WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer cooperative group

  1. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan. PMID:20670961

  2. Paclitaxel for malignant pleural mesothelioma : A phase II study of the EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanMeerbeeck, J; Debruyne, C; vanZandwijk, N; Postmus, PE; Pennucci, MC; vanBreukelen, F; Galdermans, D; Groen, H; Pinson, P; vanGlabbeke, M; vanMarck, E; Giaccone, G

    1996-01-01

    The EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group undertook a phase II study of paclitaxel in 25 chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Paclitaxel was given intravenously at a dose of 200 mg m(-2), as a 3 h infusion every 3 weeks, after standard premedication with corticosteroids and

  3. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.;

    2008-01-01

    after breast cancer treatment. The present study is a ten-year update. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group has since 1977 collected population-based data on tumour characteristics, treatment regimes, and follow-up status on Danish women with breast cancer. Pregnancy history was...... added from the Danish Civil Registration System, the National Birth Registry, and the National Induced Abortion registry. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk ratio of dying among women with a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment compared with women without such experience. RESULTS: In all......, 10 236 women with primary breast cancer aged 45 years or less at the time of diagnosis were followed for 95 616 person years. Among these, 371 women experienced pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer. In a multivariate analysis that included age at diagnosis, stage of disease, and pregnancy...

  4. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  5. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers...... cancer incident cases are reported and registered in the national data base. Today, the data base includes approximately 80 000 incidents of primary breast cancer. Annually, the Secretariat receives roughly 1.5 million parameters to be entered into the data base. Over time DBCG has generated seven......DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration...

  6. Second primary cancers after adjuvant radiotherapy in early breast cancer patients: A national population based study under the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To analyze the long-term risk of second primary solid non-breast cancer in a national population-based cohort of 46,176 patients treated for early breast cancer between 1982 and 2007. Patients and methods: All patients studied were treated according to the national guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. The risk of second primary cancers was estimated by Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among irradiated women compared to non-irradiated. All irradiated patients were treated on linear accelerators. Second cancers were a priori categorized into two groups; radiotherapy-associated- (oesophagus, lung, heart/mediastinum, pleura, bones, and connective tissue) and non-radiotherapy-associated sites (all other cancers). Results: 2358 second cancers had occurred during the follow-up. For the radiotherapy-associated sites the HR among irradiated women was 1.34 (95% CI 1.11–1.61) with significantly increased HRs for the time periods of 10–14 years (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.08–2.24) and ⩾15 years after treatment (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14–2.81). There was no increased risk for the non-radiotherapy-associated sites (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.94–1.1). The estimated attributable risk related to radiotherapy for the radiotherapy-associated sites translates into one radiation-induced second cancer in every 200 women treated with radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy treated breast cancer patients have a small but significantly excess risk of second cancers

  7. The clinical database and the treatment guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG); its 30-years experience and future promise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, S.; Jensen, M.B.; Ejlertsen, B.;

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Since 30 years, DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) has maintained a clinical database allowing the conduct of quality control studies, of randomised trials, examination of the epidemiology of breast cancer and of prognostic and predictive factors. Material and methods. The...

  8. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focu...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  9. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.;

    2008-01-01

    present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years......+/HER-2+, Rec-/HER-2- (triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. Results A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall...

  10. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, Marianne; Sørensen, Flemming B; Knudsen, Helle;

    2008-01-01

    present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years......+/HER-2+, Rec-/HER-2-(triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. RESULTS: A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall...

  11. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic......, Gunnarsdottir KA, Rasmussen BB, Moeller S, Lanng C. The prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. Breast 2004;13:188-193]....... factors. We found a small but significant influence on disease-free survival (HR=1.16 [1.03-1.31]) and a strong correlation between multifocality and known prognostic factors. This was in accordance with an earlier study done on a smaller population and in a different period of time [Pedersen L...

  12. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials

  13. Group Composition, Group Interaction and Achievement in Cooperative Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Noreen M.

    This study investigated interaction and achievement in cooperative small groups in four junior high school mathematics classrooms. Ninety-six students learned a one-week unit on consumer mathematics in mixed-ability or uniform-ability groups. Students in mixed-ability groups scored higher on a problem-solving test than students in uniform-ability…

  14. Enhancing Adult Learning through Cooperative Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Barbara J.

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a structured form of small group work based on interdependence, accountability, group processing, and social skills. In continuing education, cooperative learning can positively affect achievement, multiethnic relationships, self-esteem, retention, and attitudes. (SK)

  15. Between-group competition and human cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolv...

  16. The evolution of cooperation in spatial groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We propose a model of evolutionary games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. → We show that the social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained. → Larger average group size would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs. → The results show that higher expectations can bring the system with larger average payoffs. - Abstract: Much of human cooperation remains an evolutionary riddle. There is evidence that individuals are often organized into groups in many social situations. Inspired by this observation, we propose a simple model of evolutionary public goods games in which individuals are organized into networked groups. Here, nodes in the network represent groups; the edges, connecting the nodes, refer to the interactions between the groups. Individuals establish public goods games with partners in the same group and migrate among neighboring groups depending on their payoffs and expectations. We show that the paradigmatic public goods social dilemma can be resolved and high cooperation levels are attained in structured groups, even in relatively harsh conditions for cooperation. Further, by means of numerical simulations and mean-field analysis, we arrive at the result: larger average group size and milder cooperation environment would lead to lower cooperation level but higher average payoffs of the entire population. Altogether, these results emphasize that our understanding of cooperation can be enhanced by investigations of how spatial groups of individuals affect the evolution dynamics, which might help in explaining the emergence and evolution of cooperation.

  17. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, Marianne; Kempel, Mette Moe; Düring, Maria;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised studies have shown that breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy is associated with a prognosis similar to mastectomy alone. This formed the basis for recommending breast conserving surgery combined with radiotherapy as a standard treatment for suited breast cancer...... patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years of.......0, 19.9, and 6.0% respectively, when analysed in a competing risk setting. The risk of loco-regional recurrences was significantly decreased in patients aged 50 years or more and increased with increasing tumour size. There was a pronounced beneficial effect of adjuvant radiotherapy with those not...

  18. Post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark: From 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines of The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Berg, Martin; Nielsen, Hanne M.;

    2008-01-01

    , it was investigated whether it was possible to find a treatment technique alternative to the one recommended by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). A dosimetric comparison of a combined photon/electron 3-field technique (3F) and a partial wide tangent technique (PWT) was carried out on individual......This paper describes the procedure of changing from 2D to 3D treatment planning guidelines for post-mastectomy radiotherapy in Denmark. The aim of introducing 3D planning for post-mastectomy radiotherapy was to optimize the target coverage and minimize the dose to the normal tissues. Initially...... to 3F. It was concluded that PWT was an appropriate choice of technique for future radiation treatment of post-mastectomy patients. A working group was formed and guidelines for 3D planning were developed during a series of workshops where radiation oncologists and physicists from all radiotherapy...

  19. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion o...

  20. Evolutionary foundations of cooperation and group cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    In biology, the evolution of increasingly cooperative groups has shaped the history of life. Genes collaborate in the control of cells; cells efficiently divide tasks to produce cohesive multicellular individuals; individual members of insect colonies cooperate in integrated societies. Biological cooperation provides a foundation on which to understand human behavior. Conceptually, the economics of efficient allocation and the game-like processes of strategy are well understood in biology; we...

  1. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.;

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... (DCIS) treated with wide local excision. The form however, also provided information on lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), atypia and benign lesions. In 1989 the reporting form for DCIS was extended and now provided information on histological subtype, malignancy grade, growth pattern and both Estrogen......-risk and high-risk CIS lesions. A major point is that without the thirty years of outstanding efforts by the DBCG, future research would not be able to meet expectations Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  2. Nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as first-line palliative chemotherapy in a patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTÍN, ANDRÉS J. MUÑOZ; ALFONSO, PILAR GARCÍA; RUPÉREZ, ANA B.; JIMÉNEZ, MIGUEL MARTÍN

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC) has been associated with a considerably poor prognosis. Due to its toxicity, first-line combination chemotherapy is limited to patients with a good performance status (PS). Previously nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine has been demonstrated to improve the overall survival rate in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer with a good PS. The present study reports a case of a patient with metastatic PC with a poor PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2) and a complex set of comorbidities treated with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as a first-line palliative therapy. Adjusted doses of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine reached a favourable clinical, radiological and biochemical response in the present patient, which increased the quality of life for the patient. Eventually, the patient succumbed to acute cholangitis. Based on the results of the present study, nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine appears to be a favourable treatment as first-line palliative chemotherapy for patients with metastatic PC, comorbidities and poor PS. PMID:27347207

  3. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  4. Human cooperation in groups: variation begets variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Molleman, Lucas; Junikka, Jaakko; Puurtinen, Mikael; Weissing, Franz J

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments on human cooperation have revealed that individuals differ systematically in their tendency to cooperate with others. It has also been shown that individuals condition their behaviour on the overall cooperation level of their peers. Yet, little is known about how individuals respond to heterogeneity in cooperativeness in their neighbourhood. Here, we present an experimental study investigating whether and how people respond to heterogeneous behaviour in a public goods game. We find that a large majority of subjects does respond to heterogeneity in their group, but they respond in quite different ways. Most subjects contribute less to the public good when the contributions of their peers are more heterogeneous, but a substantial fraction of individuals consistently contributes more in this case. In addition, we find that individuals that respond positively to heterogeneity have a higher general cooperation tendency. The finding that social responsiveness occurs in different forms and is correlated with cooperativeness may have important implications for the outcome of cooperative interactions. PMID:26531770

  5. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  6. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2016-01-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low. PMID:27247059

  7. Group-oriented values, rules and cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Ke-young

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses a game-theoretic framework to explain how collectivist values hamper societies’ efforts to elicit cooperation in inter-group games of prisoners’ dilemma (PD) and draws on the results of the analysis to interpret the meanings of three historical institutional reform episodes. Group-oriented values, widespread throughout non-western civilizations, can contribute to social cohesion, but tend to cause inter-group conflicts within a country. Regional, ethnic, and other internally c...

  8. A survey on staging and treatment in uterine cervical carcinoma in the Radiotherapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment outcome of advanced stage uterine cervical carcinoma remains unsatisfactory. In order to elaborate a novel trial within The Radiotherapy Cooperative Group (RCG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), we conducted a survey in 1997-1998 to determine the variability of pre-treatment assessment and treatment options. The variability of choosing surgery, defined radiation therapy techniques and chemotherapy are investigated, as well as the center's choices of future treatment strategies. Fifty two of 81 RCG centers from the RCG have participated in the survey. As one would expect, there is a large variation in the techniques used for pretreatment evaluation and treatment options. There is no 'standard' for reporting acute and late side effects. Chemotherapy is used neither systematically nor uniformly, and some centers continue to use neadjuvant chemotherapy modalities. Furthermore, the survey reveals that there is a strong demand for the reduction of overall treatment-time, for clinical investigation of novel combined modality treatment strategies, especially chemo-radiation therapy, and also for the use of new radiation sensitizers. We conclude that a more homogeneous approach to the pretreatment evaluation as well as treatment techniques is required in order to allow adequate quality control in any future trial of the RCG in the EORTC. (author)

  9. Group-awareness for mobile cooperative learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Pallarès, Roc; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Reyes Muñoz, María Angélica

    2006-01-01

    Collaborative learning traditionally relies on the arrangement of space and physical artifacts to mediate group activities. Our claim is that CSCL environments should enhance collaborative learning in a complementary way without introducing additional burden to human participants. This paper present research results on how tracking the location of people could be used to incorporate automatic group awareness in existing and new CSCL applications that support mobile cooperative learning. After...

  10. Creativity in a cooperative group setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gerald W.; Penick, John E.

    This study was to determine whether cooperative small groups would stimulate creativity of fith and sixth grade students more than an individualized learning environment. Student aptitudes for creative and academic work were assessed on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Verbal Form A), analysis of student created electrical circuit diagrams, and a batteries and bulbs prediction test. A measure of student perceptions was also used to indicate any changes in attitudes toward the science activity and learning environment. A posttest control group design was used with 11 I fifth and sixth grade students. Half of the population worked by themselves, while the other half (experimental) worked in a student-structured environment on the same science activity which involved creating as many different types of electrical circuits from a given set of batteries and bulbs as possible. An overall conclusion is that fifth and sixth grade students working within small cooperative groups can be more creative as measured by a figural creativity test with electrical circuits than students working alone. The implication of this study is that small cooperative groups as well as individualized groups should be used in elementary science classes when creativity is one of the instructional objectives.

  11. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Krasnow

    Full Text Available Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation

  12. Group cell architecture for cooperative communications

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for capacity and Quality of Service in wireless cellular networks and motivated by the distributed antenna system, the authors proposed a cooperative communication architecture - Group Cell architecture, which was initially brought forward in 2001. Years later, Coordinated Multiple-Point Transmission and Reception (CoMP) for LTE-Advanced was put forward in April 2008, as a tool to improve the coverage of cells having high data rates, the cell-edge throughput and/or to increase system throughput. This book mainly focuses on the Group Cell architecture with multi-

  13. Fully Distributed Cooperative Motion of Group Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on the fully distributed cooperative motion of group robots and proposes a new approach. Each robot has a local sensing ability and a simple action selection strategy. Computational complexity is decreased by the fully distributed architecture and the information insufficiency is solved by the interaction between the robots and the environment. Variable loop and random method are used to deal with the fluctuation and equity selection problem and the rapidity and reasonabiliiy are guaranteed. Some simulations have proved the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  14. Consequences of anorectal cancer atlas implementation in the cooperative group setting: Radiobiologic analysis of a prospective randomized in silico target delineation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to ascertain the subsequent radiobiological impact of using a consensus guideline target volume delineation atlas. Materials and methods: Using a representative case and target volume delineation instructions derived from a proposed IMRT rectal cancer clinical trial, gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical/planning target volumes (CTV/PTV) were contoured by 13 physician observers (Phase 1). The observers were then randomly assigned to follow (atlas) or not-follow (control) a consensus guideline/atlas for anorectal cancers, and instructed to re-contour the same case (Phase 2). Results: The atlas group was found to have increased tumor control probability (TCP) after the atlas intervention for both the CTV (p < 0.0001) and PTV1 (p = 0.0011) with decreasing normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for small intestine, while the control group did not. Additionally, the atlas group had reduced variance in TCP for all target volumes and reduced variance in NTCP for the bowel. In Phase 2, the atlas group had increased TCP relative to the control for CTV (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Visual atlas and consensus treatment guideline usage in the development of rectal cancer IMRT treatment plans reduced the inter-observer radiobiological variation, with clinically relevant TCP alteration for CTV and PTV volumes

  15. Human cooperation in groups : Variation begets variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Piet; Molleman, Lucas; Junikka, Jaakko; Puurtinen, Mikael; Weissing, Franz J

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments on human cooperation have revealed that individuals differ systematically in their tendency to cooperate with others. It has also been shown that individuals condition their behaviour on the overall cooperation level of their peers. Yet, little is known about how individuals respond

  16. Group Cooperative Learning in English Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范姜

    2012-01-01

    Facing to various examinations, teachers and schools empha- size competition between students in their teaching. So the students have strong sense of competition but lack of the cooperative sense. They will not care about each other; neither helps each other nor works together. Thanks for the promotion of quality education in schools, cooperative learning is advocated to wider teaching areas.

  17. Half-body and local chest irradiation as consolidation following response to standard induction chemotherapy for disseminated small cell lung cancer: an Eastern cooperative oncology group pilot report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-institution Phase II Pilot Study for the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) used standard induction chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide and CCNU) followed by consolidation radiation therapy (RT) (600 rad of upper half-body irradiation plus 2000 rad in one week of localized chest irradiation) followed by maintenance chemotherapy in patients with extensive small cell bronchogenic carcinoma (SCBC). Nineteen patients were entered and 9 (47%) had partial responses (PR) after induction chemotherapy. No complete responses (CR) were seen. The 10 patients whose disease progressed were ineligible for consolidation RT and died with a short median survival time (MST) of 15 weeks. Of the 9 patients who were consolidated, 7 (78%) had complete responses in the chest; five (63%) became overall complete responders. The MST of all consolidated responders was 44 weeks. At this writing, two of the 5 patients who achieved CR after RT consolidation were alive without disease for more than one year; another patient was alive with disease for almost one year. A control group consisting of patients with extensive SCBC was used for comparison; these patients were treated by the two participating institutions in an earlier ECOG protocol with the same chemotherapy regimen but without RT consolidation

  18. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papaxoinis

    Full Text Available The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9 and kinase (exon 20 domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer.Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20 and qPCR (exon 9 (Sanger/qPCR mutations. In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive, molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR negative tumors.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23% with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24% with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82. Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel, while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin. The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004. Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified.The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer

  19. Cooperative algorithm and group behavior in multirobot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong-Woo; Park, Kwang-Soo; Shin, Shang-Woon; Ahn, Doo-Sung

    2001-10-01

    In a multi-agent system, the action selection strategy is important for the cooperation and coordination of multi agents. However the overlap of actions selected individually by each robot makes the acquisition of cooperation behaviors less efficient. In addition to that, a complex and dynamic environment makes cooperation even more difficult. So in this paper, we propose a control algorithm which enables each robot to determine the action for the effective cooperation in multi-robot system. We employ a reinforcement learning in order to choose a proper action for each robot in its action subspace. In this paper, robot soccer system is adopted for the multi-robot environment. To play a soccer game, elementary actions such as shooting and passing must be provided. Q-learning, which is one of the popular methods for reinforcement learning, is used to determine what actions to take. Through simulations, the efficiency of own proposed algorithm is verified for the cooperation in multi robot system.

  20. Explaining cooperative groups via social niche construction

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Simon T.; Noble, Jason; Arranz, Jordi; de Pinedo Garcia, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative behaviours can be defined as those that benefit others at an apparent cost to self. How these kinds of behaviours evolve has been a topic of great interest in evolutionary biology, as the Darwinian paradigm seems to suggest that nature will be “red in tooth and claw” and that we would not expect one organism to evolve to help another. The evolution-of-cooperation literature has therefore generally been about showing how the altruism involved in these cases is only apparent (see Be...

  1. Cooperative study in breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of surgical treatment of early breast cancers are discussed. Radical mastectomy for stage 1 tumor and a modified mastectomy after Patey - for stage 2 were shown to be feasible. A cooperative randomized study on therapy of localized stage 2b and 3b breast tumors made the case for application of polychemotherapy and radio-therapy as a components of combined and multimodulity therapy

  2. Practicing What We Preach: Teacher Reflection Groups on Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of teacher reflection groups to aid teachers in their efforts to facilitate cooperative learning among their students. It is argued that these teacher reflection groups function best when they are organized with reference to eight cooperative learning principles. Furthermore, it is suggested that these reflective…

  3. Intergroup Relations in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farivar, Sydney

    This study investigated the impact of a sequence of social relationship activities on regard for classmates and teammates in middle school (grade 7) mathematics classes using cooperative learning. The sample consisted of 184 students (55% Hispanic American, 27% White, 14% Black, and 3% Asian American) in a city in Los Angeles County (California).…

  4. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder

    OpenAIRE

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G.; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolampro...

  5. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  6. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggermont Alexander MM

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer treatment. In contrast to the recent past where cytotoxic molecules were screened in the laboratory and then tested in early clinical studies with toxicity as endpoint instead of the often poorly defined mechanism for its potential anti-tumor effect, we now have entered the age of molecular therapeutics, rationally designed to target "strategic" checkpoints that underlie the malignant phenotype. Translational research in early clinical trials (Phase I and II is an integral aspect of the development of the new generation of cancer drugs as it is necessary to implement radically different early phase clinical trial design and to validate new biological end-points if the full potential of these new agents is to be realized. The "proof of principle with mechanistic analysis" strategy will allow optimisation of therapy from the beginning, and provide important feedback to pre-clinical drug developers. Translational research is also essential in late (phase III clinical trials in defining different patient populations that may benefit to differing degrees from new treatments, and thus provide further insight and refine clinical practice in a more and more patient-tailored approach. In this editorial we will discuss the integration of Translational Research in the Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC.

  7. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chang, Tsai-Wang; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hung, Chin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS) performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan. Methods The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan. Results A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8%) patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012–2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM) (85.4%) followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM) (14.6%). Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3–68.6) months, there were 3 (1%) cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3%) case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3%) death. Conclusion The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique

  8. The Evolution Of Cooperation In Business: Individual Vs. Group Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ladley; Ian Wilkinson; Louise Young

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative relations, within and between firms, play important roles in business. How to produce such relations, however, is less well understood. Building on work in evolutionary biology we examine the conditions under which group based incentives result in better performance than individual based incentives. We find that when individual and group interests are not aligned, group incentive systems lead to both higher group and individual performance. Hybrid reward systems, with both group a...

  9. Does strong heterogeneity promote cooperation by group interactions?

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of strong heterogeneity for the successful evolution of cooperation in games governed by pairwise interactions. Here we determine to what extent this is true for games governed by group interactions. We therefore study the evolution of cooperation in the public goods game on the square lattice, the triangular lattice and the random regular graph, whereby the payoffs are distributed either uniformly or exponentially amongst the players by assigning to them individual scaling factors that determine the share of the public good they will receive. We find that uniformly distributed public goods are more successful in maintaining high levels of cooperation than exponentially distributed public goods. This is not in agreement with previous results on games governed by pairwise interactions, indicating that group interactions may be less susceptible to the promotion of cooperation by means of strong heterogeneity as originally assumed, and that the role of strongly he...

  10. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin administration in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A Hellenic co-operative oncology group study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountzilas, G. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Skarlos, D. [`Agii Anargyri` Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kosmidis, P. [`METAXA` Cancer Hospital, Piraeous (Greece); Samantas, E. [`Agii Anargyri` Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kalogera-Fountzila, A. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papaspyrou, S. [`Evangelismos` Hospital, Athens (Greece); Tzitzikas, J. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Sridhar, K.S. [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami, FL (United States); Makrantonakis, P. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Pantelakos, P. [`Agii Anargyri` Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Nikolaou, A. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Bacoyiannis, H. [`METAXA` Cancer Hospital, Piraeous (Greece); Sinodinou, M. [`METAXA` Cancer Hospital, Piraeous (Greece); Banis, C. [`METAXA` Cancer Hospital, Piraeous (Greece); Daniilidis, J. [AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    In an attempt to improve local control of locally advanced head and neck cancer, radiation therapy was combined with cisplatin. Forty-eight patients entered into this study. All patients were irradiated with a {sup 60}Co unit and according to the protocol they should receive 70 Gy in the tumor area and 45 Gy in the rest of neck. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m{sup 2} on days 2, 22 and 42. Thirty-seven (80%) patients received the total radiation dose as initially planned. Thirty-four (72%) patients achieved complete and 5 (10%) partial response. Grade 3-4 toxicities included vomiting (14%) stomatitis (4%), diarrhea (2%), myelotoxicity (14%), hoarseness (4%), dysphagia (30%), weight loss (32%), nephrotoxicity (4%) and dermatitis (2%). After a median follow-up of 26 (range, 18-33) months, 16 patients have died. Among the 35 complete responders 6 later on relapsed. Median relapse-free survival has not yet been reached. Combined radiation therapy and cisplatin appears to be a highly active treatment in patients with advanced head and neck cancer as far as primary locoregional response is concerned. (orig.).

  11. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin administration in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A Hellenic co-operative oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to improve local control of locally advanced head and neck cancer, radiation therapy was combined with cisplatin. Forty-eight patients entered into this study. All patients were irradiated with a 60Co unit and according to the protocol they should receive 70 Gy in the tumor area and 45 Gy in the rest of neck. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m2 on days 2, 22 and 42. Thirty-seven (80%) patients received the total radiation dose as initially planned. Thirty-four (72%) patients achieved complete and 5 (10%) partial response. Grade 3-4 toxicities included vomiting (14%) stomatitis (4%), diarrhea (2%), myelotoxicity (14%), hoarseness (4%), dysphagia (30%), weight loss (32%), nephrotoxicity (4%) and dermatitis (2%). After a median follow-up of 26 (range, 18-33) months, 16 patients have died. Among the 35 complete responders 6 later on relapsed. Median relapse-free survival has not yet been reached. Combined radiation therapy and cisplatin appears to be a highly active treatment in patients with advanced head and neck cancer as far as primary locoregional response is concerned. (orig.)

  12. Dose selection trial of metronomic oral vinorelbine monotherapy in patients with metastatic cancer: a hellenic cooperative oncology group clinical translational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metronomic chemotherapy is considered an anti-angiogenic therapy that involves chronic administration of low-dose chemotherapy at regular short intervals. We investigated the optimal metronomic dose of oral vinorelbine when given as monotherapy in patients with metastatic cancer. Patients with recurrent metastatic breast (BC), prostate (PC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and adequate organ functions were randomly assigned to 30, 40 or 50 mg vinorelbine, taken orally three times a week. Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent or maximum 24 months. Primary endpoint was time-to-treatment failure (TTF) and secondary were progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, changes in blood concentrations of angiogenesis-associated biomarkers and pharmacokinetics. Seventy-three patients were enrolled. Four-month TTF rate did not differ between the three arms: 25.9% (11.1%-46.2% 95% Confidence Interval), 33.3% (15.6%-55.3%) and 18.2% (5.2%-40.3%) for the 30 mg, 40 mg and 50 mg arms (p-value = 0.56). Objective response was seen in 2 patients with NSCLC (treated at 30 and 50 mg respectively), one with BC (at 40 m g) and one with PC (at 50 mg) and lasted from 4 to 100 weeks, with maximum response duration achieved at 50 mg. Adverse events were mild and negligible and did not differ between the three arms. Blood levels of vinorelbine reached steady state from the second week of treatment and mean values for the 30, 40 and 50 mg were respectively 1.8 ng/ml (SD 1.10), 2.2 ng/ml (SD 1.87) and 2.6 ng/ml (SD 0.69). Low pre-treatment blood concentrations of FGF2 and IL8 predicted favorable response to therapy (p values 0.02 and 0.006, respectively), while high levels of TEK gene transcript predicted treatment resistance. Considering the antitumor activity and response duration, the negligible toxicity of the highest dose investigated and the lack of drug accumulation over time, we suggest that 50 mg given three times a week is the

  13. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.;

    2008-01-01

    rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites with...... significantly elevated risks included corpus uteri (SIR=1.23), ovary (1.39), soft tissues (2.24), acute leukaemia (2.02), and sites potentially inducible by breast cancer radiotherapy combined (1.11). For irradiated patients compared to non-irradiated the risk was increased for all sited combined, radiotherapy......-related sites, colon and soft tissues. Tamoxifen treated had, compared to non-treated, elevated risk for cancer of corpus uteri (SIR=1.83 vs 1.04). Patients given adjuvant chemotherapy had, compared to those not, elevated risks for all sites combined (SIR=1.24 vs 1.01) and for ovary (2.16 vs 1.24). Risk for...

  14. Mutational profiling of the RAS, PI3K, MET and b-catenin pathways in cancer of unknown primary: a retrospective study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentheroudakis, G; Kotteas, E A; Kotoula, V; Papadopoulou, K; Charalambous, E; Cervantes, A; Ciuleanu, T; Fountzilas, G; Pavlidis, N

    2014-10-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) had a poor prognosis, determined by clinico-histological characteristics, partly due to the lack of insights on its biology. We screened tumour DNA from 87 patients with CUP for CTNNB1 (coding exons 2,3,4,5), MET (coding exon 18), PIK3CA (coding exons 9,20), KRAS (coding exons 1,2), BRAF (coding exon 15) gene mutations by using dd-sequencing and evaluated their impact on prognosis. Mutated gene incidences in the 87 CUP cases were: KRAS 11 (12.6 %), BRAF 5 (5.7 %), PIK3CA 8 (9 %), MET 6 (6.7 %) and CTNNB1 18 (20.7 %). Several mutations in the KRAS gene were not the commonly encountered mutations in other solid tumours. Activating mutations were observed in 10.2 % in KRAS, 4.5 % in BRAF, 6.6 % in PIK3CA, 4.5 % in MET, and 19.5 % in CTNNB1. Activating mutations in PIK3CA coding exon 9 were inversely correlated with MET coding exon 18 activating mutations (p = 0.036). MET activating mutations were prognostic for poor Progression-Free Survival (median PFS 5 vs 9 months, p = 0.009) and Overall Survival (median OS 7 vs 20 months, p = 0.005). The complex profile of either CTNNB1 or MET mutations also had an adverse prognostic significance (median OS 11 vs 21 months, p = 0.015). No other gene mutation exhibited prognostic significance. In multivariate analysis, poor performance status, male gender, visceral disease and adenocarcinoma histology, but not gene mutations, were independently associated with poor patient outcome. CTNNB1 gene mutations are frequent, and along with MET mutations have an adverse prognostic effect in patients with CUP. PMID:24997156

  15. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce. PMID:25598347

  16. A randomized phase II study of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel in platinum sensitive ovarian cancer patients: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briasoulis Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum-based combinations are the standard second-line treatment for platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (OC. This randomized phase II study was undertaken in order to compare the combination of carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (LD with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP in this setting. Methods Patients with histologically confirmed recurrent OC, at the time of or more than 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy, were randomized to six cycles of CP (carboplatin AUC5 + paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, d1q21 or CLD (carboplatin AUC5 + pegylated LD 45 mg/m2, d1q28. Results A total of 189 eligible patients (CP 96, CLD 93, with a median age of 63 years, median Performance Status (PS 0 and a median platinum free interval (PFI of 16.5 months, entered the study. Discontinuation due to toxicity was higher in the CP patients (13.5% versus 3%, P = 0.016. The overall response rate was similar: CP 58% versus CLD 51%, P = 0.309 (Complete Response; CR 34% versus 23% and there was no statistical difference in time-to-progression (TTP or overall survival (OS; TTP 10.8 months CP versus 11.8 CLD, P = 0.904; OS 29.4 months CP versus 24.7 CLD, P = 0.454. No toxic deaths were recorded. Neutropenia was the most commonly seen severe toxicity (CP 30% versus CLD 35%. More frequent in CLD were severe thrombocytopenia (11% versus 2%, P = 0.016, skin toxicity and Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE grade 1-2 (38% versus 9%, PP = 0.029, 20% versus 5%, P = 0.003. PS and PFI were independent prognostic factors for TTP and OS. Conclusions The combination of pegylated LD with carboplatin is effective, showing less neurotoxicity and alopecia than paclitaxel-carboplatin. It thus warrants a further phase III evaluation as an alternative treatment option for platinum-sensitive OC patients. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000436279

  17. Role of Kras Status in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Receiving First-Line Chemotherapy plus Bevacizumab: A TTD Group Cooperative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Gómez-España, Auxiliadora; Massutí, Bartomeu; Sastre, Javier; Reboredo, Margarita; Manzano, José Luis; Rivera, Fernando; Safont, MªJosé; Montagut, Clara; González, Encarnación; Benavides, Manuel; Marcuello, Eugenio; Cervantes, Andrés; Martínez de Prado, Purificación; Fernández-Martos, Carlos; Arrivi, Antonio; Bando, Inmaculada; Aranda, E.; Gómez, A.; Massutí, B.; Yuste, A.; Rubio, E. Díaz; Sastre, J.; Valladares, M.; Abad, A.; Rivera, F.; Safont, MªJosé; Gallén, M.; González, E.; Benavides, M.; Marcuello, E.; Tobeña, M.; Cervantes, A.; Martínez de Prado, P.; Fernández-Martos, C.; Arrivi, A.; López-Ladrón, A.; Lacasta, A.; Llanos, M.; Remón, J.; Anton, A.; Vicent, J. Mª.; Gala´n, A.; Dueñas, R.; Tabernero, J. Mª.; Manzano, H.; Gómez, Mª. J.; Alfaro, J.; Losa, F.; Escudero, P.; García, T.; García López, J. L.; de Paredes, Mª L. García; Velasco, A.; Almenar, D.; Vera, R.; García Puche, J. L.; Carrato, A.; Lescure, A. Rodriguez; Jiménez, E.; Alberola, V.; García-Foncillas, J.; Constenla, M.; Ruiz, A.; Bueso, P.; Cabrera, E.; del Río,, L.; Ponce, J.; Oltra, A.; Checa, T.; Etxeberría, A.; Alonso, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In the MACRO study, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were randomised to first-line treatment with 6 cycles of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) plus bevacizumab followed by either single-agent bevacizumab or XELOX plus bevacizumab until disease progression. An additional retrospective analysis was performed to define the prognostic value of tumour KRAS status on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and response rates. Methodology/Principal Findings KRAS data (tumour KRAS status and type of mutation) were collected by questionnaire from participating centres that performed KRAS analyses. These data were then cross-referenced with efficacy data for relevant patients in the MACRO study database. KRAS status was analysed in 394 of the 480 patients (82.1%) in the MACRO study. Wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours were found in 219 patients (56%) and mutant (MT) KRAS in 175 patients (44%). Median PFS was 10.9 months for patients with WT KRAS and 9.4 months for patients with MT KRAS tumours (p = 0.0038; HR: 1.40; 95% CI:1.12–1.77). The difference in OS was also significant: 26.7 months versus 18.0 months for WT versus MT KRAS, respectively (p = 0.0002; HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.23–1.96). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that KRAS was an independent variable for both PFS and OS. Responses were observed in 126 patients (57.5%) with WT KRAS tumours and 76 patients (43.4%) with MT KRAS tumours (p = 0.0054; OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18–2.64). Conclusions/Significance This analysis of the MACRO study suggests a prognostic role for tumour KRAS status in patients with mCRC treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab. For both PFS and OS, KRAS status was an independent factor in univariate and multivariate analyses. PMID:23174912

  18. Communication on a problem solving task in cooperative learning groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Jo; Fawns, Rod

    1992-12-01

    There is some evidence from this study that reflectivity within cooperative learning groups develops over time. Preliminary observations suggest that Slavin's third and fourth levels of skills, those of reflection and reasoning and reconception and reformulation and Kempa and Ayob's higher levels of explanation and insight appear more advanced in groups strategically managed by teachers for such outcomes. Later analyses will permit more detailed accounts of the relationships between the teacher's management strategies, and reflection within groups of different gender composition.

