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Sample records for cancer current modalities

  1. [Overview of current modalities of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajzrlíková, Ivana Mikoviny; Vítek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    There are one-step and two-steps programs for colorectal cancer screening. The aim of all screening examinations is to detect early stage of the disease in asymptomatic patient. The aim of this article is actual review of current screening modalities such as fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoideoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography, capsule endoscopy, blood-based tests and stool DNA tests. Colonoscopy still remains the gold standard for detection of colorectal neoplasias. In majority of countries worldwide programs for colorectal cancer screening are based on immunochemical fecal occult blood test followed by colonoscopy when positive.

  2. Multi-modal imaging and cancer therapy using lanthanide oxide nanoparticles: current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J Y; Chang, Y; Lee, G H

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical imaging is an essential tool for diagnosis and therapy of diseases such as cancers. It is likely true that medicine has developed with biomedical imaging methods. Sensitivity and resolution of biomedical imaging methods can be improved with imaging agents. Furthermore, it will be ideal if imaging agents could be also used as therapeutic agents. Therefore, one dose can be used for both diagnosis and therapy of diseases (i.e., theragnosis). This will simplify medical treatment of diseases, and will be also a benefit to patients. Mixed (Ln(1x)Ln(2y)O3, x + y = 2) or unmixed (Ln2O3) lanthanide (Ln) oxide nanoparticles (Ln = Eu, Gd, Dy, Tb, Ho, Er) are potential multi-modal imaging and cancer therapeutic agents. The lanthanides have a variety of magnetic and optical properties, useful for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescent imaging (FI), respectively. They also highly attenuate X-ray beam, useful for X-ray computed tomography (CT). In addition gadolinium-157 ((157)Gd) has the highest thermal neutron capture cross section among stable radionuclides, useful for gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT). Therefore, mixed or unmixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles can be used for multi-modal imaging methods (i.e., MRI-FI, MRI-CT, CT-FI, and MRICT- FI) and cancer therapy (i.e., GdNCT). Since mixed or unmixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles are single-phase and solid-state, they can be easily synthesized, and are compact and robust, which will be beneficial to biomedical applications. In this review physical properties of the lanthanides, synthesis, characterizations, multi-modal imagings, and cancer therapy of mixed and unmixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles are discussed.

  3. Current adjuvant treatment modalities for gastric cancer:From history to the future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leyla Kilic; Cetin Ordu; Ibrahim Yildiz; Fatma Sen; Serkan Keskin; Rumeysa Ciftci; Kezban Nur Pilanci

    2016-01-01

    The discrepancy between the surgical technique and the type of adjuvant chemotherapy used in clinical trials and patient outcomes in terms of overall survival rates has led to the generation of different adjuvant treatment protocols in distinct parts of the world.The adjuvant treatment recommendation is generally chemoradiotherapy in the United States,perioperative chemotherapy in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe,and chemotherapy in Asia.These options mainly rely on the United States Intergroup-0116,United Kingdom British Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy,and the Asian Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial of S-1 for Gastric Cancer and Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin Adjuvant Study in Stomach Cancer trials.However,the benefits were evident for only certain patients,which were not very homogeneous regarding the type of surgery,chemotherapy regimens,and stage of disease.Whether the dissimilarities in survival are attributable to surgical technique or intrinsic biological differences is a subject of debate.Regardless of the extent of surgery,multimodal therapy may offer modest survival advantage at least for diseases with lymph node involvement.Moreover,in the era of individualized treatment for most of the other cancer types,identification of special subgroups comprising those who will derive more or no benefit from adjuvant therapy merits further investigation.The aim of this review is to reveal the historical evolution and future reflections of adjuvant treatment modalities for resected gastric cancer patients.

  4. Combined-modality treatment for anal cancer. Current strategies and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedel, Claus [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Fraunholz, Ingeborg; Rabeneck, Daniela; Weiss, Christian

    2010-07-15

    Background: concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) is the treatment of choice for anal carcinoma. The most appropriate radiation (RT) dose, fractionation, techniques, and the most effective chemotherapy regimen (agents, number of neoadjuvant, concomitant, adjuvant cycles) remain to be established. Material and methods: this review article focuses on recent randomized trials designed to improve standard 5-FU/MMC-based CRT through the inclusion of (induction, concurrent, maintenance) cisplatin, and describes developments in combining RT with other chemotherapeutic drugs and targeted therapies. Computerized bibliographic searches of PubMed were supplemented with hand searches of reference lists and abstracts of ASCO/ASTRO/ESTRO meetings. Results: based on results of three recent randomized phase III trials, neither induction chemotherapy (RTOG 98-11, ACCORD 03) or maintenance chemotherapy with 5-FU/cisplatin (ACT II) nor RT dose escalation (ACCORD 03) improved the outcome of concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT. A randomized phase II trial (EORTC 22011-40014) compared concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT with cisplatin/MMC-CRT. The response rate of cisplatin/MMC-CRT was promising, but compliance to this regimen was limited. Current phase I/II studies are evaluating the use of capecitabine, oxalipatin, and the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) inhibitor cetuximab. Conclusion: concurrent 5-FU/MMC-CRT without induction or maintenance chemotherapy remains the standard of care for anal cancer patients. (orig.)

  5. New treatment modalities in advanced thyroid cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, E.; Schneider, T.C.; Morreau, H.; Gelderblom, H.; Nortier, J.W.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is classified into differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Results of conventional treatment modalities in advanced thyroid cancer have been disappointing a

  6. Overview: New Modality for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is now becoming a promising modality of cancer treatment upon the clinical successes of adoptive T-cell transfer and immune checkpoint blockade. At the 30th Nagoya International Cancer Treatment Symposium, Marcel R.M. van den Brink (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) showed novel strategies to control malignant relapse and graft-versus-host disease, both major obstacles for clinical benefits in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Alexander M. Lesokhin (MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) presented an overview of immune checkpoint blockade, particularly focusing on hematologic malignancies stressing the importance of immunomonitoring to identify biomarkers.

  7. Tumour Debulking for Esophageal Cancer - Thermal Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleischer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer usually is discovered at a late stage and curative therapy seldom is possible. The prognosis is poor and most therapy is palliative. Endoscopic therapy commonly is employed; two common treatments involve thermal modalities. The Nd:YAG laser has been employed for 10 years and is effective in relieving obstruction in approximately 90% of cases. Re-ohstruction usually occurs in two to three months and repeat treatment may be necessary. Limitations to laser use include the fact that equipment is expensive and there are technical restrictions. An alternative thermal modality is the bipolar coagulation tumour probe which employs bipolar electrocoagulation. It is less expensive and, if the tumour is circumferential, tends to be easier to use. (It should not be used if the cancer is noncircumferential. The advantages and limitations of each modality are addressed.

  8. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  9. Plantar fasciitis: current diagnostic modalities and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kevin; Chen, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. The diagnosis is made clinically and validated with different diagnostic modalities ranging from ultrasound to magnetic resonance imaging. Treatments vary from stretching exercises to different surgical options. No single treatment is guaranteed to alleviate the heel pain.

  10. Testosterone Substitution: Current Modalities and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitzmann M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of male hypogonadism is associated with typical symptoms, such as disturbances of mood and cognitive abilities as well as sexual functions; furtheron, a decrease in muscle mass and strength, an accumulation of body fat and osteopenia/osteoporosis are observed. There are indications that insulin sensitivity is mitigated in a state of androgen depletion. In older men, symptoms of androgen deficiency (late-onset hypogonadism may exhibit a differential profile due to accompanying other chronic illnesses. Restoring serum testosterone levels by replacement therapy can markedly attenuate, if not relieve, the clinical picture of hypogonadism. Recently, new treatment modalities have been introduced, which include short-acting transdermal or buccal modalities as well as the long-acting depot preparation of testosterone undecanoate. This review summarises the pathways of diagnosis of male hypogonadism and discusses the various modern methods of initiation and surveillance of testosterone substitution therapy. Future perspectives regarding pharmacogenetic aspects are discussed.

  11. Multi-modality molecular imaging for gastric cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jimin; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Junting; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Wang, Fu; Nie, Yongzhan

    2011-12-01

    Because of the ability of integrating the strengths of different modalities and providing fully integrated information, multi-modality molecular imaging techniques provide an excellent solution to detecting and diagnosing earlier cancer, which remains difficult to achieve by using the existing techniques. In this paper, we present an overview of our research efforts on the development of the optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform, including the development of the imaging system, reconstruction algorithms and preclinical biomedical applications. Primary biomedical results show that the developed optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform may provide great potential in the preclinical biomedical applications and future clinical translation.

  12. AUTOFLUORESCENCE BRONCHOSCOPY AS A MODALITY FOR EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAW Nugraha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has become a complicated health problem in the world. In 2005, approximately 172,500 people diagnosed with lung cancer in the United States. In Indonesia, lung cancer ranks fourth highest. Lung cancer is also the most common cause of death from cancer, so we need appropriate early detection modality to reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. Compared with other modalities that currently available, Autofluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB seems to have better accuracy in early diagnosis of lung cancer. AFB can be used to evaluate patients with high-grade sputum atypia, evaluating patients with suspected or had suffered from lung cancer, and have a role in follow-up of bronchial high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia.

  13. Current Imaging Modalities for assessing Ocular Blood Flow in Glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mohindroo, Chirayu; Ichhpujani, Parul; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma may be caused by an interplay of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), vascular, genetic, anatomical, brain, and immune factors. The direct assessment of ocular hemodynam-ics offers promise for glaucoma detection, differentiation, and possibly new treatment modalities. All the methods currently in use to measure ocular blood flow have inherent limitations and measure different aspects of ocular blood flow. This review article attempts to provide detailed information on ocular perfu-si...

  14. Nutritional status of cancer patients given different treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, K; Roy, R K; Vijayalakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2004-08-01

    The nutritional status of 91 cancer patients was assessed at the time of diagnosis and follow-up assessments were carried out at the third and sixth week after initiating different treatment modalities to study the effect of type and duration of treatment on nutritional status. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, biochemical status and clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Treatment modalities studied were radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemotherapy+radiotherapy, and combined treatment modality (surgery+radiotherapy+chemotherapy). The nutritional status of male patients was affected most by chemotherapy+radiotherapy while females were affected most with radiotherapy. Biochemical parameters showed a marginal decline in total serum protein and serum albumin concentrations. Haemoglobin concentrations declined substantially with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The lymphocyte count decreased substantially irrespective of the treatment modality. Clinical examination revealed increased incidences of deficiency signs and symptoms in all patients during follow-up irrespective of treatment modality.

  15. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  16. Pressure ulcers: Current understanding and newer modalities of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajit Bhattacharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the mechanism, symptoms, causes, severity, diagnosis, prevention and present recommendations for surgical as well as non-surgical management of pressure ulcers. Particular focus has been placed on the current understandings and the newer modalities for the treatment of pressure ulcers. The paper also covers the role of nutrition and pressure-release devices such as cushions and mattresses as a part of the treatment algorithm for preventing and quick healing process of these wounds. Pressure ulcers develop primarily from pressure and shear; are progressive in nature and most frequently found in bedridden, chair bound or immobile people. They often develop in people who have been hospitalised for a long time generally for a different problem and increase the overall time as well as cost of hospitalisation that have detrimental effects on patient′s quality of life. Loss of sensation compounds the problem manifold, and failure of reactive hyperaemia cycle of the pressure prone area remains the most important aetiopathology. Pressure ulcers are largely preventable in nature, and their management depends on their severity. The available literature about severity of pressure ulcers, their classification and medical care protocols have been described in this paper. The present treatment options include various approaches of cleaning the wound, debridement, optimised dressings, role of antibiotics and reconstructive surgery. The newer treatment options such as negative pressure wound therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, cell therapy have been discussed, and the advantages and disadvantages of current and newer methods have also been described.

  17. Modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, Alex; Müller, Henrik Høeg

    of modality and grappled with ways of capturing it. The 11 studies included here cover the span from contributions that seek to clarify controversial theoretical constructs to studies which take an empirical approach to linguistic categories and cross-linguistic typological issues. The key concepts addressed...

  18. Current practice of gastric cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoon Young Choi; Ji Yeong An; Hyung-Il Kim; Jae-Ho Cheong; Woo Jin Hyung; Sung Hoon Noh

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to overview the current practice of gastric cancer treatment including surgery and other adjuvant modalities.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and main guidelines in the East and West.Study selection Articles with high level of evidence or current best evidence in each issue were selected to be reviewed.Results Although varied adjuvant modalities have been proved to be benefit for treating gastric cancer,surgery is still the most important treatment strategy against gastric cancer.Actively adapting to new technology is important but it should be balanced with an effort to establish sound scientific rationale that adheres to oncologic principles.Conclusions Future treatment of gastric cancer will be focused on tailored,personalized therapy.For achieving it,collaboration across disciplines is essential.Also the philosophy of caring for the patients with gastric cancer should be rooted in the realization of true patient benefit regardless of who is providing the care.With these philosophies,we can shift the scientific and technological advances toward triumph over gastric cancer.

  19. Current and Future Lymphatic Imaging Modalities for Tumor Staging

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    Ghulam Murtaza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor progression is supported by the lymphatic system which should be scanned efficiently for tumor staging as well as the enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Poor resolution and low sensitivity is a limitation of traditional lymphatic imaging modalities; thus new noninvasive approaches like nanocarriers, magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, and quantum dots are advantageous. Some newer modalities, which are under development, and their potential uses will also be discussed in this review.

  20. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

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    Bishnu P. Joshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research.

  1. Combined modality preoperative therapy for unresectable rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percarpio, B; Bitterman, J; Sabbath, K; Alfano, F; Ruszkowski, R; Bowen, J

    1992-01-01

    Locally advanced rectal cancer has been a surgical challenge because of fixation of the primary tumor to the boney pelvis or to other pelvic soft tissues. During a 12-month period seven patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the rectum were treated preoperatively with simultaneous pelvic irradiation (4500-5040 cGy) and infusion chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil 1000 mg per m2 per day over 96 hours and mitomycin 10 mg per m2. Tolerance was reasonable and all patients underwent successful resection of the primary lesion. Two patients had a complete response to preoperative combined modality therapy with no cancer found in the surgical specimen. With a short follow-up period, all patients have experienced satisfactory healing and none have suffered local or distant recurrence. The results of this limited series are encouraging for future clinical trials.

  2. Low zinc environment induces stress signaling, senescence and mixed cell death modalities in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Emil; Rudolf, Kamil

    2015-12-01

    Currently it is not clear what type of the final cellular response (i.e. cell death modality or senescence) is induced upon chronic intracellular zinc depletion in colon cancer cells. To address this question, isogenic colon cancer lines SW480 and SW620 exposed to low zinc environment were studied over the period of 6 weeks. Low zinc environment reduced total as well as free intracellular zinc content in both cell lines. Decreased intracellular zinc content resulted in changes in cellular proliferation, cell cycle distribution and activation of stress signaling. In addition, colonocytes with low zinc content displayed increased levels of oxidative stress, changes in mitochondrial activity but in the absence of significant DNA damage. Towards the end of treatment (4th-6th week), exposed cells started to change morphologically, and typical markers of senescence as well as cell death appeared. Of two examined colon cancer cell lines, SW480 cells proved to activate predominantly senescent phenotype, with frequent form of demise being necrosis and mixed cell death modality but not apoptosis. Conversely, SW620 cells activated mostly cell death, with relatively equal distribution of apoptosis and mixed types, while senescent phenotypes and necrosis were present only in a small fraction of cell populations. Addition of zinc at the beginning of 4th week of treatment significantly suppressed cell death phenotypes in both cell lines but had no significant effect on senescence. In conclusion, presented results demonstrate variability of responses to chronic zinc depletion in colon cancer as modeled in vitro.

  3. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic imaging modality for lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Ina; Hume, Kelly R.; Yazinski, Stephanie A.; Peters, Rachel M.; Weiss, Robert S.; Webb, Watt W.

    2010-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading killer among all cancers for both men and women in the US, and is associated with one of the lowest 5-year survival rates. Current diagnostic techniques, such as histopathological assessment of tissue obtained by computed tomography guided biopsies, have limited accuracy, especially for small lesions. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can be improved by introducing a real-time, optical guidance method based on the in vivo application of multiphoton microscopy (MPM). In particular, we hypothesize that MPM imaging of living lung tissue based on twophoton excited intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation can provide sufficient morphologic and spectroscopic information to distinguish between normal and diseased lung tissue. Here, we used an experimental approach based on MPM with multichannel fluorescence detection for initial discovery that MPM spectral imaging could differentiate between normal and neoplastic lung in ex vivo samples from a murine model of lung cancer. Current results indicate that MPM imaging can directly distinguish normal and neoplastic lung tissues based on their distinct morphologies and fluorescence emission properties in non-processed lung tissue. Moreover, we found initial indication that MPM imaging differentiates between normal alveolar tissue, inflammatory foci, and lung neoplasms. Our long-term goal is to apply results from ex vivo lung specimens to aid in the development of multiphoton endoscopy for in vivo imaging of lung abnormalities in various animal models, and ultimately for the diagnosis of human lung cancer.

  4. Current status of cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono K

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To prove clinical benefits of cancer vaccine is currently difficult, except for one phase III trial has documented improved overall survival with the vaccine, Sipuleucel‑T, although induction of anti-tumor immune responses through cancer vaccine is theoretically promising and would be straightforward. In contrast, immune checkpoint blockade with anti-CTLA4 mAb and anti-PD‑1 mAb has demonstrated clear evidence of objective responses including improved overall survival and tumor shrinkage, driving renewed enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy in multi­ple cancer types. In addition, there is a promising novel cancer immunotherapy, CAR therapy—a personalized treatment that involves genetically modifying a patient’s T- cells to make them target tumor cells. We are now facing new era of cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Novel therapeutic modalities and drug delivery in pancreatic cancer – an ongoing search for improved efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is an incredibly challenging disease due to its high rates of resistance to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There has been little improvement in the prognosis of pancreatic cancer cases in the past decades, highlighting the crucial need for more effective therapeutic approaches. Erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor, and gemcitabine, a nucleoside analog, are currently used in combination for chemotherapy treatment, but new developments in drug delivery systems using liposomes and nanoparticles may be promising new modalities for management of the disease. In addition to standard chemotherapeutic drugs, these delivery systems can be utilized to deliver therapeutic agents such as siRNA, oncolytic viruses, small molecule inhibitors, antibodies, and suicide genes. Further work is required to elucidate how ligands and antibodies could be used to enhance the targeted delivery of drugs, thus increasing specificity, improving stability, and reducing the effect of the drugs on healthy tissue. Despite significant preclinical data, there are currently very few clinical trials involving pancreatic cancer targeted drug delivery. This article summarizes current developments in targeted pancreatic cancer drug delivery, focusing on delivery systems, targets, and therapeutic agents.

  6. Risk of Second Cancers According to Radiation Therapy Technique and Modality in Prostate Cancer Survivors

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    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Wong, Jeannette; Kleinerman, Ruth; Kim, Clara; Morton, Lindsay [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) techniques for prostate cancer are evolving rapidly, but the impact of these changes on risk of second cancers, which are an uncommon but serious consequence of RT, are uncertain. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of risks of second cancer according to RT technique (>10 MV vs ≤10 MV and 3-dimensional [3D] vs 2D RT) and modality (external beam RT, brachytherapy, and combined modes) in a large cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The cohort was constructed using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We included cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in patients 66 to 84 years of age from 1992 to 2004 and followed through 2009. We used Poisson regression analysis to compare rates of second cancer across RT groups with adjustment for age, follow-up, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and comorbidities. Analyses of second solid cancers were based on the number of 5-year survivors (n=38,733), and analyses of leukemia were based on number of 2-year survivors (n=52,515) to account for the minimum latency period for radiation-related cancer. Results: During an average of 4.4 years' follow-up among 5-year prostate cancer survivors (2DRT = 5.5 years; 3DRT = 3.9 years; and brachytherapy = 2.7 years), 2933 second solid cancers were diagnosed. There were no significant differences in second solid cancer rates overall between 3DRT and 2DRT patients (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.09), but second rectal cancer rates were significantly lower after 3DRT (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Rates of second solid cancers for higher- and lower-energy RT were similar overall (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.06), as were rates for site-specific cancers. There were significant reductions in colon cancer and leukemia rates in the first decade after brachytherapy compared to those after external beam RT. Conclusions: Advanced treatment planning may have reduced rectal

  7. Current management of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert Ord

    2008-01-01

    @@ This presentation will summarize some of the current areas of interest in the management of oral cancer. The presentation will be divided into a brief review of epidemiology and diagnosis, with a more extensive discussion regarding the controversial areas in surgery and a review of the adjuvant roles of radiation and chemotherapy.

  8. Five-Year Survival Among Stage IIIA Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Two Different Treatment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilfinger, Thomas; Keresztes, Roger; Albano, Denise; Nemesure, Barbara

    2016-07-21

    BACKGROUND Five-year survival rates among stage IIIA lung cancer patients range between 2% and 15%, and there is currently no consensus regarding optimal treatment approaches for these patients. The current investigation evaluated survival outcomes among stage IIIA lung cancer patients receiving 2 different treatment modalities, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection versus chemoradiation alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study is based on 127 patients attending the Lung Cancer Evaluation Center at Stony Brook Cancer Center between 2002 and 2014. Patients were treated either with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection or a regimen of chemoradiation alone. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare survival outcomes between groups and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate treatment effects on survival, while adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS Approximately one-fourth (n=33) of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, whereas 94 patients received definitive chemoradiation. Patients in the surgical group were found to be significantly younger than those receiving chemoradiation alone (60.1 vs. 67.9 years, respectively; p=0.001). Five-year survival among patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection was significantly higher than that among patients receiving chemoradiation alone (63% vs. 19%, respectively; p<0.001), whereas the hazard ratio (HR) was 3-4 times greater in the latter group (HR=3.77, 95% confidence interval=1.87, 7.61). CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study indicate that preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection can improve survival outcomes for stage IIIA lung cancer patients compared with chemoradiation alone. The results reflect a select surgical group of patients; thus, the data highlight the need to develop new therapies that may result in more patients being viable surgical candidates.

  9. [Current Approaches in Cancer Immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otáhal, P; Trněný, M

    2015-01-01

    Methods of cancer immunotherapy have finally entered clinical medicine after years of preclinical research. Currently, there are several methods, which have proven to be very effective even in cases of incurable cancer. Antitumor monoclonal antibodies are among major therapeutic anti-cancer drugs and have been successfully used for many ears. Novel group of antibodies are immunomodulatory antibodies which can break tumor -specific immune tolerance and induce regression of tumors by nonspecific activation of immune system. Bispecific antibodies represent a novel class of anticancer agents which can induce expansion of T cells in vivo, blinatumomab is an example of such agents and is currently available for the treatment of acute B -cell leukemia. Cellular immunotherapy is also very effective, especially the use of Chimeric receptor modified T-cells for the therapy of B- cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Although it is a very complicated and expensive method, it is highly effective approach which can induce remission even in previously hopeless conditions. The goal of this article is to explain the basic principles of cancer immunotherapy and summarize the newest findings in this field.

  10. Gastric Cancer: Current Status of Diagnosis and Treatment

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    Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Saikawa, Yoshiro, E-mail: saiky@z8.keio.jp; Kitagawa, Yuko [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2013-01-16

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of death from malignant disease worldwide and most frequently discovered in advanced stages. Because curative surgery is regarded as the only option for cure, early detection of resectable gastric cancer is extremely important for good patient outcomes. Therefore, noninvasive diagnostic modalities such as evolutionary endoscopy and positron emission tomography are utilized as screening tools for gastric cancer. To date, early gastric cancer is being treated using minimally invasive methods such as endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery, while in advanced cancer it is necessary to consider multimodality treatment including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery. Because of the results of large clinical trials, surgery with extended lymphadenectomy could not be recommended as a standard therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Recent clinical trials had shown survival benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection compared with surgery alone. In addition, recent advances of molecular targeted agents would play an important role as one of the modalities for advanced gastric cancer. In this review, we summarize the current status of diagnostic technology and treatment for gastric cancer.

  11. Current status and progress in gastric cancer with liver metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing; CHEN Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current status and progress in studies on gastric cancer with liver metastasis (GCLM), involving the routes, subtypes, and prognosis of GCLM; the genes and molecules associated with metastasis;the feasibility and value of each imaging modality; and current treatment options.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed published in English from 2005 to August 2010. The search terms were "gastric cancer" and "liver metastasis".Study selection Articles regarding the characteristics, diagnostic modalities, and vadous therapeutic options of GCLM were selected.Results The prognosis of GCLM is influenced by the clinicopathological characteristics of primary tumors, as well as the presence of liver metastases. Improved understanding of related genes and molecules will lead to the development of methods of early detection and targeted therapies. For the diagnosis of GCLM, each imaging modality has its relative benefits. There remains no consensus regarding therapeutic options.Conclusions Early detection and characterization of liver metastases is crucial for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Multidisciplinary team discussions are required to design optimal treatment strategies, which should be based on the clinicopathological characteristics of each patient.

  12. Current trends in staging rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdus Samee; Chelliah Ramachandran Selvasekar

    2011-01-01

    Management of rectal cancer has evolved over the years.In this condition preoperative investigations assist in deciding the optimal treatment.The relation of the tumor edge to the circumferential margin (CRM) is an important factor in deciding the need for neoadjuvant treatment and determines the prognosis.Those with threatened or involved margins are offered long course chemoradiation to enable R0 surgical resection.Endoanal ultrasound (EUS) is useful for tumor (T) staging;hence EUS is a useful imaging modality for early rectal cancer.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for assessing the mesorectum and the mesorectal fascia which has useful prognostic significance and for early identification of local recurrence.Computerized tomography (CT) of the chest,abdomen and pelvis is used to rule out distant metastasis.Identification of the malignant nodes using EUS,CT and MRI is based on the size,morphology and internal characteristics but has drawbacks.Most of the common imaging techniques are suboptimal for imaging following chemoradiation as they struggle to differentiate fibrotic changes and tumor.In this situation,EUS and MRI may provide complementary information to decide further treatment.Functional imaging using positron emission tomography (PET) is useful,particularly PET/CT fusion scans to identify areas of the functionally hot spots.In the current state,imaging has enabled the multidisciplinary team of surgeons,oncologists,radiologists and pathologists to decide on the patient centered management of rectal cancer.In future,functional imaging may play an active role in identifying patients with lymph node metastasis and those with residual and recurrent disease following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.

  13. [Current status and perspectives of radiotherapy for esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S X; Wang, L H

    2016-09-23

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers in China. More than 80% of esophageal cancer patients are diagnosed at a late stage and are not eligible for surgery. Radiotherapy is one of the most important modalities in esophageal cancer treatment. Here we reviewed the advances in esophageal cancer radiotherapy and radiotherapy-based combined-modality therapy, such as optimization of radiation dose and target volume, application of precise radiotherapy technique and the integration of radiotherapy with chemotherapy and targeted therapy.

  14. Ultrasmall Biocompatible WO3- x Nanodots for Multi-Modality Imaging and Combined Therapy of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ling; Chen, Ling; Zheng, Shimin; Zeng, Jianfeng; Duan, Guangxin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guanglin; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Zhen; Gao, Mingyuan

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasmall biocompatible WO3 - x nanodots with an outstanding X-ray radiation sensitization effect are prepared, and demonstrated to be applicable for multi-modality tumor imaging through computed tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI), and effective cancer treatment combining both photothermal therapy and radiation therapy.

  15. Sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer - Comparison of treatment modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JonkerPool, G; vanBasten, JP; Hoekstra, HJ; vanDriel, MF; Sleijfer, DT; vandeWiel, HBM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This retrospective study evaluates changes in sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer and investigates whether there is a relationship with different treatment modalities. METHODS. A self-reported questionnaire was sent to 337 men who had been treated for testicular canc

  16. Current Pathophysiological Aspects and Therapeutic Modalities for Pemphigus Vulgaris : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Raviraj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is an autoimmune disorder manifesting primarily as blisters involving the mucocutaneous systems. The current medical literature indicates many breakthroughs in the research of pathophysiology and treatment aspects of PV. This article tries to describe some of the novel aspects briefing the role of nondesmoglein antibodies and the role of TNF-alpha in the etiopathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris and the role of newer therapeutic modalities like Rituximab, Etanercept, intravenous Immunoglobulins, cholinergic drugs, arid the like in the treatment of PV.

  17. Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment Modality and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Power Power Index Time (months) Mean Difference 80% 85% 90% 95% 80% 85% 90% 95% Bodily pain 0–3 7 504 576 673 831 397 454 531 656...symptoms? (check all that apply) 1 Pain 2 Urinary problems 3 Sexual functioning problems 4 Other, please specify ________________________ 5 Don’t Know...producing hormones) 1 0 10 11 B8f. Watchful waiting (no treatment, wait and see if your prostate cancer grows) 1 0 10 11 B8g. Cryotherapy (process

  18. Nordic Walking, a therapeutic modality against cancer related fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    González Castro, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia de que el ejercicio físico puede mejorar los síntomas de los pacientes y supervivientes de cáncer y en especial la fatiga relativa al cáncer (FRC). El Nordic Walking (NW) es una novedosa forma de ejercicio físico que presenta ventajas fisiológicas y psicológicas significativas respecto de la marcha normal. Este artículo propone el NW como tratamiento terapéutico alternativo contra la FRC. There is evidence that physical exercise can improve symptoms in cancer patients and ...

  19. A novel minimally invasive dual-modality fiber optic probe for prostate cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikrant

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in males, and is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in United States. In prostate cancer diagnostics and therapy, there is a critical need for a minimally invasive tool for in vivo evaluation of prostate tissue. Such a tool finds its niche in improving TRUS (trans-rectal ultrasound) guided biopsy procedure, surgical margin assessment during radical prostatectomy, and active surveillance of patients with a certain risk levels. This work is focused on development of a fiber-based dual-modality optical device (dMOD), to differentiate prostate cancer from benign tissue, in vivo. dMOD utilizes two independent optical techniques, LRS (light reflectance spectroscopy) and AFLS (auto-fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy). LRS quantifies scattering coefficient of the tissue, as well as concentrations of major tissue chromophores like hemoglobin derivatives, β-carotene and melanin. AFLS was designed to target lifetime signatures of multiple endogenous fluorophores like flavins, porphyrins and lipo-pigments. Each of these methods was independently developed, and the two modalities were integrated using a thin (1-mm outer diameter) fiber-optic probe. Resulting dMOD probe was implemented and evaluated on animal models of prostate cancer, as well as on human prostate tissue. Application of dMOD to human breast cancer (invasive ductal carcinoma) identification was also evaluated. The results obtained reveal that both LRS and AFLS are excellent techniques to discriminate prostate cancer tissue from surrounding benign tissue in animal models. Each technique independently is capable of providing near absolute (100%) accuracy for cancer detection, indicating that either of them could be used independently without the need of implementing them together. Also, in case of human breast cancer, LRS and AFLS provided comparable accuracies to dMOD, LRS accuracy (96%) being the highest for the studied population. However, the

  20. Detecting diseases of neglected seminal vesicles using imaging modalities: A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagur, Gautam; Warren, Kelly; Suh, Yiji; Singh, Navjot; Khan, Sardar A

    2016-05-01

    Seminal vesicles (SVs) are sex accessory organs and part of male genitourinary system. They play a critical role in male fertility. Diseases of the SVs, usually results in infertility. Diseases of the SVs are extremely rare and are infrequently reported in the literature. We address the current literature of SV pathologies, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. We review the clinical importance of SVs from PubMed. The current imaging modalities and instrumentation that help diagnose SV diseases are reviewed. Common pathologies including, infection, cysts, tumors, and congenital diseases of the SVs are addressed. Many times symptoms of hematospermia, pain, irritative and obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms, and infertility are presented in patients with SV diseases.

  1. Current concepts in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction,chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development,physics (e.g. diagnostic devices and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics. Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer researchwill undergo a dramatic paradigm shift due to therecent explosion of new discoveries in cancer biology.This review article focuses on the latest horizons incancer research concerning cancer epigenetics, cancerstem cells, cancer immunology and cancer metabolism.

  2. The current role of radiotherapy in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, B.M.P.; Bartelink, H. [Nederlands Kanker Inst. `Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis`, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gunderson, L.L. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    During the last two decades, radiotherapy has become an integral part of the multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Currently, radiotherapy is seen mainly as an adjuvant therapy, sometimes in combination with chemotherapy, in a pre- or post-operative setting. Adjuvant radiotherapy alone leads to a significant reduction of local recurrence rates, but an impact on survival is seen only in subset analyses. Combined modality treatment can reduce local recurrence rates even further, and can also reduce the rate of distant relapses and increase survival. The acute toxicity of combined modality is considerably higher. Local radiation can also be used as a component of organ conserving local treatment for selected early lesions. Radiotherapy has been an important palliative treatment modality, diminishing symptoms in cases of inoperable primary rectal cancers or pelvic recurrences. The timing of radiation, surgery and chemotherapy has been under evaluation for years. For patients with locally advanced primary or recurrent malignancies (unresectable due to fixation), the preferred sequence is pre-operative irradiation with or without chemotherapy, followed by surgical resection. For mobile resectable lesions, sequencing issues are being tested in phase III randomised trials. (author).

  3. Current Status on Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Tomoki; Ercolani, Giorgio; Alvaro, Domenico; Ribero, Dario; Di Tommaso, Luca; Valle, Juan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholangiocarcinomas (CC) as well as gallbladder cancers are relatively rare and intractable diseases. Clinical, pathological, and epidemiological studies on these tumors have been under investigation. The current status and/or topics on biliary tract cancers have been reported in the East West Association of Liver Tumor (EWALT), held in Milano, Italy in 2015. Summary All the authors, herein, specifcally reported the current status and leading-edge findings on biliary tract cancers as the following sequence: epidemiology of CC, surgical therapy for intrahepatic CC, surgical therapy for perihilar CC, surgical therapy for gallblad der cancer, chemotherapy for biliary tract cancers, and new histological features in CC. Key Message The present review article will update the knowledge on biliary tract cancers, en hancing the quality of daily clinical practice. However, many features about these cancers remain unknown; further studies are required to establish disease-specific optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27995089

  4. [Constipation and cancer: Current strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Claire; Ducrotté, Philippe; Piche, Thierry; Di Palma, Mario; Jovenin, Nicolas; Scotté, Florian

    2016-09-01

    Digestive disorders, in particular constipation, are symptoms very often reported by cancer patients as having a major impact on their quality of life. An accurate diagnosis of bowel delayed transit and defecation disorders is required to best adapt therapeutic management. Constipation associated with cancer may be related to several causes, which can be placed in three nosological categories that sometimes overlap: chronic constipation prior to cancer and having its own evolution; constipation related to the cancer condition, in particular the occlusive syndrome, and constipation induced by cancer therapies. The stricter application of diet and lifestyle measures is often necessary and sometimes sufficient. Laxative drug treatments come under various galenic forms and administration routes and must be selected according to the clinical features of constipation. Surgical management can be indicated in case of ileus or pelvic static disorders. In the case of refractory constipation induced by opioids and within the framework of palliative care to treat an advanced pathology, a peripheral morphinic antagonist can offer fast symptom relief. A way forward to improve the patients' quality of life could be to identify the contributing factors (in particular, genetic factors) to determine which patients are the more at risk and anticipate their management.

  5. 'E-learning' modalities in the current era of Medical Education in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Aly, Syed Moyn

    2014-09-01

    There are a number of e-Learning modalities, some or all of which may be used throughout a medical, dental, nursing or any other health related undergraduate curriculum. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe what e-learning is along with some of the modalities, their common advantages and limitations. This publication ends with practical implications of these modalities for Pakistan.

  6. Breast cancer pain management - A review of current & novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aanchal Satija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients′ lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO′s three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management, their limitations, and novel targets and non-pharmacological measures under investigation which have the potential to produce a radical change in pain management measures for the breast cancer patients.

  7. Prostate cancer, treatment modalities and complications: an evaluation of the scientific literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: santos-filho@uer.br; Missailids, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    Prostate (PR) cancer (CA) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms in men all over the world. In general, if prostate cancer (PC) is detected early, treatment usually involves either surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy (RT). Hormone Therapy (HT) or chemotherapy (CH) is the preferred treatment for more advanced cases of PC or if CA spreads beyond the PT. A number of complications, such as urinary incontinence (IU) or erectile dysfunction (ED), can be associated with some modalities of treatment of the PC. The aim of this work is to evaluate, in PubMed, the number of publications related with prostate cancer and the main modalities of treatment, as well as some clinical complications. The searches were performed in PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi) in the period 1950 to 2008 using the words: CA, CA and PR or penis or testis, CA and PR and RT, CA and PR and surgery (SU), CA and PR and CH and, CA and PR and HT and CA and PR and RT and IU or ED, CA and PR and SU and IU or ED, CA and PR and CH and IU or ED and, CA and PR and HT and CH and IU or ED, and (V) PC and the same modalities of treatment. The data was obtained on July 20th, 2008. PC, as expected has been cited extensively and surgery has been identified as the most widely referenced modality of treatment. Furthermore, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction are important complications that have attracted significant scientific interest. In conclusion, these findings have shown the relevance of the PubMed to analyze quantitatively the publications in cancer and this information could be worthwhile in aiding the comprehension of some clinical aspects related with PC, as well as the development of preventative actions. The analysis of the scientific interest, considering the number of publications in the PubMed, reveals research trends in the field and demonstrates the importance of the surgical procedures in the treatment of the prostate cancer. Moreover, this finding is

  8. Induction chemotherapy for oral cavity cancer patients: Current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Gustavo Nader; William, William N; Feher, Olavo; Carvalho, André Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of data from phase III randomized studies to support an ideal approach for locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients. In general, surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are valid treatment options, and combined approach is usually indicated given poor clinical outcomes with single modality therapy. The aim of this study is to review the current status and future perspectives of induction chemotherapy for locally advanced oral cavity cancer patients.

  9. Current Approaches of Photothermal Therapy in Treating Cancer Metastasis with Nanotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lili; Wang, Hong; He, Bin; Zeng, Lijuan; Tan, Tao; Cao, Haiqiang; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Guo, Shengrong; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis accounts for the high mortality of many types of cancer. Owing to the unique advantages of high specificity and minimal invasiveness, photothermal therapy (PTT) has been evidenced with great potential in treating cancer metastasis. In this review, we outline the current approaches of PTT with respect to its application in treating metastatic cancer. PTT can be used alone, guided with multimodal imaging, or combined with the current available therapies for effective treatment of cancer metastasis. Numerous types of photothermal nanotherapeutics (PTN) have been developed with encouraging therapeutic efficacy on metastatic cancer in many preclinical animal experiments. We summarize the design and performance of various PTN in PTT alone and their combinational therapy. We also point out the lacking area and the most promising approaches in this challenging field. In conclusion, PTT or their combinational therapy can provide an essential promising therapeutic modality against cancer metastasis.

  10. Trials of combined radiation and hyperthermia with various heating modalities in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, S; Ishioka, K; Kawada, Y

    1984-01-01

    A microwave heating apparatus with a frequency of 2,450 MHz and an inductive radio-frequency heating apparatus were developed for hyperthermia for cancer therapy, and clinical trials of combined radiation and hyperthermia were conducted. During the same period, a capacitive type radiofrequency unit was used. The tumors included superficial tumors, cancer of the uterine cervix, recurrent tumors at the stump of the cervix, and some deep-seated tumors. Cases showing complete response were as follows: 5 out of 13 cases treated with 2,450 MHz heating for superficial tumors, 8 out of 17 cases treated with 2,450 MHz intracavitary heating, and 2 out of 15 cases treated with radiofrequency heating. A feasibility study of various heating modalities was performed.

  11. A supramolecular material for dual-modal imaging and targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shanyue; Liang, Ruizheng; Li, Chunyang; Wei, Min

    2017-04-01

    Recently, how to design a formulation system with simultaneous diagnosis and therapy toward cancer has attracted tremendous attention. Herein, a supramolecular material was prepared via a facile method by the co-intercalation of folic acid (FA) and doxorubicin (DOX) into the gallery of Gd(3+)-doped layered double hydroxides (LDHs), followed by surface adsorption of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). This supramolecular agent was proved to exhibit excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging (FI) behavior, as well as chemotherapy toward cancer (KB cell). The co-intercalated FA enables an efficient and selective drug delivery with good specificity. This work provides a facile approach for the fabrication of a drug formulation with dual-modal imaging and targeted therapy, which could be potentially used in the practical chemotherapy and medical imaging.

  12. Application prospective of nanoprobes with MRI and FI dual-modality imaging on breast cancer stem cells in tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hetao; Wang, Yu; Wang, Tong; Shi, Dongxing; Sun, Zengrong; Xia, Chunhui; Wang, Baiqi

    2016-06-23

    Breast cancer (BC) is a serious disease to threat lives of women. Numerous studies have proved that BC originates from cancer stem cells (CSCs). But at present, no one approach can quickly and simply identify breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in solid tumor. Nanotechnology is probably able to realize this goal. But in study process, scientists find it seems that nanomaterials with one modality, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or fluorescence imaging (FI), have their own advantages and drawbacks. They cannot meet practical requirements in clinic. The nanoprobe combined MRI with FI modality is a promising tool to accurately detect desired cells with low amount in tissue. In this work, we briefly describe the MRI and FI development history, analyze advantages and disadvantages of nanomaterials with single modality in cancer cell detection. Then the application development of nanomaterials with dual-modality in cancer field is discussed. Finally, the obstacles and prospective of dual-modal nanoparticles in detection field of BCSCs are also pointed out in order to speed up clinical applications of nanoprobes.

  13. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-04-28

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age. Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and, therefore, accurate staging is crucial for optimal management. Cervical cancer is clinically staged, according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines, but, currently, there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size, parametrial invasion, endocervical extension, pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status. Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up, evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation. The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI; CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease. PET-CT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes. The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  14. Current imaging strategies for the evaluation of uterine cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charis Bourgioti; Konstantinos Chatoupis; Lia Angela Moulopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer still remains an important socioeconomic issue because it largely affects women of reproductive age.Prognosis is highly depended on extent of the disease at diagnosis and,therefore,accurate staging is crucial for optimal management.Cervical cancer is clinically staged,according to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics guidelines,but,currently,there is increased use of cross sectional imaging modalities [computed tomography(CT),magnetic resonance imaging(MRI),positron emission tomography-CT(PET-CT)] for the study of important prognostic factors like tumor size,parametrial invasion,endocervical extension,pelvic side wall or adjacent/distal organs involvement and lymph node status.Imaging indications also include cervical cancer follow-up,evaluation of tumor response to treatment and selection of suitable candidates for less radical surgeries like radical trachelectomy for fertility preservation.The preferred imaging method for local cervical cancer evaluation is MRI;CT is equally effective for evaluation of extrauterine spread of the disease.PETCT shows high diagnostic performance for the detection of tumor relapse and metastatic lymph nodes.The aim of this review is to familiarize radiologists with the MRI appearance of cervical carcinoma and to discuss the indications of cross sectional imaging during the course of the disease in patients with cervical carcinoma.

  15. Current Status of Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki M. Velonas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men globally. Since its introduction, there has been intense debate as to the effectiveness of the prostate specific antigen (PSA test as a screening tool for PCa. It is now evident that the PSA test produces unacceptably high rates of false positive results and is not prognostic. Here we review the current status of molecular biomarkers that promise to be prognostic and that might inform individual patient management. It highlights current efforts to identify biomarkers obtained by minimally invasive methods and discusses current knowledge with regard to gene fusions, mRNA and microRNAs, immunology, and cancer-associated microparticles.

  16. Technological Advances in the Treatment of Cancer: Combining Modalities to Optimize Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric T; Toms, Steven A; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2015-11-01

    The anticancer treatment modality tumor treating fields (TTFields; Optune, Novocure) use the lower frequency range of the electromagnetic spectrum to destroy tumor cells during mitosis. This treatment has been evaluated in several trials of patients with glioblastoma. In these patients, TTFields are delivered through 4 transducer arrays applied to the scalp. In a phase 3 clinical trial of patients with recurrent glioblastoma, TTFields were as effective as chemotherapy, and were associated with fewer and milder systemic toxicities. Data from a phase 3 trial in newly diagnosed glioblastoma suggested that the addition of TTFields to postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy represents an important advance in the management of newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Ongoing clinical trials are investigating the efficacy and safety of TTFields in other tumor types, including pancreatic cancer, mesothelioma, ovarian cancer, and non–small cell lung cancer. Other recent advances in the management of cancer have been seen with immunomodulatory therapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. Further study will be necessary to evaluate whether TTFields will enhance or impair other established and newly emerging therapies.

  17. National Cancer Data Base Analysis of Radiation Therapy Consolidation Modality for Cervical Cancer: The Impact of New Technological Advancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, Beant S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Lin, Jeff F. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Krivak, Thomas C. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Western Pennsylvania Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Sukumvanich, Paniti; Laskey, Robin A.; Ross, Malcolm S.; Lesnock, Jamie L. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Magee-Womens Hospital of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To utilize the National Cancer Data Base to evaluate trends in brachytherapy and alternative radiation therapy utilization in the treatment of cervical cancer, to identify associations with outcomes between the various radiation therapy modalities. Methods and Materials: Patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIB-IVA cervical cancer in the National Cancer Data Base who received treatment from January 2004 to December 2011 were analyzed. Overall survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with type of boost radiation modality used and its impact on survival. Results: A total of 7654 patients had information regarding boost modality. A predominant proportion of patients were Caucasian (76.2%), had stage IIIB (48.9%) disease with squamous (82.0%) histology, were treated at academic/research centers (47.7%) in the South (34.8%), and lived 0 to 5 miles (27.9%) from the treating facility. A majority received brachytherapy (90.3%). From 2004 to 2011, brachytherapy use decreased from 96.7% to 86.1%, whereas intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) use increased from 3.3% to 13.9% in the same period (P<.01). Factors associated with decreased brachytherapy utilization included older age, stage IVA disease, smaller tumor size, later year of diagnosis, lower-volume treatment centers, and facility type. After controlling for significant factors from survival analyses, IMRT or SBRT boost resulted in inferior overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.55; P<.01) as compared with brachytherapy. In fact, the survival detriment associated with IMRT or SBRT boost was stronger than that associated with excluding chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 1.61′ 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.04′ P<.01). Conclusions: Consolidation brachytherapy is a critical treatment component for

  18. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  19. Effectiveness of integrative modalities for pain and anxiety in children and adolescents with cancer: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrane, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the trajectory of the cancer experience, children and adolescents will likely face pain and anxiety in a variety of circumstances. Integrative therapies may be used either alone or as an adjunct to standard analgesics. Children are often very receptive to integrative therapies such as music, art, guided imagery, massage, therapeutic play, distraction, and other modalities. The effect of integrative modalities on pain and anxiety in children with cancer has not been systematically examined across the entire cancer experience. An in-depth search of PubMed, CINAHL, MedLine, PsychInfo, and Web of Science, integrative medicine journals, and the reference lists of review articles using the search terms pain, anxiety, pediatric, child*, oncology, cancer, neoplasm, complementary, integrative, nonconventional, and unconventional yielded 164 articles. Of these, 25 warranted full-text review. Cohen's d calculations show medium (d = 0.70) to extremely large (8.57) effect sizes indicating that integrative interventions may be very effective for pain and anxiety in children undergoing cancer treatment. Integrative modalities warrant further study with larger sample sizes to better determine their effectiveness in this population.

  20. Multidrug-resistant breast cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin HL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heather L Martin,1 Laura Smith,2 Darren C Tomlinson11BioScreening Technology Group, Leeds Institutes of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK; 2Leeds Institute of Cancer and Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKAbstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and resistance to the current therapeutics, often concurrently, is an increasing clinical challenge. By understanding the molecular mechanisms behind multidrug-resistant breast cancer, new treatments may be developed. Here we review the recent advances in this understanding, emphasizing the common mechanisms underlying resistance to both targeted therapies, notably tamoxifen and trastuzumab, and traditional chemotherapies. We focus primarily on three molecular mechanisms, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway, the role of microRNAs in gene silencing, and epigenetic alterations affecting gene expression, and discuss how these mechanisms can interact in multidrug resistance. The development of therapeutics targeting these mechanisms is also addressed.Keywords: PI3K/Akt, epigenetics, miRNA, ER, HER2, triple negative

  1. Current early diagnostic biomarkers of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Qu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa has become to have the highest incidence and the second mortality rate in western countries, affecting men's health to a large extent. Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA was discovered to help diagnose the cancer in an early stage for decades, its specificity is relative low, resulting in unnecessary biopsy for healthy people and over-treatment for patients. Thus, it is imperative to identify more and more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of PCa in order to distinguish patients from healthy populations, which helps guide an early treatment to lower disease-related mortality by noninvasive or minimal invasive approaches. This review generally describes the current early diagnostic biomarkers of PCa in addition to PSA and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of these biomarkers.

  2. Coupling and tuning of modal frequencies in direct current biased microelectromechanical systems arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambali, Prashant N.; Swain, Gyanadutta; Pandey, Ashok Kumar, E-mail: ashok@iith.ac.in [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, IIT Hyderabad, Yeddumailaram 502205 (India); Buks, Eyal [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Gottlieb, Oded [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-08-10

    Understanding the coupling of different modal frequencies and their tuning mechanisms has become essential to design multi-frequency MEMS devices. In this work, we fabricate a MEMS beam with fixed boundaries separated from two side electrodes and a bottom electrode. Subsequently, we perform experiments to obtain the frequency variation of in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical modes of the microbeam with respect to both DC bias and laser heating. We show that the frequencies of the two modes coincide at a certain DC bias, which in turn can also be varied due to temperature. Subsequently, we develop a theoretical model to predict the variation of the two modes and their coupling due to a variable gap between the microbeam and electrodes, initial tension, and fringing field coefficients. Finally, we discuss the influence of frequency tuning parameters in arrays of 3, 33, and 40 microbeams, respectively. It is also found that the frequency bandwidth of a microbeam array can be increased to as high as 25 kHz for a 40 microbeam array with a DC bias of 80 V.

  3. Gadolinium-functionalized aggregation-induced emission dots as dual-modality probes for cancer metastasis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ding, Dan; Prashant, Chandrasekharan; Qin, Wei; Yang, Chang-Tong; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Bin

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the localization and engraftment of tumor cells at postintravasation stage of metastasis is of high importance in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Advanced fluorescent probes and facile methodologies for cell tracing play a key role in metastasis studies. In this work, we design and synthesize a dual-modality imaging dots with both optical and magnetic contrast through integration of a magnetic resonance imaging reagent, gadolinium(III), into a novel long-term cell tracing probe with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) in far-red/near-infrared region. The obtained fluorescent-magnetic AIE dots have both high fluorescence quantum yield (25%) and T1 relaxivity (7.91 mM(-1) s(-1) ) in aqueous suspension. After further conjugation with a cell membrane penetrating peptide, the dual-modality dots can be efficiently internalized into living cells. The gadolinium(III) allows accurate quantification of biodistribution of cancer cells via intraveneous injection, while the high fluorescence provides engraftment information of cells at single cellular level. The dual-modality AIE dots show obvious synergistic advantages over either single imaging modality and hold great promises in advanced biomedical studies.

  4. Current Status of Cryotherapy for Prostate and Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seok

    2014-01-01

    In terms of treating diseases, minimally invasive treatment has become a key element in reducing perioperative complications. Among the various minimally invasive treatments, cryotherapy is often used in urology to treat various types of cancers, especially prostate cancer and renal cancer. In prostate cancer, the increased incidence of low-risk, localized prostate cancer has made minimally invasive treatment modalities an attractive option. Focal cryotherapy for localized unilateral disease offers the added benefit of minimal morbidities. In renal cancer, owing to the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, nearly 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more susceptible to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. This article reviews the various outcomes of cryotherapy compared with other treatments and the possible uses of cryotherapy in surgery. PMID:25512811

  5. Radio-guided localization of clinically occult breast lesions: current modalities and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Fatih; Velidedeoglu, Mehmet; Kilic, Fahrettin; Yilmaz, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The extensive availability of breast cancer screening programs and improvement in diagnostic imaging have led to more frequent detection of suspicious and clinically occult breast lesions. Early detection of tumor is important for breast-conserving treatment. Incomplete excision is a major risk factor for local recurrence. Following precise localization and removing the entire lesion while achieving adequate clear margins is the key factor for successful management of non-palpable breast lesions. For this purpose, several techniques such as wire-guided localization, intra-operative ultrasound guided resection, radio-guided occult lesion localization and radioactive seed localization have been described and applied. In this article, we overview the two commonly used localization techniques, radio-guided occult lesion localization and wire-guided localization, particularly describing their advantages and drawbacks.

  6. Cancer screening in the United States, 2016: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly; Brooks, Durado; DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines, including the update of the breast cancer screening guideline, discuss quality issues in colorectal cancer screening and new developments in lung cancer screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey.

