalent to FDR (first division restitution) gametes, thus providing a potential value for sexual polyploidization.

  4. Quantitative method of measuring cancer cell urokinase and metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated urokinase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  5. Histology verification demonstrates that biospectroscopy analysis of cervical cytology identifies underlying disease more accurately than conventional screening: removing the confounder of discordance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Gajjar

    conventional screening. Scores plots of IR spectra exhibit marked crossover of spectral points between different cytological categories. Although, significant differences between spectral bands in different categories are noted, crossover samples point to the potential for poor specificity and hampers the development of biospectroscopy as a diagnostic tool. However, when histology-based categories are used to conduct analyses, the scores plot of IR spectra exhibit markedly better segregation. CONCLUSIONS: Histology demonstrates that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy of liquid-based cytology identifies the presence of underlying atypia or disease missed in conventional cytology screening. This study points to an urgent need for a future biospectroscopy study where categories are based on such histology. It will allow for the validation of this approach as a screening tool.

  6. Potential Applications of Nanotechnology for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eMcCarroll

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in our understanding of pancreatic cancer and the emerging concept of personalized medicine for the treatment of this disease, it is still the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world. It is established that pancreatic cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease with a complex tumor microenvironment. Indeed the extensive stroma surrounding the cancer cells has been shown to be important in promoting tumor growth and metastases, as well as sequestering chemotherapeutic agents consequently decreasing delivery to the tumor cells. Nanotechnology has come to the forefront in the areas of medical diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic drug delivery. This review will focus on the potential applications of nanotechnology for diagnosis, imaging, and delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  7. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  8. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy:current perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Kumar Vyas; Keyur Brahmbhatt; Hardik Bhatt; Utsav Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity.

  9. Targeting ILK and {beta}4 integrin abrogates the invasive potential of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Pyo; Kim, Baek Gil [BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gao, Ming-Qing; Kang, Suki [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Hoon, E-mail: cho1988@yuhs.ac [BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential of targeting ILK and integrins for highly aggressive ovarian cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unanticipated synergistic effect for the combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ILK/{beta}4 integrin effectively inhibited the PI3K/Akt/Rac1 cascade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting of {beta}4 integrin/ILK had potent inhibitory effects in ovarian cancer. -- Abstract: Integrins and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) are essential to cancerous invasion because they mediate physical interactions with the extracellular matrix, and regulate oncogenic signaling pathways. The purpose of our study is to determine whether deletion of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK, alone or in combination, has antitumoral effects in ovarian cancer. Expression of {beta}1 and {beta}4 integrin and ILK was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 196 ovarian cancer tissue samples. We assessed the effects of depleting these molecules with shRNAs in ovarian cancer cells by Western blot, conventional RT-PCR, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and in vitro Rac1 activity assays, and in vivo xenograft formation assays. Overexpression of {beta}4 integrin and ILK in human ovarian cancer specimens was found to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. Depletion of these targets efficiently suppresses ovarian cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and xenograft tumor formation in vivo. We also demonstrated that single depletion of ILK or combination depletion of {beta}4 integrin/ILK inhibits phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets, p-Ser 473 Akt and p-Thr202/Tyr204 Erk1/2, and activation of Rac1, as well as reduce expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increase expression of caspase-3 in vitro. In conclusion, targeting {beta}4 integrin combined with ILK can instigate the latent tumorigenic potential and abrogate the invasive potential in ovarian cancer.

  10. Axitinib: The evidence of its potential in the treatment of advanced thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari A Deshpande, Scott Gettinger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hari A Deshpande1, Scott Gettinger1, Julie Ann Sosa21Yale Cancer Center, Department of Medical Oncology, 2Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAIntroduction: Thyroid cancer is a rare disease with an incidence of around 37,000 cases per year. However, its incidence is rising faster than many other cancers and for men this disease ranks highest overall in the rate of increase (2.4% annual increase in cancer deaths. As the number of radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid cancers increases, the need for newer treatments has become more important. Axitinib is one of many new small molecule inhibitors of growth factor receptors that have shown promise in the treatment of many cancers. It targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3.Aims: The goal of this article is to review the published evidence for the use of axitinib in the treatment of thyroid cancer and define its therapeutic potential. Evidence review: The major evidence of axitinib activity has appeared in meeting report abstracts. One phase II study has been published. This included patients with any histological type of thyroid cancer that was not amenable to treatment with radioactive iodine. Clinical potential: To date, in phase II clinical studies axitinib has demonstrated antitumor activity in advanced refractory thyroid cancer. As a monotherapy it resulted in a 30% response rate with another 38% of patients having stable disease. Axitinib appears to have a good tolerability profile, with hypertension being the most common grade 3 or greater side effect. Keywords: axitinib, thyroid cancer, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor

  11. Chemokines in Cancer Development and Progression and Their Potential as Targeting Molecules for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Mukaida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines were initially identified as bioactive substances, which control the trafficking of inflammatory cells including granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, chemokines have profound impacts on other types of cells associated with inflammatory responses, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. These observations would implicate chemokines as master regulators in various inflammatory responses. Subsequent studies have further revealed that chemokines can regulate the movement of a wide variety of immune cells including lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. These features endow chemokines with crucial roles in immune responses. Furthermore, increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of cancer cells. It is widely acknowledged that cancer develops and progresses to invade and metastasize in continuous interaction with noncancerous cells present in cancer tissues, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. The capacity of chemokines to regulate both cancerous and noncancerous cells highlights their crucial roles in cancer development and progression. Here, we will discuss the roles of chemokines in carcinogenesis and the possibility of chemokine targeting therapy for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Panitumumab: the evidence of its therapeutic potential in metastatic colorectal cancer care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Erika; Morgillo, Floriana; Troiani, Teresa; Tortora, Giampaolo; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common malignant disease. Of newly diagnosed patients, 40% have metastatic disease at diagnosis, and approximately 25% of patients with localized disease at diagnosis will ultimately develop metastatic disease. The benefits of systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer over best supportive care have been established. Panitumumab (ABX-EGF) is the first fully human monoclonal antibody developed for use in colorectal cancer that targets the extracellular domains of epidermal growth factor receptor. Aims: The goal of this article is to review the published evidence for the use of panitumumab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer to define its therapeutic potential. Evidence review: The major evidence of panitumumab activity in colorectal cancer has appeared in meeting report abstracts. One phase II study in monotherapy, one in combination with chemotherapy, and one phase III study have included only patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Clinical potential: To date, in phase II clinical studies panitumumab has demonstrated antitumor activity in advanced, refractory colorectal cancer. As monotherapy it resulted in a 10% response rate with 38% of patients having stable disease, and a 36% response rate with 46% stable disease when combined with chemotherapy. A phase III study indicates a clinically significant advantage of panitumumab as third-line monotherapy over best supportive care. Panitumumab appears to have a good tolerability profile, with no maximum tolerated dose yet defined. PMID:21221177

  13. Eph receptor A10 has a potential as a target for a prostate cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, Kazuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Yamashita, Takuya [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Inoue, Masaki [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Higashisaka, Kazuma [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center of Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhiro [Cancer Biology Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, 2301 E. 60th Street N, Sioux Falls, SD 57104 (United States); Mukai, Yohei [Laboratory of Innovative Antibody Engineering and Design, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Kamada, Haruhiko [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutical Research, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); The Center of Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); and others

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • EphA10 mRNA is overexpressed in breast, prostate and colon cancer cell lines. • EphA10 is overexpressed in clinical prostate tumors at mRNA and protein levels. • Anti-EphA10 antibodies were cytotoxic on EphA10-positive prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: We recently identified Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) as a novel breast cancer-specific protein. Moreover, we also showed that an in-house developed anti-EphA10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells, suggesting EphA10 as a promising target for breast cancer therapy. However, the only other known report for EphA10 was its expression in the testis at the mRNA level. Therefore, the potency of EphA10 as a drug target against cancers other than the breast is not known. The expression of EphA10 in a wide variety of cancer cells was studied and the potential of EphA10 as a drug target was evaluated. Screening of EphA10 mRNA expression showed that EphA10 was overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines as well as in prostate and colon cancer cell lines. Thus, we focused on prostate cancers in which EphA10 expression was equivalent to that in breast cancers. As a result, EphA10 expression was clearly shown in clinical prostate tumor tissues as well as in cell lines at the mRNA and protein levels. In order to evaluate the potential of EphA10 as a drug target, we analyzed complement-dependent cytotoxicity effects of anti-EphA10 mAb and found that significant cytotoxicity was mediated by the expression of EphA10. Therefore, the idea was conceived that the overexpression of EphA10 in prostate cancers might have a potential as a target for prostate cancer therapy, and formed the basis for the studies reported here.

  14. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  15. The Role of Liquid Based Cytology and Ancillary Techniques in the Peritoneal Washing Analysis: Our Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Esther; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Martini, Maurizio; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Schmitt, Fernando; Fagotti, Anna; Scambia, Giovanni; Zannoni, Gian Franco

    2017-01-01

    Background The cytological analysis of peritoneal effusions serves as a diagnostic and prognostic aid for either primary or metastatic diseases. Among the different cytological preparations, liquid based cytology (LBC) represents a feasible and reliable method ensuring also the application of ancillary techniques (i.e immunocytochemistry-ICC and molecular testing). Methods We recorded 10348 LBC peritoneal effusions between January 2000 and December 2014. They were classified as non-diagnostic (ND), negative for malignancy-NM, atypical-suspicious for malignancy-SM and positive for malignancy-PM. Results The cytological diagnosis included 218 ND, 9.035 NM, 213 SM and 882 PM. A total of 8048 (7228 NM, 115SM, 705 PM) cases with histological follow-up were included. Our NM included 21 malignant and 7207 benign histological diagnoses. Our 820 SMs+PMs were diagnosed as 107 unknown malignancies (30SM and 77PM), 691 metastatic lesions (81SM and 610PM), 9 lymphomas (2SM and 7PM), 9 mesotheliomas (1SM and 8SM), 4 sarcomas (1SM and 3PM). Primary gynecological cancers contributed with 64% of the cases. We documented 97.4% sensitivity, 99.9% specificity, 98% diagnostic accuracy, 99.7% negative predictive value (NPV) and 99.7% positive predictive value (PPV). Furthermore, the morphological diagnoses were supported by either 173 conclusive ICC results or 50 molecular analyses. Specifically the molecular testing was performed for the EGFR and KRAS mutational analysis based on the previous or contemporary diagnoses of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and colon carcinomas. We identified 10 EGFR in NSCCL and 7 KRAS mutations on LBC stored material. Conclusions Peritoneal cytology is an adjunctive tool in the surgical management of tumors mostly gynecological cancers. LBC maximizes the application of ancillary techniques such as ICC and molecular analysis with feasible diagnostic and predictive yields also in controversial cases. PMID:28099523