  19. Cooperative catalysis by silica-supported organic functional groups

    OpenAIRE

    Margelefsky, Eric L.; Zeidan, Ryan K.; Davis, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid inorganic–organic materials comprising organic functional groups tethered from silica surfaces are versatile, heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances have led to the preparation of silica materials containing multiple, different functional groups that can show cooperative catalysis; that is, these functional groups can act together to provide catalytic activity and selectivity superior to what can be obtained from either monofunctional materials or homogeneous catalysts. This tutorial...

  20. Wisdom of groups promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz; 10.1038/srep00576

    2012-01-01

    Whether or not to change strategy depends not only on the personal success of each individual, but also on the success of others. Using this as motivation, we study the evolution of cooperation in games that describe social dilemmas, where the propensity to adopt a different strategy depends both on individual fitness as well as on the strategies of neighbors. Regardless of whether the evolutionary process is governed by pairwise or group interactions, we show that plugging into the "wisdom of groups" strongly promotes cooperative behavior. The more the wider knowledge is taken into account the more the evolution of defectors is impaired. We explain this by revealing a dynamically decelerated invasion process, by means of which interfaces separating different domains remain smooth and defectors therefore become unable to efficiently invade cooperators. This in turn invigorates spatial reciprocity and establishes decentralized decision making as very beneficial for resolving social dilemmas.

  1. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

  2. Between-group competition, intra-group cooperation and relative performance

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Camilo eCardenas; Cesar eMantilla

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of a new public goods experiment with an intra-group cooperation dilemma and inter-group competition. In our design subjects receive information about their relative individual and group performance after each round with non-incentivized and then incentivized group competition. We found that, on average, individuals with low relative performance reduce their contributions to the public good, but groups with low performance increase theirs. With incentivized competition, ...

  3. CHALCO and Galuminium Group signed framework agreement for strategic cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On July 25,the Aluminum Corporation of China Limited and Galuminium Group Co.,Ltd signed strategic cooperation agreement in Guiyang Aluminum Hotel.LuoJianchuan,President of the Aluminum Corporation of China Limited,introduced CHALCO’s operation,as well as its Guizhou Branch’s aluminum oxide and electrolytic aluminum business operation,mine production,and construction of Maochang Mine.LuoJianchuan said that viewed

  4. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...... practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North...... America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. RESULTS: A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy...

  5. Between-group competition, intra-group cooperation and relative performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Camilo eCardenas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a new public goods experiment with an intra-group cooperation dilemma and inter-group competition. In our design subjects receive information about their relative individual and group performance after each round with non-incentivized and then incentivized group competition. We found that, on average, individuals with low relative performance reduce their contributions to the public good, but groups with low performance increase theirs. With incentivized competition, where the relative ranking of the group increases individual payoffs, the reaction to relative performance is larger with individuals contributing more to the group; further, we observe that the variance of strategies decreases as individual and group rankings increase. These results offer new insights on how social comparison shapes similar reactions in games with different incentives for group performance and how competition and cooperation can influence each other.

  6. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  7. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  8. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  9. International co-operative group on cyclic crack growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Cyclic Crack Growth Group was formed in 1977 with the general objective to co-ordinate research and development efforts on corrosion fatigue on pressure boundary materials in light water reactor service environments. Three co-operative programs have been agreed. The first was on data reduction methods. The same raw data were given to the members and the derived curves of dα/dN, as a function of ΔK, obtained, were then compared. Many discrepancies were observed at the first attempt but comparison and discussion enabled the participants to reach a good agreement. The second was a Round-Robin experiment on pressure vessel steel in a water environment at 2880C. The results were most interesting and an understanding of the discrepancies observed was achieved. The third program is Round-Robin tests on pressure vessel steel specimens in simulated BWR and PWR environments at high R ratios. The aim of this co-operative work is to develop a sufficient understanding of the mechanisms controlling the rate of crack growth to enable all the data generated in different laboratories to be used by the international technical community with confidence as truly representative of typical LWR operational conditions. (author)

  10. Group Cooperative Learning-Making Learning a Deeper Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jin; LI Hong-mei; WANG Ya-lei; ZHANG Min

    2014-01-01

    The paper is to explore whether or not group cooperative learning in author’s university can make students learning deeply. In 2004, the Chinese Ministry of Education constituted“College English Teaching Syllabus”( College English Teaching Syllabus,2004, showed in appendix), in which it makes it clear that the properties and objectives of College English teaching are:College English teaching is a teaching system which has the content of English language knowledge, English applied skills, learn-ing strategies, intercultural communication. According to the syllabus, lots of Chinese universities will aim to explore new and ef-fective teaching modes, which will stimulate college English teachers to reflect their traditional teaching methods and make the corresponding improvement inevitably.

  11. Recommendations for Collection and Handling of Specimens From Group Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J. C.; Enos, Rebecca A.; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Forbes, John F.; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exist...

  12. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  13. Gemcitabine Plus Docetaxel Versus Docetaxel in Patients With Predominantly Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Phase III Study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte L; Bjerre, Karsten D; Jakobsen, Erik H;

    2011-01-01

    gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8 plus docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) on day 8 or to docetaxel (100 mg/m(2)) on day 1, every 21 days. Patients were untreated or had prior (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy or a single anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimen for metastatic breast cancer. The primary end point was...... time to progression (TTP), and secondary end points were overall survival (OS), response rate (RR), and toxicity. Results A total of 170 patients were allocated to GD, and 167 were allocated to docetaxel. Median TTP on GD was 10.3 months versus 8.3 months on docetaxel (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% CI...

  14. Out-Group Threat Promotes Within-Group Affiliation in a Cooperative Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruintjes, Rick; Lynton-Jenkins, Joshua; Jones, Joseph W; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-02-01

    In social species, conflict with outsiders is predicted to affect within-group interactions and thus influence group dynamics and the evolution and maintenance of sociality. Although empirical evidence exists for a relationship between out-group conflict and intragroup behavior in humans, experimental tests in other animals are rare. In a model fish system, we show that simulated out-group intrusions cause postconflict increases in intragroup affiliation but no changes in postconflict intragroup aggression. Postconflict affiliation was greater following intrusions by neighboring compared with nonneighboring individuals; neighbors represent greater threats to the dominance rank and breeding success of residents, and they are visible in the aftermath of the intrusion. By providing strong evidence of a link between out-group conflict and postconflict intragroup behavior and demonstrating that intragroup affiliation is affected by the nature of the out-group intrusion, our study shows the importance of considering postconflict behavior for our understanding of cooperation and social structure. PMID:26807753

  15. International technical working group cooperation to counter illicit nuclear trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international group of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. ITWG members include policy and decision makers, law enforcement personnel, and scientists with expertise in, and responsibility for, nuclear forensics. (author)

  16. Effect of group organization on the performance of cooperative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M

    2016-01-01

    Problem-solving competence at group level is influenced by the structure of the social networks and so it may shed light on the organization patterns of gregarious animals. Here we use an agent-based model to investigate whether the ubiquity of hierarchical networks in nature could be explained as the result of a selection pressure favoring problem-solving efficiency. The task of the agents is to find the global maxima of NK fitness landscapes and the agents cooperate by broadcasting messages informing on their fitness to the group. This information is then used to imitate, with a certain probability, the fittest agent in their influence networks. For rugged landscapes, we find that the modular organization of the hierarchical network with its high degree of clustering eases the escape from the local maxima, resulting in a superior performance as compared with the scale-free and the random networks. The optimal performance in a rugged landscape is achieved by letting the main hub to be only slightly more prop...

  17. The Effect of Group Decision Making on Cooperation in Social Dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Hopthrow, Timothy; Hulbert, Lorne G.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A robust finding in social dilemma research is an increase in individual cooperative choice following group discussion about the dilemma. To elaborate the idea that this effect arises from the development of within-group consensus, groups of six made explicit group decisions about their subsequent individual choice. Perceived demonstrability of cooperativeness in the dilemma was manipulated through...

  18. Nepotistic cooperation in non-human primate groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B

    2009-11-12

    Darwin was struck by the many similarities between humans and other primates and believed that these similarities were the product of common ancestry. He would be even more impressed by the similarities if he had known what we have learned about primates over the last 50 years. Genetic kinship has emerged as the primary organizing force in the evolution of primate social organization and the patterning of social behaviour in non-human primate groups. There are pronounced nepotistic biases across the primate order, from tiny grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) that forage alone at night but cluster with relatives to sleep during the day, to cooperatively breeding marmosets that rely on closely related helpers to rear their young, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females who acquire their mother's rank and form strict matrilineal dominance hierarchies, male howler monkeys that help their sons maintain access to groups of females and male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that form lasting relationships with their brothers. As more evidence of nepotism has accumulated, important questions about the evolutionary processes underlying these kin biases have been raised. Although kin selection predicts that altruism will be biased in favour of relatives, it is difficult to assess whether primates actually conform to predictions derived from Hamilton's rule: br > c. In addition, other mechanisms, including contingent reciprocity and mutualism, could contribute to the nepotistic biases observed in non-human primate groups. There are good reasons to suspect that these processes may complement the effects of kin selection and amplify the extent of nepotistic biases in behaviour. PMID:19805431

  19. Real Maths in Cooperative Groups in Secondary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes author’s first encounters with cooperative learning and his personal viewpoint on education. In this view, education should be inclusive, adaptive and cooperative. This is followed by a rationale for a realistic mathematics curriculum and its main characteristics. The theory o

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN NATIONAL LEGISLATION OF EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES, REGARDING EUROPEAN GROUPING FOR TERRITORIAL COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Petronela STURZ

    2009-01-01

    The legislative package for Structural Funds (2007-2013) introduced Regulation 1082/2006 establishing a new legal instrument for territorial cooperation: the European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation (EGTC). EGTC is a European instrument enabling regional and local authorities from different Member States to set up cooperation structures with a legal personality. EGTCs can facilitate and promote cross-border, trans-national and interregional cooperation, with or without a financial contrib...

  1. Assessment of environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood cancers: the Childrens Cancer Group epidemiology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, L L; Buckley, J D; Bunin, G

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer during childhood represents one of the leading causes of death within the pediatric and adolescent age group. It is estimated that approximately 8000 children will be diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Epidemiologic research addressing the etiology of childhood cancer has been limited because of the difficulties in identifying a sufficiently large study population. Moreover, the use of retrospectively ascertained childhood cancer cases in epidemiologic investigations has restricted the incorporation of biological and clinical parameters. The Childrens Cancer Group has developed an active program in epidemiologic research, with over a decade of experience demonstrating the feasibility and strengths of conducting analytic epidemiologic studies within a cooperative clinical trials network. The availability of detailed clinical and biologic data on cases diagnosed within the cooperative group facilitates the transfer of state-of-the-art technology to epidemiologic research. PMID:8549456

  2. Real Maths in Cooperative Groups in Secondary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Terwel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes author’s first encounters with cooperative learning and his personal viewpoint on education. In this view, education should be inclusive, adaptive and cooperative. This is followed by a rationale for a realistic mathematics curriculum and its main characteristics. The theory of ‘levels in the learning process’ - developed by European scholars and researchers like Piaget, Selz, Kohnstamm, Van Hiele and Freudenthal – is described and elucidated by assignments and examples...

  3. Cooperative Strategies in Groups of Strangers: An Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Camera; Marco Casari; Maria Bigoni

    2010-01-01

    We study cooperation in four-person economies of indefinite duration. Subjects interact anonymously playing a prisoner’s dilemma. We identify and characterize the strategies employed at the aggregate and at the individual level. We find that (i) grim trigger well describes aggregate play, but not individual play; (ii) individual behavior is persistently heterogeneous; (iii) coordination on cooperative strategies does not improve with experience; (iv) systematic defection does not crowd-out sy...

  4. Effects of Strategy Instruction in Cooperative Learning Groups Concerning Undergraduate Physics Labworks

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Keban; Mustafa Erol

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates effects of strategy instruction method applied within cooperative groups on the student academic achievement and retention level. Instructional methods specifically contain conventional labwork techniques applied to the control group students and strategy instruction within cooperative groups that is applied to the experimental group. In the work, pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group was used and the research was carried out on two...

  5. Influence of Group Processing on Achievement and Perception of Social and Academic Support in Elementary Inexperienced Cooperative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Andrea; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Conte, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-one elementary school students who had never participated in cooperative learning lessons before were included in this study. Students were randomly assigned to the conditions of cooperative learning with and without group processing and participated to 5 instructional sessions during a period of approximately 15 instructional days. Results…

  6. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups) even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility ...

  7. Effects of Cooperative Grouping on Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, Joy B.; Good, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Determined was the effect that cooperative groups heterogeneously based on proportional reasoning ability have on problem solving in regular and honors high school chemistry. Characteristics of successful and unsuccessful problem solvers individually and in groups are discussed. (KR)

  8. Cooperative learning in higher education: differences in the perception of the contribution to the group

    OpenAIRE

    Jareño Cebrián, Francisco; Jiménez Moreno, Juan José; Lagos Rodríguez, Maria Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    This document analyses cooperative learning in a working group using a problem-based learning methodology. We also evaluate if the perception that each member of the group has of his/her contribution to cooperative learning is greater or lesser than that observed by his/her team-mates. Different elements of the work carried out in the group are analysed, such as the effective effort made, their participation, the organisation of the group, cohesion, communication, and the overall perceptio...

  9. Cooperative research and development opportunities with the National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybert, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is responsible for negotiating Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), whereby the knowledge resulting from NCI investigators' government-sponsored research is developed in collaboration with universities and/or industry into new products of importance for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The NCI has recently executed a unique 'clinical trials' CRADA and is developing a model agreement based upon it for the development and commercialization of products for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS. NCI drug screening, preclinical testing, clinical trials, and AIDS program capabilities form the basis for this new technology development/technology transfer vehicle. NCI's extensive drug screening program and 'designer foods' program serve as potential sources of investigational new drugs (INDs) and cancer preventatives. Collaborations between NCI and pharmaceutical companies having the facilities, experience, and expertise necessary to develop INDs into approved drugs available to the public are being encouraged where the companies have proprietary rights to INDs, or where NCI has proprietary rights to INDs and invites companies to respond to a collaborator announcement published in the Federal Register. The joint efforts of the NCI and the chosen collaborator are designed to generate the data necessary to obtain pharmaceutic regulatory approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market the drugs developed, and thereby make them available to health care providers for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS.

  10. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  11. The Formation and Long-run Stability of Cooperative Groups in a Social Dilemma Situation

    OpenAIRE

    Maruta, Toshimasa; Okada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We consider the formation and long-run stability of cooperative groups in a social dilemma situation where the pursuit of individual interests conicts with the maximization of social welfare. The adaptive play model of Young (1993) is applied to a group formation game where voluntary participants negotiate to create an institution that enforces cooperation. For the class of group formation games with two types, the stochastically stable equilibrium can be characterized in terms of the Nash pr...

  12. Cooperative nanomaterials systems for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Ho

    The unique electromagnetic and biologic properties of nanomaterials are being harnessed to build powerful new medical technologies. Particularly, there have been recently increasing interests in cancer nanotechnology, wherein nanomaterials play an important role in ultrasensitive imaging, targeting, and therapy of cancer. However, these nanomaterials typically function as individual units and are designed to independently perform their tasks. In this dissertation, new cooperative nanosystems consisting of two distinct nanomaterials that work together to target, identify, or treat tumors in vivo were studied. In the first two chapters, the synthesis of worm-shaped dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (nanoworms, NW) exhibiting substantial in vivo circulation times and significant tumor targeting when coated with tumor-homing peptides were studied. NWs are also found to display a greater magnetic resonance (MR) response than the spherical nanoparticles. Next, two types of multifunctional nanoparticles were fabricated for simultaneous detection and treatment of cancer. Micellar hybrid nanoparticles (MHN) that contain magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) within a single PEG-modified phospholipid micelle were first prepared. Simultaneous multimodal imaging (MR and fluorescence) and targeted drug delivery in vitro and in vivo was performed using DOX-incorporated targeted MHN. Secondly, luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (LPSINP) that were drug-loadable, biodegradable and relatively non-toxic were prepared. In contrast to most inorganic nanomaterials, LPSINP were degraded in vivo in a relatively short time with no noticeable toxicity. The clearance and degradation of intravenously injected LPSINP in the bladder, liver, and spleen were established by whole-body fluorescence imaging. Finally, two types of cooperative nanomaterials systems to amplify targeting and deliver drugs efficiently to regions of tumor invasion were

  13. Using technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning for student comprehension and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-05-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly divided into two groups, participated in this study and provided data through questionnaires issued before and after the experiment. The results, obtained through analyses of variance and structural equation modelling, reveal that technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning improves students' comprehension and academic performance.

  14. Using Technology-Enhanced, Cooperative, Group-Project Learning for Student Comprehension and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…

  15. Computer-Supported Co-operative Learning Systems: Interactive Group Technologies and Open Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Dick

    1988-01-01

    Discussion of interactive technologies and open learning focuses on computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), especially computer based message systems, and their effects on open learning. Topics discussed include cooperative learning; distance learning; individualized instruction; local area networks; group communication; and design principles…

  16. Successful Group Work: Using Cooperative Learning and Team-Based Learning in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Vallone, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This research study examined student perceptions of group experiences in the classroom. The author used cooperative learning and team-based learning to focus on three characteristics that are critical for the success of groups: structure of activities, relationships of group members, and accountability of group members. Results indicated that…

  17. Ethnic group and survival from childhood cancer: report from the UK Children's Cancer Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, C A; Bunch, K. J.; Lewis, I. J.

    2000-01-01

    Survival following cancer was analysed in relation to ethnic group among children diagnosed in Britain during 1981–1996 and treated at paediatric oncology centres by members of the UK Children's Cancer Study Group. Survival was analysed for 11 diagnostic groups: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, astrocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumour, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyos...

  18. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation. PMID:22796271

  19. Membership Segmentation: Issues and Strategies for Cooperatives and Group Marketing Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Harvey G.; McCann-Hiltz, Diane

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the strategies that have been used by cooperatives and group marketing institutions dealing with differentiation of producers into distinct market segments. Based on a comprehensive study of significant agricultural cooperatives and group marketing institutions in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, the authors attempt to explain the rationale behind these strategies and to demonstrate the extent to which these strategies are used by coopera...

  20. Attaining High Learning Performers in Social Groups using Web-Based Cooperative Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    L Venkateswara Reddy; Lakshmi Paidimarri; Vendoti Monica Reddy; Rufus Chakravarthy Sharma; Sujatha, B.; I Sheeba

    2011-01-01

    Social groups are considered as a group of people, an organization or social individuals which are connected by social relations such as friendships, cooperative relations or informative exchange In web based cooperative environment, peer to peer inter action often suffers from difficulty due to lack of exploring useful social interaction information, so that peers cannot find appropriate learning between learners. Because of this, it can lead to poor interaction information and achievement b...

  1. The role of cooperative group work in reducing communication apprehension amongst grade 7 learners / Candice Livingston

    OpenAIRE

    Proudfoot, Candice

    2001-01-01

    The research deals with an aspect of communication which could effect the teaching/learning situation, namely communication apprehension. The research also deals with cooperative group work, and the role that it plays in reducing communication apprehension. A review of literature concerning cooperative group work, communication apprehension and the role of the educator was conducted in order to establish which factors could affect the role that these variables play in the cl...

  2. Sparsity with sign-coherent groups of variables via the cooperative-Lasso

    OpenAIRE

    Chiquet, Julien; Grandvalet, Yves; Charbonnier, Camille

    2012-01-01

    International audience We consider the problems of estimation and selection of parameters endowed with a known group structure, when the groups are assumed to be sign-coherent, that is, gathering either nonnegative, nonpositive or null parameters. To tackle this problem, we propose the cooperative-Lasso penalty. We derive the optimality conditions defining the cooperative-Lasso estimate for generalized linear models, and propose an efficient active set algorithm suited to high-dimensional ...

  3. Attaining High Learning Performers in Social Groups using Web-Based Cooperative Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Venkateswara Reddy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Social groups are considered as a group of people, an organization or social individuals which are connected by social relations such as friendships, cooperative relations or informative exchange In web based cooperative environment, peer to peer inter action often suffers from difficulty due to lack of exploring useful social interaction information, so that peers cannot find appropriate learning between learners. Because of this, it can lead to poor interaction information and achievement but also lose the meaning of corporation learning. Finally, we improve the learners learning interaction and learning performance in cooperative learning environment.

  4. Future perspectives on territorial cooperation in Europe [Electronic resource] : the EC regulation on a European grouping of territorial cooperation and the planned Council of Europe third protocol to the Madrid outline convention concerning euroregional co-operation groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Engl Alice

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe, analyze and compare the recent legal developments regarding territorial cooperation that can be observed on the international and supranational level in Europe: the EC Regulation on a European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation adopted in 2006, on the one hand, and the planned Third Protocol to the European Outline Convention on Transfrontier Co–operation between Territorial Communities and Authorities concerning Euroregional Co–operation Groupings of th...

  5. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  6. Romanian-Hungarian cross-border cooperation at various territorial levels, with a particular study of the Debrecen-Oradea Eurometropolis (European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation-EGTC)

    OpenAIRE

    Toca, Constantin-Vasile

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the doctoral thesis “Research on different territorial levels of Romanian-Hungarian Cross-Border Cooperation with special emphasis on Debrecen – Oradea Eurometropolis (European Grouping of Territorial Cooperation EGTC)” is to emphasize the importance of the cross border cooperation dimension, and has as the target area the Romanian – Hungarian cooperation, the counties of Bihor, Hajdu Bihar, and last but not least the communities of Debrecen and Oradea. For achieving this obj...

  7. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Kimura, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by discussing whether students of second and foreign languages (hereafter, "second language" will be used to refer to both foreign and second languages) should be encouraged to use their second language (L2) with classmates when doing group activities. Reasons for both L2 and L1 (first language) use are discussed with reference…

  8. CMEA cooperative trials in chemotherapy of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TA comparative analysis of the immediate and short-term results of chemo- and radiotherapy of 174 patients with well differentiated inoperable lung cancer has been performed. The data were presented by the participants of the CMEA cooperative trial (the Hungarian People's Reg public, the USSR and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic over the period of 1976-1980). Comparative analysis has shown that the use of adjuvant chemotherapy tends to improve an immediate therapeutic effect. In well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, a marked positive effect was obtained in 48.6% of the patients as compared to 31.2% in radiotherapy alone. However, judging by the survival rates such differences in favor of chemotherapy were not revealed. After conservative treatment (radio- and chemotherapy) of patients with differentiated lung cancer in the inoperable stage 55.7% survived for 1, 17.27% for 2, 8.55% for 3 yrs. Direct correlation between the immediate effect of radio- and chemotherapy and the survival of the patients was revealed. Of 67 patients with a marked immediate effect 49 (73.1%) lived over 1 year, 8 out of 9 patients lived for 3 yrs

  9. Inquiry and groups: student interactions in cooperative inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-03-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic inquiry based primary science class setting. Thirty-one upper primary students were videotaped working in cooperative inquiry based science activities. Cooperative talk and negotiation of the science content was analysed to identify any high-level group interactions. The data show that while all groups have incidences of high-level content-related group interactions, the frequency and duration of these interactions were limited. No specific pattern of preceding events was identified and no episodes of high-level content-related group interactions were immediately preceded by the teacher's interactions with the groups. This in situ study demonstrated that even without any kind of scaffolding, specific skills in knowing how to implement cooperative inquiry based science, high-level content-related group interactions did occur very briefly. Support for teachers to develop their knowledge and skills in facilitating cooperative inquiry based science learning is warranted to ensure that high-level content-related group interactions and the associated conceptual learning are not left to chance in science classrooms.

  10. The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Dominic L; Blount, Jonathan D; Young, Andrew J

    2015-11-22

    Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating senescence. However, experimental evidence of oxidative costs of reproduction in the wild remains scarce. Here, we use a clutch-removal experiment to investigate the oxidative costs of reproduction in a wild cooperatively breeding bird, the white-browed sparrow weaver, Plocepasser mahali. Our results reveal costs of reproduction that are dependent on group size: relative to individuals in groups whose eggs were experimentally removed, individuals in groups that raised offspring experienced an associated cost (elevated oxidative damage and reduced body mass), but only if they were in small groups containing fewer or no helpers. Furthermore, during nestling provisioning, individuals that provisioned at higher rates showed greater within-individual declines in body mass and antioxidant protection. Our results provide rare experimental evidence that reproduction can negatively impact both oxidative status and body mass in the wild, and suggest that these costs can be mitigated in cooperative societies by the presence of additional helpers. These findings have implications for our understanding of the energetic and oxidative costs of reproduction, and the benefits of cooperation in animal societies. PMID:26582023

  11. Group penalty on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games, whereby a coevolutionary rule is introduced that aims to integrate group penalty into the framework of evolutionary games. Existing groups are deleted whenever the collective gains of the focal individuals are less than a deletion threshold value. Meanwhile, newcomers are added after each game iteration to maintain the fixed population size. The networking effect is also studied via four representative interaction networks which are associated with the population structure. We conclude that the cooperation level has a strong dependence on the deletion threshold, and the suitable value range of the deletion threshold which is associated with the maximal cooperation frequency has been found. Simulation results also show that optimum values of the deletion threshold can still warrant the most potent promotion of cooperation, irrespective of which of the four topologies is applied

  12. A study of gene expression markers for predictive significance for bevacizumab benefit in patients with metastatic colon cancer: a translational research study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevacizumab, an antibody neutralizing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), is licensed for the management of patients with advanced colon cancer. However, tumor biomarkers identifying the molecular tumor subsets most amenable to angiogenesis modulation are lacking. We profiled expession of 24526 genes by means of whole genome 24 K DASL (c-DNA-mediated, Annealing, Selection and Ligation) arrays, (Illumina, CA) in 16 bevacizumab-treated patients with advanced colon cancer (Test set). Genes with correlation to 8-month Progression-free status were studied by means of qPCR in two independent colon cancer cohorts: 49 patients treated with bevacizumab + chemotherapy (Bevacizumab qPCR set) and 72 patients treated with chemotherapy only (Control qPCR set). Endpoints were best tumor response before metastasectomy (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Five genes were significantly correlated to 8-month progression-free status in the Test set: overexpression of KLF12 and downregulation of AGR2, ALDH6A1, MCM5, TFF2. In the two independent datasets, irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was administered as first-line treatment and metastasectomies were subsequently applied in 8-14% of patients. No prognostically significant gene classifier encompassing all five genes could be validated in the Bevacizumab or Control qPCR sets. The complex gene expression profile of all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) was strongly associated with ORR in the Bevacizumab qPCR set (ORR 85.7%, p = 0.007), but not in the Control set (ORR 36.4%, p = 0.747). The Odds Ratio for response for the all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) profile versus any other ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5 profile was 15 (p = 0.018) in the Bevacizumab qPCR set but only 0.72 (p = 0.63) in the Control set. The tumor expression profile of (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) was significantly associated with PFS only in the Bevacizumab qPCR set: bevacizumab-treated patients with (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) tumors had superior PFS

  13. Regional cooperation-activities of the working group on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Working Group on Waste Management was formally established by the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee at its meeting on November 19, 1986. Co-chairmen are Dr. Kunihiko Uematsu of Japan and the author, Gordon L. Brooks of Canada. Since the Working Group is newly formed, a consensus program has not yet been developed. In lieu of this, the author suggests a series of basic issues and possible areas of future collaboration which could serve as a starting point for the Working Group in developing an appropriate cooperative program. (author)

  14. Principles of cooperation across systems: from human sharing to multicellularity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, Athena

    2016-01-01

    From cells to societies, several general principles arise again and again that facilitate cooperation and suppress conflict. In this study, I describe three general principles of cooperation and how they operate across systems including human sharing, cooperation in animal and insect societies and the massively large-scale cooperation that occurs in our multicellular bodies. The first principle is that of Walk Away: that cooperation is enhanced when individuals can leave uncooperative partners. The second principle is that resource sharing is often based on the need of the recipient (i.e., need-based transfers) rather than on strict account-keeping. And the last principle is that effective scaling up of cooperation requires increasingly sophisticated and costly cheater suppression mechanisms. By comparing how these principles operate across systems, we can better understand the constraints on cooperation. This can facilitate the discovery of novel ways to enhance cooperation and suppress cheating in its many forms, from social exploitation to cancer. PMID:27087837

  15. A strategic conflict avoidance approach based on cooperative coevolutionary with the dynamic grouping strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xuejun; Wei, Jian; Hwang, Inseok; Zhu, Yanbo; Cai, Kaiquan

    2016-07-01

    Conflict avoidance plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the air traffic management system. Recently, the strategic conflict avoidance (SCA) problem has attracted more and more attention. Taking into consideration the large-scale flight planning in a global view, SCA can be formulated as a large-scale combinatorial optimisation problem with complex constraints and tight couplings between variables, which is difficult to solve. In this paper, an SCA approach based on the cooperative coevolution algorithm combined with a new decomposition strategy is proposed to prevent the premature convergence and improve the search capability. The flights are divided into several groups using the new grouping strategy, referred to as the dynamic grouping strategy, which takes full advantage of the prior knowledge of the problem to better deal with the tight couplings among flights through maximising the chance of putting flights with conflicts in the same group, compared with existing grouping strategies. Then, a tuned genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to different groups simultaneously to resolve conflicts. Finally, the high-quality solutions are obtained through cooperation between different groups based on cooperative coevolution. Simulation results using real flight data from the China air route network and daily flight plans demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the number of conflicts and the average delay effectively, outperforming existing approaches including GAs, the memetic algorithm, and the cooperative coevolution algorithms with different well-known grouping strategies.