  7. Current role of surgical therapy in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryan Swan; Thomas J Miner

    2006-01-01

    Surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment for gastric cancer. Since the inception of the gastrectomy for cancer of the stomach, there has been debate over the bounds of surgical therapy, balancing potential long-term survival with perioperative morbidity and mortality. This review delineates the current role of surgery in preoperative staging, curative resection, and palliative treatment for gastric cancer.

  8. Breast papillomas: current management with a focus on a new diagnostic and therapeutic modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sarakbi, W; Worku, D; Escobar, PF; Mokbel, K

    2006-01-01

    Breast papilloma is a term that describes an intraductal papillary configuration of the mammary epithelium on macroscopic or microscopic examination. It includes solitary intraductal papillomas, multiple papillomas, papillomatosis, and juvenile papillomatosis (JP). Recent advances in mammary ductoscopy (MD) have raised new possibilities in the diagnosis and treatment of breast papillomas. This technique represents an important diagnostic adjunct in patients with pathological nipple discharge (PND) by allowing direct visualisation and biopsy of intraductal lesions and guiding duct excision surgery. Treatment of breast papillomas often entails surgical duct excision for symptomatic relief and histopathological examination. Recently, more conservative approach has been adapted. MD-assisted microdochectomy should be considered the procedure of choice for a papilloma-related single duct discharge. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that MD has the potential to reduce the number of duct excision procedures and minimise the extent of surgical resection. Imaging-guided vacuum-assisted core biopsy can be diagnostic and therapeutic for papillomas seen on mammography and/or ultrasound. Patients with multiple papillomas do have an increased risk of developing cancer and should be kept under annual review with regular mammography (preferably digital mammography) if treated conservatively. Magnetic resonance (MR) can be also used in surveillance in view of its high sensitivity. Because the risk is small, long term and affects both breasts, long-term follow-up is more appropriate than prophylactic mastectomy. Patients who prove to have solitary duct papilloma have insufficient increase in the risk of subsequent malignancy to justify routine follow-up. PMID:16417642

  9. Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Too Few Current, Former Smokers Screened for Lung Cancer Such testing could cut death rate by 20 ... the United States don't get screened for lung cancer even though they're at increased risk for ...

  10. Differences in Multi-Modal Ultrasound Imaging between Triple Negative and Non-Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyao; Tian, Jiawei; Wang, Xiaowei; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Hui; Wu, Tong

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify multi-modal ultrasound imaging parameters that could potentially help to differentiate between triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC. Conventional ultrasonography, ultrasound strain elastography and 3-D ultrasound (3-D-US) findings from 50 TNBC and 179 non-TNBC patients were retrospectively reviewed. Immunohistochemical examination was used as the reference gold standard for cancer subtyping. Different ultrasound modalities were initially analyzed to define TNBC-related features. Subsequently, logistic regression analysis was applied to TNBC-related features to establish models for predicting TNBC. TNBCs often presented as micro-lobulated, markedly hypo-echoic masses with an abrupt interface (p = 0.015, 0.0015 and 0.004, compared with non-TNBCs, respectively) on conventional ultrasound, and showed a diminished retraction pattern phenomenon in the coronal plane (p = 0.035) on 3-D-US. Our findings suggest that B-mode ultrasound and 3-D-US in multi-modality ultrasonography could be a useful non-invasive technique for differentiating TNBCs from non-TNBCs.

  11. Breast and gynecologic cancer-related extremity lymphedema: a review of diagnostic modalities and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Pankaj; Coriddi, Michelle; Salani, Ritu; Povoski, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Lymphedema remains a poorly understood entity that can occur after lymphadenectomy. Herein, we will review the pathogenesis of lymphedema, diagnostic modalities and the natural history of extremity involvement. We will review the incidence of upper extremity lymphedema in patients treated for breast malignancies and lower extremity lymphedema in those treated for gynecologic malignancy. Finally, we will review traditional treatment modalities for lymphedema, as well as introduce new surgical ...

  12. Current perspectives between metabolic syndrome and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micucci, Carla; Valli, Debora; Matacchione, Giulia; Catalano, Alfonso

    2016-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies linked metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer. Although metabolic syndrome may not necessarily cause cancer, it is linked to poorer cancer outcomes including increased risk of recurrence and overall mortality. This review tends to discuss the major biological and physiological alterations involved in the increase of incidence and mortality of cancer patients affected by metabolic syndrome. We focus on metabolic syndrome-associated visceral adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) pathway as well as estrogen signaling and inflammation. Several of these factors are also involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer may provide new insight about oncogenesis. Moreover, prevention of metabolic syndrome - related alterations may be an important aspect in the management of cancer patients during simultaneous palliative care.

  13. "Combo" nanomedicine: Co-delivery of multi-modal therapeutics for efficient, targeted, and safe cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Jessica A; Shim, Min Suk; Heo, Chan Yeong; Kwon, Young Jik

    2016-03-01

    The dynamic and versatile nature of diseases such as cancer has been a pivotal challenge for developing efficient and safe therapies. Cancer treatments using a single therapeutic agent often result in limited clinical outcomes due to tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance. Combination therapies using multiple therapeutic modalities can synergistically elevate anti-cancer activity while lowering doses of each agent, hence, reducing side effects. Co-administration of multiple therapeutic agents requires a delivery platform that can normalize pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the agents, prolong circulation, selectively accumulate, specifically bind to the target, and enable controlled release in target site. Nanomaterials, such as polymeric nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles/cages/shells, and carbon nanomaterials, have the desired properties, and they can mediate therapeutic effects different from those generated by small molecule drugs (e.g., gene therapy, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and radiotherapy). This review aims to provide an overview of developing multi-modal therapies using nanomaterials ("combo" nanomedicine) along with the rationale, up-to-date progress, further considerations, and the crucial roles of interdisciplinary approaches.

  14. Current progress in immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kelly; Kim, Victoria; Jaffee, Elizabeth; Zheng, Lei

    2016-10-10

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal cancers with few treatment options. Immune-based strategies to treat pancreatic cancer, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, therapeutic vaccines, and combination immunotherapies, are showing promise where other approaches have failed. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-CTLA4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 antibodies, are effective as single agents in immune sensitive cancers like melanoma, but lack efficacy in immune insensitive cancers including pancreatic cancer. However, these inhibitors are showing clinical activity, even in traditionally non-immunogenic cancers, when combined with other interventions, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and therapeutic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines given together with immune modulating agents are of particular interest because vaccines are the most efficient way to induce effective anti-tumor T cell responses, which is required for immunotherapies to be effective. In pancreatic cancer, early studies suggest that vaccines can induce T cells that have the potential to recognize and kill pancreatic cancer cells, but the tumor microenvironment inhibits effective T cell trafficking and function. While progress has been made in the development of immunotherapies for pancreatic cancer over the last several years, additional trials are needed to better understand the signals within the tumor microenvironment that are formidable barriers to T cell infiltration and function. Additionally, as more pancreatic specific antigens are identified, immunotherapies will continue to be refined to provide the most significant clinical benefit.

  15. Extended Lymphadenectomy and "Mesopancreas" Excision during Pancreatoduodenectomy for Cancer; is it worth it? Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissaios Kontis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignancy with overall poor prognosis. Surgery is the only treatment modality, which could provide cure. Therefore every effort possible should be made for pancreatectomy to achieve R0 resection. However, even after R0 resection, the survival outcomes are still far behind from other solid intrabdominal tumors. Extended lymphadenectomy and “mesopancreas” excision are the two main factors where focus has been given, in order to improve the outcomes of pancreatectomy for pancreatic head cancer. We present an up to date comprehensive review of the current evidence on the topics of extended lymphadenectomy and “mesopancreas” excision during pancreatoduodenectomy for cancer.

  16. Cancer and Radiation Therapy: Current Advances and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamanickam Baskar, Kuo Ann Lee, Richard Yeo, Kheng-Wei Yeoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years remarkable progress has been made towards the understanding of proposed hallmarks of cancer development and treatment. However with its increasing incidence, the clinical management of cancer continues to be a challenge for the 21st century. Treatment modalities comprise of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy remains an important component of cancer treatment with approximately 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during their course of illness; it contributes towards 40% of curative treatment for cancer. The main goal of radiation therapy is to deprive cancer cells of their multiplication (cell division potential. Celebrating a century of advances since Marie Curie won her second Nobel Prize for her research into radium, 2011 has been designated the Year of Radiation therapy in the UK. Over the last 100 years, ongoing advances in the techniques of radiation treatment and progress made in understanding the biology of cancer cell responses to radiation will endeavor to increase the survival and reduce treatment side effects for cancer patients. In this review, principles, application and advances in radiation therapy with their biological end points are discussed.

  17. [Update on current care guidelines: ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leminen, Arto; Auranen, Annika; Bützow, Ralf; Hietanen, Sakari; Komulainen, Marja; Kuoppala, Tapio; Mäenpää, Johanna; Puistola, Ulla; Vuento, Maarit; Vuorela, Piia; Yliskoski, Merja

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynaecological cancer. It appears that seemingly ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinomas, in fact, originate from fimbriae. BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended for the removal of ovaries and fimbriae, to reduce the risk of cancer. Treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer is based on the combination of surgery and chemotherapy. The residual tumour volume at the primary operation is the most important predictive factor of survival. The best response at the primary treatment is observed with combination chemotherapy with taxane and platinum. Adding bevacitzumab to first line chemotherapy may improve survival.

  18. Current issues in gastric cancer epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patru, C L; Surlin, V; Georgescu, I; Patru, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract continues to be a major health problem by frequency, aggressiveness and low rate of cure in symptomatic stage. Although its incidence is decreasing (especially in the West), globally the gastric cancer is ranked fourth in incidence among cancers at various sites. Despite these developments, the gastric cancer mortality, overall declining globally, is high. especially in the West where even if diagnosed fewer cases of gastric cancer, TNM stages are advanced and have a poor prognosis. In contrast, in Japan, where the incidence is still high, the percentage of cases diagnosed at the stage of "early gastric cancer" has greatly increased, thus improving prognosis. Gastric neoplasia affects more men, age range 50-70 years, disadvantaged social classes and black race. In Romania the gastric cancer incidence is increasing over recent years, presenting variations across the country being more common in men compared with women, reaching a peak of incidence around age 60. Gastric cancer mortality in the world places Romania among the countries with average mortality. Gastric cancer prognosis remains extremely reserved, in close correlation with tumor stage at diagnosis, surgical treatment being the only possibility to provide improved survival, especially in the early stages. Improvement of survival rate in recent years is due to increased gastric resectability result of an earlier diagnosis, a more complex treatment and a closer monitoring of the population at risk.

  19. Nanomedicines as cancer therapeutics: Current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhter, S.; Ahmad, M; Ramzani, F.; Singh, A..; Ahmad, I.; Rahman, Z.; Ahmad, F.J.; Storm, G.; Kok, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    As of 21st century, cancer is arguably the most complex and challenging disease known to mankind and an inevitable public health concern of this millennium. Nanotechnology, suitably amalgamated with cancer research, has ushered an era of highly personalized and safer medicines which can improve canc

  20. Current surgical treatment for bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuji Seyama; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2007-01-01

    Since extrahepatic bile duct cancer is difficult to diagnose and to cure, a safe and radical surgical strategy is needed. In this review, the modes of infiltration and spread of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and surgical strategy are discussed. Extended hemihepatectomy, with or without pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), plus extrahepatic bile duct resection and regional lymphadenectomy has recently been recognized as the standard curative treatment for hilar bile duct cancer. On the other hand, PD is the choice of treatment for middle and distal bile duct cancer. Major hepatectomy concomitant with PD (hepatopancreatoduodenectomy) has been applied to selected patients with widespread tumors. Preoperative biliary drainage (BD) followed by portal vein embolization (PVE) enables major hepatectomy in patients with hilar bile duct cancer without mortality. BD should be performed considering the surgical procedure, especially, in patients with separated intrahepatic bile ducts caused by hilar bile duct cancer. Right or left trisectoriectomy are indicated according to the tumor spread and biliary anatomy. As a result, extended radical resection offers a chance for cure of hilar bile duct cancer with improved resectability, curability, and a 5-year survival rate of 40%. A 5-year survival rate has ranged from 24% to 39% after PD for middle and distal bile duct cancer.

  1. Evaluation of surface dose outside the treatment area for five breast cancer irradiation modalities using thermo-luminescent dosimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Prasad Khanal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure and compare the surface dose outside the treatment area at six different points of interest (POIs for five different breast cancer radiation treatment modalities by using thermo-luminescent dosimeters (TLDs. This experiment will evaluate the magnitude of the dose due to scatter and leakage radiation at different areas outside the target on a patient that could potentially lead, in the long term, to radiation induced secondary malignancies.Methods: TLD-100 were calibrated according to the University of Wisconsin Radiation Calibration Laboratory protocol and then used for dose measurements at selected POIs namely sternum, lower abdomen, contralateral breast, thyroid, shoulder, and eye. Twenty five breast cancer patients and the following modalities were included in this study: Strut-adjusted volume implant (SAVI, mammosite multi-lumen (ML, Accuboost, electron boost and photon boost. The surface doses in all patients were measured in a single fraction. The delivered target doses were normalized to 200 cGy. Finally, breast quadrant analysis was performed.Results: The maximum average dose for each POI was as follows: Sternum 6.51 cGy (SD 2.93, lower abdomen 4.50 cGy (SD 2.63, contralateral breast 8.52 cGy (SD 3.86, thyroid 5.50 cGy (SD 2.75, shoulder 5.58 cGy (SD 2.77, and eye 2.65 cGy (SD 0.68. The highest POI dose of 15.84 cGy was found in contralateral breast.Conclusion: The measured surface dose at each POI varies with the modality of treatment. The surface doses show a strong correlation to the tumor bed location in the breast quadrant. The SAVI, electron boost, and photon boost modalities had delivered smaller surface dose at POIs than the Accuboost and Mammosite ML modalities. While the measured doses fall within the low range, its significance in producing second malignancies would require a large cohort of patients and a longer follow up.

  2. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  3. Chemoprevention of gastric cancer: current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The development of gastric cancer is a multi-factor process. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors including smoking, low gastric acidity, excessive intake of salt or salty food and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables all contribute to the development of gastric cancer. Of particular interest, epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is causally linked to gastric cancer. Most studies using micronutrient supplementation have failed to demonstrate any preventive effect against the development of gastric cancer. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been consistently observed to protect against the development of gastric cancer. Recently, eradication of H. pylori infection by a chemopreventative approach is being studied in a number of trials. Studies using precancerous lesions as an end point of the treatment have produced conflicting and mostly negative results. Trials using cancer as an end point are being cautiously carried out in high-risk populations, and will provide the definitive answer to this important question. In the end, vaccination may be proven to be the optimal strategy in human for the management of H. pylori infection and prevention of gastric cancer.

  4. Imaging Surveillance of Patients with Breast Cancer after Primary Treatment: Current Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung [Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Women who have been treated for breast cancer are at risk for second breast cancers, such as ipsilateral recurrence or contralateral metachronous breast cancer. As the number of breast cancer survivors increases, interest in patient management and surveillance after treatment has also increased. However, post-treatment surveillance programs for patients with breast cancer have not been firmly established. In this review, we focus on the imaging modalities that have been used in post-treatment surveillance for patients with breast cancer, such as mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, the effectiveness of each modality for detecting recurrence, and how they can be applied to manage patients.

  5. The Adoption of New Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Modalities Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Breast Cancer: Clinical Correlates and Cost Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Kenneth B. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Soulos, Pamela R. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Herrin, Jeph [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Health Research and Educational Trust, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Yu, James B. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Long, Jessica B. [Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center, Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Dostaler, Edward [Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); and others

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: New radiation therapy modalities have broadened treatment options for older women with breast cancer, but it is unclear how clinical factors, geographic region, and physician preference affect the choice of radiation therapy modality. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer from 1998 to 2007 who underwent breast-conserving surgery. We assessed the temporal trends in, and costs of, the adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and brachytherapy. Using hierarchical logistic regression, we evaluated the relationship between the use of these new modalities and patient and regional characteristics. Results: Of 35,060 patients, 69.9% received conventional external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Although overall radiation therapy use remained constant, the use of IMRT increased from 0.0% to 12.6% from 1998 to 2007, and brachytherapy increased from 0.7% to 9.0%. The statistical variation in brachytherapy use attributable to the radiation oncologist and geographic region was 41.4% and 9.5%, respectively (for IMRT: 23.8% and 22.1%, respectively). Women undergoing treatment at a free-standing radiation facility were significantly more likely to receive IMRT than were women treated at a hospital-based facility (odds ratio for IMRT vs EBRT: 3.89 [95% confidence interval, 2.78-5.45]). No such association was seen for brachytherapy. The median radiation therapy cost per treated patient increased from $5389 in 2001 to $8539 in 2007. Conclusions: IMRT and brachytherapy use increased substantially from 1998 to 2007; overall, radiation therapy costs increased by more than 50%. Radiation oncologists played an important role in treatment choice for both types of radiation therapy, whereas geographic region played a bigger role in the use of IMRT than brachytherapy.

  6. Activatable albumin-photosensitizer nanoassemblies for triple-modal imaging and thermal-modulated photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehong; Sheng, Zonghai; Gao, Guanhui; Siu, Fungming; Liu, Chengbo; Wan, Qian; Gong, Ping; Zheng, Hairong; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive and effective approach for cancer treatment. The main bottlenecks of clinical PDT are poor selectivity of photosensitizer and inadequate oxygen supply resulting in serious side effects and low therapeutic efficiency. Herein, a thermal-modulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) strategy using activatable human serum albumin-chlorin e6 nanoassemblies (HSA-Ce6 NAs) for promoting PDT against cancer is developed. Through intermolecular disulfide bond crosslinking and hydrophobic interaction, Ce6 photosensitizer is effectively loaded into the HSA NAs, and the obtained HSA-Ce6 NAs exhibit excellent reduction response, as well as enhanced tumor accumulation and retention. By the precision control of the overall body temperature instead of local tumor temperature increasing from 37 °C to 43 °C, the photosensitization reaction rate of HSA-Ce6 NAs increases 20%, and the oxygen saturation of tumor tissue raise 52%, significantly enhancing the generation of ROS for promoting PDT. Meanwhile, the intrinsic fluorescence and photoacoustic properties, and the chelating characteristic of porphyrin ring can endow the HSA-Ce6 NAs with fluorescence, photoacoustic and magnetic resonance triple-modal imaging functions. Upon irradiation of low-energy near-infrared laser, the tumors are completely suppressed without tumor recurrence and therapy-induced side effects. The robust thermal-modulated ROS strategy combined with albumin-based activatable nanophotosensitizer is highly potential for multi-modal imaging-guided PDT and clinical translation.

  7. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  8. Current status of oral cancer chemoprevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moni Abraham Kuriakose

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chemoprevention is the administration of agents to block or reverse carcinogenesis. Chemoprevention in oral cancer has been directed towards reversal of premalignant lesion and prevention of second primary tumor.

  9. Mechanistic Insights into Molecular Targeting and Combined Modality Therapy for Aggressive, Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eDal Pra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy (RT is one of the mainstay treatments for prostate cancer (PCa. The potentially curative approaches can provide satisfactory results for many patients with non-metastatic PCa; however, a considerable number of individuals may present disease recurrence and die from the disease. Exploiting the rich molecular biology of PCa will provide insights into how the most resistant tumor cells can be eradicated to improve treatment outcomes. Important for this biology-driven individualized treatment is a robust selection procedure. The development of predictive biomarkers for RT efficacy is therefore of utmost importance for a clinically exploitable strategy to achieve tumor-specific radiosensitization. This review highlights the current status and possible opportunities in the modulation of four key processes to enhance radiation response in PCa by targeting the: I. androgen signaling pathway; II. hypoxic tumor cells and regions; III. DNA damage response (DDR pathway; and IV. abnormal extra/intra-cell signaling pathways. In addition, we discuss how and which patients should be selected for biomarker-based clinical trials exploiting and validating these targeted treatment strategies with precision RT to improve cure rates in non-indolent, localized PCa.

  10. Current therapeutic strategies for invasive and metastatic bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prakash Vishnu, Jacob Mathew, Winston W TanDivision of Hematology Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USABackground: Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe, the United States, and Northern African countries. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is an aggressive epithelial tumor, with a high rate of early systemic dissemination. Superficial, noninvasive bladder cancer can most often be cured; a good proportion of invasive cases can also be cured by a combined modality approach of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Recurrences are common and mostly manifest as metastatic disease. Those with distant metastatic disease can sometime achieve partial or complete remission with combination chemotherapy.Recent developments: Better understanding of the biology of the disease has led to the incorporation of molecular and genetic features along with factors such as tumor grade, lympho-vascular invasion, and aberrant histology, thereby allowing identification of ‘favorable’ and ‘unfavorable’ cancers which helps a more accurate informed and objective selection of patients who would benefit from neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Gene expression profiling has been used to find molecular signature patterns that can potentially be predictive of drug sensitivity and metastasis. Understanding the molecular pathways of invasive bladder cancer has led to clinical investigation of several targeted therapeutics such as anti-angiogenics, mTOR inhibitors, and anti-EGFR agents.Conclusion: With improvements in the understanding of the biology of bladder cancer, clinical trials studying novel and targeted agents alone or in combination with chemotherapy have increased the armamentarium for the treatment of bladder cancer. Although the novel biomarkers and gene expression profiles have been shown to provide important predictive and prognostic information and are anticipated to be incorporated in clinical decision-making, their exact utility

  11. Multifunctional dendrimer-based nanoparticles for in vivo MR/CT dual-modal molecular imaging of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kangan Li,1,4,5,* Shihui Wen,2,* Andrew C Larson,4,5 Mingwu Shen,2 Zhuoli Zhang,4,5 Qian Chen,3 Xiangyang Shi,2,3 Guixiang Zhang1 1Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Development of dual-mode or multi-mode imaging contrast agents is important for accurate and self-confirmatory diagnosis of cancer. We report a new multifunctional, dendrimer-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP as a dual-modality contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR/computed tomography (CT imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine dendrimers modified with gadolinium chelate (DOTA-NHS and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether were used as templates to synthesize AuNPs, followed by Gd(III chelation and acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amine groups; multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped AuNPs (Gd-Au DENPs were formed. The formed Gd-Au DENPs were used for both in vitro and in vivo MR/CT imaging of human MCF-7 cancer cells. Both MR and CT images demonstrate that MCF-7 cells and the xenograft tumor model can be effectively imaged. The Gd-Au DENPs uptake, mainly in the cell cytoplasm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The cell cytotoxicity assay, cell morphology observation, and flow cytometry show that the developed Gd-Au DENPs have good biocompatibility in the given concentration range. Our results

  12. A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Advanced-Stage Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Figure 6: A. Picture of 25 weeks old TRAMP mice bearing prostate tumor. B. PKD1 and MTA1 protein levels in prostate tissues of TRAMP (TG) and their wild...Verras, M. and Z. Sun , Roles and regulation of Wnt signaling and beta-catenin in prostate cancer. Cancer Lett, 2006. 237(1): p. 22-32. 5. Sarkar, F.H

  13. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...

  14. Current management of locally recurrent rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Bak; Laurberg, Søren; Holm, Thorbjörn

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: A review of the literature was undertaken to provide an overview of the surgical management of locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) after the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME). Method: A systematic literature search was undertaken using PubMed, Embase, Web...

  15. Current vaccination strategies for prostate cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joniau, S.; Abrahamsson, P.A.; Bellmunt, J.; Figdor, C.G.; Hamdy, F.; Verhagen, P.; Vogelzang, N.J.; Wirth, M.; Poppel, H. van; Osanto, S.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: The first therapeutic cancer vaccine demonstrating effectiveness in a phase 3 study was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on 29 April 2010. The pivotal trial demonstrated overall survival (OS) benefit in patients treated with antigen-loaded leukapheresis cells compared with a

  16. Current and emerging breast cancer biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer treatment has experienced several advancements in the past few decades with the discovery of specific predictive and prognostic biomarkers that make possible the application of individualized therapies. In addition to traditional prognostic factors of breast carcinoma, molecular biomarkers have played a significant role in tumor prediction and treatment. The most frequent genetic alterations of breast cancer are gained along chromosome 1q, 8q, 17q, 20q, and 11q and losses along 8p, 13q, 16q, 18q, and 11q. Interestingly, many of these chromosomal fragments harbor known proto oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes such as BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, HER2-neu, cyclin D1, and cyclin E, which are briefly described in this review.

  17. Future directions in combined modality therapy for rectal cancer: reevaluating the role of total mesorectal excision after chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanki AA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abhishek A Solanki,1 Daniel T Chang,2 Stanley L Liauw11Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USAAbstract: Most patients who develop rectal cancer present with locoregionally advanced (T3 or node-positive disease. The standard management of locoregionally advanced rectal cancer is neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (nCRT, followed by radical resection (low-anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection with total mesorectal excision. Approximately 15% of patients can have a pathologic complete response (pCR at the time of surgery, indicating that some patients can have no detectable residual disease after nCRT. The actual benefit of surgery in this group of patients is unclear. It is possible that omission of surgery in these patients, termed selective nonoperative management, can limit the toxicities associated with standard, multimodal combined modality therapy without compromising disease control. In this review, we discuss the clinical experiences to date using selective nonoperative management and various attempts at escalation of nCRT to improve the number of patients who have a pCR. We also explore several clinical, laboratory, imaging, histopathologic, and genetic biomarkers that have been tested as tools to predict which patients are most likely to have a pCR after nCRT.Keywords: rectal cancer, chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision, nonoperative management, organ preservation

  18. Vascular invasion in pancreatic cancer:Imaging modalities,preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas; C; Buchs; Michael; Chilcott; Pierre-Alexandre; Poletti; Leo; H; Buhler; Philippe; Morel

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is associated with a poor prognosis,and surgical resection remains the only chance for curative therapy.In the absence of metastatic disease,which would preclude resection,assessment of vascular invasion is an important parameter for determining resectability of pancreatic cancer.A frequent error is to misdiagnose an involved major vessel.Obviously,surgical exploration with pathological examination remains the"gold standard"in terms of evaluation of resectability,especially from the point ...

  19. The potential of deferasirox as a novel therapeutic modality in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron is a crucial element for cell proliferation, growth, and metabolism. However, excess iron and altered iron metabolism are both associated with tumor initiation and tumor growth. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator. Although some studies have indicated that deferasirox is a promising candidate for anti-cancer therapies, its effectiveness against gastric cancer has not yet been determined. This study was conducted to determine whether deferasirox exerts anti-tumor effects in ga...

  20. Gold nanoshelled liquid perfluorocarbon nanocapsules for combined dual modal ultrasound/CT imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Hengte; Yue, Xiuli; Wang, Jinrui; Xing, Sen; Zhang, Qian; Dai, Zhifei; Tian, Jie; Wang, Shumin; Jin, Yushen

    2014-03-26

    The integration of multimodal contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging and therapeutic capabilities could utilize imaging guided therapy to plan the treatment strategy based on the diagnostic results and to guide/monitor the therapeutic procedures. Herein, gold nanoshelled perfluorooctylbromide (PFOB) nanocapsules with PEGylation (PGsP NCs) are constructed by oil-in-water emulsion method to form polymeric PFOB nanocapsules, followed by the formation of PEGylated gold nanoshell on the surface. PGsP NCs could not only provide excellent contrast enhancement for dual modal ultrasound and CT imaging in vitro and in vivo, but also serve as efficient photoabsorbers for photothermal ablation of tumors on xenografted nude mouse model. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of gold nanoshell serving as both CT contrast agents and photoabsorbers for photothermal therapy. The novel multifunctional nanomedicine would be of great value to offer more comprehensive diagnostic information to guide more accurate and effective cancer therapy.

  1. Current treatment options for colon cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Terracina, Krista P; Raza, Ali; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-09-21

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), the dissemination of cancer cells throughout the lining of the abdominal cavity, is the second most common presentation of colon cancer distant metastasis. Despite remarkable advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for colon cancer over the last 15 years, it has been repeatedly shown that these therapies remain ineffective for colon cancer PC. Recently, there has been a rapid accumulation of reports that cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS-HIPEC) prolongs the life of colon cancer PC patients. Here, we will review the clinical presentation, the mechanisms of disease progression, and current treatment options for colon cancer PC, with a focus on the benefits and limitations of CRS-HIPEC.

  2. Current Surgical Aspects of Palliative Treatment for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapanos, Konstantinos, E-mail: dr.kostaskarapanos@gmail.com; Nomikos, Iakovos N. [Department of Surgery (B' Unit), METAXA Cancer Memorial Hospital, Piraeus (Greece)

    2011-02-11

    Despite all improvements in both surgical and other conservative therapies, pancreatic cancer is steadily associated with a poor overall prognosis and remains a major cause of cancer mortality. Radical surgical resection has been established as the best chance these patients have for long-term survival. However, in most cases the disease has reached an incurable state at the time of diagnosis, mainly due to the silent clinical course at its early stages. The role of palliative surgery in locally advanced pancreatic cancer mainly involves patients who are found unresectable during open surgical exploration and consists of combined biliary and duodenal bypass procedures. Chemical splanchnicectomy is another modality that should also be applied intraoperatively with good results. There are no randomized controlled trials evaluating the outcomes of palliative pancreatic resection. Nevertheless, data from retrospective reports suggest that this practice, compared with bypass procedures, may lead to improved survival without increasing perioperative morbidity and mortality. All efforts at developing a more effective treatment for unresectable pancreatic cancer have been directed towards neoadjuvant and targeted therapies. The scenario of downstaging tumors in anticipation of a future oncological surgical resection has been advocated by trials combining gemcitabine with radiation therapy or with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib, with promising early results.

  3. Changing modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic modal logic DML is presented, featuring actions that change the interpretation of a propositional variable or a modality. The semantics is defined both in terms of modal structures and of labelled transition systems (Kripke models). The extension µDML with recursively defined actions aim

  4. Staging Lung Cancer: Current Controversies and Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyad Karmy-Jones

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A consistent approach to staging is required for the rational management of lung cancer. This paper was prepared at the request of the Standards Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society, and reviews and discusses the relative merits of the available methods of staging. Whichever methods are chosen by a particular institution, the following points must be stressed. No patient can be considered automatically "unresectable" when chest radiography and/ or computed tomography demonstrate adenopathy or only suggest local invasion. Clinical and/or radiographical evidence suggesting extensive local or metastatic disease should be evaluated as completely as possible before subjecting the patient to a possible "nontherapeutic" thoracotomy. Finally, in some cases thoracotomy is required to decide whether the lesion is "completely" resectable.

  5. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  6. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Bradley

    2009-06-01

    exercise in this patient population specifically targeting bone density, cardiovascular function, lean and fat mass, physical function and falls risk as primary study endpoints. In terms of advancement of prostate cancer care, we expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce fracture risk, improve physical and functional ability, quality of life and ultimately survival rate in this population. Clinical Trial Registry A Phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer; ACTRN12609000200280

  7. Improving cytotoxicity against cancer cells by chemo-photodynamic combined modalities using silver-graphene quantum dots nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiba K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Khaled Habiba,1,2 Joel Encarnacion-Rosado,2,3 Kenny Garcia-Pabon,2,4 Juan C Villalobos-Santos,2,5 Vladimir I Makarov,1 Javier A Avalos,2,6 Brad R Weiner,2,7,8 Gerardo Morell1,2,7 1Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico – Rio Piedras Campus, 2Molecular Sciences Research Center, University of Puerto Rico, 3Department of Biology, 4Faculty of Education, University of Puerto Rico – Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, 5Department of Biology, 6Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico – Bayamon Campus, Bayamon, 7Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, 8Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico – Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR, USA Abstract: The combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer therapy due to its synergistic effects. In this work, PEGylated silver nanoparticles decorated with graphene quantum dots (Ag-GQDs were tested as a platform to deliver a chemotherapy drug and a photosensitizer, simultaneously, in chemo-photodynamic therapy against HeLa and DU145 cancer cells in vitro. Ag-GQDs have displayed high efficiency in delivering doxorubicin as a model chemotherapy drug to both cancer cells. The Ag-GQDs exhibited a strong antitumor activity by inducing apoptosis in cancer cells without affecting the viability of normal cells. Moreover, the Ag-GQDs exhibited a cytotoxic effect due to the generation of the reactive singlet oxygen upon 425 nm irradiation, indicating their applicability in photodynamic therapy. In comparison with chemo or photodynamic treatment alone, the combined treatment of Ag-GQDs conjugated with doxorubicin under irradiation with a 425 nm lamp significantly increased the death in DU145 and HeLa. This study suggests Ag-GQDs as a multifunctional and efficient therapeutic system for chemo-photodynamic modalities in cancer therapy. Keywords: multifunctional nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles, cancer therapy, drug

  8. The choice of the correct imaging modality in breast cancer management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardieri, Emilio [Division of Nuclear Medicine, PET Centre, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133, Milan (Italy); Gianni, Luca [Division of Medical Oncology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2004-06-01

    This brief overview discusses which of the diagnostic options are more reliable and effective for breast cancer imaging with a view to avoiding the unjustified use of techniques that are suboptimal. The technological development of diagnostic imaging has been very impressive, and both radiological (mammography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and nuclear medicine tools (bone scan, planar and SPECT scintigraphy, sentinel node biopsy, positron emission tomography) have helped to overcome past limitations in the detection of small lesions. Furthermore, new approaches have been developed that permit successful differential diagnosis of doubtful lesions and rapid identification of systemic metastases, and allow non-invasive characterisation of the biology of cancer tissue. There is evidence that these advances may have helped in optimising therapeutic strategies. Importantly, the metabolic information provided by nuclear medicine procedures may be combined with the anatomical data supplied by radiological techniques in order to assist in predicting tumour response, planning radiotherapy and monitoring patient outcome. It is difficult to formulate conclusive diagnostic guidelines for application in the work-up of breast cancer, because while the role of some examinations, such as mammography and ultrasonography, is well established, that of others, such as magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, is still a matter of debate. There is a need for further prospective evaluations with appropriate clinical trials designed to evaluate the impact of these approaches in improving survival and quality of life. (orig.)

  9. Applicability of RNA interference in cancer therapy: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maduri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a manifestation of dysregulated gene function arising from a complex interplay of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes present in our body. Cancer has been constantly chased using various therapies but all in vain as most of them are highly effective only in the early stages of cancer. Recently, RNA interference (RNAi therapy, a comparatively new entrant is evolving as a promising player in the battle against cancer due to its post-transcriptional gene silencing ability. The most alluring feature of this non-invasive technology lies in its utility in the cancer detection and the cancer treatment at any stage. Once this technology is fully exploited it can bring a whole new era of therapeutics capable of curing cancer at any stage mainly due to its ability to target the vital processes required for cell proliferation such as response to growth factors, nutrient uptake/synthesis, and energy generation. This therapy can also be used to treat stage IV cancer, the most difficult to treat till date, by virtue of its metastasis inhibiting capability. Recent research has also proved that cancer can even be prevented by proper modulation of physiological RNAi pathways and researchers have found that many nutrients, which are a part of routine diet, can effectively modulate these pathways and prevent cancer. Even after having all these advantages the potential of RNAi therapy could not be fully tapped earlier, due to many limitations associated with the administration of RNAi based therapeutics. However, recent advancements in this direction, such as the development of small interfering RNA (siRNA tolerant to nucleases and the development of non-viral vectors such as cationic liposomes and nanoparticles, can overcome this obstacle and facilitate the clinical use of RNAi based therapeutics in the treatment of cancer. The present review focuses on the current status of RNAi therapeutics and explores their potential as future diagnostics and

  10. A Clinical Study of Melasma and a Comparison of the Therapeutic Effect of Certain Currently Available Topical Modalities for its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Kolte, Jennifer N; Srinivas, Babu N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired facial hypermelanosis. Conventional treatment of melasma includes a sunscreen and hypopigmenting agents. The treatment of this recalcitrant disorder is often difficult and unsatisfactory. Aims: The objective is to carry out a detailed clinical study of melasma and to assess the therapeutic effect and side effects of certain currently available topical modalities for the treatment of melasma. Materials and Methods: 160 patients of all age groups and both sexes were treated sequentially with five different combination regimes for 3 months. Assessment of the response was done subjectively as well as by melasma area and severity index (MASI). Results: Out of the five modalities studied, the modified Kligman's formula was the most effective. However, it had comparatively higher incidence of side effects. Conclusions: Among the currently available topical modalities for the treatment of melasma, the most effective combination is the modified Kligman's formula. However, in view of the side effects it causes, it must be used with caution and proper counseling. PMID:23723484

  11. A clinical study of melasma and a comparison of the therapeutic effect of certain currently available topical modalities for its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar R Sardesai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common acquired facial hypermelanosis. Conventional treatment of melasma includes a sunscreen and hypopigmenting agents. The treatment of this recalcitrant disorder is often difficult and unsatisfactory. Aims: The objective is to carry out a detailed clinical study of melasma and to assess the therapeutic effect and side effects of certain currently available topical modalities for the treatment of melasma. Materials and Methods: 160 patients of all age groups and both sexes were treated sequentially with five different combination regimes for 3 months. Assessment of the response was done subjectively as well as by melasma area and severity index (MASI. Results: Out of the five modalities studied, the modified Kligman′s formula was the most effective. However, it had comparatively higher incidence of side effects. Conclusions: Among the currently available topical modalities for the treatment of melasma, the most effective combination is the modified Kligman′s formula. However, in view of the side effects it causes, it must be used with caution and proper counseling.

  12. Parametric modal transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2011-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin......Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects...... in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....

  13. Cost-Effective Screening for Breast Cancer Worldwide: Current State and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarvazyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordability of healthcare is highly limited by its skyrocketing cost. Access to screening and diagnostic medical equipment and medicine in developing countries is inadequate for the majority of the population. There is a tremendous worldwide need to detect breast cancer at its earliest stage. These needs must be balanced by the ability of countries to provide breast cancer screening technology to their populations. We reviewed the diagnostic accuracy, procedure cost and cost-effectiveness of currently available technique for breast screening and diagnosis including clinical breast examination, mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy and a new modality for cancer diagnostics termed elasticity imaging that has emerged in the last decade. Clinical results demonstrate that elasticity imaging even in its simplest and least sophisticated versions, like tactile imaging, has significant diagnostic potential comparable and exceeding that of conventional imaging techniques. In view of many countries with limited resources, effective yet less expensive modes of screening must be considered worldwide. The tactile imaging is one method that has the potential to provide cost-effective breast cancer screening and diagnostics.

  14. Cancer screening in the United States, 2015: a review of current American cancer society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Brooks, Durado; Doroshenk, Mary; Fedewa, Stacey; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Each year, the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection along with a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, we summarize current ACS cancer screening guidelines. The latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also is described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Affordable Care Act, including the expansion of the Medicaid program.

  15. A bi-modal approach against cancer: magnetic alginate nanoparticles for combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Riggio, Cristina; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2009-07-01

    The use of polymeric carriers containing dispersed magnetic nanocrystalline particles has attracted considerable interest in the medical field. In this paper, we propose an innovative nanotechnological platform for cancer therapy, based on highly magnetized, biodegradable, and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles. Alginate magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by our group by an efficient emulsion/reticulation technique and tested as drug delivery system. Here, we present a potential application that combines, in a single nanovector, efficient targeting, overcoming of bio-barriers, drug delivery, and physical disruption of tumor tissues.

  16. Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual…

  17. Phytochemicals for breast cancer therapy: current status and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawed Akhtar; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Singh, Nidhi; Godbole, Madan Madhav; Chakravarti, Bandana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women, representing nearly 30% of newly diagnosed cancers every year. Till date, various therapeutic interventions, including surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy are available and are known to cause a significant decline in the overall mortality rate. However, therapeutic resistance, recurrence and lack of treatment in metastasis are the major challenges that need to be addressed. Increasing evidence suggests the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in heterogeneous population of breast tumors capable of selfrenewal and differentiation and is considered to be responsible for drug resistance and recurrence. Therefore, compound that can target both differentiated cancer cells, as well as CSCs, may provide a better treatment strategy. Due to safe nature of dietary agents and health products, investigators are introducing them into clinical trials in place of chemotherapeutic agents.This current review focuses on phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids that are in use for breast cancer therapy in preclinical phase. As phytochemicals have several advantages in breast cancer and cancer stem cells, new synthetic series for breast cancer therapy from analogues of most potent natural molecule can be developed via rational drug design approach.

  18. WSTO9 (TOOKAD) mediated photodynamic therapy as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Huang, Zheng; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2002-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes optical energy to activate a pre-administered photosensitizer drug to achieve a localized tumor control. In the presented study, PDT mediated with a second-generation photosensitizer, WST09 (TOOKAD, Steba Biotech, The Netherlands), is investigated as an alternative therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo canine prostate is used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates both superficially and interstitially with a diode laser (763 nm) to activate the intra-operatively i.v. infused photosensitizer. During light irradiation, tissue optical properties, and temperature were monitored. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no complications. The prostates were harvested and subjected to histopathological evaluations. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single treatment, suggesting the therapy is extremely effective in destroying prostatic tissue. Although we found there was loss of epithelial lining in prostatic urethra, there was no evidence it had caused urinary tract side effects as reported in those studies utilizing transurethral irradiation. In conclusion, we found second generation photosensitizer WST09 mediated PDT may provide an excellent alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  19. Cancer survivorship research: a review of the literature and summary of current NCI-designated cancer center projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Dean, Julie A; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-10-01

    The number of cancer survivors and the amount of cancer survivorship research have grown substantially during the past three decades. This article provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  20. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and combined modality for Hodgkin's disease, with emphasis on second cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, J.G.; Paus, M.D.; Pluetschow, A.;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Second malignancies (SM) are a major late effect of treatment for Hodgkin's disease (HD). Reliable comparisons of SM risk between alternative treatment strategies are lacking. OBJECTIVES: Radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT) and combined chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for newly-diagnosed Ho......BACKGROUND: Second malignancies (SM) are a major late effect of treatment for Hodgkin's disease (HD). Reliable comparisons of SM risk between alternative treatment strategies are lacking. OBJECTIVES: Radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT) and combined chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) for newly......-diagnosed Hodgkin's disease are compared with respect to SM risk, overall (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survival. Further, involved-field (IF-)RT is compared to extended-field (EF-)RT. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, PubMed, EMBASE, CancerLit, LILACS, relevant conference...

  1. Cancer screening in the United States, 2013: a review of current American Cancer Society guidelines, current issues in cancer screening, and new guidance on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Brooks, Durado; Cokkinides, Vilma; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W

    2013-01-01

    Each year the American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes a summary of its recommendations for early cancer detection, a report on data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, current ACS cancer screening guidelines are summarized, as are updated guidelines on cervical cancer screening and lung cancer screening with low-dose helical computed tomography. The latest data on the use of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey also are described, as are several issues related to screening coverage under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  2. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  3. Breast cancer stem cells: current advances and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Clouthier, Shawn G; Deol, Yadwinder; Liu, Suling; Nagrath, Sunitha; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max S

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that many cancers, including breast cancer, are driven by a population of cells that display stem cell properties. These cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells, not only drive tumor initiation and growth but also mediate tumor metastasis and therapeutic resistance. In this chapter, we summarize current advances in CSC research with a major focus on breast CSCs (BCSCs). We review the prevailing methods to isolate and characterize BCSCs and recent evidence documenting their cellular origins and phenotypic plasticity that enables them to transition between mesenchymal and epithelial-like states. We describe in vitro and clinical evidence that these cells mediate metastasis and treatment resistance in breast cancer, the development of novel strategies to isolate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that contain CSCs and the use of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models in preclinical breast cancer research. Lastly, we highlight several signaling pathways that regulate BCSC self-renewal and describe clinical implications of targeting these cells for breast cancer treatment. The development of strategies to effectively target BCSCs has the potential to significantly improve the outcomes for patients with breast cancer.

  4. Clinical usefulness of breast-specific gamma imaging as an adjunct modality to mammography for diagnosis of breast cancer: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yu.; Wei, Wei; Yang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Jian-Lun [Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Department of Breast Surgery of Guangxi Cancer Hospital, Nanning, Guangxi (China)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) as an adjunct modality to mammography for detecting breast cancer. Comprehensive searches of MEDLINE (1984 to August 2012) and EMBASE (1994 to August 2012) were performed. A summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) was constructed to summarize the overall test performance of BSGI. The sensitivities for detecting subcentimetre cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were pooled. The potential of BSGI to complement mammography was also evaluated by identifying mammography-occult breast cancer. Analysis of the studies revealed that the overall validity estimates of BSGI in detecting breast cancer were as follows: sensitivity 95 % (95 % CI 93-96 %), specificity 80 % (95 % CI 78-82 %), positive likelihood ratio 4.63 (95 % CI 3.13-6.85), negative likelihood ratio 0.08 (95 % CI 0.05-0.14), and diagnostic odds ratio 56.67 (95 % CI 26.68-120.34). The area under the SROC was 0.9552 and the Q* point was 0.8977. The pooled sensitivities for detecting subcentimetre cancer and DCIS were 84 % (95 % CI 80-88 %) and 88 % (95 % CI 81-92 %), respectively. Among patients with normal mammography, 4 % were diagnosed with breast cancer by BSGI, and among those with mammography suggestive of malignancy or new biopsy-proven breast cancer, 6 % were diagnosed with additional cancers in the breast by BSGI. BSGI had a high diagnostic performance as an excellent adjunct modality to mammography for detecting breast cancer. The ability to identify subcentimetre cancer and DCIS was also high. (orig.)

  5. Promising cancer treatment modality: the University of California Davis/McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center neutron capture therapy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autry-Conwell, Susan A.; Boggan, James E.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Hou, Yongjin; Vincente, Maria-Graca; Liu, Hungyuan; Richards, Wade J.

    2000-12-01

    Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is a promising new binary therapeutic modality for the treatment of localized tumors. It is accomplished by injection and localization within the tumor of a neutron capture agent (NCA) that alone, is non- toxic. Whenthe tumor is then exposed to neutrons, a relatively non-toxic form of radiation, crytotoxic products are produced that directly or indirectly cause tumor cell death, and yet preserves normal surrounding tissue not contain the NCA. The UC Davis NCT program is currently working to develop and test new compounds or NCA in vitro and in vivo. Many groups worldwide are also working to develop the next generation NCA, but less than five facilities internationally are currently capable to treating clinical brain tumor patients by NCT and only two US facilities, MIT and Brookhaven National Laboratory. In addition to compound development, the UC Davis NCT program is preparing the UC Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center's 2 megawatt TRIGA reactor for NCT clinical trials which would make it the only such facility on the West Coast.

  6. The current state of molecular cytogenetics in cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Thomas; Othman, Moneeb A K; Rittscher, Katharina; Alhourani, Eyad

    2015-04-01

    Cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetics are and will continue to be indispensable tools in cancer diagnostics. Leukemia and lymphoma diagnostics are still emphases of routine (molecular) cytogenetics and corresponding studies of solid tumors gain more and more prominence. Here, first a historical perspective of molecular tumor cytogenetics is provided, which is followed by the basic principles of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) approach. Finally the current state of molecular cytogenetics in cancer diagnostics is discussed. Nowadays routine diagnostics includes basic FISH approaches rather than multicolor-FISH. The latter together with modern high-throughput methods have their impact on research to identify new tumor-associated genomic regions.

  7. Treatment modalities of oral mucositis after radiation of head and neck cancers; Prise en charge des mucites apres radiotherapie des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapeyre, M.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Kaminsky, M.C.; Geoffrois, L.; Dolivet, G.; Pourel, N.; Marchal, C.; Bey, P.; Maire, F.; Simon, M. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Toussaint, B. [Hopital Central, Service de Chirurgie ORL, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-11-01

    Acute mucositis is common after radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. During the past 3 decades, there was a gradual evolution in the treatment modalities for locally advanced carcinomas (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy). These new strategies are accompanied by an increase in early mucosal reactions. At the present time, there is no widely accepted prophylaxis or effective treatment. Many traditional remedies or new agents seem ineffective (Sucralfate, Chlorhexidine, GM-CSF, Silver nitrate, Prostaglandin, anti-oxidants, Benzydamine hydrochloride), while others seem promising (Povidone-iodine, nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges and anti-fungal, local GM-CSF, Glutamide, Low-energy laser, corticosteroids). Radioprotectors are controversial and should be only used in experimental protocols and not in routine practice. However, some recommendations can be proposed: general prevention and global care before cancer therapy should be systematic (oral hygiene, dental and periodontal treatment, advice to avoid the use of tobacco and alcohol); frequent oral rinsing with a bland mouthwash (Povidone-iodine or others) should be used at the start of treatment because there are significant modifications of the oral microflora increased by a disturbed salivary flow; these mouthwashes could be associated with nonabsorbable antibiotic lozenges or anti-fungal topical (bicarbonates, Amphotericine B); Systematic percutaneous fluoroscopic gastrostomy should be decided before any aggressive treatments (concomitant radio-chemotherapy, accelerated radiotherapy); pain should be controlled; finally, the radiation technique should be optimized (mucosal sparing block, conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy). (authors)

  8. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  9. Oligometastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: current treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard PJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Patrick J Richard, Ramesh Rengan Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: The oligometastatic disease theory was initially described in 1995 by Hellman and Weichselbaum. Since then, much work has been performed to investigate its existence in many solid tumors. This has led to subclassifications of stage IV cancer, which could redefine our treatment approaches and the therapeutic outcomes for this historically “incurable” entity. With a high incidence of stage IV disease, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC remains a difficult cancer to treat and cure. Recent work has proven the existence of an oligometastatic state in NSCLC in terms of properly selecting patients who may benefit from aggressive therapy and experience long-term overall survival. This review discusses the current treatment approaches used in oligometastatic NSCLC and provides the evidence and rationale for each approach. The prognostic factors of many trials are discussed, which can be used to properly select patients for aggressive treatment regimens. Future advances in both molecular profiling of NSCLC to find targetable mutations and investigating patient selection may increase the number of patients diagnosed with oligometastatic NSCLC. As this disease entity increases, it is of utmost importance for oncologists treating NSCLC to be aware of the current treatment strategies that exist and the potential advantages/disadvantages of each. Keywords: oligometastatic, non-small-cell lung cancer, oligoprogressive, treatment

  10. Intensity modulated radiation therapy for breast cancer: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buwenge, Milly; Cammelli, Silvia; Ammendolia, Ilario; Tolento, Giorgio; Zamagni, Alice; Arcelli, Alessandra; Macchia, Gabriella; Deodato, Francesco; Cilla, Savino; Morganti, Alessio G

    2017-01-01

    Background Owing to highly conformed dose distribution, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to improve treatment results of radiotherapy (RT). Postoperative RT is a standard adjuvant treatment in conservative treatment of breast cancer (BC). The aim of this review is to analyze available evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IMRT in BC, particularly in terms of reduction of side effects. Methods A literature search of the bibliographic database PubMed, from January 1990 through November 2016, was performed. Only RCTs published in English were included. Results Ten articles reporting data from 5 RCTs fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in our review. Three out of 5 studies enrolled only selected patients in terms of increased risk of toxicity. Three studies compared IMRT with standard tangential RT. One study compared the results of IMRT in the supine versus the prone position, and one study compared standard treatment with accelerated partial breast IMRT. Three studies reported reduced acute and/or late toxicity using IMRT compared with standard RT. No study reported improved quality of life. Conclusion IMRT seems able to reduce toxicity in selected patients treated with postoperative RT for BC. Further analyses are needed to better define patients who are candidates for this treatment modality. PMID:28293119

  11. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging in breast cancer patients. Is there a relevant impact on treatment planning compared to conventional staging modalities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, J.; Schnitzer, A.; Kaiser, C.G.; Buesing, K.A.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Wasser, K. [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Sperk, E. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Brade, J. [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Medical Statistics, Biomathematics and Data Processing, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Wasgindt, S.; Suetterlin, M. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Sutton, E.J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Evelyn H. Lauder Breast Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the impact of whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT on initial staging of breast cancer in comparison to conventional staging modalities. This study included 102 breast cancer patients, 101 patients were eligible for evaluation. Preoperative whole-body staging with PET/CT was performed in patients with clinical stage ≥ T2 tumours or positive local lymph nodes (n = 91). Postoperative PET/CT was performed in patients without these criteria but positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (n = 10). All patients underwent PET/CT and a conventional staging algorithm, which included bone scan, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound. PET/CT findings were compared to conventional staging and the impact on therapeutic management was evaluated. PET/CT led to an upgrade of the N or M stage in overall 19 patients (19 %) and newly identified manifestation of breast cancer in two patients (2 %). PET/CT findings caused a change in treatment of 11 patients (11 %). This is within the range of recent studies, all applying conventional inclusion criteria based on the initial T and N status. PET/CT has a relevant impact on initial staging and treatment of breast cancer when compared to conventional modalities. Further studies should assess inclusion criteria beyond the conventional T and N status, e.g. tumour grading and receptor status. (orig.)