  16. European and Far East Mistletoes: Potential in Adjuvant Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uwe PF(U)LLER; Udo SCHUMACHER

    2008-01-01

    Semiparasitic plants, mistletoes, distributed in Europe and East-Asia mainly, China, Korea and Japan have long been recognised as therapeutic herbs. Since the 1920s, extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L) have been popular in Europe as an unconventional cancer treatment. These extracts have been used in adjuvant cancer therapy because their immunostimulatory, cytostatic/cytotoxic and DNA stabilising activities. The main biological activities are addressed to sugar binding proteins, the Mistletoe Lectins, and to micro proteins named viscotoxins. The mistletoe lectins are members of the family of toxic lectins and recognize sugars and glycoconjugates containing galactose and/or N-acetyl-galactosamine groups. In vitro and in vivo assays confLrm that the mistletoe lectins, isolated from the plant and compared with recombinant forms, play an important role as biologically active principles in mistletoe extracts. Limited experimental evidence indicates that other components like glycosides, polysaccharides, amines etc, may also have anticancer activity. Under discussion in Europe is the principal question of using holo plant extracts or single component lectin preparations: wild type iectins or recombinant ones in cancer therapy. Finally problems of preparation, characterization and standardization of commercial mistletoe preparations and evaluation of biological activities are discussed.%槲寄生属半寄生类植物,主要分布于欧洲及东亚,中国、韩国和日本很早以前就将其作为治疗用药.自上世纪二十年代,欧洲槲寄生提取物因具有免疫调节、抑制细胞生长/细胞毒素和稳定DNA,~性的作用,在欧洲被广泛应用于癌症的辅助治疗.对于槲寄生,其主要生物活性是糖粘合蛋白,槲寄生外源凝集素类和名为粘毒素的微蛋白.槲寄生外源凝集素类是毒性植物血凝素,糖和复合糖类(包括半乳糖和/或N-乙酰半乳糖胺)家族中的成员.活体内、外实验证实,

  17. Application potential of toll-like receptors in cancer immunotherapy: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Chen, Xi; Ye, Kangruo; Yao, Yuanfei; Li, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as the most important pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity, play a pivotal role in inducing immune response through recognition of microbial invaders or specific agonists. Recent studies have suggested that TLRs could serve as important regulators in the development of a variety of cancer. However, increasing evidences have shown that TLRs may display quite opposite outcomes in cancer development. Although several potential therapeutic Toll-like receptor ligands have been found, the mechanism and therapy prospect of TLRs in cancer development has to be further elucidated to accelerate the clinical application. By performing a systematic review of the present findings on TLRs in cancer immunology, we attempted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of TLRs in cancer therapy and elucidate the potential mechanism of cancer progress regulated by TLR signaling and the reported targets on TLRs for clinical application. An electronic databases search was conducted in PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database from their inception to February 1, 2016. The following keywords were used to search the databases: Toll-like receptors, cancer therapy, therapeutic target, innate immunity. Of 244 studies that were identified, 97 nonrelevant studies were excluded. In total, 147 full-text articles were assessed, and from these, 54 were excluded as they did not provide complete key information. Thus, 93 studies were considered eligible and included in the analysis. According to the data from the included trials, 14 TLR ligands (77.8%) from 82 studies have been demonstrated to display antitumor property in various cancers, whereas 4 ligands (22.2%) from 11 studies promote tumors. Among them, only 3 TLR ligands have been approved for cancer therapy, and 9 ligands were in clinical trials. In addition, the potential mechanism of recently reported targets on TLRs for clinical application was also evaluated

  18. CYTOLOGY PULMONARY IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS MAINTAINED THE FIELD OR STABLED

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    W. F. Fortes Júnior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial secretion was collected by endoscopy (Welch-AllynÒ, 200cm long and 9mm diameter, from equines with different ages, races and sex, for posterior cytological analysis. Thirty-six equines were divided into two groups (Group I = stabled, n = 18; Group II = field regimen, n = 18. Animals of Group I (age = 3.5 years were lodged in the Tarumã´s Jockey Club in Curitiba, Parana State. The equines of Group II always were maintained at field condition (never were stabled, in the farm located in Jacarezinho, Paraná State. Following endoscopic exams, tracheobronchial secretion smears were stained by Pappenhein´s method and submitted to cytological analysis. Group I had higher frequency of tracheal discharge than Group II. The cytological analysis showed more presence of macrophages (58.8%, foamy cells (2.3%, body giant cells (0.2%, neutrophils (4.57%, eosinophils (0.7% and Curshmann´s spirals (0.04% on 3 of the 18 animals. The cytological analysis of Group II showed higher frequency of ciliated epithelial cells than Group I, and no Curshmann´s spirals were observed. In conclusion, data showed that horses stabled had more cytological alterations than the animals maintained at field, therefore more tracheobronchial complications. Thus, the care of place where horse are stabled have influence on development of respiratory diseases, may predispose to affections as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage, as well athletic horses may be never reach their full respiratory potential.

  19. Microvesicles secreted by macrophages shuttle invasion-potentiating microRNAs into breast cancer cells

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    Lin Ling

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are alternatively activated cells induced by interleukin-4 (IL-4-releasing CD4+ T cells. TAMs promote breast cancer invasion and metastasis; however, the mechanisms underlying these interactions between macrophages and tumor cells that lead to cancer metastasis remain elusive. Previous studies have found microRNAs (miRNAs circulating in the peripheral blood and have identified microvesicles, or exosomes, as mediators of cell-cell communication. Therefore, one alternative mechanism for the promotion of breast cancer cell invasion by TAMs may be through macrophage-secreted exosomes, which would deliver invasion-potentiating miRNAs to breast cancer cells. Results We utilized a co-culture system with IL-4-activated macrophages and breast cancer cells to verify that miRNAs are transported from macrophages to breast cancer cells. The shuttling of fluorescently-labeled exogenous miRNAs from IL-4-activated macrophages to co-cultivated breast cancer cells without direct cell-cell contact was observed. miR-223, a miRNA specific for IL-4-activated macrophages, was detected within the exosomes released by macrophages and was significantly elevated in the co-cultivated SKBR3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The invasiveness of the co-cultivated breast cancer cells decreased when the IL-4-activated macrophages were treated with a miR-223 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO that would inhibit miR-223 expression. Furthermore, results from a functional assay revealed that miR-223 promoted the invasion of breast cancer cells via the Mef2c-β-catenin pathway. Conclusions We conclude that macrophages regulate the invasiveness of breast cancer cells through exosome-mediated delivery of oncogenic miRNAs. Our data provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the metastasis-promoting interactions between macrophages and breast cancer cells.

  20. The subthalamic nucleus : Part I: Development, cytology, topography and connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A.J.F.; Usunoff, Kamen G.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology concerns the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types p

  1. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. 493... Complexity, Or Any Combination of These Tests § 493.855 Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations. To... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation...

  2. Piroxicam and other cyclooxygenase inhibitors: potential for cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, D L; Hixson, L J; Alberts, D S

    1992-01-01

    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used for treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Recent experimental and clinical studies suggest that piroxicam, as well as other NSAIDs, may be useful for chemoprevention of colon cancer. While there is less information regarding NSAIDs for chemoprevention of urinary bladder malignancy, there are compelling data which suggest that this should be evaluated. A major effect of NSAIDs is inhibition of cyclooxygenase, the rate-limiting enzyme for conversion of arachidonic acid to important signal molecules, including prostaglandins, which profoundly affect cellular functions in many tissues. The initial enzyme reaction leading to formation of prostaglandin H can be accompanied by cooxidation of xenobiotics resulting in extrahepatic and local tissue production of reactive products which are carcinogenic. The end product prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), are biological modifiers which can significantly affect cell proliferation and tumor growth. High levels of PGE2 stimulate growth of certain tumor cell lines while inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis with indomethacin or piroxicam can cause suppression. The mechanisms for this effect are unclear. Studies in cultured cells exposed to indomethacin show inhibition of G1-to-S phase progression of the cell cycle and a reduction in overall DNA synthesis. It is unclear whether this effect on cell growth results from some direct action of the NSAID or a reduction in prostaglandins or indirectly from modulation of important control signals, such as calcium flux. In addition to cyclooxygenase, NSAIDs can inhibit activity of other enzymes, including phosphodiesterases and cyclic GMP-AMP protein kinases, which may be central to cancer initiation and promotion. NSAIDs can also interfere with transmembrane ion fluxes and with cell-to-cell binding. Prostaglandins can modulate a variety of immunological responses and thereby play an important role in

  3. Exome sequencing reveals a potential mutational trajectory and treatments for a specific pancreatic cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotterell J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available James Cotterell1,21Center for Genomic Regulation, Barcelona, Spain; 2Garvan Institute for Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth biggest killer, and has one of the worst prognoses, of any cancer type. Approximately 95% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer will not survive beyond 5 years post diagnosis, and these statistics have barely improved in over 40 years. Here, genomic changes in one particular patient with stage IV metastatic pancreatic cancer were explored to suggest a potential personalized treatment. In particular, exome sequencing of genomic DNA extracted from blood and the cancer biopsy was utilized with the aim of identifying mutational drivers of the cancer. This analysis revealed a splice site mutation in RBCK1 as the most promising driver of the cancer and a therapy based on a pan-cyclin-dependent kinase (pan-CDK inhibitor, flavopiridol. This study suggests that drugs whose effectiveness is unclear for general populations of cancer sufferers should possibly be reconsidered for specific patients where the drug could be rationally argued to improve outcome.Keyword: personalized medicine, driver mutation identification, next generation sequencing

  4. Potential application of alternatively glycosylated serum MUC1 and MUC5AC in gastric cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ye; Zhang, Liang; Hu, Gengxi

    2009-01-01

    Post-transcription modification of proteins can be altered during carcinogenesis. In this study, quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassays were utilized to explore the clinical diagnostic value of the alternatively glycosylated MUC1 and MUC5AC. Four pairs of antibodies were selected to construct quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Serum mucin levels of 104 primary gastric cancer patients and 120 healthy individuals were measured using the four antibody pairs. The detection sensitivities of each antibody pair against gastric cancers were 42.31%, 25.00%, 38.46% and 30.77% respectively, with a specificity of 90.00%, significantly higher than widely used tumor markers CEA (21.15%) and CA19-9 (18.27%). When monitoring in parallel with all of the four antibody pairs, the detection sensitivity increased to 75.00%, with the same 90.00% specificity. Immunoblotting of the serum samples using the anti-mucin antibodies revealed highly variable glycosylation patterns among gastric cancer patients. In addition, real-time PCR indicated the elevated mRNA levels of MUC1 and/or MUC5AC in gastric cancers. The cancer-specific epitopes were also detected in other alimentary canal epithelium cancers such as colonic, nasopharyngeal and esophageal cancers, but with much lower sensitivities. Our results suggested that alternatively glycosylated MUC1 and MUC5AC could be of significant potential as effective tumor markers in gastric cancer diagnosis.