  16. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  17. The Free Rider and Cooperative Learning Groups: Perspectives from Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Geri; Clements, Kimberly D.; Hutchinson-Lendi, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Free riders are individuals who decide not to participate in cooperative learning group activities and often lower the group's morale, productivity, and effectiveness. This research paper presents a review of free riding and the results of a research study to examine the perspectives of faculty members about free riders and how they address them.…

  18. Induction Chemotherapy With Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin Followed by Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Taiwan Cooperative Oncology Group Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of 3-month triplet induction chemotherapy (ICT) followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Patients and Methods: Chemonaïve patients with measurable, histologically confirmed LAPC were eligible. The ICT consisted of biweekly gemcitabine (800 mg/m2) infusion at a fixed dose rate (10 mg/m2/min), followed by 85 mg/m2 oxaliplatin and 48-h infusion of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (3000/150 mg/m2) for 6 cycles. Patients without disease progression 4 weeks after ICT would receive weekly 400 mg/m2 gemcitabine and 5040 cGy radiation in 28 fractions. After CCRT, patients were subjected for surgical intervention and/or maintenance chemotherapy until progression or intolerable toxicity. Results: Between December 2004 and August 2008, 50 patients were enrolled. The best responses after ICT were partial response (PR) in 9, stable disease in 26, and progressive disease or not evaluable in 15. Among the former 35 patients, 2 had disease progression before CCRT, and 3 declined to have CCRT. Of the 30 patients receiving CCRT, an additional 4 and 1 patient(s) achieved PR at the end of CCRT and during maintenance chemotherapy, respectively. On intent-to-treat analysis, the overall best response was PR in 14 patients and stable disease in 21. The overall response rate and disease control rate were 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.2–42.5%) and 70% (95% CI, 44.4–99.2%), respectively. The median time to progression and overall survival of the intent-to-treat population was 9.3 (95% CI, 5.8–12.8) months and 14.5 (95% CI, 11.9–17.1) months, respectively. One- and two-year survival rates were 68% (95% CI, 55.1–80.9%) and 20.6% (95% CI, 8.7–32.5%), respectively. Neutropenia was the most common Grade 3–4 toxicity of both ICT and CCRT, with a frequency of 28% and 26.7%, respectively. Significant sensory neuropathy occurred in 9 patients (18%). Conclusion: Three months

  19. Induction Chemotherapy With Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin Followed by Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Taiwan Cooperative Oncology Group Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ch' ang, Hui-Ju [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Lin [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsiu-Po [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Yen-Feng [Institute of Public Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ming-Chu [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chih-Hung [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tien, Yu-Wen [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jen-Shi [Department of Internal Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ruey-Kuen [Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Pin-Wen; Shan, Yan-Shen [Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jang-Yang [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Whang-Peng, Jacqueline [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Tsann-Long, E-mail: hwangtl@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Surgery, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); and others

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of 3-month triplet induction chemotherapy (ICT) followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Patients and Methods: Chemonaieve patients with measurable, histologically confirmed LAPC were eligible. The ICT consisted of biweekly gemcitabine (800 mg/m{sup 2}) infusion at a fixed dose rate (10 mg/m{sup 2}/min), followed by 85 mg/m{sup 2} oxaliplatin and 48-h infusion of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (3000/150 mg/m{sup 2}) for 6 cycles. Patients without disease progression 4 weeks after ICT would receive weekly 400 mg/m{sup 2} gemcitabine and 5040 cGy radiation in 28 fractions. After CCRT, patients were subjected for surgical intervention and/or maintenance chemotherapy until progression or intolerable toxicity. Results: Between December 2004 and August 2008, 50 patients were enrolled. The best responses after ICT were partial response (PR) in 9, stable disease in 26, and progressive disease or not evaluable in 15. Among the former 35 patients, 2 had disease progression before CCRT, and 3 declined to have CCRT. Of the 30 patients receiving CCRT, an additional 4 and 1 patient(s) achieved PR at the end of CCRT and during maintenance chemotherapy, respectively. On intent-to-treat analysis, the overall best response was PR in 14 patients and stable disease in 21. The overall response rate and disease control rate were 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.2-42.5%) and 70% (95% CI, 44.4-99.2%), respectively. The median time to progression and overall survival of the intent-to-treat population was 9.3 (95% CI, 5.8-12.8) months and 14.5 (95% CI, 11.9-17.1) months, respectively. One- and two-year survival rates were 68% (95% CI, 55.1-80.9%) and 20.6% (95% CI, 8.7-32.5%), respectively. Neutropenia was the most common Grade 3-4 toxicity of both ICT and CCRT, with a frequency of 28% and 26.7%, respectively. Significant sensory neuropathy occurred in 9 patients (18

  20. The impact of work group cooperative climate on affective commitment and turnover intention of professional employees

    OpenAIRE

    BOGAERT, Sandy; Boone, Christophe; Witteloostuijn, Arjen Van

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the impact of work group cooperative climate on affective commitment and turnover intentions of professional employees, in interaction with climate strength (referring to the level of agreement among group members on what constitute important norms, values and goals within the group) and the individual’s social value orientation (referring to self- versus other-regarding preferences). In a sample of 209 academic employees of a Belgian university, we find that, independent of th...

  1. Evaluation of the Australian Industry Group / PricewaterhouseCoopers - Performance of Manufacturing Index (Ai-PMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Don; Song, Lei Lei; Tran, Duy

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Australian Industry Group / PricewaterhouseCoopers Performance of Manufacturing Index (Ai-PMI) as a tool for analysis. Particular interest focuses on the issue of how useful it is as an early signal of Australian business cycle turning points.

  2. Perceptions of Group-Led Online Discussions: The Benefits of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Lanter, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a cooperative learning activity, students were randomly assigned to small groups and asked to lead an online discussion. Responses to a survey administered at the completion of the course suggest that the activity was effective in meeting its goals of promoting student interaction and increasing perceived student…

  3. Investigating the Impact of Mediated Learning Experiences on Cooperative Peer Communication during Group Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert; Dinos, Sokratis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how structured Mediated Learning Experiences may improve peer-cooperative communication within problem-solving task exercises. Two groups (n = 22) of Year 8 students (mean age 13 +/- 5 months) were randomly selected to participate in this study. The study began with two one-hour sessions of activity-based problem-solving…

  4. Social Interaction Rules in Cooperative Learning Groups for Students at Risk for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Deitra A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of providing social participation rules on the performance and social behavior of a school-based sample of 10-14-year-old students at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 34) who worked cooperatively in same-gender triads with typical peers (n = 92). The design was primarily a 2 (population group)…

  5. The facilitation of groups and networks: capabilities to shape creative cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The facilitator, defined as a process guide of creative cooperation, is becoming more and more in focus to assist groups,teams and networks to meet these challenges. The author defines and exemplifies different levels of creative coorperation. Core capabilities of facilitation are defined and...

  6. Towards Better Group Work: Seeing the Difference between Cooperation and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that being unaware of the differences between cooperation and collaboration impedes teachers from organizing group work as effectively as possible. True collaboration is simply too valuable not to take advantage of because it provides students with a significant opportunity to learn from one another, negotiate meaning, and…

  7. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  8. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  9. Can Sustainability be a way of doing business? : The case of Cooperative group (UK)

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Imran; Shah, Muhammad Sabir

    2011-01-01

    This study is about Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategy, sustainable thinking and practices at the Co-operative. The main focus had been the Food store of Co-op. The practices are assessed to see whether Co-op is doing business activities based on the pillars of ethical code of conduct that they have publically reported. The study builds up by presenting an overview of various businesses that are operating ethically under the title of the Cooperative group. The challenge of Co-op i...

  10. Cooperation project: medical physics in cancer diagnosis and therapy in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh requires 200 radiotherapy facilities, 4 are in use; 400 medical physicists are needed, 3 are employed. On a private basis, a DGMP working group started in 1996, annual workshops on medical physics in cancer diagnosis and treatment, joined by many working physicists interested to become medical physicists. Basic topics were the principles, applications, acceptance, dosimetry and planning of 60Co radiotherapy. In 1998, the Bangladesh association of physicists in medicine (BMPA) was founded, a young scientific society requiring international co-operation. The long experience in Medical Physics in India, its neighbouring country, could be very helpful in providing excellent medical physics courses. To absorb new technology and science, it is necessary to change the education policy; creativity and innovativeness must be valued more than the old knowledge, being replaced quickly by new knowledge and new technologies. (author)

  11. Cooperative Communication Protocol based on Relay Node Grouping in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmyeng Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards support multiple data rates. Although the use of multiple data rates increases the capacity of wireless networks, it can lead to a performance anomaly problem. Cooperative communication for wireless networks has attracted considerable interest owing to its ability to mitigate this performance anomaly problem. In cooperative communication, a number of relay nodes support a source node in the forwarding of data packets to a destination node. If the direct transmission of a data packet between a source node and a destination node is not successful, the overheard data packet from the source node is forwarded by relay nodes to the destination node. Several MAC (Medium Access Control protocols have been proposed for cooperative communication in wireless networks. A number of these can result in collisions among the relay nodes in a dense network. Further, cooperative communication can be interrupted by other nodes. To resolve these problems, we propose a new cooperative protocol. In the proposed protocol, relay nodes are divided into several groups based on their data rates. Then, to limit the number of contending relay nodes, only the relay nodes in the highest group are selected. Collisions among the selected relay nodes are resolved based on a backoff mechanism. The proposed protocol ensures that cooperative communication is not interrupted by other nodes by implementing a busy signal and NAV (Network Allocation Vector. The proposed protocol can reduce the collision probability and increase the network performance. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and confirms that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput, collision probability, and delay.

  12. Professional development regarding small cooperative group instruction in middle school mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, R. Scott

    This study examined the effectiveness of professional development regarding small cooperative group instruction in middle school mathematics and science classrooms on student achievement, attitudes, and behavior. The researcher utilized three standardized benchmark assessments, Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudinal Scale, Instructional Attitudinal Scale, and office referral and suspension records to measure effectiveness. Students involved in small cooperative groups demonstrated an increase of academic performance on standardized assessments. The attitudinal surveys measured student perceived attitudes toward specific forms of instruction and toward the mathematics and science classroom in general. On the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudinal Scale, the students' perceived understanding of teacher attitudes indicated a significant decrease in classroom teachers' positive attitudes during the treatment group. Additionally, office referral ratings indicated that student behavior improved.

  13. Effects of verbal interaction within cooperative groups on conceptual change in environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Lynn Eloise

    2000-10-01

    Conceptual change theorists argue that learning occurs as a consequence of students becoming dissatisfied with their initial knowledge and then searching for ideas that are intelligible and plausible. Cooperative groups provide the vehicle for verbal interactions to take place with research indicating improvement in achievement. This study examines the verbal interactions that occur in the cooperative learning setting and how that discourse reflects the components of conceptual change. Cooperative learning groups were videotaped as they participated in active learning sessions in a general science course where the participants experimented with short-term and long-term carbon cycling. Groups were introduced to the guidelines of cooperative learning and group roles were assigned to the groups. Videotaping was followed by stimulated recall interviews with participants from the groups. This data from the videotapes and the stimulated recall interviews were transcribed and assigned categories using the Q. S. R. NUD·IST software program to gain insights into the process of science learning. Interpretations were made based on the findings from the data. Prior knowledge or information gathered by participants in preparation for the active learning session was the starting point for discussions about scientific concepts. Once the discussions began, group members with confidence in their understanding of scientific concepts tended to participate and defend their ideas with examples. The recorder role was the most significant role as the recorder usually directed the discussions in order to develop complete responses. As the discussions continued, explanations by those who were confident assisted other group members with learning scientific concepts---peer teaching. As discourse occurred, conflicts in ideas generated discussion, clarifying ideas, elaborating on ideas, and reformulating science concepts until they were able to reach consensus. Through this process

  14. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  15. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity. PMID:26594712

  16. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  17. Kiva.org: Crowd-Sourced Microfinance & Cooperation in Group Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Scott

    2010-01-01

    At the end of 2008 Kiva.org announced the creation of “Lending Teams,” or cohesive open or closed membership groups established and categorized according to scope. These Lending Teams introduce forms of cooperative many-to-one and many-to-many group lending, based on tenuous concepts of identity. Groups vary according to category, size, scope, and activity, and this impacts participatory vitality of crowd-sourced lending. Looking specifically at Kiva.org as a prominent online community for p...

  18. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research…

  19. An Efficient MAC Protocol With Selective Grouping and Cooperative Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Xie, Shengli; Yu, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Yuen, Chau

    2013-01-01

    In cognitive radio networks, spectrum sensing is a crucial technique to discover spectrum opportunities for the Secondary Users (SUs). The quality of spectrum sensing is evaluated by both sensing accuracy and sensing efficiency. Here, sensing accuracy is represented by the false alarm probability and the detection probability while sensing efficiency is represented by the sensing overhead and network throughput. In this paper, we propose a group-based cooperative Medium Access Control (MAC) p...

  20. Social communication interventions for preschoolers: targeting peer interactions during peer group entry and cooperative play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timler, Geralyn R; Olswang, Lesley B; Coggins, Truman E

    2005-08-01

    Some preschoolers with language impairment approach and manage peer interactions less effectively than typically developing peers. This article discusses assessment and intervention strategies for targeting preschoolers' social communication skills during peer entry and cooperative play situations. Essential features of effective interventions include identification of appropriate social communication targets, addressing and facilitating children's use of these targets during small group sessions with peers, and supporting generalization of newly acquired social communication behaviors to children's peer interactions within the classroom setting. PMID:16155855

  1. EVALUATION OF THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTING OF THE CO-OPERATIVE GROUP FOOD RETAIL DIVISION

    OpenAIRE

    Rizo Patron Pinto, Cecilia Ursula

    2005-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) reporting is now a critical element in communicating a company's social and environmental policies to the investment community and other stakeholder populations. CSR reporting refers to what is also known as triple bottom line reporting, by which companies report social, economic an environmental performance. This dissertation focuses on the evaluation of the CSR reporting of the Co-operative Group Food Retail division; through the analysis of...

  2. Chemotherapy and survival in advanced breast cancer: the inclusion of doxorubicin in Cooper type regimens.

    OpenAIRE

    A'Hern, R P; Smith, I. E.; Ebbs, S R

    1993-01-01

    The value of the inclusion of doxorubicin hydrochloride (dox) in Cooper type regimens in advanced breast cancer was assessed by performing an overview employing summary statistics derived from published papers of randomised clinical trials comparing Cooper type regimens that contain dox with regimens in which dox was replaced by one or more compounds. Trials were selected which published data on survival, time to treatment failure and response rate. This study suggests that dox confers advant...

  3. Cooperative dynamics of a group of intruders subsiding in granular media: A DEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Cher Hui; Wu, Chuan-Yu

    2013-06-01

    We numerically investigated the subsidence of a group of solid intruders in a randomly generated granular bed using discrete element method (DEM) in 2D and explored the cooperative behaviour of these intruders. Five intruders with a specified separation distance were placed on the surface of the granular bed and released to subside with zero impact velocity. Dynamics of the intruders was analysed. In addition, the effects of friction, boundary constraints, and the diameter and density ratio of the intruders to particles in the granular bed on the cooperative dynamics were also examined. It was found that friction and boundary constraints significantly affected the subsiding kinematics of the intruders. Most interestingly, it was shown that the intruders subside in a cooperative manner as they initially split from each other, and then move toward each other, resembling the flying pattern of a flock of birds in the air. This cooperative behaviour is in broad agreement with the experimental observations of Pacheco-Vazquez and Ruiz-Suarez (2010).

  4. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig MaClean

    Full Text Available Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves", this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  5. You Can Be in a Group and Still Not Cooperate. Collaborative Approaches and Cooperative Learning Activities for Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parma City School District, OH.

    This handbook defines and describes the benefits of both collaborative approaches and cooperative techniques. An introduction uses watercolor marbling as a metaphor for collaborative approaches and cooperative activities. Section I provides research results regarding problems of adult literacy programs, skills employers want, and Bloom's taxonomy.…

  6. Co-operative Banking Groups in Europe: Comparative Analysis of the Structure and Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Palomo Zurdo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the situation of the main European co-operative banking groups (or systems) through the analysis of particular aspects of their structure and the activities and services they offer, in order to compare these groups with the Spanish case to check if the different ways of dealing with these aspects agree, and under what circumstances or how they are developed. This analysis is also intended to identify the decision-making and economic linking relations set up be...

  7. Quality assurance of 3-D conformal radiation therapy for a cooperative group trial - RTOG 3D QA center initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURPOSE: 3-D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) holds promise in allowing safe escalation of radiation dose to increase the local control of prostate cancer. Prospective evaluation of this new modality requires strict quality assurance (QA). We report the results of QA review on patients receiving 3DCRT for prostate cancer on a cooperative group trial. MATERIALS and METHODS: In 1993 the NCI awarded the ACR/RTOG and nine institutions an RFA grant to study the use of 3DCRT in the treatment of prostate cancer. A phase I/II trial was developed to: a) test the feasibility of conducting 3DCRT radiation dose escalation in a cooperative group setting; b) establish the maximum tolerated radiation dose that can be delivered to the prostate; and c) quantify the normal tissue toxicity rate when using 3DCRT. In order to assure protocol compliance each participating institution was required to implement data exchange capabilities with the RTOG 3D QA center. The QA center reviews at a minimum the first five case from each participating center and spot checks subsequent submissions. For each case review the following parameters are evaluated: 1) target volume delineation, 2) normal structure delineation, 3) CT data quality, 4) field placement, 5) field shaping, and 6) dose distribution. RESULTS: Since the first patient was registered on August 23, 1994, an additional 170 patients have been accrued. Each of the nine original approved institutions has participated and three other centers have recently passed quality assurance bench marks for study participation. Eighty patients have been treated at the first dose level (68.4 Gy minimum PTV dose) and accrual is currently ongoing at the second dose level (73.8 Gy minimum PTV dose). Of the 124 cases that have undergone complete or partial QA review, 30 cases (24%) have had some problems with data exchange. Five of 67 CT scans were not acquired by protocol standards. Target volume delineation required the submitting institution

  8. Three "quantum" models of competition and cooperation in interacting biological populations and social groups

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2012-01-01

    In present paper we propose the consistent statistical approach which appropriate for a number of models describing both behavior of biological populations and various social groups interacting with each other.The approach proposed based on the ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) and allows one to account explicitly both discreteness of a system variables and their fluctuations near mean values.Therefore this approach can be applied also for the description of small populations where standard dynamical methods are failed. We study in detail three typical models of interaction between populations and groups: 1) antagonistic struggle between two populations 2) cooperation (or, more precisely, obligatory mutualism) between two species 3) the formation of coalition between two feeble groups in their conflict with third one that is more powerful . The models considered in a sense are mutually complementary and include the most types of interaction between populations and groups. Besides this method can ...

  9. The consequences of treatment and disease in patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: cognitive function and performance status. North Central Cancer Treatment Group.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, B.P.; C. H. Wang; O'Fallon, J.R.; Colgan, J P; Earle, J. D.; Krigel, R. L.; Brown, L D; McGinnis, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    Per protocol, patients with primary CNS non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in an intergroup phase II trial conducted by the North Central Cancer Treatment Group and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group had their cognitive functions measured using the Folstein and Folstein Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and their physical functions measured using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Score (PS) at study entry, at each treatment evaluation, and at quarterly intervals thereafter until ...

  10. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  11. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  12. Effects of Cooperative Learning on Learning Achievement and Group Working Behavior of Junior Students in Modern French Literature Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orprayoon, Soudaya

    2014-01-01

    This study reported on the results of a quasi-experimental research to explore the effectiveness of using a cooperative learning method on students' academic achievement, their group working behavior and their perception and opinions towards cooperative learning in a Modern French Literature course. The sample included twelve junior students…

  13. Solidarity liability of the cooperatives part of the Unimed Group – a Brazilian private healthcare insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHEFFER, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Unimed medical cooperatives – a Brazilian private health insurance- are a very expressive group in the Brazilian supplementary healthcare market, as they bring together the largest number of beneficiaries and present the highest turnover in the sector. In light of the decision of the Brazilian Superior Court of Justice (STJ recognizing the solidarity liability related to obligations of any company belonging to the group Unimed, this article analyzes arguments and implications of this judgment. The transparency obligation stems from the basic consumer’s right to receive clear and adequate information on the marketed services and products. As for the good faith, it is linked to the loyalty that the parties must maintain at every stage of the contract, in respect to the expectations created. This article concludes that the STJ’s position, related to the responsibility of all companies of the Unimed Group, is a logical and necessary outcome.

  14. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  15. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots. PMID:18331188

  16. Application of unitary group methods to cooperative phenomena in magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results indicate that the methods of the unitary group approach to atomic and molecular structure calculations are extensible to other systems particularly to cooperative phenomena in magnetic film materials. It is shown that the many particle bases can be represented heirarchically in terms of Weyl-Young tableaux which are indicators of the internal atomic structure. This is particularly relevant when individual magnetic species are in close proximity and the detailed structure of each species cannot be ignored. Some actual numerical results will be presented

  17. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk

  18. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-feng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype, led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. Methods DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022 suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. Results The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%, FYa + FYb- (33.2%, FYa-FYb + (45.6% and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001. Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%, FYa + FYb- (36.9%, FYa-FYb + (41.0% and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005. There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022 of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05, histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05 or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05 between every each DBGP group. Conclusions DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype

  19. THE ROLE OF SUPPORT GROUPS IN THE COOPERATION BETWEEN PARENTS OF PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES AND PROFESSIONAL STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka NOVAK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the ways of building and developing a better cooperative relationship between parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff is the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Goal: To examine the correlation of the level of cooperative relationship between the parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff with the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Methodology: Respondents: parents (296 of people with severe and profound learning disabilities and staff (298 in five centres across Slovenia; Methods: descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity, the rankit method, one-way analysis of variance; Procedures: survey questionnaires for parents and staff. The data was processed using SPSS software for personal computers. Results: The difference between the variances of the groups (parent found is statistically significant (F = 6.16; p = 0.01. Staff included in support groups have a significantly lower level of cooperative relationship with parents (f=10; M = - 0.12 than staff not included in these groups (f = 191; M = 0.04. Conclusion:In contrast to theoretical findings the results indicated less successful cooperation for professional staff included in support groups. The results furthermore did not confirm any differences in the cooperative relationship of parents included in support groups and those who are not. We suggest an in-depth analysis of the workings of support groups.

  20. Prognostic Factors for Outcome in Localized Extremity Rhabdomyosarcoma. Pooled Analysis From Four International Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Odile; Rey, Annie; Brown, Kenneth L.B.; Bisogno, Gianni; Koscielniak, Ewa; Stevens, Michael C.G.; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Meyer, William H.; La, Trang H.; Carli, Modesto; Anderson, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extremity rhabdomyosarcomas do not always show satisfactory outcomes. We analyzed data from 643 patients treated in 14 studies conducted by European and North American groups between 1983 and 2004 to identify factors predictive of outcome. Procedure Clinical factors, including age; histology; site of primary (hand and foot vs. other); size; invasiveness (T stage); nodal involvement (N stage); and treatment factors, including post-surgical group; chemotherapy type and duration; radiotherapy; and treatment (before or after 1995); were evaluated for impact on overall survival (OS). Results 5-year OS were 67% (se 1.8). Multivariate analysis showed that lower OS correlated with age >3 years, T2 and N1 stage, incomplete initial surgery, treatment before 1995, and European cooperative group treatment. Patients with gross residual disease after initial incomplete resection/biopsy had similar outcomes in both continental groups. The better global survival of patients treated in American studies was accounted for by differences in outcome in the subset of those with grossly resected tumors (OS 86% [se 3] for COG patients vs. 68% [se 4] for European patients (P = 0.004)). When excluding chemotherapy duration from the model, analysis in this subset of patients showed that cooperative group (P = 0.001), site (P = 0.001), and T stage (P = 0.05) were all significant. However, after adding duration of chemotherapy (≥ 27 weeks) to the model, only primary site remained significant (P = 0.006). Conclusion This meta-analysis confirms the role of many established prognostic factors but identifies for the first time that chemotherapy duration may have an impact on outcome in patients with grossly resected tumors. PMID:26257045

  1. Effects of cooperative learning groups during social studies for students with autism and fourth-grade peers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugan, E; Kamps, D; Leonard, B

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the use of cooperative learning groups as an instructional strategy for integrating 2 students with autism into a fourth-grade social studies class. Baseline consisted of 40 min of teacher-led sessions including lecture, questions and discussion with students, and the use of maps. The intervention condition consisted of 10 min of teacher introduction of new material, followed by cooperative learning groups that included tutoring on key words and facts, a team activity, and a w...

  2. Canadian Nurses’ Perspectives on Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Ko, Wellam F.; Oliffe, John L.; Han, Christina S.; Garrett, Bernie; Henwood, Tim; Tuckett, Anthony G.; Sohrevardi, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) are community-based organizations that offer information and psychosocial support to men who experience prostate cancer and their families. Nurses are well positioned to refer men to a range of psychosocial resources to help them adjust to prostate cancer; however, little is known about nurses’ perspectives on PCSGs. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ views about PCSGs as a means to making recommendations for advancing t...

  3. Significant association between ABO blood group and pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia; B; Greer; Mark; H; Yazer; Jay; S; Raval; M; Michael; Barmada; Randall; E; Brand; David; C; Whitcomb

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether the ABO blood group is related to pancreatic cancer risk in the general population of the United States.METHODS:Using the University of Pittsburgh's clinicalpancreatic cancer registry,the blood donor database from our local blood bank (Central Blood Bank),and the blood product recipient database from the regional transfusion service (Centralized Transfusion Service) in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,we identified 274 pancreatic cancer patients with previously determined serological ABO bloo...

  4. An informatics model for tissue banks – Lessons learned from the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in molecular biology and growing requirements from biomarker validation studies have generated a need for tissue banks to provide quality-controlled tissue samples with standardized clinical annotation. The NCI Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR is a distributed tissue bank that comprises four academic centers and provides thousands of clinically annotated prostate cancer specimens to researchers. Here we describe the CPCTR information management system architecture, common data element (CDE development, query interfaces, data curation, and quality control. Methods Data managers review the medical records to collect and continuously update information for the 145 clinical, pathological and inventorial CDEs that the Resource maintains for each case. An Access-based data entry tool provides de-identification and a standard communication mechanism between each group and a central CPCTR database. Standardized automated quality control audits have been implemented. Centrally, an Oracle database has web interfaces allowing multiple user-types, including the general public, to mine de-identified information from all of the sites with three levels of specificity and granularity as well as to request tissues through a formal letter of intent. Results Since July 2003, CPCTR has offered over 6,000 cases (38,000 blocks of highly characterized prostate cancer biospecimens, including several tissue microarrays (TMA. The Resource developed a website with interfaces for the general public as well as researchers and internal members. These user groups have utilized the web-tools for public query of summary data on the cases that were available, to prepare requests, and to receive tissues. As of December 2005, the Resource received over 130 tissue requests, of which 45 have been reviewed, approved and filled. Additionally, the Resource implemented the TMA Data Exchange Specification in its TMA program and created a

  5. The European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation (EGTC): A new tool facilitating cross-border cooperation and governance

    OpenAIRE

    Zapletal, Jirka

    2010-01-01

    The European Union is becoming one undivided continent where territories are faced with borderless economic, social and environmental challenges while still being governed within traditional institutional boundaries. Integration raises the question of cohesion among different territories, and territorial cohesion is a new objective for the Union according to the Lisbon Treaty. Cooperation between territories, beyond frontiers and across different institutional layers, is becoming crucial for ...

  6. Relative packing groups in template-based structure prediction: cooperative effects of true positive constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan; Qu, Xiaotao; Swanson, Rosemarie; Bohannan, Zach; Bliss, Robert; Tsai, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Most current template-based structure prediction methods concentrate on finding the correct backbone conformation and then packing sidechains within that backbone. Our packing-based method derives distance constraints from conserved relative packing groups (RPGs). In our refinement approach, the RPGs provide a level of resolution that restrains global topology while allowing conformational sampling. In this study, we test our template-based structure prediction method using 51 prediction units from CASP7 experiments. RPG-based constraints are able to substantially improve approximately two-thirds of starting templates. Upon deeper investigation, we find that true positive spatial constraints, especially those non-local in sequence, derived from the RPGs were important to building nearer native models. Surprisingly, the fraction of incorrect or false positive constraints does not strongly influence the quality of the final candidate. This result indicates that our RPG-based true positive constraints sample the self-consistent, cooperative interactions of the native structure. The lack of such reinforcing cooperativity explains the weaker effect of false positive constraints. Generally, these findings are encouraging indications that RPGs will improve template-based structure prediction. PMID:21210729

  7. Group Solutions, Too! More Cooperative Logic Activities for Grades K-4. Teacher's Guide. LHS GEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jan M.; Kopp, Jaine

    There is evidence that structured cooperative logic is an effective way to introduce or reinforce mathematics concepts, explore thinking processes basic to both math and science, and develop the important social skills of cooperative problem-solving. This book contains a number of cooperative logic activities for grades K-4 in order to improve…

  8. Cooperative inhibitory effects of antisense oligonucleotide of cell adhesion molecules and cimetidine on cancer cell adhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Hong Tang; Yan-Ling Chen; Xiao-Qian Wang; Xiu-Jin Li; Feng-Zhi Yin; Xiao-Zhong Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the cooperative effects of antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) of cell adhesion molecules and cimetidine on the expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in endothelial cells and their adhesion to tumor cells.METHODS: After treatment of endothelial cells with ASON and/or cimetidine and induction with TNF-α, the protein and mRNA changes of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in endothelial cells were examined by flow cytometry and RT-PCR,respectively. The adhesion rates of endothelial cells to tumor cells were measured by cell adhesion experiment.RESULTS: In comparison with TNF-α inducing group, lipoASON and lipo-ASON/cimetidine could significantly decrease the protein and mRNA levels of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in endothelial cells, and lipo-ASON/cimetidine had most significant inhibitory effect on E-selectin expression (from 36.37±1.56% to 14.23±1.07%, P<0.001). Meanwhile,cimetidine alone could inhibit the expression of E-selectin (36.37±1.56% vs 27.2±1.31%, P<0.001), but not ICAM-1 (69.34±2.50% vs68.07±2.10%,P>O.05)and the two kinds of mRNA, either. Compared with TNF-αα inducing group, the rate of adhesion was markedly decreased in lipo-E-selectin ASON and lipo-E-selectin ASON/cimetidine treated groups(P<0.05),and Jipo-E-selectin ASON/cimetidine worked better than lipo-E-selectin ASON alone except for HepG2/ECV304 group(P<0.05). However, the decrease of adhesion was not significant in lipo-ICAM-1 ASON and lipo-ICAM-1 ASON/cimetidine treated groups except for HepG2/ECV304 group (P >0.05).CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that ASON in combination with cimetidine in vitro can significantly reduce the adhesion between endothelial cells and hepatic or colorectal cancer cells, which is stronger than ASON or cimetidine alone. This study provides some useful proofs for gene therapy of antiadhesion.