  12. Gd-based upconversion nanocarriers with yolk-shell structure for dual-modal imaging and enhanced chemotherapy to overcome multidrug resistance in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanwei; Zhang, Ling'e.; Zeng, Leyong; Ren, Wenzhi; Xiao, Xueshan; Zhang, Jichao; Zhang, Lili; Li, Aiguo; Lu, Guangming; Wu, Aiguo

    2015-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancers is still a major challenge, and it is very important to develop visualized nanoprobes for the diagnosis and treatment of drug resistant cancers. In this work, we developed a multifunctional delivery system based on DOX-encapsulated NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaGdF4 yolk-shell nanostructures for simultaneous dual-modal imaging and enhanced chemotherapy in drug resistant breast cancer. Using the large pore volume of the nanostructure, the delivery system had a high loading efficiency and excellent stability. Also, an in vitro and in vivo toxicity study showed the good biocompatibility of the as-prepared yolk-shell nanomaterials. Moreover, by nanocarrier delivery, the uptake of DOX could be greatly increased in drug resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. Compared with free DOX, the as-prepared delivery system enhanced the chemotherapy efficacy against MCF-7/ADR cells, indicating the excellent capability for overcoming MDR. Furthermore, core-shell NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaGdF4 improved the upconversion luminescence (UCL) performance, and the designed delivery system could also be applied for simultaneous UCL and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which could be a good candidate as a dual-modal imaging nanoprobe. Therefore, we developed a multifunctional yolk-shell delivery system, which could have potential applications as a visualized theranostic nanoprobe to overcome MDR in breast cancer.

  13. Analysis on Modals and Semi-Modals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力

    2014-01-01

    The modal is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality. There are thirteen modal auxiliaries including some past tense forms. In this paper, the modals and semi-modals will be studied through analyzing fifteen sample sentences and referring some grammar books. At last, some suggestions for ESL or ESL teacher to teach modals will be provided.

  14. Current status of radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer has been extensively explored in the past. Along with the comprehensive understanding of the biology of prostate cancer and rapid advances in terms of technology, the outcome of treatment for the patients with prostate cancer has improved. The authors review radiotherapy as the primary treatment for the disease, with particular emphasis on the technological advances from both the radiobiological and radiophysics aspects. Nonconventional fractionated irradiation like hyper- or hypo-fractionation has been implemented in the clinic, the final results still need to be confirmed in the future. Technological advances like IMRT, IGRT,in the last two decades have significantly improved the delivery of external radiotherapy to the prostate. This has resulted in an overall increase in the total dose that can be safely delivered to the prostate, which has led to modest improvements in the biochemical outcome. However, establishing the standard therapy for prostate cancer remains controversial. It is hoped that the next decades will bring continued advances in the development of biologicals that will further improve current clinical outcomes.

  15. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices.

  16. Assessment of normal tissue complications following prostate cancer irradiation: Comparison of radiation treatment modalities using NTCP models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takam, Rungdham; Bezak, Eva; Yeoh, Eric E.; Marcu, Loredana [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia) and Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia); School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia) and Faculty of Science, University of Oradea, Oradea 410086 (Romania)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) of the rectum, bladder, urethra, and femoral heads following several techniques for radiation treatment of prostate cancer were evaluated applying the relative seriality and Lyman models. Methods: Model parameters from literature were used in this evaluation. The treatment techniques included external (standard fractionated, hypofractionated, and dose-escalated) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy (I-125 seeds), and high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (Ir-192 source). Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the rectum, bladder, and urethra retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems were converted to biological effective dose-based and equivalent dose-based DVHs, respectively, in order to account for differences in radiation treatment modality and fractionation schedule. Results: Results indicated that with hypofractionated 3D-CRT (20 fractions of 2.75 Gy/fraction delivered five times/week to total dose of 55 Gy), NTCP of the rectum, bladder, and urethra were less than those for standard fractionated 3D-CRT using a four-field technique (32 fractions of 2 Gy/fraction delivered five times/week to total dose of 64 Gy) and dose-escalated 3D-CRT. Rectal and bladder NTCPs (5.2% and 6.6%, respectively) following the dose-escalated four-field 3D-CRT (2 Gy/fraction to total dose of 74 Gy) were the highest among analyzed treatment techniques. The average NTCP for the rectum and urethra were 0.6% and 24.7% for LDR-BT and 0.5% and 11.2% for HDR-BT. Conclusions: Although brachytherapy techniques resulted in delivering larger equivalent doses to normal tissues, the corresponding NTCPs were lower than those of external beam techniques other than the urethra because of much smaller volumes irradiated to higher doses. Among analyzed normal tissues, the femoral heads were found to have the lowest probability of complications as most of their volume was irradiated to lower

  17. Current role of antibody therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, P; Qvortrup, C; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2007-01-01

    In less than 10 years, the number and importance of non-surgical treatment modalities in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have increased dramatically, both in the adjuvant and the advanced settings. However, despite the improvement of cytotoxic therapy in CRC, many patients still develop...

  18. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  19. Non-invasive imaging modalities for preoperative axillary lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer; Nichtinvasive bildgebende Verfahren zum praeoperativen axillaeren Lymphknotenstaging beim Mammakarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasser, K.; Schnitzer, A.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany); Brade, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik, Mannheim (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    In the last decade sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a well-established method for axillary lymph node staging in patients with breast cancer. Using preoperative imaging modalities it can be tested whether patients are suitable for sentinel node biopsy or if they should directly undergo an axillary dissection. The imaging modalities used must be mainly characterized by a high positive predictive value (PPV). For this question B-mode ultrasound is the best evaluated method and provides clear morphological signs for a high PPV (>90%) but the sensitivity barely exceeds 50%. It has not yet been proven whether other modalities such as duplex sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography (CT) or scintigraphy might achieve a higher sensitivity while still maintaining a high PPV. There is only some evidence that positron emission tomography (PET) might achieve a higher sensitivity. This should be confirmed by further studies because PET or PET/CT will play an increasing role for an initial whole body staging in patients with breast cancer in the near future. (orig.) [German] Die Waechterlymphknotenbiopsie hat sich in den letzten 10 Jahren fuer das axillaere Lymphknotenstaging des Mammakarzinoms fest etabliert. Durch praeoperative bildgebende Verfahren kann getestet werden, ob sich Patientinnen fuer eine Waechterlymphknotenbiopsie eignen oder direkt einer axillaeren Dissektion unterzogen werden sollten. Diese bildgebenden Verfahren muessen sich in erster Linie durch einen hohen positiven Vorhersagewert (PVW) auszeichnen. Die B-Bild-Sonographie ist diesbezueglich bisher am besten evaluiert. Sie liefert eindeutige morphologische Kriterien fuer einen hohen PVW (>90%). Die Sensitivitaet liegt dabei allerdings kaum ueber 50%. Bisher ist nicht erwiesen, dass andere Verfahren wie die Duplexsonographie, die MRT, die CT oder Szintigraphie eine bessere Sensitivitaet bei hohem PVW liefern. Lediglich fuer die Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) bestehen Hinweise

  20. [Advances in highly conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer: past, current, and future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Makishima, Hirokazu; Mizumoto, Masashi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    Recent advance in the field of radiation oncology, especially in medical physics for radiation therapy (RT), has considerably improved treatment outcomes of various cancers including prostate cancer with regard to both of tumor control and morbidity. Three-dimensionally conformal RT with image-guided radiotherapeutic modalities for accurate tumor localization, such as brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and charged particle beam RT can thereby deliver a large dose to the tumor and allow the sparing of surrounding normal tissues. It is thought that prostate cancer is one of representative cancers which have been treated with RT as a curative intent and benefited from novel conformal RT techniques. Because the number of prostate cancer patients has been increasing year by year in Japan as results from wide spread of PSA screening and rapid change in life style, RT has been recently playing much more important roles in the curative treatment for patients with prostate cancer. Hence, we will review the outcomes of RT for prostate cancer and introduce the benefit of modern RT modalities from clinical aspect. In addition, our future prospect to further yield better disease control with minimum morbidity compared with present RT will be also mentioned in the report.

  1. PAGET'S DISEASE: CURRENT TREATMENT MODALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Leonidovna Korsakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Paget's disease is a chronic local bone disease included into a group of metabolic osteopathies in which rearrangement foci emerge in one or several bones. The disease is characterized by the appearance of ostealgia, skeletal deformity, or, for example, hearing loss occurring with skull lesion or hip or knee arthrosis and, less frequently, sarcoma or giant cell tumor. There is evidence that bisphosphonates may control the activity of Paget's disease as they inhibit the function of osteoclasts. The use of these drugs reduces the intensity of osteoalgia and the level of biochemical markers for bone resorption and osteogenesis and can decelerate or reverse the early osteolytic phase of the disease. It is promising to use of zolendronic acid (Aclasta, 5 mg, a new heterocyclic amino-containing bisphosphonate that has a significantly higher efficacy than previously used antiresorptive agents.

  2. Modality and Task Switching Interactions using Bi-Modal and Bivalent Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of concurrent task and modality switching effects have to date been studied under conditions of uni-modal stimulus presentation. As such, it is difficult to directly compare resultant task and modality switching effects, as the stimuli afford both tasks on each trial, but only one modality. The current study investigated task and…

  3. Collaborative Research in Childhood Cancer Survivorship: The Current Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita; Armenian, Saro H; Armstrong, Gregory T; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hawkins, Michael M; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Olsen, Jørgen H; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M

    2015-09-20

    Survivors of childhood cancer carry a substantial burden of morbidity and are at increased risk for premature death. Furthermore, clear associations exist between specific therapeutic exposures and the risk for a variety of long-term complications. The entire landscape of health issues encountered for decades after successful completion of treatment is currently being explored in various collaborative research settings. These settings include large population-based or multi-institutional cohorts and single-institution studies. The ascertainment of outcomes has depended on self-reporting, linkage to registries, or clinical assessments. Survivorship research in the cooperative group setting, such as the Children's Oncology Group, has leveraged the clinical trials infrastructure to explore the molecular underpinnings of treatment-related adverse events, and to understand specific complications in the setting of randomized risk-reduction strategies. This review highlights the salient findings from these large collaborative initiatives, emphasizing the need for life-long follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer, and describing the development of several guidelines and efforts toward harmonization. Finally, the review reinforces the need to identify populations at highest risk, facilitating the development of risk prediction models that would allow for targeted interventions across the entire trajectory of survivorship.

  4. Immunotherapy and lung cancer: current developments and novel targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Duarte; Turner, Alice; Silva, Maria Dília; Marques, Dânia Sofia; Mellidez, Juan Carlos; Wannesson, Luciano; Mountzios, Giannis; de Mello, Ramon Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a highly prevalent and aggressive disease. In the metastatic setting, major advances include the incorporation of immunotherapy and targeted therapies into the clinician's therapeutic armamentarium. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens have long been reported to interfere with the immune response to the tumor; conversely, antitumor immunity may add to the effects of those therapies. The aim of immunotherapy is to specifically enhance the immune response directed to the tumor. Recently, many trials addressed the role of such therapies for metastatic NSCLC treatment: ipilimumab, tremelimumab, nivolumab and lambrolizumab are immunotherapeutic agents of main interest in this field. In addition, anti-tumor vaccines, such as MAGE-A3, Tecetomide, TG4010, CIMAvax, ganglioside vaccines, tumor cell vaccines and dendritic cell vaccines, emerged as potent inducers of immune response against the tumor. The current work aims to address the most recent developments regarding these innovative immunotherapies and their implementation in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC.

  5. Current concepts in cancer: effects of cancer and cancer treatment on the nutrition of the host

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, G.; Donaldson, S.S.

    1979-06-28

    The growth of cancer in man leads to destruction of tissues and alterations of functions. The consequences of this process, culminating in overt cachexia and death, are so varied that cancer has replaced syphilis as the great imitator. Many of the manifestations of cachexia (weakness, anorexia, depletion and translocation of host component, and loss of immunocompetence) resemble malnutrition and are accountable for, in many patients, by poor nutritional intake, neoplastic invasion of the gastrointestinal tract or creation by the tumor of abnormal routes through which nutrients can be lost. The development of cachexia, nevertheless, bears no simple relation to caloric intake, tumor burden, tumor cell type or anatomic site of involvement. Indeed, it has long been apparent that, in many patients succumbing to cancer, if the same lesions were composed of scar tissue rather than neoplastic cells, the affected individuals might not only be alive but in reasonably good health. Distant metabolic effects of cancers have therefore come into focus, are well documented and are known collectively as paraneoplastic syndromes. They imply release by the tumor of chemically identifiable toxic mediators. Recently, a third mechanism has been recognized as an important determinant of cachexia and malnutrition: cancer treatment. As our tools have become more powerful and our philosophies more agressive,the effects of therapy on normal cell populations have become visible. The present paper discusses the most important manifestations of cachexia that resemble malnutrition. Technics of nutritional assessment and intervention that have proved successful in patients with cancer are also briefly discussed.

  6. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: review of the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, E M; Vera-Badillo, F E; Perez-Valderrama, B; Matos-Pita, A S; Duran, I

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common male malignancy in the Western world. Once it metastasizes, it is incurable. The current gold standard for metastatic disease is the combined docetaxel/prednisone regimen. Prostate cancer shows several characteristics that make it a suitable candidate for immunotherapy, as recently exemplified by the approval of sipuleucel-T, the first vaccine to treat any malignancy. Here, we review different tumor-associated antigen immunotherapy strategies currently being investigated, from a humanized radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (J-591) that targets radiation into tumor cells, moving on to vaccines and through to immunomodulator agents such as anti-CPLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies that activate T-cell responses via immune checkpoint inhibition. We explore different opinions on the best approach to integrate immunotherapy into existing standard therapies, such as androgen-deprivation therapy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and review different combination sequences, patient types and time points during the course of the disease to achieve a lasting immune response. We present data from recent phase III clinical trials that call for a change in trial endpoint design with immunotherapy agents, from the traditional tumor progression to overall survival and how such trials should include immune response measurements as secondary or intermediate endpoints to help identify patient clinical benefit in the earlier phases of treatment. Finally, we join in the recent questioning on the validity of RECIST criteria to measure response to immunotherapeutic agents, as initial increases in the size of tumors/lymph nodes, which are part of a normal immune response, could be categorized as disease progression under RECIST.

  7. Modal Indicators for Operational Modal Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2001-01-01

    Modal validation is of paramount importance for all two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms. However, due to a higher noise/signal ratio in operational/ambient modal analysis, being able to determine the right model order and to distinguish between structural modes and computational...... modes become more significant than in traditional modal analysis. The two major modal indicators, i.e. Modal Confidence Factor (MCF) and Modal Amplitude Coherence (MAmC) are extended to two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms, together with a newly developed indicator, named as Modal...... Participation Indicator (MPI). The application of the three indicators is illustrated on different cases of operational/ambient modal identification. Three major time domain modal identification algorithms are used the Polyreference Complex Exponential (PRCE), Extended Ibrahim Time Domain (EITD), Eigensystem...

  8. Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke.

  9. Long-term clinical outcome in patients with stage-i nonseminomatous germ cell cancer: a critical review of own treatment modalities in a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Seseke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The optimal management of patients with clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell testicular cancer (NSGCT I was considered controversial until the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group determined unambiguous treatment strategies. In order to assess the long-term outcome we evaluated the data of patients with NSGCT I. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective evaluation, we included 52 patients with a mean age of 26 years (range 15-58 who were treated with different modalities at our department between 1989 and 2003. Mean follow-up was 5.9 years (range 2-14 years. After orchiectomy, 39 patients were treated with chemotherapy, 7 patients underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and 6 men were managed using a surveillance strategy. Survival, recurrence rate and time of recurrence were evaluated. The histological staging and treatment modality was related to the relapse. RESULTS: Tumor specific overall mortality was 3.8%. The mortality and relapse rate of the surveillance strategy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and chemotherapy was 16.7% / 50%, 14.3% / 14.3% and 0% / 2.5% respectively. All relapsed patients in the surveillance group as well as in the RPLND group had at least one risk factor for developing metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Following the European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer in patients with NSGCT Stage I any treatment decision must be individually related to the patient according to prognostic factors and care capacity of the treating centre. In case of doubt, adjuvant chemotherapy should be the treatment of choice, as it provides the lowest risk of relapse or tumor related death.

  10. Current Approaches of Photothermal Therapy in Treating Cancer Metastasis with Nanotherapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Lili; Wang, Hong; He, Bin; Zeng, Lijuan; Tan, Tao; Cao, Haiqiang; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Guo, Shengrong; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis accounts for the high mortality of many types of cancer. Owing to the unique advantages of high specificity and minimal invasiveness, photothermal therapy (PTT) has been evidenced with great potential in treating cancer metastasis. In this review, we outline the current approaches of PTT with respect to its application in treating metastatic cancer. PTT can be used alone, guided with multimodal imaging, or combined with the current available therapies for effective treatment...

  11. Current topics in the treatment of prostate cancer with low-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Richard G; Stone, Nelson N

    2010-02-01

    The treatment of prostate cancer with low dose rate prostate brachytherapy has grown rapidly in the last 20 years. Outcome analyses performed in this period have enriched understanding of this modality. This article focuses on the development of a real-time ultrasound-guided implant technique, the importance of radiation dose, trimodality treatment of high-risk disease, long-term treatment outcomes, and treatment-associated morbidity.

  12. Current medical treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco; Lumachi; Davide; A; Santeufemia; Stefano; MM; Basso

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 80% of breast cancers(BC) are estrogen receptor(ER)-positive and thus endocrine therapy(ET) should be considered complementary to surgery in the majority of patients. The advantages of oophorectomy, adrenalectomy and hypophysectomy in women with advanced BC have been demonstrated many years ago, and currently ET consist of(1) ovarian function suppression(OFS), usually obtained using gonadotropinreleasing hormone agonists(Gn RHa);(2) selective estrogen receptor modulators or down-regulators(SERMs or SERDs); and(3) aromatase inhibitors(AIs), or a combination of two or more drugs. For patients aged less than 50 years and ER+ BC, there is no conclusive evidence that the combination of OFS and SERMs(i.e., tamoxifen) or chemotherapy is superior to OFS alone. Tamoxifen users exhibit a reduced risk of BC, both invasive and in situ, especially during the first 5 years of therapy, and extending the treatment to 10 years further reduced the risk of recurrences. SERDs(i.e., fulvestrant) are especially useful in the neoadjuvant treatment of advanced BC, alone or in combination with either cytotoxic agents or AIs. There are two types of AIs: type Ⅰ are permanent steroidal inhibitors of aromatase, while type Ⅱ are reversible nonsteroidal inhibitors. Several studies demonstrated the superiority of the third-generation AIs(i.e., anastrozole and letrozole) compared with tamoxifen, and adjuvant therapy with AIs reduces the recurrence risk especially in patients with advanced BC. Unfortunately, some cancers are or became ET-resistant, and thus other drugs have been suggested in combination with SERMs or AIs, including cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors(palbociclib) and mammalian target of rapamycin(m TOR) inhibitors, such as everolimus. Further studies are required to confirm their real usefulness.

  13. Current treatment options for colon cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Terracina, Krista P; Raza, Ali; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC), the dissemination of cancer cells throughout the lining of the abdominal cavity, is the second most common presentation of colon cancer distant metastasis. Despite remarkable advances in cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy for colon cancer over the last 15 years, it has been repeatedly shown that these therapies remain ineffective for colon cancer PC. Recently, there has been a rapid accumulation of reports that cytoreductive surgery combined with hyper...

  14. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  15. Current advances in T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Yin, Bingnan; Wang, Helen Y; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide; due to the lack of ideal cancer biomarkers for early detection or diagnosis, most patients present with late-stage disease at the time of diagnosis, thus limiting the potential for successful treatment. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Therefore, innovative and effective cancer treatments are urgently needed for cancer patients with late-stage and refractory disease. Cancer immunotherapy, particularly adoptive cell transfer, has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease, including those who are refractory to standard therapies. In this review, we will highlight recent advances and discuss future directions in adoptive cell transfer based cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Current state of prostate cancer treatment in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Belinda F; Aiken, William D; Mayhew, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in Jamaica as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. One report suggested that Jamaica has the highest incidence rate of prostate cancer in the world, with an age-standardised rate of 304/100,000 per year. The Caribbean region is reported to have the highest mortality rate of prostate cancer worldwide. Prostate cancer accounts for a large portion of the clinical practice for health-care practitioners in Jamaica. The Jamaica Urological Society is a professional body comprising 19 urologists in Jamaica who provide most of the care for men with prostate cancer in collaboration with medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and a palliative care physician. The health-care system is structured in two tiers in Jamaica: public and private. The urologist-to-patient ratio is high, and this limits adequate urological care. Screening for prostate cancer is not a national policy in Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Urological Society and the Jamaica Cancer Society work synergistically to promote screening as well as to provide patient education for prostate cancer. Adequate treatment for localised prostate cancer is available in Jamaica in the forms of active surveillance, nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy, external beam radiation, and brachytherapy. However, there is a geographic maldistribution of centres that provide prostate cancer treatment, which leads to treatment delays. Also, there is difficulty in affording some treatment options in the private health-care sectors. Androgen deprivation therapy is available for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer and is subsidised through a programme called the National Health Fund. Second-line hormonal agents and chemotherapeutic agents are available but are costly to most of the population. The infrastructure for treatment of prostate cancer in Jamaica is good, but it requires additional technological advances as well as additional specialist

  17. Pathological examination of breast cancer biomarkers: current status in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the current status of pathological evaluation for biomarkers in Japan. The introduced issues are the international trends for estimation of biomarkers considering diagnosis and treatment decision, and pathological issues under discussion, and how Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) members have addressed issues related to pathology and biomarkers evaluation. As topics of immunohistochemical study, (1) ASCO/CAP guidelines, (2) Ki67 and other markers, (3) quantification and image analysis, (4) application of cytologic samples, (5) pre-analytical process, and (6) Japan Pathology Quality Assurance System are introduced. Various phases of concepts, guidelines, and methodologies are co-existed in today's clinical practice. It is expected in near future that conventional methods and molecular procedures will be emerged, and Japanese Quality assurance/Quality control (QA/QC) system will work practically. What we have to do in the next generation are to validate novel procedures, to evaluate the relationship between traditional concepts and newly proposed ideas, to establish a well organized QA/QC system, and to standardize pre-analytical process that are the basis of all procedures using pathological tissues.

  18. Risk of hormone escape in a human prostate cancer model depends on therapy modalities and can be reduced by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Guyader

    Full Text Available Almost all prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation treatment but many recur. We postulated that risk of hormone escape--frequency and delay--are influenced by hormone therapy modalities. More, hormone therapies induce crucial biological changes involving androgen receptors; some might be targets for escape prevention. We investigated the relationship between the androgen deprivation treatment and the risk of recurrence using nude mice bearing the high grade, hormone-dependent human prostate cancer xenograft PAC120. Tumor-bearing mice were treated by Luteinizing-Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH antagonist alone, continuous or intermittent regimen, or combined with androgen receptor (AR antagonists (bicalutamide or flutamide. Tumor growth was monitored. Biological changes were studied as for genomic alterations, AR mutations and protein expression in a large series of recurrent tumors according to hormone therapy modalities. Therapies targeting Her-2 or AKT were tested in combination with castration. All statistical tests were two-sided. Tumor growth was inhibited by continuous administration of the LH-RH antagonist degarelix (castration, but 40% of tumors recurred. Intermittent castration or complete blockade induced by degarelix and antiandrogens combination, inhibited tumor growth but increased the risk of recurrence (RR as compared to continuous castration (RR(intermittent: 14.5, RR(complete blockade: 6.5 and 1.35. All recurrent tumors displayed new quantitative genetic alterations and AR mutations, whatever the treatment modalities. AR amplification was found after complete blockade. Increased expression of Her-2/neu with frequent ERK/AKT activation was detected in all variants. Combination of castration with a Her-2/neu inhibitor decreased recurrence risk (0.17 and combination with an mTOR inhibitor prevented it. Anti-hormone treatments influence risk of recurrence although tumor growth inhibition was initially similar. Recurrent

  19. What are the current and potential future roles for endoscopic ultrasound in the treatment of pancreatic cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Y Oh; Shayan Irani; Richard A Kozarek

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Due to the aggressive tumor biology and late manifestations of the disease, long-term survival is extremely uncommon and the current 5-year survival rate is 7%. Over the last two decades, endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) has evolved from a diagnostic modality to a minimally invasive therapeutic alternative to radiologic procedures and surgery for pancreatic diseases. EUSguided celiac plexus intervention is a useful adjunct to conventional analgesia for patients with pancreatic cancer. EUS-guided biliary drainage has emerged as a viable option in patients who have failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Recently, the use of lumen-apposing metal stent to create gastrojejunal anastomosis under EUS and fluoroscopic guidance in patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction has been reported. On the other hand, anti-tumor therapies delivered by EUS, such as the injection of anti-tumor agents, brachytherapy and ablations are still in the experimental stage without clear survival benefit. In this article, we provide updates on well-established EUS-guided interventions as well as novel techniques relevant to pancreatic cancer.

  20. The spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms at a tertiary sarcoma centre; assessing 772 tumour specimens and the value of current ancillary molecular diagnostic modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, Jonathan; Jones, Robin L; Swansbury, John; Gonzalez, David; Benson, Charlotte; Judson, Ian; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2017-01-01

    Background: EWSR1 rearrangements were first identified in Ewing sarcoma, but the spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms now includes many soft tissue tumour subtypes including desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT), myxoid liposarcoma (MLPS), extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC), angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma (AFH), clear cell sarcoma (CCS) and myoepithelial neoplasms. We analysed the spectrum of EWSR1-rearranged soft tissue neoplasms at our tertiary sarcoma centre, by assessing ancillary molecular diagnostic modalities identifying EWSR1-rearranged tumours and reviewing the results in light of our current knowledge of these and other Ewing sarcoma-like neoplasms. Methods: We retrospectively analysed all specimens tested for EWSR1 rearrangements by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) and/or reverse transcription–PCR (RT–PCR) over a 7-year period. Results: There was a total of 772 specimens. FISH was performed more often than RT–PCR (n=753, 97.5% vs n=445, 57.6%). In total, 210 (27.9%) specimens were FISH-positive for EWSR1 rearrangement compared to 111 (14.4%) that showed EWSR1 fusion transcripts with RT–PCR. Failure rates for FISH and RT–PCR were 2.5% and 18.0%. Of 109 round cell tumours with pathology consistent with Ewing sarcoma, 15 (13.8 %) cases were FISH-positive without an identifiable EWSR1 fusion transcript, 4 (3.7%) were FISH-negative but RT–PCR positive and 4 (3.7%) were negative for both. FISH positivity for DSRCT, MLPS, EMC, AFH and CCS was 86.3%, 4.3%, 58.5%, 60.0% and 87.9%, respectively. A positive FISH result led to diagnostic change in 40 (19.0%) EWSR1-rearranged cases. 13 FISH-positive cases remained unclassifiable. Conclusions: FISH is more sensitive for identifying EWSR1 rearrangements than RT–PCR. However, there can be significant morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between groups of EWSR1-rearranged neoplasms, with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. FISH and RT–PCR should be used as

  1. Current perspectives and emerging issues on cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Michael D; Hubbard, Gill; Cheville, Andrea; Koch, Uwe; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-06-01

    Cancer rehabilitation is a rapidly emerging and evolving medical field in both Europe and the United States, in large part because of increases in the number of cancer survivors. Although few argue with the need to restore function and quality of life to patients affected by cancer and its treatments, differences exist between European countries with regard to the funding, accessibility, and even the definition of cancer rehabilitation services. In the United States, there is tremendous variability in the provision of rehabilitation services resulting from a variety of factors, including a lack of highly trained cancer rehabilitation physicians and therapists as well as a lack of comprehensive cancer rehabilitation programs, even at the majority of top cancer centers. Although studies evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs in the cancer setting, particularly exercise, have influenced clinical decision-making in both Europe and the United States for some time, this emerging evidence base also is now starting to influence guideline and policy making. Coordinated research efforts are essential to establish a robust framework to support future investigation and establish shared initiatives. Determining the best way forward for cancer survivors will require investment in large-scale prospective cohort studies that sufficiently describe their rehabilitation needs through the continuum of the survivorship experience.

  2. Increased use of multidisciplinary treatment modalities adds little to the outcome of rectal cancer treated by optimal total mesorectal excision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chang, Kah Hoong

    2012-10-01

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard surgical treatment for rectal cancer. The roles of chemotherapy and radiotherapy have become more defined, accompanied by improvements in preoperative staging and histopathological assessment. We analyse our ongoing results in the light of changing patterns of treatment over consecutive time periods.

  3. Comparison of intraoperative radiation therapy-containing multimodality treatment with historical treatment modalities for locally recurrent rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, GHH; Rutten, HJT; Martijn, H; Hanssens, PEJ; Wiggers, T

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Treatment protocols for patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer have changed in the last two decades. Subsequently, treatment goals shifted from palliation to possible cure. In this retrospective study, we explored the treatment variables that may have contributed to the improvement i

  4. High-risk prostate cancer: value of multi-modality 3T MRI-guided biopsies after previous negative biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fütterer, J.J.; Verma, S.; Hambrock, T.; Yakar, D.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy is the gold standard for prostate cancer detection. The latter detection rates of random systematic TRUS-guided biopsy do not exceed 44\\%. As a consequence other biopsy methods have been explored. One of these methods is MR-guided biopsy (MRGB), which revealed de

  5. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  6. [Current topics in mutations in the cancer genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaya, Takeshi; Mimori, Koshi; Wakabayashi, Go

    2012-03-01

    Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in the multistep process of carcinogenesis in many cancer types. Recently, global mutational analyses have revealed that the cancer genome has far greater numbers of mutations than previously thought. Furthermore, the next-generation sequencing method, which has a different principle from conventional Sanger sequencing, has provided more information on the cancer genome such as new cancer-related genes and the existence of many rearrangements in solid cancers. Somatic mutations occurring in cancer cells are divided into "driver" and "passenger" mutations. Driver mutations confer a growth advantage upon the neoplastic clone and are crucial for carcinogenesis. The remaining large majority of mutations are passengers, which, by definition, do not confer a growth advantage. Driver genes with low-frequency mutation rates (less than 10%) are also involved in carcinogenesis along with well-known drivers with high-frequency mutations. There are now several celebrated examples of anticancer drugs of which the efficacy in cancer patients can be predicted based on the genotype of several driver genes, such as EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF on the EGFR signaling pathway. The complete catalogs of somatic mutations provided by the sequencing of the cancer genome are expected to prompt new approaches to diagnosis, therapy, and potentially prevention.

  7. Current treatment options for the management of esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawhinney MR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mark R Mawhinney, Robert E GlasgowDepartment of Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: In recent years, esophageal cancer characteristics and management options have evolved significantly. There has been a sharp increase in the frequency of esophageal adenocarcinoma and a decline in the frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. A more comprehensive understanding of prognostic factors influencing outcome has also been developed. This has led to more management options for esophageal cancer at all stages than ever before. A multidisciplinary, team approach to management in a high volume center is the preferred approach. Each patient should be individually assessed based on type of cancer, local or regional involvement, and his or her own functional status to determine an appropriate treatment regimen. This review will discuss management of esophageal cancer relative to disease progression and patient functional status.Keywords: esophageal adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, treatment regimen, disease progression, patient functional status

  8. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  9. Phase-Transition Nanodroplets for Real-Time Photoacoustic/Ultrasound Dual-Modality Imaging and Photothermal Therapy of Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Yuli; Yu, Shengjie; Liu, Fengqiu; Sun, Yang; Chen, Yu; Ran, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Pathological status of lymph nodes (LNs) plays a critical role in staging and treatment for the patients with breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the standard method in determining pathological status of axillary LNs. Therefore, the determination of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and therapy of metastatic LNs are highly desirable in clinic. Herein, an unprecedented carbon nanoparticles (CNs)-incorporated liquid-gas phase-transition nanodroplets (CNPs) with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption, good biocompatibility, excellent photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) contrast, and high photothermal-conversion efficiency are reported in this study. Upon laser irradiation, liquid-gas phase transition of the CNPs has been demonstrated to provide excellent contrasts for PA/US dual-modality imaging both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the CNPs are capable of staining lymph nodes, which can contribute significantly to the identification of LNs with naked eyes. With increased laser energy, the CNPs exhibit the high performance in killing the breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, due to the photothermal effect induced from the CNs within CNPs. These results suggest that the developed multifunctional phase-transition nanodroplets have high potential to act as the theranostic agents in both SLNs detection and therapy of metastatic LNs. PMID:28338071

  10. Experimental modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)

  11. Current cancer incidence and trends in Yaounde, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enow Orock GE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Except for some information on relative frequencies of different cancers in selected areas, the epidemiology of cancer in Cameroon is relatively unknown. Though there is no reliable data on its incidence and pattern, with an estimated 15,000 new cases diagnosed annually and a prevalence of about 25.000 cases throughout the country, cancer is being increasingly recognized as a public health problem in Cameroon. The Yaounde Cancer Registry is a population registry physically located at the General Hospital Yaounde that has been operating since 2004. It collects data from about 20 sources that cover the entire population of Yaounde estimated in 2010 at about 1,299,369. Objectives: The objective of this study was to find out the incidence and trends of cancer in the Yaounde population in the period 2004 – 2006/2010 – 2011. It is hoped that this will enable policy makers, health providers and other stake holders plan appropriate health management policy in this population. Materials and Methods: This report presents the cancer incidence for 5 years, 2004 – 2006/2010 – 2011 in the Yaounde population estimated at 1,299,369. Data of the Yaounde Cancer Registry was reviewed for the period under study using Canreg5 software. Only malignant cases registered during the period under study were used in the analysis while benign and other uncertain tumours were excluded. The 2010 census estimates by the National Institute of Statistics was employed to calculate the incidence, age-standardized and crude rates. Other software like excel, epi info were also used for analysis. Survival studies were not carried out in this study. Results: A total of 4,689 new malignant cases were reported, of which 2,901 (68% were females and 1,788 (32% were males. The incidence showed an average of 358 for men and 580 for women. The average age of cancer patients in Yaounde is 44.8 years. Morphologically confirmed cases accounted for 89% .The annual number of

  12. Therapies targeting cancer stem cells: Current trends and future challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denisa; L; Dragu; Laura; G; Necula; Coralia; Bleotu; Carmen; C; Diaconu; Mihaela; Chivu-Economescu

    2015-01-01

    Traditional therapies against cancer, chemo- and radiotherapy, have multiple limitations that lead to treatment failure and cancer recurrence. These limitations are related to systemic and local toxicity, while treatment failure and cancer relapse are due to drug resistance and self-renewal, properties of a small population of tumor cells called cancer stem cells(CSCs). These cells are involved in cancer initiation, maintenance, metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, in order to develop efficient treatments that can induce a longlasting clinical response preventing tumor relapse it is important to develop drugs that can specifically target and eliminate CSCs. Recent identification of surface markers and understanding of molecular feature associated with CSC phenotype helped with the design of effective treatments. In this review we discuss targeting surface biomarkers, signaling pathways that regulate CSCs self-renewal and differentiation, drug-efflux pumps involved in apoptosis resistance, microenvironmental signals that sustain CSCs growth, manipulation of mi RNA expression, and induction of CSCs apoptosis and differentiation, with specific aim to hamper CSCs regeneration and cancer relapse. Some of these agents are under evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies, most of them for using in combination with traditional therapies. The combined therapy using conventional anticancer drugs with CSCs-targeting agents, may offer a promising strategy for management and eradication of different types of cancers.

  13. Colorectal cancer management in Poland: current improvements and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly identified malignant neoplasm diagnosed in men (12% of total cancers) and women (11%) in Poland, while CRC mortality is second in men (10.1%) and third in women (11.2%). The main reasons for increasing incidence and mortality are an aging population and an increase in environmental and lifestyle factors which may lead to cancer. In Poland there is a lack of historical (regularly published and accessible) data on cancer morbidity and survival rates. The Oncology Centre published cancer data for the first time in February 2009 the 2006, which, also for the first time, embraced the entire country. Oncology data collection in Poland is based on a network of 16 Regional Cancer Registries reporting to the Polish National Cancer Registry in Warsaw. An additional source of oncology data is the National Health Fund and the Central Statistical Office. The National Cancer Programme (2005) provides funding at ca 780 million euro, which includes amongst others the Early CRC Detection Programme to promote a free screening colonoscopy. Oncology services in Poland are funded almost entirely by public resources--the national budget as sustained by tax revenues (Ministry of Health) and the National Health Fund as sustained by the obligatory public health insurance contribution. Oncology expenditure covered by the national budget (Ministry of Health) and the National Cancer Programme in 2006 amounted to 44.8 million euro and 105.2 million euro, respectively. All these preventive, curative and organizational efforts have significantly improved access to efficient therapies (including radiotherapy) and diagnostic procedures in recent years in Poland, although, clearly, a lot remains to be done.

  14. [Prostate cancer stem cells: advances in current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Wu, Deng-long

    2015-02-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies threatening men's health, and the mechanisms underlying its initiation and progression are poorly understood. Last decade has witnessed encouraging progress in the studies of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs), which are considered to play important roles in tumor initiation, recurrence and metastasis, castration resistance, and drug resistance. Therefore, a deeper insight into PCSCs is of great significance for the successful management of prostate cancer. This article presents an overview on the location, origin, and markers of PCSCs as well as their potential correlation with tumor metastasis and castration resistance.

  15. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Lung Cancer (NSCLC), completed a comprehensive review by our Institutional Review Board (IRB), the US Department of Defense (DoD), Genentech, and Food ...Results of the study constitute an important part in the investigational new drug (IND) application to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for their...treatment and survival among patients [6,7]. This results in erroneous clinical trial design/ analysis, enormous wastage of patient and monetary resources

  16. Multifunctional polypyrrole@fe3o4 nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging and in vivo photothermal cancer therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Qiwei

    2013-11-27

    Magnetic Fe3O4 crystals are produced in situ on preformed polypyrrole (PPY) nanoparticles by rationally converting the residual Fe species in the synthetic system. The obtained PPY@Fe3O4 composite nanoparticles exhibit good photostability and biocompatibility, and they can be used as multifunctional probes for MRI, thermal imaging, and photothermal ablation of cancer cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Angiogenesis Inhibition in Prostate Cancer: Current Uses and Future Promises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanny B. Aragon-Ching

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis has been well recognized as a fundamental part of a multistep process in the evolution of cancer progression, invasion, and metastasis. Strategies for inhibiting angiogenesis have been one of the most robust fields of cancer investigation, focusing on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family and its receptors. There are numerous regulatory drug approvals to date for the use of these agents in treating a variety of solid tumors. While therapeutic efficacy has been established, challenges remain with regards to overcoming resistance and assessing response to antiangiogenic therapies. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy among American men and angiogenesis plays a role in disease progression. The use of antiangiogenesis agents in prostate cancer has been promising and is hereby explored.

  18. Gastric cancer:current and evolving treatment landscape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijing Sun; Li Yan

    2016-01-01

    Gastric (including gastroesophageal junction) cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. In China, an estimated 420,000 patients were diagnosed with gastric cancer in 2011, ranking this malignancy the second most prevalent cancer type and resulting in near 300,000 deaths. The treatment landscape of gastric cancer has evolved in recent years. Although systemic chemotherapy is still the mainstay treatment of metastatic disease, the introduction of agents targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelia growth factor receptor has brought this disease into the molecular and personalized medicine era. The preliminary yet encouraging clinical effcacy observed with immune checkpoint inhibitors, e.g., anti-pro-grammed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1, will further shape the treatment landscape for gastric cancer. Molecular characterization of patients will play a critical role in developing new agents, as well as in imple-menting new treatment options for this disease.

  19. Cancer immunotherapy in veterinary medicine: Current options and new developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Daniel; Guth, Amanda; Coy, Jonathan; Dow, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Excitement in the field of tumor immunotherapy is being driven by several remarkable breakthroughs in recent years. This review will cover recent advances in cancer immunotherapy, including the use of T cell checkpoint inhibitors, engineered T cells, cancer vaccines, and anti-B cell and T cell antibodies. Inhibition of T cell checkpoint molecules such as PD-1 and CTLA-4 using monoclonal antibodies has achieved notable success against advanced tumors in humans, including melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. Therapy with engineered T cells has also demonstrated remarkable tumor control and regression in human trials. Autologous cancer vaccines have recently demonstrated impressive prolongation of disease-free intervals and survival times in dogs with lymphoma. In addition, caninized monoclonal antibodies targeting CD20 and CD52 just recently received either full (CD20) or conditional (CD52) licensing by the United States Department of Agriculture for clinical use in the treatment of canine B-cell and T-cell lymphomas, respectively. Thus, immunotherapy for cancer is rapidly moving to the forefront of cancer treatment options in veterinary medicine as well as human medicine.

  20. Current and future care of patients with the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fabbro, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Many important advances have occurred in the field of cancer cachexia over the past decade, including progress in understanding the mechanisms of the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) and the development of promising pharmacologic and supportive care interventions. However, no approved agents for cancer cachexia currently exist, emphasizing the unmet need for an effective pharmacologic therapy. This article reviews the key elements of CACS assessment in daily practice, the contribution of nutritional impact symptoms (NIS), the evidence for current pharmacologic options, and promising anticachexia agents in perclinical and clinical trials. It also proposes a model for multimodality therapy and highlights issues pertinent to CACS in patients with pancreatic, gastric, and esophageal cancer.

  1. Genistein and cancer: current status, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Habtemariam, Solomon; Daglia, Maria; Sureda, Antoni; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Loizzo, Monica Rosa; Tundis, Rosa; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Primary prevention through lifestyle interventions is a cost-effective alternative for preventing a large burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cancer, which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past decade, epidemiologic and preclinical evidence suggested that polyphenolic phytochemicals present in many plant foods possess chemopreventive properties against several cancer forms. Thus, there has been increasing interest in the potential cancer chemopreventive agents obtained from natural sources, such as polyphenols, that may represent a new, affordable approach to curb the increasing burden of cancer throughout the world. Several epidemiologic studies showed a relation between a soy-rich diet and cancer prevention, which was attributed to the presence of a phenolic compound, genistein, present in soy-based foods. Genistein acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis. Targeting caspases, B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax), Bcl-2, kinesin-like protein 20A (KIF20A), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB), Wingless and integration 1 β-catenin (Wnt/β-catenin), and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways may act as the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer, therapeutic effects of genistein. Genistein also shows synergistic behavior with well-known anticancer drugs, such as adriamycin, docetaxel, and tamoxifen, suggesting a potential role in combination therapy. This review critically analyzes the available literature on the therapeutic role of genistein on different types of cancer, focusing on its chemical features, plant food sources, bioavailability, and safety.

  2. Pharmacogenomics and Pancreatic Cancer Treatment. Optimizing Current Therapy and Individualizing Future Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonmo Peter Kang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Each year, more than 30,000 Americans are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. We have only made incremental advancements in treatment of pancreatic cancer despite our best efforts. Research has revealed that pancreatic cancer is a genetic disease which is associated with various forms of cancer associated genetic alterations. Identification and understanding of these carcinogenic gene alterations is the base upon which we can overcome drug resistance and develop novel treatment approaches. In this paper, we review current understanding of pharmacogenomics of pancreatic cancer treatment and address future direction of the field.

  3. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping In Gastric Cancer Surgery: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara Tivadar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphonodular metastases remain an important predictive and prognostic factor in gastric cancer development. The precise determination of the lymphonodular invasion stage can be made only by extended intraoperative lymphadenectomy and histopathological examination. But the main controversy is the usefulness of extended lymph dissection in early gastric cancer. This increases the duration of the surgery and the complications rate, and it is unnecessary without lymphonodular invasion. The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes has been successfully applied for some time in the precise detection of lymph nodes status in breast cancer, malignant melanoma and the use for gastric cancer patients has been a controversial issue. The good prognosis in early gastric cancer had been a surgery challenge, which led to the establishment of minimally invasive individualized treatment and acceptance of sentinel lymph node mapping. The dual-tracer method, submucosally administered endoscopically is also recommended in sentinel lymph node biopsy by laparoscopic approach. There are new sophisticated technologies for detecting sentinel lymph node such as: infrared ray endoscopy, florescence imaging and near-infrared technology, carbon nanoparticles, which will open new perspectives in sentinel lymph nodes mapping.

  4. [Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Matthieu

    2013-05-01

    Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.

  5. Current status of bevacizumab in advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomao F

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Federica Tomao,1,* Anselmo Papa,2,* Luigi Rossi,2 Davide Caruso,2 Pierluigi Benedetti Panici,1 Martina Venezia,2 Silverio Tomao21Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Policlinico "Umberto I," Rome, Italy; 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Oncology Unit, "ICOT," Latina, Italy*Authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological cancer, mainly because of the delay in diagnosis. Recently, much effort has been put into investigating and introducing novel targeted agents into clinical practice, with the aim of improving prognosis and quality of life. Angiogenesis is a possible target. The aim of this review is to investigate the most common molecular pathways of angiogenesis, which have provided novel targets for tailored therapy in patients with ovarian cancer. These therapeutic strategies include monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. These drugs have as molecular targets vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and angiopoietin. Bevacizumab was investigated in several Phase III studies, with interesting results. Today, there is strong evidence for introducing bevacizumab in the treatment of patients with advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, further investigations and large clinical trials are needed to understand the safety and effectiveness of bevacizumab, the optimal duration and timing of treatment, and activity in association with other chemotherapeutic and targeted agents. It also is necessary to identify biologic factors predictive of efficacy to choose the most appropriate antiangiogenic agent in the integrated treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.Keywords: epithelial ovarian cancer, angiogenesis, bevacizumab, vascular endothelial growth factor, chemotherapy

  6. [Cancer-related Cognitive Impairment: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimukai, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients often suffer from various distresses, including cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment during and after cancer diagnosis and treatment are collectively called "Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI)". The number of publications about cognitive impairment due to cancer therapy, especially chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy, has been growing. Patients often worry not only about their disease condition and therapies, but also experience concerns regarding their memory, attention, and ability to concentrate. Even subtle CRCI can have a significant impact on social relationships, the ability to work, undergo treatment, accomplish meaningful goals, and the quality of life. Longitudinal studies of cancer patients indicated that up to 75% experience CRCI during treatment. Furthermore, CRCI may persist for many years following treatment. However, it is not well understood by most physicians and medical staff. CRCI can be mediated through increased inflammatory cytokines and hormonal changes. In addition, the biology of the cancer, stress, and attentional fatigue can also contribute to CRCI. Genetic factors and co-occurring symptoms may explain some of the inter-individual variability in CRCI. Researchers and patients are actively trying to identify effective interventional methods and useful coping strategies. Many patients are willing to discuss their disease condition and future treatment with medical staff and/or their families. Some patients also hope to discuss their end-of-life care. However, it is difficult to express their will after developing cognitive impairment. Advance care planning (ACP) can help in such situations. This process involves discussion between a patient, their family, and clinicians to clarify and reflect on values, treatment preferences, and goals to develop a shared understanding of how end-of-life care should proceed. The number of cancer patients with cognitive impairment has been increasing owing to the

  7. Current approaches in treatment of triple-negative breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanan Ahmed Wahba; Hend Ahmed El-Hadaad

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is diagnosed more frequently in younger and premenopausal women and is highly prevalent in African American women. TNBC is a term derived from tumors that are characterized by the absence of ER, PgR, and HER2. So patients with TNBC do not beneift from hormonal or trastuzumab-based therapies. TNBCs are biologically aggressive, although some reports suggest that they respond to chemotherapy better than other types of breast cancer, prognosis remains poor. hTis is due to:shortened disease-free interval in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting and a more aggressive course in the metastatic setting.

  8. Wavelength-Modulated Differential Photoacoustic (WM-DPA) imaging: a high dynamic range modality towards noninvasive diagnosis of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Choi, Sung soo Sean; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    This study explores wavelength-modulated differential photo-acoustic (WM-DPA) imaging for non-invasive early cancer detection via sensitive characterization of functional information such as hemoglobin oxygenation (sO2) levels. Well-known benchmarks of tumor formation such as angiogenesis and hypoxia can be addressed this way. While most conventional photo-acoustic imaging has almost entirely employed high-power pulsed lasers, frequency-domain photo-acoustic radar (FD-PAR) has seen significant development as an alternative technique. It employs a continuous wave laser source intensity-modulated and driven by frequency-swept waveforms. WM-DPA imaging utilizes chirp modulated laser beams at two distinct wavelengths for which absorption differences between oxy- and deoxygenated hemoglobin are minimum (isosbestic point, 805 nm) and maximum (680 nm) to simultaneously generate two signals detected using a standard commercial array transducer as well as a single-element transducer that scans the sample. Signal processing is performed using Lab View and Matlab software developed in-house. Minute changes in total hemoglobin concentration (tHb) and oxygenation levels are detectable using this method since background absorption is suppressed due to the out-of-phase modulation of the laser sources while the difference between the two signals is amplified, thus allowing pre-malignant tumors to become identifiable. By regulating the signal amplitude ratio and phase shift the system can be tuned to applications like cancer screening, sO2 quantification and hypoxia monitoring in stroke patients. Experimental results presented demonstrate WM-DPA imaging of sheep blood phantoms in comparison to single-wavelength FD-PAR imaging. Future work includes the functional PA imaging of small animals in vivo.

  9. Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combined Modality Treatment for Bladder Preservation in Elderly Patients With Invasive Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgeon, Guy-Anne [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Souhami, Luis, E-mail: luis.souhami@muhc.mcgill.ca [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Cury, Fabio L.; Faria, Sergio L.; Duclos, Marie [Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sturgeon, Jeremy [Department of Medical Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Kassouf, Wassim [Department of Urology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To review our experience with bladder-preserving trimodality treatment (TMT) using hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of elderly patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of elderly patients treated with TMT using hypofractionated IMRT (50 Gy in 20 fractions) with concomitant weekly radiosensitizing chemotherapy. Eligibility criteria were as follows: age ≥70 years, a proven diagnosis of muscle-invasive transitional cell bladder carcinoma, stage T2-T3N0M0 disease, and receipt of TMT with curative intent. Response rate was assessed by cystoscopic evaluation and bladder biopsy. Results: 24 patients with a median age of 79 years were eligible. A complete response was confirmed in 83% of the patients. Of the remaining patients, 1 of them underwent salvage cystectomy, and no disease was found in the bladder on histopathologic assessment. After a median follow-up time of 28 months, of the patients with a complete response, 2 patients had muscle-invasive recurrence, 1 experienced locoregional failure, and 3 experienced distant metastasis. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates at 3 years were 61% and 71%, respectively. Of the surviving patients, 75% have a disease-free and functioning bladder. All patients completed hypofractionated IMRT, and 19 patients tolerated all 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Acute grade 3 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities occurred in only 4% of the patients, and acute grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicities, liver toxicities, or both were experienced by 17% of the cohort. No patient experienced grade 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Hypofractionated IMRT with concurrent radiosensitizing chemotherapy appears to be an effective and well-tolerated curative treatment strategy in the elderly population and should be considered for patients who are not candidates for cystectomy or who wish to avoid

  10. Regret on choice of colorectal cancer screening modality was associated with poorer screening compliance: a 4-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available Very few studies examined the issue of regret on choosing colorectal cancer (CRC screening tests. We evaluated the determinants of regret and tested the hypothesis that regret over screening choices was associated with poorer screening compliance.A bowel cancer screening centre invited all Hong Kong citizens aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to participate in free-of-charge screening programmes. Upon attendance they attended health seminars on CRC and its screening, and were offered an option to choose yearly faecal immunochemical test (FIT for up to four years vs. one direct colonoscopy. They were not allowed to switch the screening option after decision. A self-administered, four-item validated survey was used to assess whether they regretted over their choice (> 2 = regretful from a scale of 0 [no regret]-5 [extreme regret]. A binary logistic regression model evaluated if initial regret over their choice was associated with poorer programme compliance.From 4,341 screening participants who have chosen FIT or colonoscopy, 120 (2.8% regretted over their decision and 1,029 (23.7% were non-compliant with the screening programme. Younger subjects and people who felt pressure when making their decision were associated with regret. People who regretted their decision were 2.189 (95% C.I. 1.361-3.521, p = 0.001 times more likely to be non-compliant with the programme.This study is the first to show that regret over the initial CRC screening choice was associated with later non-compliance. Screening participants who expressed regret over their choice should receive additional reminders to improve their programmatic compliance.