  5. PLANT PRODUCTS POTENTIAL AS ANTI-ANGIOGENIC AND IN CANCER MANAGEMENT

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    Patil Kalpana S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease that knows no geographic boundaries. Cancer is abnormal malignant growth of body tissue or cell. A cancerous growth is called a malignant tumor or malignancy. A non cancerous growth is called benign tumor. The process of cancer metastasis is consisting of series of sequential interrelated steps, each of which is rate limiting. Plants are loaded with chemical with chemo preventive activities of some of them are undergoing clinical trial. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels important during fatal life and growth of adult blood. It is essential step in tumor growth, as tumors cant grow approximately to 2mm3 without developing new blood supply. The complex interplay of positive and negative regulators of angiogenic process determines the degree of new blood vessels formation in and around a tumor. Inhibition of angiogenesis is a potentially novel method of cancer therapy. The anti-angiogenic agents in current use are unable to destroy the tumor vasculature completely. Extensive screening of plants for anti-cancer profile has shown some good results. Some plants are already in use. Isolation of active principle of these plants may provide the basic nucleus upon which synthetic drug can be produced. The selected and careful use of this plant products may definitely help in anti-angiogenic therapy and thus, in cancer management. Hence it is possible that herbal remedies definitely hold hope for the discovery of potent anti-angiogenic and drugs on metastasis.

  6. LGR5 expressing cells of hair follicle as potential targets for antibody mediated anti-cancer laser therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Boris V.

    2013-02-01

    Near infrared laser immunotherapy becomes now a new promising research field to cure the patients with cancers. One of the critical limitation in medical application of this treatment is availability of the specific markers for delivery of laser-sensitive nanoparticles. When coupled to antibodies to the cancer stem cells markers these nanoparticles may be delivered to the cancer tissue and mediate the laser induced thermolysis of the cancer stem cells that initiate and drive growth of cancer. This paper addresses the Lgr5 cell surface marker mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction as a potential target for anti-cancer laser immunotherapy of skin cancers.

  7. Human recombinant RNASET2: A potential anti-cancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate. PMID:27014725

  8. Human recombinant RNASET2: A potential anti-cancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Lewin, Iris; Shoseyov, Oded; Schwartz, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The roles of cell motility and angiogenetic processes in metastatic spread and tumor aggressiveness are well established and must be simultaneously targeted to maximize antitumor drug potency. This work evaluated the antitumorigenic capacities of human recombinant RNASET2 (hrRNASET2), a homologue of the Aspergillus niger T2RNase ACTIBIND, which has been shown to display both antitumorigenic and antiangiogenic activities. hrRNASET2 disrupted intracellular actin filament and actin-rich extracellular extrusion organization in both CT29 colon cancer and A375SM melanoma cells and induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of A375SM cell migration. hrRNASET2 also induced full arrest of angiogenin-induced tube formation and brought to a three-fold lower relative HT29 colorectal and A375SM melanoma tumor volume, when compared to Avastin-treated animals. In parallel, mean blood vessel counts were 36.9% lower in hrRNASET2-vs. Avastin-treated mice and survival rates of hrRNASET2-treated mice were 50% at 73 days post-treatment, while the median survival time for untreated animals was 22 days. Moreover, a 60-day hrRNASET2 treatment period reduced mean A375SM lung metastasis foci counts by three-fold when compared to untreated animals. Taken together, the combined antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic capacities of hrRNASET2, seemingly arising from its direct interaction with intercellular and extracellular matrices, render it an attractive anticancer therapy candidate.

  9. Quantum Dots and their Potential Role in Cancer Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S K; Kaur, Gurvir; Khurana, Rajneet Kaur; Kapoor, Sonia; Singh, Bhupinder

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of cancer nanomedicine is the result of fruitful advances in the fields of nanotechnology, bioimaging, formulation development, and molecular biology. Quantum dots (QDs) are the luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) that provide a multifunctional platform for imaging the biosystems following controlled delivery of therapeutic drugs, proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, and genes. These engineered fluorescent probes with integrated imaging and carrier functionalities have become excellent tools for molecular diagnostics and delivery of therapeutics molecules. Flexible surface chemistry, unique optical properties, high sensitivity, and multiplexing capabilities of QDs certainly make them a most promising tool for personalized medicine. This review focuses on state-of-art advances in synthesizing QDs and highlights the approaches used for functionalization of QDs with desired ligands for targeted carriage to specific sites. Discussed is the role of QDs in antitumor therapy through drug delivery and gene delivery and the recently emerged photodynamic therapy (PDT). We also endeavor to critically address the major impediments in the clinical development of these multifunctional nanoplatforms, with a special focus on plausible advancements for the near future.

  10. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is now widely believed that the actions of the antioxidant nutrients alone do not explain the observed health benefits of diets rich in fruits and vegetables, because taken alone, the individual antioxidants studied in clinical trials do not appear to have consistent preventive effects. Work performed by our group and others has shown that fruits and vegetable phytochemical extracts exhibit strong antioxidant and antiproliferative activities and that the major part of total antioxidant activity is from the combination of phytochemicals. We proposed that the additive and synergistic effects of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables are responsible for these potent antioxidant and anticancer activities and that the benefit of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in whole foods. This explains why no single antioxidant can replace the combination of natural phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables to achieve the health benefits. The evidence suggests that antioxidants or bioactive compounds are best acquired through whole-food consumption, not from expensive dietary supplements. We believe that a recommendation that consumers eat 5 to 10 servings of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables daily is an appropriate strategy for significantly reducing the risk of chronic diseases and to meet their nutrient requirements for optimum health.

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of dermal cylindroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshaa Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have described fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of a rare case of dermal cylindroma. A 40-year-old female presented with a lateral mid-cervical swelling fixed to the skin. FNAC smears showed multiple clusters of small, round to oval cells with hyperchromatic nuclei, inconspicuous nucleoli and scant cytoplasm. In addition, the background showed deposits of basement membrane type material. This was dark magenta colored pinkish globular material. The globules were occasionally surrounded by the basal type of cells. Occasional cells with elongated nuclei were also noted. Cytological diagnosis of skin adnexal tumor possibly cylindroma was offered. Subsequent histopathology of the swelling showed sheets and clusters of cells in a jigsaw puzzle-like fashion. Deposition of abundant basement membrane-like material was noted in between the tumor cells. A diagnosis of cylindorma was offered. FNAC along with the subcutaneous location of the tumor and absence of primary salivary gland tumor may help to diagnose such rare case.

  12. Cytological diagnosis of collagenous spherulosis of breast

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    Uday A Gokhale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous spherulosis is a rare entity usually seen in association with benign breast lesions. It is often picked up incidentally with a reported incidence of about 0.2% in cytological material. There are very few reports describing cytomorphological features of collagenous spherulosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the only case reported from the middle-east region. The presence of hyaline spherules surrounded by a single layer of benign myoepithelial cells is the hallmark of collagenous spherulosis on FNA. However, due to close cytological resemblance, it can be misdiagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast. A 40-year-old woman presented with a history of a painless lump in the infraareolar region of left breast for a year. Fine needle aspiration was performed. The smears showed scanty cellularity comprising of cohesive clusters and a few branching fragments of benign ductal epithelial cells closely intermingled with many spherical, acellular homogenous hyaline globules. Few bare bipolar nuclei were noted in the background. A diagnosis of collagenous spherulosis associated with benign proliferative breast disease was made. Cytopathologists need to be aware of this entity in order to differentiate it from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast which requires radical treatment.

  13. Collagenous spherulosis: An interesting cytological finding in breast lesion

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    Shailja Puri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous spherulosis (CS is a rare and interesting entity associated with benign breast lesions. CS is an incidental finding picked up only on 0.2% of cytology specimen. Typically cytologically of CS of breast consists of central spherical hyaline spherule surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The central hyaline spherule has been found to be basement membrane material histochemically and immunohistochemically. The importance of recognizing CS of breast lies in the fact that similar hyaline globules can occur in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast (ACCB. The two lesions need to be differentiated on cytology failing which inappropriate treatment can be given for either of the two lesions. We present here a case of CS associated with benign breast lesion and a case of ACCB to describe their cytological features and key points to differentiate them cytologically.

  14. How Is Kidney Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... microscopic exam of the urine sample (called urine cytology ) will show actual cancer cells in the urine. ... 1 to 2 pints of a liquid called oral contrast . This helps outline the intestine so that ...

  15. How Is Vulvar Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about biopsies, see Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer . Further testing If you have ... 1 to 2 pints of a liquid called oral contrast . This helps outline the intestine so that ...

  16. How Is Penile Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about biopsies, see Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer . Imaging tests Imaging tests use ... 1 to 2 pints of a liquid called oral contrast and/or get an intravenous (IV) injection ...