  9. The role of host traits, season and group size on parasite burdens in a cooperative mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Viljoen

    Full Text Available The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites. Such patterns of aggregation have been linked to variation in host exposure and susceptibility as well as parasite traits and environmental factors. Host exposure and susceptibility may differ with sexes, reproductive effort and group size. Furthermore, environmental factors may affect both the host and parasite directly and contribute to temporal heterogeneities in parasite loads. We investigated the contributions of host and parasite traits as well as season on parasite loads in highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae. This cooperative breeder exhibits a reproductive division of labour and animals live in colonies of varying sizes that procreate seasonally. Mole-rats were parasitised by lice, mites, cestodes and nematodes with mites (Androlaelaps sp. and cestodes (Mathevotaenia sp. being the dominant ecto- and endoparasites, respectively. Sex and reproductive status contributed little to the observed parasite prevalence and abundances possibly as a result of the shared burrow system. Clear seasonal patterns of parasite prevalence and abundance emerged with peaks in summer for mites and in winter for cestodes. Group size correlated negatively with mite abundance while it had no effect on cestode burdens and group membership affected infestation with both parasites. We propose that the mode of transmission as well as social factors constrain parasite propagation generating parasite patterns deviating from those commonly predicted.

  10. A qualitative study of breast cancer self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R; Fitch, M; Davis, C; Phillips, C

    1997-12-01

    This study reports on the experience of women in four community breast cancer self-help groups in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 women, asking them about benefits and limitations of their group involvement, and about their perspectives on group processes and structures. Overall, participants reported their group involvement to be extremely helpful for navigating the short and long-term impact of breast cancer. Emotional support benefits included connecting with other breast cancer survivors, feeling understood and sharing experiences, providing hope, and sharing healing laughter. Informational and practical support benefits included sharing of important information and learning how to get what you want. Even where there were concerns about limitations or tensions of group experience, these occurred against a backdrop of appreciation and commitment. From the discussion of group processes and structures, a number of issues were identified as problematic. Most notable were how to deal with deaths of group members and how to balance the group's primary purpose of providing mutual support with secondary goals of dealing with group business and engaging in meaningful advocacy. PMID:9451747

  11. Cooperative Electronic Attack for Groups of Unmanned Air Vehicles based on Multi-agent Simulation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Ming Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of path planning is addressed for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs cooperative joint-forces electronic attack operating in a hostile environment. Specifically, the objective is to plan path to a target location in a way that minimizes exposure to threats while keeping fuel usage at acceptable levels. We consider a scenario where a group of UAVs flies in a close formation and cooperates in their use of jamming resources to prevent being tracked by Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM tracking radars. The main goal of this research effort is develop cooperating UAVs within multi-agent simulation environment. Simulations were generated to test the path planning and control strategies given UAVs/SAM tracking radar network scenarios, and overall UAVs cooperative electronic attack performance in each simulation was analyzed.

  12. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Pelzer, U.; Klein, F.(Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn, Bonn, 53115, Germany); M. Bahra; M. Sinn; Dörken, B.; Neuhaus, P.; Meyer, O; H. Riess

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown but actually under high exposure. Findings of correlations between the AB0 blood group system (Chromosome 9q34,1-q34,2) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients from Asia, America and south Europe have already been published. So far it is unclear, whether this correlation between blood group an PC incidence can be found in German patients as well. Methods: One hundred and sixty-six patients who under...

  13. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany.

    OpenAIRE

    UwePelzer; MarcusBahra; OliverMeyer

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown but actually under high exposure. Findings of correlations between the AB0 blood group system (Chromosome 9q34,1 - q34,2) and the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in patients from Asia, America and south Europe have already been published. So far it is unclear, whether this correlation between blood group an PC incidence can be found in German patients as well. Methods: 166 patients who underwent a re...

  14. The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic L Cram; Blount, Jonathan D.; Young, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compro...

  15. Do not aim too high nor too low: Moderate expectation-based group formation promotes public cooperation on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Te; Wang, Long

    2014-09-01

    We propose a public goods game model wherein individuals can adaptively adjust their social ties. Individuals have expectation towards the groups they are involved in. They drop out of these groups which do not satisfy their expectation and explore some new ones in the evolutionary process. The time scale ratio of natural selection to interaction determines how fast interaction happens relatively to selection. The results show that cooperation is greatly enhanced when interaction happens quickly. Furthermore, we find that there exists an optimal interval of intermediate expectation level most favoring cooperation. Robustness of the results has been checked by means of an extended model, where individuals' expectation is subject to evolution as well.

  16. Cooperation among cancer cells as public goods games on Voronoi networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archetti, Marco

    2016-05-01

    Cancer cells produce growth factors that diffuse and sustain tumour proliferation, a form of cooperation that can be studied using mathematical models of public goods in the framework of evolutionary game theory. Cell populations, however, form heterogeneous networks that cannot be described by regular lattices or scale-free networks, the types of graphs generally used in the study of cooperation. To describe the dynamics of growth factor production in populations of cancer cells, I study public goods games on Voronoi networks, using a range of non-linear benefits that account for the known properties of growth factors, and different types of diffusion gradients. The results are surprisingly similar to those obtained on regular graphs and different from results on scale-free networks, revealing that network heterogeneity per se does not promote cooperation when public goods diffuse beyond one-step neighbours. The exact shape of the diffusion gradient is not crucial, however, whereas the type of non-linear benefit is an essential determinant of the dynamics. Public goods games on Voronoi networks can shed light on intra-tumour heterogeneity, the evolution of resistance to therapies that target growth factors, and new types of cell therapy. PMID:26930167

  17. A support group for fathers whose partners died from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, Justin Michael; Rosenstein, Donald Lee

    2013-04-01

    Men who are raising dependent children after their spouses or partners have died from cancer face unique challenges adjusting to single parenthood while managing their grief and the grief of their children. Unfortunately, the needs of those widowers have been overlooked in the clinical literature and no published interventions are designed specifically for that population. The current article details the creation and implementation of a peer support group for fathers recently widowed because of their wives' deaths from cancer. Initial observations and emergent themes from the group are described. Group members suggested that they benefited from participation in the support group and that this form of psychosocial support is a promising intervention for fathers in similar circumstances. PMID:23538252

  18. Cooperative Group, Risk-Taking and Inclusion of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…

  19. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question

  20. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  1. Spring migration of the Siberian Knots Calidris canutus canutus : results of a co-operative Wader Study Group project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dick, William J.A.; Piersma, Theunis; Prokosch, Peter

    1987-01-01

    In spring 1979 the Wader Study Group organised a co-operative project to study the spring migration of Siberian Knots Calidris c. canutus from their west and south African wintering grounds to the breeding grounds in central Siberia. S. African wintering birds migrate via the western seaboards of Af

  2. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Cooperative Learning Methods and Group Size on the EFL Learners' Achievement in Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect of cooperative learning small group size and two different instructional modes (positive interdependence vs. individual accountability) on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) undergraduate learners' communication skills (speaking and writing) achievement in computer-based environments. The study also examined the…

  3. The coevolution of cooperation and dispersal in social groups and its implications for the emergence of multicellularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochberg Michael E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work on the complexity of life highlights the roles played by evolutionary forces at different levels of individuality. One of the central puzzles in explaining transitions in individuality for entities ranging from complex cells, to multicellular organisms and societies, is how different autonomous units relinquish control over their functions to others in the group. In addition to the necessity of reducing conflict over effecting specialized tasks, differentiating groups must control the exploitation of the commons, or else be out-competed by more fit groups. Results We propose that two forms of conflict – access to resources within groups and representation in germ line – may be resolved in tandem through individual and group-level selective effects. Specifically, we employ an optimization model to show the conditions under which different within-group social behaviors (cooperators producing a public good or cheaters exploiting the public good may be selected to disperse, thereby not affecting the commons and functioning as germ line. We find that partial or complete dispersal specialization of cheaters is a general outcome. The propensity for cheaters to disperse is highest with intermediate benefit:cost ratios of cooperative acts and with high relatedness. An examination of a range of real biological systems tends to support our theory, although additional study is required to provide robust tests. Conclusion We suggest that trait linkage between dispersal and cheating should be operative regardless of whether groups ever achieve higher levels of individuality, because individual selection will always tend to increase exploitation, and stronger group structure will tend to increase overall cooperation through kin selected benefits. Cheater specialization as dispersers offers simultaneous solutions to the evolution of cooperation in social groups and the origin of specialization of germ and soma in

  4. The Use of Relationship Marketing in Developing Network and Co-operative links within Tourism Product Marketing Groups (PMG’s

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Catherine, (Thesis)

    2006-01-01

    Co-operative marketing groups are common in tourism, particularly in the case of destination marketing. Destination tourism marketing groups offer a diverse range of tourism products and experiences which complement each other and are delineated by a specific geographical parameter. Tourism product marketing groups offer similar tourism products or services and through a co-operative approach focus on an identified target markets. Co-operative marketing can make greater impact in terms of...

  5. "You Don't Have to Like Me, but You Have to Respect Me": The Impacts of Assertiveness, Cooperativeness, and Group Satisfaction in Collaborative Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz-Berndt, Megan M.; Blight, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cooperativeness, assertiveness, group satisfaction, leader grade, and leadership negotiation in a collaborative assignment conducted in a small group. Researchers manipulated the assignment of team members who reported on measures of group satisfaction and original scales of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Respondents…

  6. Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Among Three Asian American Sub-Groups: A Focus Group Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Morgan M.; Erby, Lori A. H.; Lee, Sunmin; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of hepatitis B among Asian Americans is higher than for any other ethnic group in the United States. Since more than 50% of liver cancer is hepatitis B related, the burden of morbidity and mortality is extremely high among Asian Americans, highlighting the need for culturally appropriate interventions. We conducted focus groups (n = 8) with a total of 58 Korean, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigrants in Maryland to explore knowledge, awareness and perceived barriers toward hepatitis B ...

  7. Multinuclear group 4 catalysis: olefin polymerization pathways modified by strong metal-metal cooperative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Jennifer P; Delferro, Massimiliano; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-08-19

    homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, macromolecules with dramatically altered properties, and large-scale industrial processes. It is noteworthy that many metalloenzymes employ multiple active centers operating in close synergistic proximity to achieve high activity and selectivity. Such enzymes were the inspiration for the research discussed in this Account, focused on the properties of multimetallic olefin polymerization catalysts. Here we discuss how modifications in organic ligand architecture, metal···metal proximity, and cocatalyst can dramatically modify polyolefin molecular weight, branch structure, and selectively for olefinic comonomer enchainment. We first discuss bimetallic catalysts with identical group 4 metal centers and then heterobimetallic systems with either group 4 or groups 4 + 6 catalytic centers. We compare and contrast the polymerization properties of the bimetallic catalysts with their monometallic analogues, highlighting marked cooperative enchainment effects and unusual polymeric products possible via the proximate catalytic centers. Such multinuclear olefin polymerization catalysts exhibit the following distinctive features: (1) unprecedented levels of polyolefin branching; (2) enhanced enchainment selectivity for linear and encumbered α-olefin comonomers; (3) enhanced polyolefin tacticity and molecular weight; (4) unusual 1,2-insertion regiochemistry for styrenic monomers; (5) modified chain transfer kinetics, such as M-polymer β-hydride transfer to the metal or incoming monomer; (6) LLDPE synthesis with a single binuclear catalyst and ethylene. PMID:25075755

  8. Structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation networks: evidence based on Local Action Groups in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pisani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation projects promoted by Local Action Groups (LAGs in different periods (from LEADER II to LEADER Axis using Social Network Analysis (SNA in a specific case study: the Veneto Region in Italy. The classical indexes of SNA have been critically examined, and the paper also presents innovative indexes that can capture the peculiarity of transnational cooperation: disaggregated densities of the network and transnational centrality of the node. These indexes are useful in order to quantify how transnational a network actually is, and to measure the power-information that each actor (LAG can acquire through its transnational contacts. The methodology can become a tool for Managing Authorities to implement new forms of evaluation of transnational cooperation of LAGs.

  9. Fascin Rigidity and L-plastin Flexibility Cooperate in Cancer Cell Invadopodia and Filopodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Audenhove, Isabel; Denert, Majken; Boucherie, Ciska; Pieters, Leen; Cornelissen, Maria; Gettemans, Jan

    2016-04-22

    Invadopodia and filopodia are dynamic, actin-based protrusions contributing to cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. The force of actin bundles is essential for their protrusive activity. The bundling protein fascin is known to play a role in both invadopodia and filopodia. As it is more and more acknowledged that functionally related proteins cooperate, it is unlikely that only fascin bundles actin in these protrusions. Another interesting candidate is L-plastin, normally expressed in hematopoietic cells, but considered a common marker of many cancer types. We identified L-plastin as a new component of invadopodia, where it contributes to degradation and invasiveness. By means of specific, high-affinity nanobodies inhibiting bundling of fascin or L-plastin, we further unraveled their cooperative mode of action. We show that the bundlers cannot compensate for each other due to strikingly different bundling characteristics: L-plastin bundles are much thinner and less tightly packed. Composite bundles adopt an intermediate phenotype, with fascin delivering the rigidity and strength for protrusive force and structural stability, whereas L-plastin accounts for the flexibility needed for elongation. Consistent with this, elevated L-plastin expression promotes elongation and reduces protrusion density in cells with relatively lower L-plastin than fascin levels. PMID:26945069

  10. Inquiry and Groups: Student Interactions in Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…

  11. Increasing Explanatory Behaviour, Problem-Solving, and Reasoning within Classes Using Cooperative Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Haynes, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The present study builds on research that indicates that teachers play a key role in promoting those interactional behaviours that challenge children's thinking and scaffold their learning. It does this by seeking to determine whether teachers who implement cooperative learning and receive training in explicit strategic questioning strategies…

  12. Effects of problem-solving strategies teaching on the problem solving attitudes of cooperative learning groups in physics education

    OpenAIRE

    Tolga GÖK; SILAY, İlhan

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the effects of teaching cooperative problem solving strategies on physics students’ achievement, strategy levels, and problem solving attitudes were investigated. In this research, experimental procedures were carried out on second year upper secondary school students who attended a lower socio-economic status secondary school in the fall semester of 2005-2006 academic year in %zmir, Turkey. In this study, the pretest-posttest research model with control group was used. The ...

  13. Cooperative base groups in Higher Education : the impact on Life Sciences students' self-directed learning readiness / Anitia Lubbe

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbe, Anitia

    2015-01-01

    Although the need for and importance of self-directed learning are well documented, studies reporting on the influence of teaching–learning strategies, fostering self-directed learning skills, are limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine and understand the impact of the implementation of cooperative base groups on the self-directed learning readiness of first-year Life Sciences students. In order to achieve the research aim, a mixed method approach was followed. During th...

  14. Sleeping Beauty transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Smad4 in gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Haruna; Rust, Alistair G; Ward, Jerrold M; Yew, Christopher Chin Kuan; Jenkins, Nancy A; Copeland, Neal G

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in SMAD4 predispose to the development of gastrointestinal cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. To identify genes driving gastric cancer (GC) development, we performed a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis screen in the stomach of Smad4(+/-) mutant mice. This screen identified 59 candidate GC trunk drivers and a much larger number of candidate GC progression genes. Strikingly, 22 SB-identified trunk drivers are known or candidate cancer genes, whereas four SB-identified trunk drivers, including PTEN, SMAD4, RNF43, and NF1, are known human GC trunk drivers. Similar to human GC, pathway analyses identified WNT, TGF-β, and PI3K-PTEN signaling, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, adherens junctions, and RNA degradation in addition to genes involved in chromatin modification and organization as highly deregulated pathways in GC. Comparative oncogenomic filtering of the complete list of SB-identified genes showed that they are highly enriched for genes mutated in human GC and identified many candidate human GC genes. Finally, by comparing our complete list of SB-identified genes against the list of mutated genes identified in five large-scale human GC sequencing studies, we identified LDL receptor-related protein 1B (LRP1B) as a previously unidentified human candidate GC tumor suppressor gene. In LRP1B, 129 mutations were found in 462 human GC samples sequenced, and LRP1B is one of the top 10 most deleted genes identified in a panel of 3,312 human cancers. SB mutagenesis has, thus, helped to catalog the cooperative molecular mechanisms driving SMAD4-induced GC growth and discover genes with potential clinical importance in human GC. PMID:27006499

  15. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  16. Mutant p53 - heat shock response oncogenic cooperation: a new mechanism of cancer cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evguenia eAlexandrova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main tumor suppressor function of p53 as a ‘guardian of the genome’ is to respond to cellular stress by transcriptional activation of apoptosis, growth arrest or senescence in damaged cells. Not surprisingly, mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequent genetic alteration in human cancers. Importantly, mutant p53 (mutp53 proteins not only lose their wild-type tumor suppressor activity, but also can actively promote tumor development. Two main mechanisms accounting for mutp53 proto-oncogenic activity are inhibition of the wild-type p53 in a dominant-negative fashion and gain of additional oncogenic activities known as gain-of-function (GOF. Here we discuss a novel mechanism of mutp53 GOF, which relies on its oncogenic cooperation with the heat shock machinery. This coordinated adaptive mechanism renders cancer cells more resistant to proteotoxic stress and provides both, a strong survival advantage to cancer cells and a promising means for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Cooperation and the evolutionary ecology of bacterial virulence: the Bacillus cereus group as a novel study system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Ben; Bonsall, Michael B

    2013-08-01

    How significant is social evolution theory for the maintenance of virulence in natural populations? We assume that secreted, distantly acting virulence factors are highly likely to be cooperative public goods. Using this assumption, we discuss and critically assess the potential importance of social interactions for understanding the evolution, diversity and distribution of virulence in the Bacillus cereus group, a novel study system for microbial social biology. We conclude that dynamic equilibria in Cry toxin production, as well as strong spatial structure and population bottlenecks in hosts are the main ecological factors maintaining the cooperative secretion of virulence factors and argue that collective action has contributed to the evolution of narrow host range. Non-linearities in the benefits associated with public goods, as well as the lack of private secretion systems in the Firmicutes may also explain the prevalence and importance of distantly acting virulence factors in B. cereus and its relatives. PMID:23702950

  18. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Fincher, Corey L; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use an agent-based model to explore a specific opportunities-parasites trade-off (OPTO) hypothesis, according to which utility-maximizing agents place themselves at an optimal point on a trade-off between (a) the gains that may be achieved through accessing the resources of geographically or socially distant out-group members through openness to out-group interaction, and (b) the losses arising due to consequently increased risks of exotic infection to which immunity has not been developed. We examine the evolution of cooperation and the formation of social groups within social networks, and we show that the groups that spontaneously form exhibit greater local rather than global cooperative networks when levels of infection are high. It is suggested that the OPTO model offers a first step toward understanding the specific mechanisms through which environmental conditions may influence cognition, ideology, personality, and social organization. PMID:26612490

  19. Designing Cooperative Learning in the Science Classroom: Integrating the Peer Tutoring Small Investigation Group (PTSIG) within the Model of the Six Mirrors of the Classroom Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Khalil, Mahmood; Ron, Salit

    2013-01-01

    The model of the six mirrors of the classroom and its use in teaching biology in a cooperative learning mode were implemented in high school classrooms. In this study we present: a) The model of the six mirrors of the classroom (MSMC). b) Cooperative learning settings: 1. The Group Investigation; 2. The Jigsaw Method; and 3. Peer Tutoring in Small…

  20. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  1. Ningbo Veken united Trade Group:Strengthening Sino-U.S.Apparel Trade Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Held by Veken Holding Groups,international and domestic trade interactive with manufacturing basis,Ningbo Veken United Trade Group Co.,Ltd (Ningbo V.K.Industry & Trading Co.,Ltd) is a comprehensive industry and trading enterprise with the ownership of many subsidiary companies and factories in the group.

  2. The Effects of Cognitive Behavorial Therapy Group and Social Support Group on the Self Esteem among Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Namora Lumongga Lubis; Mohamad Hashim Bin Othman

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the main effects of CBT group, social support group (DS) and control group (KK) on the self esteem among breast cancer patients. Rosemberg self esteem scale (RSE) was used to measure self-esteem. The treatment group consisted of CBT and DS groups. Each treatment group received 12 counselling sessions within six weeks. Quantitative analysis general linear model (GLM) repeated measures was used to identify the groups’ (CBT, DS, and KK) main effect, the repeated...

  3. Clinical trials update of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present clinical trial update consists of a review of two of eight current studies (the 10981-22023 AMAROS trial and the 10994 p53 trial) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group, as well as a preview of the MIND-ACT trial. The AMAROS trial is designed to prove equivalent local/regional control for patients with proven axillary lymph node metastasis by sentinel node biopsy if treated with axillary radiotherapy instead of axillary lymph node dissection, with reduced morbidity. The p53 trial started to assess the potential predictive value of p53 using a functional assay in yeast in patients with locally advanced/inflammatory or large operable breast cancer prospectively randomised to a taxane regimen versus a nontaxane regimen

  4. The Influence of Competitive and Cooperative Group Game Play on State Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    Most research on violent video game play suggests a positive relationship with aggression-related outcomes. Expanding this research, the current study examines the impact group size, game motivation, in-game behavior, and verbal aggression have on postgame play hostility. Consistent with previous research, group size and verbal aggression both…

  5. Cooperative Learning in Lego Robotics Projects: Exploring the Impacts of Group Formation on Interaction and Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ching Cheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how grouping of students influence students interaction and achievement in LEGO activities. Through LEGO Robotics learning activities, students’ interaction and performance were collected and analyzed through statistical analysis. In addition, qualitative data from interviews, video recordings, and related documents provided evidences for explanation. The findings of this study indicated that LEGO Robotics mediated learning by providing group-based learning experiences. The grouping of students with diversity of background resulted in differences in interactions and learning outcomes. The major findings are as follows: First, students’ gender, age, and family background are not related to their learning outcomes. Secondly, the groups of the same gender significantly engaged in more communication than the groups consisting of more female than male students. And, the groups of underprivileged students communicated significantly less than the non-underprivileged groups during programming activities. Thirdly, for programming activities, more interactions between group members would lead to higher scores on performance.

  6. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Zhenggang Zhu; Jun Zhang; Min Yan; Bingya Liu; Jianian Zhang; Jun Ji; Zhiwei Wang; Lei Liu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for m...

  7. WISP3 and RhoC guanosine triphosphatase cooperate in the development of inflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal form of locally advanced breast cancer. We found concordant and consistent alterations of two genes in 90% of IBC tumors when compared with stage-matched non-IBC tumors: overexpression of RhoC guanosine triphosphatase and loss of WNT-1 induced secreted protein 3 (WISP3). Further work revealed that RhoC is a transforming oncogene for human mammary epithelial (HME) cells. Despite the aggressiveness of the RhoC-driven phenotype, it does not quantitatively reach that of the true IBC tumors. We have demonstrated that WISP3 has tumor growth and angiogenesis inhibitory functions in IBC. We proposed that RhoC and WISP3 cooperate in the development of IBC. Using an antisense approach, we blocked WISP3 expression in HME cells. Cellular proliferation and growth were determined using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and anchorage-independent growth in a soft agar assay. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured in conditioned medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antisense inhibition of WISP3 in HME cells increased RhoC mRNA levels and resulted in an increase in cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and VEGF levels in the conditioned medium. Conversely, restoration of WISP3 expression in the highly malignant IBC cell line SUM149 was able to decrease the expression of RhoC protein. WISP3 modulates RhoC expression in HME cells and in the IBC cell line SUM149. This provides further evidence that these two genes act in concert to give rise to the highly aggressive IBC phenotype. We propose a model of this interaction as a starting point for further investigations

  8. LPA Induces Colon Cancer Cell Proliferation through a Cooperation between the ROCK and STAT-3 Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Leve

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA plays a critical role in the proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells; however, the downstream signaling events underlying these processes remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the signaling pathways triggered by LPA to regulate the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC. We have used three cell line models of CRC, and initially analyzed the expression profile of LPA receptors (LPAR. Then, we treated the cells with LPA and events related to their tumorigenic potential, such as migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, proliferation as well as apoptosis and cell cycle were evaluated. We used the Chip array technique to analyze the global gene expression profiling that occurs after LPA treatment, and we identified cell signaling pathways related to the cell cycle. The inhibition of these pathways verified the conclusions of the transcriptomic analysis. We found that the cell lines expressed LPAR1, -2 and -3 in a differential manner and that 10 μM LPA did not affect cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth, but it did induce proliferation and cell cycle progression in HCT-116 cells. Although LPA in this concentration did not induce transcriptional activity of β-catenin, it promoted the activation of Rho and STAT-3. Moreover, ROCK and STAT-3 inhibitors prevented LPA-induced proliferation, but ROCK inhibition did not prevent STAT-3 activation. Finally, we observed that LPA regulates the expression of genes related to the cell cycle and that the combined inhibition of ROCK and STAT-3 prevented cell cycle progression and increased the LPA-induced expression of cyclins E1, A2 and B1 to a greater degree than either inhibitor alone. Overall, these results demonstrate that LPA increases the proliferative potential of colon adenocarcinoma HCT-116 cells through a mechanism involving cooperation between the Rho-ROCK and STAT3 pathways

  9. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I; Bidstrup, P E; Frederiksen, K; Johansen, C

    2010-01-01

    participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...... use of Internet-based support groups in cancer patients still needs to confirm long-lasting psychological effects.......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...

  10. Efficacy of Group Logotherapy on Decreasing Anxiety in Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast ...

  11. Assessment of environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood cancers: the Childrens Cancer Group epidemiology program.

    OpenAIRE

    Robison, L L; Buckley, J. D.; Bunin, G

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer during childhood represents one of the leading causes of death within the pediatric and adolescent age group. It is estimated that approximately 8000 children will be diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Epidemiologic research addressing the etiology of childhood cancer has been limited because of the difficulties in identifying a sufficiently large study population. Moreover, the use of retrospectively ascertained childhood cancer cases in epidemiolog...

  12. Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  13. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  14. Tomorrow’s Cancer Treatments Today: The First 50 Years of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Mark R.; George, Stephen L; Schilsky, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Members of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B have been striving to improve cancer therapies for more than 50 years. The organization began in the mid 1950s as a multi-institutional collaboration between investigators at the National Cancer Institute, Roswell Park Memorial Institute, and the Children’s Hospital in Buffalo New York. In 1956 it was officially designated as the Acute Leukemia Group B (ALGB) and for most of its first decade focused largely on leukemia research. Reflecting an expansi...

  15. Cooperative Effects in Aligned and Opposed Multicomponent Charge Gradients Containing Strongly Acidic, Weakly Acidic, and Basic Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Kayesh M; Giri, Dipak; Wynne, Kenneth J; Higgins, Daniel A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2016-04-26

    Bifunctionalized surface charge gradients in which the individual component gradients either align with or oppose each other have been prepared. The multicomponent gradients contain strongly acidic, weakly acidic, and basic functionalities that cooperatively interact to define surface wettability, nanoparticle binding, and surface charge. The two-step process for gradient formation begins by modifying a siloxane coated silicon wafer in a spatially dependent fashion first with an aminoalkoxysilane and then with a mercapto-functionalized alkoxysilane. Immersion in hydrogen peroxide leads to oxidation of the surface immobilized sulfhydryl groups and subsequent protonation of the surface immobilized amines. Very different surface chemistries were obtained from gradients that either align with or oppose each other. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the degree of amine group protonation depends on the local concentration of sulfonate groups, which form ion pairs with the resulting ammonium ions. Contact angle measurements show that these ion pairs greatly enhance the wettability of the gradient surface. Finally, studies of colloidal gold binding show that the presence of both amine and thiol moieties enhance colloid binding, which is also influenced by surface charge. Cooperativity is also revealed in the distribution of charges on uniform samples used as models of the gradient surfaces, as evaluated via zeta potential measurements. Most significantly, the net surface charge and how it changes with distance and solution pH strongly depend on whether the gradients in amine and thiol align or oppose each other. The aligned multicomponent gradients show the most interesting behavior in that there appears to be a point at pH ∼ 6.5 where surface charge remains constant with distance. Setting the pH above or below this transition point leads to changes in the direction of charge variation along the length of the substrate. PMID:27073019

  16. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Düring, Maria; Henriksen, Trine Foged;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  17. The effect of group cohesion on rehabilitation outcome in cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    May, Anne M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Van Den Borne, Bart; Mesters, Ilse; van der Schans, Cees P; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Group-based physical training interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing quality of life in cancer survivors. Until now, however, the impact of cohesion within the group on intervention outcome has not been investigated. Methods: We examined self-reported individual group cohesion ratings collected in the first half of a 12-week rehabilitation programme for cancer survivors (N = 132). Four dimensions of group cohesion were measured, i.e. the bond with the group as ...

  18. Trade Unions from the New EU Member States that Are in Multilateral Cooperation. The Example of the Vienna Memorandum Group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landgraf, Ch.; Mansfeldová, Zdenka

    Stuttgart: ibidem-Verlag, 2015 - (Landgraf, C.; Pleines, H.), s. 125-137 ISBN 978-3-8382-0734-6 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : multilateral cooperation * multilateral cooperation * europeanization Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  19. The benefits of international cooperation via the Boiling Water Reactor Owners' Group (BWROG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boiling Water Reactors Owners' Group (BWROG) is an industry organization that was created in an effort to support common resolution of technical issues, address regulatory concerns, promote sharing of information and lessons learned among members, as well as to promote safety, minimize cost, and provide the proper forum for its members to address various specific issues. The BWROG is set up with an Executive Committee, responsible for overall organization performance, a General Committee responsible for day to day issues and operations, as well as numerous Technical Committees. BWROG represents almost 70 reactors worldwide and thousands years of operating experience

  20. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel; Ramesh Nagarajappa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. Oral cancer has multifactorial etiology and is significantly associated with risk factors of the individual′s lifestyle, particularly, chronic use of tobacco, spicy food, alcohol and smoking. Many studies have indicated that genetic factors also have an influence on the etiology of cancer. Aim: To evaluate if any of the A...