  11. Current Status of Methods to Assess Cancer Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor H. Lippert, Hans-Jörg Ruoff, Manfred Volm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance is the main cause of the failure of chemotherapy of malignant tumors, resistance being either preexisting (intrinsic resistance or induced by the drugs (acquired resistance. At present, resistance is usually diagnosed during treatment after a long period of drug administration.In the present paper, methods for a rapid assessment of drug resistance are described. Three main classes of test procedures can be found in the literature, i.e. fresh tumor cell culture tests, cancer biomarker tests and positron emission tomography (PET tests. The methods are based on the evaluation of molecular processes, i.e. metabolic activities of cancer cells. Drug resistance can be diagnosed before treatment in-vitro with fresh tumor cell culture tests, and after a short time of treatment in-vivo with PET tests. Cancer biomarker tests, for which great potential has been predicted, are largely still in the development stage. Individual resistance surveillance with tests delivering rapid results signifies progress in cancer therapy management, by providing the possibility to avoid drug therapies that are ineffective and only harmful.

  12. Molecular prostate cancer pathology: current issues and achievements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalken, J.A.; Bergh, A. von; Bono, A.V.; Foster, C.; Gospadarowicz, M.; Isaacs, W.B.; Rubin, M.; Schroder, F.H.; Tribukait, B.; Tsukamotot, T.; Wiklund, P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of molecular techniques have provided new tools that have led to the discovery of many new promising biomarkers for prostate cancer. These biomarkers may be instrumental in the development of new tests that will have a high specificity for the diagnosis and prognosis

  13. Diabetes and Cancer: a Review of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, J; Krajewski, W; Bolanowski, M; Kręcicki, T; Zatoński, T

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), one of the most common life-threatening illnesses worldwide, is a group of metabolic diseases, characterized by sustained hyperglycemia. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults reached 387 millions in 2014 and is still rising. It is suggested there is a strong association between diabetes mellitus (especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) and carcinogenesis. The possible biological links between diabetes mellitus and cancer comprise hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and fat-induced chronic inflammation. Although, the strongest association refers to pancreas and liver, there are many other organs involved in carcinogenesis in diabetic patients including breast, endometrium, bladder and kidney.Recent studies suggest that there is also association between cancer incidence and anti-diabetic medications. It was observed that some medications decrease the risk of carcinogenesis and some increase that risk. The majority of studies concern metformin, a drug of choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its anti-neoplastic and tumor-suppressing activity. The positive effect of metformin was found in numerous researches investigating breast, pancreas, liver, colon, ovaries and prostate tumors.Because a variety of studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus and cancer are frequently coexisting diseases, recently published studies try to explain the influence of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic medications on carcinogenesis in different organs.We present the review of the latest studies investigating the association between both diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic medications and cancer incidence and prognosis.Particularly we highlight the problem of concomitant head and neck cancers in diabetics, rarely analysed and often omitted in studies.

  14. Current practices in cancer spatial data analysis: a call for guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawson Andrew B

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has long been a recognition that place matters in health, from recognition of clusters of yellow fever and cholera in the 1800s to modern day analyses of regional and neighborhood effects on cancer patterns. Here we provide a summary of discussions about current practices in the spatial analysis of georeferenced cancer data by a panel of experts recently convened at the National Cancer Institute.

  15. Modal Epistemology and Conceivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philosophical argumentation often depends on modal facts, i.e. facts about what is possible, contingent, or necessary. For thought and cognition outside the domain of philosophy modal facts are also often decisive. It seems we have an easy access to modal facts, but how so? Through a presentation...... of the state-of-the-art in modal epistemology I wish to outline a research project based on conceivability that will try to explain how we come to know modal facts....

  16. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  17. An Overview of Current Screening and Management Approaches for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Omar N; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the fourth leading cause of mortality in Australian men. The prevalence and incidence is increasing in both developed and developing nations, thus there is a need for better screening and management of this disorder. While there is no direct known cause of prostate cancer, management is largely focused on early detection and treatment strategies. Of particular concern is advanced prostate cancer which can manifest as castrate resistant prostate cancer characterized by therapy resistance. This short review outlines the global epidemiology of prostate cancer, clinical manifestations, risk factors, current screening strategies including first line clinical screening as well as the use of circulating biomarkers, and treatment of prostate cancer through mainstream therapeutics as well as the cutting edge peptide and nano-technology based therapeutics that are being implemented or in the process of development to overcome therapeutic obstacles in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  18. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Chawla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management.

  19. Current trends in cancer vaccines--a bioinformatics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Shanju; Nayanar, Sangeetha K; Balasubramanian, Satheesan

    2013-01-01

    Cancer vaccine development is in the process of becoming reality in future, due to successful phase II/III clinical trials. However, there are still problems due to the specificity of tumor antigens and weakness of tumor associated antigens in eliciting an effective immune response. Computational models to assess the vaccine efficacy have helped to improve and understand what is necessary for personalized treatment. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of activation of antigen specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, decreased TREG number functionality and antigen cascade, so that overall improvement in vaccine efficacy and disease free survival can be attained. T cell epitomic based in sillico approaches might be very effective for the design and development of novel cancer vaccines.

  20. Brain Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status on Glioblastoma Multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic/neural stem cell origin, represents one of the most incurable cancers. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous. However, most tumors contain a subpopulation of cells that display neural stem cell characteristics in vitro and that can generate a new brain tumor upon transplantation in mice. Hence, previously identified molecular pathways regulating neural stem cell biology were found to represent the cornerstone of GBM stem cel...

  1. The Current State of Targeted Agents in Rectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Targeted biologic agents have an established role in treating metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC), and the integration of targeted therapies into the treatment of CRC has resulted in significant improvements in outcomes. Rapidly growing insight into the molecular biology of CRC, as well as recent developments in gene sequencing and molecular diagnostics, has led to high expectations for the identification of molecular markers to be used in personalized treatment regimens. The mechanisms of act...

  2. RECURRENT ORAL CANCER: CURRENT AND EMERGING THERAPEUTIC APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Daniela Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer cavity (OCC is associated with high incidence of loco-regional recurrences, which account for the majority of treatment failures post-surgery and radiotherapy. The time-course of relapse manifestation and metastasis are unpredictable. Relapsed OCC represents a major clinical challenge in part due to their aggressive and invasive behaviors. Chemotherapy remains the only option for advanced OCC whenever salvage surgery or re-irradiation is not feasible, but its efficacy is limited as a result of the drug resistance development. Alternatives to use of different permutations of standard cytotoxic drugs or combinations with modulators of drug resistance have led to incremental therapeutic benefits. The introduction of targeted agents and biologics against selective targets that drive cancer progression has opened-up optimism to achieve superior therapeutic activity and overcome drug resistance because, unlike the non-selective cytotoxic, the target can be monitored at molecular levels to identify patients who can benefit from the drug. This review discusses the multifactorial aspects of clinical drug resistance and emerging therapeutic approaches in recurrent OCC, emphasizing recent advances in targeted therapies, immunotherapy, and potential relevance of new concepts such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell hypothesis to drug resistance.

  3. Current treatment for liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Xin Liu; Wei-Hui Zhang; Hong-Chi Jiang

    2003-01-01

    The liver is the commonest site of distant metastasis ofcolorectal cancer and nearly half of the patients withcolorectal cancer ultimately develop liver involved duringthe course of their diseases. Surgery is the only therapythat offers the possibility of cure for patients with hepaticmetastatic diseases. Five-year survival rates after resectionof all detectable liver metastases can be up to 40 %.Unfortunately, only 25 % of patients with colorectal livermetastases are candidates for liver resection, while the othersare not amenable to surgical resection. Regional therapiessuch as radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy may beoffered to patients with isolated unresectable metastasesbut no extrahepatic diseases. Hepatic artery catheterchemotherapy and chemoembolization and portal veinembolization are often used for the patients with extensiveliver metastases but without extrahepatic diseases, whichare not suitable for regional ablation. For the patients withmetastatic colorectal cancer beyond the liver, systemicchemotherapy is a more appropriate choice. Immunotherapyis also a good option when other therapies are used incombination to enhance the efficacy. Selective internalradiation therapy is a new radiation method which can beused in patients given other routine therapies Without effects.

  4. Imaging in primary penile cancer: current status and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochhar, Rohit; Taylor, Ben [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sangar, Vijay [Christie, NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Penile cancer is a rare neoplasm in the developed world. Clinical assessment often results in inaccurate staging and radiological techniques have a key role in staging and postoperative assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicts penile anatomy in detail and is the most accurate technique for local staging and postoperative follow-up. MRI and ultrasound (US), although helpful for assessment of lymph nodes, are not reliable enough for accurate nodal staging. US-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), however, remains a valuable tool to confirm metastases in suspicious inguinal nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy with dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is a promising technique used to predict occult lymph node metastases. Novel imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) and nanoparticle enhanced MRI have high sensitivity and specificity for lymph node metastases but their availability is limited and clinical utility is not fully established. The radiologist needs to be familiar with the normal penile anatomy, imaging appearances of pre- and post-treatment penile cancer, and the advantages and limitations of the available imaging techniques. This review highlights the above points and presents a systematic approach to make the best use of imaging in the management of patients with penile cancer. (orig.)

  5. Biology of cancer: current issues and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J

    1992-02-01

    The future of cancer treatment is limited only by the rate of progress made in understanding the biology of cancer. The future will present a considerable challenge to health care professionals to learn new theories, understand new terms, and expect different toxicities. The explosion of information and technology is exciting, yet frightening. The willingness of scientists, health care professionals, and consumers to deal with the ethical, financial, and political issues generated by this progress is gratifying. Because science has created such advances, the effort to deal with the outcomes is worthwhile but still difficult. The challenge to rapidly facilitate the sharing of the scientific and clinical advances has been recognized by the nation. A legislative mandate to create a way to store and analyze the vast data related to molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics resulted in the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The development of automated systems to analyze genetic, environmental, biological, and chemistry information can only enhance future progress in the management of cancer.

  6. High risk bladder cancer: current management and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Leliveld

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the pattern of care in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC in the Comprehensive Cancer Center North-Netherlands (CCCN and to assess factors associated with the choice of treatment, recurrence and progression free survival rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 412 patients with newly diagnosed high risk NMIBC. Clinical, demographic and follow-up data were obtained from the CCCN Cancer Registry and a detailed medical record review. Uni and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors related to choice of treatment and 5 year recurrence and progression free survival. RESULTS: 74/412 (18% patients with high risk NMIBC underwent a transurethral resection (TUR as single treatment. Adjuvant treatment after TUR was performed in 90.7% of the patients treated in teaching hospitals versus 71.8 % in non-teaching hospitals (p 80 years OR 0.1 p = 0.001 and treatment in non-teaching hospitals (OR 0.25; p < 0.001 were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. Tumor recurrence occurred in 191/392 (49% and progression in 84 /392 (21.4% patients. The mean 5-years progression free survival was 71.6% (95% CI 65.5-76.8. CONCLUSION: In this pattern of care study in high risk NMIBC, 18% of the patients were treated with TUR as single treatment. Age and treatment in non-teaching hospitals were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. None of the variables sex, age, comorbidity, hospital type, stage and year of treatment was associated with 5 year recurrence or progression rates.

  7. Current debate in the oncologic management of rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-10-15

    Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management.

  8. Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Distal Rectal Cancer: 5-Year Updated Results of a Randomized Phase 2 Study of Neoadjuvant Combined Modality Chemoradiation for Distal Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiuddin, Mohammed, E-mail: asemuddin@gmail.com [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Paulus, Rebecca [RTOG Statistical Department, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mitchell, Edith [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hanna, Nader [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Yuen, Albert [Reading Hospital and Medical Center, Reading, Pennsylvania (United States); Nichols, Romaine [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Yalavarthi, Salochna [Ingalls Memorial Hospital, Harvey, Illinois (United States); Hayostek, Cherie [Santa Fe Cancer Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States); Willett, Christopher [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of 2 different approaches to neoadjuvant chemoradiation for distal rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: One hundred six patients with T3/T4 distal rectal cancers were randomized in a phase 2 study. Patients received either continuous venous infusion (CVI) of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), 225 mg/m{sup 2} per day, 7 days per week plus pelvic hyperfractionated radiation (HRT), 45.6 Gy at 1.2 Gy twice daily plus a boost of 9.6 to 14.4 Gy for T3 or T4 cancers (Arm 1), or CVI of 5-FU, 225 mg/m{sup 2} per day, Monday to Friday, plus irinotecan, 50 mg/m{sup 2} once weekly × 4, plus pelvic radiation therapy (RT), 45 Gy at 1.8 Gy per day and a boost of 5.4 Gy for T3 and 9 Gy for T4 cancers (Arm 2). Surgery was performed 4 to 10 weeks later. Results: All eligible patients (n=103) are included in this analysis; 2 ineligible patients were excluded, and 1 patient withdrew consent. Ninety-eight of 103 patients (95%) underwent resection. Four patients did not undergo surgery for either disease progression or patient refusal, and 1 patient died during induction chemotherapy. The median time of follow-up was 6.4 years in Arm 1 and 7.0 years in Arm 2. The pathological complete response (pCR) rates were 30% in Arm 1 and 26% in Arm 2. Locoregional recurrence rates were 16% in Arm 1 and 17% in Arm 2. Five-year survival rates were 61% and 75% and Disease-specific survival rates were 78% and 85% for Arm1 and Arm 2, respectively. Five second primaries occurred in patients on Arm 1, and 1 second primary occurred in Arm 2. Conclusions: High rates of disease-specific survival were seen in each arm. Overall survival appears affected by the development of unrelated second cancers. The high pCR rates with 5-FU and higher dose radiation in T4 cancers provide opportunity for increased R0 resections and improved survival.

  9. Targeting cancer testis antigens for biomarkers and immunotherapy in colorectal cancer: Current status and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anil; Suri; Nirmala; Jagadish; Shikha; Saini; Namita; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks third among the estimatedcancer cases and cancer related mortalities in United States in 2014. Early detection and efficient therapy remains a significant clinical challenge for this disease. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel tumor asso-ciated molecules to target for biomarker development and immunotherapy. In this regard, cancer testis antigens have emerged as a potential targets for developing novel clinical biomarkers and immunotherapy for various malignancies. These germ cell specific proteins exhibit aberrant expression in cancer cells and contribute in tumorigenesis. Owing to their unique expression profile and immunogenicity in cancer patients, cancer testis antigens are clinically referred as the most promising tumor associated antigens. Several cancer testis antigens have been studied in colorectal cancer but none of them could be used in clinical practice. This review is an attempt to address the promising cancer testis antigens in colorectal cancer and their possible clinical implications as biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets with particular focus on challenges and future interventions.

  10. Dosimetric comparison in a cancer of the Cervix with different therapeutic modalities; Comparacion dosimetrica en un cancer de Cervix con distintas modalidades terapeuticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Iracheta, L.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la; Samper Ots, P.; Penas Cabrera, M. D. de las; Jimenez Gonzalez, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    Cervical cancer is usually treated with radiotherapy composed of 3D (RC3D) and supine position, and is usually not usually outline the small intestine in cases of exclusively pelvic irradiation. In our Center we wanted to check what dose receives the small intestine in these cases and if the positioning of the patient or used irradiation technique influence the distribution of the histogram dose-volume. (Author)

  11. Outcome of combined modality treatment including neoadjuvant chemotherapy of 128 cases of locally advanced breast cancer: Data from a tertiary cancer center in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Raina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in many parts of India and the incidence varies from 12 to 31/100000, and is rising. Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC accounts for 30 - 35% of all cases of breast cancers in India. LABC continues to present a challenge and imposes a major health impact in our country. Materials and Methods: We carried out a analysis of our LABC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT at our hospital over a 10-year period, from January 1995 to December 2004. We analyzed the response to NACT, disease-free survival (DFS, and overall survival (OS. Results: Patients with stages IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC were included. LABC comprised of 26.24% (609 patients of new patients. One hundred and twenty-eight (31.1% patients received NACT. Median age was 48 years and estrogen receptor was positive in 64%. Chemotherapy protocol was an FEC (5-Fluorouracil, Epirubicin, Cyclophosphamide regimen in the following doses: Cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2, 5-FU 600 mg/m2, and Epirubicin 75 mg/m2 given every three weeks, six doses, followed by modified radical mastectomy (MRM and locoregional radiotherapy. The overall response rate (complete response (CR + partial response (PR was 84.4%, clinical CR (cCR was 13.3% and pathological CR (pCR was 7.8%. Median DFS and OS were 33 and 101 months, respectively. The disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS at five years were 41 and 58%, respectively. Conclusions: This study analyzes the outcome in patients who received NACT, in the largest number of LABC patients from a single center in India, and our results are comparable to the results reported from other centers.

  12. Current principles of effective therapy for ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Ashrafyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of all of modern medicine»s advances, ovarian cancer (OC mortality remains to be incommensurably high and to hold the lead among gynecological cancers. The initial cause of this deplorable statistics is the absence of a clear concept of the pathogenesis of OC and hence the justified prevention and methodology of early diagnosis of the disease; in this connection, therapy that proves to be ineffective is frequently used by medical oncologists in their daily practice. As a consequence, there is a high proportion of its further progression: the rates of early and late recurrences were about 30 and 60–65 %, respectively; most of which are drug resistant to further chemotherapy cycles. By taking into account these strikingly modest statistics, it becomes apparent that oncologists desire to make changes in the existing treatment regimen to achieve meaningful results. To use target drugs is one of these promising areas owing to new views on the concept of the pathogenesis of OC.Nevertheless, considering a wide variety of the signaling cascades and molecules, which are involved in the process of carcinogenesis, even target compounds, if they have only one point of application, cannot always produce their desirable therapeutic effect and their co-administration is responsible for high toxicity. In this light, the most effective drugs are indole-3-carbinol and epigallocathechin-3-gallate, which virtually cause no adverse reactions and can block various molecular targets at different levels of the mechanism of malignant transformation. Based on L. A. Ashrafyan, s concept of two pathogenetic variants of sporadic OC (2009 and on the recent findings in molecular biology and epigenetics, the incorporation of the above medications into the standard treatment regimen for OC should increase survival rates and change the nature of recurrence by that of more locally advanced forms. On this basis, a clinical trial was carried out to study

  13. Preserving fertility in young patients with endometrial cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogera E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eleftheria Kalogera, Sean C Dowdy, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: Endometrial cancer (EC is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries and affects predominantly postmenopausal women. It is estimated, however, that 15%–25% of women will be diagnosed before menopause. As more women choose to defer childbearing until later in life, the feasibility and safety of fertility-sparing EC management have been increasingly studied. Definitive treatment of total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy precludes future fertility and may thus be undesirable by women who wish to maintain their reproductive potential. However, the consideration of conservative management carries the oncologic risks of unstaged EC and the risk of missing a synchronous ovarian cancer. It is further complicated by the lack of consensus regarding the initial assessment, treatment, and surveillance. Conservative treatment with progestins has been shown to be a feasible and safe fertility-sparing approach for women with low grade, early stage EC with no myometrial invasion. The two most commonly adopted regimens are medroxyprogesterone acetate at 500–600 mg daily and megestrol acetate at 160 mg daily for a minimum of 6–9 months, with initial response rates commonly reported between 60% and 80% and recurrence rates between 25% and 40%. Photodynamic therapy and hysteroscopic EC excision have recently been reported as alternative approaches to progestin therapy alone. However, limited efficacy and safety data exist. Live birth rates after progestin therapy have typically been reported around 30%; however, when focusing only on those who do pursue fertility after successful treatment, the live birth rates were found to be higher than 60%. Assisted reproductive technology has been associated with a higher live birth rate compared with spontaneous conception, most likely reflecting the

  14. Imaging and intervention in prostate cancer: Current perspectives and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the commonest malignancy in men that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Screening by digital rectal examination (DRE and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA is used despite its limitations. Gray-scale transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, used to guide multiple random prostatic biopsies, misses up to 20% cancers and frequently underestimates the grade of malignancy. Increasing the number of biopsy cores marginally increases the yield. Evolving techniques of real-time ultrasound elastography (RTE and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS are being investigated to better detect and improve the yield by allowing "targeted" biopsies. Last decade has witnessed rapid developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for improved management of prostate cancer. In addition to the anatomical information, it is capable of providing functional information through diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE MRI. Multi-parametric MRI has the potential to exclude a significant cancer in majority of cases. Inclusion of MRI before prostatic biopsy can reduce the invasiveness of the procedure by limiting the number of cores needed to make a diagnosis and support watchful waiting in others. It is made possible by targeted biopsies as opposed to random. With the availability of minimally invasive therapeutic modalities like high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU and interstitial laser therapy, detecting early cancer is even more relevant today. [18F]--fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 FDG PET/CT has no role in the initial evaluation of prostate cancer. Choline PET has been recently found to be more useful. Fluoride-PET has a higher sensitivity and resolution than a conventional radionuclide bone scan in detecting skeletal metastases.

  15. Three interrelated themes in current breast cancer research: gene addiction, phenotypic plasticity, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Robert D; Couto, Suzana; Bolon, Brad

    2011-10-25

    Recent efforts to understand breast cancer biology involve three interrelated themes that are founded on a combination of clinical and experimental observations. The central concept is gene addiction. The clinical dilemma is the escape from gene addiction, which is mediated, in part, by phenotypic plasticity as exemplified by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Finally, cancer stem cells are now recognized as the basis for minimal residual disease and malignant progression over time. These themes cooperate in breast cancer, as induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition enhances self-renewal and expression of cancer stem cells, which are believed to facilitate tumor resistance.

  16. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  17. Experimental modal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system ...

  18. Interval to Biochemical Failure Predicts Clinical Outcomes in Patients With High-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated by Combined-Modality Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilkrut, Mark; McLaughlin, P. William [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Merrick, Gregory S. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, West Virginia (United States); Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To validate the prognostic value of interval to biochemical failure (IBF) in patients with high-risk prostate cancer (HiRPCa) treated with combined-modality radiation therapy (CMRT) with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of HiRPCa (prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL, Gleason score [GS] 8-10, or clinical T stage T3-T4) treated with either dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or CMRT. Interval to biochemical failure was classified as ≤18 or >18 months from the end of all therapy to the date of biochemical failure (BF). Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to evaluate the prognostic value of IBF ≤18 months for distant metastasis (DM) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Results: Of 958 patients with a median follow-up of 63.2 months, 175 patients experienced BF. In those with BF, there were no differences in pretreatment clinical characteristics between the EBRT and CMRT groups, except for a higher proportion of patients with GS 8-10 in the CMRT group (70% vs 52%, P=.02). Median IBF after all therapy was 24.0 months (interquartile range 9.6-46.0) in the EBRT group and 18.9 months (interquartile range 9.2-34.5) in the CMRT group (P=.055). On univariate analysis, IBF ≤18 months was associated with increased risk of DM and PCSM in the entire cohort and the individual EBRT and CMRT groups. On multivariate analysis, only GS 9-10 and IBF ≤18 months, but not the radiation therapy regimen or ADT use, predicted DM (hazard ratio [HR] 3.7, P<.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-10.3 for GS 9-10; HR 3.9, P<.0001, 95% CI 2.4-6.5 for IBF ≤18 months) and PCSM (HR 14.8, P<.009, 95% CI 2.0-110 for GS 9-10; HR 4.4, P<.0001, 95% CI 2.4-8.1 for IBF ≤18 months). Conclusions: Short IBF was highly prognostic for higher DM and PCSM in patients with HiRPCa. The prognostic value of IBF for DM and PCSM was not affected by the radiation

  19. Anesthesia and cancer recurrences: The current knowledge and evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical removal of solid tumors is of utmost importance as total resection can be curative. The surgical insult however itself may result in tumor micrometastasis coupled with depression of cell-mediated immunity culminating in tumor recurrence. Recent research suggests that few anesthetic agents or procedures can influence pathophysiology of metastasis in the postoperative period. Whereas opioids and volatile anesthetics have been implicated in angiogenesis and immunosuppression, evidences accumulated over the recent years have undoubtedly highlighted the attenuation of immunosuppression by regional anesthetic agents thereby making it superior over general anesthesia in preventing cancer recurrence. As anesthetic drugs are given at that time when patient is at the maximum risk of spread of metastasis, thus an understanding of the effect of anesthesia drugs and their impact on tumor metastasis is important so that appropriate anesthetic strategy can be made to improve long term survival in these patients. The purpose of the present review is therefore to emphasize the pivotal role of various anesthetic agents and anesthesia techniques in preventing tumor recurrence after surgery.

  20. Current opinion on lymphadenectomy in pancreatic cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodoros E Pavlidis; Efstathios T Pavlidis; Athanasios K Sakantamis

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas exhibits aggressive behavior in growth, inducing an extremely poor prognosis with an overall median 5-year survival rate of only 1%-4%. Curative resection is the only potential therapeutic opportunity. DATA  SOURCES: A PubMed search of relevant articles published up to 2009 was performed to identify information about the value of lymphadenectomy and its extent in curative resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: Despite recent advances in chemotherapy, radio-therapy or even immunotherapy, surgery still remains the major factor that affects the outcome. The initial promising performance in Japan gave conflicting results in Western countries for the extended and more radical pancreatectomy;it has failed to prove beneficial. Four prospective, randomized trials on extended versus standard lymphadenectomy during pancreatic cancer surgery have shown no improvement in long-term survival by the extended resection. The exact lymph node status, including malignant spread and the total number retrieved as well as the lymph node ratio, is the most important prognostic factor. Positive lymph nodes after pancreatectomy are present in 70%. Paraaortic lymph node spread indicates poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Undoubtedly, a standard lymphadenectomy including >15 lymph nodes must be no longer preferred in patients with the usual head location. The extended lymphadenectomy does not have any place, unless in randomized trials. In cases with body or tail location, the radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy gives promising results. Nevertheless, accurate localization and detailed examination of the resected specimen are required for better staging.

  1. Immunotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Current and Future Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Rapidis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC are at considerable risk for death, with 5-year relative survival rates of approximately 60%. The profound multifaceted deficiencies in cell-mediated immunity that persist in most patients after treatment may be related to the high rates of treatment failure and second primary malignancies. Radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy commonly have severe acute and long-term side effects on immune responses. The development of immunotherapies reflects growing awareness that certain immune system deficiencies specific to HNSCC and some other cancers may contribute to the poor long-term outcomes. Systemic cell-mediated immunotherapy is intended to activate the entire immune system and mount a systemic and/or locoregional antitumor response. The delivery of cytokines, either by single cytokines, for example, interleukin-2, interleukin-12, interferon-, interferon-, or by a biologic mix of multiple cytokines, such as IRX-2, may result in tumor rejection and durable immune responses. Targeted immunotherapy makes use of monoclonal antibodies or vaccines. All immunotherapies for HNSCC except cetuximab remain investigational, but a number of agents whose efficacy and tolerability are promising have entered phase 2 or phase 3 development.

  2. Robotic Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer: Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Erdem Canda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The most effective local treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer and non-invasive, high-grade bladder tumours that recur or progress despite intravesical therapies, is open radical cystectomy (RC, extended pelvic lymph node (LN dissection with urinary diversion. Performing these complex procedures using pure laparoscopy is extremely difficult. On the other hand, the surgical robot has the advantage of enabling the console surgeon to perform complex procedures more easily, providing three-dimensional (3D and magnified views, higher grades of wristed hand movements, and decreased hand tremor, while the fourth robotic arm offers additional assistance and tissue retraction which facilitates the learning curve. The number of centres performing robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is increasing. Although most of the centres perform extracorporeal urinary diversion following RARC, very few centres – including ours – have reported their outcomes on RARC with total intracorporeal urinary diversion. Some of the articles, comparing open RC versus RARC, have suggested similar outcomes in terms of operative time, mean LN yield, positive surgical margin (PSM rates, and complication rates, whereas others have suggested decreased estimated blood loss, transfusion rate, complications, length of hospital stay, wound problems, time to flatus, and time to regular diet in the postoperative period in RARC patients. The surgical technique of total intracorporeal RARC with urinary diversions is still evolving, and these complex robotic procedures seem to be technically feasible with good intermediate-term oncologic results, acceptable morbidities, excellent short-term surgical and pathological outcomes, and satisfactory functional results.

  3. Preoperative evaluation and monitoring chemotherapy in patients with high-grade osteogenic and Ewing`s sarcoma: review of current imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woude, H.-J. van der; Bloem, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, C2-S, P.O. Box 9600, NL-2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Hogendoorn, P.C.W. [Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    1998-02-01

    Diagnostic imaging is pivotal in the initial detection, characterization, staging and post-treatment follow-up of patients with high-grade osteogenic and Ewing`s sarcoma. In the present review article, conventional and new imaging modalities are discussed with regard to the monitoring of the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in such patients. Presurgical monitoring of response to chemotherapy may have an impact on modification of neoadjuvant treatment protocols, on patient selection for the performance and timing of limb-salvage surgery and on planning of radiation therapy (in non-operated Ewing`s sarcomas) and selection of postoperative chemotherapy regimens. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, as part of a routine MR protocol, assists in the detection of the most viable parts of the tumour and serves as an initial standard for follow-up of the metabolic activity of the tumour during and after chemotherapy, both in small intraosseous tumours and in tumours with an associated soft tissue mass. In combination with selected morphological features, dynamic imaging parameters are therefore advocated for monitoring the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with osteogenic and Ewing`s sarcoma. (orig.) With 9 figs., 2 tabs., 62 refs.

  4. Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): towards minimally invasive surgery and multi-modality treatment strategies - an updated critical review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacharalampous, G X; Vlastarakos, P V; Chrysovergis, A; Saravakos, P K; Kotsis, G P; Davilis, D I

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) was first described by Berger and Luc in 1924. It is considered to be an uncommon malignancy of the nasal cavity. The tumor arises from the specialized sensory epithelial olfactory cells, normally situated at the upper part of the nasal cavity, including the superior nasal concha, the roof of the nose and the cribriform plate. The imaging modalities of choice are computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Combination of surgery and radiotherapy (either conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery), with or without chemotherapy is considered to be the standard of care for primary site disease by the majority of researchers. Combined transfacial and neurosurgical conventional approaches are also adopted in many reported cases, mainly due to the endocranial extension and the close anatomic relationship of esthesioneuroblastomas with the ethmoid roof and cribriform plate. Recent literature supports that endoscopic resection correlates with similar oncologic control rates compared with conventional open surgery, provided that basic oncologic surgical principles with clearance of margins and intradural dissection (when required) are completely maintained.

  5. Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    analysis in an easier way and in many cases more effectively than traditional modal analysis methods. It can be applied for modal testing and analysis on a wide range of structures and not only for problems generally investigated using traditional modal analysis, but also for those requiring load......In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification...... estimation, vibration level estimation and fatigue analysis....

  6. Husserl’s Modal Sense of Evidence: Modality versus Modalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenological evidence has been characterized as fulfillment of a meaning intention, comprehension that tends to assimilate evidence to fulfilled consciousness, without making justice to the essential and mutual implication of emptiness and fullness that constitutes it out of its horizontic-intentional kind. The horizon, typically configured, offers the field of possible fulfillment; that is why it can be said that evidence takes place in a consciousness of possibility, namely, a modal one, though in an originary material and not doxic or positional sense,because it is the first one that is incumbent upon relationships of fulfillment. Modality that essentially characterizes evidence does not reveal itself then in the possible modalization as positional modification of a unitary content, but in its “outlined” material configuration of fullness and emptiness that gives somethingas something referring to other possibilities as moments of its own validity.

  7. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  8. The current pattern of reconstructive surgery for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kh. Ismagilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Russia, breast cancer (BC occupies a leading place in the pattern of cancers, the incidence of which is 20.9 %, among the female population; in 2013 there were 60,717 new cases, including women under the age of 40 years (15 %. While considering the history of the development of breast surgery from the operation performed by W. S. Halsted to its technique modified by J. L. Madden and the identification of sentinel lymph nodes, we can observe improved quality of life in patients in reference to the lower rate of the manifestation of lymphedemas. However, patients who have undergone this or that mastectomy are observed to have lower self-appraisal scores, a change in their professional sphere, irritability and apprehensiveness Thus, the decreased rate of the manifestation of lymphedema and obvious postoperative traumatization are not the only components of quality of life in patients with BC. According to the data obtained by E. Frank et al. (1978, G.P. Maguire et al. (1978, and F. Meerwein (1981, removal of the breast itself leads to a woman’s loss of femininity, attractiveness, and sexiness, which was also confirmed and reported by L. Aerts et al. (2014. In this connection, classical radical mastectomy begins to give way to organ-sparing treatment. Taking into account that psychotherapy and external prosthetics do not alleviate the above problems and that there are always women with established BC who have contraindications to organ-sparing treatment, breast reconstructive plastic operations arouse more and more interest. Reconstruction of the breast implies restoration of both its shape and contours to be maximally brought closer to its preoperative level. However, with regard to cancer alertness to breast reconstructive surgery, not only aesthetic requirements are imposed. The next step in improving quality of life in patients with BC was the emergence and development of breast-sparing mastectomies, the first point of these

  9. PACS storage requirements - influence of changes in imaging modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; ten Bhomer, PJM; Oudkerk, M; Lemke, HU; Inamura, K; Doi, K; Vannier, MW; Farman, AG

    2005-01-01

    In current radiology departments, imaging modalities are changing rapidly. One reason for these changes is the continuous technical development providing new imaging modalities with higher spatial and temporal resolution and increased capabilities. Another important reason for change is the replacem

  10. CANCER IMMUNOLOGY AND IMMUNOTHERAPY – UNDERSTANDING AND ADAPTATION THE CURRENT EVIDENCE TO OPTIMIZE PATIENT THERAPY OUTCOMES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlin Savov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication includes the try to act as intermediary to the readers, which should be able to understand: - The description of the cancer immunotherapy mechanisms in the context of current therapy decisions for the treatment of cancer - The including criteria for those patients with cancer who could be appropriate candidates for immunotherapy - And to optimize patient outcomes by using best practices to manage the adverse events associated with immunotherapy treatment More than 15 promising immunotherapy approaches being tested in clinical trials with appropriate patients and colleagues for enrollment and peer-to-peer education purposes, respectively.

  11. Current Challenges in Prostate Cancer Management and the Rationale behind Targeted Focal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al B. Barqawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Among men, prostate cancer has a high prevalence, with relatively lower cancer-specific mortality risk compared to lung and colon cancer. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening has increased prostate cancer awareness since its implementation as a screening tool almost 25 years ago, but, due to the largely indolent course of this disease and the unspecific nature of the PSA test, increased incidence has largely been associated with cancers that would not go on to cause death (clinically insignificant, leading to an overdiagnosis challenge and an ensuing overtreatment consequences. The overtreatment problem is exacerbated by the high risk of side effects that current treatment techniques have, putting patients’ quality of life at risk with little or no survival benefit. The goals of this paper are to evaluate the rise, prevalence, and impact of the overdiagnosis and ensuing overtreatment problems, as well as highlight potential solutions. In this effort, a review of major epidemiological and screening studies, cancer statistics from the advent of prostate-specific antigen screening to the present, and reports on patient concerns and treatment outcomes was conducted to present the dominant factors that underlie current challenges in prostate cancer treatment and illuminate potential solutions.

  12. What are the current barriers to effective cancer care coordination? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National cancer policies identify the improvement of care coordination as a priority to improve the delivery of health services for people with cancer. Identification of the current barriers to effective cancer care coordination is needed to drive service improvement. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken in which semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with those best placed to identify issues; patients who had been treated for a range of cancers and their carers as well as health professionals involved in providing cancer care. Data collection continued until saturation of concepts was reached. A grounded theory influenced approach was used to explore the participants' experiences and views of cancer care coordination. Results Overall, 20 patients, four carers and 29 health professionals participated. Barriers to cancer care coordination related to six aspects of care namely, recognising health professional roles and responsibilities, implementing comprehensive multidisciplinary team meetings, transitioning of care: falling through the cracks, inadequate communication between specialist and primary care, inequitable access to health services and managing scarce resources. Conclusions This study has identified a number of barriers to coordination of cancer care. Development and evaluation of interventions based on these findings is now required.

  13. Profile of bevacizumab in the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClung EC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available E Clair McClung, Robert M WenhamDepartment of Gynecologic Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer have progression of disease within 6 months of completing platinum-based chemotherapy. While several chemotherapeutic options exist for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, the overall response to any of these therapies is ~10%, with a median progression-free survival of 3–4 months and a median overall survival of 9–12 months. Bevacizumab (Avastin, a humanized, monoclonal antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody, has demonstrated antitumor activity in the platinum-resistant setting and was recently approved by US Food and Drug Administration for combination therapy with weekly paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, or topotecan. This review summarizes key clinical trials investigating bevacizumab for recurrent, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer and provides an overview of efficacy, safety, and quality of life data relevant in this setting. While bevacizumab is currently the most studied and clinically available antiangiogenic therapy, we summarize recent studies highlighting novel alternatives, including vascular endothelial growth factor-trap, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and angiopoietin inhibitor trebananib, and discuss their application for the treatment of platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.Keywords: bevacizumab, angiogenesis, ovarian cancer, platinum-resistant ovarian cancer, recurrent ovarian cancer

  14. Three interrelated themes in current breast cancer research: gene addiction, phenotypic plasticity, and cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts to understand breast cancer biology involve three interrelated themes that are founded on a combination of clinical and experimental observations. The central concept is gene addiction. The clinical dilemma is the escape from gene addiction, which is mediated, in part, by phenotypic plasticity as exemplified by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Finally, cancer stem cells are now recognized as the basis for minimal residual disease an...

  15. Sentinel Node Mapping for Breast Cancer: Current Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Vidal-Sicart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axillary node status is a major prognostic factor in early-stage disease. Traditional staging needs levels I and II axillary lymph node dissection. Axillary involvement is found in 10%–30% of patients with T1 (<2 cm tumours. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a minimal invasive method of checking the potential nodal involvement. It is based on the assumption of an orderly progression of lymph node invasion by metastatic cells from tumour site. Thus, when sentinel node is free of metastases the remaining nodes are free, too (with a false negative rate lesser than 5%. Moreover, Randomized trials demonstrated a marked reduction of complications associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy when compared with axillary lymph node dissection. Currently, the sentinel node biopsy procedure is recognized as the standard treatment for stages I and II. In these stages, this approach has a positive node rate similar to those observed after lymphadenectomy, a significant decrease in morbidity and similar nodal relapse rates at 5 years. In this review, the indications and contraindications of the sentinel node biopsy are summarized and the methodological aspects discussed. Finally, the new technologic and histologic developments allow to develop a more accurate and refinate technique that can achieve virtually the identification of 100% of sentinel nodes and reduce the false negative rate.

  16. Current and Potential Uses of Immunocytokines as Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Sondel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Immunocytokines (ICs are a class of molecules created by linking tumor-reactive monoclonal antibodies to cytokines that are able to activate immune cells. Tumor selective localization is provided by the ability of the mAb component to bind to molecules found on the tumor cell surface or molecules found selectively in the tumor microenvronment. In this way the cytokine component of the immunocytokine is selectively localized to sites of tumor and can activate immune cells with appropriate receptors for the cytokine. Immunocytokines have been made and tested by us, and others, using a variety of tumor-reactive mAbs linked to distinct cytokines. To date, the majority of clinical progress has been made with ICs that have linked human interleukin-2 (IL2 to a select number of tumor reactive mAbs that had already been in prior clinical testing as non-modified mAbs. Here we briefly review the background for the creation of ICs, summarize current clinical progress, emphasize mechanisms of action for ICs that are distinct from those of their constituent components, and present some directions for future development and testing.

  17. Excerpts from the 1st international NTNU symposium on current and future clinical biomarkers of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robles, Ana I; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Tsui, Dana W T;

    2016-01-01

    The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation and Implement......The goal of biomarker research is to identify clinically valid markers. Despite decades of research there has been disappointingly few molecules or techniques that are in use today. The "1st International NTNU Symposium on Current and Future Clinical Biomarkers of Cancer: Innovation...

  18. Conformal radiotherapy to 76 Gy in localized prostate cancer. Therapeutic modalities and preliminary results; Radiotherapie conformationnelle a 76 Gy des cancers localises de la prostate. Modalites therapeutiques et resultats preliminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontvert, D.; Mammar, H. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Oncologie Radiotherapique, 75 - Paris (France); Flam, T.; Debre, B. [Hopital Cochin-Saint-Vincent-de-Paul, Service d' Urologie, 75 - Paris (France); Thiounn, N. [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service d' Urologie, 75 - Paris (France); Gaboriaud, G. [Institut Curie, Service de Physique Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Jourdan-Da Silvae, N. [Institut Curie, Service de Biostatistique et d' evaluation clinique, 75 - Paris (France); Beuzeboc, P. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Oncologie Medicale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: to describe therapeutic modalities for localized prostate cancer treated by conformal radiation to 76 Gy with or without androgen ablation. To evaluate the preliminary results in terms of survival, biological control and toxicity. Patients and method: between January 1998 and June 2001, 321 patients with localized prostate cancer were irradiated at Institut Curie. Tumors were stratified into the three Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prognostic groups (1998) for analysis: favorable risk group (F.G.) 23%, intermediate risk group (I.G.) 36.5%, unfavorable risk group (U.G.) 40.5%. Androgen deprivation, mainly neo-adjuvant, less or equal to one year was prescribed to 93.8% of patients (72.6% less or equal to six months). Planning target volume prescription doses were: prostate: 76 Gy, seminal vesicles: 56 to 76 Gy, and pelvic lymph nodes: 44 Gy to 16.8% of patients. Results: the five-year actuarial overall survival was 94% (95% I.C.: 90-97%). The median post-therapeutic follow-up was 36 months (nine to 60 months). The 48-month actuarial rates of biochemical control for the three prognostic groups were statistically different according to both the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus (A.S.T.R.O. 1997) and the Fox Chase Cancer Center definitions of biochemical failure (F.C.C.C. 2000) with respectively 87 and 94% for F.G., 78 and 84% for I.G., 54 and 58% for U.G. (P < 10-6 and P < 10-8). At time of our analysis, late post-treatment rectal and bladder bleedings were 17,4 and 13,6%, respectively. According to a 1-4 scale adapted from M.D. Anderson Cancer Center criteria: rectal bleedings were grade 1 (9.6%), grade 2 (6.2%) and grade 3 (1.6%). Bladder bleedings were grade 2 (13%) and grade 3 (0.6%). Analysis of rectal bleeding risk factors showed significant correlations with pelvic lymph nodes irradiation for grade 2 and 3, (P = 0.02), and for all grades, a correlation with smaller rectal wall volumes (P = 0.03), and greater

  19. It does belong together: Cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eBrunel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to provide explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted 2 experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b. However, a comparison of priming-effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning and thus leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences.

  20. Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification of modal parameters of practical interest - including the mode shape scaling factor - with a high degree of accuracy. It is also argued that the operational technology offers the user a number of advanta...

  1. Modal extension rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xia; SUN Jigui; LIN Hai; FENG Shasha

    2005-01-01

    Modal logics are good candidates for a formal theory of agents. The efficiency of reasoning method in modal logics is very important, because it determines whether or not the reasoning method can be widely used in systems based on agent. In this paper,we modify the extension rule theorem proving method we presented before, and then apply it to P-logic that is translated from modal logic by functional transformation. At last, we give the proof of its soundness and completeness.

  2. Current Management of Low Risk Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and Papillary Microcarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, V D; Tuttle, R M

    2017-01-10

    Each year, the proportion of thyroid cancer patients presenting with low risk disease is increasing. Moreover, the definition of low risk thyroid cancer is expanding and several histological subtypes beyond papillary microcarcinomas are now classified as low risk disease. This shift in the landscape of thyroid cancer presentation is forcing clinicians to critically re-evaluate whether or not traditional management paradigms that were effective in treating intermediate and high risk disease are applicable to these low risk patients. Here we review the definition of low risk disease, examine the various histological subtypes that are considered low risk in the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer, and review our current approach to the management of these low risk tumours.

  3. Current and upcoming approaches to exploit the reversibility of epigenetic mutations in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falahi, Fahimeh; van Kruchten, Michel; Martinet, Nadine; Hospers, Geke A P; Rots, Marianne G

    2014-07-29

    DNA methylation and histone modifications are important epigenetic modifications associated with gene (dys)regulation. The epigenetic modifications are balanced by epigenetic enzymes, so-called writers and erasers, such as DNA (de)methylases and histone (de)acetylases. Aberrant epigenetic alterations have been associated with various diseases, including breast cancer. Since aberrant epigenetic modifications are potentially reversible, they might represent targets for breast cancer therapy. Indeed, several drugs have been designed to inhibit epigenetic enzymes (epi-drugs), thereby reversing epigenetic modifications. US Food and Drug Administration approval has been obtained for some epi-drugs for hematological malignancies. However, these drugs have had very modest anti-tumor efficacy in phase I and II clinical trials in breast cancer patients as monotherapy. Therefore, current clinical trials focus on the combination of epi-drugs with other therapies to enhance or restore the sensitivity to such therapies. This approach has yielded some promising results in early phase II trials. The disadvantage of epi-drugs, however, is genome-wide effects, which may cause unwanted upregulation of, for example, pro-metastatic genes. Development of gene-targeted epigenetic modifications (epigenetic editing) in breast cancer can provide a novel approach to prevent such unwanted events. In this context, identification of crucial epigenetic modifications regulating key genes in breast cancer is of critical importance. In this review, we first describe aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications as two important classes of epigenetic mutations in breast cancer. Then we focus on the preclinical and clinical epigenetic-based therapies currently being explored for breast cancer. Finally, we describe epigenetic editing as a promising new approach for possible applications towards more targeted breast cancer treatment.

  4. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: current status of the Austrian-Czech-German gastric cancer prevention trial (PRISMA-Study)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Miehlke; A. Leodolter; P. Malfertheiner; A. Neubauer; G. Ehninger; M. Stolte; E, Bayerdorffer; C. Kirsch; B. Dragosics; M. Gschwantler; G. Oberhuber; D. Antos; P. Dite; J. Lauter; J. Labenz

    2001-01-01

    AIM To test the hypothesis that Helicobacter pylori eradication alone can reduce the incidence of gastric cancer in a subgroup of individuals with an increased risk for this fatal disease.METHODS It is a prospective, randomized,double-blind, placebo-controlled multinational multicenter trial. Men between 55 and 65 years of age with a gastric cancer phenotype of Helicobacterpylori gastritis are randomized to receive a 7-day course of omeprazole 2 × 20 mg,clarithromycin 2 × 500 mg, and amoxicillin 2 ×lg for 7 days, or omeprazole2 × 20mg plusplacebo. Follow - up endoscopy is scheduled 3months after therapy, and thereafter in one-year intervals. Predefined study endpoints are gastric cancer, precancerous lesions (dysplasia, adenoma), other cancers, anddeath.RESULTS Since March 1998, 1524 target patients have been screened, 279 patients (18.3%) had a corpus-dominant type of H.pylori gastritis, and 167 of those were randomized (58.8%). In the active treatment group (n -- 86), H. pylori infection infection was cured in 88.9% of patients. Currently, thecumulative follow-up time is 3046 months (253.8patient-years, median follow-up 16 months). So far, none of the patients developed gastric cancer or any precancerous lesion. Three(1.8%) patients reached study endpoints other than gastric cancer.CONCLUSION Among men between 55 and 65years of age, the gastric cancer phenotype of H.pylori gastritis appears to be more common than expected. Further follow- up and continuing recruitment are necessary to fulfil the main aim of the study.

  5. Oral mucosal injury caused by cancer therapies: current management and new frontiers in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Peterson, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    This invited update is designed to provide a summary of the state-of-the-science regarding oral mucosal injury (oral mucositis) caused by conventional and emerging cancer therapies. Current modeling of oral mucositis pathobiology as well as evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for prevention...

  6. Relationship satisfaction in couples confronted with colorectal cancer : the interplay of past and current spousal support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Mariet; Dagan, Meirav; Puterman, Eli; Hoff, Christiaan; Meijerink, W. J. H. Jeroen; DeLongis, Anita; Sanderman, Robbert

    2011-01-01

    Based on attribution theory, this study hypthesized that past spousal supportiveness may act as a moderator of the link between one partner's current support behavior and the other partner's relationship satisfaction. A sample of 88 patients with colorectal cancer and their partners completed questi

  7. ORGAN-SPARING SURGERY FOR RECTAL CANCER: EVOLUTION, CURRENT TRENDS, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Tamrazov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main stages of the development of sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. An historical look at this issue from the standpoint of research of past years in our country and abroad, as well as analysis of current sphincter-preserving surgery and future directions in this area.

  8. Video: Modalities and Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…

  9. Human Papillomavirus: Current and Future RNAi Therapeutic Strategies for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Soon Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses; some oncogenic ones can cause different types of cancer, in particular cervical cancer. HPV-associated carcinogenesis provides a classical model system for RNA interference (RNAi based cancer therapies, because the viral oncogenes E6 and E7 that cause cervical cancer are expressed only in cancerous cells. Previous studies on the development of therapeutic RNAi facilitated the advancement of therapeutic siRNAs and demonstrated its versatility by siRNA-mediated depletion of single or multiple cellular/viral targets. Sequence-specific gene silencing using RNAi shows promise as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of a variety of diseases that currently lack effective treatments. However, siRNA-based targeting requires further validation of its efficacy in vitro and in vivo, for its potential off-target effects, and of the design of conventional therapies to be used in combination with siRNAs and their drug delivery vehicles. In this review we discuss what is currently known about HPV-associated carcinogenesis and the potential for combining siRNA with other treatment strategies for the development of future therapies. Finally, we present our assessment of the most promising path to the development of RNAi therapeutic strategies for clinical settings.

  10. Advances in Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume i...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence.......Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...

  11. Current status and prospects of clinical proteomics studies on detection of colorectal cancer: Hopes and fears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ME de Noo; RAEM Tollenaar; AM Deelder; LH Bouwman

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the fourth most frequent cause of death due to cancer worldwide. Given the natural history of CRC, early diagnosis appears to be the most appropriate tool to reduce disease-related mortality. A field of recent interest is clinical proteomics, which was reported to lead to high sensitivity and specificities for early detection of several solid tumors. This emerging field uses mass spectrometry-based protein profiles/patterns of easy accessible body fluids to distinguish cancer from non-cancer patients. These discrepancies may be a result of: (1) proteins being abnormally produced or shed and added to the serum proteome, (2) proteins clipped or modified as a consequence of the disease process, or (3) proteins subtracted from the proteome owing to disease-related proteolytic degradation pathways. Therefore, protein pattern diagnostics would provide easy and reliable tools for detection of cancer. This paper focuses on the current status of clinical proteomics research in oncology and in colorectal cancer especially,and will reflect on pitfalls and fears in this relatively new area of clinical medicine, which are reproducibility issues and pre-analytical factors, statistical issues, and identification and nature of discriminating proteins/peptides.

  12. Current Challenges in Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis as Potential Biomarkers of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in reducing mortality among people suffering from cancer. There is a lack of characteristic early clinical symptoms in most forms of cancer, which highlights the importance of investigating new methods for its early detection. One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. VOCs are a diverse group of carbon-based chemicals that are present in exhaled breath and biofluids and may be collected from the headspace of these matrices. Different patterns of VOCs have been correlated with various diseases, cancer among them. Studies have also shown that cancer cells in vitro produce or consume specific VOCs that can serve as potential biomarkers that differentiate them from noncancerous cells. This review identifies the current challenges in the investigation of VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers, by the critical evaluation of available matrices for the in vivo and in vitro approaches in this field and by comparison of the main extraction and detection techniques that have been applied to date in this area of study. It also summarises complementary in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer.

  13. Theranostic liposomes for cancer diagnosis and treatment: current development and pre-clinical success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Madaswamy S; Feng, Si-Shen

    2013-02-01

    Liposomes are one of the effective drug delivery systems that are developed based on the nanotechnology concept. Liposomal formulation is the first nanomedicine approved by the US FDA for clinical application. Recently, the marketed liposomes and stealth liposomes have made impact for cancer therapy. In addition, a few receptor-targeted liposome products have been in different phases of clinical trials, which are yet to be marketed. In the present editorial, the advantages of vitamin E TPGS-coated liposomes over the currently available PEG-coated liposomes will be described and their great potentials for nanotheranostics for cancer imaging and therapy will be covered.

  14. [Current problems and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Wang, Lei

    2014-06-01

    In the past 20 years, researches regarding colorectal cancer have experienced unprecedented boom in China. However, a seris problems have been exposed, including a rapid increase in morbility, the geographical limitations of tumor screening, nonstandard diagnosis and treatment, very limited mechanism researches, and lack of randomized controlled clinical trials with Chinese characteristics. This article puts forward some main emphases of the current work, based on the above problems and challenges, in order to improve the overall level of the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer in China.