  17. A STUDY OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION WITH FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY OF CERVICAL LYMPHADENOPATHY

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    Bobby Duarah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cervical lymphadenopathy is a common manifestation in our country where incidence of tuberculosis and oral cancer is fairly high, so the proper and early diagnosis of lymphadenopathy is very important for early and effective treatment. AIM The present study was undertaken in the Department of Pathology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, for a period of one year with a view to correlate the cytological diagnosis with histopathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS A series of 100 cases with clinical presentation of palpable lymph node at any part of the cervical region irrespective of age and sex attending the different OPDs of this institution were taken. FNAC was done as an initial step for diagnosis. The results were confirmed by incisional/excisional biopsy afterwards. RESULT Out of 100 cases, there were 74 cases of benign lesions (74% and 26 cases of malignant lesions (26% proven histopathologically. The peak incidence of age group suffering from the disease was 21-30 years (25% followed by 11-20 years (24%. Majority were Tubercular (40% followed by Inflammatory (34%, Metastasis (16%, and Lymphoma (10%. All the cases (Benign and Malignant presented with neck swelling (100%. It was seen that the Jugulodigastric, Posterior triangle, and the submandibular groups of lymph nodes were the most commonly involved groups with a percentage being 41%, 21%, and 13% respectively. Out of a total of 74 histologically proved benign cases, cytology could diagnose 73 cases (98.7%. The percentage of accuracy was 98.7%. Also, the cytological diagnosis could be obtained in 24 out of 26 cases with malignant lesions when correlated with histopathology. The percentage of accuracy was 92.3%. It was seen that the overall accuracy rate of aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign lesions was 98.7% and that of malignant lesions was 92.3% against 100% accuracy with histopathology. The overall accuracy of aspiration cytology is 97%. CONCLUSION Though

  18. Preclinical therapeutic potential of a nitrosylating agent in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

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    Shailendra Giri

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of s-nitrosylation in the growth of ovarian cancer using cell culture based and in vivo approaches. Using the nitrosylating agent, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, a physiological nitric oxide molecule, we show that GSNO treatment inhibited proliferation of chemoresponsive and chemoresistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, C200, SKVO3, ID8, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5, OVCAR7, OVCAR8, OVCAR10, PE01 and PE04 in a dose dependent manner. GSNO treatment abrogated growth factor (HB-EGF induced signal transduction including phosphorylation of Akt, p42/44 and STAT3, which are known to play critical roles in ovarian cancer growth and progression. To examine the therapeutic potential of GSNO in vivo, nude mice bearing intra-peritoneal xenografts of human A2780 ovarian carcinoma cell line (2 × 10(6 were orally administered GSNO at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight. Daily oral administration of GSNO significantly attenuated tumor mass (p<0.001 in the peritoneal cavity compared to vehicle (phosphate buffered saline treated group at 4 weeks. GSNO also potentiated cisplatin mediated tumor toxicity in an A2780 ovarian carcinoma nude mouse model. GSNO's nitrosylating ability was reflected in the induced nitrosylation of various known proteins including NFκB p65, Akt and EGFR. As a novel finding, we observed that GSNO also induced nitrosylation with inverse relationship at tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of STAT3, an established player in chemoresistance and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer and in cancer in general. Overall, our study underlines the significance of S-nitrosylation of key cancer promoting proteins in modulating ovarian cancer and proposes the therapeutic potential of nitrosylating agents (like GSNO for the treatment of ovarian cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs.

  19. Application of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization in postoperative follow-up monitoring of bladder cancer patients with negative urine cytology%多色荧光原位杂交技术在尿脱落细胞学阴性膀胱癌患者术后随访监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王南雄; 王尉; 吕军; 王健; 叶纯

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨多色荧光原位杂交技术( M-FISH)在尿脱落细胞学阴性膀胱癌患者术后随访监测中的应用价值. 方法 收集接受经尿道膀胱肿瘤切除术后的膀胱尿路上皮癌患者76例,术前、术后随访尿脱落细胞学检查均阴性,分别采用膀胱镜、M-FISH进行术后随访监测.结果 76例患者中14例(18.4%)复发,M-FISH仅检出3例(3.9%)复发,漏诊11例(14.5%). 膀胱镜检查结果阴性54例,复发1例(低级别),M-FISH检查结果阳性. 膀胱镜检查结果可疑12例,复发4例(低级别2例、高级别2例) ,M-FISH检查结果阳性1例(低级别). 膀胱镜检查结果阳性10例,复发9例(低级别5例、高级别4例) ,M-FISH检查结果阳性1例(高级别). 膀胱镜检查结果阴性、M-FISH检查结果为阳性预测复发的敏感性为100%、特异性94 .3%,阳性预测值25%,阴性预测值100%. 膀胱镜检查结果可疑、M-FISH检查结果为阳性预测复发的敏感性为25%、特异性87.5%,阳性预测值50%,阴性预测值70%. 膀胱镜、M-FISH检查结果均为阳性预测复发的敏感性为11.1%、特异性100%,阳性预测值100%,阴性预测值11 .1%. 结论 M-FISH检测在尿脱落细胞学阴性膀胱癌患者术后随访复发中的检出率不高,经济效益低,不考虑作为膀胱癌术后随访的常规监测项目.%Objective To evaluate the application value of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization ( M-FISH) in postoperative follow-up monitoring of bladder cancer patients with negative urine cytology .Methods A total of 78 patients with urothelial cancer who were treated by transurethral resection of the bladder were included in this study .All of them had negative urine cytology .The cystoscopy and M-FISH were used to monitor the recurrence of the disease , and the results were compared.Results In 76 patients, 14 cases recurred (18.4%).M-FISH only detected 3 cases of recurrence (4%), and 11 cases of missed diagnosis (14.5%).Cystoscopy showed 54 cases with

  20. Liquid-based cytology combined HPV-DNA genotyping in cervical cancer screening%液基细胞学检查联合人乳头瘤病毒基因分型检测在宫颈癌筛查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉忠; 杨继洲; 肖兰; 卢叶; 戴一菲; 王岚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨液基细胞学检查(TCT)联合人乳头瘤病毒基因(HPV-DNA)分型检测在宫颈癌筛查中的应用价值.方法 对28 524例女性患者进行TCT检测,其中5 932例TCT诊断为不能明确意义的非典型鳞状细胞(ASCUS)及以上的患者均行HPV-DNA分型检测及宫颈活检,分析TCT和HPV感染与宫颈癌及癌前病变的相关性.结果 共检测样本28 524例,其中良性病变22 592例(79.20%),ASCUS 4 824例(16.91%),鳞状上皮内低度病变(LSIL) 776例(2.72%),鳞状上皮内高度病变(HSIL) 316例(1.11%),鳞状细胞癌(SCC) 16例(0.06%).HSIL符合率为97.47%(308/316例),SCC符合率为100%(16/16例).HPV-DNA分型检测5 932例,其中阳性1 486例,阳性率为25.05%.TCT诊断与活检结果比较,良性病变与CINⅠ、CINⅡ、CINⅢ比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01); CINⅠ、CINⅡ、CINⅢ、SCC间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).宫颈活检结果与HPV感染在炎症及CINⅠ、CINⅡ、CINⅢ、SCC组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 TCT与活检,特别是针对高级病变及癌,符合率较高,特异性较强.TCT与HPV-DNA分型检测对诊断宫颈癌及癌前病变具有敏感、特异和早于形态学改变的特点,具有较高的临床应用价值和推广前景.%Objective To investigate the value of the liquid-based cytology (TCT) joint HPV-DNA genotyping in cervical cancer screening.Methods Liquid-based cytology (TCT) combined HPV-DNA genotyping,and TCT were detected in 28 524 women,including 5 932 of TCT cytological diagnosis of ASCUS or more patients underwent genotyping of HPV-DNA detection and cervical biopsy,TCT and HPV infection and cervical cancer and precancerous lesions to cervical biopsy results confirmed standard.Results The total number of samples tested were 28 524 cases.Benign reactive changes were 22 592 cases (79.20%),ASCUS 4 824 cases (16.91%),LSIL 776 cases (2.72 %),HSIL 316 cases (1.11%),and the SCC 16 cases (0.06 %),in which

  1. Implementation and evaluation of a National External Quality Control Program for Cervical Cytology in Mexico

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    Flisser Ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate cytology laboratories and the performance of cytotechnologists for establishing efficient external quality control for Mexico's National Program for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer. Material and Methods. During January and February 1998, an on-site evaluation of all cytology laboratories of the Ministry of Health found that only 70% of the microscopes were in adequate working conditions, reagents were out of date, and working conditions were sub-optimal. A program for external quality control based on proficiency testing was established for cytotechnologists. Fifty slide sets with 20 Papanicolaou slides and 10 photographic slides were prepared. The sets were given to the cytotechnologists for evaluation and again one year later by courier. Results. Twenty-one percent of microscopes were repaired and 9% replaced; reagents were distributed and laboratory facilities improved. Only 16% of cytotechnologists passed the initial proficiency test. Cytotechnologists received a refresher training course: one year later 67% of them passed the proficiency test. To ascertain that each slide was correctly diagnosed, 41 sets were rescreened by expert cytopathologists or cytologists and their diagnoses compared to the original ones. Thirty-seven sets had 86% to 96% concordance. Conclusions. This new system for external quality control of cervical cytology allowed the opportune and reliable evaluation of the performance of cytotechnologists.

  2. Valuation of exfoliative cytology as prediction factor in oral mucosa lesions.

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    Brunotto, Mabel; Zárate, Ana María; Cismondi, Adriana; Fernández, María del Carmen; Noher de Halac, Rita Inés

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was immunolabeling oncoproteins Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 in order to evaluate their expression in premalignant and malignant stomatological lesions in oral epithelial, and to compare this expression with exfoliative cytology alterations in the same patients. It was studied biopsies and cytologies of 13 subjects with oral lichen planus, with or without Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma clinically diagnosed and confirmed by anatomopathological studies. The oral lichen planus lesion presented binuclei orange cells; and in leukoplakia lesions only orange stained was observed; meanwhile koilocytes, inflammatory cells, enlarge nuclear volume and pathogenic microorganisms were observed in the HPV infections and squamous cells carcinoma (SCC). The Ck14, p53, p21 and Bcl-2 proteins were found modified in the leukoplakia, oral lichen planus and cancer. Cytological alterations and positive immunolabeling or over-expression of Ck14 cytokeratine in the upper epithelial stratus should be indicator of malignant transformations as doing subsequence exams.

  3. Serum Circulating microRNA Profiling for Identification of Potential Breast Cancer Biomarkers

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    Fermín Mar-Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules that can regulate gene expression, thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. miRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection because of their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in different diseases. We investigated whether quantitative RT-PCR miRNA profiling on serum could discriminate between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. We performed miRNA profiling on serum from breast cancer patients, followed by construction of ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic curves to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. We found that seven miRNAs (miR-10b, miR-21, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155 miR-191 and miR-382 had different expression patterns in serum of breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. ROC curve analyses revealed that three serum miRNAs could be valuable biomarkers for distinguishing BC from normal controls. Additionally, a combination of ROC curve analyses of miR-145, miR-155 and miR-382 showed better sensitivity and specificity of our assay. miRNA profiling in serum has potential as a novel method for breast cancer detection in the Mexican population.

  4. Intracellular delivery of potential therapeutic genes: prospects in cancer gene therapy.

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    Bakhtiar, Athirah; Sayyad, Mustak; Rosli, Rozita; Maruyama, Atsushi; Chowdhury, Ezharul H

    2014-01-01

    Conventional therapies for malignant cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with poor survival rates owing to the development of cellular resistance to cancer drugs and the lack of targetability, resulting in unwanted adverse effects on healthy cells and necessitating the lowering of therapeutic dose with consequential lower efficacy of the treatment. Gene therapy employing different types of viral and non-viral carriers to transport gene(s) of interest and facilitating production of the desirable therapeutic protein(s) has tremendous prospects in cancer treatments due to the high-level of specificity in therapeutic action of the expressed protein(s) with diminished off-target effects, although cancer cell-specific delivery of transgene(s) still poses some challenges to be addressed. Depending on the potential therapeutic target genes, cancer gene therapy could be categorized into tumor suppressor gene replacement therapy, immune gene therapy and enzyme- or prodrug-based therapy. This review would shed light on the current progress of delivery of potentially therapeutic genes into various cancer cells in vitro and animal models utilizing a variety of viral and non-viral vectors.