  1. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  2. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric age: results of a pooled analysis from North American and European cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merks, J. H. M.; De Salvo, G. L.; Bergeron, C.; Bisogno, G.; De Paoli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Rey, A.; Oberlin, O.; Stevens, M. C. G.; Kelsey, A.; Michalski, J.; Hawkins, D. S.; Anderson, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parameningeal (PM) site is a well-known adverse prognostic factor in children with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To identify risk factors associated with outcome at this site, we pooled data from 1105 patients treated in 10 studies conducted by European and North American cooperative groups between 1984 and 2004. Patients and methods Clinical factors including age, histology, size, invasiveness, nodal involvement, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) clinical group, site, risk factors for meningeal involvement (MI), study group, and application of radiotherapy (RT) were studied for their impact on event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS). Results Ten-year EFS and OS were 62.6 and 66.1% for the whole group. Patients without initial RT showed worse survival (10-year OS 40.8% versus 68.5% for RT treated patients). Multivariate analysis focusing on 862 patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment revealed four unfavorable prognostic factors: age 10 years, signs of MI, unfavorable site, and tumor size. Utilizing these prognostic factors, patients could be classified into different risk groups with 10-year OS ranging between 51.1 and 80.9%. Conclusions While, in general, PM localization is regarded as an adverse prognostic factor, the current analysis differentiates those with good prognosis (36% patients with 0–1 risk factor: 10-year OS 80.9%) from high-risk PM patients (28% with 3–4 factors: 10-year OS 51.1%). Furthermore, this analysis reinforces the necessity for RT in PM RMS. PMID:24356633

  3. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  4. Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors: selecting appropriate comparison groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M. van den; Dulmen-den Broeder, E. van; Overbeek, A.; Ronckers, C.; Dorp, W. van; Kremer, L.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M. van den; Huizinga, G.; Loonen, J.J.; Versluys, A.; Bresters, D.; Lambalk, C.; Kaspers, G.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison groups for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison groups in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood On

  5. Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors : selecting appropriate comparison groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M. H.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.; Overbeek, A.; Ronckers, C. M.; van Dorp, W.; Kremer, L. C.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.; Huizinga, G. A.; Loonen, J. J.; Versluys, A. B.; Bresters, D.; Lambalk, C. B.; Kaspers, G. J. L.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison groups for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison groups in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood On

  6. Potential for the development of a marketing option for the specialty local Ban pork of a Thai ethnic smallholder cooperative group in Northwest Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Thanh Huyen; Muth, Philipp C; Markemann, André; Schöll, Kerstin; Zárate, Anne Valle

    2016-02-01

    Based on 12 years of research (SFB 564 "The Uplands Program"), a community-based breeding and marketing cooperative group was transferred to an ethnic farmer group. This study analyses the potential for developing a marketing channel for specialty local Ban pork as an alternative to supplying the local markets to ensure long-term sustainability of the communal local pig breeding and production system. Data on pig-keeping were investigated from 378 farmers who wanted to enroll in the cooperative group in 10 villages (near town, intermediate, and remote zones) in Son La province. The data on Ban pig marketing activities of the cooperative group were investigated for all of its 180 members. Information on the market demand for Ban pigs were collected by interviewing 57 traders in Hanoi city and Son La province. The results show a dominance of local Ban in remote areas, and a preference for crossbreds with exotics in closer-to-town areas. Before farmers joined the cooperative group, the commercialization of pigs in remote villages accounted for only 3.0 pigs/farm/year compared to 9.3 pigs/farm/year in the intermediate zone and 11.2 pigs/farm/year near town. Potential markets have been identified for each product category of the cooperative group. Pure Ban pigs with a weight of 10-15 kg were preferred most by customers in Hanoi city. The regular feedback of information on niche markets for different products has increased the awareness of farmers about the competitiveness of the local pig products, and the power of collective action in the market. Selected pure Ban pigs were increasingly sold to food stores in Hanoi with high prices. Farmers received an average of 9000 VND more compared to the local market price for each kg of live weight. The respective added value for the cooperative group amounted to 11,300 VND/kg live weight. The added value from selling specialty Ban pigs regularly to markets, encouraged farmers toward a market in local pig production and

  7. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein; Amundsen, Tore; Brunsvig, Paal Fr; Hjelde, Harald H; Kaasa, Stein; von Plessen, Christian; Stornes, Frøydis; Tollåli, Terje; Wammer, Finn; Aasebø, Ulf; Sundstrøm, Stein

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare pemetrexed/carboplatin with a standard regimen as first-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) plus carboplatin......, and fatigue reported on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and the lung cancer-specific module LC13 during the first 20 weeks. Secondary end points were overall survival and toxicity. Results Four hundred thirty-six eligible patients were...

  8. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that oc

  9. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both

  10. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a ''rebellious thrush'' and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babes'' Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 – 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas

  11. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  12. AN ASSESSMENT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY TEACHING – A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED STUDENT GROUPS AT STRATHMORE UNIVERSITY IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Kibuye Wadawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Learning has been defined as a relationship in a group of students that requires positive interdependence, individual accountability, interpersonal skills, face-to-face promotive interaction, and processing. Several techniques have been used to implement to advance learning amongst groups of tourism and hospitality students. While a number of methods have delivered favourable results in students’ motivation and learning, some have been used with counterproductive results. The purpose of this study therefore was to carry out a practical assessment of a specified cooperative learning technique using selected student groups within the School of Tourism and Hospitality in Strathmore University, Kenya. In this study, identified learning groups were given fundamental rules on how to use the chosen technique and thereafter asked to apply the technique in a specified learning session. Students were then asked to complete a simple questionnaire to make judgement on the learning effectiveness of the technique and their attitude to it regarding group dynamics. This study established that there are aspects typical of cooperative learning that should be encouraged and specific aspects that should be discouraged. The research identified major factors that should be considered to enhance cooperative learning in tourism and hospitality education in Africa

  13. Cooperative Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer Using Host-Guest Nanoplatform Coloaded with Docetaxel and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangge; Wang, Tingting; Xu, Zhiai; Yu, Haijun; Feng, Bing; Zhang, Junying; Guo, Chengyue; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-27

    Conventional chemotherapy shows moderate efficiency against metastatic cancer since it targets only part of the mechanisms regulating tumor growth and metastasis. Here, gold nanorod (GNR)-based host-guest nanoplatforms loaded with docetaxel (DTX) and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-p65 (referred to as DTX-loaded GNR (GDTX)/p65) for chemo-, RNA interference (RNAi), and photothermal ablation (PTA) cooperative treatment of metastatic breast cancer are reported. To prepare the nanoplatform, GNRs are first coated with cyclodextrin (CD)-grafted polyethylenimine (PEI) and then loaded with DTX and siRNA through host-guest interaction with CD and electrostatic interaction with PEI, respectively. Upon near-infrared laser irradiation, GNRs generate a significant hyperthermia effect to trigger siRNA and DTX release. DTX reduces tumor growth by inhibiting mitosis of cancer cells. Meanwhile, siRNA-p65 suppresses lung metastasis and proliferation of cancer cells by blocking the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and downregulating the downstream genes matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). It is demonstrated that GDTX/p65 in combination with laser irradiation significantly inhibits the growth and lung metastasis of 4T1 breast tumors. The antitumor results suggest promising potential of the host-guest nanoplatform for combinational treatment of metastatic cancer by using RNAi, chemotherapy, and PTA. PMID:26662850

  14. Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatakos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Safioleas, Constnatinos; Manti, Christina; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups. Material-methods In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece. Results The ductal type...

  15. 75 FR 66797 - PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”) Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Register on September 21, 2010 (75 FR 57515). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed... Employment and Training Administration PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC'') Internal Firm Services Client... read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators...

  16. Developing a multicenter cooperative research system for pancreatic cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu-pei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Pancreatic cancer often starts silently without symptoms at its early stage but progresses quite rapidly and has a poor prognosis. In recent years the incidence of pancreatic cancer has been rising year by year.1

  17. Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles on Solving Problems, Achievement in, and Attitudes towards Math in Six Graders with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…

  18. Prognostic Impact of ABO Blood Group on the Survival in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Juan; Yang, Li-Chao; He, Zhen-Yu; Li, Fang-Yan; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of ABO blood group on the survival of patients with ovarian cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the ABO blood group in ovarian cancer patients. Methods: 256 ovarian cancer patients who received a cytoreductive surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic impact of the ABO blood group with respect to overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time was 57 months and the 5-year OS was 70.1%. T...

  19. Online interaction. Effects of storytelling in an internet breast cancer support group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Johansen, Christoffer; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2005-01-01

    The internet provides new ways of forming social relationships among people with breast cancer and is increasingly used for this purpose. This qualitative study, using ethnographic case-study method, aimed to explore how support groups on the internet can break the social isolation that follows...... cancer and chronic pain, by analysing the storytelling emerging on the Scandinavian Breast Cancer Mailing list. Using participant observation and face-to-face or online interviews of participants, we investigated the motivations of 15 women who chose the internet to counteract social isolation after...... breast cancer. The results showed that the women were empowered by the exchanges of knowledge and experience within the support group. The internet was considered a means for finding ways of living with breast cancer. Our study suggests that internet support groups have important potential...

  20. Oncogene amplification as tumor marker in a group of Colombian lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Edward F. Carrillo; Yazmín Rocío Arias; Sandra J. Perdomo; Aristizábal, Fabio A; Paulina Ojeda; Diana M. Palacios

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In spite of recent treatment advances, lung cancer continues to be the first world cancer related death cause; its mortality associated occupied the fifth place in Colombia in 2004. Complete surgical resection is the therapeutic option with the greatest cure probability, however it results frequently ineffective given the current incapacity in Colombia to an early detection of the disease. This study reports the characterization of a group of 30 lung cancer patients regarding th...

  1. Prognostic value of ABO blood group in patients with surgically resected colon cancer

    OpenAIRE

    X. Cao; Wen, Z-S; Sun, Y-J; Li, Y.; Zhang, L.; Han, Y-J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies supported a link between the ABO blood type and survival for several types of malignancies. Nonetheless, the relationship between ABO blood type and survival in colon cancer patients has not been rigorously evaluated. The goal of this retrospective analysis was to discern the correlations between ABO blood group and colon cancer survival. Methods: A total of 1555 colon cancer patients that underwent curative-intent surgery between October 1995 and June 2002 were e...

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY TEACHING – A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED STUDENT GROUPS AT STRATHMORE UNIVERSITY IN KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Kibuye Wadawi

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative Learning has been defined as a relationship in a group of students that requires positive interdependence, individual accountability, interpersonal skills, face-to-face promotive interaction, and processing. Several techniques have been used to implement to advance learning amongst groups of tourism and hospitality students. While a number of methods have delivered favourable results in students’ motivation and learning, some have been used with counterproductive results. The p...

  3. HER2 and uPAR cooperativity contribute to metastatic phenotype of HER2-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Vineesh Indira; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Vine, Kara Lea; Ranson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive breast carcinoma is highly aggressive and mostly metastatic in nature though curable/manageable in part by molecular targeted therapy. Recent evidence suggests a subtype of cells within HER2-positive breast tumors that concomitantly expresses the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) with inherent stem cell/mesenchymal-like properties promoting tumor cell motility and a metastatic phenotype. This HER-positive/uPAR-positive subtype may be partially responsible for the failure of HER2-targeted treatment strategies. Herein we discuss and substantiate the cumulative preclinical and clinical evidence on HER2-uPAR cooperativity in terms of gene co-amplification and/or mRNA/protein co-overexpression. We then propose a regulatory signaling model that we hypothesize to maintain upregulation and cooperativity between HER2 and uPAR in aggressive breast cancer. An improved understanding of the HER2/uPAR interaction in breast cancer will provide critical biomolecular information that may help better predict disease course and response to therapy. PMID:25897424

  4. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  5. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  6. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MAC...

  7. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  8. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane;

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...

  9. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin Wendy; Power Emily; Solarin Ijeoma; Robb Kathryn A; Wardle Jane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and...

  10. Assessing Stakeholder Opinion on Relations between Cancer Patient Groups and Pharmaceutical Companies in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna Leto di Priolo; Andras Fehervary; Phil Riggins; Kathy Redmond

    2012-01-01

    Background:Background: The relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups has been the subject of much scrutiny and skepticism, and some high-profile negative media coverage has focused attention on some of the problematic aspects of the relationship. Both the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups have made an effort in recent years to improve the transparency and openness of their relations, specifically with regard to the financial support offered by ...

  11. Strategic development on generic anti-cancer drugs Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride for Harbin Pharmaceutical Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheung Fat Ping

    2011-01-01

    @@ With improved economy, changing life styles, aging population and health care reform, China had a very potential anti-cancer drug market.The patents of popular anti-cancer drugs Avastin and Tarceva would expire in few years.Generic versions of Avastin and Tarceva were Bevacizumab and Erlotinib Hydrochloride respectively.Harbin Pharmaceutical Group was proposed to develop strategically both generic medicines to enter the high-end anti-cancer drug market for targeted cancer therapies.The vital to success of developing the generic drugs were discussed.

  12. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golant Mitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174

  13. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the n...

  14. Blood group determinates incidence for pancreatic cancer in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UwePelzer

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of PC in the German cohort is highly associated with the AB0-system as well. More patients with blood group A suffer from PC (p<0.001 whereas blood group 0 was less frequent in patients with PC (p<0.001. Thus, our findings support the results from other non-German surveys. The causal trigger points of this carcinogenesis correlation are still not known.

  15. Impact of Cancer Support Groups on Childhood Cancer Treatment and Abandonment in a Private Pediatric Oncology Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Arathi Srinivasan; Khushboo Tiwari; Julius Xavier Scott; Priya Ramachandran; Mathangi Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed...

  16. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till James E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

  17. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, KM; Jun, J; Zhao, X.; Kreps, GL; Lee, EE

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer ...

  18. Illustrating the Multi-Faceted Dimensions of Group Therapy and Support for Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese-Davis, Janine; Brandelli, Yvonne; Kronenwetter, Carol; Golant, Mitch; Cordova, Matthew; Twirbutt, Suzanne; Chang, Vickie; Kraemer, Helena C; Spiegel, David

    2016-01-01

    In cancer support groups, choice of therapy model, leadership style, and format can impact patients' experiences and outcomes. Methodologies that illustrate the complexity of patients' group experiences might aid in choosing group style, or testing therapeutic mechanisms. We used this naturalistic study as a beginning step to explore methods for comparing cancer group contexts by first modifying a group-experience survey to be cancer-specific (Group Experience Questionnaire (GEQ)). Hypothesizing that therapist-led (TL) would differ from non-therapist-led (NTL), we explored the GEQ's multiple dimensions. A total of 292 patients attending three types of groups completed it: 2 TL groups differing in therapy style ((1) Supportive-Expressive (SET); (2) The Wellness Community (TWC/CSC)); (3) a NTL group. Participants rated the importance of "Expressing True Feelings" and "Discussing Sexual Concerns" higher in TL than NTL groups and "Discussing Sexual Concerns" higher in SET than other groups. They rated "Developing a New Attitude" higher in TWC/CSC compared to NTL. In addition, we depict the constellation of group qualities using radar-charts to assist visualization. These charts facilitate a quick look at a therapy model's strengths and weaknesses. Using a measure like the GEQ and this visualization technique could enable health-service decision making about choice of therapy model to offer. PMID:27490581

  19. Cooperatively transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of sonic hedgehog overexpression drives malignant potential of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Zhao-Heng; Wang, Hao-Chuan; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Ji, Xiao-Xin; Song, Min; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Cui, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a ligand of Hedgehog signaling pathway, is considered an important oncogene and an exciting potential therapeutic target in several cancers. Comprehensive understanding of the regulation mechanism of Shh in cancer cells is necessary to find an effective approach to selectively block its tumorigenic function. We and others previously demonstrated that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and promoter hypomethylation contributed to the overexpression of Shh. However, ...

  20. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  1. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  2. Patient Satisfaction with a Web-Based Patient-Provider Messaging System Implemented Across a Statewide Delivery System (Group Health Cooperative)

    OpenAIRE

    Hereford, James; Bell, Eleanor; Lee, John; Eytan, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Since 1999, Group Health Cooperative has been developing and implementing Web services to improve patient access to health care. Among these services are a patient-provider secure messaging system and online pharmacy refills. A survey of patients using these services demonstrated the value of these tools in enhancing the patients’ ability to manage their health care and the positive effects it could have on member retention.

  3. 小组合作学习法在药理学教学中的初探%Application of Group Cooperative Learning in Pharmacology Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王羽

    2014-01-01

    小组合作学习法是一种新型的教学方法,与其他课堂教学模式不同,小组合作学习法重视培养学生的自学能力,分析问题和解决问题的能力。本文以小组合作学习法理论为指导,系统分析小组合作学习法在药理学教学中的教学原则、组织形式、活动形式等内容。%group cooperative learning is a brand-new teaching methodology. Unlike other teaching method, cultivating students' learning ability and self-anal-ysis ability is an importance thing of group cooperative. On basis of group cooperative learning, we analyze the teaching principles, the form of organization and the form of activities on the teaching of pharmacology.

  4. Discovery of a Novel Immune Gene Signature with Profound Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer: A Model of Cooperativity Disorientation Created in the Process from Development to Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    Full Text Available Immune response-related genes play a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis by mediating inflammation or immune-surveillance evasion. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. The association between embryonic development and carcinogenesis makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the immune genes, responsible for intra-immune cooperativity disorientation (defined in this study as disruption of developmental expression correlation patterns during carcinogenesis, probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the mRNA expression profile of 137 human biopsy samples, including samples from different stages of human colonic development, colorectal precancerous progression and colorectal cancer samples, among which 60 were also used to generate miRNA expression profile. We originally established Spearman correlation transition model to quantify the cooperativity disorientation associated with the transition from normal to precancerous to cancer tissue, in conjunction with miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and machine learning algorithm to identify genes with prognostic value. Finally, a 12-gene signature was extracted, whose prognostic value was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in five independent datasets. Using the log-rank test, the 12-gene signature was closely related to overall survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0054; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.0039; GSE39582, n = 562, p = 0.13; GSE39084, n = 70, p = 0.11, and significantly associated with disease

  5. Discovery of a Novel Immune Gene Signature with Profound Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer: A Model of Cooperativity Disorientation Created in the Process from Development to Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ning; Shi, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yueming; Lv, Ning; Feng, Lin; Di, Xuebing; Han, Naijun; Wang, Guiqi; Cheng, Shujun; Zhang, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    Immune response-related genes play a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis by mediating inflammation or immune-surveillance evasion. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. The association between embryonic development and carcinogenesis makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the immune genes, responsible for intra-immune cooperativity disorientation (defined in this study as disruption of developmental expression correlation patterns during carcinogenesis), probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the mRNA expression profile of 137 human biopsy samples, including samples from different stages of human colonic development, colorectal precancerous progression and colorectal cancer samples, among which 60 were also used to generate miRNA expression profile. We originally established Spearman correlation transition model to quantify the cooperativity disorientation associated with the transition from normal to precancerous to cancer tissue, in conjunction with miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and machine learning algorithm to identify genes with prognostic value. Finally, a 12-gene signature was extracted, whose prognostic value was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in five independent datasets. Using the log-rank test, the 12-gene signature was closely related to overall survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0054; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.0039; GSE39582, n = 562, p = 0.13; GSE39084, n = 70, p = 0.11), and significantly associated with disease-free survival in four

  6. BMI1 Cooperates with H-RAS to Induce an Aggressive Breast Cancer Phenotype with Brain Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Chu, Isabel; Barkan, Dalit; Liu, Zi-yao; Datta, Sonal; Goberdhan P. Dimri; Green, Jeffery E.

    2009-01-01

    BMI1 is a member of the polycomb group of transcription repressors that functions in stem cell maintenance and oncogenesis through inhibition of the INK4A/ARF tumour suppressor locus. Overexpression of BMI1 is associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers, including breast cancer. We have previously shown that BMI1 collaborates with H-RAS to induce transformation of MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells via dysregulation of multiple growth pathways independent of the INK4A/ARF locus...

  7. Clinical use of cancer biomarkers in epithelial ovarian cancer: updated guidelines from the European Group on Tumor Markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sölétormos, G.; Duffy, M.J.; Othman Abu Hassan, S.; Verheijen, RHM; Tholander, B.; Bast jr., R.C.; Gaarenstroom, K.N.; Sturgeon, C.M.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Petersen, P.H.; Troonen, H.; Carlo Torre, G.; Kanty Kulpa, J.; Tuxen, M.K.; Molina, R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present an update of the European Group on Tumor Markers guidelines for serum markers in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature survey from 2008 to 2013. The articles were evaluated by level of evidence and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: Because of its low sens

  8. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Binbing; Tiwari, Ram C.; Feuer, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients’ main concerns, is sometimes called the “personal cure” rate. Two approaches of modeling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connect...

  9. Cancer-related electronic support groups as navigation-aids: Overcoming geographic barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Till, James E

    2004-01-01

    Cancer-related electronic support groups (ESGs) may be regarded as a complement to face-to-face groups when the latter are available, and as an alternative when they are not. Advantages over face-to-face groups include an absence of barriers imposed by geographic location, opportunities for anonymity that permit sensitive issues to be discussed, and opportunities to find peers online. ESGs can be especially valuable as navigation aids for those trying to find a way through the healthcare syst...

  10. WISP3 and RhoC guanosine triphosphatase cooperate in the development of inflammatory breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kleer, Celina G.; Zhang, Yanhong; Pan, Quintin; Gallagher, Gary; Wu, Mei; Wu, Zhi-fen; Merajver, Sofia D

    2003-01-01

    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal form of locally advanced breast cancer. We found concordant and consistent alterations of two genes in 90% of IBC tumors when compared with stage-matched non-IBC tumors: overexpression of RhoC guanosine triphosphatase and loss of WNT-1 induced secreted protein 3 (WISP3). Further work revealed that RhoC is a transforming oncogene for human mammary epithelial (HME) cells. Despite the aggressiveness of the RhoC-driven phenotype, it d...

  11. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-liang Shi; Ning Qu; Tian Liao; Wen-jun Wei; Yu-Long Wang; Qing-hai Ji

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox mod...

  12. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  13. Genetic variation in DNA-repair pathways and response to radiochemotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xifeng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data in esophageal cancer suggests the variant allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in XRCC1 may be associated with resistance to radiochemotherapy. However, this SNP has not been assessed in a histologically homogeneous clinical trial cohort that has been treated with a uniform approach. In addition, whether germline DNA may serve as a surrogate for tumor genotype at this locus is unknown in this disease. Our objective was to assess this SNP in relation to the pathologic complete response (pCR rate in subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma who received cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy in a multicenter clinical trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1201. As a secondary aim, we investigated the rate of allelic imbalance between germline and tumor DNA. Methods Eighty-one eligible treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma received radiotherapy (45 Gy concurrent with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with planned subsequent surgical resection. The primary endpoint was pCR, defined as complete absence of tumor in the surgical specimen after radiochemotherapy. Using germline DNA from 60 subjects, we examined the base-excision repair SNP, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and 4 other SNPs in nucleotide excision (XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, ERCC1 3' flank and double-stranded break (XRCC2 5' flank repair pathways, and correlated genotype with pCR rate. Paired tumor tissue was used to estimate the frequency of allelic imbalance at the XRCC1 SNP. Results The variant allele of the XRCC1 SNP (399Gln was detected in 52% of subjects. Only 6% of subjects with the variant allele experienced a pCR, compared to 28% of subjects without the variant allele (odds ratio 5.37 for failing to achieve pCR, p = 0.062. Allelic imbalance at this locus was found in only 10% of informative subjects, suggesting that germline genotype may reflect tumor genotype at this locus. No significant association

  14. Genetic variation in DNA-repair pathways and response to radiochemotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent data in esophageal cancer suggests the variant allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC1 may be associated with resistance to radiochemotherapy. However, this SNP has not been assessed in a histologically homogeneous clinical trial cohort that has been treated with a uniform approach. In addition, whether germline DNA may serve as a surrogate for tumor genotype at this locus is unknown in this disease. Our objective was to assess this SNP in relation to the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma who received cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy in a multicenter clinical trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1201). As a secondary aim, we investigated the rate of allelic imbalance between germline and tumor DNA. Eighty-one eligible treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma received radiotherapy (45 Gy) concurrent with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with planned subsequent surgical resection. The primary endpoint was pCR, defined as complete absence of tumor in the surgical specimen after radiochemotherapy. Using germline DNA from 60 subjects, we examined the base-excision repair SNP, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and 4 other SNPs in nucleotide excision (XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, ERCC1 3' flank) and double-stranded break (XRCC2 5' flank) repair pathways, and correlated genotype with pCR rate. Paired tumor tissue was used to estimate the frequency of allelic imbalance at the XRCC1 SNP. The variant allele of the XRCC1 SNP (399Gln) was detected in 52% of subjects. Only 6% of subjects with the variant allele experienced a pCR, compared to 28% of subjects without the variant allele (odds ratio 5.37 for failing to achieve pCR, p = 0.062). Allelic imbalance at this locus was found in only 10% of informative subjects, suggesting that germline genotype may reflect tumor genotype at this locus. No significant association with pCR was noted for other SNPs

  15. Research and development of the system for group examination of lung cancer by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the ultimate purpose of heavy particle therapy of lung cancer at an early stage, the system in the title with low dose radiation has been investigated by cooperation of NIRS (as a leading part) and medical/industrial facilities all over the country. The project started essentially in 1984 and has been continuing at 2003. This book described Results hitherto and Materials for application to medical care at disaster (Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster in 1995) together with reference materials. Results contain all fields of nuclear medicine and of imaging involved in examination/diagnosis of lung cancer, achieved by NIRS, by Health management center and Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University and Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association in Chiba, by the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Fac. Med., Chiba Univ., by Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, by Nippon Med. School, Arakawa-ku cancer protection center and Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences, by Hitachi health management center, by Fukui Med. College, by Hitachi Medical Corp., by NTT research laboratories, and by Toyohashi Univ. of Technology. The Materials involve Process and summary of conducting the medical care activities, Improvement of the examination automobile, Supplementary equipments and measures for legal problems, System for the medical care activities, Record of the examination automobile activities, Problems in future, and Completion of the medical activities. Reference materials are related with the Materials above. (N.I.)

  16. Cooperation, leadership and numerical assessment of opponents in conflicts between groups of feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonanni, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This thesis attempted to assess the adaptive value of the behaviour of feral dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) by using such species as a model for testing predictions based on evolutionary theories. In particular, the following topics concerning dogs’ behaviour were examined: intergroup agonistic behaviour in relation to numerical assessment of opponents, cooperative behaviour during intergroup conflicts and decision making processes during collective activity changes. The research focuse...

  17. Atg7 cooperates with Pten loss to drive prostate cancer tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Urmila; Banach-Petrosky, Whitney; Abate-Shen, Cory; Shen, Michael M; White, Eileen; DiPaola, Robert S

    2016-02-15

    Understanding new therapeutic paradigms for both castrate-sensitive and more aggressive castrate-resistant prostate cancer is essential to improve clinical outcomes. As a critically important cellular process, autophagy promotes stress tolerance by recycling intracellular components to sustain metabolism important for tumor survival. To assess the importance of autophagy in prostate cancer, we generated a new autochthonous genetically engineered mouse model (GEMM) with inducible prostate-specific deficiency in the Pten tumor suppressor and autophagy-related-7 (Atg7) genes. Atg7 deficiency produced an autophagy-deficient phenotype and delayed Pten-deficient prostate tumor progression in both castrate-naïve and castrate-resistant cancers. Atg7-deficient tumors display evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, suggesting that autophagy may promote prostate tumorigenesis through management of protein homeostasis. Taken together, these data support the importance of autophagy for both castrate-naïve and castrate-resistant growth in a newly developed GEMM, suggesting a new paradigm and model to study approaches to inhibit autophagy in combination with known and new therapies for advanced prostate cancer. PMID:26883359

  18. AKT1E17K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6–2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype. PMID:26859676

  19. Analyze the group cooperative learning in the classroom%浅析英语课堂上的小组合作学习模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓素兰

    2016-01-01

    The current society, we have always advocated the concept of win-win cooperation, group cooperative learning in class is demanded by current arises at the historic moment. This learning model based on based on raw, discuss, through the group between cooperation, explore, together to achieve learning goals. This not only helps to increase students’ knowledge, but also to promote the cultivation of the students' social ability.%当前社会,我们一直提倡合作共赢的理念,课堂上的小组合作学习模式就是应时下要求应运而生。这种学习模式建立在以生为本的基础上,通过小组之间的共商、共议、合作、探讨,共同实现学习目标。这不仅有助于增加学生的知识,而且对提升学生社会能力的培养也有益处。

  20. Adjustment to cancer: exploring patients' experiences of participating in a psychodramatic group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it. PMID:26515989

  1. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health. PMID:25153949

  2. The impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemeh Kharaghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English language learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program. To this aim, 80 students participated in the vocabulary test as the pre-test and they were asked to fill out the questionnaire. Then, they were distributed in four groups. Control groups (A & B received the typical instruction of reading comprehension. On the other hand, experimental groups (A & B received the intervention program. At the end of the course, all the students took part in the vocabulary test as the post-test and they were also asked to fill out the questionnaire provided for them after the post-test. The results were analyzed by the use of a series of independent –sample t-tests and MANOVA. It was found out there was relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the level of motivation in reading comprehension skill of Iranian EFL learner.