  15. Modality-dependent dose requirements in the Austrian breast cancer early detection program. First results from technical quality assurance; Geraeteabhaengiger Dosisbedarf im Oesterreichischen Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm. Erste Ergebnisse aus der technischen Qualitaetssicherung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanna-Elliott, A.; Semturs, F.; Menhart, S.; Schloegl, C.; Wildner, S.; Zwettler, G. [AGES, Wien (Austria). Referenzzentrum fuer technische Qualitaetssicherung im Brustkrebsfrueherkennungsprogramm

    2015-07-01

    The Austrian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BKFP) has officially started in January 2014. In order to ensure that all participating women can rely on a sufficient cancer detection rate while at the same time the required dose is as low as reasonably achievable, all participating radiology institutes (approx. 200) have to fulfill strict quality assurance requirements. The control and certification is performed by the Reference Center for Technical Quality Assurance (RefZQS), which has been developing the methods and tolerances in a pilot project since 2007. The limits are defined in the EUREF-Oeprotocol which is based on the European EPQC guidelines. From the requirement for optimized image quality while simultaneously following the ALARA principle, we found modality-dependent dose requirements, which we had expected but which have now been compiled for the first time for Austria.

  16. What is the most accurate whole-body imaging modality for assessment of local and distant recurrent disease in colorectal cancer? A meta-analysis. Imaging for recurrent colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Monique; Lambregts, Doenja M.J. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Rutten, Iris J.G.; Cappendijk, Vincent C.; Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Nelemans, Patty J. [Maastricht University, Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Beets, Geerard L. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-08-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, CT and MRI as whole-body imaging modalities for the detection of local and/or distant recurrent disease in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients who have a (high) suspicion of recurrent disease, based on clinical findings or rise in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). A meta-analysis was undertaken. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies on the accuracy of whole-body imaging for patients with suspected local and/or distant recurrence of their CRC. Additionally, studies had to have included at least 20 patients with CRC and 2 x 2 contingency tables had to be provided or derivable. Articles evaluating only local recurrence or liver metastasis were excluded. Summary receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed from the data on sensitivity and specificity of individual studies and pooled estimates of diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) and areas under the ROC curve (AUCs) were calculated. To test for heterogeneity the Cochran Q test was used. Fourteen observational studies were included which evaluated PET, PET/CT, CT and/or MRI. Study results were available in 12 studies for PET, in 5 studies for CT, in 5 studies for PET/CT and in 1 study for MRI. AUCs for PET, PET/CT and CT were 0.94 (0.90-0.97), 0.94 (0.87-0.98) and 0.83 (0.72-0.90), respectively. In patient based analyses PET/CT had a higher diagnostic performance than PET with an AUC of 0.95 (0.89-0.97) for PET/CT vs 0.92 (0.86-0.96) for PET. Both whole-body PET and PET/CT are very accurate for the detection of local and/or distant recurrent disease in CRC patients with a (high) suspicion of recurrent disease. CT has the lowest diagnostic performance. This difference is probably mainly due to the lower accuracy of CT for detection of extrahepatic metastases (including local recurrence). For clinical practice PET/CT might be the modality of choice when evaluating patients with a (high

  17. Cryosurgery for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, W E; Bissada, N K

    2003-01-01

    Choice of management for patients with prostate cancer is influenced by patient and disease characteristics and life expectancy. Management options include expectance (watchful waiting), radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and cryosurgical ablation of the prostate (CSAP). The role of cryotherapy in the management of prostate cancer is still evolving. Continued research has allowed the introduction of efficient and safe cryosurgical equipment exemplified by the current third-generation cryosurgical machines. CSAP can be performed in an ambulatory surgery setting or as inpatient surgery with overnight stay. The procedure is performed under continuous ultrasonic monitoring. Mature data from the use of second-generation cryosurgical equipment indicate that CSAP is an effective therapeutic modality for managing patients with prostate cancer. Current data with the third-generation cryosurgical equipment are not mature. However, the favorable side effect profile and the good early responses seem to indicate that this modality will have a prominent role in the management of patients with prostate cancer.

  18. Evolving Paradigm of Radiotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Current Consensus and Continuing Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Juloori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-risk prostate cancer is an aggressive form of the disease with an increased risk of distant metastasis and subsequent mortality. Multiple randomized trials have established that the combination of radiation therapy and long-term androgen deprivation therapy improves overall survival compared to either treatment alone. Standard of care for men with high-risk prostate cancer in the modern setting is dose-escalated radiotherapy along with 2-3 years of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. There are research efforts directed towards assessing the efficacy of shorter ADT duration. Current research has been focused on assessing hypofractionated and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT techniques. Ongoing randomized trials will help assess the utility of pelvic lymph node irradiation. Research is also focused on multimodality therapy with addition of a brachytherapy boost to external beam radiation to help improve outcomes in men with high-risk prostate cancer.

  19. Bisphenol A and Hormone-Associated Cancers: Current Progress and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Bao-Jun; Li, Nan; Feng, Li-Min; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Liu, Si-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA), a carbon-based synthetic compound, exhibits hormone-like properties and is present ubiquitously in the environment and in human tissues due to its widespread use and biological accumulation. BPA can mimic estrogen to interact with estrogen receptors α and β, leading to changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, or migration and thereby, contributing to cancer development and progression. At the genetic level, BPA has been shown to be involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the STAT3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT pathways. Moreover, BPA may also interact with other steroid receptors (such as androgen receptor) and plays a role in prostate cancer development. This review summarizes the current literature regarding human exposure to BPA, the endocrine-disrupting effects of BPA, and the role of BPA in hormone-associated cancers of the breast, ovary, and prostate. PMID:25569640

  20. Electrical impedance scanning as a new imaging modality in breast cancer detection - a short review of clinical value on breast application, limitations and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malich, A. E-mail:ansgar.malich@med.uni-jena.de; Boehm, T.; Facius, M.; Kleinteich, I.; Fleck, M.; Sauner, D.; Anderson, R.; Kaiser, W.A

    2003-01-21

    Objective. Cancer cells exhibit altered local dielectric properties compared to normal cells, measurable as different electrical conductance and capacitance using electrical impedance scanning (EIS). Therefore, active biocompatible current is applied to the patient for calculation of both parameters taking into account frequency, voltage and current flow. Subjects and methods. 240 women with 280 sonographically and/or mammographically suspicious findings were examined using EIS. All lesions were histologically proven. A lesion was scored as positive, when a focal increased conductance and/or capacitance was measurable using EIS. The lesion was visible as a bright area in a 256 grey-scale computer output. Due to system limitations patients having a pacemaker or pregnant had to be excluded from the study. Results. 91/113 malignant and 108/167 benign lesions were correctly identified using EIS (80.5% sensitivity, 64.7% specificity). NPV and PPV of 83.1% and 60.7% were observed, respectively. Accuracy was 0.73. A wide range of factors can induce false positive results, although by an experienced observer a number of these findings can be detected such as scars, skin alterations, contact artefacts, air bubbles and naevi, hairs and interfering bone. Based upon visibility on ultrasound (194 lesions visible, 86 not visible) significant differences in the detection rate occurred. Histology-dependent detectability rate varied significantly with lowest rate in CIS-cases (50%). Specificity values varied histology-depending, too; probably depending on the rate of proliferation between 75% (inflammatory lesions) and papillomata (50%). Best detectability was observed in malignant lesions with a size between 20 and 30 mm. Further possible applications will be discussed regarding the currently available literature (lymph nodes, salivary glands, mathematical and animal based models). Conclusion. EIS appears to be a promising new additional technology providing a rather high

  1. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Ismaili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT in early breast cancer was investigated by few authors and remains controversial. This treatment is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer and showed high rate of complete pathological response. A search of articles published in English literature, between 1980 and November 2012, was conducted on Medline using the following terms: "breast cancer", "chemotherapy", "concurrent radiotherapy", and "Trastuzumab". We identified five phase I/II trials and three randomized phase three trials evaluating concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the adjuvant of breast cancer. In patients with early breast cancer having positive lymph nodes, phases III clinical trials showed that CCRT improved local control after conservative breast surgery. However, these randomized trials used non-standard regimen: Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF or fluorouracil, mitoxantrone and cyclophosphamide (FNC. In addition, in phases II clinical trials, concurrent use of taxanes and anthracycline with standard whole-breast irradiation showed high rate of toxicity: Pulmonary toxicity with taxane; and cardiac and skin toxicity with anthracycline. Consequentely, CCRT is not be used in practice because of concerns of toxicity with the standard drugs (anthracyclines and taxanes and radiation. Anthracyclines with partial breast irradiation (PBI was feasible according to one phase I clinical trial, and should be investigated in randomized clinical trials. Concurrent Trastuzumab plus radiotherapy is safe and can be used in HER2-positive breast cancer; in this case, cardiac volume sparing and patient selections for internal mammary chain irradiation are highly recommended. The present paper aimed to review the current data evaluating the efficacy and safety of CCRT in early breast cancer.

  2. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers MB

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meagan B Myers Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. Keywords: HER2, precision medicine, in vitro diagnostics, estrogen receptor, multigene assay

  3. Current innovations in sentinel lymph node mapping for the staging and treatment of resectable lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, Krista J; Colson, Yolonda L

    2014-01-01

    Despite surgical resectability, early-stage lung cancer remains a challenge to cure. Survival outcomes are hindered by variable performance of adequate lymphadenectomy and the limitations of current pathologic nodal staging. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping, a mainstay in the management of breast cancer and melanoma, permits targeted nodal sampling for efficient and accurate staging that can influence both intraoperative and adjuvant treatment decisions. Unfortunately, standard SLN identification techniques with blue dye and radiocolloid tracers have not been shown to be reproducible in lung cancer. In more recent years, intraoperative near-infrared image-guided lung SLN mapping has emerged as promising technology for the identification of the tumor-associated lymph nodes most likely to contain metastatic disease. Additionally, the clinical relevance of SLN mapping for lung cancer remains pressing, as the ability to identify micrometastatic disease in SLNs could facilitate trials to assess chemotherapeutic response and the clinical effect of occult nodal disease. This review outlines the status of lung cancer lymphatic mapping and techniques in development that may help close the gap between translational research in this field and routine clinical practice.

  4. Current developments of coumarin-based anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Saeed; Dadashpour, Sakineh

    2015-09-18

    Cancer is one of the leading health hazards and the prominent cause of death in the world. A number of anticancer agents are currently in clinical practice and used for treatment of various kinds of cancers. There is no doubt that the existing arsenal of anticancer agents is insufficient due to the high incidence of side effects and multidrug resistance. In the efforts to develop suitable anticancer drugs, medicinal chemists have focused on coumarin derivatives. Coumarin is a naturally occurring compound and a versatile synthetic scaffold possessing wide spectrum of biological effects including potential anticancer activity. This review article covers the current developments of coumarin-based anticancer agents and also discusses the structure-activity relationship of the most potent compounds.

  5. Coherence for Modalities

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2008-01-01

    Positive modalities in systems in the vicinity of S4 and S5 are investigated in terms of categorial proof theory. Coherence and maximality results are demonstrated, and connections with mixed distributive laws and Frobenius algebras are exhibited.

  6. Modalities in medieval logic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is an exercise in conceptual archeology. Using the tools of contemporary logic we analyse texts in medieval logic and reconstruct their logical theories by creating a formal framework which models them. Our focus is medieval texts which deal with various modalities: the writings on alethic modalities by William of Sherwood, Pseudo-Aquinas, and St. Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, St. Anselm of Canterbury’s writings on facere and debere in the late 11th century; Lambert of...

  7. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, the United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized

  8. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Rolf F; Vicente, M Graca H; Harling, Otto K; Kiger, W S; Riley, Kent J; Binns, Peter J; Wagner, Franz M; Suzuki, Minoru; Aihara, Teruhito; Kato, Itsuro; Kawabata, Shinji

    2012-08-29

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or "BPA", and sodium borocaptate or "BSH" (Na2B12H11SH). In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger, possibly randomized clinical trials

  9. Current status of boron neutron capture therapy of high grade gliomas and recurrent head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Rolf F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Clinical interest in BNCT has focused primarily on the treatment of high grade gliomas, recurrent cancers of the head and neck region and either primary or metastatic melanoma. Neutron sources for BNCT currently have been limited to specially modified nuclear reactors, which are or until the recent Japanese natural disaster, were available in Japan, United States, Finland and several other European countries, Argentina and Taiwan. Accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams also could be used for BNCT and these are being developed in several countries. It is anticipated that the first Japanese accelerator will be available for therapeutic use in 2013. The major hurdle for the design and synthesis of boron delivery agents has been the requirement for selective tumor targeting to achieve boron concentrations in the range of 20 μg/g. This would be sufficient to deliver therapeutic doses of radiation with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Two boron drugs have been used clinically, a dihydroxyboryl derivative of phenylalanine, referred to as boronophenylalanine or “BPA”, and sodium borocaptate or “BSH” (Na2B12H11SH. In this report we will provide an overview of other boron delivery agents that currently are under evaluation, neutron sources in use or under development for BNCT, clinical dosimetry, treatment planning, and finally a summary of previous and on-going clinical studies for high grade gliomas and recurrent tumors of the head and neck region. Promising results have been obtained with both groups of patients but these outcomes must be more rigorously evaluated in larger

  10. Smoking Lung Cancer Patients and Tobacco Cessation - Is the Current Treatment in Germany Sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, K; Thielke, L; Deter, A; Riemer, T; Eggeling, S; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2015-11-01

    Lung cancer is the most preventable neoplastic disease for men and women. The incidence rate per year is 14.000 in Germany. Smoking is the main risk factor for the onset of lung cancer and for a share of 90% of cases, lung cancer is associated with smoking. Recent studies have shown that the time slot of diagnosing lung cancer is a teachable moment for tobacco cessation interventions. The therapy that was rated most effective was a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy (e. g. NRT, Bupropion, Varenicline). We examined the smoking status of all patients undergoing lung cancer surgery in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in this study. A retrospective semi structured interview via telephone was conducted regarding smoking habits and current quality of life. 131 patients (36.6% female, average age of 68.7 years) of an urban German hospital were included.Results showed a relapse rate of 22.3%, while 86.2% used to be highly addicted smokers; A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated a significant overall impact of smoking status on quality of life with a medium effect size, controlled for age, gender, living conditions, tumor stage, duration of smoking abstinence, type of cancer therapy, type of resection method, and the time period between the date of surgery and of the survey. Two thirds of all smokers did not see an association between their habit and their disease.So far motivation to quit and long term abstinence rates are not sufficiently established even among seriously sick patients in Germany; further initiatives should focus on new and more intense interventions and educational strategies.

  11. Toward predicate approaches to modality

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, the author investigates and argues for, a particular answer to the question: What is the right way to logically analyze modalities from natural language within formal languages? The answer is: by formalizing modal expressions in terms of predicates. But, as in the case of truth, the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox once the modal notions are conceived as predicates. The book discusses the philosophical interpretation of these modal paradoxes and argues that any satisfactory approach to modality will have to face the paradoxes independently of the grammatical category of the modal notion. By systematizing modal principles with respect to their joint consistency and inconsistency, Stern provides an overview of the options and limitations of the predicate approach to modality that may serve as a useful starting point for future work on predicate approaches to modality. Stern also develops a general strategy for constructing philosophically attractive theories of modal notions conce...

  12. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  13. The current status of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for metastatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsby, NM; Leong, WY; Wong, W; Hughes, HE; Swaminathan, V

    2016-01-01

    The most common site for cancer to spread is bone. At post-mortem, bony metastases have been found in 70% of patients dying from breast and prostate cancer. Due to the prevalence of cancer, bone metastasis and the associated management represents a huge burden on NHS resources. In patients with metastasis, around 56% of these involve the lower limb long bones. Due to the huge forces placed upon long bones during weight bearing, there is a high risk of fracture through areas of metastasis. It is reported that 23% of pathological fractures occur in the femoral subtrochanteric region. This area is subjected to forces up to four times the body weight, resulting in poor union rate for these fractures, and significant morbidity associated with difficulty in mobilising, and in patient nursing. As cancer treatments improve, the life expectancy in this subgroup of patients is likely to increase. Therefore medium-to-long-term management of these fractures, beyond the palliative, will become essential. We aim to evaluate the current management for metastatic malignant femoral disease, with particular focus on the prophylactic augmentation of diseased femorii using intramedullary nails. PMID:28105069

  14. Clinical utility of trabectedin for the treatment of ovarian cancer: current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascilini F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Floriana Mascilini,* Giulia Amadio,* Maria Grazia Di Stefano, Manuela Ludovisi, Alessia Di Legge, Carmine Conte, Rosa De Vincenzo, Caterina Ricci, Valeria Masciullo, Vanda Salutari, Giovanni Scambia, Gabriella FerrandinaGynecologic Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, Catholic University of Rome, Italy  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Among the pharmaceutical options available for treatment of ovarian cancer, attention has been increasingly focused on trabectedin (ET-743, a drug which displays a unique mechanism of action and has been shown to be active in several human malignancies. Currently, single agent trabectedin is approved for treatment of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma after failure of anthracyclines and ifosfamide, and in association with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of patients with relapsed partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. This review aims at summarizing the available evidence about the clinical role of trabectedin in the management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer. Novel perspectives coming from a better understanding of trabectedin mechanisms of action and definition of patients subgroups likely susceptible to benefit of trabectedin treatment are also presented. Keywords: ET-743, ovarian cancer, clinical trials

  15. PI3K and Akt as molecular targets for cancer therapy: current clinical outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ipsita PAL; Mahitosh MANDAL

    2012-01-01

    The PI3K-Akt pathway is a vital regulator of cell proliferation and survival.Alterations in the PIK3CA gene that lead to enhanced PI3K kinase activity have been reported in many human cancer types,including cancers of the colon,breast,brain,liver,stomach and lung.Deregulation of PI3K causes aberrant Akt activity.Therefore targeting this pathway could have implications for cancer treatment.The first generation PI3K-Akt inhibitors were proven to be highly effective with a low IC50,but later,they were shown to have toxic side effects and poor pharmacological properties and selectivity.Thus,these inhibitors were only effective in preclinical models.However,derivatives of these first generation inhibitors are much more selective and are quite effective in targeting the PI3K-Akt pathway,either alone or in combination.These second-generation inhibitors are essentially a specific chemical moiety that helps to form a strong hydrogen bond interaction with the PI3K/Akt molecule.The goal of this review is to delineate the current efforts that have been undertaken to inhibit the various components of the PI3K and Akt pathway in different types of cancer both in vitro and in vivo.Our focus here is on these novel therapies and their inhibitory effects that depend upon their chemical nature,as well as their development towards clinical trials.

  16. Lymph node-positive prostate cancer: current issues, emerging technology and impact on clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julia; Cheng, Liang

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer indicates a poorer prognosis compared with patients without lymph node metastasis; however, some patients with node-positive disease have long-term survival. Many studies have attempted to discern what characteristics of lymph node metastasis are prognostically significant. These characteristics include nodal tumor volume, number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension, lymphovascular invasion and tumor dedifferentiation. Favorable characteristics of regional lymph node involvement included a smaller tumor size and smaller tumor volume. However, the current staging system for prostate cancer does not provide different subclassifications for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. In recent years numerous advanced technologies for the detection of lymph node metastasis have been developed, including molecular imaging techniques and the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell System. With the increased detection of patients with prostate cancer, emergence of new technology to identify lymph node metastasis and the number of radical prostatectomies being performed on the rise, subclassifying patients with lymph node-positive disease is imperative. Subclassification would provide a better picture of patient prognosis and allow for a better understanding of targeted therapies to treat patients with lymph node metastasis.

  17. EGFR Targeting in Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer: Current Appraisal and Prospects for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Milano

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of prostate cancer increases with age and because of its high prevalence this disease has become a major public health concern. Despite advances in our understanding of the biological mechanisms responsible for the development of this cancer, the transition to the hormone refractory stage (HRPC and metastatic progression pose real problems of clinical management. Currently, docetaxel chemotherapy has been shown to have a slight but significant impact on survival, though the gain in median survival is still less than three months. Research is therefore continuing to improve treatment outcomes. The progression of prostate cancer is accompanied by the overexpression of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor in a very large majority of cases, suggesting that this may play a mechanistic role. Unfortunately, although preclinical findings seem to be promising for therapies targeting the EGFR in HRPC, current clinical results are disappointing. These results should however encourage us to look for different ways of using anti-EGFR agents or combining them with other targeted therapies.

  18. Chemotherapeutic strategies in metastatic colorectal cancer: an overview of current clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhne-Wömpner, C H; Schmoll, H J; Harstrick, A; Rustum, Y M

    1992-04-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is still the mainstay of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. A prolonged infusion of 5-FU is more active than any other schedule of 5-FU used to date. Cisplatin does not improve treatment results compared with 5-FU alone and is not recommended outside clinical trials. Biomodulation of 5-FU is a major step forward in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients and as the standard chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer. Two schedules of folinic acid daily for 5-day (low and high doses) and weekly high dose in combination with daily or weekly 5-FU are the most widely used schedules. Although the response rates to either schedule are comparable, the profile of toxicity is different, being stomatitis for the daily schedule and diarrhea for the weekly schedule as the dose-limiting toxicity. Modulation of 5-FU by methotrexate is time dependent. An interval of 24 hours between methotrexate and 5-FU is necessary for effective modulation. Other modulators, like interferon and N-phosphonoactyl-L-aspartate (PALA), are promising treatment options currently under investigation in randomized trials. The data from phase II and III trials using modulation of 5-FU by folinic acid, PALA, or methotrexate, or using continuous infusion 5-FU indicate that all of these strategies are active. Randomized trials are currently underway to further investigate these therapeutic approaches and whether a specific modulation offers more therapeutic advantages.

  19. Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in lung cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Cao M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available María González-Cao,1 Niki Karachaliou,1 Santiago Viteri,1 Daniela Morales-Espinosa,1 Cristina Teixidó,2 Jesús Sánchez Ruiz,3 Miquel Ángel Molina-Vila,2 Mariacarmela Santarpia,4 Rafael Rosell1,2,5,61Translational Cancer Research Unit, Instituto Oncológico Dr Rosell, Quirón Dexeus University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 2Pangaea Biotech SL, Barcelona, Spain; 3Centro Nacional de Investigación Oncología (CNIO, Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Human Pathology Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 5Cancer Biology and Precision Medicine Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Germans Trias i Pujol Health Sciences Institute and Hospital, Campus Can Ruti, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 6Fundación Molecular Oncology Research, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Increased understanding of tumor immunology has led to the development of effective immunotherapy treatments. One of the most important advances in this field has been due to pharmacological design of antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies are currently in advanced phases of clinical development for several tumors, including lung cancer. Results from Phase I–III trials with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in non-small-cell lung cancer have demonstrated response rates of around 20% (range, 16%–50%. More importantly, responses are long-lasting (median duration of response, 18 months and fast (50% of responses are detected at time of first tumor evaluation with very low grade 3–4 toxicity (less than 5%. Recently, the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA breakthrough therapy designation for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, supported by data from a Phase Ib trial. Another anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, has also been approved for lung cancer based on survival advantage demonstrated in recently released data from a Phase III trial in squamous cell lung cancer.Keywords: immunotherapy, immunoncology

  20. Refinement Modal Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzelli, Laura; French, Tim; Hales, James; Pinchinat, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present refinement modal logic. A refinement is like a bisimulation, except that from the three relational requirements only 'atoms' and 'back' need to be satisfied. Our logic contains a new operator 'forall' in additional to the standard modalities 'Box' for each agent. The operator 'forall' acts as a quantifier over the set of all refinements of a given model. We call it the refinement operator. As a variation on a bisimulation quantifier, it can be seen as a refinement quantifier over a variable not occurring in the formula bound by the operator. The logic combines the simplicity of multi-agent modal logic with some powers of monadic second order quantification. We present a sound and complete axiomatization of multiagent refinement modal logic. We also present an extension of the logic to the modal mu-calculus, and an axiomatization for the single-agent version of this logic. Examples and applications are also discussed: to software verification and design (the set of agents can also be s...

  1. Conceptual structure within and between modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eDilkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multi-modal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1 to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2 to compare structures between modalities; and (3 to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly.Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities begs the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multi-faceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed.

  2. A graphene quantum dot@Fe3O4@SiO2 based nanoprobe for drug delivery sensing and dual-modal fluorescence and MRI imaging in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoqian; Chan, Chunyu; Shi, Jingyu; Tsang, Ming-Kiu; Pan, Yi; Cheng, Changming; Gerile, Oudeng; Yang, Mo

    2017-06-15

    A novel graphene quantum dot (GQD)@Fe3O4@SiO2 based nanoprobe was reported for targeted drug delivery, sensing, dual-modal imaging and therapy. Carboxyl-terminated GQD (C-GQD) was firstly conjugated with Fe3O4@SiO2 and then functionalized with cancer targeting molecule folic acid (FA). DOX drug molecules were then loaded on GQD surface of Fe3O4@SiO2@GQD-FA nanoprobe via pi-pi stacking, which resulted in Fe3O4@SiO2@GQD-FA/DOX conjugates based on a FRET mechanism with GQD as donor molecules and DOX as acceptor molecules. Meanwhile, we successfully performed in vitro MRI and fluorescence imaging of living Hela cells and monitored intracellular drug release process using this Fe3O4@SiO2@GQD-FA/DOX nanoprobe. Cell viability study demonstrated the low cytotoxicity of Fe3O4@SiO2@GQD-FA nanocarrier and the enhanced therapeutic efficacy of Fe3O4@SiO2@GQD-FA/DOX nanoprobe for cancer cells. This luminomagnetic nanoprobe will be a potential platform for cancer accurate diagnosis and therapy.

  3. A modal nonmonotonic logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林作铨

    1996-01-01

    A modal nonmonotonic logic is presented based on an experiential modal semantics on typicality and exception.The syntactic and semantics of modal nonmonotonic logic are provided,and the completeness theorem and the theorems relating it to major nonmonotonic logics are proved.It directly formalizes the intuition of nonmonotonic reasoning.Among other things,it provides us a first-order extension of default logic and autoepistemic logic,and simultaneously has the capability of circumscription to infer universal statement.It has important applications in logic programming and deductive data base.As a result,it provides a uniform basis for various nonmonotonic logics,from which the correspondent relationship among major nonmonotonic logics can coincide.

  4. Dominant modal decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  5. Current advances in biomarkers for targeted therapy in triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleisher B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Brett Fleisher,1 Charlotte Clarke,2 Sihem Ait-Oudhia1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, Center for Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Orlando, FL, 2Department of Translational Research, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a complex heterogeneous disease characterized by the absence of three hallmark receptors: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Compared to other breast cancer subtypes, TNBC is more aggressive, has a higher prevalence in African-Americans, and more frequently affects younger patients. Currently, TNBC lacks clinically accepted targets for tailored therapy, warranting the need for candidate biomarkers. BiomarkerBase, an online platform used to find biomarkers reported in clinical trials, was utilized to screen all potential biomarkers for TNBC and select only the ones registered in completed TNBC trials through clinicaltrials.gov. The selected candidate biomarkers were classified as surrogate, prognostic, predictive, or pharmacodynamic (PD and organized by location in the blood, on the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus. Blood biomarkers include vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and interleukin-8 (IL-­8; cell surface biomarkers include EGFR, insulin-like growth factor binding protein, c-Kit, c-Met, and PD-L1; cytoplasm biomarkers include PIK3CA, pAKT/S6/p4E-BP1, PTEN, ALDH1, and the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR-related metabolites; and nucleus biomarkers include BRCA1, the glucocorticoid receptor, TP53, and Ki67. Candidate biomarkers were further organized into a “cellular protein network” that demonstrates potential connectivity. This review provides an inventory and reference point for promising biomarkers for breakthrough targeted therapies in TNBC. Keywords: anti-cancer directed pharmacotherapy, difficult

  6. Current status of radiation therapy. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) of radiation therapy. Current management of patients with esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kenji [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    The best management for small mucosal esophageal cancer is generally endoscopic mucosal resection. However, for submucosal cancer and extensive mucosal caner, either radical surgery or radiation seems to be an equally efficacious option. Radiation therapy concurrent with chemotherapy is more effective than radiation therapy alone for patients with unresectable esophageal cancer. The key drugs are cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. However, for patients with poor performance status or for aged patients, radiation therapy alone is still a choice of treatment. Surgery has generally been indicated for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. However, outcomes of concurrent chemoradiation therapy may be comparable with those of surgery. Therefore, a prospective randomized study should be performed to determine the best management for patients with resectable esophageal cancer. The usefulness of intra-cavitary irradiation for esophageal cancer has not been clarified. A prospective randomized trial with a large number of patients is necessary to determine the effectiveness of intra-cavitary irradiation. The best management for patients with loco-regionally recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery has not been determined. Intensive therapy should be considered if the site of recurrence is limited and the time interval from surgery to recurrence is long. Chemotherapy is essential in the management of patients with small cell esophageal cancer. However, the best local therapy has not been determined. (author)

  7. Current status of multimodal molecular imaging of prostate cancer; Multimodale molekulare Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms - aktueller Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2009-06-15

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common life-threatening cancer affecting men in the western world. In Germany about 40 600 new cases have to be expected each year. The mortality is around 10%. The major goals of pretherapeutic imaging are to determine the local extent of prostate carcinoma in terms of intraprostate localisation, extracapsular extension (ECE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), tumour infiltration into neurovascular bundles, and if this has taken place, into surrounding tissues and organs in the small pelvis, detection of loco-regional metastases via the lymph nodes and if this so, of distant metastases. Exact pretherapeutic diagnosis and staging are essential, because the tumour treatment must be selected in strict dependence on clinical tumour stage and risk profile. Both anatomic and functional molecular imaging of prostate carcinoma have advanced significantly in recent years. When there are problems with diagnosis, e.g. when prostate punch biopsies are negative while the suspicion of prostate carcinoma persists, C-11/F-18 choline PET/CT and MRI/MRS may be helpful in localising the carcinoma, revealing how the carcinoma relates to the surrounding intra- and extraprostatic structures and organs, and making a targeted repeat biopsy possible. Lymphotropic contrast agents are highly promising for accurate nodal staging of prostate carcinoma, but are not yet available for routine clinical use. In these circumstances, the sensitivity of nodal staging with the widely available imaging modalities remains difficult. There has been particularly substantial progress in the localisation of local relapse, which can be imaged with contrast-enhanced C-11-choline PET/CT and MRI in most cases when PSA is considerably below 1 ng/ml. F-18-fluoride PET/CT has proved accurate in the diagnosis of skeletal metastases from prostate carcinoma. (orig.)

  8. Experimental modal tests applied to rotor balancing; Pruebas modales experimentales aplicadas al balanceo de rotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Munoz Quezada, Rodolfo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-01-01

    At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), the experimental modal tests were initiated in order to validate the numerical models used by computer programs for the study of the rotor dynamic behavior. In order to contribute to the application of the rotor balancing methods based in the calculation of their modal forms, currently the capacity to determine these modal forms and the natural frequencies of turbogenerator rotors, is being developed, through experimental modal tests. In this paper a short description is made of the technique and the results of its application in an experimental rotor and in one of the rotors of a turbogenerator, are presented. [Espanol] En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), las pruebas modales experimentales se iniciaron con la finalidad de validar los modelos numericos empleados por programas de computo para el estudio del comportamiento dinamico de rotores. Con objeto de contribuir a la aplicacion de los metodos de balanceo de rotores basados en el calculo de sus formas modales, actualmente esta desarrollandose la capacidad para determinar esas formas modales y las frecuencias naturales de rotores de turbogeneradores, a traves de las pruebas modales experimentales. En este trabajo se describe brevemente la tecnica y se presentan los resultados de su aplicacion en un rotor experimental y en uno de los tres rotores de un turbogenerador.

  9. Current Molecular and Genetic Aspects of Pancreatic Cancer, the Role of Metastasis Associated Proteins (MTA): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Efstathios T; Pavlidis, Theodoros E

    2017-01-06

    Purpose/aim: To focus on current molecular and genetic aspects and MTA proteins, since pancreatic cancer is a lethal malignant with poor prognosis. Early diagnosis is essential step, contributing to potential curative resection.

  10. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline.

  11. Targeted therapy for advanced gastric cancer: A review of current status and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozkan; Kanat; Bert; O’Neil; Safi; Shahda

    2015-01-01

    In the West in particular, the vast majority of gastric cancer(GC) patients present with advanced-stage disease. Although combination chemotherapy is stillthe most important component of treatment for these patients, it confers a modest survival advantage. Recently, increased knowledge of the key molecular signaling pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis has led to the discovery of specific molecular-targeted therapeutic agents. Some of these agents such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab have changed the treatment paradigm for this disease. In this paper, we will summarize the current clinical status of targeted drug therapy in the management of GC.

  12. Targeting Head and Neck Cancer Stem Cells: Current Advances and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, A C; Owen, J H; Prince, M E

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or tumor-initiating cells, comprise a subset of tumor cells with demonstrated ability for tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Targeting of CSCs remains an attractive yet elusive therapeutic option, with the goal of increasing specificity and effectiveness in tumor eradication, as well as decreasing off-target or systemic toxicity. Research into further characterization and targeted therapy toward head and neck CSCs is an active and rapidly evolving field. This review discusses the current state of research into therapy against head and neck CSCs and future directions for targeted therapy.

  13. Modalities in medieval logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uckelman, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is an exercise in conceptual archeology. Using the tools of contemporary logic we analyse texts in medieval logic and reconstruct their logical theories by creating a formal framework which models them. Our focus is medieval texts which deal with various modalities: the writings on

  14. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  15. Current Role and Future Perspectives of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Radiation Oncology for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zapotoczna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic neoplasms are not uniformly distributed within the prostate volume. With recent developments in three-dimensional intensity-modulated and imageguided radiation therapy, it is possible to treat different volumes within the prostate to different thresholds of doses. This approach has the potential to adapt the dose to the biologic aggressiveness of various clusters of tumor cells within the gland. The definition of tumor burden volume in prostate cancer can be facilitated by the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. The increasing sensitivity and specificity of MRS to the prostate is causing new interest in its potential role in the definition of target subvolumes at higher risk of failure following radical radiotherapy. Prostate MRS might also play a role as a noninvasive predictive factor for tumor response and treatment outcome. We review the use of MRS in radiation therapy for prostate cancer by evaluating its accuracy in the classification of aggressive cancer regions and target definition; its current role in the radiotherapy planning process, with special interest in technical issues behind the successful inclusion of MRS in clinical use; and available early experiences as a prognostic tool.

  16. How Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Systemic Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Current Paradigm and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a fungal commensal and a major colonizer of the human skin, as well as of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is also one of the leading causes of opportunistic microbial infections in cancer patients, often presenting in a life-threatening, systemic form. Increased susceptibility to such infections in cancer patients is attributed primarily to chemotherapy-induced depression of innate immune cells and weakened epithelial barriers, which are the body’s first-line defenses against fungal infections. Moreover, classical chemotherapeutic agents also have a detrimental effect on components of the adaptive immune system, which further play important roles in the antifungal response. In this review, we discuss the current paradigm regarding the mechanisms behind the increased risk of systemic candidiasis in cancer patients. We also highlight some recent findings, which suggest that chemotherapy may have more extensive effects beyond the human host, in particular towards C. albicans itself and the bacterial microbiota. The extent to which these additional effects contribute towards the development of candidiasis in chemotherapy-treated patients remains to be investigated.

  17. Immunotherapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer: integrating sipuleucel-T into our current treatment paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jorge A; Dreicer, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The availability of several novel antibodies, coupled with viral, DNA, and dendritic-cell vaccines, has renewed interest in immunotherapeutic approaches to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Although promising, none of these approaches have led to major clinical activity, and in the case of cell-based immunotherapy with GVAX, new concerns about safety arose when this therapy was used in the castration-resistant setting. A more attractive yet toxic approach has also utilized a check-point blockade with CTLA-4 antibodies. Although initial clinical efficacy has been observed, toxicity appears to be the major limitation of its use in prostate cancer. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is an autologous active cellular immunotherapy product that includes autologous dendritic cells pulsed ex vivo with PAP2024, a recombinant fusion protein made of prostatic acid phosphataase (PAP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Despite the lack of objective anti-tumor activity seen with sipuleucel-T, a recently reported phase III trial demonstrated a significant improvement in the overall survival of men with asymptomatic, minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This agent is the first FDA-approved novel immunotherapeutic compound for the treatment of a solid malignancy. A better understanding of how clinicians should incorporate this novel agent into the current management of CRPC is needed.

  18. Current status of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in the diagnosis of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, J. [Department of Radiology, St George' s Hospital, Tooting, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jowadraja@gmail.com; Ramachandran, N. [Department of Radiology, St George' s Hospital, Tooting, London (United Kingdom); Munneke, G. [Department of Radiology, St George' s Hospital, Tooting, London (United Kingdom); Patel, U. [Department of Radiology, St George' s Hospital, Tooting, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    In contemporary practice, most prostate cancers are either invisible on ultrasound or indistinguishable from concurrent benign prostatic hyperplasia. Diagnosis therefore rests on prostate biopsy. Biopsies are not simply directed at ultrasonically visible lesions, as these would miss many cancers; rather the whole gland is sampled. The sampling itself is systematic, using patterns based on prostate zonal anatomy and the geographical distribution and frequency of cancer. This review explains the evolution of the prostate biopsy technique, from the classical sextant biopsy method to the more recent extended biopsy protocols (8, 10, 12, >12 and saturation biopsy protocols). Extended protocols are increasingly being used to improve diagnostic accuracy, especially in those patients who require repeat biopsy. This trend has been facilitated by the ongoing improvement in safety and acceptability of the procedure, particularly with the use of antibiotic prophylaxis and local anaesthesia. The technical details of these extended protocols are discussed, as are the current data regarding procedure-related morbidity and how this may be minimized.

  19. The Current Status of the Delineation and Determination of the Targets and the Radiation Protocols for Nasopharyngeal Cancer with Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    IMRT has increased the local-regional control and decreased the complications from treating nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC).Therefore studying IMRT is important. CT and MRI are complementary, and their joint use is currently considered to be the optimal modality to delineate the extent of the primary spread of NPC. The key problem in delineation of the neck nodes is how to translate anatomic node regions into the CT boundaries. The consensus guideline which narrowed the gap among different cancer centers is recommended in delineating the boundary of the cervical lymph node regions. The definition of the NPC GTV is clear and almost the same among the main cancer centers in their IMRT planning protocols.The suggested biological dose to the GTV is close to or more than 80 Gy;the main differences are the definitions of the CTVs and their schemes for the prescribed dose, and also the dosage to the high cervical region is different among those centers. According to their long-term follow-up results, it is suggested that, besides adding 5~10 mm margins to the primary lesions,the immediate high-risk structures (including the entire nasopharyngeal cavity, retropharyngeal space, clivus, base of the skull, pterygoid plates and muscles, parapharyngeal space, the sphenoid and partial ethmoid sinuses,the posterior third of the maxillary sinuses and the nasal cavity) should also be included with a prescription of more than 60 Gy, and the bilateral Ib, Ⅱ and Ⅴa node levels should be ranked as high-risk regions and differentially prescribed for treatment with no less than 60 Gy.

  20. Thyroid Cancer Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The current prevalence of thyroid cancer in women is high. Likewise, other cancers and thyroid cancer have been based on the TNM classification system. Staging of thyroid cancer has an important role in determining the extent of surgical excision and lymph node dissection, planning the adjuvant therapy after surgery and predicting the recurrence rate and the prognosis of patients. Ultrasonography is the basic imaging modality to identify the tumor size and the extent of lymph node metastasis. More recently, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography provide additional help for the staging of thyroid cancer. So, this article describes the 7th edition of the TNM staging of thyroid cancer, as proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and the details of radiologic evaluation of the T, N and M stages

  1. Towards Fluorescence-Guided Head and Neck Cancer Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Keereweer (Stijn)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Fluorescence-guided cancer surgery provides real-time intraoperative optical feedback on tumor margins and could therefore revolutionize surgical outcomes and patient survival. This thesis focuses on current modalities and cancer targeting strategies of fluorescence-gu

  2. IMPACT: Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets, Complementary/Innovative Treatments, and Therapeutic Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    abnormalities in cancer and has succeeded in some tumor types such as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (Druker et al., 2004; Druker and Sawyers et al...Proof-of-concept with a reporter/ suicide gene (i.e., HSV-tk) or targeted TNF. 35 Army Award W81XWH-05-2-0027; George Simon, M.D. Final Report...cancer compared to normal cells. It regulates cellular stress responses by acting as a chaperon protein; namely, it preserves the function of proteins

  3. Leveraging Cancer Therapeutics for the HIV Cure Agenda: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Mark N; Chen, Grace; Tressler, Randall L; Godfrey, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and undetectable HIV RNA in the plasma, latent replication-competent HIV persists indefinitely in long-lived cells. Cessation of ART results in rebound of HIV from these persistent reservoirs. While this was thought to be an insurmountable obstacle to viral eradication, recent cases suggest otherwise. To date one patient has been "cured" of HIV and several others have been able to interrupt ART without viral rebound for prolonged periods. These events have sparked renewed interest in developing strategies that will allow eradication of HIV in infected individuals. We review the current knowledge of HIV latency and the viral reservoir, describe the potential utility of emerging cancer therapeutics in HIV cure research with an emphasis on pathways implicated in reservoir persistence, and outline opportunities and challenges in the context of the current clinical trial and regulatory environment.

  4. Conceptual Structure within and between Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Katia; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2012-01-01

    Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multimodal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings, and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic, and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1) to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2) to compare structures between modalities; and (3) to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly. Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color, and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities raise the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multifaceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed.

  5. Current aspects of treatment and rehabilitation of patients with pharyngeal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Kozhanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually in Russia primary diagnosis of new-onset pharyngeal cancer is made in approximately 6–7 thousand people. To modern methods of diagnosing pharyngeal cancer belong: direct and indirect laryngoscopy, microlaryngoscopy, stroboscopy, fibrolaryngoscopy, X-ray study examination, computed tomography, multispiral computed tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, ultrasonographic examination of the throat and organs of the neck, acoustic analysis of voice and morphological studies.Recent years witnessed the development of novel methods of both conservative and surgical management of patient with pharyngeal cancer. Treatment of patients with stage T1–2 and in some patients with stage T3 includes the following methods: radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, endolaryngeal surgery with laser, photodynamic therapy, open functionally sparing operations. According to the data of the authors, today currently there is no common algorithm for treatment of stage T1–3 pharyngeal malignant neoplasms.Locally disseminated tumors of the throat and laryngopharynx, corresponding to stages T3–4N0–2M0 as a rule are treated by combined management with pre- or postoperative irradiation. Such approach results in leads to impairment of all functions of the organ and invalidity disablement of patients. The most important task after combined treatment is rehabilitation of the voice function, which may be restored by means of logopedic methods, voice-forming devices and reconstructive plastic operations.Hence novel approaches to treatment of pharyngeal cancer – both conservative and surgical have recently been worked out. However the problem concerning regarding therapeutic decision-making followed by rehabilitation of patients remains disputable.

  6. Targeting Bone Metabolism in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Current Options and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Todenhöfer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining bone health remains a clinical challenge in patients with prostate cancer (PC who are at risk of developing metastatic bone disease and increased bone loss due to hormone ablation therapy. In patients with cancer-treatment induced bone loss (CTIBL, antiresorptive agents have been shown to improve bone mineral density (BMD and to reduce the risk of fractures. For patients with bone metastases, both zoledronic acid and denosumab delay skeletal related events (SREs in the castration resistant stage of disease. Novel agents targeting the Wnt inhibitors dickkopf-1 and sclerostin are currently under investigation for the treatment of osteoporosis and malignant bone disease. New antineoplastic drugs such as abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223 are capable of further delaying SREs in patients with advanced PC. The benefit of antiresorptive treatment for patients with castration sensitive PC appears to be limited. Recent trials on the use of zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone metastases failed to be successful, whereas denosumab delayed the occurrence of bone metastases by a median of 4.1 months. Currently, the use of antiresorptive drugs to prevent bone metastases still remains a field of controversies and further trials are needed to identify patient subgroups that may profit from early therapy.

  7. Volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy in lung cancer: Current literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Rana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric intensity modulated arc therapy (VMAT is a novel radiation technique that delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target by allowing the simultaneous variation of gantry rotation speed, dose rate and multiple-leaf collimators leaf positions. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on two VMAT systems, RapidArc and SmartArc with main focus on planning studies of lung cancer. A systematic review of available data was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed with the keywords ′′lung′′ and "VMAT". The published data show that VMAT techniques have clear superiority over three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with regard to improving dose conformity and sparing of organs at risks (OARs. The data indicates that for lung tumor VMAT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT provide equivalent dose homogeneity, dose conformity and target volume coverage; however, contradictory results were obtained in terms of OARs sparing. The major advantages of VMAT over IMRT are the reduction in the number of monitor units and faster treatment delivery times without compromising the quality of the treatment plans. Moreover, faster delivery time is more patient-friendly and it minimizes intra-fractional patient motion allowing treatment volumes stay within their respective treatment margins. Current literature data shows that VMAT can be a good option to treat lung cancer; however, data on clinical trials are still lacking. The clinical trials are essential to confirm the safety and efficacy of VMAT techniques.

  8. 早期鼻腔NK/T细胞淋巴瘤放疗模式的研究现状%Current study status of radiotherapy modality on early stage nasal NK/T cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宝林

    2012-01-01

    鼻腔NK/T细胞淋巴瘤属于结外非霍奇金淋巴瘤的一种少见特殊类型,目前研究已经确立了放疗在其治疗中的地位和作用,但对于具体的放疗模式,如适宜的放疗靶区、放疗剂量以及颈部预防照射等问题仍存在着较大的争议.多数研究表明扩大野放疗和较高的放疗剂量是取得较好放疗疗效的关键;局限期病例多不主张颈部预防照射,但对于病变范围广泛者仍有较大争论.%Nasal NK/T cell lymphoma is a rare and distinct type of extranodal Non-Hodgkin' s lymphoma. Current study has proved that Radiotherapy is the most effective treatment method in the early stage nasal NK/T cell lymphoma, but there is no universal standard for concrete radiotherapy modality, such as the radiation target, the radiation dose and preventive neck radiation. Most studies have proved that radiotherapy of extended field and higher dose achieved good effect in early stage nasal NK/T cell lymphoma.And the studies also do not suggested preventive neck radiation in local stage patients, but it need further study in the extensive stage patients.

  9. The Role of Proteomics in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Women's Cancers: Current Trends in Technology and Future Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Kyoung Yim Breuer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological and scientific innovations over the last decade have greatly contributed to improved diagnostics, predictive models, and prognosis among cancers affecting women. In fact, an explosion of information in these areas has almost assured future generations that outcomes in cancer will continue to improve. Herein we discuss the current status of breast, cervical, and ovarian cancers as it relates to screening, disease diagnosis, and treatment options. Among the differences in these cancers, it is striking that breast cancer has multiple predictive tests based upon tumor biomarkers and sophisticated, individualized options for prescription therapeutics while ovarian cancer lacks these tools. In addition, cervical cancer leads the way in innovative, cancer-preventative vaccines and multiple screening options to prevent disease progression. For each of these malignancies, emerging proteomic technologies based upon mass spectrometry, stable isotope labeling with amino acids, high-throughput ELISA, tissue or protein microarray techniques, and click chemistry in the pursuit of activity-based profiling can pioneer the next generation of discovery. We will discuss six of the latest techniques to understand proteomics in cancer and highlight research utilizing these techniques with the goal of improvement in the management of women's cancers.

  10. Could a revision of the current guidelines for cancer drug use improve the quality of cancer treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert TH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Theodor H Lippert,1 Hans-Jörg Ruoff,1 Manfred Volm2 1Medical Faculty, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; 2Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Abstract: Clinical practice guidelines are indispensable for such a variable disease as malignant solid tumors, with the complex possibilities of drug treatment. The current guidelines may be criticized on several points, however. First, there is a lack of information on the outcome of treatment, such as the expected success and failure rates. Treating not only drug responders but also nonresponders, that is, patients with drug resistance, must result in failures. There is no mention of the possibility of excluding the drug nonresponders, identifiable by special laboratory tests and no consideration is given to the different side effects of the recommended drug regimens. Nor are there any instructions concerning tumor cases for which anticancer drug treatment is futile. In such cases, early palliative care may lead to significant improvements in both life quality and life expectancy. Not least, there is no transparency concerning the preparation of the guidelines: persons cannot be identified who could give a statement of conflicts of interest, and responsibility is assumed only by anonymous medical associations. A revision of the current guidelines could considerably improve cancer treatment. Keywords: anticancer drugs, quality of guidelines, critical remarks

  11. Application of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in current clinical practice guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Seong, Jin Sil [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In oncologic practice, treatment guidelines provide appropriate treatment strategies based on evidence. Currently, many guidelines are used, including those of the European Association for the Study of the Liver and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EASL-EORTC), National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE), and Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and National Cancer Centre (KLCSG-NCC). Although radiotherapy is commonly used in clinical practice, some guidelines do not accept it as a standard treatment modality. In this review, we will investigate the clinical practice guidelines currently used, and discuss the application of radiotherapy.

  12. New Modal Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hollowood, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    We describe an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description for macro-systems. The interpretation is a modal one, but does not suffer from the range of problems that plague other modal interpretations. The key feature is that quantum states carry an additional property assignment in the form of one the eigenvectors of the reduced density matrix which evolves evolves according to a stochastic process driven by the unmodified Schrodinger equation, but it is usually hidden from the emergent classical description due to the ergodic nature of its dynamics. However, during a quantum measurement, ergodicity is broken by decoherence and definite outcomes occur with probabilities that agree with the Born rule.

  13. Selective elimination of breast cancer surgery in exceptional responders: historical perspective and current trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van la Parra, Raquel F D; Kuerer, Henry M

    2016-03-08

    With improvements in chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and our fundamental understanding of the relationship of tumor subtype and pathologic complete response (pCR), there has been dramatic improvement in pCR rates in the past decade, especially among triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancers. Rates of pCR in these groups of patients can be in the 60 % range and thus question the paradigm for the necessity of breast and nodal surgery in all cases, particularly when the patient will be receiving adjuvant local therapy with radiotherapy. Current practice for patients who respond well to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is often to proceed with the same breast and axillary procedures as would have been offered women who had not received NCT, regardless of the apparent clinical response. Given these high response rates in defined subgroups among exceptional responders it is appropriate to question whether surgery is now a redundant procedure in their overall management. Further, definitive radiation without surgical resection with or without systemic therapy has been proven effective for several other malignant disease sites including some stages of esophageal, anal, laryngeal, prostate, cervical, and lung carcinoma. The main impediments for potential elimination of surgery have been the fact that prior and current standard and functional breast imaging methods are incapable of accurate prediction of residual disease and that integrating percutaneous biopsy of the breast primary and nodes following NCT may circumvent this issue. This article highlights historical attempts at omission of surgery following NCT in an earlier era, the current status of breast and nodal imaging to predict residual carcinoma, and ongoing and planned trials designed to identify appropriate patients who might be selected for clinical trials designed to test the safety of selected elimination of breast cancer surgery in percutaneous image

  14. Facile preparation of uniform FeSe2 nanoparticles for PA/MR dual-modal imaging and photothermal cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tingting; Chen, Yuyan; Hao, Jiali; Wang, Xiaoyong; Liu, Gang; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang; Cheng, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Recently, magnetic photothermal nanomaterials have emerged as a new class of bio-nanomaterials for application in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Hence, we developed a new kind of magnetic nanomaterials, iron diselenide (FeSe2) nanoparticles, for multimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. By controlling the reaction time and temperature, FeSe2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple solution-phase method. After modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained FeSe2-PEG nanoparticles showed high stability under various physiological conditions. FeSe2-PEG could serve as a T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent because of its strong superparamagnetic properties, with its r2 relaxivity determined to be 133.38 mM-1 S-1, a value higher than that of the clinically used Feridex. On the other hand, with high absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region, FeSe2-PEG also appeared to be a useful contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging (PA) as well as an effective photothermal agent for PTT cancer treatment, as demonstrated in our animal tumor model experiments. Moreover, long-term toxicity tests have proven that FeSe2-PEG nanoparticles after systematic administration rendered no appreciable toxicity to the treated animals, and could be gradually excreted from the major organs of mice. Our work indicates that FeSe2-PEG nanoparticles would be a new class of theranostic agents promising for application in bioimaging and cancer therapy.Recently, magnetic photothermal nanomaterials have emerged as a new class of bio-nanomaterials for application in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Hence, we developed a new kind of magnetic nanomaterials, iron diselenide (FeSe2) nanoparticles, for multimodal imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) to improve the efficacy of cancer treatment. By controlling the reaction time and temperature, FeSe2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple solution-phase method. After

  15. Intratumoral chemotherapy for lung cancer: re-challenge current targeted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2013-07-01

    through passive transport within the tumor. Recent advances have enhanced the diffusion of pharmaceuticals through active transport by using pharmaceuticals designed to target the genome of tumors. In the present study, five patients with non-small cell lung cancer epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR negative stage IIIa–IV International Union Against Cancer 7 (UICC-7, and with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG 2 scores were administered platinum-based doublet chemotherapy using combined intratumoral-regional and intravenous route of administration. Cisplatin analogues were injected at 0.5%–1% concentration within the tumor lesion and proven malignant lymph nodes according to pretreatment histological/cytological results and the concentration of systemic infusion was decreased to 70% of a standard protocol. This combined intravenous plus intratumoral-regional chemotherapy is used as a first line therapy on this short series of patients. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of direct treatment of involved lymph nodes with cisplatin by endobronchial ultrasound drug delivery with a needle without any adverse effects. The initial overall survival and local response are suggestive of a better efficacy compared to established doublet cisplatin–based systemic chemotherapy in (higher standard concentrations alone according to the UICC 7 database expected survival. An extensive search of the literature was performed to gather information of previously published literature of intratumoral chemo-drug administration and formulation for this treatment modality. Our study shows a favorable local response, more than a 50% reduction, for a massive tumor mass after administration of five sessions of intratumoral chemotherapy plus two cycles of low-dose intravenous chemotherapy according to our protocol. These encouraging results (even in very sick ECOG 2 patients with central obstructive non-small cell lung cancer having a worse prognosis and quality of

  16. Cross-modal evaluative priming: emotional sounds influence the processing of emotion words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura D; Larsen, Randy J

    2011-02-01

    Cross-modal priming occurs when a prime presented in one sensory modality influences responses to a target in a different sensory modality. Currently, demonstrations of cross-modal evaluative priming have been sparse and limited. In the present study, we seek to partially rectify this state of affairs by examining cross-modal evaluative priming from auditory primes to visual targets. Significant cross-modal priming effects were found, but only for negative primes. Results are discussed in terms of the negativity bias, and several suggestions are provided for using cross-modal evaluative priming to address theoretically important questions about emotion and cognition.