  5. Metastin has potential as a suitable biomarker and novel effective therapy for cancer metastasis (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Sunao; Tang, Xian Yang; Sato, Haruhiro; Usui, Yukio; Uchida, Toyoaki; Terachi, Toshiro

    2010-09-01

    Cancer metastasis is a leading cause of death in cancer patients and is a multistep process involving complex interactions between tumor and host cells. To metastasize, tumor cells must invade or migrate from the primary tumor and be transported to close or distant secondary sites. A tumor cell should successfully accomplish each step of the pathway or metastasis may not develop. KiSS-1 is a human metastasis suppressor gene that inhibits metastasis of human melanomas and breast carcinomas without affecting tumorigenicity. KiSS-1 encodes a carboxy-terminally amidated peptide with 54 amino-acid residues. The peptide was isolated from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor and termed 'metastin'. The literature reports metastin related to human carcinoma, such as melanoma, thyroid cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, as well as breast, ovarian, bladder and kidney cancer. These malignancies are difficult to treat and, even in early-stage cancer, a number of patients develop metastasis shortly after surgery. Studies have suggested that metastin inhibits tumor invasion or migration through focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, MAP kinase or Rho A. Additionally, metastin may be a biomarker in ESCC, pancreatic carcinoma and bladder cancer. Metastin has potential as a suitable biomarker in the identification of tumors with high metastatic potential and as a novel effective treatment modality for patients with metastasis.

  6. Current Challenges in Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis as Potential Biomarkers of Cancer

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    Kamila Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in reducing mortality among people suffering from cancer. There is a lack of characteristic early clinical symptoms in most forms of cancer, which highlights the importance of investigating new methods for its early detection. One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOCs are a diverse group of carbon-based chemicals that are present in exhaled breath and biofluids and may be collected from the headspace of these matrices. Different patterns of VOCs have been correlated with various diseases, cancer among them. Studies have also shown that cancer cells in vitro produce or consume specific VOCs that can serve as potential biomarkers that differentiate them from noncancerous cells. This review identifies the current challenges in the investigation of VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers, by the critical evaluation of available matrices for the in vivo and in vitro approaches in this field and by comparison of the main extraction and detection techniques that have been applied to date in this area of study. It also summarises complementary in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer.

  7. Double-stranded Let-7 mimics, potential candidates for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-zhao; Lv, Ying-hui; Gong, Yu-hua; Li, Zhao-fa; Xu, William; Diao, Yong; Xu, Ruian

    2012-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, single-stranded endogenous RNAs, act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. The ability of one single miRNA regulating multiple functionally related mRNAs makes it a new potential candidate for cancer gene therapy. Let-7s miRNAs have been demonstrated as tumor-suppressor genes in various types of cancers, providing one choice of gene therapy by replenishing this miRNA. In the present studies, we demonstrate that the chemically synthesized, double-stranded Let-7 mimics can inhibit the growth and migration and induce the cell cycle arrest of lung cancer cell lines in vitro. Let-7 mimics silence gene expression by binding to the 3' UTR of targeting mRNAs. Mutation of seed sequence significantly depresses the gene silencing activity of Let-7 mimics. Our results also demonstrate that it is possible to increase the activity of Let-7s through mutating the sequence within the 3'end of the antisense strand. Directly, co-transfection Let-7 mimics with active siRNAs impairs the anti-cancer activities of Let-7 mimics. However, a 3-h interval between the introduction of Let-7 mimics and a kind of siRNA avoids the competition and enhances the anti-cancer activities of Let-7 mimics. Taken together, these results have revealed that Let-7s mimics are potential candidates for cancer gene therapy.

  8. Anticancer effect and enhanced chemotherapy potential of resveratrol in human pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumei Chen; Guangsu Xiong; Ke Zhang; Co-first author Yuanyuan Chen; Ruzhen Zheng; Penjun Zhao; Jianwei Zhu; Shuming Wu; Qinghua Deng; Shenglin Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gemcitabine, the only approved drug for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, is not very ef ec-tive. Novel and ef ective cancer chemopreventive agents are urgently needed. Recently, emerging studies determined resveratrol possessed anticancer ef ects on various cancer cel s. We explored the anticancer ef ect of resveratrol in pancreatic cancer cel s and investigated the involved moleculars of action. We also examined whether resveratrol enhanced antitumor activity of gemcitabine in vitro. Methods Proliferation inhibition was assessed by cel count kit-8 assay. Cel cycle phase distribution and apoptotic cel s were measured by flow cytometric analysis. We determined the expression of bcl-2, cyclinD1, and activation of caspases-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase1 proteins used Western blot analysis. Results Resveratrol inhibited the proliferation of three pancreatic cancer cel lines in a dose dependent fashion, and induced accumulation of cel s at the G1 phase as wel as apoptosis. Our data also demon-strated that resveratrol enhanced gemcitabine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cel s. In addition, resveratrol inhibited the expression of cyclinD1, bcl-2, and induced activation of caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase1. Conclusion Our results suggested that resveratrol might be not only a potential regimen, but also an ef ective chemosensitizer for the chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer.

  9. BNNT-mediated irreversible electroporatio: its potential on cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittoria Raffa, Cristina Riggio, Michael W. Smith, Kevin C. Jordan, Wei Cao, Alfred Cuschieri

    2012-10-01

    Tissue ablation, i.e., the destruction of undesirable tissues, has become an important minimally invasive technique alternative to resection surgery for the treatment of tumours. Several methods for tissue ablation are based on thermal techniques using cold, e.g. cryosurgery [1] or heat, e.g. radiofrequency [2] or high-intensity focused ultrasound [3] or nanoparticle-mediated irradiation [4]. Alternatively, irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been proposed as non thermal technique for minimally invasive tissue ablation based on the use of electrical pulses. When the electric field is applied to a cell, a change in transmembrane potential is induced, which can cause biochemical and physiological changes of the cell. When the threshold value of the transmembrane potential is exceeded, the cell membrane becomes permeable, thus allowing entrance of molecules that otherwise cannot cross the membrane [5]. A further increase in the electric field intensity may cause irreversible membrane permeabilization and cell death. These pulses create irreversible defects (pores) in the cell membrane lipid bilayer, causing cell death through loss of cell homeostasis [6]. This is desirable in tumour ablation in order to produce large cell death, without the use of cytostatic drugs. A study of Davalos, Mir and Rubinsky showed that IRE can ablate substantial volumes of tissue without inducing a thermal effect and therefore serve as an independent and new tissue ablation modality; this opened the way to the use of IRE in surgery [7]. Their finding was subsequently confirmed in studies on cells [8], small animal models [9] and in large animal models in the liver [10] and the heart [11]. The most important finding in these papers is that irreversible electroporation produces precisely delineated ablation zones with cell scale resolution between ablated and non-ablated areas, without zones in which the extent of damage changes gradually as during thermal ablation. Furthermore, it is

  10. Potential synergistic implications for stromal-targeted radiopharmaceuticals in bone-metastatic prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Sartor

    2011-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity and chemotherapy-resistant 'stem cells' represent two of the most pressing issues in devising new strategies for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Though curative strategies have long been present for men with localized disease, metastatic prostate cancer is currently incurable. Though substantial improvements in outcomes are now possible through the utilization of newly approved therapies, novel combinations are clearly needed. Herein we describe potentially synergistic interactions between bone stromal-targeted radiopharmaceuticals and other therapies for treatment of bone-metastatic prostate cancer. Radiation has long been known to synergize with cytotoxic chemotherapies and recent data also suggest the possibility of synergy when combining radiation and immune-based strategies. Combination therapies will be required to substantially improve survival for men with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer and we hypothesize that bone-targeted radiopharmaceuticals will play an important role in this process.

  11. Stress-induced molecules MICA as potential target for radioimmunotherapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakushina, E. V.; Anokhin, Yu N.; Abakushin, D. N.; Kaprin, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Improving the treatment of cancer, increasing their effectiveness and safety is the main objective in the medicine. Molecular nuclear medicine plays an important role in the therapy of cancer. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) involves the use of antibodies conjugated with therapeutic radionuclides. More often for RIT use the radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies against tumor-associated antigens. Encouraging results have been achieved with this technology in the management of hematologic malignancies. On the contrary, solid tumors have been less responsive. Despite these encouraging results, new potential target for radioimmunodetection and RIT should be found. It was found to increase the level of tumor-associated molecules MICA in the serum of cancer patients. Use of anti-MICA monoclonal antibodies capable a specifically attach to cancer cell via NKG2D ligands and destroy it, is a very promising direction, both therapeutic and diagnostic standpoint.

  12. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells and prognosis: the potential link between conventional cancer therapy and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Caroline; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have now documented a link between the immune infiltrate in several human carcinoma types and prognosis and response to therapy. The most comprehensive of these studies were in colorectal cancer with similar conclusions by numerous groups. Analyses of immune infiltrate of several other carcinoma types also showed general correlations between immune infiltrate and prognosis, but with some conflicting results. This review will attempt to summarize the current state of this field and point out what factors may be responsible for some of the conflicting findings. Nonetheless, the breadth of reports drawing similar conclusions for some cancer cell types leads one to more seriously consider the link between immune cell infiltrate and tumor prognosis and/or response to therapy, and the potential for combining conventional cancer therapy with active immunotherapy employing therapeutic cancer vaccines.

  13. Potential of MR mammography to predict tumor grading of invasive breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietzel, M.; Baltzer, P.A.; Zoubi, R.; Groeschel, T.; Burmeister, H. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Vag, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Gajda, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Pathology; Runnebaum, I.B. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Clinic of Gynecology; Kaiser, W.A. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Medical School

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Tumor grading (TG) is one of the most widely used prognostic factors in the case of breast cancer. This study aims to identify the potential of magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) to non-invasively assess TG. Materials and Methods: 399 invasive breast cancers were included (IRB approval; standardized clinical MRM protocols). All breast cancers were prospectively evaluated by two experienced (> 500 MRM) and blinded radiologists in consensus. In every cancer a set of 18 previously published MRM descriptors was assessed. These were assessed by univariate and multivariate analysis to identify the potential of MRM to predict TG (X2 statistics; binary logistic regression; area under the ROC curve [AUC]). Results: 8 of 18 MRM descriptors were associated with TG, e. g. internal structure, edema (p < 0.001), as well as skin thickening and destruction of the nipple line (p < 0.05). MRM was feasible to predict TG by multivariate analysis (p < 0.001). The highest potential could be identified to predict well differentiated breast cancers with good prognosis (AUC = 0.930). Conclusion: MR mammography was able to non-invasively assess tumor grading in a standard protocol. Since tumor grading is a surrogate for overall survival, these results provide further evidence to the clinical application of MR mammography as a noninvasive prognostic tool. (orig.)