  3. A regional cooperative clinical study of radiotherapy for cervical cancer in east and south-east Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy differed widely in east and south-east Asia because of technical, cultural, and socio-economic differences. With the purpose of standardizing radiotherapy for cervical cancer in the region, an international clinical study was conducted. Materials and methods: Eleven institutions in eight Asian countries participated in the study. Between 1996 and 1998, 210 patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to the institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 20-28 Gy/4 fractions for HDR-ICBT and 30-40 Gy/1-2 fractions for LDR-ICBT. Results: Hundred patients were treated with HDR-ICBT and 110 were treated with LDR-ICBT. The ICBT doses actually delivered to point A ranged widely: 12-32 Gy in the HDR group and 26-52.7 Gy in the LDR group. The 5-year follow-up rate among the countries differed greatly, from 29% to 100%. The 5-year major complication rates were 6% in the HDR group and 10% in the LDR group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 51.1% in the HDR group and 57.5% in the LDR group. Conclusions: Although there were several problems with treatment compliance and patients' follow-up, the study suggests that the protocols provided favorable outcomes with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer in east and south-east Asia

  4. Enhancing a cancer prevention and control curriculum through interactive group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, L P; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B M; Kent, E E; Lai, G Y; Lin, S W; Luhn, P; Faupel-Badger, J M

    2012-06-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This 4-week postgraduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g., epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, cancer prevention fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking among the course participants and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current cancer prevention fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87 and 8/10, respectively) reported a high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in a greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated that they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses. PMID:22661264

  5. Impact of group psychotherapy in chemotherapy induced vomiting for treatment of advanced breast and lungs cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the effect of group psychotherapy in the management of the side effects of chemotherapy treatment in advanced breast and lung cancer. One hundred patients treated with chemotherapy for advanced stage (IIIB and IV) breast and lung cancer were selected with ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. All patients received anti-emetic medications half an hour before chemotherapy. All those patients in this category who completed fist line chemotherapy with 6 cycles were included. Fifty were subjected to group discussions with other patients, family members and medical staff. This was labeled group A. The other 50 were not included in group discussion and were labeled group B. Both the group received similar standard chemotherapy and pre-medication for vomiting as per their disease and chemotherapy schedule. Breast and lung cancer patients were 29 and 21 in each arm respectively. At the end of the discharge, grade 2 and above of vomiting, according to common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) was counted for all patients in both the arms A and B, over full length of treatment for 6 cycles, and then were compared statistically. Mean with standard deviation for adverse event (vomiting) in group A and B was 6.2 + 2.6 and 13.4 + 3.8 respectively per cycle of treatment. It was observed that group psychotherapy had statistically significant effect (p-value <0.05) on the management of vomiting. Group psychotherapy can be used to reduce the incidence of vomiting in advanced breast and lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. (author)

  6. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin;

    2015-01-01

    of manual workers has been the driving force behind the dramatic increase in the Norwegian incidence of colon cancer. This development resulted in a reversal of the socio-economic gradient from the classic European pattern with the highest incidence in the upper socio-economic groups to an American pattern...... with the highest incidence in the lower socio-economic groups. This 'Americanization' of the disease pattern followed the rapid growth in the Norwegian gross domestic product....

  7. The selection and use of control groups in epidemiologic studies of radiation and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are based on epidemiologic studies of humans exposed to high doses of radiation. A critical feature of such studies is the selection of an appropriate control group. This report presents a detailed examination of the principles underlying the selection and use of control groups in such epidemiologic studies. It is concluded that the cohort study is the preferred design, because of the rarity of exposure to high levels of radiation in the general population and because the cohort design is less susceptible to bias. This report also assesses potential bias in current risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer due to inappropriate choice and use of control groups. Detailed summaries are presented for those epidemiologic studies on which the BEIR IV risk estimates are based. It is concluded that confounding is by far the major potential concern. Bias is probably negligible in risk estimates for breast cancer. For lung cancer, risk estimates may be underestimated by about 30 percent for males and 10 percent for females due to confounding of smoking and radiation exposure. For leukemia and cancers of the thyroid and bone, the absence of established non-radiation risk factors with a high prevalence in the population under study suggests that there is unlikely to be any substantial confounding radiation risk estimates. Finally, lifetime excess mortality risks have been estimated for several of the cancers of interest following exposure to radiation based on Canadian age-, sex- and cause-specific mortality rates. It is concluded that errors in measurement exposure, uncertainty in extrapolating the results of high dose studies to low doses and low dose rates, and sampling variation in the epidemiologic studies contribute far more to uncertainty in current risk estimates than do any biases in the epidemiologic studies introduced by inappropriate selection and use of control groups. (161 refs., 19 tabs.)

  8. Stress and Activity Management: Group Treatment for Cancer Patients and Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Richard L.; Schag, Cyndie Coscarelli

    1985-01-01

    Studied 51 ambulatory patients with commonly occurring cancers and 25 of their spouses to evaluate a group stress and activity management treatment program. Found support for unique effects of the treatment intervention, but also support for improvement in psychosocial adjustment for patients and spouses with the passage of time. (Author/MCF)

  9. Polycomb group proteins: navigators of lineage pathways led astray in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate lineage choices during development and differentiation. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of how the PcG proteins regulate cell fate decisions and how their deregulation potentially contributes to cancer. ...

  10. Determinants of participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Visser, A.; Fischer, M.; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims at determining factors related to the intention to participate and actual participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients, using the framework of the theory of planned behavior. The factors studied are background variables, medical variables, psychosoci

  11. PLK1 Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells Cooperates with Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Gene Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wierer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1 is a key regulator of cell division and is overexpressed in many types of human cancers. Compared to its well-characterized role in mitosis, little is known about PLK1 functions in interphase. Here, we report that PLK1 mediates estrogen receptor (ER-regulated gene transcription in human breast cancer cells. PLK1 interacts with ER and is recruited to ER cis-elements on chromatin. PLK1-coactivated genes included classical ER target genes such as Ps2, Wisp2, and Serpina3 and were enriched in developmental and tumor-suppressive functions. Performing large-scale phosphoproteomics of estradiol-treated MCF7 cells in the presence or absence of the specific PLK1 inhibitor BI2536, we identified several PLK1 end targets involved in transcription, including the histone H3K4 trimethylase MLL2, the function of which on ER target genes was impaired by PLK1 inhibition. Our results propose a mechanism for the tumor-suppressive role of PLK1 in mammals as an interphase transcriptional regulator.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATIVE SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative Learning Skills :David Johnson and Roger Johnson (2009a) explain five elements that define true cooperative learning groups : (i) Positive interdependence ; (ii) Promotive interaction ; (iii) Individual accountability ; (iv) Collaborative and social skills ; (v) Group processing.

  13. Activities of Project 'Cooperation and development with Latin America and Iberian in Biological Dosimetry of Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the GRIAPRA Group (Latin American and Iberian Group of Radiation Protection Societies) was established with the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Portugal and Spain. In 1998 began the biennial Collaborative Working Project 'Cooperation and Development with Latin America in Biological Dosimetry', partially supported by the Extremadura Government, Spain, initially involving five countries: Argentina, Cuba, Peru, Portugal and Spain. The general aim of the project is to create an Latin American and Iberian Biological Dosimetry Laboratories Coordinated Group in order to: give mutual cooperation and to other countries if required, in the case of radiological accident; contribute to enhance the technical capabilities of the participant laboratories; promote the installment of laboratories on this field in countries that does not have it yet through the training of human resources and providing the necessary equipment and, finally, perform jointly research activities in biological dosimetry. The activities designed in order to accomplish the project specific aims for the 1998-2000 period have been achieved. Description and results are presented. (author)

  14. Surrendering the environment for capital gain and Olson's group theory: A case study of the dissolution of housing co-operative societies in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, LWC; Chau, KW; Kwong, JWY

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the rise of the co-operative housing of civil servants and its fall during the transition of Hong Kong from a British colony to a special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. Olson's group theory was adopted to explain the timing of the dissolution in a context of uncertainty in the property rights of land; the terms of civil service appointments; and the housing market. The size of the ownership body and the value of the land were evaluated as factors...

  15. Case report: diffuse splenic metastasis of occult breast cancer with incompatible blood group antigenic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyay, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells with immunogenic properties having altered protein glycosilation, modified blood group substances have been widely studied [Kannagi R, Miyake M, Zenita KM, Itai S, Hiraiwa N, Shigeta K, et al. Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens: modified blood group substances and oncodevelopmental antigens on tumor cells. Gann Monogr Cancer Res 1988; 34: p. 15-28; Hakomori S. Antigen structure and genetic basis of histo-blood groups A, B and O their changes associated with human cancer. Biochem Biophys Acta 1999; 1473: p. 247-266; Brooks SA, Carter TM, Royle L, Harvey DJ, Fry SA, Kinch C, et al. Altered glycosilation of proteins in cancer: what is the potential for new anti-tumour strategies. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2008; 8: p. 2-21]. In the study reported here, a 78-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital with circulatory failure. At autopsy, the spleen (weight: 420 g) was extremely firm with a diffusely blackberry-colored cut surface. There were no signs of carcinomatous process at autopsy. By histology, the spleen showed diffuse metastatic carcinomatous infiltration. Using immunohistochemistry, an antibody to breast carcinoma antigen (BioGenex) labelled metastatic cells of the spleen and bone marrow. The patient was blood group O. Labelling for binding of lectins with and without blood group antigen specificity and monoclonal antibodies was carried out. The B blood group specific Banderiaea simplicifolia agglutinin I and an anti-B blood group monoclonal antibody labelled all the metastatic cells of spleen and bone marrow intensely. There was no detection of blood group A antigen by either binding of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or anti-blood group A monoclonal antibodies. These observations raise the possibility that the detected incompatible B blood group antigen determinants on the metastatic cells were immunogenic. The surviving carcinoma cells may have found a place of refuge from immune surveillance in the spleen and in the bone marrow

  16. Evaluation of group genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Yolanda; Panabaker, Karen; McCullum, Mary; Portigal-Todd, Cheryl; Scott, Jenna; McGillivray, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    As demand for genetic counseling regarding hereditary cancer continues to grow, more efficient methods of providing this service must be explored. In this pilot study, group genetic counseling was offered to two different cohorts of women seeking genetic counseling for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. Seven group sessions, designed to cover all aspects of an individual genetic counseling appointment, were conducted. Although patients were receptive to group genetic counseling, a significant proportion chose individual counseling when given the option. Advantages of group genetic counseling include shared experience and increased efficiency. Disadvantages include increased frustration at not being eligible for genetic testing, group influence on decision-making, privacy concerns, increased need for follow-up, and difficulty booking group appointments. Overall, the level of patient satisfaction with group genetic counseling was similar to that of individual counseling. The results of this pilot study suggest that further research is needed to determine whether group genetic counseling is an acceptable alternative to individual counseling. PMID:19127417

  17. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  18. A group cognitive behaviour therapy programme with metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, S; Bell, D R; Kidman, A D

    1999-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty-four patients with metastatic breast cancer were randomised to either a group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) intervention, or to a no-therapy control group condition. Both groups received standard oncological care; however, therapy recipients also attended eight weekly sessions of group CBT, followed by a family night, and three further monthly sessions. Patients completed the 'Profile of Mood States' (POMS) and the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSI) before and after therapy, and at 3 and 6 month follow-up periods. Outcome data in the period following therapy showed reduced depression and total mood disturbance, as well as improved self-esteem amongst therapy participants, relative to a no-therapy control group. These improvements were no longer evident at the 3 or 6 month follow-up assessments. We also report on the difficulties associated with conducting a group intervention with this patient cohort. PMID:10474848

  19. Targeting the Psychosexual Challenges Faced by Couples with Breast Cancer: Can Couples Group Psychotherapy Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Fobair, Patricia; Spiegel, David

    2016-01-01

    The need for the psychosexual rehabilitation of breast cancer survivors and their intimate partners is underscored by the high prevalence of multiple psychosexual difficulties encountered by this patient population. Concerns about health, sexuality, and emotional distress are common among women with breast cancer and are often related to the side effects of cancer treatment. Additionally, both intimate relationship problems and partners’ distress are likely to influence patients’ psychosexual health. A clearer understanding of these complex clinical issues is needed in order to implement effective psychosexual rehabilitation interventions. In this article, we extended the use of the manualized and empirically validated Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy (SEGT) model to target the specific psychosexual needs of couples with breast (as well as other types of) cancer. In view of the pertinent literature in this area and based on our clinical experience utilizing this group therapy model with different patient populations, we have discussed how clinicians involved in the psychosexual care of oncology patients could apply such a model within a couples group therapy format. PMID:27239398

  20. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwa...

  1. THINKING ALOUD, TALKING, AND LEAThinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups Thinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Bejanaro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness. Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness.

  2. Application of Group Cooperative Learning in Mathematics Teaching%小组合作学习在数学教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解彦锋

    2014-01-01

    小组合作学习是新课程改革以来广泛被接受和应用的学习模式,与高效课堂的实现有着密切的联系。因此,在新课程改革下,教师要立足于数学教学,充分发挥学生的主观能动性,有效地将小组合作学习模式应用到课堂环境当中,以确保学生能够在轻松的环境中获得良好的发展。%Group cooperative learning is widely accepted and applied learning mode since the new curriculum reform , and has close links with the realization of high class. Therefore, under the new curriculum reform, teachers should be based on mathematics teaching, give full play to the initiative of students, effective group cooperative learning model will be applied to the classroom environment, in order to ensure that students get a good development in the relaxed environment.

  3. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  4. Ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry promote group-living in a social but non-cooperatively breeding fish

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Marian Y.L

    2009-01-01

    Why non-breeding subordinates of many animal societies tolerate group-living remains a pertinent question in evolutionary biology. The ecological constraints and benefits of philopatry hypotheses have the potential to explain the maintenance of group-living by specifying the ecological conditions favouring delayed dispersal over independent breeding by subordinates. In this study, I used field and laboratory experiments to investigate the role of ecological and social factors on the dispersal...

  5. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1990-01-01

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. T......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer.......The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. The...

  6. Zoladex plus flutamide vs. orchidectomy for advanced prostatic cancer. Danish Prostatic Cancer Group (DAPROCA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. T......' with Zoladex plus flutamide was not clinically superior to orchidectomy in the treatment of patients with advanced prostatic cancer.......The study comprised 262 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Patients were randomized either to undergo orchidectomy or to receive combined treatment with Zoladex, 3.6 mg every 4 weeks, plus flutamide, 250 mg t.i.d. At present the median follow-up is 39 months. The...

  7. Cancer pain management by radiotherapists: a survey of radiation therapy oncology group physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) physicians were surveyed to determine their approach to and attitudes toward cancer pain management. Methods and Materials: Physicians completed a questionnaire assessing their estimates of the magnitude of pain as a specific problem for cancer patients, their perceptions of the adequacy of pain management, and their report of how they manage pain in their own practice setting. Results: Eighty-three percent believed the majority of cancer patients with pain were undermedicated. Forty percent reported that pain relief in their own practice setting was poor or fair. Assessing a case scenario, 23% would wait until the patient's prognosis was 6 months or less before starting maximal analgesia. Adjuvants and prophylactic side effect management were underutilized in the treatment plan. Barriers to pain management included poor pain assessment (77%), patient reluctance to report pain (60%), patient reluctance to take analgesics (72%), and staff reluctance to prescribe opioids (41%). Conclusions: Physicians' perceptions of barriers to cancer pain management remain quite stable over time, and physicians continue to report inadequate pain treatment education. Future educational efforts should target radiation oncologists as an important resource for the treatment of cancer pain

  8. Psychosocial health care needs in a group of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ingrid Villadsen; Henriksen, Jette; Meldgaard, Anette;

    2015-01-01

    , networking and obtaining self-efficacy. Ruminations regarding the future included worries about “time left to live in” and self-contradictions as “I am fully recovered - right?”. The ruminations also led to acts and decisions without the women’s usual thoughtfulness and logic. Conclusion: Understanding the......Psychosocial Health Care Needs in a Group of Women Newly Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Villadsen, Ingrid1, Henriksen, Jette1, Meldgaard, Anette1, Zerlang, Ida2, Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund1 1VIA University College, Holstebro, Denmark, 2Department on Oncology, Regional Hospital West Jutland...... diagnosis to early treatment. Aim: The aim of the study was to provide detailed insights into the physic and psychosocial health care needs in a group of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer and in the midst of their primary treatment phase. Study design and methods: This study had a descriptive design...

  9. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.;

    2009-01-01

    .57 [10.13] Gy in a mean of 4.3 insertions), and 5 groups used low-dose-rate brachytherapy (41.45 [17.5] Gy). Nineteen of the 28 respondents measured the doses to the bladder and the rectum when performing VBT. For brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in the fraction of the vagina treated or the doses...

  10. How curable is relapsed Wilms' tumour? The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Groot-Loonen, J.J.; Pinkerton, C. R.; Morris-Jones, P H; Pritchard, J.

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and eighty one children with Wilms' tumour were treated on the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group WT1 Study (1980/6). Seventy one patients relapsed during or after treatment, which included surgery and chemotherapy, with irradiation depending on stage and histology. Despite treatment with various combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy there were only 17 survivors. For unfavourable histology, any stage, only two of 20 survive. We conclude that, after re...

  11. About the Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemopreventive Agent Development Research Group promotes and supports research on early chemopreventive agent development, from preclinical studies to phase I clinical trials. The group’s projects aim to identify and develop prevention agents with the potential to block, reverse, or delay the early stages of cancer. The overarching goal is to determine positive and negative predictive values of preclinical models for clinical development. |

  12. The role of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Süren, Dinç; Yıldırım, Mustafa; Demirpençe, Özlem; Kaya, Vildan; Alikanoğlu, Arsenal Sezgin; Bülbüller, Nurullah; Yıldız, Mustafa; Sezer, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Background HMGB1, the most important member of the high mobility group box protein family, is a nuclear protein with different functions in the cell; it has a role in cancer progression, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis development. We studied the expression of HMGB1 and whether it is a prognostic factor in colorectal carcinoma. Material/Methods The study included 110 cases that were histopathologically diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma from the tissue samples acquired by surgical res...

  13. Metabolic evaluation and medical management of upper urinary tract stone disease. Guidelines from the Scandinavian Cooperative Group for Urinary Stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Grenabo, L; Haraldsson, G;

    1999-01-01

    underlying disease. Having excluded/diagnosed MIAF urolithiasis, patients with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis remain, and in this group, which comprises approximately 85% of the total stone population in the Scandinavian region, only those with a complicated stone disease are subjected to additional...

  14. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  15. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  16. MYB Promotes Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer through Direct Transcriptional Up-regulation and Cooperative Action of Sonic Hedgehog and Adrenomedullin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Singh, Seema; Tyagi, Nikhil; Arora, Sumit; Carter, James E; Khushman, Moh'd; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-07-29

    Extensive desmoplasia is a prominent pathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC) that not only impacts tumor development, but therapeutic outcome as well. Recently, we demonstrated a novel role of MYB, an oncogenic transcription factor, in PC growth and metastasis. Here we studied its effect on pancreatic tumor histopathology and associated molecular and biological mechanisms. Tumor-xenografts derived from orthotopic-inoculation of MYB-overexpressing PC cells exhibited far-greater desmoplasia in histological analyses compared with those derived from MYB-silenced PC cells. These findings were further confirmed by immunostaining of tumor-xenograft sections with collagen-I, fibronectin (major extracellular-matrix proteins), and α-SMA (well-characterized marker of myofibroblasts or activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs)). Likewise, MYB-overexpressing PC cells provided significantly greater growth benefit to PSCs in a co-culture system as compared with the MYB-silenced cells. Interrogation of deep-sequencing data from MYB-overexpressing versus -silenced PC cells identified Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) and Adrenomedullin (ADM) as two differentially-expressed genes among others, which encode for secretory ligands involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. In-silico analyses predicted putative MYB-binding sites in SHH and ADM promoters, which was later confirmed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. A cooperative role of SHH and ADM in growth promotion of PSCs was confirmed in co-culture by using their specific-inhibitors and exogenous recombinant-proteins. Importantly, while SHH acted exclusively in a paracrine fashion on PSCs and influenced the growth of PC cells only indirectly, ADM could directly impact the growth of both PC cells and PSCs. In summary, we identified MYB as novel regulator of pancreatic tumor desmoplasia, which is suggestive of its diverse roles in PC pathobiology. PMID:27246849

  17. 小组合作学习模式下的语文课堂%Chinese Classroom of Group Cooperative Learning Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雯

    2014-01-01

    小组合作学习是课程改革以来普遍倡导的一种教学方法,该模式不仅能够发展学生的自主学习能力,而且对学生合作意识的培养以及学习能力的培养也起着非常重要的作用。因此,教师要认真学习该模式的核心价值,以确保语文学科价值得以最大化地实现。%The group cooperative learning is a teaching method advocated since the curriculum reform in general, the model is not only able to develop students’ self-learning ability, and on the culture and the learning ability of students in the sense of cooperation also plays a very important role. Therefore, teachers should seriously study the core values of the model to ensure that the language subjects to maximize value.

  18. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities: a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    OpenAIRE

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups, their potential benefits for the individual researcher and their impact on the informal academic communication structure are unknown. Are they information tools or social tools for enlarging the s...

  19. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard G; Hansen, Johnni; Costa, Giovanni; Haus, Erhard; Kauppinen, Timo; Aronson, Kristan J; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Davis, Scott; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Fritschi, Lin; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kogi, Kazutaka; Lie, Jenny-Anne; Lowden, Arne; Peplonska, Beata; Pesch, Beate; Pukkala, Eero; Schernhammer, Eva; Travis, Ruth C; Vermeulen, Roel; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cogliano, Vincent; Straif, Kurt

    2011-02-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to prostate cancer. On the basis of limited human evidence and sufficient evidence in experimental animals, in 2007 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified 'shift work that involves circadian disruption' as a probable human carcinogen, group 2A. A limitation of the epidemiological studies carried out to date is in the definition of 'shift work.' IARC convened a workshop in April 2009 to consider how 'shift work' should be assessed and what domains of occupational history need to be quantified for more valid studies of shift work and cancer in the future. The working group identified several major domains of non-day shifts and shift schedules that should be captured in future studies: (1) shift system (start time of shift, number of hours per day, rotating or permanent, speed and direction of a rotating system, regular or irregular); (2) years on a particular non-day shift schedule (and cumulative exposure to the shift system over the subject's working life); and (3) shift intensity (time off between successive work days on the shift schedule). The group also recognised that for further domains to be identified, more research needs to be conducted on the impact of various shift schedules and routines on physiological and circadian rhythms of workers in real-world environments. PMID:20962033

  20. Monoclonal antibody panels for acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosis. Results of a co-operative quality control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, G; Bernasconi, P; Chianese, R; Crovetti, G; Garbaccio, G; Iavarone, A; Pautasso, M; Santagostino, A; Stacchini, A

    2001-01-01

    The need for standardization criteria and result reproducibility in immunophenotyping hematological diseases has increased along with their clinical importance. Our group "Policentric Study Group on Immunological Markers", is composed of 40 laboratories. Its aim, over recent years, has been to find a standardized way of immunophenotypic analysis applicable to various hematological diseases. The objective of this study is to contribute to the debate concerning standardization of monoclonal antibody panels and immunophenotypic analysis procedures in acute leukemia (AL) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with the following targets: to improve interlaboratory reproducibility of the immunophenotyping data, and interpretative results; to study, with improved feasibility, correlation between immunophenotype and clinical or biological findings on a large number of AL and MDS cases; to verify the utility of the proposed monoclonal antibody panels for proper AL and MDS classification, and to detect minimal residual disease. In the field of AL and MDS our experience is based on about 1800 and 700 cases respectively analyzed over the last five years. Starting from these experiences and data of the literature we have elaborated the proposed panels of monoclonal antibodies and the methods of analysis. We have suggested a standardized immunophenotypic approach to study AL and MDS. In particular our work has focused on the gating strategy. This aims at drawing a gate of analysis having high purity and recovery, and on the choice of monoclonal antibody combinations for multiparametric analysis, particularly the normal antigen expression on each step of lineage differentiation or their clinically relevant aberrant expressions. A standardized criteria has become a necessary starting point in any kind of analytical process. In the field of acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes the work of this polycentric group has focused on the pre-analytical and analytical steps to be

  1. Cancer mortality among a group of fluorspar miners exposed to radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1984) of 1,772 Newfoundland underground fluorspar miners occupationally exposed to high levels of radon daughters (mean dose = 382.8 working levels months) has been conducted. Observed numbers of cancers of the lung, salivary gland, and buccal cavity and pharynx were significantly elevated among these miners. A highly significant relation was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of salivary gland (n = 2) and buccal cavity and pharynx (n = 6) cancers precluded meaningful analysis of dose response. Attributable and relative risk coefficients for lung cancer were estimated as 6.3 deaths per working level month per million person-years and 0.9% per working level month, respectively. Relative risk coefficients were highest for those first exposed before age 20 years. Cigarette smokers had relative and attributable risk coefficients comparable to those of nonsmokers. Relative risks fell sharply with age, whereas attributable risks were lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups. The results suggest that efforts to raise existing occupational exposure standards may be inappropriate

  2. "I Owe It to My Group Members…who Critically Commented on My Conducting"--Cooperative Learning in Choral Conducting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cooperative learning in choral conducting education. The five characteristics of cooperative learning identified by Adams and Hamm ((1996). "Cooperative learning: Critical thinking and collaboration across the curriculum" (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publishers): positive interdependence; face-to-face…

  3. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  4. Polycomb Group Proteins: Multi-Faceted Regulators of Somatic Stem Cells and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageau, Martin; Sauvageau, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that epigenetically modify chromatin and participate in the establishment and maintenance of cell fates. These proteins play important roles in both stem cell self-renewal and in cancer development. Our understanding of their mechanism of action has greatly advanced over the past 10 years, but many unanswered questions remain. In this review, we present the currently available experimental data that connect PcG protein function with some of the key processes which govern somatic stem cell activity. We also highlight recent studies suggesting that a delicate balance in PcG gene dosage is crucial for proper stem cell homeostasis and prevention of cancer stem cell development. PMID:20804967

  5. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard;

    2006-01-01

    A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study...... investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ...... that forms a valuable basis for a larger randomized controlled trial to conclude whether the observed changes are a result of this specific intervention....

  6. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Jia

    Full Text Available It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  7. The Power of Cooperation in International Paleoclimate Science: Examples from the PAGES 2k Network and the Ocean2k Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Past Global Changes (PAGES) project of IGBP and Future Earth supports research to understand the Earth's past environment to improve future climate predictions and inform strategies for sustainability. Within this framework, the PAGES 2k Network was established to provide a focus on the past 2000 years, a period that encompasses Medieval Climate Anomaly warming, Little Ice Age cooling, and recent anthropogenically-forced climate change. The results of these studies are used for testing earth system models, and for understanding decadal- to centennial-scale variability, which is needed for long-term planning. International coordination and cooperation among the nine regional Working Groups that make up the 2k Network has been critical to the success of PAGES 2k. The collaborative approach is moving toward scientific achievements across the regional groups, including: (i) the development of a community-driven open-access proxy climate database; (ii) integration of multi-resolution proxy records; (iii) development of multivariate climate reconstructions; and (iv) a leap forward in the spatial resolution of paleoclimate reconstructions. The last addition to the 2k Network, the Ocean2k Working Group has further innovated the collaborative approach by: (1) creating an open, receptive environment to discuss ideas exclusively in the virtual space; (2) employing an array of real-time collaborative software tools to enable communication, group document writing, and data analysis; (3) consolidating executive leadership teams to oversee project development and manage grassroots-style volunteer pools; and (4) embracing the value-added role that international and interdisciplinary science can play in advancing paleoclimate hypotheses critical to understanding future change. Ongoing efforts for the PAGES 2k Network are focused on developing new standards for data quality control and archiving. These tasks will provide the foundation for new and continuing "trans-regional" 2k

  8. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  9. General surgeons' views on Oncologic Multidisciplinary Group meetings as part of colorectal cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroci, Francesco; Lenzi, Elisa; Baraghini, Maddalena; Cantafio, Stefano; Scatizzi, Marco

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the current effectiveness of Oncologic Multidisciplinary Groups (OMGs) meetings across central Tuscany through surgeons' reports and their individual perceived benefits on colorectal cancer management. One hundred and sixty-seven general surgeons received a questionnaire with 21 questions covering organizational characteristics of OMGs and the individual perceived benefits of OMGs. The responses were analyzed by hospital setting (teaching vs. community hospital). The reply rate was 62.8 %, and 82 respondent surgeons (49.1 %) were involved in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. At community hospitals, there was a more frequent participation of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and pathologists; a less selection of discussed cases was performed; and almost all decisions were inserted into official patient charts (p OMGs ensure that all treatment options are considered and improve timeliness of care, patient outcomes, patient satisfaction and communication with patients (p OMGs offer a modest degree of protection from malpractice but improve communications between colleagues and are an opportunity for personal professional development. Professionals regularly participating in well-conducted and well-organized OMGs for colorectal cancer felt that the multidisciplinary strategy may be advantageous to both patients and caregivers. PMID:22987014

  10. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, "Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact", will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  11. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus;

    2009-01-01

    : Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles. The...... not associated with increased toxicity. CONCLUSION: Continuation of trastuzumab plus capecitabine showed a significant improvement in overall response and time to progression compared with capecitabine alone in women with HER-2-positive breast cancer who experienced progression during trastuzumab......PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS...

  12. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  13. On the Application of Pedagogy of Group Cooperative Learning in the Course of Scientific Thinking Training%浅谈小组合作学习在《科学思维训练》课程的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国红

    2013-01-01

      本文在结合《科学思维训练》课程中运用小组合作学习教学法的实际,阐述了小组合作学习教学法的内涵和模式,以及应用小组合作学习教学法应注意的问题。%By using pedagogy of group cooperative learning in the course of Scientific Thinking Training, this paper expounded its content and mode as well as the problems should pay attention to while using the pedagogy of group cooperative learning.

  14. 浅谈小组合作学习在《科学思维训练》课程的运用%On the Application of Pedagogy of Group Cooperative Learning in the Course of Scientific Thinking Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国红

    2013-01-01

      本文在结合《科学思维训练》课程中运用小组合作学习教学法的实际,阐述了小组合作学习教学法的内涵和模式,以及应用小组合作学习教学法应注意的问题。%By using pedagogy of group cooperative learning in the course of Scientific Thinking Training, this paper expounded its content and mode as well as the problems should pay attention to while using the pedagogy of group cooperative learning.

  15. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trial*

    OpenAIRE

    Tehrani, Afsaneh Malekpour; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Rajabi, Fariborz Mokarian; Zamani, Ahmad Reza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program) on quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in pee...

  16. Screening of high-risk groups for breast and ovarian cancer in Europe: a focus on the Jewish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Belkic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low breast cancer screening rates are often found among ethnic minority groups and those born outside the host country. This is of particular concern for high-risk groups, who should benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for breast, as well as ovarian cancer. Both of these issues are germane for Jewish women in Europe. We systematically review the literature concerning breast cancer early detection practices (BCEDP among Jewish women, and examine European surveillance studies of high-risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer that had imaging in the surveillance protocol, in order to assess the likelihood of adequately including women from minority ethnic groups. No studies were found about BCEDP among Jewish women in Europe. Twenty-one research groups from Israel or the US addressed BCEDP among Jewish women. Some Jewish women in the US and Israel, including recent immigrants, are under-screened. Twenty-four research groups reported imaging surveillance of women at increased risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer in Europe. There was a clear benefit to magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening for women with increased breast cancer risk. Some of these surveillance studies considered ethnic minority groups at high risk, including Jewish women, but none provided adequate outreach to ensure that these groups were included in their programs. The specific screening needs of Jewish and other high-risk ethnic minority groups in Europe have not been met regarding breast and ovarian cancer. A European-wide, population-based approach is suggested, with cultural sensitivity being vital for these efforts.