  17. Pancreatic cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreddy, Srinivas Reddy; Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2013-06-28

    Pancreatic cancer is fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States of America. In spite of recent advances in the current therapeutic modalities such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy patients, the average five year survival rate remains still less than 5%. Recently, compounds from natural sources receive ample of attention as anti-cancer agents. Many epidemiological studies published over the past few decades provide a strong correlation between consumption of vegetables, fruits or plant derived products and reduced incidence of cancer. The present review focuses on the potential antitumor effects of various natural products.

  18. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  19. An evaluation of current methods of diagnosing colorectal cancer in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Janet [Band 6 Radiographer, X-ray West, Derriford Hospital, Derriford Road, Plymouth PL6 8DH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: janbon25@hotmail.com; Tuckey, Mandy [Radiotherapy, Room 2K06, Glenside Campus, University of the West of England, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Blackberry Hill, Stapleton, Bristol BS16 1DD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mandy.tuckey@uwe.ac.uk

    2009-05-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly conversed topic, particularly since implementation of screening for CRC is imminent within the U.K. Aims: The aim of this research project was to examine the diagnostic tools currently used within the UK to detect CRC and their impact on the aetiology and epidemiology of CRC. Methodology: The complexity of the research topic lent itself towards a literature review. A systematic approach of researching was therefore adopted to analyse and critically evaluate the reliability and validity of articles. Electronic databases including AMED, Cancerlit, CINHAL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE and EBM-Reviews were utilised to provide a wide spectrum of recent and relevant articles. Other research strategies involved looking for books relating to the topics, which were kept to within 6 years of publication to maintain accuracy of information. Selected websites, such as NICE, the Department of Health, NHS websites and Cancer Research U.K. were useful at explaining current and future screening plans and trials within Britain and allowed the study of reliable U.K. statistics. The research articles were then outlined and placed into sections of similar topic areas, which enabled the author to compare, contrast and evaluate the hypotheses. By organising the research in this way, a thorough review of the existing research for CRC was resultant. Results: A range of diagnostic tools is currently in use for detecting CRC within the UK. Screening for asymptomatic individuals aged 55-60 years+, (the age range where CRC incidence is higher), would provide the most effective reduction in CRC incidence and mortality rates. Conclusions: The use of a multi-phasic screening programme consisting of faecal occult blood tests (FOBt) and a whole bowel examination is considered to be the most effective diagnostic tools. However, preventative schemes, such as better education of the risks and symptoms of CRC, supported by the NHS Cancer Plan (2000), have

  20. TRWG developmental pathway for biospecimen-based assessment modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Translational Research Working Group; Srivastava, Sudhir; Gray, Joe W.; Reid, Brian J.; Grad, Oren; Greenwood, Addison; Hawk, Ernest T.

    2008-09-03

    The Translational Research Working Group (TRWG) was created as a national initiative to evaluate the current status of NCI's investment in translational research and envision its future. The TRWG conceptualized translational research as a set of six developmental processes or pathways focused on various clinical goals. One of those pathways describes the development of biospecimen-based assays that utilize biomarkers for the detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and assessment of response to cancer treatment. The biospecimen-based assessment modality (BM) pathway was conceived not as comprehensive description of the corresponding real-world processes, but rather as a tool designed to facilitate movement of a candidate assay through the translational process to the point where it can be handed off for definitive clinical testing. This paper introduces the pathway in the context of prior work and discusses key challenges associated with the biomarker development process in light of the pathway.

  1. Real-time sonoelastography compared to magnetic resonance imaging using four different modalities at 3.0 T in the detection of prostate cancer: Strength and weaknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, Alexandre E., E-mail: alexandre.pelzer@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Klinikum Ingolstadt, Krumenauerstr. 25, 85049 Ingolstadt (Germany); Heinzelbecker, Julia, E-mail: julia.heinzelbecker@umm.de [Department of Urology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Weiß, Christel, E-mail: christel.weiss@urz.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ludolf-Krehl-Straße 13-17, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Frühbauer, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.j.fruehbauer@googlemail.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Weidner, Anja M., E-mail: anja.weidner@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Kirchner, Matthias, E-mail: kirchner@patho-nordhessen.de [Institute of Pathology Nordhessen, Germaniastr. 7, 34119 Kassel (Germany); Stroebel, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.stroebel@umm.de [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, Stephan O., E-mail: stefan.schoenberg@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Dinter, Dietmar J., E-mail: dietmar.dinter@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Objective: To compare the results of RTE with four different modalities at 3.0 T using endorectal and body phased array coil in the detection of PC. Patients and methods: Between May 2009 and July 2010, 50 patients with biopsy proven PC scheduled for radical prostatectomy (RP) were examined. All patients underwent RTE of the prostate and 3.0 T endorectal MRI. The investigators were unaware of the clinical data and of each others results. Results: RTE detected PC in 46 (92%) and MRI in 42 (84%) of the patients. Depending on the analysis sensitivity was 44.1–58.9% for RTE and 36.7–43.1% for MRI. Specificity was 83.0–74.8% for RTE and 85.9–79.8% for MRI. Sensitivity was significantly higher for RTE (16-sectors: p = 0.0348; 8-sectors: p = 0.0002) and showed better results in the dorsal (RTE: 51.9%; MRT: 37.7%) and apical to middle (RTE: 66.7%-80.0%; MRI: 41.7%-60.0%) parts of the prostate. MRI showed better results in the base (MRI: 19.4%; RTE: 14.9%) and transitional zone (TZ) (MRI: 34.7%; RTE: 29.6%). Concerning capsular involvement the results were comparable with sensitivity and specificity of RTE being 79.2% and 80.0% compared to 80.8% and 70.0% of MRI. Conclusions: Concerning sensitivity RTE showed advantages in apical and middle parts whereas MRI may provide advantages in the glands’ base and TZ. Both RTE and MRI have limitations particularly in basal and ventral parts. Most of the undetected tumours were of low tumour volume and Gleason Score. Considering capsular involvement both techniques showed comparable results.

  2. Malignant and borderline phyllodes tumor of breast treated with a multi-modality approach in a tertiary cancer care centre in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phyllodes tumor (PT of the breast can be categorized into benign, borderline and malignant subgroups depending on various histopathological factors. Although malignant PTs may be indolent and controlled by local excision, they frequently show local and distant relapses. Literature reveals local recurrence to be the predominant pattern of failure and thus emphasizes the importance of adjuvant radiation in these tumors. The role of systemic chemotherapy has remained doubtful. Materials and Methods: We have analyzed details of all patients of PT (n = 33 treated with adjuvant multi-modality approach in our institute since 1994–2009. The demographic data, treatment details, recurrence patterns and salvage treatment options were documented. Results: All patients received adjuvant radiation. Seven patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. The mean survival of the entire cohort was 150.618 months. There was a trend for better overall survival with borderline grade (193.6 vs. 160.2 months; P = 0.08, log rank. The disease free survival (DFS favored borderline grade (193.6 months vs. 82.9 months for high grade; P = 0.02, log rank. The DFS was significantly better in tumors having negative margins on postoperative histopathological examination (DFS rate at 5 years being 100% vs. 69.2% for positive or close margins; P = 0.015. The mode of surgery did not have any impact on survival. Conclusion: Adjuvant Radiation should be discussed taking into account surgical margins, size and various pathological factors of the primary. Adjuvant radiation may be utilized in high risk patients to enhance loco-regional control. Systemic chemotherapy is an option, worth exploring, in cases of systemic failure.

  3. Relationship satisfaction in couples confronted with colorectal cancer: the interplay of past and current spousal support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Mariët; Dagan, Meirav; Puterman, Eli; Hoff, Christiaan; Meijerink, W J H Jeroen; Delongis, Anita; Sanderman, Robbert

    2011-08-01

    Based on attribution theory, this study hypthesized that past spousal supportiveness may act as a moderator of the link between one partner's current support behavior and the other partner's relationship satisfaction. A sample of 88 patients with colorectal cancer and their partners completed questionnaires approximately 3 and 9 months after diagnosis. The data were analyzed employing dyadic data analytic approaches. In the short-term, spousal active engagement--which involved discussing feelings and engaging in joint problem solving--was positively associated with relationship satisfaction in patients as well as in partners, but only when past spousal support was relatively low. Spousal protective buffering--which involved hiding worries and fears and avoiding talking about the disease--was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction in patients, again only when past spousal support was relatively low. If past spousal support was high, participants rated the quality of their relationship relatively high, regardless of their partner's current support behavior. Over time, past spousal supportiveness was not found to mitigate the negative association between spousal protective buffering and relationship satisfaction. Overall, our results indicate that relationship satisfaction can be maintained if past spousal supportiveness is high even if the partner is currently not very responsive to the individual's needs, at least in the short-term.

  4. An application of operational modal analysis in modal filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurowski, Piotr; Mendrok, Krzysztof; Uhl, Tadeusz, E-mail: mendrok@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-19

    Modal filtration in the field of damage detection has many advantages, including: its autonomous operation (without the interaction of qualified staff), low computational cost and low sensitivity to changes in external conditions. However, the main drawback of this group of damage detection methods is its limited applicability to operational data. In this paper a method of modal filter formulation from the in-operational data is described. The basis for this approach is FRFs synthesis using knowledge of the operational modal model. For that purpose a method of operational mode shape scaling is described. This is based on the measurements of several FRFs of the object. The method is then applied to the construction of modal filters and modal filtration. Additionally, the study presents verification of the method using data obtained from simulation and laboratory experiments. Verification consisted of comparing the results of modal filtering based on classical experimental modal analysis with the results of the approach proposed in the work.

  5. An application of operational modal analysis in modal filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Piotr; Mendrok, Krzysztof; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2011-07-01

    Modal filtration in the field of damage detection has many advantages, including: its autonomous operation (without the interaction of qualified staff), low computational cost and low sensitivity to changes in external conditions. However, the main drawback of this group of damage detection methods is its limited applicability to operational data. In this paper a method of modal filter formulation from the in-operational data is described. The basis for this approach is FRFs synthesis using knowledge of the operational modal model. For that purpose a method of operational mode shape scaling is described. This is based on the measurements of several FRFs of the object. The method is then applied to the construction of modal filters and modal filtration. Additionally, the study presents verification of the method using data obtained from simulation and laboratory experiments. Verification consisted of comparing the results of modal filtering based on classical experimental modal analysis with the results of the approach proposed in the work.

  6. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  7. Current and historical mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease in relation to age: U.S. and world values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, R J

    1995-01-01

    Data from the World Health Organization, U.S. Vital Statistics, the Historical Abstracts of the United States and the census of the United States were used to compare current world and states data on cancer death rate and age with historical data that shows the changing percentage of elderly. Current annual death rates from malignant neoplastic disease among the 73 countries for which data exist are highly correlated with the percent of the population > or = 60 yrs of age and a virtually identical relation exists presently among the 50 states of the U.S. The current world and states data provide a remarkably accurate snapshot of U.S. cancer death rates over the past century during which time the U.S. elderly population increased substantially. Data on U.S. lung cancer death rates since 1940 were similarly examined and these historical numbers also show good agreement with current values among countries that today span the same proportion of elderly that the U.S. had over this period. The agreement of current and historical CA death rate and age contrasts sharply with the picture that emerges when cardiovascular death rates and death rate from all causes are examined. The geographic and time invariance seen in the cancer data seems inconsistent with identical exposure to carcinogens and suggests that biological aging is an important intrinsic factor in cancer.

  8. [Current status and prospect of treatment for esophageal cancer in the era of precision medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X T; He, J

    2016-09-23

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant tumors around the world and has a high incidence in China. Chinese EC patients account for more than 50% in the world. The pathological subtype of EC shows a geographic distribution. Adenocarcinoma is the main pathological type in western countries, while squamous cell carcinoma is the dominant subtype in China. Thus specific diagnosis and treatment of EC are needed for Chinese patients. Although early diagnosis, progress in surgery and comprehensive treatment of EC have made remarkable achievements in China in recent years, yet the prognosis for resectable EC patients remains poor, with a 5-year survival of 30%. In addition, as the level of treatment varies significantly in different regions and centers around China, the current status of treatment for EC needs further improvement. This article reviews the advances in the treatment for EC in recent years, analyzes the present problems, and explores the perspective of the progress in esophageal cancer treatment in the era of precision medicine.

  9. An overview of synthetic strategies and current applications of gold nanorods in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manish Lakhani, Prit; Vishnu Kiran Rompicharla, Sri; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2015-10-01

    Photothermal therapy, also referred to as optical hyperthermia or photothermal ablation, is an emerging strategy for treating solid tumours. Colloidal gold converts the absorbed light into localized heat via a non-radiative mechanism, surface plasmon resonance, which ablates the solid tumours. Several plasmon resonating nanostructures, including gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), gold nanorods (AuNRs), gold nanoshells, gold nanocages, copper sulphide and carbon nanotubes, have shown potential for photo-activated cancer therapy. Generally, spherical AuNPs display absorption maxima between 500-550 nm, making them inefficient due to low tissue penetration. On the other hand, AuNRs absorb light in the near-infrared (NIR) region that penetrates deeper with higher spatial precision, and causes no damage to the surrounding healthy tissues due to the low energy absorption of NIR light by normal tissue. Moreover, the absorption range of light can be fine-tuned to the NIR region by adjusting the aspect ratios of AuNRs. However, large-scale synthesis and stability of this colloidal system still poses challenges for clinical translation. In this review, we discuss various strategies applied up to now for the synthesis of AuNRs. Current trends in the pre-clinical development of multifunctional AuNRs with emphasis on preparation and application strategies in cancer therapy have been delineated.

  10. Dealing with robot-assisted surgery for rectal cancer: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Roberto; Luca, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Cenciarelli, Sabina; Petz, Wanda; Monsellato, Igor; Valvo, Manuela; Cossu, Maria Laura; Ghezzi, Tiago Leal; Shmaissany, Kassem

    2016-01-14

    The laparoscopic approach for treatment of rectal cancer has been proven feasible and oncologically safe, and is able to offer better short-term outcomes than traditional open procedures, mainly in terms of reduced length of hospital stay and time to return to working activity. In spite of this, the laparoscopic technique is usually practised only in high-volume experienced centres, mainly because it requires a prolonged and demanding learning curve. It has been estimated that over 50 operations are required for an experienced colorectal surgeon to achieve proficiency with this technique. Robotic surgery enables the surgeon to perform minimally invasive operations with better vision and more intuitive and precise control of the operating instruments, thus promising to overcome some of the technical difficulties associated with standard laparoscopy. It has high-definition three-dimensional vision, it translates the surgeon's hand movements into precise movements of the instruments inside the patient, the camera is held and moved by the first surgeon, and a fourth robotic arm is available as a fixed retractor. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data on clinical and oncologic outcomes of robot-assisted surgery in rectal cancer, focusing on short- and long-term results, and providing original data from the authors' centre.

  11. Breast Cancer Screening in Women with Learning Disabilities: Current Knowledge and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Diane S.; Kennedy, Catriona M.; Kilbride, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    As people with learning disabilities now live longer, they will experience the same age-related illnesses as the general population and cancer is a prime example of this. In women, cancer screening is used to detect early on-set of cancer of the breast and abnormalities of the cervix which might, if left untreated, develop into cancer.…

  12. Current Perspectives on Novel Drug Delivery Systems and Approaches for Management of Cervical Cancer: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Umme; Osmani, Riyaz Ali M; Bhosale, Rohit R; Shivakumar, Hosakote Gurumallappa; Kulkarni, Parthasarathi K

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is uterine cervix carcinoma, the second deadly cancer and has a high incidence and mortality rate. In the developing world conventional treatment strategies such as surgical intervention and chemoradiotherapy are less widely available. Currently cancer research focuses on improving treatment of cervical cancer using various therapies such as gene therapy, recombinant protein therapy, photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy and delivery of chemotherapeutic agents using nanoparticles, hydrogel and liposomal based delivery systems and also localized delivery systems which exist in a variety of forms such as intravaginal rings, intravaginal patches, intravaginal films, etc. in order to improve the drug delivery in a controlled manner to the diseased site thereby reducing systemic side effects. The present review encloses existing diverse delivery systems and approaches intended for treatment of cervical cancer.

  13. Current Status of Poly(ADP-ribose Polymerase Inhibitors as Novel Therapeutic Agents for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hiller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive type of breast cancer that is clinically defined as lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors, as well as being ERBB2 (HER-2 negative. Without specific therapeutic targets, TNBC carries a worse prognosis than other types of breast cancer in the absence of therapy. Research has now further differentiated breast cancer into subtypes based on genetic expression patterns. One of these subtypes, basal-like, frequently overlaps with the clinical picture of TNBC. Additionally, both TNBC and basal-like breast cancer link to BRCA mutations. Recent pharmaceutical advances have created a class of drugs, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors, which are showing potential to effectively treat these patients. The aim of this paper is to summarize the basis behind PARP inhibitors and update the current status of their development in clinical trials for the treatment of TNBC.

  14. Current good manufacturing practice production of an oncolytic recombinant vesicular stomatitis viral vector for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, L J; Meseck, M; Derecho, I; Lopez, P; Knoblauch, C; McMahon, R; Anderson, J; Dunphy, N; Quezada, V; Khan, R; Huang, P; Dang, W; Luo, M; Hsu, D; Woo, S L C; Couture, L

    2011-04-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus currently being investigated as a promising tool to treat cancer because of its ability to selectively replicate in cancer cells. To enhance the oncolytic property of the nonpathologic laboratory strain of VSV, we generated a recombinant vector [rVSV(MΔ51)-M3] expressing murine gammaherpesvirus M3, a secreted viral chemokine-binding protein that binds to a broad range of mammalian chemokines with high affinity. As previously reported, when rVSV(MΔ51)-M3 was used in an orthotopic model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats, it suppressed inflammatory cell migration to the virus-infected tumor site, which allowed for enhanced intratumoral virus replication leading to increased tumor necrosis and substantially prolonged survival. These encouraging results led to the development of this vector for clinical translation in patients with HCC. However, a scalable current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP)-compliant manufacturing process has not been described for this vector. To produce the quantities of high-titer virus required for clinical trials, a process that is amenable to GMP manufacturing and scale-up was developed. We describe here a large-scale (50-liter) vector production process capable of achieving crude titers on the order of 10(9) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml under cGMP. This process was used to generate a master virus seed stock and a clinical lot of the clinical trial agent under cGMP with an infectious viral titer of approximately 2 × 10(10) PFU/ml (total yield, 1 × 10(13) PFU). The lot has passed all U.S. Food and Drug Administration-mandated release testing and will be used in a phase 1 clinical translational trial in patients with advanced HCC.

  15. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Testis Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott M; Lowrance, William T

    2015-08-01

    Testis cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in young men. Most cases represent sporadic occurrences. Most commonly it presents at an early stage (clinical stage I) and is highly curable with radical orchiectomy. Even more advanced stages of testicular cancer are curable with a multimodality treatment approach. There are no widely accepted screening strategies for germ cell tumors. This article discusses the known risk factors and epidemiology of testis cancer, the presentation, and work up for new patients, and the prognosis and cure rates based on the staging and current treatment modalities for testis cancer patients.

  16. Current evidence supporting fertility and pregnancy among young survivors of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Karen; Holland, Aimee Chism

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 6% of invasive breast cancer is diagnosed in women younger than age 40 of age childbearing potential. Cancer-directed therapies can cause hormonal and anatomical changes that negatively affect the reproductive potential of young survivors of breast cancer. Recent national guidelines on fertility preservation are widely available. However, gaps in care exist in the interdisciplinary evidence-based management of young survivors of breast cancer with fertility and parenting concerns after cancer treatment.

  17. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: current immediate clinical and oncological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Seid, Victor Edmond; Klajner, Sidney

    2014-10-21

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery continues to be a challenging operation associated to a steep learning curve. Robotic surgical systems have dramatically changed minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional, magnified and stable view, articulated instruments, and reduction of physiologic tremors leading to superior dexterity and ergonomics. Therefore, robotic platforms could potentially address limitations of laparoscopic rectal surgery. It was aimed at reviewing current literature on short-term clinical and oncological (pathological) outcomes after robotic rectal cancer surgery in comparison with laparoscopic surgery. A systematic review was performed for the period 2002 to 2014. A total of 1776 patients with rectal cancer underwent minimally invasive robotic treatment in 32 studies. After robotic and laparoscopic approach to oncologic rectal surgery, respectively, mean operating time varied from 192-385 min, and from 158-297 min; mean estimated blood loss was between 33 and 283 mL, and between 127 and 300 mL; mean length of stay varied from 4-10 d; and from 6-15 d. Conversion after robotic rectal surgery varied from 0% to 9.4%, and from 0 to 22% after laparoscopy. There was no difference between robotic (0%-41.3%) and laparoscopic (5.5%-29.3%) surgery regarding morbidity and anastomotic complications (respectively, 0%-13.5%, and 0%-11.1%). Regarding immediate oncologic outcomes, respectively among robotic and laparoscopic cases, positive circumferential margins varied from 0% to 7.5%, and from 0% to 8.8%; the mean number of retrieved lymph nodes was between 10 and 20, and between 11 and 21; and the mean distal resection margin was from 0.8 to 4.7 cm, and from 1.9 to 4.5 cm. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is being undertaken by experienced surgeons. However, the quality of the assembled evidence does not support definite conclusions about most studies variables. Robotic rectal cancer surgery is associated to increased costs and operating time. It also seems to be

  18. Current evaluation of the clinical utility of Fluoromethylcholine-(18F PET/CT in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Nöel Talbot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This short review is dedicated to the current status of the assessment of a new PET radiopharmaceutical, fluoromethylcholine-(18F or FCH, which is taken-up by prostate cancer tissue, in contrary to fluorodeoxyglucose-(18F or FDG. It seems that FCH could become "the FDG of prostate cancer", with the same type of achievements (detection of distant metastases and of occult recurrences, restaging prior to invasive treatments, and the same drawbacks (false negative results in case of small lesions, in particular lymph nodes metastases, and false positive results in case of infection/inflammation, in particular prostatitis. Current evidence is summarised and discussed for each of the potential settings of FCH PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. The perspectives for granting a marketing authorisation to a FCH preparation are briefly analysed.Esta breve revisão é dedicada ao estado atual da avaliação de um novo radiofármaco PET, a fluormetilcolina-(18F ou FCH, que é captada pelo tecido do câncer de próstata, ao contrário da fluordesoxiglicose-(18F ou FDG. Parece que a FCH poderia se tornar "a FDG do câncer de próstata", com o mesmo tipo de funções (detecção de metástases distantes e de recorrências ocultas, antes de tratamentos invasivos, e os mesmos inconvenientes (falso resultado negativo no caso de pequenas lesões, em especial das metástase de nodos linfáticos, e de falsos resultados positivos em caso de infecção/inflamação, em particular prostatite. Evidência atual é resumida e discutida para cada uma das definições potenciais da imagem FCH PET/CT em câncer de próstata. As perspectivas para a concessão de uma autorização de comercialização para uma preparação de FCH são analisadas brevemente.

  19. Predicting the efficacy of trastuzumab-based therapy in breast cancer: current standards and future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christian F; Köstler, Wolfgang J; Hudelist, Gernot

    2008-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy in many industrialized countries. Approximately one fourth of all women diagnosed with early breast cancer present with tumors that are characterized by erbB2 amplification. While the associated Her-2/neu receptor overexpression results in a high risk of relapse and poor prognosis, these tumors also represent a target for a selective monoclonal antibody therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). The combination of trastuzumab with chemotherapy has led to a considerable reduction of recurrences and to a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality both in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. Unfortunately, despite Her-2/neu overexpression, not all patients equally benefit from trastuzumab treatment, and almost all women with metastatic breast cancer eventually progress during antibody therapy. Moreover, trastuzumab is burdened with cardiotoxicity, thus increasing the risk of symptomatic congestive heart failure. In addition, the marginal costs for a 1 year therapy of trastuzumab-based therapy, which is currently considered to be the most effective treatment regimen in the adjuvant setting, may amount for up to US$ 40.000. Testing for erbB2 oncogene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), respectively, and staining for Her-2/neu receptor overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) represent the current standard for determining patient eligibility for trastuzumab-based therapy. However, while the negative predictive value of these assays for predicting the absence of benefit from trastuzumab-based therapy is sufficiently high, their positive predictive value remains insufficient, i.e. only a proportion of patients selected by these tests substantially benefit from trastuzumab-containing regimen. Accordingly, over the last years a number of biomarkers have been evaluated in their potential to predict response to trastuzumab-based therapies. These include

  20. Current Status of Targeted Therapy for Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li MA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK gene rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues is 3%-5%. The first-in-class ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor, crizotinib, can effectively target these tumors represent a significant advance in the evolution of personalized medicine for NSCLC. A randomized phase III clinical trial in which superiority of crizotinib over chemotherapy was seen in previously treated ALK-positive NSCLC patients demonstrated durable responses and well tolerance in the majority of ALK-positive NSCLC patients treated with crizotinib. However, despite the initial responses, most patients develop acquired resistance to crizotinib. Several novel therapeutic approaches targeting ALK-positive NSCLC are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, including second-generation ALK inhibitors, such as LDK378, CH5424802 (RO5424802, and AP26113, and new agents shock protein 90 inhibitors. This review aims to present the current knowledge on this fusion gene, the treatment advances, and novel drug clinical trials in ALK rearranged NSCLC.

  1. Neuroendocrine tumors:current therapies, notch signaling, and cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judy S. Crabtree; Lucio Miele

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) encompass a broad spectrum of malignancies all derived from neuroendocrine cell lineage, affecting many different organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the endocrine pancreas, the thyroid, the skin and the respiratory tract. These tumors as a group are very heterogeneous, with varying characteristics attributed to each tissue of origin and tumor subtype. The pathogenesis of the different subtypes of NETs is not fully understood, but recent studies suggest the Notch signaling pathway may be dysregulated in these tumors either by under or overexpression of Notch receptors and/or ligands, or by disruption of pathway functionality through other means. Notch receptors can function as tumor suppressors in some cellular contexts and oncogenes in others which may, in part, account for the wide range of phenotypes present in NETs. Cancer stem cells are present in these tumors and may be responsible for the high rate of chemotherapy resistance, recurrence and metastasis. The heterogeneity of NETs suggests that to fully understand the role of Notch signaling and the therapeutic implications thereof, a comprehensive and systematic analysis of Notch expression and function across all NET subtypes is required. Here we outline the current knowledge base with respect to current therapies and Notch signaling in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, skin, thyroid, GI tract and endocrine pancreas.

  2. Current paradigms and evolving concepts in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Snmanta Krnmar Pal; Oliver Sartor

    2011-01-01

    @@ Until recently,docetaxel-based therapy represented the only therapy shown to prolong survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).The past year and a half has been marked by unprecedented progress in treatments for this disease.Three positive phase III clinical trials have emerged,each evaluating agents (sipuleucel-T,cabazitaxel and abiraterone)with distinct mechanisms of action.Herein,the three pivotal trials are described alongside both past and current large phase III studies conducted in this mCRPC.The overall survival for patients with mCRPC treated in current clinical trials is considerably longer than noted in the past.We note that more recent trials with older agents have also shown improved survival and discuss potential non-therapeutic biases that influence this critical measure of outcome.The necessity for utilizing randomized trials when evaluating new therapeutics is emphasized given the changing prognosis in this mCRPC.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Current Status, Own Body Perception and Positive Experience From Diagnosed Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zornitza Ganeva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the current status, own body perception and positive experience within a period of up to 1 year from diagnosing ofwomen with breast cancer (N = 41; mean age 35.25 in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd stages of the disease progress, of Bulgarian origin, was made.Reliability and validity of the scales were described. They were analysed with respect to: 1 medical characteristics (partial or total surgery,surgical removal of lymph nodes, presence or absence of metastases in them, 2 classical therapies (chemotherapy, radiation therapy andhormonal therapy administered or not and 3 application or not of alternative therapies (herbal medicine, physical load, administration ofmassage, lymph drainage, use of nutritional supplements, observance of diet. The results showed that the more therapies the personssurveyed were undergone the more unsatisfactory they assessed their current general status. The bigger the size of the surgery performedto remove the tumour the more positive idea of their own bodies they had. The more time after the surgical treatment passed the more thepositive experience accumulated from the oncologic diagnosis grew.

  4. Radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD)-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengming; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Hong, Ruoyu; Chen, Qing; Dong, Jiajia; Chen, Yinyiin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) modified with a novel cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide were made and radiolabeled as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer. The probe was tested both in vitro and in vivo to determine its receptor targeting efficacy and feasibility for SPECT and MRI. The radiochemical syntheses of 125I-cRGD-USPIO were accomplished with a radiochemical purity of 96.05 ± 0.33 %. High radiochemical stability was found in fresh human serum and in phosphate-buffered saline. The average hydrodynamic size of 125I-cRGD-USPIO determined by dynamic light scattering was 51.3 nm. Results of in vitro experiments verified the specificity of the radiolabeled nanoparticles to tumor cells. Preliminary biodistribution studies of 125I-radiolabeled cRGD-USPIO in Bcap37-bearing nude mice showed that it had long circulation half-life, high tumor uptake, and high initial blood retention with moderate liver uptake. In vivo tumor targeting and uptake of the radiolabeled nanoparticles in mice model were visualized by SPECT and MRI collected at different time points. Our results strongly indicated that the 125I-cRGD-USPIO could be used as a promising bifunctional radiotracer for early clinical tumor detection with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution by SPECT and MRI.

  5. Fentanyl transmucosal tablets: current status in the management of cancer-related breakthrough pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prommer E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric Prommer, Brandy FicekDivision of Hematology/Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Scottsdale, AZ, USAAbstract: Breakthrough pain is a newly recognized pain category that was first described by Portenoy and Hagen in 1990. The term describes pain that increases in intensity to “break through” chronic pain that is being controlled by a scheduled opioid regimen. The development of fluctuations in pain intensity is challenging due to their unpredictable nature, rapid onset, and need for rapid treatment intervention. Breakthrough pain has been treated by using an extra opioid dose in addition to the scheduled opioid being used for pain. Recommendations for dose and frequency are based on expert opinion only, and have included dosing based on a percentage of the total opioid dose. Other recommendations include increasing the regularly scheduled opioid dose. Clinical trials have now focused on delivery of opioids that have both potency and a rapid onset of action. Lipophilic opioids have received a substantial amount of study due to their quick absorption and rapid onset of analgesia. Lipophilic opioids that have been studied to date include transmucosal fentanyl, sublingual fentanyl, intranasal sufentanil, and oral and sublingual methadone. Initial clinical trials have established the superiority of transmucosal fentanyl as a breakthrough analgesic when compared with immediate-release oral opioid formulations. Problems with bioavailability have led to a search for newer formulations of transmucosal delivery. Newer formulations, such as fentanyl transmucosal tablets, have been developed to ensure superior delivery for the patient suffering from breakthrough pain. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current status of transmucosal tablet formulations for cancer breakthrough pain.Keywords: fentanyl, transmucosal, tablets, pain, breakthrough, cancer

  6. How nova endoscopic procedures altered the diagnostic and therapeutic modality of early gastrointestinal cancer%消化内镜技术用于消化道早癌诊断治疗价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙曦; 王向东; 卢忠生; 令狐恩强; 王淑芳; 杨竞; 杜红; 孟江云; 王红斌

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨内镜新技术用于消化道早癌诊治临床价值.方法 应用解放军总医院内镜中心数据库系统,对2002-2011年消化内镜检查数据进行统计分析,探讨消化道早癌的诊断及治疗最佳方式.结果 近十年来,随着内镜新技术的不断应用,解放军总医院消化内镜中心对消化道早癌的检出率逐年上升,由最初2002年的0.90%上升至2011年的2.02%.自2006年至2011年,共871例消化道早癌接受内镜治疗,其中分别有207例早期食管癌、429例早期胃癌及235例早期大肠癌,内镜根治切除的比例分别为37.8%(207/547),36.7%(429/1167)和40.2%(235/584),其中239例使用内镜下黏膜切除术(EMR)或内镜下分次切除术(EMPR)术,542例使用内镜下黏膜剥离术(ESD)术治疗,术前使用内镜新技术的诊断准确率为97.5%(849/871).使用内镜治疗的病变的平均尺寸为:早期食管癌2.59 cm×1.91 cm,早期胃癌2.98 cm×2.18 cm,早期大肠癌3.37 cm×2.21 cm.结论 消化内镜新诊治技术的出现不但明显提高了消化道早癌的检出率、同时深刻改变了消化道早癌的治疗模式.%Objective To make an analysis on how new endoscopic techniques and procedures influence the detection rate and therapeutic modality choice of early gastrointestinal cancer. Methods We entered the data base of Chinese PLA's General Hospital's endoscopy center, searching all the data for the last decade (2002 2011). Data were later analyzed and compared. Results During the last decade, the detection rate of early gastrointestinal cancer in Chinese PLA's General Hospital had been increasing, from 0. 90% (2002) to 2. 02% (2011). Since 2006, when new endoscopic therapeutic means were first introduced to our center, a total of 871 patients were treated endoscopically, 329 of which were through EMR or EPMR means and 542 were using ESD. The rate of endoscopic therapy were 37. 8% (207/547) for early esophageal cancer, 36. 7% (429/1167)for early

  7. The genetics of neuroendocrine prostate cancers: a review of current and emerging candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather MH

    2012-11-01

    devising novel therapeutic strategies to develop targeted therapies. CgA has the potential to become an important marker of advanced castration-resistant PC in cases where prostate-specific antigen can no longer be relied upon. Aberrant androgen-receptor signaling at various levels provides evidence of the importance of this pathway for the development of castration-resistant PC. Many epigenetic influences – in particular, the role of changing miRNA expression – provide valuable insights. Currently, massive sequencing efforts are underway to define important somatic genetic alterations (amplifications, deletions, point mutations, translocations in PC, and these alterations hold great promise as prognostic markers and for predicting response to therapy.Keywords: prostate cancer, epigenetic, genetic, neuroendocrine differentiation

  8. Physical activity in relation to all-site and lung cancer incidence and mortality in current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Catherine M; Klesges, Robert C; Murray, David M; Bowen, Deborah J; McTiernan, Anne; Vander Weg, Mark W; Robinson, Leslie A; Cartmel, Brenda; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt; Goodman, Gary E; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2004-12-01

    Increased physical activity has been associated with a reduction in the incidence and mortality from all-site cancer and some site-specific cancers in samples of primarily nonsmoking individuals; however, little is known about whether physical activity is associated with similar risk reductions among smokers and ex-smokers. This study examined physical activity in relation to all-site cancer and lung cancer incidence and mortality in a sample of current and former smokers (n = 7,045; 59% male; 95% Caucasian; mean age, 63 years) drawn from the beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, a lung cancer chemoprevention trial. Hazard rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals associated with a 1 SD increase in physical activity were 0.86 (0.80-0.94) for all-site cancer only among men, 0.84 (0.69-1.03) for lung cancer only for younger participants, 0.75 (0.59-0.94) for cancer mortality among younger participants and 0.68 (0.53-0.89) among women, and 0.69 (0.53-0.90) for lung cancer mortality only among women. These results suggest that incidence may be more attenuated by physical activity for men and mortality more attenuated for women. Effects may be more pronounced for younger people and may differ inconsistently by pack-years of smoking. Physical activity may play a role in reducing cancer risk and mortality among those with significant tobacco exposure. Prospective studies using more sophisticated measures of physical activity assessed at multiple time points during follow-up are needed to corroborate these associations.

  9. A Review of Current Machine Learning Methods Used for Cancer Recurrence Modeling and Prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemphill, Geralyn M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type has become a necessity in cancer research. A major challenge in cancer management is the classification of patients into appropriate risk groups for better treatment and follow-up. Such risk assessment is critically important in order to optimize the patient’s health and the use of medical resources, as well as to avoid cancer recurrence. This paper focuses on the application of machine learning methods for predicting the likelihood of a recurrence of cancer. It is not meant to be an extensive review of the literature on the subject of machine learning techniques for cancer recurrence modeling. Other recent papers have performed such a review, and I will rely heavily on the results and outcomes from these papers. The electronic databases that were used for this review include PubMed, Google, and Google Scholar. Query terms used include “cancer recurrence modeling”, “cancer recurrence and machine learning”, “cancer recurrence modeling and machine learning”, and “machine learning for cancer recurrence and prediction”. The most recent and most applicable papers to the topic of this review have been included in the references. It also includes a list of modeling and classification methods to predict cancer recurrence.

  10. A brief history of cancer: age-old milestones underlying our current knowledge database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faguet, Guy B

    2015-05-01

    This mini-review chronicles the history of cancer ranging from cancerous growths discovered in dinosaur fossils, suggestions of cancer in Ancient Egyptian papyri written in 1500-1600 BC, and the first documented case of human cancer 2,700 years ago, to contributions by pioneers beginning with Hippocrates and ending with the originators of radiation and medical oncology. Fanciful notions that soon fell into oblivion are mentioned such as Paracelsus and van Helmont substituting Galen's black bile by mysterious ens or archeus systems. Likewise, unfortunate episodes such as Virchow claiming Remak's hypotheses as his own remind us that human shortcomings can affect otherwise excellent scientists. However, age-old benchmark observations, hypotheses, and practices of historic and scientific interest are underscored, excerpts included, as precursors of recent discoveries that shaped modern medicine. Examples include: Petit's total mastectomy with excision of axillary glands for breast cancer; a now routine practice, Peyrilhe's ichorous matter a cancer-causing factor he tested for transmissibility one century before Rous confirmed the virus-cancer link, Hill's warning of the dangers of tobacco snuff; heralding today's cancer pandemic caused by smoking, Pott reporting scrotum cancer in chimney sweepers; the first proven occupational cancer, Velpeau's remarkable foresight that a yet unknown subcellular element would have to be discovered in order to define the nature of cancer; a view confirmed by cancer genetics two centuries later, ending with Röntgen and the Curies, and Gilman et al. ushering radiation (1896, 1919) and medical oncology (1942), respectively.

  11. Predicting the Benefits and Harms of Breast Cancer Screening: Current debates and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Gelder (Rianne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Western countries. Presently, women in the Netherlands have a 1 : 7 chance of developing breast cancer during their lifetime. This means that in 2008, almost 15,000 women were newly diagnosed with the disease. The incidence of breast

  12. Converting from CT- to MRI-only-based target definition in radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer. A comparison between two modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, Tiina; Visapaeae, Harri; Collan, Juhani; Kapanen, Mika; Kouri, Mauri; Tenhunen, Mikko; Saarilahti, Kauko [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Comprehensive Cancer Center, POB 180, Helsinki (Finland); Beule, Annette [University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Radiology, POB 180, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-11-15

    To investigate the conversion of prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT) target definition from CT-based planning into an MRI-only-based planning procedure. Using the CT- and MRI-only-based RT planning protocols, 30 prostate cancer patients were imaged in the RT fixation position. Two physicians delineated the prostate in both CT and T2-weighted MRI images. The CT and MRI images were coregistered based on gold seeds and anatomic borders of the prostate. The uncertainty of the coregistration, as well as differences in target volumes and uncertainty of contour delineation were investigated. Conversion of margins and dose constraints from CT- to MRI-only-based treatment planning was assessed. On average, the uncertainty of image coregistration was 0.4 ± 0.5 mm (one standard deviation, SD), 0.9 ± 0.8 mm and 0.9 ± 0.9 mm in the lateral, anterior-posterior and base-apex direction, respectively. The average ratio of the prostate volume between CT and MRI was 1.20 ± 0.15 (one SD). Compared to the CT-based contours, the MRI-based contours were on average 2-7 mm smaller in the apex, 0-1 mm smaller in the rectal direction and 1-4 mm smaller elsewhere. When converting from a CT-based planning procedure to an MRI-based one, the overall planning target volumes (PTV) are prominently reduced only in the apex. The prostate margins and dose constraints can be retained by this conversion. (orig.) [German] Ziel unserer Studie war es, die Umstellung der Strahlentherapieplanung des Prostatakarzinoms von CT-gestuetzter in ausschliesslich MR-gestuetzte Zieldefinition zu untersuchen. Bei 30 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom wurden eine CT und eine MRT unter Planungsbedingungen durchgefuehrt. Zwei Untersucher konturierten die Prostata in CT- und T2-gewichteten MR-Bildern. Mit Hilfe der Position von Goldstiften und der anatomischen Grenzen der Prostata wurden die CT- und MR-Bilder koregistriert. Es wurden die Genauigkeit der Koregistrierung sowie die Unterschiede der Zielvolumina und der

  13. Whole-body vibration as a modality for the rehabilitation of peripheral neuropathies: implications for cancer survivors suffering from chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L.J. Verhulst

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on strength, balance and pain in patients with peripheral neuropathies and to consider its significance for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN. Using a broad search strategy, PubMed was searched for clinical trials on WBV interventions aimed at improving strength, balance or pain in patients with peripheral neuropathies, which were published in English until 5th June 2014. The search was performed by the first author and generated a total of 505 results, which yielded 5 articles that met the inclusion criteria, being studies: i published in English; ii involving adult human subjects’ peripheral neuropathies; iii evaluating the effect of WBV as a therapeutic intervention; and iv reporting findings for at least one of the following outcomes: strength, balance or pain. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed independently by first and second author, using the physiotherapy evidence database scale. The overall methodological quality of included studies was low. Two studies found a beneficial effect of WBV on neuropathic pain, but another study failed to find the same effect. One study found significant improvements in both muscle strength and balance, while another study found improvements only in some, but not all, of the applied tests to measure muscle strength and balance. The results of this literature search suggest insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness for the effects of WBV on neuropathic pain, muscle strength and balance in patients with peripheral neuropathies. More high-quality trials are needed to guide the optimization of rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors with CIPN in particular.

  14. Evidentiality, Epistemic Modality, and Epistemic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezeda Dilshatovna Shakirova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interaction of evidentiality categories, typical of many Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Samoyed, certain Slavic, and other languages with the categories of epistemic modality, which is widely represented particularly in Germanic languages. The methodological framework of this study consists of the general philosophic, general scientific and private levels. The general philosophic methodology is based on the analytic philosophy, under the linguistic trend of which the language study was carried out to solve philosophic problems. The general scientific methodological bases of the study are related to the principle of identifying similarities and differences of the categories analyzed and the systematicity of description, whereas the descriptive method and techniques thereof are used primarily as the private-linguistic methods. In contrast to evidentiality, indicating the source of information, the epistemic modality marks different level of the information reliability. In the modern German language, the categories studied have a zone of intersection in terms of community within the means of expression, to which modal words and modal verbs as well as the verb scheinen can be primarily related. However, in the modern German language, there is no question of the category of evidentiality in the plane, within which it is currently being studied basing on the material of those languages, to the fragment of the grammatical system of which it is primarily inherent. As a rule, the semantics of evidentiality in these languages provides no information on the degree of reliability of the source of knowledge. To overcome the contradiction of such nature, this work suggests paying attention to the category of epistemic status of an utterance, the semantic structure of which is wider than evidentiality and epistemic modality and includes the level of reliability of the source of knowledge along with the designation thereof. In today's German

  15. No Can Do Modal Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Ilc

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the systems of modal verbs in Slovene and English, and it focuses on comprehension and usage problems that advanced students of English may have when dealing with modal verb constructions. The paper identifies the key factors that give rise to various problems, such as in-vacuo vs. in-context treatment of modal verbs and absolute vs. relative temporal relations. It is argued that most students fail to fully understand contextualised modal verb constructions mostly due to the polysemy of modal verbs as well as their relative tense value. This is particularly the case when a (narrative text containing modal verb constructions has a past time reference, and combines different narrative techniques.

  16. The Current and Evolving Role of PET in Personalized Management of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esther; Yanamadala, Anusha; Cheng, Gang; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2016-07-01

    Using tumor genomic profiling information has revolutionized the landscape of personalized treatment of lung cancer. The management of lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer particularly is influenced by discoveries of activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, fusion genes involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase, and targeted therapies for Kristen-Rat-Sarcoma and MET protooncogenes. PET imaging plays an important role in assessing the biologic behavior of lung cancer and defining response to therapy. This review summarizes genomic discoveries in lung cancer and their implications for functional PET imaging.

  17. [Pregnancy-associated breast cancer: current opinions on diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Marije; Kroep, Judith R; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Scholten, Astrid N; Nortier, J W R Hans

    2012-01-01

    Because of the trend to postpone childbirth until later in life we will be increasingly confronted with pregnancy-associated breast cancer. We report on two patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer. Complete treatment of this condition during pregnancy by means of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is possible without any known damage to the foetus, even if the breast cancer is diagnosed early in pregnancy. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and preferably centralized. Pregnancy does not seem to influence the prognosis of breast cancer. All patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer should be registered in a registration study.

  18. New Ultrasound Modalities in Rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Okano, Tadashi; Reginato, Anthony M; Cazenave, Tomas; Ventura-Rios, Lucio; Bertolazzi, Chiara; Pineda, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Over the years, ultrasound (US) has accumulated important evidence supporting its relevant role for the assessment of inflammatory processes of different rheumatologic diseases, as well as in the follow-up in assessing the response to different therapeutic approaches. This has been possible because of the increase in training, competency, and knowledge, as well as the rapid progress in the US technologies.Currently, some US machines can be equipped by sophisticated software modalities (i.e., 3-dimensional US, elastosonography, automated cardiovascular software, and fusion imaging) that can augment US traditional role as a safe, fast, and easy-to-perform modality and giving it new life and increased relevance in rheumatology. In this article, we evaluated the US developments, from conventional B-mode to more sophisticated technologies, and their potential clinical impact in the field of rheumatology.Three-dimensional US can improve the accuracy of the assessment of bone erosions and the quantification of power Doppler because of its multiplanar view including coronal, axial and sagital view. Elastosonography is still looking for its role in rheumatology. Preliminary works induce us to consider it as a promise tool for the assessment of tendon pathology and skin of patients with connective tissue disorders. The automated method for the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness permits a rapid and accurate assessment. The preliminary published data showed that it is reliable, and valid compared to the traditional method; they also support the future of rheumatologists as the direct operators in evaluating the cardiovascular risk in daily practice. Fusion imaging increases the diagnostic power of US, displaying simultaneously in the monitor, the US image, and the corresponding computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging image. However, there are no sufficient data supporting its application in daily rheumatologic practice.

  19. Current evaluation of the clinical utility of fluoromethyl choline-(18F) PET/CT in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, Jean-Noel [Hopital Tenon AP-HP, Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); E-mail: jean-noel.talbot@tnn.ap-hop-paris.fr; Chevalme, Yanna-Marina [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Produits de Sante (AFSSAPS), St Denis (France)

    2008-12-15

    This short review is dedicated to the current status of the assessment of a new PET radiopharmaceutical, fluoromethylcholine-(18F) or FCH, which is taken-up by prostate cancer tissue, in contrary to fluorodeoxyglucose- (18F) or FDG. It seems that FCH could become 'the FDG of prostate cancer', with the same type of achievements (detection of distant metastases and of occult recurrences, restaging prior to invasive treatments), and the same drawbacks (false negative results in case of small lesions, in particular lymph nodes metastases, and false positive results in case of infection/inflammation, in particular prostatitis). Current evidence is summarised and discussed for each of the potential settings of FCH PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. The perspectives for granting a marketing authorisation to a FCH preparation are briefly analysed. (author)

  20. Modal aerosol dynamics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

    1991-02-01

    The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Recurrent Thyroid Cancers: Consensus Statement and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu [Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, So Lyung [Seoul St. Marys Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Radiofrequency ablation is a new non-surgical treatment modality for patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed recommendations for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers using radiofrequency ablation. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus

  2. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...... notions of implementation, is shown to be computationally hard (co-NP hard). Second, we consider four forms of consistency (existence of implementations) for modal specifications. We characterize each operationally, giving algorithms for deciding, and for synthesizing implementations, together...

  3. Targeting breast cancer through its microenvironment : Current status of preclinical and clinical research in finding relevant targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienhuis, H. H.; Gaykema, S. B. M.; Timmer-Bosscha, H.; Jalving, M.; Brouwers, A. H.; Lub-de Hooge, M. N.; van der Vegt, B.; Overmoyer, B.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Schroder, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that not only breast cancer cells, but also the tissue embedding these cells: the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role in tumor progression, metastasis formation and treatment sensitivity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of processes by which the mi

  4. Early Identification of Small Airways Disease on Lung Cancer Screening CT: Comparison of Current Air Trapping Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, O.M.; Zanen, P.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Isgum, I.; Gietema, H.A.; Ginneken, B. van; Prokop, M.; Jong, P. A. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Lung cancer screening CT scans might provide valuable information about air trapping as an early indicator of smoking-related lung disease. We studied which of the currently suggested measures is most suitable for detecting functionally relevant air trapping on low-dose computed tomogra

  5. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández;

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... matrix assembled from modal parameters and the experimental responses recorded using standard sensors, is presented. The method implies the inversion of the FRF which, in general, is not full rank matrix due to the truncation of the modal space. Furthermore, some ecommendations are included to improve...

  6. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy use in bladder cancer: a survey of current practice and opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, N G; Chen, Y; Downs, T M; Bochner, B H; Apolo, A B; Porter, M P; La Rochelle, J C; Amling, C L; Koppie, T M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Level 1 evidence supports the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to improve overall survival in muscle invasive bladder cancer; however utilization rates remain low. The aims of our study were to determine factors associated with NAC use, to more clearly define reasons for low utilization, and to determine the current rate of NAC use among urologic oncologists. Materials and Methods. Active members of the Society for Urologic Oncology were provided a 20-question survey. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted for each question and univariate analysis was performed. Results. We achieved a response rate of 21%. Clinical T3/T4 disease was the most often selected reason for recommending NAC (87%). Concerns with recommending NAC were age and comorbidities (54%) followed by delay in surgery (35%). An association was identified between urologic oncologists who discussed NAC with >90% of their patients and medical oncologists "always" recommending NAC (P = 0.0009). NAC utilization rate was between 30 and 57%. Conclusions. Amongst this highly specialized group of respondents, clinical T3-T4 disease was the most common reason for implementation of NAC. Respondents who frequently discussed NAC were more likely to report their medical oncologist always recommending NAC. Reported NAC use was higher in this surveyed group (30-57%) compared with recently published rates.

  7. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Use in Bladder Cancer: A Survey of Current Practice and Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Cowan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Level 1 evidence supports the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC to improve overall survival in muscle invasive bladder cancer; however utilization rates remain low. The aims of our study were to determine factors associated with NAC use, to more clearly define reasons for low utilization, and to determine the current rate of NAC use among urologic oncologists. Materials and Methods. Active members of the Society for Urologic Oncology were provided a 20-question survey. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted for each question and univariate analysis was performed. Results. We achieved a response rate of 21%. Clinical T3/T4 disease was the most often selected reason for recommending NAC (87%. Concerns with recommending NAC were age and comorbidities (54% followed by delay in surgery (35%. An association was identified between urologic oncologists who discussed NAC with >90% of their patients and medical oncologists “always” recommending NAC (P=0.0009. NAC utilization rate was between 30 and 57%. Conclusions. Amongst this highly specialized group of respondents, clinical T3-T4 disease was the most common reason for implementation of NAC. Respondents who frequently discussed NAC were more likely to report their medical oncologist always recommending NAC. Reported NAC use was higher in this surveyed group (30–57% compared with recently published rates.