  14. Concordance between HER-2 status determined by qPCR in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) samples compared with IHC and FISH in Core Needle Biopsy (CNB) or surgical specimens in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Claudia; Suciu, Voichita; Poterie, Audrey; Lacroix, Ludovic; Miran, Isabelle; Boichard, Amélie; Delaloge, Suzette; Deneuve, Jacqueline; Azoulay, Sandy; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Valent, Alexander; Michiels, Stefan; Arnedos, Monica; Vielh, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    Determining the status of HER2-neu amplification and overexpression in breast cancer is crucial for prognosis but mostly for treatment purposes. Standard techniques include the determination of IHC in combination with in situ hybridization techniques to confirm a HER2-neu amplification in case of IHC2+ using either a core-needle biopsy or a surgical specimen. qPCR has been also demonstrated to be able to determine HER2 status, mostly in core biopsies or in surgical specimens. Fine-needle aspiration is a reliable, quicker and less invasive technique that is widely used for diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. In this study, we assessed the performance of qPCR in invasive breast carcinomas to determine HER2-neu status by using fine-needle aspiration samples and comparing to standard IHC and FISH. From a total of 154 samples from patients who had nodular breast lesions and attended the 1-day-stop clinic at the Gustave Roussy from March 2013 to October 2014, qPCR was able to determine the HER2 status in a mean of 3.7 days (SD 3.1). The overall concordance with standard HER2-testing was very high: 97% (95% CI 0.94 to 0.99); sensitivity was 96% (0.87-1), specificity 98% (0.95-1) and positive and negative predictive values 88% (0.75-1) and 99% (0.98-1), respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that qPCR performed using fine-needle aspiration samples from a primary tumour is a reliable and fast method to determine HER2/neu status in patients with early breast cancer.

  15. Panitumumab: the evidence of its therapeutic potential in metastatic colorectal cancer care

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    Erika Martinelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Erika Martinelli1, Floriana Morgillo1, Teresa Troiani1, Giampaolo Tortora2, Fortunato Ciardiello11Cattedra di Oncologia Medica, Dipartimento Medico-Chirurgico di Internistica Clinica e Sperimentale “F. Magrassi e A. Lanzara”, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Napoli, Italy; 2Dipartimento di Endocrinologia ed Oncologia Molecolare e Clinina, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, ItalyIntroduction: Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common malignant disease. Of newly diagnosed patients, 40% have metastatic disease at diagnosis, and approximately 25% of patients with localized disease at diagnosis will ultimately develop metastatic disease. The benefits of systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer over best supportive care have been established. Panitumumab (ABX-EGF is the first fully human monoclonal antibody developed for use in colorectal cancer that targets the extracellular domains of epidermal growth factor receptor.Aims: The goal of this article is to review the published evidence for the use of panitumumab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer to define its therapeutic potential.Evidence review: The major evidence of panitumumab activity in colorectal cancer has appeared in meeting report abstracts. One phase II study in monotherapy, one in combination with chemotherapy, and one phase III study have included only patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.Clinical potential: To date, in phase II clinical studies panitumumab has demonstrated antitumor activity in advanced, refractory colorectal cancer. As monotherapy it resulted in a 10% response rate with 38% of patients having stable disease, and a 36% response rate with 46% stable disease when combined with chemotherapy. A phase III study indicates a clinically significant advantage of panitumumab as third-line monotherapy over best supportive care. Panitumumab appears to have a good tolerability profile, with no maximum tolerated

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology findings in cases diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia lymphadenitis (Erratum was published in Vol 24 Number 1, 2008

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    Banu DOĞAN GÜN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative coccobacilus that causes zoonotic disease tularemia. Histopathological examination of lymph node biopsy in tularemia reveals suppurative granulomatous inflammation potentially associated caseous necrosis. Diagnosis is mainly made on the evidence of elevated agglutinating antibodies against F. Tularensis. In this study we aimed to evaluate the cytological features of ulceroglandular tularemia cases and to demonstrate the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of tularemia.Fine needle aspiration cytology findings of six cervical lymphadenopaties that had established diagnoses of tularemia both clinically and serologically, were evaluated and the cytomorphological features were described.All of the cases revealed suppurative inflammation and some caseous necrosis and in four cases epithelioid histiocytes and multinuclear giant cells were observed additionally.The differential diagnosis of tularemia principally from tuberculosis and other types of bacterial lymphadenitis was made and the place of fine needle aspiration cytology among other diagnostic laboratory tests for tularemia was evaluated.

  17. Exosomes are fingerprints of originating cells: potential biomarkers for ovarian cancer

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    Kobayashi M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Miharu Kobayashi, Gregory E Rice, Jorge Tapia, Murray D Mitchell, Carlos Salomon Exosome Biology Laboratory, Centre for Clinical Diagnostics, University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Abstract: The past decade has seen an extraordinary explosion of research in the field of extracellular vesicles, especially in a specific type of extracellular vesicles originating from endosomal compartments, called exosomes. Exosomes are a specific subtype of secreted vesicles that are defined as small (~30–120 nm but very stable membrane vesicles that are released from a wide range of cells, including normal and cancer cells. As the content of exosomes is cell type specific, it is believed that they are a "fingerprint" of the releasing cell and its metabolic status. We hypothesized that the exosomes and their specific exosomal content (eg, microribonucleic acid represent a precious biomedical tool and may be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of malignant tumors. In addition, exosomes may modify the phenotype of the parent and/or target cell by transferring pro-oncogenic molecules to induce cancerous phenotype of recipient cells and contribute to the formation of the premetastatic niche. The mechanism involved in these phenomena remains unclear; however, inclusion of signaling mediators into exosomes or exosome release may reduce their intracellular bioavailability in the parent cell, thereby altering cell phenotype and their metastatic potential. The aim of this review therefore is to analyze the biogenesis and role of exosomes from tumor cells, focusing primarily on ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer, and an effective early diagnosis has the potential to improve patient survival. Ovarian cancer currently lacks a reliable method for early detection, however, exosomes have received great attention as potential biomarkers and mediators

  18. Performance of the Cellslide® automated liquid-based cytology system amongst HIV-positive women

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    Pamela Michelow

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many women undergoing cervical screening as part of a national South African screening programme may be positive for HIV. The performance of liquid-based cytology (LBC on samples from HIV-positive women needs to be determined.Objectives: The performance of the Cellslide® automated LBC system was evaluated as a possible alternative to conventional cytology in a national cervical cancer screening programme.Methods: Split samples from 348 HIV-positive women attending an HIV treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa were examined by conventional cytology and monolayer LBC methods. All samples were stained, examined and reported in the same manner. Cytotechnologists were blinded to the conventional smear diagnosis if the LBC smear was screened and vice versa.Results: The same percentage of inadequate smears (1.4% was obtained by conventional cytology and LBC. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were observed in 5.2% of conventional smears and 4.0% of LBC smears. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were found in 35.6% of conventional smears and 32.7% of LBC smears. Only one conventional smear was categorised as atypical squamous cells – cannot exclude a high-grade lesion, whereas five such cases were identified on LBC. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were seen in 21.6% of conventional smears and 23.3% LBC smears. No invasive carcinoma was identified.Conclusion: The performance of the Cellslide® LBC system was similar to that of conventional cytology in this population of high-risk HIV-positive women, indicating that it may be introduced successfully as part of a cervical cancer screening programme.

  19. Value of liquid-based cytology of brushing specimens obtained via fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of lung cancer%纤维支气管镜下刷取标本液基细胞学检查在肺癌临床诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵焕; 郭会芹; 张传欣; 赵琳琳; 曹箭; 潘秦镜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of the liquid⁃based cytology ( LBC ) of brushing specimens obtained via fiberoptic bronchoscopy for clinical diagnosis of lung cancer. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the LBC cases in our hospital from January 2011 to May 2012, and evaluate its role in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Results The clinical data of a total of 4 380 cases were reviewed and 3 763 of them had histopathological or clinical follow⁃up results ( including 3 306 lung cancer cases and 457 benign lesion cases) . The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LBC diagnosis for lung cancer were 72. 4%(2 392/3 306), 99.3%(454/457) and 75.6%(2 846/3 763), respectively. Of the 1 992 lung cancer cases diagnosed by brushing LBC, 528 cases(26.5%) were failed to take forceps biopsy and 113 cases(5.7%) showed negative forceps biopsy results. The accurate rate of subtyping of LBC for non⁃small cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma was 99.0% (1 487/1 502) (P0.05). Conclusions Fiberoptic bronchoscopic brushing liquid⁃based cytology can significantly improve the detection rate of lung cancer, and have a high specificity and accurate rate of subtyping. It is an effective tool for the diagnosis and subtyping of lung cancer.%目的:探讨纤维支气管镜( FOB)下刷取标本液基细胞学检查对临床诊断肺癌的价值。方法回顾性分析2011年1月至2012年5月中国医学科学院肿瘤医院收治的FOB下刷取标本液基细胞学病例资料,评价其在肺癌诊断中的意义。结果共收集4380例,其中3763例有组织病理学及临床随访结果(肺癌3306例,良性病变457例)。刷取标本液基细胞学诊断肺癌的敏感性、特异性和准确性分别为72.4%(2392/3306)、99.3%(454/457)和75.6%(2846/3763)。在液基细胞学诊断为癌的1992例病例中,528例(26.5%)未取到活检,113例(5.7%)活检阴性。液基细胞学对非小细胞癌和小细胞癌

  20. Prognostic and diagnostic potential of local and circulating levels of pentraxin 3 in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Maurizio; Allavena, Paola; Garlanda, Cecilia; Nebuloni, Manuela; Morenghi, Emanuela; Rahal, Daoud; Roncalli, Massimo; Cavuto, Silvio; Pesce, Samantha; Monari, Marta; Valaperta, Serenella; Montanelli, Alessandro; Solomon, Daniel; Bottoni, Edoardo; Errico, Valentina; Voulaz, Emanuele; Bossi, Manuela; Chiesa, Giuseppe; Passera, Eliseo; Mantovani, Alberto; Alloisio, Marco

    2016-02-15

    There is a well-established link between inflammation and cancer of various organs, but little data are available on inflammation-associated markers of diagnostic and prognostic clinical utility in pulmonary malignancy. Blood samples were prospectively collected from 75 resectable lung cancer patients before surgery and in a cohort of 1,358 high-risk subjects. Serum levels of long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) were determined by high-sensitivity ELISA. PTX3 immunostaining was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in cancer tissue. Serum PTX3 levels in the high-risk population were not predictive of developing subsequent lung cancer or any other malignancy; however, serum PTX3 values in patients with lung cancer were significantly higher compared with cancer-free heavy smokers. With a cutoff of 4.5 ng/ml, specificity was 0.80, sensitivity 0.69, positive predictive value 0.15 and negative predictive value 0.98. The receiver operating curve (ROC) for serum PTX3 had an area under the curve (AUC) of 83.52%. Preoperative serum PTX3 levels in lung cancer patients did not correlate with patient outcome, but high interstitial expression of PTX3 in resected tumor specimens was a significant independent prognostic factor associated with shorter survival (p < 0.001). These results support the potential of serum PTX3 as a lung cancer biomarker in high-risk subjects. Furthermore, PTX3 immunohistochemistry findings support the role of local inflammatory mechanisms in determining clinical outcome and suggest that local expression of PTX3 may be of prognostic utility in lung cancer patients.