  17. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. de; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Ares, L.P.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the Amst

  18. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krege, S.; Beyer, J.; Souchon, R.; Albers, P.; Albrecht, W.; Algaba, F.; Bamberg, M.; Bodrogi, I.; Bokemeyer, C.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Classen, J.; Clemm, C.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Culine, S.; Daugaard, G.; Mulder, P.H.M. de; Santis, M. De; Wit, M. de; Wit, R. de; Derigs, H.G.; Dieckmann, K.P.; Dieing, A.; Droz, J.P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S.D.; Muro, X.G. del; Gauler, T.; Geczi, L.; Gerl, A.; Germa-Lluch, J.R.; Gillessen, S.; Hartmann, J.T.; Hartmann, M.; Heidenreich, A.; Hoeltl, W.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R.; Jewett, M.; Joffe, J.; Jones, W.G.; Kisbenedek, L.; Klepp, O.; Kliesch, S.; Koehrmann, K.U.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Kuczyk, M.; Laguna, P.; Galvis, O.L.; Loy, V.; Mason, M.D.; Mead, G.M.; Mueller, R.; Nichols, C.; Nicolai, N.; Oliver, T.; Ondrus, D.; Oosterhof, G.O.; Paz-Ares, L.; Pizzocaro, G.; Pont, J.; Pottek, T.; Powles, T.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Scheiderbauer, J.; Schmelz, H.U.; Schmidberger, H.; Schmoll, H.J.; Schrader, M.; Sedlmayer, F.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Sohaib, A.; Tjulandin, S.; Warde, P.; Weinknecht, S.; Weissbach, L.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.; Wood, L.; Maase, H. von der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the

  19. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the A...

  20. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of ...

  1. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  2. Epidemiological and immunological characteristics of childhood leukaemia in the Netherlands: population-based data from a nationwide co-operative group of paediatricians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reviewed from several population-based epidemiological and immunological studies of children with leukaemia in The Netherlands, who were diagnosed between 1973 and 1982 through a nationwide co-operative group of paediatricians. From 1973 till 1980 annual incidence rates appeared to be 3.1 per 105 person-yr. No significant trend was observed in this period. However a preliminary analysis of patients in the 1980-1982 period showed an increase. Mortality rates are decreasing since 1973, as expected. Incidence rates and proportions of different morphological and immunological subtypes reflect the pattern of occurrence in populations with a high standard of living. A relatively high incidence rate of acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is observed with a peak at the age of 3-5. The proportion of patients with T-cell phenotype among ALL-patients, immunologically typed between 1979 and 1982, appeared to increase with age, while the proportion of common ALL decreased. Statistical analysis of the data of patients with ALL in the Western part of the country including areas with nuclear plants, gave no indication for the presence of clustering. (author)

  3. Improving Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Education Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.; Eton, David T; Schulz, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Men who were recently treated for prostate cancer (N = 250) were randomly assigned to a control group, a group education intervention (GE), or a group education-plus-discussion intervention (GED). Both GE and GED increased prostate cancer knowledge. In the year postintervention, men in the GED condition were less bothered by sexual problems than men in the control condition, and they were more likely to remain steadily employed (93.0%) than men in the GE (75.6%) or control (72.5%) conditions....

  4. Design change management in regulation of nuclear fleets: World nuclear association's working groups on Cooperation in Reactor Design Evaluation and Licensing (CORDEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 60 year life of a reactor means that a plant will undergo change during its life. To ensure continuing safety, changes must be made with a full understanding of the design intent. With this aim, regulators require that each operating organisation should have a formally designated entity responsible for complete design knowledge in regard to plant safety. INSAG-19 calls such an entity 'Design Authority'. This requirement is difficult to achieve, especially as the number of countries and utilities operating plants increases. Some of these operating organisations will be new, and some will be small. For Gen III plants sold on a turnkey basis, it is even more challenging for the operating company to develop and retain the full knowledge needed for this role. CORDEL's Task Force entitled 'Design Change Management' is investigating options for effective design change management with the aim to support design standardization throughout a fleet's lifetime by means of enhanced international cooperation within industry and regulators. This paper starts with considering the causes of design change and identifies reasons for the increased beneficial involvement of the plant's original vendor in the design change process. A key central theme running through the paper is the definition of responsibilities for design change. Various existing mechanisms of vendor-operator interfaces over design change and how they are managed in different organisational and regulatory environments around the world are considered, with the functionality of Owners Groups and Design Authority being central. The roles played in the design change process by vendors, utilities, regulators, owners' groups and other organisations such as WANO are considered The aerospace industry approach to Design Authority has been assessed to consider what lessons might be learned. (authors)

  5. 小组合作学习在英语教学中的实践与探索%Practice and Exploration of Group Cooperative Learning in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘充

    2013-01-01

    Group cooperation is a process of teacher-student and student-student interaction, and cooperative learning, in which students construct their knowledge autonomously. Combing with the writer's personal teaching practice, this paper deals with how to improve the effectiveness of English teaching through the ra-tional establishment of cooperative groups, the scientific design of cooperative activities and the effective guidance of cooperative learning.%小组合作是一种师生之间、学生之间的互动、合作的学习过程,是学生主动建构知识的过程。本文结合自身教学实践,探讨了如何通过合理组建合作小组、科学设计合作活动及有效指导合作学习,来提高英语教学的有效性。

  6. The Construction of Group Type Cooperative Learning in High School English Class%小组式合作学习在高中英语课堂的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚飞

    2011-01-01

    通过分析小组式合作学习的理论基础以及将其引进高中英语课堂中的现实意义,介绍小组式合作学习在课堂中的多种表现形式,并且从实际的教学情境出发,论述了小组式合作学习在高中英语的听力、口语、阅读、写作教学中的具体应用。%By means of analyse of the group type cooperative learning theoretical basis and the realistic significance of the group type cooperative learning which brought into the high school English class. Introducing the Different fomls of the group type cooperative learning and set out from the actual teaching situation, discussed how the group type cooperative learning applied in listening,spoken English,reading,writing class in high school.

  7. Carbon nanotube-supported Au-Pd alloy with cooperative effect of metal nanoparticles and organic ketone/quinone groups as a highly efficient catalyst for aerobic oxidation of amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Weiping; Chen, Jiashu; Kang, Jincan; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2016-05-21

    Functionalised carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Au-Pd alloy nanoparticles were highly efficient catalysts for the aerobic oxidation of amines. We achieved the highest turnover frequencies (>1000 h(-1)) for the oxidative homocoupling of benzylamine and the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine. We discovered a cooperative effect between Au-Pd nanoparticles and ketone/quinone groups on CNTs. PMID:27125360

  8. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  9. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227

  10. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  11. Patterns of failure in combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for limited small cell lung cancer: Southeastern Cancer Study Group experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this analysis, we compare the patterns of failure in the first 12 months for 660 eligible patients randomized to two Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) protocols for limited extent, small cell carcinoma of the lung between 1978 and 1985. In each protocol, a different schedule of radiotherapy was given in conjunction with combination chemotherapy and was compared with combination chemotherapy alone. In protocol 78 LUN 328, radiotherapy was given between courses of chemotherapy, and in protocol LUN 81343, it was given simultaneously. The rates of local failure, either as an initial or subsequent site, in the first 12 months were significantly lower when thoracic irradiation was given than when it was not (P less than .01). When the 2 radiotherapy arms were compared, there were no significant differences in the rates of local failure alone, but a smaller proportion of patients developed both local failure and distant metastases (P less than .01) when simultaneous radiotherapy was administered. Survival on all 4 arms was similar during the first 2 years of patient study. After 2 years, both radiotherapy regimens showed a trend toward improved survival compared with the combination drug alone (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine) arms. On both protocols, survival from 12 months was significantly longer for those with local control at 12 months than for those who did not show local control

  12. Genetic modelling of PIM proteins in cancer: proviral tagging, cooperation with oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and carcinogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarmenBlanco Aparicio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The PIM proteins, which were initially discovered as proviral insertion sites in Moloney murine leukemia virus infection, are a family of highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that have been reported to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM proteins have also been associated with metastasis and overall treatment responses and implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, the cell cycle, and homing and migration, which makes these proteins interesting targets for anticancer drug discovery. The use of retroviral insertional mutagenesis and refined approaches such as complementation tagging has allowed the identification of myc, pim and a third group of genes (including bmi1 and gfi1 as complementing genes in lymphomagenesis. Moreover, mouse modeling of human cancer has provided an understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in tumor initiation and progression at the physiological level. In particular, genetically modified mice have allowed researchers to further elucidate the role of each of the Pim isoforms in various tumor types. PIM kinases have been identified as weak oncogenes because experimental overexpression in lymphoid tissue, prostate and liver induces tumors at a relatively low incidence and with a long latency. However, very strong synergistic tumorigenicity between Pim1/2 and c-Myc and other oncogenes has been observed in lymphoid tissues. Mouse models have also been used to study whether the inhibition of specific PIM isoforms is required to prevent carcinogen-induced sarcomas, indicating that the absence of Pim2 and Pim3 greatly reduces sarcoma growth and bone invasion; the extent of this effect is similar to that observed in the absence of all 3 isoforms. This review will summarize some of the animal models that have been used to understand the isoform-specific contribution of PIM kinases to tumorigenesis.

  13. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tural Deniz; Selçukbiricik Fatih; Serdengeçti Süheyla; Büyükünal Evin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all...

  14. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D 751 polymorphism as a predictive factor in resected gastric cancer treated withchemo-radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zarate, R; F. Arias; Bandres, E; Cubedo, E.; Malumbres, R.; Garcia-Foncillas, J

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential association of xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) codon 751 variant with outcome after chemo-radiotherapy in patients with resected gastric cancer. METHODS: We used PCR-RFLP to evaluate the genetic XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms in 44 patients with stage III (48%) and IV (20%) gastric cancer treated with surgery following radiation therapy plus 5-fluorouracil/ leucovorin based chemotherapy. RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that 75% (...

  15. The Social Maintenance of Cooperation through Hypocrisy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is widespread in human societies, but its maintenance at the group level remains puzzling if individuals benefit from not cooperating. Explanations of the maintenance of cooperation generally assume that cooperative and non-cooperative behavior in others can be assessed and copied accurately. However, humans have a well known capacity to deceive and thus to manipulate how others assess their behavior. Here, we show that hypocrisy - claiming to be acting cooperatively while acting ...

  16. Group component protein-derived macrophage activating factor stimulates macrophages that induce human breast cancer cell apoptosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggiero, M; L. Thyer; E. Wards; Smith, R; J.J.V. Branca; Gulisano, M; G.Morucci; S. Pacini

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The vitamin D axis is involved in various aspects of human breast cancer. It is composed by vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR) and group component (Gc) protein that is the precursor of the Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) (Eur Nephrol. 2011;5(1):15–9). It was demonstrated that administration of GcMAF to metastatic breast cancer patients yielded good clinical results (Int J Cancer. 2008 Jan 15;122(2):461-7). Here we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates ma...

  17. Late effects on the urinary bladder in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L

    2009-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-up (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  18. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of meaning-centered group psychotherapy in cancer survivors: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joël; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Breitbart, William; Cuijpers, Pim; Knipscheer-Kuipers, Kitty; Willemsen, Vincent; Tollenaar, Rob AEM; van Asperen, Christi J; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Meaning-focused coping may be at the core of adequate adjustment to life after cancer. Cancer survivors who experience their life as meaningful are better adjusted, have better quality of life and psychological functioning. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy for Cancer Survivors (MCGP-CS) was designed to help patients to sustain or enhance a sense of meaning and purpose in their lives. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MCGP-C...

  19. The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial: VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. In the United States, 90% of men with prostate cancer are more than age 60 years, diagnosed by early detection with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, and have disease believed confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized). Common treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting (WW), surgery to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), external-beam radiation therapy and interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy), and androgen deprivation. Little is known about the relative effectiveness and harms of treatments because of the paucity of randomized controlled trials. The Department of Veterans Affairs/National Cancer Institute/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Cooperative Studies Program Study #407:Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in 1994, is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with WW in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. We describe the study rationale, design, recruitment methods, and baseline characteristics of PIVOT enrollees. We provide comparisons with eligible men declining enrollment and men participating in another recently reported randomized trial of radical prostatectomy vs WW conducted in Scandinavia. We screened 13 022 men with prostate cancer at 52 US medical centers for potential enrollment. From these, 5023 met initial age, comorbidity, and disease eligibility criteria, and a total of 731 men agreed to participate and were randomized. The mean age of enrollees was 67 years. Nearly one-third were African American. Approximately 85% reported that they were fully active. The median PSA was 7.8ng/mL (mean 10.2ng/mL). In three-fourths of men, the primary reason for biopsy leading to a diagnosis of prostate cancer was a PSA elevation or rise. Using previously developed tumor risk

  20. Establishing an Iso-Compliant Modern Cancer-Biobank in a Developing Country: A Model for International Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sughayer, Maher A; Souan, Lina

    2015-01-01

    King Hussein Cancer (KHCC) is a specialized cancer center that treats both adult and pediatric cancer patients from Jordan and the neighboring countries. KHCC is acknowledged as a leader in cancer treatment in the Middle East and its vision is to maintain its leading position in cancer therapy and research. Hence, KHCC embarked on establishing the first ISO compliant cancer biobank (KHCCBIO) in Jordan.Currently, there are very few biobanks in the Middle East, hence, KHCC wanted to change this situation by establishing an ISO-compliant cancer biobank which would incorporate all current international guidelines and best-in class practices under an approved quality management system for the benefit of researchers in Jordan, its neighboring countries, and throughout the world. The established biobank would follow the highest ethical standards in collecting, processing, storing and distributing high-quality, clinically annotated biospecimens.The strategy used in establishing KHCCBIO was based on taking advantage of international networking and collaboration. This in essence led to knowledge transfer between well established organizations, institutions and individuals from Europe and Jordan, in existing technological innovation and internationally recognized quality standards. KHCC efforts were facilitated by a grant from the European Union under the seventh frame work program.Future aims of KHCCBIO are to develop KHCC's research infrastructure, increase its scope and visibility and improve its competitiveness throughout the biomedical science arena. Moreover, KHCCBIO is aiming to establish a platform for future knowledge transfer and collaborative research; develop partnerships between European and Middle Eastern organizations. PMID:26420619

  1. Implementation and scientific evaluation of rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients: study protocol of the ProRehab Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zopf Eva M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although treatment regimen have improved in the last few years, prostate cancer patients following a radical prostatectomy still experience severe disease- and treatment-related side effects, including urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction and psychological issues. Despite high incidence rates and the common adverse effects there is a lack of supportive measures for male patients and specific physical exercise recommendations for prostate cancer patients during rehabilitation or in the aftercare are still missing. Methods/Design The ProRehab Project aims to establish rehabilitative sports groups particularly for prostate cancer patients and to evaluate the effects of the offered exercise program. Starting 8–12 weeks after prostatectomy or combination therapy, prostate cancer patients will exercise for 15 months within a patient preference randomized controlled trial. One exercise session will be conducted within a pre-established rehabilitative sports group, while the other will be completed independently. Patients in the control group will not participate in the intervention. The main outcomes of the study include aerobic fitness, quality of life, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Discussion By combining science, practice, and public relations the first rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients in Germany have been set up and thus contribute to the care structure for prostate cancer patients. By offering a 15-month physical exercise intervention that is conducted in supervised group sessions, long-term lifestyle changes and therefore improvements in quality of life in prostate cancer patients can be expected. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004184

  2. Cooperative cytotoxic activity of Zn and Cu in bovine serum albumin-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites in PC12 cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Series of self-assembled and mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with different Zn/Cu ratios had been successfully synthesized by a combination method of the biomimetic synthesis and ion-exchange strategy under the gentle conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, Fourier transform infrared spectra and zeta potential analysis demonstrated that BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with well dispersity had the hierarchical structure and BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and surface electro-negativity of final products. The real-time monitoring by atomic absorption spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the Zn/Cu ratio of nano-composites could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. In addition, the metabolic and morphological assays indicated that the metabolic proliferation and spread of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells could be inhibited by nano-composites, with the high anti-cancer activity at a low concentration (4 ppm). What were more important, Zn and Cu in nano-composites exhibited a positive cooperativity at inhibiting cancer cell functions. The microscope observation and biochemical marker analysis clearly revealed that the nano-composites-included lipid peroxidation and disintegration of membrane led to the death of PC12 cells. Summarily, the present study substantiated the potential of BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites as anti-cancer drug

  3. The Current Status and Problems of the Group Training Course as Cooperation in Education : Focused on Science Education in Philippines and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Haruhiko; Kamijo, Tetsuya; Katayama, Hiromichi

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of the technical training program "Practice of Science Education", which has been conducted jointly by Hiroshima University and Japan International Cooperation Agency, and discusses effective international cooperation in science education, particularly in the Philippines and Pakistan. All the participants who underwent the training program are currently working in the field of science education in their countries. They are applying the knowledge and skills t...

  4. Glucocorticoids and histone deacetylase inhibitors cooperate to block the invasiveness of basal-like breast cancer cells through novel mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, M E; Corsino, P E; Jahn, S C;

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive cancers often express E-cadherin in cytoplasmic vesicles rather than on the plasma membrane and this may contribute to the invasive phenotype of these tumors. Therapeutic strategies are not currently available that restore the anti-invasive function of E-cadherin in cancers. MDA-MB-231...... cells are a frequently used model of invasive triple-negative breast cancer, and these cells express low levels of E-cadherin that is mislocalized to cytoplasmic vesicles. MDA-MB-231 cell lines stably expressing wild-type E-cadherin or E-cadherin fused to glutathione S-transferase or green fluorescent...

  5. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members. PMID:19152536

  6. Analyzing the basic principles of tissue microarray data measuring the cooperative phenomena of marker proteins in invasive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Korsching, Eberhard; Buerger, Horst; Boecker, Florian; Packeisen, Jens; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Poos, Kathrin; Nadler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Background: The analysis of a protein-expression pattern from tissue microarray (TMA) data will not immediately give an answer on synergistic or antagonistic effects between the observed proteins. But contrary to apparent first impression, it is possible to reveal those cooperative phenomena from TMA data. The data is (1) preserving a lot of the original physiological information content and (2) because of minor variances between the tumor samples, contains several related slightly different ...

  7. Serum high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is closely associated with the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Jae

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is a newly recognized factor regulating cancer cell tumorigenesis, expansion and invasion. We investigated the correlation between the serum HMGB1 levels and the clinical and pathologic features of gastric cancer and evaluated the validity of HMGB1 as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 227 subjects were classified into 5 disease groups according to the 'gastritis-dysplasia-carcinoma' sequence of gastric carcinogenesis and their serum levels of HMGB1 were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Clinical parameters, International Union Against Cancer (UICC TNM stage, cancer size, differentiation or lymphatic invasion, vascular or perineural invasion and prognosis were used as analysis variables. Results The serum HMGB1 levels were significantly different among disease groups (ANOVA, p and HMGB1 levels tended to increase according to the progression of gastric carcinogenesis. Serum HMGB1 levels were significantly associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and poor prognosis (p . However, HMGB1 levels were not associated with patient gender or age, differentiation of tumor cells, or lymphatic, vascular and perineural invasion, or the existence of distant metastasis in advanced cancer (p > 0.05. The sensitivity and specificity of serum HMGB1 was 71% and 67% (cut-off value of 5 ng/ml for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer, and 70% and 64% (cut-off value of 4 ng/ml for the diagnosis of high-risk lesions, respectively. These values were greater than those for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA (30–40% of sensitivity. Conclusion HMGB1 appears to be a useful serological biomarker for early diagnosis as well as evaluating the tumorigenesis, stage, and prognosis of gastric cancer.

  8. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J. G.; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  9. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread. PMID:25415835

  10. The evolution of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) protocols for nonsmall cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 2 decades, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) has played a significant role in clarifying the role of radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). RTOG lung cancer research has evolved over this time period through a systematic succession of investigations. For unresectable NSCLC, the dependence of local tumor control and survival on total dose of standard fractionation RT, as well as pretreatment performance characteristics, was demonstrated in initial RTOG trials. Subsequently, further radiation dose intensification was tested using altered fractionation RT to total doses up to 32% higher than standard RT to 60 Gy, given as either hyperfractionation or accelerated fractionation, while attempting to retain acceptable normal tissue toxicity. These higher doses required rethinking of established RT techniques and limitations, as well as careful surveillance of acute and late toxicity. A survival advantage was shown for hyperfractionation to 69.6 Gy, in favorable performance patients, compared to 60 Gy. Further testing of high dose standard RT will use three-dimensional, conformal techniques to minimize toxicity. RTOG further extended the theme of treatment intensification for unresectable NSCLC by evaluating combined chemotherapy (CT) and RT. Improved local control and survival was shown for induction CT followed by standard RT to 60 Gy, compared to standard RT (60 Gy) and altered fractionation RT (69.6 Gy). The intent of current studies is to optimize dose and scheduling of combined CT and standard RT, as well as combined CT and altered fractionation RT. Noncytotoxic RT adjuvants, such as hypoxic cell sensitizers, nonspecific immune stimulants, and biologic response modifiers have also been studied. Resectable NSCLC has also been an RTOG focus, with studies of preoperative and postoperative RT, CT, and CT/RT, including the prognostic value of serum and tissue factors. RTOG studies have yielded incremental

  11. Detection of Breast Cancer with Mammography in the First Screening Round in Relation to Expected Incidence in Different Age Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio (R) of prevalence of screening-detected breast cancer in the first screening round (P) was compared with the expected incidence rate (I) for different age groups in several screening programs. Published data on the first screening round from three Swedish randomized trials and six counties with service screening were used. The women invited to take part in the screening were aged 40-74 years. Not only P and I but also R increased with increasing age. With the youngest age group as reference, the increase was statistically significant for both invasive cancer and invasive cancer and carcinoma in situ together. The studied ratio (R) can be thought of as a measure of efficiency in detecting breast cancer cases in mammography screening. The reasons for the increase are probably that the breast tissue of younger women is denser, which makes the cancer more difficult to detect by mammography, and that slow-growing cancers tend to appear more frequently in older women

  12. Group Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  13. Predictors of Cooperation in Health Care Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahelski, Anthony J.; Tsukuda, Ruth Ann

    1990-01-01

    Investigated assumption that positive group process results from cooperation among group members by analyzing specific components of cooperation involved in teamwork and relating them to group input variables in interdisciplinary health care team members (N=72). Found cooperation was significantly related to size of team and whether an individual…

  14. Entropy Model for Group Decision Making Based on Bounded Cooperation Mechanism%基于有限合作机制的群决策熵模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宾

    2011-01-01

    Group decision making problem is considered for a class of bounded cooperation mechanism in this paper. Cooperation relation between any two decision makers is vaguely classified by cooperation function with two thresholds. Power index of decision makers is measured by fuzzy measure. Nonlinear programming entropy model of cooperation group decision making is constructed to aggregate power index of decision maker set and solved by maximum entropy principle. Integrated evaluation values of optional schemes are calculated by the way of Choquet fuzzy integral. All optional schemes are ordered and optimal scheme is chosen. At last, one numerical example is analyzed to verify the validity and rationality of cooperation group decision making model and application of the fuzzy integral method.%研究一类具有合作机制的群决策问题.提出两阈值的合作函数对决策人之间的合作关系进行模糊分类,采用模糊测度方法度量决策人和决策人集的权力指数,建立合作群决策的非线性规划熵模型集结权力指数,并基于极大墒的最优化原理求解该模型.利用Choquet模糊积分计算备选方案的综合评价值,并对备选方案排序选择最优方案.最后通过算例分析并验证合作群决策模型和运用模糊积分方法求解模型的合理性、有效性.

  15. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  16. Palliation of symptoms in non-small cell lung cancer: a study by the Yorkshire Regional Cancer Organisation Thoracic Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Muers, M. F.; Round, C. E.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although most treatment for non-small cell lung cancer is palliative, data on the adequacy of symptom control are scanty and there has been little discussion about the appropriate indices. METHODS--Two hundred and eighty nine unselected patients presenting sequentially to six specialists were studied; 242 cases were confirmed histologically and all were managed as non-small cell lung cancer. At presentation and two monthly for one year or until death each of 12 symptoms was graded...

  17. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  18. Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer Current treatment based on evidence (ONCOL Group)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    to perform a review of evidence about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Source of data: the information was obtained from searches conducted in Medline, CCTR, Biosis, Embase, Lilacs and CINHAL. We also collected the most representative references presented during the last five years at Asco, ESMO and IASLC. Data extraction: data were extracted by associate members to the ONCOL Group. The collection of information did not follow a uniform strategy. Results of data synthesis: therapy for NSCLC can prolong survival and improve quality of life, but the majority of advanced stage patients dies due to disease progression within 2 years, meaning that there is room for improvement. The standard chemotherapy for NSCLC involves one of a number of platinum-based doublets that have been shown to improve survival when compared with single agents or best supportive care. These doublets are generally comparable in terms of efficacy, differing primarily in their toxicity profiles. However, encouraging new options may be approaching, including therapies targeted to specific patient subpopulations, and the use of combinations of current and new drugs to produce synergistic effects. This review present a detailed analysis of current evidence regarding the treatment of NSCLC based on a representative case series. This review didn't conduct a systematic evaluation of the evidence. Conclusion: medical therapy for NSCLC produces positive changes in main outcomes, including quality of life

  19. Reflection of Secondary Vocational English Listening Classroom "Group Cooperative Teaching Model"%对中职英语听力课堂"小组合作教学模式"的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶风云

    2012-01-01

    为提高中职生的英语听力能力,笔者在中职英语专业班的英语听力课堂中运用小组合作的模式。本文对“小组合作学习”在中职英语听力教学中存在的不足进行反思,并提出具体的完善措施。%To improve secondary vocational students' English listening ability, the author uses group cooperation model in vocational English listening classroom of English professional. In this paper, the group cooperative learning in vocational English listening teaching insufficient to reflect, and to propose specific improvement measures.

  20. On How to Improve the Effectiveness of Group Cooperative Learning in Mathematics Class%数学课上如何提高小组合作学习的有效性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士中

    2012-01-01

    Group learning model is an effective model solving the problems of current education,for it helps to improve class teaching efficiency,to cultivate students' independent learning ability,cooperative and communicative awareness,responsibility and autonomous awareness.The key of an effective group cooperative learning is reasonable classifying,scientific class organization and teaching and rational class evaluation system.%分组学习模式是解决当前教育问题的有效学习模式,它有利于提高课堂教学效率,培养学生的自学能力、合作与交流意识、责任感以及自主意识。合理分组,科学的课堂组织教学,合理的课堂评价机制是小组合作学习有效性的关键。

  1. Clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families and suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁瑛; 叶俊; 郑树

    2004-01-01

    Background Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPPC) is one of the most common genetic syndrome related with mutation of human mismatch repair genes. This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of suspected hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (sHNPCC) criteria I and the clinical and genetic features of International Collaborative Group-HNPCC (ICG-HNPCC) and sHNPCC families.Methods Twenty-nine ICG-HNPCC families fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria and 34 sHNPCC families fulfilling the sHNPCC criteria I were collected. PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing analysis were employed to screen the germline mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in these families.Results The ICG group had more colorectal cancer (CRC) patients per family than did the suspected group (P0.05), mutation type, and mutation distribution. Comparison of the families with and without mutation showed no significant difference in CRC patients per family, Lynch classification, and tumor spectrum.Conclusions ICG-HNPCC and sHNPCC families that have similar clinical manifestations and genetic basis indicate a similar nature for cancer development. The application of sHNPCC criteria I will facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment of small families.

  2. Cooperative interactions of unlike macromolecules 2: NMR and theoretical study of electrostatic binding of sodium poly(styrenesulfonate)s to copolymers with variably distributed cationic groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Jaroslav; Dautzenberg, H.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 15 (2001), s. 3846-3854. ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : cooperative interactions * unlike macromolecules * NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2001

  3. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  4. Is screening for pancreatic cancer in high-risk groups cost-effective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Maiken Thyregod; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sørensen, Jan;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, symptoms are few and diffuse, and when the diagnosis has been made only 10-15% would benefit from resection. Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for pancreatic cancer, and the prognosis seems to...... Hereditary pancreatitis or with a disposition of HP and 40 first-degree relatives of patients with Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) were screened for development of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) with yearly endoscopic ultrasound. The cost-effectiveness of screening in comparison with no...

  5. Impact of two common xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD gene polymorphisms on risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Mi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA repair genes (EG: xeroderma pigmentosum group D, XPD may affect the capacity of encoded DNA repair enzymes to effectively remove DNA adducts or lesions, which may result in enhanced cancer risk. The association between XPD gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility of prostate cancer (PCa was inconsistent in previous studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A meta-analysis based on 9 independent case-control studies involving 3165 PCa patients and 3539 healthy controls for XPD Gln751Lys SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism and 2555 cases and 3182 controls for Asn312Asp SNP was performed to address this association. Meanwhile, odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate this relationship. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA10.0. No significant association was found between XPD Gln751Lys SNP and PCa risk. On the other hand, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, associations were observed in Asian (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.16-1.55; Asn/Asn+Asn/Asp vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.07-1.42 and African (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.01-1.70; Asn/Asn vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.03-7.10 populations for Asn312Asp SNP. Moreover, similar associations were detected in hospital-based controls studies; the frequency of Asn/Asn genotype in early stage of PCa men was poorly higher than those in advanced stage of PCa men (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.00-2.11. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations demonstrate that XPD Asn312Asp SNP not the Gln751Lys SNP, might poorly increase PCa risk in Asians and Africans, moreover, this SNPs may associate with the tumor stage of PCa. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should be conducted to determine the role of XPD gene polymorphisms in PCa risk.

  6. A magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for photosensitive cooperative treatment of cancer with a mesopore-capping agent and mesopore-loaded drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Nikola Ž.; Lin, Victor S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Lately, there has been a growing interest in anticancer therapy with a combination of different drugs that work by different mechanisms of action, which decreases the possibility that resistant cancer cells will develop. Herein we report on the development of a drug delivery system for photosensitive delivery of a known anticancer drug camptothecin along with cytotoxic cadmium sulfide nanoparticles from a magnetic drug nanocarrier. Core-shell nanoparticles consisting of magnetic iron-oxide-cores and mesoporous silica shells are synthesized with a high surface area (859 m2 g-1) and hexagonal packing of mesopores, which are 2.6 nm in diameter. The mesopores are loaded with anticancer drug camptothecin while entrances of the mesopores are blocked with 2-nitro-5-mercaptobenzyl alcohol functionalized CdS nanoparticles through a photocleavable carbamate linkage. Camptothecin release from this magnetic drug delivery system is successfully triggered upon irradiation with UV light, as measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. Photosensitive anticancer activity of the drug delivery system is monitored by viability studies on Chinese hamster ovarian cells. The treatment of cancer cells with drug loaded magnetic material leads to a decrease in viability of the cells due to the activity of capping CdS nanoparticles. Upon exposure to low power UV light (365 nm) the loaded camptothecin is released which induces additional decrease in viability of CHO cells. Hence, the capping CdS nanoparticles and loaded camptothecin exert a cooperative anticancer activity. Responsiveness to light irradiation and magnetic activity of the nanocarrier enable its potential application for selective targeted treatment of cancer.