  8. The current G-CSF use in cancer patients with chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhang; Shiying Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of the study was to survey current G-CSF use in cancer patients, investigate whether the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is standardized. Methods:From July 2012 to October 2012, patients in a third-grade class-A hospital were investigated by self-designed questionnaires, according to ASCO’s recommendations for white blood cellgrowth factors in 2006 and NCCN myeloid growth factors guideline in 2012. Results:Two hundred and twenty-two patients treated with 724 courses of chemotherapy were included. In prophylactic use, 259 (35.8%) cases used G-CSF that the guideline doesn’t recommend, which belonged to excessive use, the dose were 274 700 µg, accounting for 59.7%of the totle prophylactic use;105 (14.5%) didn’t use while the guideline recommend, belonging to lack of use. 89.0%of the prophylactic use were 24-72 h after chemotherapy, only a few (5.4%) on the day of chemotherapy. In therapeutic use, only 3.1%were standardized, with the dose of 23 000 µg, accounting for 7.4%of the total. So 92.6%were excessive. 14.2%of the therapeutic use were 24-72 h after chemotherapy, 21.2%on the day of chemotherapy. Conclusion:More than 50%use of G-CSF weren’t standardized, especial y the excessive use.

  9. Axillary reverse mapping in axillary surgery for breast cancer: an update of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Martinus A; Gobardhan, Paul D; Schoenmaeckers, Ernst J P; Klompenhouwer, Elisabeth G; Rutten, Harm J T; Voogd, Adri C; Luiten, Ernest J T

    2016-08-01

    Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a technique by which the lymphatic drainage of the upper extremity that traverses the axillary region can be differentiated from the lymphatic drainage of the breast during axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Adding this procedure to ALND may reduce upper extremity lymphedema by preserving upper extremity drainage. This review of the current literature on the ARM procedure discusses the feasibility, safety and relevance of this technique. A PubMed literature search was performed until 12 August 2015. A total of 31 studies were included in this review. The studies indicated that the ARM procedure adequately identifies the upper extremity lymph nodes and lymphatics in the axillary basin using blue dye or fluorescence. Preservation of ARM lymph nodes and corresponding lymphatics was proven to be oncologically safe in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients with metastatic lymph node involvement in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) who are advised to undergo a completion ALND. The ARM procedure is technically feasible with a high visualisation rate using blue dye or fluorescence. ALND combined with ARM can be regarded as a promising surgical refinement in order to reduce the incidence of upper extremity lymphedema in selected groups of patients.

  10. Current state of practice regarding testosterone supplementation therapy in men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jason R; Pan, Michael M; Lipshultz, Larry I; Lamb, Dolores J

    2014-11-01

    Hypogonadal men are characterized by low serum testosterone and symptoms of low energy, decreased libido, and muscle mass as well as impaired concentration and sexual functioning. Men with prostate cancer (PCa) currently on active surveillance or post-therapy, have traditionally been excluded from management paradigms given the decade-old concern that testosterone caused PCa growth. However, there appears to be little or no relationship between serum testosterone concentration and PCa. Androgen action in the prostate has long been known to be affected by the kinetics of receptor saturation and, as such, testosterone beyond a certain baseline is unable to stimulate prostatic growth due to complete intra-prostatic androgen receptor binding. Given this physiologic concept, many clinical investigators have begun to promote testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) as safe in men with PCa. This review examines the basics of testosterone physiology and summarizes the most recent findings on the use of TST in men with PCa on active surveillance and following treatment with external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy and radical prostatectomy.

  11. Current situation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy for cervical cancer in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rogerio Matias Vidal da; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento, E-mail: rmv.fisica@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Pinezi, Juliana Castro Dourado [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Goias (PUC-Goias), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Macedo, Luiz Eduardo Andrade [Hospital Chama, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    To assess the current situation of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for cancer of the cervix in Brazil, regarding apparatuses, planning methods, prescription, fractionation schedule and evaluation of dose in organs at risk. Materials and methods: in the period between March/2012 and May/2013, a multiple choice questionnaire was developed and sent to 89 Brazilian hospitals which perform HDR brachytherapy. Results: sixty-one services answered the questionnaire. All regions of the country experienced a sharp increase in the number of HDR brachytherapy services in the period from 2001 to 2013. As regards planning, although a three-dimensional planning software was available in 91% of the centers, conventional radiography was mentioned by 92% of the respondents as their routine imaging method for such a purpose. Approximately 35% of respondents said that brachytherapy sessions are performed after teletherapy. The scheme of four 7 Gy intracavitary insertions was mentioned as the most frequently practiced. Conclusion: the authors observed that professionals have difficulty accessing adjuvant three-dimensional planning tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  12. Current advances in mathematical modeling of anti-cancer drug penetration into tumor tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MunJu eKim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumor tissues, including their interstitial transport and cellular uptake, is a complex process involving various biochemical, mechanical, and biophysical factors. Mathematical modeling provides a means through which to understand this complexity better, as well as to examine interactions between contributing components in a systematic way via computational simulations and quantitative analyses. In this review, we present the current state of mathematical modeling approaches that address phenomena related to drug delivery. We describe how various types of models were used to predict spatio-temporal distributions of drugs within the tumor tissue, to simulate different ways to overcome barriers to drug transport, or to optimize treatment schedules. Finally, we discuss how integration of mathematical modeling with experimental or clinical data can provide better tools to understand the drug delivery process, in particular to examine the specific tissue- or compound-related factors that limit drug penetration through tumors. Such tools will be important in designing new chemotherapy targets and optimal treatment strategies, as well as in developing non-invasive diagnosis to monitor treatment response and detect tumor recurrence.

  13. Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l nabavi

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.

  14. Nutrition support and dietary interventions for patients with lung cancer: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss N

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicole Kiss1,2 1Nutrition and Speech Pathology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Cancer Experiences Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent in patients with lung cancer. The impact of malnutrition on patients with cancer, and specifically in patients with lung cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Malnutrition has been shown to negatively affect treatment completion, survival, quality of life, physical function, and health care costs. Emerging evidence is providing some insight into which lung cancer patients are at higher nutritional risk. In lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, stage III or more disease, treatment with concurrent chemotherapy and the extent of radiotherapy delivered to the esophagus appear to confer a higher risk of weight loss during and post-treatment. Studies investigating nutrition interventions for lung cancer patients have examined intensive dietary counseling, supplementation with fish oils, and interdisciplinary models of nutrition and exercise interventions and show promise for improved outcomes from these interventions. However, further research utilizing these interventions in large clinical trials is required to definitively establish effective interventions in this patient group. Keywords: lung cancer, nutrition, malnutrition

  15. Choosing relevant endpoints for older breast cancer patients in clinical trials: an overview of all current clinical trials on breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Glas, N A; Hamaker, M E; Kiderlen, M; de Craen, A J M; Mooijaart, S P; van de Velde, C J H; van Munster, B C; Portielje, J E A; Liefers, G J; Bastiaannet, E

    2014-08-01

    With the ongoing ageing of western societies, the proportion of older breast cancer patients will increase. For several years, clinicians and researchers in geriatric oncology have urged for new clinical trials that address patient-related endpoints such as functional decline after treatment of older patients. The aim of this study was to present an overview of trial characteristics and endpoints of all currently running clinical trials in breast cancer, particularly in older patients. The clinical trial register of the United States National Institutes of Health Differences was searched for all current clinical trials on breast cancer treatment. Trial characteristics and endpoints were retrieved from the register and differences in characteristics between studies in older patients specifically (defined as a lower age-limit of 60 years or older) and trials in all patients were assessed using χ(2) tests. We included 463 clinical trials. Nine trials (2 %) specifically investigated breast cancer treatment in older patients. Ninety-one breast cancer trials included any patient-related endpoint (20 %), while five trials specifically addressing older patients included any patient-related endpoint (56 %, P = 0.02). Five of the trials in older patients incorporated a geriatric assessment (56 %). Clinical trials still rarely incorporate patient-related endpoints, even in trials that specifically address older patients. Trials that are specifically designed for older patients do not often incorporate a geriatric assessment in their design. This implicates that current clinical studies are not expected to fill the gap in knowledge concerning treatment of older breast cancer patients in the next decade.

  16. Application of Quantum Dots-Based Biotechnology in Cancer Diagnosis: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Peng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs have excellent photo-physical properties, and the QDs-based probes have achieved encouraging developments in cellular and in vivo molecular imaging. More and more researches showed that QDs-based technology may become a promising approach in cancer research. In this review, we focus on recent application of QDs in cancer diagnosis and treatment, including early detection of primary tumor such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer, as well as regional lymph nodes and distant metastases. With the development of QDs synthesis and modification, the effect of QDs on tumor metastasis investigation will become more and more important in the future.

  17. Current Status on Stem Cells and Cancers of the Gastric Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hoffmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is still a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide in spite of declining incidence. Gastric cancers are, essentially, adenocarcinomas and one of the strongest risk factors is still infection with Helicobacter pylori. Within the last years, it became clear that gastric self-renewal and carcinogenesis are intimately linked, particularly during chronic inflammatory conditions. Generally, gastric cancer is now regarded as a disease resulting from dysregulated differentiation of stem and progenitor cells, mainly due to an inflammatory environment. However, the situation in the stomach is rather complex, consisting of two types of gastric units which show bidirectional self-renewal from an unexpectedly large variety of progenitor/stem cell populations. As in many other tumors, cancer stem cells have also been characterized for gastric cancer. This review focuses on the various gastric epithelial stem cells, how they contribute to self-renewal and which routes are known to gastric adenocarcinomas, including their stem cells.

  18. Recent advances in different modal imaging-guided photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiwen; Wen, Jia; Li, Hongjuan; Xu, Yongqian; Liu, Fengyu; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) has recently attracted considerable attention owing to its controllable treatment process, high tumour eradication efficiency and minimal side effects on non-cancer cells. PTT can melt cancerous cells by localising tissue hyperthermia induced by internalised therapeutic agents with a high photothermal conversion efficiency under external laser irradiation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the significant potential of PTT to treat tumours in future practical applications. Unfortunately, the lack of visualisation towards agent delivery and internalisation, as well as imaging-guided comprehensive evaluation of therapeutic outcome, limits its further application. Developments in combined photothermal therapeutic nanoplatforms guided by different imaging modalities have compensated for the major drawback of PTT alone, proving PTT to be a promising technique in biomedical applications. In this review, we introduce recent developments in different imaging modalities including single-modal, dual-modal, triple-modal and even multi-modal imaging-guided PTT, together with imaging-guided multi-functional theranostic nanoplatforms.

  19. Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in the treatment of early breast cancer: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Ismaili

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in early breast cancer was investigated by few authors and remains controversial. This treatment is more commonly used for locally advanced breast cancer and showed high rate of complete pathological response. A search of articles published in English literature, between 1980 and November 2012, was conducted on Medline using the following terms: "breast cancer", "chemotherapy", "concurrent radiotherapy", and "Trastuzumab". We identified five phase I/II tri...

  20. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  1. Multi-modality management for loco-regionally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer: balancing the benefit of efficacy and functional preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhu, Guopei; Wang, Yulong; Wang, Xiaoshen; Ji, Qinghai; Wang, Yu; Dou, Shengjin

    2014-09-01

    The 5-year overall survival (OS) of loco-regionally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-LHC) has declined over the past two decades following the wide application of non-surgical approaches. We aimed to define the new role of open surgery combined with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of LA-LHC for improving survival while maintaining a functional larynx. In the current study, 90 LA-LHC patients treated with open surgery followed by postoperative RT/CRT in our institute from May 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. OS, disease-free survival (DFS), loco-regional failure-free survival (LRFFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated, and prognostic factors were analyzed. Functional larynx preservation results were evaluated according to the head and neck quality of life (QoL) Scale. With a median follow-up period of 37 months, the 3- and 5-year OS, DFS, LRFFS and DMFS were 71.3, 63.7, 85.9, 73.7 and 55.9, 53.0, 81.6, 71.9 %, respectively. Vascular embolism and extracapsular extension (ECE) of the lymph nodes were prognostic factors for poorer OS (p = 0.045 and 0.046, respectively). Vascular embolism was the only prognostic factor for poorer DMFS (p = 0.005). Patients who underwent a conservative partial laryngectomy (CPL) experienced a higher QoL in the domains of speech, swallowing and emotion. Functional larynx preservation was achieved in 36/45 patients (80 %) who received CPL. The results of our study demonstrated that CPL followed by adequate adjuvant therapy could achieve superior oncological results compared with non-surgical approaches in LA-LHC patients while also maintaining satisfactory functional larynx in a majority of patients.

  2. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well as re...

  3. A Modal Walk Through Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Benthem, Johan van

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the major mathematical theories of space from a modal standpoint: topology, affine geometry, metric geometry, and vector algebra. This allows us to see new fine-structure in spatial patterns which suggests analogies across these mathematical theories in terms of modal, temporal, and c

  4. Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...

  5. Constraint methods for modal satisfiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, S.; Gennari, R.; de Rijke, M.; Apt, K.R.; Fages, F.; Rossi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Modal and modal-like formalisms such as temporal or description logics go beyond propositional logic by introducing operators that allow for a guarded form of quantication over states or paths of transition systems. Thus, they are more expressive than propositional logic, yet computationally better

  6. Current status of gene therapy for breast cancer: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrudden CM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cian M McCrudden, Helen O McCarthySchool of Pharmacy, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, UKAbstract: Breast cancer is characterized by a series of genetic mutations and is therefore ideally placed for gene therapy intervention. The aim of gene therapy is to deliver a nucleic acid-based drug to either correct or destroy the cells harboring the genetic aberration. More recently, cancer gene therapy has evolved to also encompass delivery of RNA interference technologies, as well as cancer DNA vaccines. However, the bottleneck in creating such nucleic acid pharmaceuticals lies in the delivery. Deliverability of DNA is limited as it is prone to circulating nucleases; therefore, numerous strategies have been employed to aid with biological transport. This review will discuss some of the viral and nonviral approaches to breast cancer gene therapy, and present the findings of clinical trials of these therapies in breast cancer patients. Also detailed are some of the most recent developments in nonviral approaches to targeting in breast cancer gene therapy, including transcriptional control, and the development of recombinant, multifunctional bio-inspired systems. Lastly, DNA vaccines for breast cancer are documented, with comment on requirements for successful pharmaceutical product development.Keywords: breast cancer, gene therapy, nonviral, clinical trial

  7. Cancer cachexia: what is known about its etiology and what should be the current treatment approach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halteren, H.K. van; Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Wagener, D.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Cancer cachexia, defined as involuntary weight loss and tissue wasting due to cancer, negatively influences physical condition, quality of life and prognosis. Well known causes, such as ileus or hypercalcemia, do not suffice to explain the entire phenomenon. Metabolic changes induced by the tumor an

  8. Review of current clinical experience with prolonged (oral) etoposide in cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeJong, RS; Mulder, NH; Dijksterhuis, D; DeVries, EGE

    1995-01-01

    Prolonged oral etoposide monotherapy is an effective treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and refractory malignant lymphoma. It shows remarkable activity in relapsed or refractory breast and ovarian cancer (response rates up to 35% and 26%), and was also active in refractory germ

  9. Friend or foe? The current epidemiologic evidence on selenium and human cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Crespi, Catherine M; Malagoli, Carlotta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Scientific opinion on the relationship between selenium and the risk of cancer has undergone radical change over the years, with selenium first viewed as a possible carcinogen in the 1940s then as a possible cancer preventive agent in the 1960s-2000s. More recently, randomized controlled trials have found no effect on cancer risk but suggest possible low-dose dermatologic and endocrine toxicity, and animal studies indicate both carcinogenic and cancer-preventive effects. A growing body of evidence from human and laboratory studies indicates dramatically different biological effects of the various inorganic and organic chemical forms of selenium, which may explain apparent inconsistencies across studies. These chemical form-specific effects also have important implications for exposure and health risk assessment. Overall, available epidemiologic evidence suggests no cancer preventive effect of increased selenium intake in healthy individuals and possible increased risk of other diseases and disorders.

  10. Specific features of current intraperitoneal therapy in patients with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Kedrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today there are 3 trends in favor of intraperitoneal (IP chemotherapy: maintenance of its potential 5- and 10-year survival benefit in patients with ovarian cancer (OC; advantages of the IP administration of drugs even after nonoptimal surgery; enhancement of the efficiency of chemotherapy irrespective of the number of IP treatment cycles. There is also an expanded list of possible IP medicines and incorporation of novel targeted drugs into treatment regimens. However, the long-expected data of the most recent randomized trial GOG 0252 have proven deplorable and led to the activation of discussions on the role of IP therapy.Objective: to generalize the experience of 4 oncology departments with IP therapy in patients with disseminated OC and to compare the findings with those obtained by the world’s leading medical centers.Materials and methods. The retrospective analysis included 76 patients with Stage IIIC OC who had received IP chemotherapy in accordance with 3 regimens. For standardization of IP treatment procedures, the investigators assessed the following indicators: age; tumor morphological type; surgical radicality; catheter model and port placement procedure; drug administration route; number of treatment cycles; efficiency of therapy from expert ultrasonographic findings and CA-124, HE4, CA-19.9 marker levels, time to disease progression. The analysis also involved adverse manifestations, methods of their correction and the reasons for early treatment discontinuation were separately reported. The obtained data were processed using standard statistical programs.Results. 55 of the 76 patients could complete more than 4 IP therapy cycles. Among them, only 4 patients were observed to have disease progression at follow-ups lasting over 24 months.Conclusion. Current IP therapy is a safe and convenient drug treatment in patients with OC after optimal cytoreductive surgery. The mastery and standardization of the

  11. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion.

  12. Relationship of Clinical and Pathologic Nodal Staging in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Current Controversies in Daily Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bulzonetti, Nadia; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Systemic neo-adjuvant therapy plays a primary role in the management of locally advanced breast cancer. Without having any negative effect in overall survival, induction chemotherapy potentially assures a surgery approach in unresectable disease or a conservative treatment in technically resectable disease and acts on a well-vascularized tumor bed, without the modifications induced by surgery. A specific issue has a central function in the neo-adjuvant setting: lymph nodes status. It still represents one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in breast cancer. The discussion of regional radiation therapy should be a matter of debate, especially in a pathological complete response. Currently, the indication for radiotherapy is based on the clinical stage before the surgery, even for the irradiation of the loco-regional lymph nodes. Regardless of pathological down-staging, radiation therapy is accepted as standard adjuvant treatment in locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:25247013

  13. Basics and state-of-the-art of modal testing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J Ewins

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, the current status of the technology of modal testing is reviewed with particular reference to the application of these methodsto the task of ensuring the optimum design of mechanical structures. Existing methods are summarised and new techniques which are currently under development are described. Some of the current limitations and problem areas are also identified.

  14. Current Challenges in Development of Differentially Expressed and Prognostic Prostate Cancer Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lucas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Predicting the aggressiveness of prostate cancer at biopsy is invaluable in making treatment decisions. In this paper we review the differential expression of genes and microRNAs identified through microarray analysis as potentially useful markers for prostate cancer prognosis and discuss some of the challenges associated with their development. Methods. A review of the literature was conducted through Medline. Articles were identified through searches of the following terms: “prostate cancer AND differential expression”, “prostate cancer prognosis”, and “prostate cancer AND microRNAs”. Results. Though numerous differentially expressed genes and microRNAs were identified as possible prognostic markers, the significance of several of these genes is either debated due to conflicting results or is not validated in other study populations. A few of the articles constructed predictive nomograms using a panel of biomarkers which require further validation. Challenges to the development of useful markers include different methodology, cancer heterogeneity, and sampling error. These can be overcome by categorizing prognostic factors into particular gene pathways or by supplementing biopsy information with blood or urine-based biomarkers. Conclusion. Though biomarkers based on differential expression offer the potential to improve decision making concerning prostate cancer, further validation of their utility and accuracy at the biopsy level is needed.

  15. Development and Current Status of National Cancer Center for Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; LIN Hong-sheng; HOU Wei; ZHANG Pei-tong; HUA Bao-jin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chinese medicine (CM) is an important feature of cancer treatment in China.Especially in the last 10years, the effect of CM in cancer treatment has been of high concern and has been accepted by experts and patients locally and overseas.The oncology department (OD) of Guang'anmen Hospital (GAMH) of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences (CATCM),which will mark its 50th anniversary in 2013, is one of China's most-respected centers devoted exclusively to cancer patient care, research, education, and prevention through CM.It is located at the campus of GAMH,central Beijing.

  16. Direct current electrical fields induce apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartenberg, Maria; Wirtz, Nina; Grob, Alexander; Niedermeier, Wilhelm; Hescheler, Jürgen; Peters, Saskia C; Sauer, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    The presence of more than one dental alloy in the oral cavity often causes pathological galvanic currents and voltage resulting in superficial erosions of the oral mucosa and eventually in the emergence of oral cancer. In the present study the mechanisms of apoptosis of oral mucosa cancer cells in response to electromagnetic fields was investigated. Direct current (DC) electrical fields with field strengths between 2 and 16 V/m, applied for 24 h to UM-SCC-14-C oral mucosa cancer cells, dose-dependently resulted in decreased cell proliferation as evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21(cip1/waf1) and p27(kip1), which are associated with cell cycle arrest. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) increased apoptosis as evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of cleaved caspase-3 and poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Furthermore, robust reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits as well as Hsp70 was observed. Electrical field treatment (4 V/m, 24 h) resulted in increased expression of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and decreased intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas the expression of catalase remained unchanged. Pre-treatment with the free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the superoxide dismutase mimetic EUK-8 abolished caspase-3 and PARP-1 induction, suggesting that apoptosis in oral mucosa cancer cells is initated by ROS generation in response to DC electrical field treatment.

  17. The Impact of Neighborhood Social and Built Environment Factors across the Cancer Continuum: Current Research, Methodologic Considerations, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Shariff-Marco, Salma; De Rouen, Mindy; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Yen, Irene H.; Mujahid, Mahasin; Satariano, William A.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2015-01-01

    Neighborhood social and built environments have been recognized as important contexts in which health is shaped. We review the extent to which these neighborhood factors have been addressed in population-level cancer research, with a scan of the literature for research that focuses on specific social and/or built environment characteristics and association with outcomes across the cancer continuum, including incidence, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and survival. We discuss commonalities and differences in methodologies across studies, current challenges in research methodology, and future directions in this research area. The assessment of social and built environment factors in relation to cancer is a relatively new field, with 82% of 34 reviewed papers published since 2010. Across the wide range of social and built environment exposures and cancer outcomes considered by the studies, numerous associations were reported. However, the directions and magnitudes of association varied, due in large part to the variation in cancer sites and outcomes being studied, but also likely due to differences in study populations, geographical region, and, importantly, choice of neighborhood measure and geographic scale. We recommend that future studies consider the life course implications of cancer incidence and survival, integrate secondary and self-report data, consider work neighborhood environments, and further develop analytical and statistical approaches appropriate to the geospatial and multilevel nature of the data. Incorporating social and built environment factors into research on cancer etiology and outcomes can provide insights into disease processes, identify vulnerable populations, and generate results with translational impact of relevance for interventionists and policy makers. PMID:25847484

  18. Salvage external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: current status and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raldow, Ann; Hamstra, Daniel A; Kim, Sung; Yu, James B

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in American men. What to do when prostate cancer recurs months or years after a patient undergoes radical prostatectomy is an area of active research. Patients who underwent radical prostatectomy without immediate adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) but subsequently have evidence of recurrent disease are candidates for Salvage Radiation Therapy (SRT). Though there are three prospective randomized trials illustrating the efficacy of post-operative ART for selected patients, similarly strong evidence is lacking for SRT. In this article, we define the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer, distinguish SRT from ART, outline the evidence for SRT, and make recommendations with regard to radiotherapy volume and dose. We discuss the known side effects from SRT, weigh the cost and benefit of SRT, and discuss possible tools that may improve the cost/benefit ratio for SRT by helping to select patients whom SRT may be more likely to benefit.

  19. Chemoprevention of cancer: current evidence and future prospects [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Benetou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer chemoprevention refers to the use of agents for the inhibition, delay, or reversal of carcinogenesis before invasion. In the present review, agents examined in the context of cancer chemoprevention are classified in four major categories—hormonal, medications, diet-related agents, and vaccines—and the main representatives of each category are presented. Although there are serious constraints in the documentation of effectiveness of chemopreventive agents, mainly stemming from the long latency of the condition they are addressing and the frequent lack of intermediate biomarkers, there is little disagreement about the role of aspirin, whereas a diet rich in vegetables and fruits appears to convey more protection than individual micronutrients. Among categories of cancer chemopreventive agents, hormonal ones and vaccines might hold more promise for the future. Also, the identification of individuals who would benefit most from chemopreventive interventions on the basis of their genetic profiles could open new prospects for cancer chemoprevention.

  20. Stress and breast cancer: a systematic update on the current knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A vast body of research has been carried out to examine the relationship between psychological stress and the risk of breast cancer. Previous reviews on this issue have mainly focused on stressful life events and have included both prospective and retrospective studies. The results from...... these reviews have revealed conflicting data. We evaluate whether stressful life events, work-related stress, or perceived global stress are differentially associated with breast cancer incidence and breast cancer relapse in prospective studies. Systematic and explicit methods were used to identify, select......, and critically appraise relevant studies. The substantial variability in the manner in which stress was conceptualized and measured did not allow for the calculation of a quantitative summary estimate for the association between stress and breast cancer. Despite the heterogeneity in the results obtained...

  1. Mouse models in liver cancer research: A review of current literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martijn WH Leenders; Maarten W Nijkamp; Inne HM Borel Rinkes

    2008-01-01

    Primary liver cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Due to differences in prevalence of etiological factors the incidence of primary liver cancer varies among the world, with a peak in EasL-Asia. As this disease is still lethal in most of the cases, research has to be done to improve our understanding of the disease, offering insights for possible treatment options. For this purpose, animal models are widely used,especially mouse models. In this review, we describe the different types of mouse models used in liver cancer research, with emphasis on genetically engineered mice used in this field. We focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as this is by far the most common Lype of primary liver cancer, accounting for 70%-85% of cases.

  2. [Current status and future prospect of internal medicine treatment for advanced esophageal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Fan, Q X

    2016-09-23

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of common malignant tumors, and the incidence and mortality of EC in China rank the first place in the world. Because of the occult onset, the early atypical symptoms, and the lack of effective early diagnostic methods, most of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease and lost the chance of surgery. Comprehensive treatment including palliative medical treatment, molecular targeted therapy, immunotherapy and so on is appropriate for these patients. How to choose the chemotherapy regimen and formulate reasonable treatment plan has become a hot spot in clinical research. Molecular targeted drugs have become a new developmental direction in cancer treatment because of their high specificity and antitumor activity, but the effects on esophageal cancer remain controversial. With the development of immune check point blockade treatment, breakthrough has been made in tumor immunotherapy, which has become an important means in cancer comprehensive treatment and shown a good prospect of treatment.

  3. Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of both nonmyoinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and invasive bladder cancer. The diagnostic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC mainly focus on tumor identification during endoscopy to increase complete resection of bladder cancer while nanotechnology to capture malignant cells or their components continues to be developed. The therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC are to reformulate biological and cytotoxic agents for intravesical instillation, combine both diagnostic and therapeutic application in one nanoformulation. In invasive and advanced bladder cancer, magnetic resonance imaging with supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can improve the sensitivity and specificity in detecting small metastasis to lymph nodes. Nanoformulation of cytotoxic agents can potentially decrease the toxicity while increasing efficacy.

  4. Therapeutic potential of snake venom in cancer therapy:current perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Kumar Vyas; Keyur Brahmbhatt; Hardik Bhatt; Utsav Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Many active secretions produced by animals have been employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases such as hypertension and cancer. Snake venom toxins contributed significantly to the treatment of many medical conditions. There are many published studies describing and elucidating the anti-cancer potential of snake venom. Cancer therapy is one of the main areas for the use of protein peptides and enzymes originating from animals of different species. Some of these proteins or peptides and enzymes from snake venom when isolated and evaluated may bind specifically to cancer cell membranes, affecting the migration and proliferation of these cells. Some of substances found in the snake venom present a great potential as anti-tumor agent. In this review, we presented the main results of recent years of research involving the active compounds of snake venom that have anticancer activity.

  5. Systemic therapy in muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer: current trends and future promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B; Trump, Donald L

    2016-09-01

    Bladder urothelial cancers remain an important urologic cancer with limited treatment options in the locally advanced and metastatic setting. While neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced muscle-invasive cancers has shown overall survival benefit, clinical uptake in practice have lagged behind. Controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy use are also ongoing. Systemic therapies for metastatic bladder cancer have largely used platinum-based therapies without effective standard second-line therapy options for those who fail, although vinflunine is approved in Europe as a second-line therapy based on a Phase III trial, and most recently, atezolizumab, a checkpoint inhibitor, was approved by the US FDA. Given increasing recognition of mutational signatures expressed in urothelial carcinomas, several promising agents with use of VEGF-targeted therapies, HER2-directed agents and immunotherapies with PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in various settings are discussed herein.

  6. Control of cervical cancer in Peru: Current barriers and challenges for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Alfredo; Pinto, Joseph A.; Araujo, Jhajaira; Fajardo, Williams; Bravo, Leny; Pinillos, Luis; Vallejos, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading malignant neoplasm in Peruvian women. This malignancy is a public health problem and several efforts were previously performed to develop cancer control plans. Geographical, cultural, structural, infrastructural and procedural barriers can limit the implementation of such strategies. Several previous studies have characterized human papilloma virus (HPV) epidemiology, where prevalence of high-risk HPV in adult females is ~12% and the prevalence in cervical cance...

  7. Resource-sparing and cost-effective strategies in current management of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshi Anusheel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women throughout the world. There have been significant advances in the practice of breast oncology over the past few years. However, most of these advances have an associated price tag or are resource intensive. The present article discusses means to achieve cost-effectiveness in the treatment of breast cancer, while retaining the benefits of the modern anticancer approaches.

  8. Cardiotoxicity of cancer therapeutics: current issues in screening, prevention and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Joseph Sheppard

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modern cancer chemotherapeutics, cancer survivors are living longer and being exposed to potential comorbidities related to non-cancer side effects of such treatments. With close monitoring of cancer patients receiving potentially cardiotoxic medical therapies, oncologists and cardiologists alike are identifying patients in both clinical and subclinical phases of cardiovascular disease related to such chemotherapies. Specifically, cardiotoxicity at the level of the myocardium and potential for the development of heart failure are becoming a growing concern with increasing survival of cancer patients.Traditional chemotherapeutic agents used commonly in the treatment of breast cancer and hematologic malignancies, such as anthracyclines and HER-2 antagonists, are well known to be associated with cardiovascular sequelae. Patients often present without symptoms and an abnormal cardiac imaging study performed as part of routine evaluation of patients receiving cardiotoxic therapies. Additionally, patients can present with signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease months to years after receiving the chemotherapies. As the understanding of the physiology underlying the various cancers has grown, therapies have been developed that target specific molecules that represent key aspects of physiologic pathways responsible for cancer growth. Inhibition of these pathways, such as those involving tyrosine kinases, has lead to the potential for cardiotoxicity as well. In view of the potential cardiotoxicity of specific chemotherapies, there is a growing interest in identifying patients who are at risk of cardiotoxicity prior to becoming symptomatic or developing cardiotoxicity that may limit the use of potentially life-saving chemotherapy agents. Serological markers and novel cardiac imaging techniques have become the source of many investigations with the goal of screening patients for pre-clinical cardiotoxicity. Additionally, studies have

  9. Piecing the Puzzle Together: Docetaxel Cycles and Current Considerations in the Treatment of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Hannah E; Price, Douglas K; Figg, William D

    2017-02-25

    Docetaxel is the current first line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but there is no standard number of docetaxel cycles given to patients. In their post hoc analysis of the Mainsail study, de Morrée et al. show that the number of docetaxel cycles administered to a patient is a significant factor contributing to overall survival. These findings warrant further investigation into the standardization of the number of docetaxel cycles administered.

  10. Patient-controlled modalities for acute postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskowski, Christine

    2005-08-01

    Although numerous clinical practice guidelines for pain management have been published throughout the last 12 years, inadequate pain relief remains a significant health care issue. Several patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) modalities are currently available for the treatment of acute postoperative pain, including intravenous (IV) PCA, epidural (PCEA), and oral PCA. Although PCEA and IV PCA are both commonly used modalities, IV PCA is considered the standard of care for postoperative pain management. Limitations of this modality do exist, however. Consequently, noninvasive PCA systems are under development to circumvent many of these limitations, including the fentanyl hydrochloride patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS); (IONSYS Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ) and a number of patient-controlled intranasal analgesia (PCINA) delivery systems. The objective of this article is to review the PCA modalities currently in use and to discuss those in development for the treatment of acute postoperative pain.

  11. Nutrition support and dietary interventions for patients with lung cancer: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and weight loss are prevalent in patients with lung cancer. The impact of malnutrition on patients with cancer, and specifically in patients with lung cancer, has been demonstrated in a large number of studies. Malnutrition has been shown to negatively affect treatment completion, survival, quality of life, physical function, and health care costs. Emerging evidence is providing some insight into which lung cancer patients are at higher nutritional risk. In lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy, stage III or more disease, treatment with concurrent chemotherapy and the extent of radiotherapy delivered to the esophagus appear to confer a higher risk of weight loss during and post-treatment. Studies investigating nutrition interventions for lung cancer patients have examined intensive dietary counseling, supplementation with fish oils, and interdisciplinary models of nutrition and exercise interventions and show promise for improved outcomes from these interventions. However, further research utilizing these interventions in large clinical trials is required to definitively establish effective interventions in this patient group.

  12. Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy with Sipuleucel-T: Current Standards and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao X; Fong, Lawrence; Small, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    The management of advanced prostate cancer, specifically metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), remains a therapeutic challenge. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge; APC8015) was approved by the FDA in 2010 for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic mCRPC patients, and it remains the only FDA-approved immunotherapy for prostate cancer of any indication to date. Given the continued need to improve therapeutics in patients with advanced prostate cancer, as well as recent enthusiasm for cancer immunotherapy, there is a wide range of ongoing trials evaluating combinations of sipuleucel-T with other therapeutics. Additional trials are aiming to expand the application of sipuleucel-T to prostate cancer patients beyond the mCRPC setting. Ongoing challenges include understanding the full mechanism of action of sipuleucel-T, optimizing the sequence of sipuleucel-T in relation to other therapies for mCRPC in clinical practice, and the identification of surrogate markers to predict survival benefit in clinical trials.

  13. Anticancer actions of PPARγ ligands:Current state and future perspectives in human lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesse; Roman

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors(PPARs) are ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factors and members of the nuclear receptor superfamily.Of the three PPARs identified to date(PPARγ,PPARβ/δ,and PPARα),PPARγ has been studied the most,in part because of the availability of PPARγagonists(also known as PPARγ ligands)and its significant effects on the management of several human diseases including type 2 diabetes,metabolic syndrome,cardiovascular disease and cancers.PPARγ is expressed in many tumors including lung cancer,and its function has been linked to the process of lung cancer development, progression and metastasis.Studies performed in gynogenic and xenograft models of lung cancer showed decreased tumor growth and metastasis in animals treated with PPARγ ligands.Furthermore,data are emerging from retrospective clinical studies that suggest a protective role for PPARγ ligands on the incidence of lung cancer.This review summarizes the research being conducted in this area and focuses on the mechanisms and potential therapeutic effects of PPARγ ligands as a novel anti-lung cancer treatment strategy.

  14. Siloxane Nanoprobes for Labeling and Dual Modality Functional Imaging of Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, Caroline P; Cusick, Alex; Shankar, Rohini Vidya; Agarwal, Shubhangi; Stabenfeldt, Sarah E; Kodibagkar, Vikram D

    2016-03-01

    Cell therapy represents a promising therapeutic for a myriad of medical conditions, including cancer, traumatic brain injury, and cardiovascular disease among others. A thorough understanding of the efficacy and cellular dynamics of these therapies necessitates the ability to non-invasively track cells in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a platform to track cells as a non-invasive modality with superior resolution and soft tissue contrast. We recently reported a new nanoprobe platform for cell labeling and imaging using fluorophore doped siloxane core nanoemulsions as dual modality ((1)H MRI/Fluorescence), dual-functional (oximetry/detection) nanoprobes. Here, we successfully demonstrate the labeling, dual-modality imaging, and oximetry of neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) in vitro using this platform. Labeling at a concentration of 10 μL/10(4) cells with a 40%v/v polydimethylsiloxane core nanoemulsion, doped with rhodamine, had minimal effect on viability, no effect on migration, proliferation and differentiation of NPSCs and allowed for unambiguous visualization of labeled NPSCs by (1)H MR and fluorescence and local pO2 reporting by labeled NPSCs. This new approach for cell labeling with a positive contrast (1)H MR probe has the potential to improve mechanistic knowledge of current therapies, and guide the design of future cell therapies due to its clinical translatability.

  15. Cross-modal perceptual load: the impact of modality and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin James

    2016-05-01

    Visual distractor processing tends to be more pronounced when the perceptual load (PL) of a task is low compared to when it is high [perpetual load theory (PLT); Lavie in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 21(3):451-468, 1995]. While PLT is well established in the visual domain, application to cross-modal processing has produced mixed results, and the current study was designed in an attempt to improve previous methodologies. First, we assessed PLT using response competition, a typical metric from the uni-modal domain. Second, we looked at the impact of auditory load on visual distractors, and of visual load on auditory distractors, within the same individual. Third, we compared individual uni- and cross-modal selective attention abilities, by correlating performance with the visual Attentional Network Test (ANT). Fourth, we obtained a measure of the relative processing efficiency between vision and audition, to investigate whether processing ease influences the extent of distractor processing. Although distractor processing was evident during both attend auditory and attend visual conditions, we found that PL did not modulate processing of either visual or auditory distractors. We also found support for a correlation between the uni-modal (visual) ANT and our cross-modal task but only when the distractors were visual. Finally, although auditory processing was more impacted by visual distractors, our measure of processing efficiency only accounted for this asymmetry in the auditory high-load condition. The results are discussed with respect to the continued debate regarding the shared or separate nature of processing resources across modalities.

  16. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy

    2013-02-01

    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.

  17. Immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccines in prostate cancer:an update on current strategies and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Harpreet Singh; James L Gulley

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are multiple ways to target the immune system, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in late-stage clinical trials. The landmark Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer set the stage for ongoing phase III trials with the cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. A common feature of these immune-based therapies is the appearance of improved overall survival without short-term changes in disease progression. This class effect appears to be due to modulation of tumor growth rate kinetics, in which the activated immune system exerts constant immunologic pressure that slows net tumor growth. Emerging data suggest that the ideal population for clinical trials of cancer vaccines is patients with lower tumor volume and less aggressive disease. Combination strategies that combine immunotherapy with standard therapies have been shown to augment both immune response and clinical beneift.

  18. Immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccines in prostate cancer: an update on current strategies and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Harpreet Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer. While there are multiple ways to target the immune system, therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in late-stage clinical trials. The landmark Food and Drug Administration approval of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic prostate cancer set the stage for ongoing phase III trials with the cancer vaccine PSA-TRICOM and the immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab. A common feature of these immune-based therapies is the appearance of improved overall survival without short-term changes in disease progression. This class effect appears to be due to modulation of tumor growth rate kinetics, in which the activated immune system exerts constant immunologic pressure that slows net tumor growth. Emerging data suggest that the ideal population for clinical trials of cancer vaccines is patients with lower tumor volume and less aggressive disease. Combination strategies that combine immunotherapy with standard therapies have been shown to augment both immune response and clinical benefit.

  19. Current status of predictive biomarkers for neoadjuvant therapy in esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norihisa; Uemura; Tadashi; Kondo

    2014-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy has been proven to be extremely valuable and is widely used for advanced esophageal cancer. However, a significant proportion of treated patients(60%-70%) does not respond well to neoadjuvant treatments and develop severe adverse effects. Therefore, predictive markers for individualization of multimodality treatments are urgently needed in esophageal cancer. Recently, molecular biomarkers that predict the response to neoadjuvant therapy have been explored in multimodal approaches in esophageal cancer and successful examples of biomarker identification have been reported. In this review, promising candidates for predictive molecular biomarkers developed by using multiple molecular approaches are reviewed. Moreover, treatment strategies based on the status of predicted biomarkers are discussed, while considering the international differences in the clinical background. However, in the absence of adequate treatment options related to the results of the biomarker test, the usefulness of these diagnostic tools is limited and new effective therapies for biomarker-identified nonresponders to cancer treatment should be concurrent with the progress of predictive technologies. Further improvement in the prognosis of esophageal cancer patients can be achieved through the introduction of novel therapeutic approaches in clinical practice.

  20. Current Insights into Long Non-Coding RNAs (LncRNAs) in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolle, Maria A.; Bauernhofer, Thomas; Pummer, Karl; Calin, George A.; Pichler, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The importance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of various malignancies has been uncovered over the last few years. Their dysregulation often contributes to or is a result of tumour progression. In prostate cancer, the most common malignancy in men, lncRNAs can promote castration resistance, cell proliferation, invasion, and metastatic spread. Expression patterns of lncRNAs often change during tumour progression; their expression levels may constantly rise (e.g., HOX transcript antisense RNA, HOTAIR), or steadily decrease (e.g., downregulated RNA in cancer, DRAIC). In prostate cancer, lncRNAs likewise have diagnostic (e.g., prostate cancer antigen 3, PCA3), prognostic (e.g., second chromosome locus associated with prostate-1, SChLAP1), and predictive (e.g., metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1, MALAT-1) functions. Considering their dynamic role in prostate cancer, lncRNAs may also serve as therapeutic targets, helping to prevent development of castration resistance, maintain stable disease, and prohibit metastatic spread. PMID:28241429

  1. Computer Aided-Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer on Multiparametric MRI: A Technical Review of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States. In this paper, we survey computer aided-diagnosis (CADx systems that use multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI for detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer. We review and list mainstream techniques that are commonly utilized in image segmentation, registration, feature extraction, and classification. The performances of 15 state-of-the-art prostate CADx systems are compared through the area under their receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC. Challenges and potential directions to further the research of prostate CADx are discussed in this paper. Further improvements should be investigated to make prostate CADx systems useful in clinical practice.

  2. Current status of sentinel lymph node mapping in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Lukas; Lukas, Rob; Robova, Helena; Helena, Robova; Halaska, Michael Jiri; Jiri, Halaska Michael; Hruda, Martin; Martin, Hruda; Skapa, Petr; Petr, Skapa

    2013-07-01

    The status of regional lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor in early cervical cancer patients. Pelvic lymph node dissections are routinely performed as a part of standard surgical treatment. Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy is associated with short- and long-term morbidities. This review discusses single components of the sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) technique and results of the detection of sentinel lymph nodes. SLNM biopsy performed by an experienced team for small volume tumors (<2 cm) has high specific side detection rate, excellent negative-predictive value and high sensitivity. Uncommon lymphatic drainage has been reported in 15% of cervical cancer patients. There is sufficient data now to suggest that SLNM with 99mTc plus blue dye in the hands of a surgeon with extensive experience should prove to be an important part of individualized cervical cancer surgery and increase the safety of less radical or fertility-sparing surgery.

  3. Computer aided-diagnosis of prostate cancer on multiparametric MRI: a technical review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Burtt, Karen; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Summers, Ronald M

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States. In this paper, we survey computer aided-diagnosis (CADx) systems that use multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) for detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer. We review and list mainstream techniques that are commonly utilized in image segmentation, registration, feature extraction, and classification. The performances of 15 state-of-the-art prostate CADx systems are compared through the area under their receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Challenges and potential directions to further the research of prostate CADx are discussed in this paper. Further improvements should be investigated to make prostate CADx systems useful in clinical practice.

  4. Current perspectives on recommendations for BRCA genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergote, Ignace; Banerjee, Susana; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, BRCA genetic testing has been undertaken to identify patients and family members at future risk of developing cancer and patients have been referred for testing based on family history. However, the now recognised risk of ovarian cancer (OC) patients, even those with no known family...... history, harbouring a mutation in BRCA1/2, together with the first poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi; olaparib [Lynparza]) being licenced for the treatment of BRCA-mutated OC, has led to reconsideration of referral criteria for OC patients. Provided here is a review...

  5. CURRENT POSSIBILITIES OF TREATMENT FOR VISCERAL METASTASES IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC CASTRATION-REFRACTORY PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Govorov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Medications increasing the survival of patients with metastatic castration-refractory prostate cancer (CRPC are lacking today. In the past 3 years, in the pharmaceutical market there have been a few novel drugs to treat progressive prostate cancer. Abiraterone acetate is an androgen synthesis inhibitor, which is also used to increase the survival of patients with metastatic CRPC that progresses after chemotherapy. The results of treatment for metastatic CRPC depend on a number of factors. Visceral metastases are poor predictors of the course of the disease. The results of abiraterone acetate treatment were analyzed in CRPC patients with visceral metastases.

  6. [Current situation and confusion of sublobar resection for early stage lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Lobectomy with lymph node dissection has long been the standard surgical procedure for non-small cell lung cancer. However, the increased identification of smaller and smaller and even more indolent tumors by advanced imaging screening rekindled the interest of sublobar resection. Still, existing evidence only supports sublobar resection for radiologically or pathologically "very-early" stage tumors or high-risk patients. Ongoing randomized controlled trials in America, Japan and Europe will address the issue of "radical" application of sublobar resection, as well as an elderly patient trial for "compromized" application initiated by us. These efforts will delineate the utility of sublobar resection in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

  7. How the risk of liver cancer changes after alcohol cessation: A review and meta-analysis of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heckley Gawain A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that drinking alcohol raises the risk of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it has not been sufficiently established as to whether or not drinking cessation subsequently reduces the risk of liver cancer and if it does reduce the risk how long it takes for this heightened risk to fall to that of never drinkers. This question is important for effective policy design and evaluation, to establish causality and for motivational treatments. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis using the current available evidence and a specific form of Generalised Least Squares is performed to assess how the risk of liver cancer changes with time for former drinkers. Results Four studies are found to have quantified the effect of drinking cessation on the risk of liver cancer. The meta-analysis suggests that the risk of liver cancer does indeed fall after cessation by 6-7% a year, but there remains a large uncertainty around this estimate both statistically and in its interpretation. As an illustration it is estimated that a time period of 23 years is required after drinking cessation, with a correspondingly large 95% confidence interval of 14 to 70 years, for the risk of liver cancer to be equal to that of never drinkers. Conclusion This is a relatively under researched area and this is reflected in the uncertainty of the findings. It is our view that it is not possible to extrapolate the results found here to the general population. Too few studies have addressed this question and of the studies that have, all have significant limitations. The key issue amongst the relevant studies is that it appears that current drinkers, abstainers and former drinkers are not composed of, or effectively adjusted to be, similar populations making inferences about risk changes impossible. This is a very difficult area to study effectively, but it is an important topic. More work is required to reduce both statistical

  8. Current status of treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer with special reference to cetuximab and elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Pfeiffer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Per Pfeiffer, Camilla Qvortrup, Jon K BjerregaardDepartment of Oncology, Odense University Hospital. Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark. Odense C, DenmarkPurpose: Elderly cancer patients often have co-morbidities and other characteristics that make the selection of optimal treatment more complex. The introduction of targeted therapies in colorectal cancer has further complicated this problem. This review will focus on the role of the EGFR antibody cetuximab in elderly patients.Methods: We have reviewed the available evidence in the literature to evaluate the results of therapy with cetuximab, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, with a focus on elderly patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC.Results: In patients with mCRC, combination chemotherapy prolongs median survival to more than 18 months and even around 24 months in combination with cetuximab in selected patients. No prospective studies have evaluated cetuximab in elderly patients. However, subgroup analyses from randomized trials and retrospective analysis suggest that the efficacy of chemotherapy and cetuximab is maintained in fit elderly patients, but with slightly increased but acceptable toxicity.Conclusion: No prospective cetuximab studies have been conducted solely in a population of elderly patients. However, available data suggest that outcomes in the fit elderly mirror results observed in younger patients.Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer, cetuximab, elderly patients

  9. Choosing the optimal method in programmatic colorectal cancer screening: current evidence and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem all over the world, being the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The most important strategy for CRC prevention is screening (i.e. secondary prevention). Since it is widely accepted that adenomas and serrated polyps are the precursors of the vast majority of CRC, early detection and removal of these lesions is associated with a reduction of CRC incidence and, consequently, mortality. Moreover, cancers detected by screening are usually diagnosed at early stages and, therefore, curable by endoscopic or surgical procedures. This review will be address CRC screening strategies in average-risk population, which is defined by those individuals, men and women, 50 years of age or older, without any additional personal or familial predisposing risk factor. In order to maximize the impact of screening and ensure high coverage and equity of access, only organized screening programs (i.e. programmatic screening) should be implemented, as opposed to case-finding or opportunistic screening. For that reason and considering that the optimal approach for colorectal screening may differ depending on the scenario, this review will be focused on the advantages and limitations of each screening strategy in an organized setting.

  10. Neoadjuvant Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Current Practice, Controversies, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa-Maria, Cesar Augusto; Camp, Melissa; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Harvey, Susan; Wright, Jean; Stearns, Vered

    2015-11-01

    Research in the fields of surgical, medical, and radiation oncology has changed the landscape of neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer, yet many areas of controversy still exist. When considering whether a patient is a candidate for neoadjuvant therapy, ideally the initial assessment should be multidisciplinary in nature and should include clinical, radiographic, and pathologic evaluation. Optimization of systemic therapy is dependent upon identifying the patient's breast cancer subtype; the best approach may include targeted agents, as well as the determination of eligibility for enrollment into clinical trials that incorporate novel therapeutics or predictive biomarkers. This article will review a variety of surgical and radiation-based strategies for management of early-stage breast cancer, including surgical options involving the breast and axilla, and the role of radiation based on response to systemic therapy. Key areas of controversy include the ideal systemic treatment for different breast cancer subtypes, the surgical and radiotherapeutic approaches for management of the axilla, and the role of pathologic response rates as a surrogate for survival in drug development.

  11. Current and emerging treatment options for castration-resistant prostate cancer: a focus on immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W.R.; Sharma, P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Castration-resistant prostate cancer is a disease with limited treatment options. However, the ongoing elucidation of the mechanisms underlying this disease continues to support the development of not only novel agents, but also innovative approaches. Among these therapies, immunotherapy

  12. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based Radiation Therapy planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy eLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  13. Current substance use in patients with gastric cancer in Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabei S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders may affect patients suffering from cancer and substance use disorders. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco and opioid use in patients with gastric cancer in Shiraz, Fars Province and Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: In a hospital survey of 177 gastric cancer patients aged 24 years and more, a semistructured-interview was performed based on SDM-IV criteria during the year 2003. Results: The mean age of the patients was 58.13 (SD=14.03 years. Among the subjects, 50.9% (90 were tobacco dependent (61.5% men and 29.4% women, P < 0.001, while 10 (5.7% were opioid-dependent (7.3% men and 1.9% women, P =0.16. Tobacco and opioid-dependency were not significantly related to age groups, economical or occupational status. Mean ages of tobacco and opioid-dependants were not significantly different from nondependants. Conclusions: Tobacco and opioid dependency were common problems among gastric cancer patients. This report provides useful information for health planning. Men were at greater risk than women. Treatment programs should focus on all age-groups, all occupations and all income-levels.

  14. Current role of bone scan with phosphonates in the follow-up of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffioli, Lorenzo; Florimonte, Luigia; Pagani, Luca; Butti, Ivana [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ospedale ' ' A. Manzoni' ' , Via dell' Eremo 9/11, 23900, Lecco (Italy); Roca, Isabel [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitari Vall Hebron, 08035, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-06-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that bone scintigraphy has high sensitivity and efficacy in the early detection of bone metastases from several tumours, including breast cancer. Bone scintigraphy is the most definitive tool for diagnosing and monitoring metastatic spread of breast cancer. However, in the past decade there has been a wide debate on its impact on survival time, morbidity and quality of life. Worldwide economic restrictions and these studies have led to the adoption of an almost minimalist policy for breast cancer follow-up using evidence-based guidelines. The recommended breast cancer surveillance testing includes only a few procedures (history, physical and breast self-examination, patient education on symptoms, pelvic examination). The routine use of additional tests, such as blood cell count, tumour markers, liver ultrasonography, bone scan and chest X-rays, is not recommended. Accordingly, scintigraphy should be reserved for a limited number of patients. On the other hand, early diagnosis of bone involvement may reduce the risk of skeletal related events, thus leading to a significant improvement in quality of life. Furthermore, new drugs (e.g. bisphosphonates) can now delay the onset of bone metastasis and reduce the number of patients who experience skeletal complications. In conclusion, the evidence of the clinical usefulness of bone scintigraphy (to allow early planning of new treatments in advanced disease) has to be re-evaluated, possibly by large randomised prospective trials. (orig.)