  1. Liquid-based endometrial cytology: the Florence and Bari experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccoliero, A M; Resta, L; Napoli, A; Taddei, G L

    2009-04-01

    Several diagnostic procedures are available to investigate the endometrium, i.e. sonography, hysteroscopy, biopsy, endometrial curettage and cytology. Among these, endometrial cytology is less commonly utilized. Although the use of cytology in the diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma has already been proposed due to its low cost and simple execution, a general consensus has not been reached. The improvement of the diagnostic capacity of endometrial cytology following the introduction of a liquid-based method suggests that this test should be routinely used in endometrial diagnosis. The main advantages of this method are the reduction in confounding factors, the distribution of cells on a thin layer and the possibility to obtain more slides from the same sample. The aim of this article is to focus on the methodological procedures and diagnostic criteria in liquid-based endometrial cytology based on the experience in two Italian centres: Department of Pathology, University of Bari and Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence. The sampling method used by the Bari authors consists in the collection of liquid for uterine distension during hysteroscopy, while the Florence group used an endometrial brush. The sensitivity and specificity at Bari were 75% and 83%, respectively, and were 94-100% and 95-100% at Florence, respectively. Endometrial cytology provided sufficient diagnostic material significantly more often than biopsy. We thus propose that endometrial cytology can be used in routine diagnosis either alone or in association with other diagnostic procedures in order to improve diagnostic accuracy.

  2. Preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis by clinical cytology

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    Matsuda K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Katsuya Matsuda,1 Hisayoshi Nakajima,2 Khaleque N Khan,1 Terumi Tanigawa,1 Daisuke Hamaguchi,1 Michio Kitajima,1 Koichi Hiraki,1 Shingo Moriyama,3 Hideaki Masuzaki11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Health Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 3Shimabara Maternity Clinic, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to investigate whether clinical cytology could be useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Methods: This study involved the prospective collection of samples derived from the endometrium and the uterine cervix, and retrospective data analysis. Nine patients with clinically diagnosed pelvic actinomycosis were enrolled. The clinical and hematological characteristics of patients were recorded, and detection of actinomyces was performed by cytology, pathology, and bacteriological culture of samples and by imprint intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD cytology.Results: The detection rate of actinomyces was 77.7% by combined cervical and endometrial cytology, 50.0% by pathology, and 11.1% by bacterial culture.Conclusion: The higher detection rate of actinomyces by cytology than by pathology or bacteriology suggests that careful cytological examination may be clinically useful in the preoperative diagnosis of pelvic actinomycosis.Keywords: actinomycosis, cytology, pathology, intrauterine contraceptive device, pelvic inflammatory disease

  3. Oral hairy leukoplakia: An exfoliative cytology study

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    Ajay Reginald

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL is a white, hyperplastic, vertically corrugated lesion that occurs on the lateral border of the tongue, usually unilateral. Caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV, the lesion is said to be an early indicator of an immune deficiency status, thereby unmasking subclinical systemic conditions. OHL mimics many other white lesions of the oral cavity; therefore, it becomes imperative to identify the lesion. This study used exfoliative cytology, a noninvasive procedure, which helped in identifying the cellular changes brought about by the virus in the oral epithelium. The study revealed a subclinical phase of OHL, where the cellular changes were seen even before the appearance of the clinical lesion.

  4. Significance of nuclear morphometry in cytological aspirates of breast masses

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    Kalhan Shivani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy globally. Cytological evaluation in breast lesions is largely subjective. Gradual progression of cells from normal to invasive involves nuclear changes that need to be viewed objectively. Aims : This study aims to apply nuclear morphometry on cytological breast aspirates. It evaluates its utility in differentiating benign vs. malignant lesions and correlates it with cytologic grading in malignant cases. Setting and Design : Nuclear morphometric parameters of malignant and benign cases were compared. Parameters of malignant cases were correlated with cytologic grading. Materials and Methods : Cytology was used to categorize aspirates from breast lumps into malignant (53 cases and benign (29 cases. One hundred cells per case in both groups were mapped on DEBEL Cytoscan and six geometrical and three textural parameters obtained were compared. In malignant cases, morphometry was correlated with Robinson′s cytologic grading, which was further correlated in tissue sections (45 cases with modified Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histologic grading. Statistical Analysis : Students "t"-test was applied for comparison between benign and malignant cases. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni′s post hoc comparison was applied to compare the three cytologic grades. Results were considered significant when P<0.05. Results : Nuclear morphometry successfully differentiated between benign and malignant aspirates and correlated significantly with cytologic grades. Morphometry was especially useful in the diagnosis of atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ. Useful parameters were mean nuclear area, long axis, short axis and total run length. Cytohistologic correlation was 83.3%, 88.9% and 88.9% for cytological grades 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusions : Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in the evaluation of breast masses.

  5. MRI-Derived Cellularity Index as a Potential Noninvasive Imaging Biomarker of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0391 TITLE: MRI -Derived Cellularity Index as a Potential...2. REPORT TYPE Annual report 3. DATES COVERED 15 Sep 2013 - 14 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MRI ...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Standard magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) of the prostate lacks sensitivity in the diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PCa

  6. Serum cathepsin H as a potential prognostic marker in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, A; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Cathepsin H is a lysosomal cysteine protease that may participate in tumor progression. In order to evaluate its potential as a prognostic marker, its protein levels were measured by ELISA in preoperative sera from 324 patients with colorectal cancer. The level of cathepsin H was significantly...

  7. The comparison of thrombocytosis and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as potential prognostic markers in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Krzystanek, Marcin; Josa, Valeria;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the preoperative platelet count and the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) of different stages and with hepatic metastasis of CRC (mCRC) and to compare these factors as potential prognostic markers. Clinicopathologi...

  8. Early detection of cervical cancer with visual inspection methods: a summary of completed and on-going studies in India

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    Sankaranarayanan R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available India is a high-risk country for cervical cancer which accounts a quarter (126 000 new cases, 71 000 deaths around 2 000 of the world burden. The age-standardized incidence rates range from 16-55 per 100 000 women in different regions with particularly high rates in rural areas. Control of cervical cancer by early detection and treatment is a priority of the National Cancer Control Programme of India. There are no organized cytology screening programmes in the country. The technical and financial constraints to organize cytology screening have encouraged the evaluation of visual inspection approaches as potential alternatives to cervical cytology in India. Four types of visual detection approaches for cervical neoplasia are investigated in India: a naked eye inspection without acetic acid application, widely known as 'downstaging'; b naked eye inspection after application of 3-5% acetic acid (VIA; c VIA using magnification devices (VIAM; d visual inspection after the application of Lugol's iodine (VILI. Downstaging has been shown to be poorly sensitive and specific to detect cervical neoplasia and is no longer considered as a suitable screening test for cervical cancer. VIA, VIAM and VILI are currently being investigated in multicentre cross-sectional studies (without verification bias, in which cytology and HPV testing are also simultaneously evaluated, and the results of these investigations will be available in 2003. These studies will provide valuable information on the average, comparative test performances in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors and cancer. Results from pooled analysis of data from two completed studies indicated an approximate sensitivity of 93.4% and specificity of 85.1% for VIA to detect CIN 2 or worse lesions; the corresponding figures for cytology were 72.1% and 91.6%. The efficacy of VIA in reducing incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer and its cost-effectiveness is currently being investigated

  9. Au/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures for the detection of cancer cells and anticancer drug activity by potential sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jingjie; Chen, Jing; Chen, Shaowei; Gao, Li; Xu, Ping; Li, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Cancer is a cell dysfunction disease. The detection of cancer cells is extremely important for early diagnosis and clinical treatments. At present, the pretreatment for the detection of cancer cells is costly, complicated and time-consuming. As different species of the analytes may give rise to specific voltammetric signals at distinctly different potentials, simple potential sensing has the specificity to detect different cellular species. By taking advantage of the different electrochemical characteristics of normal cells, cancer cells and biointeractions between anticancer drugs and cancer cells, we develop a specific, sensitive, direct, cost-effective and rapid method for the detection of cancer cells by electrochemical potential sensing based on Au/TiO2 nanobelt heterostructure electrodes that will be of significance in early cancer diagnosis, in vitro screening of anticancer drugs and molecular biology research.

  10. Koilocytes in urinary cytology in a patient with kidney transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Eugenia; Drut, Ricardo

    2008-05-01

    We are reporting the case of a 17-year-old girl with kidney transplant under immunosuppressive treatment. Evidences of transplant malfunction led to urinary cytology to rule out BKV infection. The smears showed the presence of koilocytes. Gynecologic examination revealed numerous condylomatous lesions in the vulva, vagina, and cervix. PAP smears showed cells with moderate to severe koilocytic dysplasia. PCR performed on material retrieved from both the smears showed HPV18 DNA sequences. Koilocytes have rarely been documented in urinary cytologic examination. Since post-transplant immunosuppressed patients are prone to develop florid and extensive HPV infections, urinary cytology may prove useful for routine search of cells with this virus cytopathic effect.

  11. Chondroblastoma: Report of two cases diagnosed by cytology

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    Jayasudha A Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign cartilage producing neoplasm with a characteristic epiphyseal location. This report documents the cytological features of two cases of chondroblastomas diagnosed by cytology. One of the two cases had an unusual location in the temporomandibular region and the other was located in the epi-metaphyseal region of the right humerus. Smears characteristically revealed chondroblasts and osteoclast-like giant cells. The cytologic diagnosis of chondroblastoma was confirmed on both cases by histopathology. The radiologic appearance and differential diagnosis in both cases are discussed.

  12. Association between micronucleus frequency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade in Thinprep cytological test and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong-Hua; Wang, Bo-Wei; Tuokan, Talaf; Li, Qiao-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Jing

    2015-01-01

    A micronucleus is an additional small nucleus formed due to chromosomes or chromosomal fragments fail to be incorporated into the nucleus during cell division. In this study, we assessed the utility of micronucleus counting as a screening tool in cervical precancerous lesions in Thinprep cytological test smears under oil immersion. High risk HPV was also detected by hybrid capture-2 in Thinprep cytological test smears. Our results showed that micronucleus counting was significantly higher in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and invasive carcinoma cases compared to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and non-neoplastic cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that micronucleus counting possessed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity for identifying HSIL and invasive carcinoma. Cut-off of 7.5 for MN counting gave a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 66.7% (P = 0.024 and AUC = 0.892) for detecting HSIL and invasive carcinoma lesions. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only HSIL and invasive cancer lesions not age, duration of marital life and number of pregnancy are significantly associated with MN counting. The positive rate of high risk HPV was distinctly higher in LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer than that in non-neoplstic categories. In conclusions, MN evaluation may be viewed as an effective biomarker for cervical cancer screening. The combination of MN count with HPV DNA detection and TCT may serve as an effective means to screen precancerous cervical lesions in most developing nations.

  13. The experience with fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of palpable breast lumps in the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, C H; Jayaram, G; Alhady, S F

    2000-09-01

    A total of 676 palpable breast lumps seen in the Breast Clinic, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from August 1993 to August 1994 were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology. Fifty-four were reported as inadequate, 501 benign, 95 malignant and 26 suspicious. One hundred and eighty-seven aspirates had histological correlation, while 34 of the malignant aspirates had clinical correlation. The majority of the other 455 patients were followed up for a period of 60 to 72 months without any malignancies becoming apparent. For analysis, only the 221 cases with histological or clinical correlation were included, (the suspicious category was included into the positive group and the inadequate cases were excluded), giving a sensitivity of 91.7%, a specificity of 91.7% and a diagnostic accuracy of 91.7%. Breast cytology was an accurate and rapid method of diagnosis of breast diseases, and in a busy surgical unit with limited operating time, it allowed for the triage of patients with breast complaints in deciding which cases needed early open biopsy. A negative cytology does not exclude the possibility of cancer, as there was a false negative rate of 11%. However by utilising a diagnostic triad of clinical examination, radiological assessment and fine needle aspiration cytology, the risk of missing a malignancy is small.

  14. Second edition of 'The Bethesda System for reporting cervical cytology' – atlas, website, and Bethesda interobserver reproducibility project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayar Ritu

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A joint task force of the American Society of Cytopathology (ASC and the National Cancer Institute (NCI recently completed a 2-year effort to revise the Bethesda System "blue book" atlas and develop a complementary web-based collection of cervical cytology images. The web-based collection of images is housed on the ASC website, which went live on November 5th, 2003; it can be directly accessed at http://www.cytopathology.org/NIH/.

  15. Evaluation of colposcopy vs cytology as secondary test to triage women found positive on visual inspection test

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    S A Pimple

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colposcopic evaluation and guided biopsy is an important diagnostic step and standard of management for abnormal cytology smears in developed countries. Aim: The present study evaluates the performance of colposcopy vs conventional cytology in estimating the presence and grade of cervical disease against the reference standard of histopathology as a secondary test modality to triage women found positive on primary screening by visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA. Settings and Design: Colposcopy and directed biopsy were performed after primary screening for cervical cancer in an urban hospital cancer screening clinic between January 2000 and June 2005, in Mumbai, India. Materials and Methods: Healthy women (8863 in the age group of 35-65 years participated in the cervical cancer early detection program in the hospital and community cancer screening clinics in Mumbai. Women found positive on the primary screening test by VIA underwent diagnostic evaluation by Pap smear cytology and colposcopy evaluation with directed biopsies. Statistical Analysis: Accuracy parameters and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated using 2 Χ 2 tables and standard formulae. Results: The test range of sensitivity of colposcopy for the detection of histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1+ (CIN1+ or CIN2+ was 58.0-74.7% and that of specificity was 57.5-92.9%. The sensitivity and specificity of cytology to detect CIN2+ was 57.4% and 99.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Colposcopy is a good sensitive test for the detection of CIN and can be considered as a secondary testing tool to triage women found positive on VIA.

  16. Detection of EGFR mutational profile by direct dideoxy sequencing in cytology and non-cytology biopsy samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Connull; Giardina, Tindaro; Carrello, Amerigo; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Amanuel, Benhur

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational analysis is recommended in the diagnostic work-up of non-small cell lung carcinoma. The first diagnostic biopsy is usually obtained by a minimally invasive procedure, especially in patients with unresectable disease. This paper aims to compare the types of somatic EGFR mutations detected by cytology and non-cytology samples by direct dideoxy sequencing and propose practical guidelines for handling such material. Only samples with sufficient polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product were considered, a total 310 samples (302 patients), of which 168 samples were cytology material and 142 samples were non-cytology biopsy material. All samples were assessed for tumour content and bidirectional direct sequencing was performed on exons 18, 19, 20 and 21. There were 49 cases with EGFR mutation detected (16.2%), without a significant difference in the detection of mutations between either cytology or non-cytology material. EGFR mutation was detected in most sample types including endoscopic ultrasound guided FNA, bronchial washings/brushings and pleural/peritoneal fluid samples. Cytology material can provide an adequate source of material for EGFR mutational analysis, with coordinated effort between clinicians and pathologists critical for best outcome.

  17. Potential Molecular Targeted Therapeutics: Role of PI3-K/Akt/mTOR Inhibition in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Kevin M; Koprowski, Steven; Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Gamblin, T Clark; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2016-01-01

    Primary liver cancer is one of the most commonly occurring cancers worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the majority of primary liver cancer and is the 3rd most common cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Survival rates of patients with HCC are dependent upon early detection as concomitant liver dysfunction and advanced disease limits traditional therapeutic options such as resection or ablation. Unfortunately, at the time of diagnosis, most patients are not eligible for curative surgery and have a five-year relative survival rate less than 20%, leading to systemic therapy as the only option. Currently, sorafenib is the only approved systemic therapy; however, it has a limited survival advantage and low efficacy prompting alternative strategies. The inception of sorafenib for HCC systemic therapy and the understanding involved of cancer therapy have led to an enhanced focus of the PI3-k/Akt/mTOR pathway as a potential area of targeting including pan and isoform-specific PI3-K inhibitors, Akt blockade, and mTOR suppression. The multitude, expanding roles, and varying clinical trials of these inhibitors have led to an increase in knowledge and availability for current and future studies. In this review, we provide a review of the literature with the aim to focus on potential targets for HCC therapies as well as an in depth focus on Akt inhibition.

  18. Cancer Cell Adhesion and Metastasis: Selectins, Integrins, and the Inhibitory Potential of Heparins

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    Gerd Bendas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion molecules play a significant role in cancer progression and metastasis. Cell-cell interactions of cancer cells with endothelium determine the metastatic spread. In addition, direct tumor cell interactions with platelets, leukocytes, and soluble components significantly contribute to cancer cell adhesion, extravasation, and the establishment of metastatic lesions. Clinical evidence indicates that heparin, commonly used for treatment of thromboembolic events in cancer patients, is beneficial for their survival. Preclinical studies confirm that heparin possesses antimetastatic activities that lead to attenuation of metastasis in various animal models. Heparin contains several biological activities that may affect several steps in metastatic cascade. Here we focus on the role of cellular adhesion receptors in the metastatic cascade and discuss evidence for heparin as an inhibitor of cell adhesion. While P- and L-selectin facilitation of cellular contacts during hematogenous metastasis is being accepted as a potential target of heparin, here we propose that heparin may also interfere with integrin activity and thereby affect cancer progression. This review summarizes recent findings about potential mechanisms of tumor cell interactions in the vasculature and antimetastatic activities of heparin.

  19. ICAM1 Is a Potential Cancer Stem Cell Marker of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Sheng-Ta Tsai

    Full Text Available Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC accounts for about 90% of esophageal cancer diagnosed in Asian countries, with its incidence on the rise. Cancer stem cell (CSC; also known as tumor-initiating cells, TIC is inherently resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation and associates with poor prognosis and therapy failure. Targeting therapy against cancer stem cell has emerged as a potential therapeutic approach to develop effective regimens. However, the suitable CSC marker of ESCC for identification and targeting is still limited. In this study, we screened the novel CSC membrane protein markers using two distinct stemness characteristics of cancer cell lines by a comparative approach. After the validation of RT-PCR, qPCR and western blot analyses, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1 was identified as a potential CSC marker of ESCC. ICAM1 promotes cancer cell migration, invasion as well as increasing mesenchymal marker expression and attenuating epithelial marker expression. In addition, ICAM1 contributes to CSC properties, including sphere formation, drug resistance, and tumorigenesis in mouse xenotransplantation model. Based on the analysis of ICAM1-regulated proteins, we speculated that ICAM1 regulates CSC properties partly through an ICAM1-PTTG1IP-p53-DNMT1 pathway. Moreover, we observed that ICAM1 and CD44 could have a compensation effect on maintaining the stemness characteristics of ESCC, suggesting that the combination of multi-targeting therapies should be under serious consideration to acquire a more potent therapeutic effect on CSC of ESCC.

  20. Redox Regulation in Cancer: A Double-edged Sword with Therapeutic Potential

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    Asha Acharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, implicated in the etiology of cancer, results from an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell’s own antioxidant defenses. ROS deregulate the redox homeostasis and promote tumor formation by initiating an aberrant induction of signaling networks that cause tumorigenesis. Ultraviolet (UV exposures, γ-radiation and other environmental carcinogens generate ROS in the cells, which can exert apoptosis in the tumors, thereby killing the malignant cells or induce the progression of the cancer growth by blocking cellular defense system. Cancer stem cells take the advantage of the aberrant redox system and spontaneously proliferate. Oxidative stress and gene-environment interactions play a significant role in the development of breast, prostate, pancreatic and colon cancer. Prolonged lifetime exposure to estrogen is associated with several kinds of DNA damage. Oxidative stress and estrogen receptor-associated proliferative changes are suggested to play important roles in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis. BRCA1, a tumor suppressor against hormone responsive cancers such as breast and prostate cancer, plays a significant role in inhibiting ROS and estrogen mediated DNA damage; thereby regulate the redox homeostasis of the cells. Several transcription factors and tumor suppressors are involved during stress response such as Nrf2, NFκB and BRCA1. A promising strategy for targeting redox status of the cells is to use readily available natural substances from vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices. Many of the phytochemicals have already been identified to have chemopreventive potential, capable of intervening in carcinogenesis.

  1. 11C-harmine as a potential PET tracer for ductal pancreas cancer: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, G; Persson, B; Bergström, M; Långström, B; Aspelin, P

    2003-04-01

    Our objective was to fi