  15. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: current evidence and contemporary state of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Carter, H Ballentine; Lepor, Abbey; Loeb, Stacy

    2016-04-01

    Prostate cancer remains one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide. Early diagnosis and curative treatment seem to improve survival in men with unfavourable-risk cancers, but significant concerns exist regarding the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of men with lower-risk cancers. To this end, active surveillance (AS) has emerged as a primary management strategy in men with favourable-risk disease, and contemporary data suggest that use of AS has increased worldwide. Although published surveillance cohorts differ by protocol, reported rates of metastatic disease and prostate-cancer-specific mortality are exceedingly low in the intermediate term (5-10 years). Such outcomes seem to be closely associated with programme-specific criteria for selection, monitoring, and intervention, suggesting that AS--like other management strategies--could be individualized based on the level of risk acceptable to patients in light of their personal preferences. Additional data are needed to better establish the risks associated with AS and to identify patient-specific characteristics that could modify prognosis.

  16. Current perspectives on recommendations for BRCA genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergote, Ignace; Banerjee, Susana; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; van Asperen, Christi; Marth, Christian; Vaz, Fatima; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Sehouli, Jalid; Colombo, Nicoletta

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, BRCA genetic testing has been undertaken to identify patients and family members at future risk of developing cancer and patients have been referred for testing based on family history. However, the now recognised risk of ovarian cancer (OC) patients, even those with no known family history, harbouring a mutation in BRCA1/2, together with the first poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi; olaparib [Lynparza]) being licenced for the treatment of BRCA-mutated OC, has led to reconsideration of referral criteria for OC patients. Provided here is a review of the existing data and guidelines in the European Union, relating to recommendations, as well as considerations, for the referral of OC patients for BRCA genetic testing. Based on this review of newly updated guidance and up-to-date evidence, the following is recommended: all patients with invasive epithelial OC (excluding borderline or mucinous), including those with fallopian tube and peritoneal cancers, should be considered as candidates for referral for BRCA genetic testing, irrespective of age; genetic testing should ideally be offered at diagnosis, although patients can be referred at any stage; retrospective testing should be offered to patients in long-term follow-up because of the implications for family members and individual future breast cancer risk; and germline BRCA testing of a blood/saliva sample should initially be conducted and, if negative, tumour tissue should be tested (to identify non-germline [somatic] BRCA PARPi therapy candidates).

  17. Lead exposure: a contributing cause of the current breast cancer epidemic in Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, Olusegun I; Schrauzer, Gerhard N

    2010-08-01

    Breast cancer incidence in Nigerian women has significantly increased during the past three decades in parallel with the rapid industrialization of that country. This suggested that the associated widespread contamination of the soil and of the water supplies by lead (Pb) and other industrial metals was a major contributing cause. Because of its many domestic, industrial, and automotive uses, Pb is of particular concern as it has been shown to promote the development of mammary tumors in murine mammary tumor virus-infected female C3H mice at levels as low of 0.5 ppm Pb in the drinking water. Lead belongs to the group of selenium-antagonistic elements that interact with selenium (Se), abolishing its anti-carcinogenic effect. Lead on chronic, low-level exposure in addition also accelerates tumor growth rates. Higher levels of Pb were found in blood and head hair samples of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer, all with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, the most common form of breast cancer in Nigeria, seen at Obafemi Awolowo University, than in cancer-free controls from the same area. Evidence for interactions between Pb and Se was obtained from blood, hair, and tumor biopsy tissue analyses. Furthermore, the Pb levels in hair samples of the patients were directly correlated with the volumes of their tumors, in accord with the tumor growth-promoting effects of Pb. Conversely, Se levels in hair and blood were inversely correlated with the tumor volumes, consistent with the anti-proliferative effects of Se. Several other elements, e.g., Cd, Hg, Cr, Sn, and As, were detected in the scalp hair of the patients and the controls, although at significantly lower levels than those of Pb. However, correlation calculations revealed them also to interact with Se, suggesting that only a fraction of the Se in organs and tissues is actually present in bioactive forms. In metal-exposed subjects, a state of latent Se deficiency may exist, resulting in depressed immune functions

  18. [Current status of p53 tumor suppressor gene as a possible molecular marker of cancer of the prostate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña González, J A; Morote Robles, J; de Torres Ramírez, I M; Martínez Cuenca, E

    1998-04-01

    Diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased over the last few years both in localized and in more advanced stages. At present, several groups are working in the search and evaluation of alternative tumoral markers as the current ones do not cover all the Urologist's needs. In this context, a number of studies on the mutation of the tumour suppressor gen p53 in both localized and metastatic prostate cancer are being carried out. When a noxa acts on the DNA, protein p53 inhibits the cell cycle allowing the repair systems to operate and, if the damage is significant enough, cell apoptosis. The loss of this control mechanism secondary to the synthesis of anomalous proteins can result in the proliferation of neoplastic cells. A revision of the most representative papers in the literature is presented here, addressing the surrounding controversy and the resulting future possibilities.

  19. Current Advances in the Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Molecular Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Raquel Martins Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy provides a unique biochemical fingerprint capable of identifying and characterizing the structure of molecules, cells, and tissues. In cervical cancer, it is acknowledged as a promising biochemical tool due to its ability to detect premalignancy and early malignancy stages. This review summarizes the key research in the area and the evidence compiled is very encouraging for ongoing and further research. In addition to the diagnostic potential, promising results for HPV detection and monitoring treatment response suggest more than just a diagnosis prospective. A greater body of evidence is however necessary before Raman spectroscopy is fully validated for clinical use and larger comprehensive studies are required to fully establish the role of Raman spectroscopy in the molecular diagnostics of cervical cancer.

  20. CURRENT TREATMENT POLICY FOR RECTAL CANCER WITH SYNCHRONOUS DISTANT METASTASES (A CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Davydov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment results of low rectal cancer patient with internal sphincter involvement and synchronous liver metastases is presented. After combined treatment including preoperative targeted therapy, chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy a synchronous resection of primary tumour and liver metastases was carried out (R0. Synchronous right hepihepatectomy and proctectomy was performed with resection of the deep part of external sphincter, neorectum creation by transverse coloplasty, neoanal sphincter creation using colonic smooth muscle layer without preventive colostomy. A possibility of synchronous plastic sphincter-sparing surgery in metastatic rectal cancer patient with locally advanced tumour is demonstrated. Such treatment allows to remove the risk of primary tumour complications, facilitates further chemotherapy treatment and improves quality of life and long-term treatment outcome.

  1. Neo-adjuvant chemo(radio)therapy in gastric cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto; Biondi; Maria; C; Lirosi; Domenico; D’Ugo; Valeria; Fico; Riccardo; Ricci; Francesco; Santullo; Antonia; Rizzuto; Ferdinando; CM; Cananzi; Roberto; Persiani

    2015-01-01

    In the last 20 years, several clinical trials on neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemo-radiotherapy as a therapeutic approach for locally advanced gastric cancer have been performed. Even if more data are necessary to define the roles of these approaches, the results of preoperative treatments in the combined treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma are encouraging because this approach has led to a higher rate of curative surgical resection. Owing to the results of most recent randomized phase III studies, neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced resectable gastric cancer has satisfied the determination of level I evidence. Remaining concerns pertain to the choice of the optimal therapy regimen, strict patient selection by accurate pre-operative staging, standardization of surgical procedures, and valid criteria for response evaluation. New well-designed trials will be necessary to find the best therapeutic approach in pre-operative settings and the best way to combine old-generation chemotherapeutic drugs with new-generation molecules.

  2. Current Status of CTCs as Liquid Biopsy in Lung Cancer and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs have garnered a lot of attention in the past few decades. Isolation of these rare cells form the billions of blood cells has been a challenge until recent times. With the advent of new sensitive technologies that permit live cell isolation and downstream genomic analysis, the existing paradigm of CTC research has evolved to explore clinical utility of these cells. CTCs have been identified as prognostic and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in many solid tumors, including lung cancer. As a means of liquid biopsy, CTCs could play a major role in the development of personalized medicine and targeted therapies. This review discusses the state of various isolation strategies, cell separation techniques and key studies that illustrate the application of liquid biopsy to lung cancer.

  3. Current status of sentinel lymph node mapping in the management of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robova, Helena; Rob, Lukas; Halaska, Michael Jiri; Pluta, Marek; Skapa, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of endometrial cancer (EC) is generally favorable, while lymph node status remains the most important prognostic factor. Sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM) could help to find women in whom adjuvant therapy could be omitted. This review analyzes different techniques of injection and histopathologic elaboration of SLNM in EC. Results of studies on SLNM in ECs seem to be promising, but only a small series have been published so far. The studies are subdivided into three groups by the technique of injection (hysteroscopic, subserosal and cervical). Range of detection rate for SLNM varies from 45 to 100%. Hysteroscopic injection is not easy to learn; moreover, exact peritumoral injection in large tumors is often impossible. Subserosal administration of tracer is difficult during laparoscopic or robotic surgery. Cervical injection is quite a controversial technique because distribution of SLNs in ECs is different from cervical cancer; moreover, there is no large study using cervical injection with systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.

  4. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J

    2005-01-01

    value in the detection of early ovarian cancer. At present, therefore, CA125, either alone or in combination with other modalities, cannot be recommended for screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women outside the context of a randomized controlled trial. Preoperative levels in postmenopausal...... women, however, may aid the differentiation of benign and malignant pelvic masses. Serial levels during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer are useful for assessing response to treatment. Although serial monitoring following initial chemotherapy can lead to the early detection of recurrent disease......CA125 is currently the most widely used tumor marker for ovarian epithelial cancer. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the routine clinical use of CA125 in patients with ovarian cancer. Due to lack of sensitivity for stage I disease and lack of specificity, CA125 is of little...

  5. Current role of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernardino; Rampone; Beniamino; Schiavone; Antonio; Martino; Giuseppe; Confuorto

    2010-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is one of the most common routes of dissemination of colorectal cancer (CRC). It is encountered in 7% of patients at primary surgery, while it develops in about 4% to 19% of patients after curative surgery and in up to 44% of patients with recurrent CRC. Peritoneal involvement from colorectal malignancies has been considered traditionally as a manifestation of terminal disease, due to limited response to conventional surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments. In the past few years t...

  6. Current understandings and perspectives on non-cancer health effects of benzene: A global concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahadar, Haji [International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafalou, Sara [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Objective: Benzene, as a volatile organic compound, is known as one of the main air pollutants in the environment. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidences on non-cancerous health effects of benzene providing an overview of possible association of exposure to benzene with human chronic diseases, specially, in those regions of the world where benzene concentration is being poorly monitored. Methodology: A bibliographic search of scientific databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scirus was conducted with key words of “benzene toxic health effects”, “environmental volatile organic compounds”, “diabetes mellitus and environmental pollutants”, “breast cancer and environmental pollution”, “prevalence of lung cancer”, and “diabetes prevalence”. More than 300 peer reviewed papers were examined. Experimental and epidemiologic studies reporting health effects of benzene and volatile organic compounds were included in the study. Results: Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that benzene exposure can lead to numerous non-cancerous health effects associated with functional aberration of vital systems in the body like reproductive, immune, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Conclusion: Chronic diseases have become a health burden of global dimension with special emphasis in regions with poor monitoring over contents of benzene in petrochemicals. Benzene is a well known carcinogen of blood and its components, but the concern of benzene exposure is more than carcinogenicity of blood components and should be evaluated in both epidemiologic and experimental studies. Aspect of interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to diabetes, breast and lung cancers should be followed up. - Highlights: • Benzene is a volatile organic compound and established blood carcinogen. • Exposure to benzene needs to be

  7. The relationship between the nucleolus and cancer: Current evidence and emerging paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolic, Ines; Jurada, Deana; Pullen, Nick; Oren, Moshe; Eliopoulos, Aristides G; Volarevic, Sinisa

    2016-06-01

    The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear substructure assigned to produce ribosomes; molecular machines that are responsible for carrying out protein synthesis. To meet the increased demand for proteins during cell growth and proliferation the cell must increase protein synthetic capacity by upregulating ribosome biogenesis. While larger nucleolar size and number have been recognized as hallmark features of many tumor types, recent evidence has suggested that, in addition to overproduction of ribosomes, decreased ribosome biogenesis as well as qualitative changes in this process could also contribute to tumor initiation and cancer progression. Furthermore, the nucleolus has become the focus of intense attention for its involvement in processes that are clearly unrelated to ribosome biogenesis such as sensing and responding to endogenous and exogenous stressors, maintenance of genome stability, regulation of cell-cycle progression, cellular senescence, telomere function, chromatin structure, establishment of nuclear architecture, global regulation of gene expression and biogenesis of multiple ribonucleoprotein particles. The fact that dysregulation of many of these fundamental cellular processes may contribute to the malignant phenotype suggests that normal functioning of the nucleolus safeguards against the development of cancer and indicates its potential as a therapeutic approach. Here we review the recent advances made toward understanding these newly-recognized nucleolar functions and their roles in normal and cancer cells, and discuss possible future research directions.

  8. Current Technologies and Recent Developments for Screening of HPV-Associated Cervical and Oropharyngeal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sunny S.; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Klacsmann, Flora; Miller, Daniel L.; Johnson, Jeff J.; Chang, Hsueh-Chia; Stack, M. Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a growing number of malignancies, predominantly represented by cervical cancer and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the prevalence of the virus, persistence of infection, and long latency period, novel and low-cost methods are needed for effective population level screening and monitoring. We review established methods for screening of cervical and oral cancer as well as commercially-available techniques for detection of HPV DNA. We then describe the ongoing development of microfluidic nucleic acid-based biosensors to evaluate circulating host microRNAs that are produced in response to an oncogenic HPV infection. The goal is to develop an ideal screening platform that is low-cost, portable, and easy to use, with appropriate signal stability, sensitivity and specificity. Advances in technologies for sample lysis, pre-treatment and concentration, and multiplexed nucleic acid detection are provided. Continued development of these devices provides opportunities for cancer screening in low resource settings, for point-of-care diagnostics and self-screening, and for monitoring response to vaccination or surgical treatment. PMID:27618102

  9. Management of Breast Cancer during Pregnancy: Are We Compliant with Current Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlensky, Victoria; Hallmeyer, Sigrun; Juarez, Lourdes; Parilla, Barbara V.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of patients with breast cancer in pregnancy treated at the Advocate Health Care, to determine whether these patients were treated according to guidelines for pregnant patients, which aim to maximize both fetal and maternal outcomes. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed at the Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Christ Medical Center, and Illinois Masonic Medical Center from 2002 to 2012 on patients diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy using ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases - 9th version) codes. Results Eleven patients between 12 and 37 weeks' gestation matched the search criteria. One patient terminated the pregnancy. Patients in our study were treated appropriately according to guidelines with the following exceptions. Trastuzumab was used in one patient during pregnancy which likely caused the oligohydramnios resulting in an induction of labor at 33 weeks. Three patients were delivered preterm between 34 and 36 weeks without an obstetric indication. Two patients underwent sentinel node biopsy. Conclusion The diagnosis of breast cancer in pregnancy is an infrequent but devastating diagnosis that is likely to increase. Although sentinel lymph node biopsy is not generally recommended in pregnancy, this may be an outdated guideline as using a low-dose lymphoscintigraphic technique appears to be safe in pregnancy. PMID:28255521

  10. [Current status and future prospects of robotic surgery for lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Yuji; Miwa, Ken; Haruki, Tomohiro

    2014-11-01

    As the use of robotic surgery has widely spread, its usefulness in the field of general thoracic surgery needs to be verified. The biggest advantage of robotic surgery is the remarkably free movement of joint-equipped robotic forceps under 3-dimensional high vision. An accurate operation makes complex procedures straightforward and may overcome the disadvantages of previous thoracoscopic surgery. Robotic surgery for lung cancer has been safely introduced, and the initial results have been favorable. While still at the stage of clinical research, it is expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of lung parenchyma or bronchus. We considered robotic surgery for lung cancer surgery because of its ability to facilitate both thoracotomy and minimally invasive video-assisted thoracic surgery. Robotic thoracic surgery has not been sufficiently examined for its usefulness, and other major issues such as safety management, education, and significant cost need to be addressed. However, it may become an extension of thoracoscopic surgery, and studies showing its usefulness for primary lung cancer have been increasing. Two urgent issues are its use in advanced medical care and national heal th insurance coverage.

  11. Current Technologies and Recent Developments for Screening of HPV-Associated Cervical and Oropharyngeal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny S. Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV is responsible for a growing number of malignancies, predominantly represented by cervical cancer and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Because of the prevalence of the virus, persistence of infection, and long latency period, novel and low-cost methods are needed for effective population level screening and monitoring. We review established methods for screening of cervical and oral cancer as well as commercially-available techniques for detection of HPV DNA. We then describe the ongoing development of microfluidic nucleic acid-based biosensors to evaluate circulating host microRNAs that are produced in response to an oncogenic HPV infection. The goal is to develop an ideal screening platform that is low-cost, portable, and easy to use, with appropriate signal stability, sensitivity and specificity. Advances in technologies for sample lysis, pre-treatment and concentration, and multiplexed nucleic acid detection are provided. Continued development of these devices provides opportunities for cancer screening in low resource settings, for point-of-care diagnostics and self-screening, and for monitoring response to vaccination or surgical treatment.

  12. Imaging modalities in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Matalia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of keratoconus has greatly improved from simple clinical diagnosis with the advent of better diagnostic devices like corneal topographers based on placido disc, elevation based topographers and lately optical coherence tomography (OCT. These instruments are quite sensitive to pick up early keratoconus, which could help refractive surgeons to avoid serious complications like ectasia following keratorefractive surgeries. Each of these instruments has their advantages and disadvantages; in spite of that each one of them has its own place in the clinical practice. Currently, placido disc based topographers are the most commonly used topographers all over the world. There are many different companies making such devices, which follow the different techniques and color for the display. Due to these differences they are not directly comparable to each other. Various quantitative indices based on these topographers have been suggested and validated by different authors to aid in the diagnosis and quantification of keratoconus. OCT with its higher resolution and deeper penetration has created its place in the diagnostic armamentarium for keratoconus.

  13. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that giv...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  14. Gene therapy for prostate cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tangney, Mark

    2012-01-31

    Cancer remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in understanding, detection, and treatment, it accounts for almost one-fourth of all deaths per year in Western countries. Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer in men in Europe and the United States, accounting for 15% of all cancers in men. As life expectancy of individuals increases, it is expected that there will also be an increase in the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may be inoperable at initial presentation, unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or recur following appropriate treatment. At the time of presentation, patients may already have metastases in their tissues. Preventing tumor recurrence requires systemic therapy; however, current modalities are limited by toxicity or lack of efficacy. For patients with such metastatic cancers, the development of alternative therapies is essential. Gene therapy is a realistic prospect for the treatment of prostate and other cancers, and involves the delivery of genetic information to the patient to facilitate the production of therapeutic proteins. Therapeutics can act directly (eg, by inducing tumor cells to produce cytotoxic agents) or indirectly by upregulating the immune system to efficiently target tumor cells or by destroying the tumor\\'s vasculature. However, technological difficulties must be addressed before an efficient and safe gene medicine is achieved (primarily by developing a means of delivering genes to the target cells or tissue safely and efficiently). A wealth of research has been carried out over the past 20 years, involving various strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer at preclinical and clinical trial levels. The therapeutic efficacy observed with many of these approaches in patients indicates that these treatment modalities will serve as an important component of urological malignancy treatment in the clinic, either in isolation or

  15. An overview of gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Amit; Bali, Deepika; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2013-07-01

    Gene therapy is a new treatment modality in which new gene is introduced or existing gene is manipulated to cause cancer cell death or slow the growth of the tumor. In this review, we have discussed the different treatment approaches for cancer gene therapy; gene addition therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy using oncolytic viruses, antisense ribonucleic acid (RNA) and RNA interference-based gene therapy. Clinical trials to date in head and neck cancer have shown evidence of gene transduction and expression, mediation of apoptosis and clinical response including pathological complete responses. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current available gene therapies for head and neck cancer.

  16. Oral cancer--current knowledge, practices and implications for training among an Irish general medical practitioner cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Riordain, Richeal

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the current knowledge and practices of general medical practitioners (GMPs) in Ireland regarding the examination of the oral cavity and the detection of oral malignancy and the training they had received at both undergraduate and postgraduate level and since commencing in practice. A questionnaire survey of GMPs in Ireland was conducted. One hundred and fifty four (65.3%) of the practitioners reported regularly examining the oral mucosa of their patients. Almost half of these (n=68) further qualified this response by stating that they only examined the oral mucosa if the patient reported pain in this area or if the patient specifically requested an oral examination for some reason. Eighty one (34.3%) practitioners surveyed felt confident in their ability to detect oral malignancies with the remaining two thirds unsure of whether they would be able to detect oral cancer. There was a significant association between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on examination of the oral cavity and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=4.811, p<0.05]. A statistically significant association was also found between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on the diagnosis of oral malignant disease and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=6.194, p<0.05]. In conclusion the level of knowledge of Irish general medical practitioners needs to be addressed with appropriate initiatives both at undergraduate level and via CME.

  17. Current status of ultrasound-guided surgery in the treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volders, José H; Haloua, Max H; Krekel, Nicole Ma; Meijer, Sybren; van den Tol, Petrousjka M

    2016-02-10

    The primary goal of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) is to obtain tumour-free resection margins. Margins positive or focally positive for tumour cells are associated with a high risk of local recurrence, and in the case of tumour-positive margins, re-excision or even mastectomy are sometimes needed to achieve definite clear margins. Unfortunately, tumour-involved margins and re-excisions after lumpectomy are still reported in up to 40% of patients and additionally, unnecessary large excision volumes are described. A secondary goal of BCS is the cosmetic outcome and one of the main determinants of worse cosmetic outcome is a large excision volume. Up to 30% of unsatisfied cosmetic outcome is reported. Therefore, the search for better surgical techniques to improve margin status, excision volume and consequently, cosmetic outcome has continued. Nowadays, the most commonly used localization methods for BCS of non-palpable breast cancers are wire-guided localization (WGL) and radio-guided localization (RGL). WGL and RGL are invasive procedures that need to be performed pre-operatively with technical and scheduling difficulties. For palpable breast cancer, tumour excision is usually guided by tactile skills of the surgeon performing "blind" surgery. One of the surgical techniques pursuing the aims of radicality and small excision volumes includes intra-operative ultrasound (IOUS). The best evidence available demonstrates benefits of IOUS with a significantly high proportion of negative margins compared with other localization techniques in palpable and non-palpable breast cancer. Additionally, IOUS is non-invasive, easy to learn and can centralize the tumour in the excised specimen with low amount of healthy breast tissue being excised. This could lead to better cosmetic results of BCS. Despite the advantages of IOUS, only a small amount of surgeons are performing this technique. This review aims to highlight the position of ultrasound-guided surgery for malignant breast

  18. Penile rehabilitation following treatment for prostate cancer: an analysis of the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiji, Tariq Al; Domes, Trustin; Brock, Gerald

    2009-02-01

    Despite recent advances in surgical technique using laparoscopic and robotic approaches for the management of early organ-confined prostate cancer, most contemporary reports demonstrate significant rates of erectile dysfunction comparable to standard open approaches. Controversy remains related to many of the pre-and postoperative management strategies, including agents to enhance nerve recovery, erectogenic drugs, antioxidants, vasoactive injectables, vacuum erection devices and nerve grafting procedures. Additionally, the optimal timing of these interventions and their duration, dose, frequency and outcome thresholds remain ill-defined. In our paper, we provide a comprehensive literature review involving both the basic and clinical data surrounding rehabilitative approaches.

  19. The role of cancer stem cells and miRNAs in defining the complexities of brain metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have been challenged with the development of therapies for the treatment of cancer patients whose tumors metastasized to the brain. Among the most lethal weapons known today, current management of brain metastases involves multiple therapeutic modalities that provide little, if any, for improving the quality of life and overall survival. Recently the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the development of cancer has been studied extensively, and thus its role in the ...

  20. Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Myers

    Full Text Available In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9 as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2 at the first (S1 and second (S2 stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3, presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

  1. Current management of patients with hepatocellularcarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The current management therapies for hepatocellularcarcinoma (HCC) patients are discussed in this review.Despite the development of new therapies, HCCremains a "difficult to treat" cancer because HCCtypically occurs in advanced liver disease or hepaticcirrhosis. The progression of multistep and multicentricHCC hampers the prevention of the recurrence of HCC.Many HCC patients are treated with surgical resectionand radiofrequencyablation (RFA), although thesemodalities should be considered in only selected caseswith a certain HCC number and size. Although there is ashortage of grafts, liver transplantation has the highestsurvival rates for HCC. Several modalities are salvagetreatments; however, intensive care in combinationwith other modalities or in combination with surgicalresection or RFA might offer a better prognosis. Sorafenibis useful for patients with advanced HCC. In the nearfuture, HCC treatment will include stronger moleculartargeted drugs, which will have greater potency andfewer adverse events. Further studies will be ongoing.

  2. Histopathological, Molecular, and Genetic Profile of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer: Current Knowledge and Challenges for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Gullo, Irene; Oliveira, Carla; Tang, Laura H; Grabsch, Heike I; O'Donovan, Maria; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; van Krieken, Han; Carneiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Familial clustering is seen in 10 % of gastric cancer cases and approximately 1-3 % of gastric cancer arises in the setting of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In families with HDGC, gastric cancer presents at young age. HDGC is predominantly caused by germline mutations in CDH1 and in a minority by mutations in other genes, including CTNNA1. Early stage HDGC is characterized by a few, up to dozens of intramucosal foci of signet ring cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions. These include in situ signet ring cell carcinoma and pagetoid spread of signet ring cells. Advanced HDGC presents as poorly cohesive/diffuse type carcinoma, normally with very few typical signet ring cells, and has a poor prognosis. Currently, it is unknown which factors drive the progression towards aggressive disease, but it is clear that most intramucosal lesions will not have such progression.Immunohistochemical profile of early and advanced HDGC is often characterized by abnormal E-cadherin immunoexpression, including absent or reduced membranous expression, as well as "dotted" or cytoplasmic expression. However, membranous expression of E-cadherin does not exclude HDGC. Intramucosal HDGC (pT1a) presents with an "indolent" phenotype, characterized by typical signet ring cells without immunoexpression of Ki-67 and p53, while advanced carcinomas (pT > 1) display an "aggressive" phenotype with pleomorphic cells, that are immunoreactive for Ki-67 and p53. These features show that the IHC profile is different between intramucosal and more advanced HDGC, providing evidence of phenotypic heterogeneity, and may help to define predictive biomarkers of progression from indolent to aggressive, widely invasive carcinomas.

  3. Novel EGFR Inhibitors in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Status of Afatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Bin-Chi; Lin, Chia-Chi; Yang, James Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Afatinib, a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been approved worldwide as a first-line treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that harbors activating EGFR mutations. Here, we have reviewed the recent clinical developments in the treatment of lung cancer using afatinib. Emerging data have revealed the overall survival benefit of first-line afatinib therapy in patients with advanced EGFR (del19)-positive NSCLC. Phase III studies of afatinib have shown the effectiveness of afatinib as a second-line treatment for advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma, as well as the benefit of continuing afatinib therapy in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC after the occurrence of disease progression in patients who are receiving afatinib monotherapy. Therapeutic benefits of afatinib have also been reported in studies of patients with central nervous system metastasis and patients with HER2 mutation. The utility of afatinib-based combination therapies is being investigated in ongoing research.

  4. Development path and current status of the NANIVID: a new device for cancer cell studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Waseem Khan; Padgen, Michael R.; Williams, James K.; Wyckoff, Jeffrey; Condeelis, John; Castracane, James

    2011-02-01

    Cancer cells create a unique microenvironment in vivo which enables migration to distant organs. To better understand the tumor microenvironment, special tools and devices are required to monitor the interactions between different cell types and the effects of particular chemical gradients. This study presents the design and optimization of a new, versatile chemotaxis device called the NANIVID (NANo IntraVital Device). The device is fabricated using BioMEMS techniques and consists of etched and bonded Pyrex substrates, a soluble factor reservoir, fluorescent tracking beads and a microelectrode array for cell quantification. The reservoir contains a customized hydrogel blend loaded with EGF which diffuses out of the hydrogel to create a chemotactic gradient. This reservoir sustains a steady release of growth factor into the surrounding environment for many hours and establishes a concentration gradient that attracts specific cells to the device. In addition to a cell collection tool, the NANIVID can be modified to act as a delivery vehicle for the local generation of alternate soluble factor gradients to initiate controlled changes to the microenvironment such as hypoxia, ECM stiffness and etc. The focus of this study is to design and optimize the new device for wide ranging studies of breast cancer cell dynamics in vitro and ultimately, implantation for in vivo work.

  5. Endometrial cancer--current state of the art therapies and unmet clinical needs: the role of surgery and preoperative radiographic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Jessica; Dodson, Mark K; Webb, Joel; Soisson, Andrew P

    2009-08-10

    Endometrial carcinoma is the fourth most common cancer among women in the United States. Surgical pathologic staging has been the standard of care since 1988, which consists of analysis of collected peritoneal fluid, hysterectomy/oophorectomy, and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. In 2005, it was further recommended that essentially all women with endometrial cancer who choose to undergo surgery have pelvic and para-aortic lymph node analysis. Despite this recommendation, there still remains controversy as to whether all patients with endometrial cancer should undergo full lymph node dissection. In this review, we assess the evidence surrounding this controversy and conclude that women with endometrial cancer should undergo complete lymphadenectomy at the time of surgery. Furthermore, we evaluate the evidence regarding laparoscopic surgical staging as a safe and effective alternative to the more invasive traditional laparotomy. Finally, for those patients who a gynecologic oncologist is not readily available to perform a complete lymph node dissection, we evaluate the various imaging studies and their utility as preoperative triage modalities.

  6. Incremental Innovation and Progress in Advanced Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: Current Status and Future Impact of Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Corey J; Obasaju, Coleman; Bunn, Paul; Bonomi, Philip; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Kim, Edward S; Natale, Ronald B; Novello, Silvia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pérol, Maurice; Reck, Martin; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Reynolds, Craig H; Socinski, Mark A; Spigel, David R; Wakelee, Heather; Mayo, Carlos; Thatcher, Nick

    2016-12-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) is an aggressive form of cancer that poses many therapeutic challenges. Patients tend to be older, present at a later stage, and have a high incidence of comorbidities, which can compromise treatment delivery and exacerbate toxicity. In addition, certain agents routinely available for nonsquamous cell histologic subtypes, such as bevacizumab and pemetrexed, are contraindicated or lack efficacy in sqCLC. Therapeutic progress has been much slower for advanced sqCLC, with median survival times of approximately 9 to 11 months in most studies. Herein, we discuss the current therapeutic landscape for patients with sqCLC versus with nonsquamous NSCLC. Current evidence indicates that new targeted treatments, notably monoclonal antibodies such as ramucirumab and necitumumab, and immunotherapies such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab can provide survival prolongation, although the benefits are still relatively modest. These incremental improvements, all realized since 2012, in aggregate, will very likely have a clinically meaningful impact for patients with sqCLC. We also discuss recent genomic studies of sqCLC that have identified potentially actionable molecular targets, as well as the relevant targeted agents in clinical development. Finally, we discuss the magnitude of survival benefit and the risk-to-benefit ratio that would prove clinically meaningful in this underserved patient population with unmet needs.

  7. Neurosurgical confocal endomicroscopy: A review of contrast agents, confocal systems, and future imaging modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqib H Zehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical application of fluorescent contrast agents (fluorescein, indocyanine green, and aminolevulinic acid with intraoperative microscopy has led to advances in intraoperative brain tumor imaging. Their properties, mechanism of action, history of use, and safety are analyzed in this report along with a review of current laser scanning confocal endomicroscopy systems. Additional imaging modalities with potential neurosurgical utility are also analyzed. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed utilizing PubMed and key words: In vivo confocal microscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, fluorescence imaging, in vivo diagnostics/neoplasm, in vivo molecular imaging, and optical imaging. Articles were reviewed that discussed clinically available fluorophores in neurosurgery, confocal endomicroscopy instrumentation, confocal microscopy systems, and intraoperative cancer diagnostics. Results: Current clinically available fluorescent contrast agents have specific properties that provide microscopic delineation of tumors when imaged with laser scanning confocal endomicroscopes. Other imaging modalities such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy, confocal reflectance microscopy, fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIM, two-photon microscopy, and second harmonic generation may also have potential in neurosurgical applications. Conclusion: In addition to guiding tumor resection, intraoperative fluorescence and microscopy have the potential to facilitate tumor identification and complement frozen section analysis during surgery by providing real-time histological assessment. Further research, including clinical trials, is necessary to test the efficacy of fluorescent contrast agents and optical imaging instrumentation in order to establish their role in neurosurgery.

  8. [Current strategies in the treatment of renal-cell cancer: targeted therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, José Manuel; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2008-03-22

    Renal-cell carcinoma represents 95% of all renal tumours. The Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor-suppressor gene is mutated or silenced in most clear cell renal carcinomas. pVHL loss results in the stabilization of the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and enhanced transactivation of HIF target genes. HIF itself has been difficult to inhibit with drug-like molecules although a number of agents that indirectly inhibit HIF, including mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitors, have been identified. Moreover, a number of drugs have been developed that target HIF-responsive gene products, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), implicated in tumor angiogenesis. Many of these targeted therapies, especially sunitinib, have demonstrated significant activity in kidney cancer clinical trials and represent a substantive advance in the treatment of this disease.

  9. Approaches to adaptive digital control focusing on the second order modal descriptions of large, flexible spacecraft dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The widespread modal analysis of flexible spacecraft and recognition of the poor a priori parameterization possible of the modal descriptions of individual structures have prompted the consideration of adaptive modal control strategies for distributed parameter systems. The current major approaches to computationally efficient adaptive digital control useful in these endeavors are explained in an original, lucid manner using modal second order structure dynamics for algorithm explication. Difficulties in extending these lumped-parameter techniques to distributed-parameter system expansion control are cited.

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  11. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  12. Diagnosing Lung Cancers through Examination of Micro-RNA Biomarkers in Blood, Plasma, Serum and Sputum: A Review and Summary of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoba, Jennifer; Shan, Shubham; Roa, Wilson; Bédard, Eric L R

    2016-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently, the vast majority of lung cancers are diagnosed at a late stage, when patients become symptomatic leading to dismal, less than 15% five-year survival rates. Evidence has demonstrated that screening computed tomography scans can be used to detect lung cancer, but these scans have high false positive rates. Therefore, there is a continued need for the development of minimally-invasive methods to screen the high risk population and diagnose lung cancer at an earlier, curable stage. One such promising area is the use micro-RNAs. These are short, non-coding RNA molecules that have been shown in previous research to be dysregulated in cancers. This review will focus on the potential use of miRNA levels in various biological fluids (whole blood, plasma, serum, and sputum) and demonstrate their potential utility as screening and diagnostic biomarkers for lung cancer. Current research will be analyzed and compared, and future directions in establishing the use of miRNAs for detecting lung cancer will be discussed.

  13. Improving deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis with mechanical modalities in surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Paula; Jameson, Deborah L; Carroll, Diane L

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis remains a source of adverse outcomes in surgical patients. Deep vein thrombosis is preventable with prophylactic intervention. The success of noninvasive mechanical modalities for prophylaxis relies on compliance with correct application. The goals of this project were to create a guideline that reflected current evidence and expert thinking about mechanical modalities use, assess compliance with mechanical modalities, and develop strategies to disseminate an evidence-based guideline for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis.

  14. ON THE REDUNDANCY OF COMPLEX MODAL PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奎孚; 焦群英

    2004-01-01

    Generating the simulation transfer function (TF) is indispensable to modal analysis, such as examining modal parameters identification algorithm, and assessing modal analysis software. Comparing 3 feasible algorithms to simulate TF shows that, one of them is preperable, which is expressing the TF as the function of the complex modal parameters ( CMPs ) , because the deliberate behaviors of CMPs can be implemented easily,such as, dense modals , large damping, and complex modal shape, etc. Nonetheless, even this preferable algorithms is elected, the complex modal shapes cannot be specified arbitrarily, because the number of CMPs far more exceeds that in physical coordinate. So for physical realizable system, there are redundant constraints in CMPs. By analyzing the eigenvalue problem of a complex modal system, and the inversion equations from CMPs to physical parameters, the explicit redundancy constraints were presented. For the special cases, such as the real modal, the damping free modal, and non-complete identification, the specific forms of the redundancy constraints were discussed, along with the number of independent parameters. It is worthy of noting that, redundancy constraints are automatically satisfied for the real modal case. Their equivalent forms on the transfer matrix and a column of transfer matrix were also provided. These results are applicable to generate TF, to implement identification by optimization and appreciate the identification results, to evaluate residual modal, and to verify the complementary of identified modal orders.

  15. Commentary on: Mobley AJ, Lam YW, Lau KM, Pais VM, Lesperance JO, Steadman B, et al. Monitoring the serological Proteome Colon, the latest modality in prostate cancer detection. J Urol 2004; 172: 331-7.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertH.Getzenberg

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript examines the utility, utilizing the Ciphergen Protein Biosystem II, to develop a fingerprint for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The investigators compared samples from control individuals as well as those with prostate cancer. In doing so, they utilize several chip platforms on which to examine the resulting protein peaks. In summary, these studies find a peak pattern that is able to distinguish the individuals with prostate cancer from those without the disease.

  16. Current Situation of Cancer Immunotherapy%肿瘤免疫治疗的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旻钰; 单风平

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of malignant tumor is elevating recently and it has been the main threatening factors to hu-man health. Cancer immunotherapy is a newly developing scenario,but it has guided the break through of carcinoma therapy. The scenario adopts complex immune regulation of target-oriented mechanisms to attack tumor cells and pre-vent it from relapse. Therefore,many research institutions make the cancer immunotherapy as their main study direc-tion conduct investigation in deep going way. Recently many studies have put forward a series of components possess-ing novel immunologic role and found a combination of application of the therapy scenario could optimize the effects of carcinoma therapy. The current studies on cancer immunotherapy were summarized in this paper.%恶性肿瘤的发病率近年持续走高并已成为威胁人类健康的主要因素。肿瘤免疫治疗是肿瘤治疗领域的新兴方案,引领了肿瘤治疗的重大突破。该方案通过复杂的免疫调节机制靶向攻击肿瘤细胞并防止肿瘤复发,因此众多研究机构以肿瘤免疫治疗为主要研究方向进行深入探讨。近年来多项研究提出了一系列具有肿瘤免疫作用的新型免疫组分且发现治疗方案的联合应用可优化肿瘤治疗效果。本文将就肿瘤免疫治疗的研究现状做一综述。

  17. Current Understanding of HSP90 as a Novel Therapeutic Target: An Emerging Approach for the Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Absarul; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Azhar, Esam I; Sait, Khalid Hussain Wali; Anfinan, Nisrin; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Rasool, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone that is considered to be the most abundantly expressed protein in various human cancers such as breast, lung, colon, prostate, leukemia and skin. The master regulator, HSP90 plays a pivotal role in the conformational stabilization, maturation and activity of its various labile oncogenic client proteins such as p53, ErbB2, Bcr-Abl, Akt, Her-2, Cdk4, Cdk6, Raf-1 and v-Src in altered cells. Hence, making a guaranteed attempt to inhibit such a master regulator for cancer therapy appears to be a potential approach for combinatorial inhibition of numerous oncogenic signaling pathways simultaneously. Considerable efforts are being under way to develop novel molecular targets and its inhibitors that may block key signaling pathways involved in the process of tumorigenesis and metastasis. In this regards, HSP90 has acquired immense interest as a potent anticancer drug-target due to its key functional link with multiple signaling pathways involved in the process of cell proliferation and cell survival. Notably, geldanamycin and its derivatives (17-AAG, 17-DMAG) have shown quite encouraging results in inhibiting HSP90 function in several cancers and currently almost 17 drug candidates known to be target HSP90 are being under clinical trials either as single agents or combinatorial therapy. Hence, this review is an attempt to get new insight into novel drug target therapy by focusing on recent advances made in understanding HSP90 chaperone structure-function relationships, identification of new HSP90 client proteins and, more importantly, on the advancements of HSP90 targeted therapy based on various existing and emerging classical inhibitors.

  18. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  19. Special issue on Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is not really a new discipline; it has been present from the very beginning of the development of modal testing and analysis going back to the sixties and early seventies.......Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is not really a new discipline; it has been present from the very beginning of the development of modal testing and analysis going back to the sixties and early seventies....

  20. Uncertainty calculation in (operational) modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintelon, R.; Guillaume, P.; Schoukens, J.

    2007-08-01

    In (operational) modal analysis the modal parameters of a structure are identified from the response of that structure to (unmeasurable operational) perturbations. A key issue that remains to be solved is the calculation of uncertainty bounds on the estimated modal parameters. The present paper fills this gap. The theory is illustrated by means of a simulation and a real measurement example (operational modal analysis of a bridge).

  1. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea.

  2. [Current management of liver metastases from colorectal cancer: recommendations of the São Paulo Liver Club].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupinacci, Renato Micelli; Coelho, Fabricio Ferreira; Perini, Marcos Vinicius; Lobo, Edson José; Ferreira, Fabio Gonçalves; Szutan, Luiz Arnaldo; Lopes, Gaspar de Jesus; Herman, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Approximately half of patients with colorectal cancer present with liver metastases during the course of their disease, which directly affect prognosis and is responsible for two thirds of deaths related to the disease. In the last two decades the treatment of liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRCLM) provided significant gain in survival when all treatment options are available to the patient. In this context, surgical treatment remains as the only chance of cure, with five-year survival rates of 25-58%. However, only 1/4 of the patients have resectable disease at diagnosis. For this reason, one of the key points in the current management of patients with CRCLM is the development of strategies that facilitate complete resection of liver lesions. The advent and refinement of ablative methods have expanded the possibilities of surgical therapy. The emergence of new chemotherapy regimens and the introduction of targeted therapies has provided high response rates and has permanently altered the management of these patients. The multimodal therapy and the involvement of different medical specialties has increasingly enabled CRCLM treatment to approached the ideal treatment, i.e., an individualized one. Based on an extensive review of literature and on experience from some of the most important specialized centers of Brazil, the São Paulo Liver Club began a process of multi-institutional discussions that resulted in the recommendations that follow. These recommendations, however, are not intended to be absolute, but useful tools in the therapeutic decision process for this complex group of patients.

  3. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT.

  4. Current Topics on Salvage Thoracic Surgery in Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Salvage primary tumor resection is sometimes considered for isolated local failures after definitive chemoradiation, urgent matters, such as hemoptysis (palliative intent), and in cases judged to be contraindicated for chemotherapy or definite radiation due to severe comorbidities, despite an initial clinical diagnosis of stage III or IV disease. However, salvage surgery is generally considered to be technically more difficult, with a potentially higher morbidity. This review discusses the current topics on salvage thoracic surgery such as the definition of salvage surgery and its outcome, and future perspectives. PMID:26948299

  5. Role of imaging in testicular cancer: current and future practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrisford, Glen W; Kreydin, Evgeniy I; Preston, Mark A; Rodriguez, Dayron; Harisighani, Mukesh G; Feldman, Adam S

    2015-09-01

    The article provides a summary of the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of testicular malignancy. Current standard imaging and novel techniques are reviewed. Present data and clinical treatment trends have favored surveillance protocols over adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy for low-stage testicular malignancy. This has resulted in increasing numbers of imaging studies and the potential for increased long-term exposure risks. Understanding imaging associated risks as well as strategies to minimize these risks is of increasing importance. The development, validation and incorporation of alternative lower risk highly efficacious and cost-effective imaging techniques is essential.

  6. Current opportunities and challenges of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and mass spectrometry imaging for mapping cancer metabolism in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gigin; Chung, Yuen-Li

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is known to have unique metabolic features such as Warburg effect. Current cancer therapy has moved forward from cytotoxic treatment to personalized, targeted therapies, with some that could lead to specific metabolic changes, potentially monitored by imaging methods. In this paper we addressed the important aspects to study cancer metabolism by using image techniques, focusing on opportunities and challenges of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-MRS, positron emission tomography (PET), and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) for mapping cancer metabolism. Finally, we highlighted the future possibilities of an integrated in vivo PET/MR imaging systems, together with an in situ MSI tissue analytical platform, may become the ultimate technologies for unraveling and understanding the molecular complexities in some aspects of cancer metabolism. Such comprehensive imaging investigations might provide information on pharmacometabolomics, biomarker discovery, and disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response monitoring for clinical medicine.

  7. On Modality and Its Metaphorical Expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潜波

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a brief introduction of modality and its metaphorical expressions.lt analyzes types of modality and its different system of orientation followed by the introduction on the metaphorical expressions of modality.The purpose of this study is, th

  8. The Synthesis and Characterization of the Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as PET/MRI Dual-modal Imaging Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI; Xu-dong; SHEN; Lang-tao

    2012-01-01

    <正>Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been employed in the clinical diagnosis of the cancers. However, single modal imaging has its own strengths and weaknesses. The combination of two popular imaging modalities that integrates the advantages of different methods might offer the prospect of improved diagnostic abilities. Some companies have

  9. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-09-09

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it.

  10. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X. X., E-mail: baoxingxian@upc.edu.cn [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xiong, C. B. [The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2015-07-27

    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.

  11. Politeness of English Modals in Business Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhan-ying

    2016-01-01

    With the development of global economy, more and more business negotiations are proceeding in which conflicts and disputes are inevitable. Business negotiations involve interpersonal relationships, which is usually expressed by mood and mo-dality. Modal verbs, as an essential approach for expressing politeness with rich meanings of modality, are widely employed in business negotiations. This paper focuses on analyzing the polite usages of modal verbs in business negotiations by Politeness Principle. Based on this theory, three interpersonal functions expressed by modal verbs are to be studied:Cost-and-Benefit, Humor and Choice.

  12. Treatment Modalities of Necrobiosis Lipoidica: A Concise Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feily, Amir; Mehraban, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare inflammatory granulomatous skin disorder closely associated with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss all the treatment modalities proposed and tested for this disease. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate all the available data and summarize all the clinical trials, case reports and original articles on NL. Two major databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) were used. We have examined about 70 articles. Numerous treatment modalities have been currently investigated to compare recalcitrant NL. Being rare, most of the studies regarding this disease are case reports or small-scale clinical trials. We have found that, in spite of plentiful investigations carried out during the years, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treating NL. PMID:26236446

  13. Treatment modalities of necrobiosis lipoidica: a concise systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Feily

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL is a rare inflammatory granulomatous skin disorder closely associated with diabetes mellitus. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss all the treatment modalities proposed and tested for this disease. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate all the available data and summarize all the clinical trials, case reports and original articles on NL. Two major databases (PubMed and Google Scholar were used. We have examined about 70 articles. Numerous treatment modalities have been currently investigated to compare recalcitrant NL. Being rare, most of the studies regarding this disease are case reports or small-scale clinical trials. We have found that, in spite of plentiful investigations carried out during the years, there is no treatment modality that has proved to be utterly satisfactory in treating NL.

  14. On modal energy in civil structural control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao PANG; Tie-jiong LOU; Ming ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    A new control strategy based on modal energy criterion is proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control system in reducing structural earthquake responses. The modal control algorithm combining LQR (linear quadratic regulator) control algorithm is adopted in the discrete time-history analysis. The various modal energy forms are derived by definition of the generalized absolute displacement vector. A preliminary numerical study of the effectiveness of this control strategy is carried out on a 20-storey framed steel structural model. The controlled performance of the model is studied from the perspectives of both response and modal energy. Results show that the modal energy-based control strategy is very effective in reducing structural responses as well as in consuming a large amount of modal energy, while augmentation of additional generalized control force corresponding to the modes that contain little modal energy is unnecessary, as it does little help to improve the controlled structural performance.

  15. KEBIJAKAN DALAM PENENTUAN DAN PENDANAAN MODAL KERJA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miswanto Miswanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Policy in Determining and Financing Company’s Working Capital. In funding working capital, a company can use hedging policy, conservative policy, and aggressive policy. In relation to long-term versus short-term financing, temporary versus permanent current assets, and the trade-off between risk and profitability, it can be concluded that when the temporary current assets are financed by short-term financing they have moderate risk and profitability, when the temporary current assets are financed by long-term financing they have low risk and profitability, when the permanent current assets are financed by short-term funding they have high risk and profitability, and when the permanent current assets are financed by long-term financing they have moderate risk-profitability. To measure the performance of the working capital management, the working capital position of the company needs to be analyzed. By using the data presented on the balance sheet and income statement, the company can carry out the analysis of working capital performance using financial ratio analysis on working capital, analysis of the funding sources and use of funding statement, and analysis of the company's cash flow statement. Keywords: liquidity, capital, financing, profitability, and risk   Abstrak: Kebijakan dalam Penentuan dan Pendanaan Modal Kerja Perusahaan. Dalam mendanai modal kerja, perusahaan dapat menggunakan kebijakan hedging, kebijakan konservatif, dan kebijakan agresif. Dalam hubungannya antara pendanaan jangka pendek versus jangka panjang, aktiva lancar temporer versus permanen, dan trade-off antara risiko dan profitabilitas diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa jika aktiva lancar temporer dibiayai dengan pendanaan jangka pendek memiliki risiko dan profitabilitas moderat, jika aktiva lancar temporer dibiayai dengan pendanaan jangka panjang memiliki risiko dan profitabilitas rendah, jika aktiva lancar permanen dibiayai dengan pendanaan jangka pendek memiliki

  16. Lung cancer: Biology and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Hassan; Hassan, Omer Ui; Yang, Yi-Wei; Buchanan, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking and the use of tobacco products. However, other factors such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution exposures, and chronic infections can contribute to lung carcinogenesis. In addition, multiple inherited and acquired mechanisms of susceptibility to lung cancer have been proposed. Lung cancer is divided into two broad histologic classes, which grow and spread differently: small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Therapeutic-modalities recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and therapy made during the past 25 years, the prognosis for patients with lung cancer is still unsatisfactory. The responses to current standard therapies are poor except for the most localized cancers. However, a better understanding of the biology pertinent to these challenging malignancies, might lead to the development of more efficacious and perhaps more specific drugs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent developments in lung cancer biology and its therapeutic strategies, and discuss the latest treatment advances including therapies currently under clinical investigation.

  17. Targeted Therapy Database (TTD: a model to match patient's molecular profile with current knowledge on cancer biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mocellin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain clinically untested and therefore do not translate into a therapeutic benefit for patients. OBJECTIVE: To present a computational method aimed to comprehensively exploit the scientific knowledge in order to foster the development of personalized cancer treatment by matching the patient's molecular profile with the available evidence on targeted therapy. METHODS: To this aim we focused on melanoma, an increasingly diagnosed malignancy for which the need for novel therapeutic approaches is paradigmatic since no effective treatment is available in the advanced setting. Relevant data were manually extracted from peer-reviewed full-text original articles describing any type of anti-melanoma targeted therapy tested in any type of experimental or clinical model. To this purpose, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane databases were searched. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We created a manually annotated database (Targeted Therapy Database, TTD where the relevant data are gathered in a formal representation that can be computationally analyzed. Dedicated algorithms were set up for the identification of the prevalent therapeutic hypotheses based on the available evidence and for ranking treatments based on the molecular profile of individual patients. In this essay we describe the principles and computational algorithms of an original method

  18. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  19. Pompe disease : Current state of treatment modalities and animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, T. M.; McLaughlin, P. M. J.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Ruiters, M. H. J.; Niezen-Koning, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of acid-alpha-glucosidase (GAA). This deficiency results in glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes, leading to lysosomal swelling, cellular damage and organ dysfunction. In early-onset patients (the classical

  20. Câncer ano-reto-cólico - aspectos atuais: I - câncer anal Anal canal and colorectal cancer - current features: I - anal canal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César M. Santos Jr.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A inclusão do tema - câncer anal - nessa revisão, apesar de sua relativa raridade, responde, em parte, ao propósito de chamar atenção para o significativo aumento dessa lesão e sua estreita relação com doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, principalmente causadas pelo vírus do papiloma humano (HPV; seus aspectos nosológicos, sua epidemiologia, sua etiologia multifatorial, seus fatores de riscos, sua prevenção e, em parte, para revelar a definição atual do tratamento.The inclusion of the theme - anal cancer - in this revision, in spite of its relative rarity, it answers, partly, to the purpose of calling attention for the significant increase of that lesion and its narrow relationship with sexually transmissible diseases mainly caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV; its nosologic aspects, epidemiology, etiology, and the multifactorial nature of risk that is associated to the disease, its prevention, and, partly, to reveal the current definition of the treatment.