  7. A novel peptide (GX1 homing to gastric cancer vasculature inhibits angiogenesis and cooperates with TNF alpha in anti-tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery of the importance of angiogenesis in tumor growth has emphasized the need to find specific vascular targets for tumor-targeted therapies. Previously, using phage display technology, we identified the peptide GX1 as having the ability to target the gastric cancer vasculature. The present study investigated the bioactivities of GX1, as well as its potential ability to cooperate with recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rmhTNFα, in gastric cancer therapy. Results Tetrazolium salt (MTT assay showed that GX1 could inhibit cell proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC (44% and HUVEC with tumor endothelium characteristics, generated by culturing in tumor-conditioned medium (co-HUVEC (62%. Flow-cytometry (FCM and western blot assays showed that GX1 increased the rate of apoptosis from 11% to 31% (p in vivo, with the microvessel count decreasing from 21 to 11 (p In vitro MTT and FCM assays showed that, compared to rmhTNFα alone, GX1-rmhTNFα was more effective at suppressing co-HUVEC proliferation (45% vs. 61%, p p 3 vs. 134 mm3, p p Conclusion GX1 had both homing activity and the ability to inhibit vascular endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and neovascularization in vivo. Furthermore, when GX1 was conjugated to rmhTNFα, the fusion protein was selectively delivered to targeted tumor sites, significantly improving the anti-tumor activity of rmhTNFα and decreasing systemic toxicity. These results demonstrate the potential of GX1 as a homing peptide in vascular targeted therapy for gastric cancer.

  8. Application of Group Cooperative Learning Model in High School English Teaching%小组合作学习模式在高中英语教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶旭

    2014-01-01

    The group cooperative learning is a teaching model that our country universal advocated since the new curriculum reform,mean-while, has also been accepted by students and teachers for effective application. However,the organization effective group cooperative learning model is not a simple matter, so the teacher gives an overview of the application of group cooperative learning in high school English teaching , in order to realize smoothly realization of efficient English class that lay a solid foundation.%小组合作学习是新课程改革以来我国普遍倡导的一种教学模式,同时,也被师生所接受并能进行有效的应用。但是,组织有效的小组合作学习模式并不是一件简单的事情,所以,对小组合作学习在高中英语教学中的应用进行概述,为高效英语课堂的顺利实现打下坚实的基础。

  9. Expression of Excision Repair Cross-Complementation Group 1 as Predictive Marker for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treated With Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer. The expression of excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has been reported to be associated with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We evaluated whether ERCC1 expression could predict the treatment response and survival outcome of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who were treated with cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of ERCC1 in nasopharyngeal tumor tissue. Patients were categorized into either a resistant or sensitive group depending on their treatment response outcome. A total of 77 patients were assessed in the present study. Results: The resistant and sensitive groups included 25 and 52 patients, respectively. ERCC1 expression was positive in the tumor tissue for 39 of the 77 patients (51%). Significantly more ERCC1-negative tumors were in the sensitive group than in the resistant group (p = .035). In terms of survival outcome, univariate analysis determined that patients with ERCC1-negative tumors had longer disease-free survival (p = .076) and overall survival (p = .013) than patients with ERCC1-positive tumors. Multivariate analysis determined that negative ERCC expression in tumors was an independent predictor for prolonged overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.71). Conclusion: These results suggest that ERCC1 expression might be a useful predictive marker in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer who are under consideration for cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

  10. AGE-modified basement membrane cooperates with Endo180 to promote epithelial cell invasiveness and decrease prostate cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Breit, Claudia;

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical strain imposed by age-related thickening of the basal lamina and augmented tissue stiffness in the prostate gland coincides with increased cancer risk. Here we hypothesized that the structural alterations in the basal lamina associated with age can induce mechanotransduction pathways...... in prostate epithelial cells (PECs) to promote invasiveness and cancer progression. To demonstrate this, we developed a 3D model of PEC acini in which thickening and stiffening of basal lamina matrix was induced by advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-dependent non-enzymatic crosslinking of its major...... [myosin-light chain-2 (MLC2) phosphorylation], loss of cell polarity, loss of cell-cell junctions, luminal infiltration and basal invasion induced by AGE-modified basal lamina matrix in PEC acini. Our in vitro results were concordant with luminal occlusion of acini in the prostate glands of adult Endo180...

  11. 让小组合作学习真正成为提高学生学习积极性的载体%Let the Group Cooperative Learning Become the Carrier of Improving Students ’ Learning Enthusiasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁云云

    2014-01-01

    随着新课改的不断深入推进,学生的合作学习广泛运用于课堂教学中。对小学生而言,合作学习既是一种良好的学习方法,又是促进学生良好健康心理,促进学生提高学习积极性的有效途径。心理学家指出:不会主动合作学习,人生就没有成功。因此,从课堂小组合作学习的实效性入手提高学生的学习积极主动性显得尤为重要。%With the deepening of the new curriculum, cooperative learning is widely used in classroom teaching. For primary school students, cooperative learning is not only a good learning method, and is an effective way to cultivate their good mental health, and improve the learning enthusiasm. Psychologists pointed out that do not take the initiation to cooperative learning, life will not succeed. Therefore, the effectiveness of cooperative learning from the classroom group to improve students’ learning initiative is more important.

  12. AIB1 cooperates with ERα to promote epithelial mesenchymal transition in breast cancer through SNAI1 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wang

    Full Text Available Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT plays a major role in cancer metastasis. Several genes have been shown to play a role in EMT, and one of these is Amplified-in-breast cancer 1 (AIB1, which has oncogenic function and is known to be amplified in breast cancer. However, the role of AIB1 in EMT remains largely undefined at the molecular level. In this study, the effect of AIB1 overexpression on the EMT of the breast cancer cell line T47D was investigated. Overexpression of AIB1 disrupted the epithelial morphology of the cells. At the same time, the cells displayed a strong metastasis and reduced level of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. In contrast, knockdown of AIB1 in T47D cells increased cell-cell adhesion and produced weak metastasis, as well as a higher level of E-cadherin expression. We proposed that the regulation of EMT by AIB1 occurred through the action of the transcription factor SNAI1, and demonstrated that such interaction required the participation of ERα and the presence of ERα-binding site on SNAI1 promoter. The expression level of E-cadherin and the extent of cell migration and invasion in SNAI1-knocked down T47D cells that overexpressed AIB1 were similar to those of T47D cells that did not overexpress AIB1 and had no SNAI1 knockdown. Taken together, these results suggested that AIB1 exerted its effect on EMT through its interaction with ERα, which could directly bind to the ERα-binding site on the SNAI1 promoter, allowing the AIB1-ERα complex to promote the transcription of SNAI1 and eventually led to repression of E-cadherin expression, consistent with the loss of E-cadherin being a hallmark of EMT.

  13. AIB1 Cooperates with ERα to Promote Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer through SNAI1 Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shujing; Chang, Alan K.; Jia, Zhaojun; Chen, Yixuan; Xu, Feihong; Pan, Hongming; Wu, Huijian

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) plays a major role in cancer metastasis. Several genes have been shown to play a role in EMT, and one of these is Amplified-in-breast cancer 1 (AIB1), which has oncogenic function and is known to be amplified in breast cancer. However, the role of AIB1 in EMT remains largely undefined at the molecular level. In this study, the effect of AIB1 overexpression on the EMT of the breast cancer cell line T47D was investigated. Overexpression of AIB1 disrupted the epithelial morphology of the cells. At the same time, the cells displayed a strong metastasis and reduced level of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. In contrast, knockdown of AIB1 in T47D cells increased cell-cell adhesion and produced weak metastasis, as well as a higher level of E-cadherin expression. We proposed that the regulation of EMT by AIB1 occurred through the action of the transcription factor SNAI1, and demonstrated that such interaction required the participation of ERα and the presence of ERα-binding site on SNAI1 promoter. The expression level of E-cadherin and the extent of cell migration and invasion in SNAI1-knocked down T47D cells that overexpressed AIB1 were similar to those of T47D cells that did not overexpress AIB1 and had no SNAI1 knockdown. Taken together, these results suggested that AIB1 exerted its effect on EMT through its interaction with ERα, which could directly bind to the ERα-binding site on the SNAI1 promoter, allowing the AIB1-ERα complex to promote the transcription of SNAI1 and eventually led to repression of E-cadherin expression, consistent with the loss of E-cadherin being a hallmark of EMT. PMID:23762395

  14. Cooperative Clinical Trial of Photodynamic Therapy for Early Gastric Cancer With Photofrin Injection® and YAG-OPO Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Seishiro Mimura; Hiroyuki Narahara; Toshio Hirashima; Hisayuki Fukutomi; Akira Nakahara; Hiromasa Kashimura; Hirofumi Matsui; Hiroshi Tanimura; Yugo Nagai; Shigeru Suzuki; Yoko Murata; Kazunari Yoshida; Kaichi Isono; Teruo Kozu; Hiroko Ide

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treats malignant tumors using photosensitizers and light. We employed a new pulse laser as the excitation light source for PDT, i.e. an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, because it provides extremely high peak power. Study Design/Materials and Methods: The effects of PDT using the photosensitizer Photofrin® and the new laser were evaluated in 12 patients with early gastric cancer. Results: Compl...

  15. Group II and IV phospholipase A2 are produced in human pancreatic cancer cells and influence prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwagi, M; Friess, H; Uhl, W.; Berberat, P; Abou-Shady, M; MARTIGNONI, M.; Anghelacopoulos, S; Zimmermann, A.; Buchler, M.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is involved in regulating biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and its metabolites. There are three major structurally different forms of PLA2: group I, also called pancreatic PLA2 (PLA2-I); group II, referred to as secretory non-pancreatic or synovial or platelet PLA2 (PLA2-II); group IV, referred to as cytosolic PLA2 (PLA2-IV).
AIMS—To examine PLA2-I, PLA2-II, and PLA2-IV in normal and pancreatic cancer tissues.
 Patients—PLA2 was studied in 58 pancreatic aden...

  16. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative.......13-2.82)), localization of cancer in the rectum and Dukes classification were independent risk factors. CONCLUSION: Blood transfusion per se may not be a risk factor for poor prognosis after colorectal cancer surgery. However, the combination of perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative...

  17. Prevalence of Types of Cancers in the Elderly Covered by Insurance of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting Company in 2015 - Comparison with Younger Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, Zahra; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Shati, Mohsen; Sahaf, Robab

    2016-01-01

    Presently, the world population of the elderly is growing. By improving health hygiene and welfare indicators, mortality and birth rates decrease and life expectancy increases, making the present century the century of elderly. Aging is one of the main risk factors for development of cancer, which itself is the second cause of death in old people. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of cancer in the elderly covered by the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) insurance program and to obtain suitable programs for cancer screening and early detection, increase patient survival, improve elderly care and to reclaim the cost of treatment in comparison to the national and international statistics. This is a cross-sectional study conducted on all elderly patients diagnosed with malignancy based on their pathology reports. In this study, of the total 75,500 patients covered by IRIB insurance, 17.2% belonged to the elderly group, males accounting for 53.3%. The most common cancers in old men were prostatic cancer (61.3%), colon cancer (10.3%) cancer of the hematologic system, bladder cancer (9.6%), lung cancer (9.1%), thyroid cancer (3.9%) and brain tumors (1.3%). In the elderly women, the most common cancers were breast cancer (80.1%), colon cancer (5.1%), thyroid cancers (4.4%), bladder and hematologic system malignancies (3.6), lung cancer (2.9%) and brain tumors (0.7%). In addition, the prevalence of cancer was almost the same as national and international statistics. With the exception of non-melanoma skin cancer no difference was shown in prevalence of cancer between IRIB elderly patients and the other groups of cancer patients in Iran. PMID:27165237

  18. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival. PMID:26731659

  19. Impact of altruistic behavior on group cooperation: A mechanism working in the presence of an altruist may solve the public goods provision problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki Ozono; Yoshio Kamijo; Kazumi Shimizu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new mechanism to achieve cooperation in public goods provision. The mechanism is named GEM, which stands for gradualism, endogeneity, and modification, its important properties. In a public goods game with GEM, spread over 20 periods, a target contribution is presented to the players in each period. The target is gradually increased when all members reach it. If players contribute less than the target in a certain period, the minimum contribution will be treated as...

  20. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen;

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer...... drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with...

  1. Regional cooperation in nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1985, PBNCC (the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee) was formally established. Currently six Pacific Basin members have been participating in PBNCC: Canada, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Taiwan of Chian, and the United States of America. The People's Republic of China has sent observes to the PBNCC meetings. The technical contents of PBWCC working groups are as follows: 1. Regional cooperative for pooled spare parts of nuclear power plants and inventory management; 2. Regional cooperation in nuclear training; 3. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety; 4. Regional cooperation in Codes and Standards; 5. Regional Cooperation in public acceptance; 6. Regional cooperation on radwaste management. (Liu)

  2. Stimulation of angiogenesis resulting from cooperation between macrophages and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells: proposed molecular mechanism and effect of tetrathiomolybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infiltration by macrophages (Mφ) indicates a poor prognosis in breast cancers, in particular by inducing angiogenesis. Our study aimed 1) to investigate the mechanism by which cooperation between Mφ and aggressive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) induces angiogenesis; 2) to examine the effect of tetrathiomolybdate (TM) on this angiogenic activity. Mφ coincubated with MDA-MB-231 were used as a model to mimic the inflammatory microenvironment. Angiogenesis induced by the culture media was tested in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Mφ phenotype was evaluated by 1) expression of the M1 marker CD80, and secretion of interleukin 10 (IL-10), an M2 marker; 2) capacity to secrete Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide/interferon γ (LPS/IFNγ); 3) ability to induce MDA-MB-231 apoptosis. To explore the molecular mechanisms involved, cytokine profiles of conditioned media from MDA-MB-231, Mφ and the coculture were characterised by an antibody cytokine array. All experiments were carried out both in presence and in absence of TM. Incubation of Mφ with MDA-MB-231 induced a pro-angiogenic effect in the CAM. It emerged that the angiogenic activity of the coculture is due to the capacity of Mφ to switch from M1 Mφ towards M2, probably due to an increase in Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor. This M1-M2 switch was shown by a decreased expression of CD80 upon LPS/IFNγ stimulation, an increased secretion of IL-10, a decreased secretion of TNFα in response to LPS/IFNγ and an inability to potentiate apoptosis. At the molecular level, the angiogenic activity of the coculture medium can be explained by the secretion of CXC chemokines/ELR+ and CC chemokines. Although TM did not modify either the M2 phenotype in the coculture or the profile of the secreted chemokines, it did decrease the angiogenic activity of the coculture medium, suggesting that TM inhibited angiogenic activity by interfering with the endothelial cell signalling

  3. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission ...

  4. Patterns of care for radiotherapy in vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe radiotherapeutic practice in the treatment of vulvar cancer in member study groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to representatives of the member study groups of the GCIG, targeting the use of...... radiotherapy (RT) in vulvar cancer. RESULTS: Thirty-two surveys were returned from 12 different cooperative groups. The most common indications for neoadjuvant RT include unresectable disease or International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage >/=III. For the neoadjuvant treatment of vulvar cancer...

  5. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Specific enzyme for HMGB1 phosphorylation and its secretion is proposed. ► Inhibition of PKC-ζ leads to significant reduction of the secreted HMGB1. ► Phosphorylation of specific site of HMGB1 redirects its secretion in cancer cells. ► Activation of PKC-ζ in cancers explains the enhanced HMGB1 secretion. -- Abstract: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. Phosphorylation on two different nuclear localization signal regions are known to be important for the nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transport and secretion of HMGB1. However, little is known about the biochemical mechanism of HMGB1 modifications and its subsequent secretion from cancer cells. To identify the specific enzyme and important sites for HMGB1 phosphorylation, we screened the protein kinase C (PKC) family in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116) for HMGB1 binding by pull-down experiments using a 3XFLAG-HMGB1 construct. Strong interactions between atypical PKCs (PKC-ζ, λ, and ι) and cytoplasmic HMGB1 were observed in HCT116 cells. We further identified the most critical PKC isotype that regulates HMGB1 secretion is PKC-ζ by using PKC inhibitors and siRNA experiments. The serine residues at S39, S53 and S181 of HMGB1 were related to enhancing HMGB1 secretion. We also demonstrated overexpression and activation of PKC-ζ in colon cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that PKC-ζ is involved in the phosphorylation of HMGB1, and the phosphorylation of specific serine residues in the nuclear localization signal regions is related to enhanced HMGB1 secretion in colon cancer cells.

  6. Pretreatment factors significantly influence quality of life in cancer patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to assess the impact of pretreatment factors on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients. Methods and Materials Pretreatment QOL (via Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy [FACT], version 2) was obtained in 1,428 patients in several prospective Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials including nonmetastatic head-and-neck (n = 1139), esophageal (n = 174), lung (n = 51), rectal (n = 47), and prostate (n = 17) cancer patients. Clinically meaningful differences between groups were defined as a difference of 1 standard error of measurement (SEM). Results The mean FACT score for all patients was 86 (20.7-112) with SEM of 5.3. Statistically significant differences in QOL were observed based on age, race, Karnofsky Performance Status, marital status, education level, income level, and employment status, but not by gender or primary site. Using the SEM, there were clinically meaningful differences between patients ≤50 years vs. ≥65 years. Hispanics had worse QOL than whites. FACT increased linearly with higher Karnofsky Performance Status and income levels. Married patients (or live-in relationships) had a better QOL than single, divorced, or widowed patients. College graduates had better QOL than those with less education. Conclusion Most pretreatment factors meaningfully influenced baseline QOL. The potentially devastating impact of a cancer diagnosis, particularly in young and minority patients, must be addressed

  7. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  8. 基于混合式网络课堂的小组合作学习模式探索%An Exploration into the Group Cooperative Learning Model in Blended Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚少英; 刘华山

    2015-01-01

    Blended classroom is the fusion of face-to-face classroom and online classroom .It is a typical kind of online learning .Previous research has found that group cooperative learning can improve learners' abilities of self-regulated learning and cooperative learning , spur their thoughts , and foster their creative problem-solving in both traditional and blended classroom .We try to guide undergraduates to learn cooperatively in a discussion group in a blended course for three years .Then we propose the model of cooperation in blended course ,i . e .the model of gradual change and fusion in off-line and online learning .Finally ,we reflect on the model and propose several suggestions .%混合式网络课堂是面授课堂和网上课堂的融合 ,是网络学习的一种主要形式.过去的研究发现无论是在传统课堂还是混合式网络课程中指导学生进行小组合作学习 ,都可以提高学生的自主学习能力和合作学习能力 ,激发思考 ,进而培养学生创造性解决问题的能力.我们尝试在混合式专业课程中引导学生进行小组合作学习 ,总结了在混合式课堂中实施小组合作学习的过程 ,提出了混合课堂小组合作学习的模式——线上线下渐变融合 ,并对这一尝试性探索进行了反思.

  9. Alcohol consumption and colon cancer prognosis among participants in north central cancer treatment group phase III trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Limburg, Paul J; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Sinicrope, Frank A; Chan, Emily; Gill, Sharlene; Goldberg, Richard M; Kahlenberg, Morton; Nair, Suresh; Shields, Anthony F; Newcomb, Polly A; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a modest increased risk of colon cancer, but its relationship with colon cancer survival has not been elucidated. Using data from a phase III randomized adjuvant trial, we assessed the association of alcohol consumption with colon cancer outcomes. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire before randomization to FOLFOX or FOLFOX + cetuximab (N = 1984). Information was collected on lifestyle factors, including smoking, physical activity and consumption of different types of alcohol. Cox models assessed the association between alcohol consumption and outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS), time-to-recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for age, sex, study arm, body mass, smoking, physical activity and performance status. No statistically significant difference in outcomes between ever and never drinkers were noted [hazard ratio (HR)DFS  = 0.86, HRTTR  = 0.87, HROS  = 0.86, p-values = 0.11-0.17]. However, when considering alcohol type, ever consumers of red wine (n = 628) had significantly better outcomes than never consumers (HRDFS  = 0.80, HRTTR  = 0.81, HROS  = 0.78, p-values = 0.01-0.02). Favorable outcomes were confirmed in patients who consumed 1-30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 601, HR = 0.80-0.83, p-values = 0.03-0.049); there was a suggestion of more favorable outcomes in patients who consumed >30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 27, HR = 0.33-0.38, p-values = 0.05-0.06). Beer and liquor consumption were not associated with outcomes. Although alcohol consumption was not associated with colon cancer outcomes overall, mild to moderate red wine consumption was suggestively associated with longer OS, DFS and TTR in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:27060850

  10. 分组合作学习在流行病学实习课中的实施与思考%Application and thinking of group cooperative learning in practice lesson of epidemiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王帆; 周海波; 赵亚双

    2014-01-01

    Group cooperative learning is a modem education model.In order to prompt the exploration of the education model in the practice lesson of epidemiology,group cooperative learning method was adopted.There are five key steps for the conduction of group cooperative learning,including task assignment(learning points,research topics,and infomation retrieval) 3-5 days before the task is done,reviewing the key theoretical contents,requiring students to refer to inf'ormation; organizing students to review the theoretical knowledge; students' discussion and making PPT in small groups,team report by representatives,and summing up by teachers at last.Teachers should pay attention to the rationality of interior structure and group members' work.Choosing a proper research subject is very important for arousing the students' interest of study.Based on the active classroom atmosphere and students' feedback,group cooperative learning method plays an important role in promoting the teaching efficiency of practice lesson.However,there are still insufficiencies to be improved.%为了更好地改进流行病学实习课教学,尝试引入分组合作学习.主要包括如下五个实施步骤:教师需在课前3~5天向学生布置学习内容及研究问题,并要求学生查阅资料;课堂上教师组织学生复习理论知识;学生以小组形式展开讨论同时制作PPT;各小组派代表作讨论成果阐述,其他小组学生补充;最后由教师作简要小结.在分组合作学习的组织过程中,教师要注重小组内部结构及成员分工的合理性,选取恰当的研究问题,激发学生兴趣.从课堂气氛及学生反馈结果可见,分组合作学习在调动学生积极性、提高教学效果方面体现出较大优势,但仍需要继续完善.

  11. Cooperative Therapeutic Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene/Ganciclovir System and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Prostate Cancer in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yifei; XIAO Yajun; LU Gongcheng; ZENG Fuqing; ZHAO Jun; XIONG Ping; FENG Wei

    2006-01-01

    The killing effects of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) approach by the addition of several commonly clinical chemotherapeutic agents on hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) cells PC-3m were investigated. After transferring of the HSV-tk gene into PC-3m cells, mRNA and protein expression of HSV-tk was detected by reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and strept avidin-biotin complex (SABC) immunohistochemical method. The killing effect of GCV, cisplatin (CDDP), etoposide (VP-16), vincristine (VCR), methotrexate (MTX), 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), and suramin on PC-3m cells was evaluated by morphological assessment analysis, trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay respectively. Additionally, the cooperative effect of HSV-tk/GCV system combined with the above agents on the target cancer cells was determined by MTT. Furthermore, apoptosis and necrosis induced by GCV plus 5-Fu or suramin was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that that there was HSV-tk mRNA and protein expression in pDR2-tk plasmid transduced PC-3m cell. Combination of GCV with VP-16, VCR, 5-Fu or suramin led to an enhanced cellular killing effect, but with CDDP resulted in a reduced one and with MTX in an approximate one. FCM revealed that synergistic use of GCV and 5-fu or suramin resulted in a rather large proportion of apoptosis and necrosis with the apoptosis index being 36.38 % and 35.51%, and the proportion of necrosis being 33.05 % and 28.87 %, respectively. In conclusion, HSV-tk/CGV approach by addition of certain clinical available chemotherapeutic drugs brings on statistically significant enhanced cell killing over single-agent treatment.Our results highlight the potential for such new combination therapies for future treatments of HRPC.

  12. Novel Therapies for Pediatric Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Macy, Margaret E.; Sawczyn, Kelly K.; Garrington, Timothy P.; Graham, Douglas K.; Gore, Lia

    2008-01-01

    The current high cure rates for children diagnosed with cancer can in part be attributed to emphasis on large cooperative group clinical trials. The significant improvement in pediatric cancer survival over the last few decades is the result of optimized chemotherapy drug dosing, timing, and intensity; however, further alterations in traditional chemotherapy agents are unlikely to produce substantially better outcomes. Furthermore, there remains a subset of patients who have a very poor progn...

  13. Unmet Supportive Care Needs among Breast Cancer Survivors of Community-Based Support Group in Kuching, Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Joseph Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34. All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64. Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old, had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups.

  14. Unmet Supportive Care Needs among Breast Cancer Survivors of Community-Based Support Group in Kuching, Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Emmanuel Joseph; Cheah, Whye Lian

    2016-01-01

    Background. Recognizing the needs of cancer survivors is one of the important aspects in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of unmet supportive care needs and its associated factors among the breast cancer survivors of community-based support group in Kuching, Sarawak. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study using Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34). All the members of community-based breast cancer support groups in Kuching were invited. A total of 101 respondents were face-to-face interviewed after the consent was obtained. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The respondents endorsed health system and information domain with the highest mean score (2.48; 95% CI: 2.32–2.64). Top 10 items with “moderate to high” level unmet needs had a prevalence of 14.9% to 34.7% of respondents indicating need. Significantly higher level of unmet needs was associated with survivors who were younger (less than 60 years old), had higher education attainment, were unemployed, had survival duration of up to 5 years, and were undergoing active treatment. Conclusion. Systematic delivery of health information which is targeted, culturally sensitive, and linguistically appropriate for addressing younger age, education level, employment status, length of survivorship, and treatment stage should be considered not only at hospital-based setting but also at the community-based support groups. PMID:27239346

  15. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Deniz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all, 151 patients over 70 years of age and 715 patients age 70 years or younger were analyzed. Categorical and continuous variables were summarized using descriptive statistics and compared using statistical software. Overall survival rates were estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range: 22 to 90 years. Between 1999 and 2002 the annual median age for patients aged older than70 years was 9.8%, which increased to 20% between 2007 and 2010. The one-year survival rate for patients with metastatic disease (stage IV was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9% to 12.9% and 27.8% (95% CI: 17.3% to 38.2% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.015. The five-year survival rate for patients with non-metastatic disease (in whom curative surgery was performed was 15.5% (95% CI = 12% to 19% and 26.9% (95% CI = 25.9% to 27.9% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.03. There were no significant differences in gender, tumor localization in the stomach, tumor histology, perineural invasion (PNI, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, tumor stage, or type of surgery between the two groups. However, fewer of the patients in group 1 underwent adjuvant treatment (P = 0.02 and palliative chemotherapy (P = 0.007 than group 2 patients that were non-metastatic and metastatic at presentation, respectively. Conclusions Groups 1 and 2 were similar in terms of histopathological features and surgical modality; however, the survival rate was lower in group 1 than in group 2

  16. Metabolic Tumor Volume as a Prognostic Imaging-Based Biomarker for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Pilot Results From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0522

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes. Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited. Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials

  17. Metabolic Tumor Volume as a Prognostic Imaging-Based Biomarker for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Pilot Results From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: david.schwartz@utsw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern School of Medicine, Dallas, Texas (United States); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yao, Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Opanowski, Adam; Levering, Anthony [American College of Radiology Imaging Network, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Trotti, Andy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Sutter Medical Group, Sacramento, California (United States); Harari, Paul [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Foote, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Qiang [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes. Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited. Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials.

  18. D-dopachrome tautomerase is over-expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and acts cooperatively with macrophage migration inhibitory factor to promote cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dawei; Guo, Jinshuai; Yao, Junchao; Jiang, Kun; Hu, Jianhua; Wang, Bo; Liu, Haiyang; Lin, Lin; Sun, Wenyu; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have established the important role of MIF in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) for both therapeutic and diagnostic perspectives, but little is known about the expression and function of D-dopachrome tautomerase (DDT), a functional homolog of MIF, in PDAC. In the present study, we demonstrated that DDT was over-expressed in PDAC tissues in a pattern correlated with MIF. In the pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1, BXPC-3 and ASPC-1, both DDT and MIF were expressed and co-localized with each other in the endosomal compartments and plasma membrane. Knockdown of DDT and MIF in PANC-1 cells cooperatively inhibited ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, increased p53 expression, and reduced cell proliferation, invasion and tumor formation. These effects were rescued by the re-expression of MIF or DDT, but not by the forced expression of the tautomerase-deficient mutants of DDT and MIF, P1G-DDT and P1G-MIF. Finally, we observed that 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine (4-IPP), a covalent tautomerase inhibitor of both DDT and MIF, attenuated PANC-1 cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Thus, targeting the tautomerase sites of both MIF and DDT may offer more efficient therapeutic benefits to PDAC patients. PMID:27434219

  19. Cooperative Learning for Better Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, John J.; Russell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that linking music ensemble programs and cooperative learning strategies often has been overlooked. Describes the benefits of cooperative learning techniques for music performance preparation. Concludes that the small-group approach can enhance traditional music programs by offering students the chance to make their own decisions. (CFR)

  20. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  1. Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer: a European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) status report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In non-jaundiced patients, however, CA 19-9 may complement other diagnostic procedures. In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, presurgical and postresection CA 19-9 levels correlate with overall survival. In advanced disease, elevated pretreatment levels of CA 19-9 are associated with adverse patient outcome and thus may be combined with other factors for risk stratification. Most, but not all, reports indicate that serial levels of CA 19-9 correlate with response to systemic therapy. Use of CA 19-9 kinetics in conjunction with imaging is therefore recommended in monitoring therapy. Although several potential serum and tissue markers for pancreatic cancer are currently undergoing evaluation, none are sufficiently validated for routine clinical use. CA 19-9 thus remains the serum pancreatic cancer marker against which new markers for this malignancy should be judged.

  2. Spinal high-mobility group box 1 contributes to mechanical allodynia in a rat model of bone cancer pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms underlying bone cancer-induced pain are largely unknown. Previous studies indicate that neuroinflammation in the spinal dorsal horn is especially involved. Being first reported as a nonhistone chromosomal protein, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is now implicated as a mediator of inflammation. We hypothesized that HMGB1 could trigger the release of cytokines in the spinal dorsal horn and contribute to bone cancer pain. To test this hypothesis, we first built a bone cancer pain model induced by intratibal injection of Walker 256 mammary gland carcinoma cells. The structural damage to the tibia was monitored by radiological analysis. The mechanical allodynia was measured and the expression of spinal HMGB1 and IL-1β was evaluated. We observed that inoculation of cancer cells, but not heat-killed cells, induced progressive bone destruction from 9 d to 21 d post inoculation. Behavioral tests demonstrated that the significant nociceptive response in the cancer cells-injected rats emerged on day 9 and this kind of mechanical allodynia lasted at least 21 d following inoculation. Tumor cells inoculation significantly increased HMGB1 expression in the spinal dorsal horn, while intrathecal injecting a neutralizing antibody against HMGB1 showed an effective and reliable anti-allodynia effect with a dose-dependent manner. IL-1β was significantly increased in caner pain rats while intrathecally administration of anti-HMGB1 could decrease IL-1β. Together with previous reports, we predict that bone cancer induces HMGB1 production, enhancing spinal IL-1β expression and thus modulating spinal excitatory synaptic transmission and pain response.

  3. Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathewos Tessema

    Full Text Available Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190 and 23% breast (n = 80 tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05. These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43% than lung (5% cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58% than breast (30% tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment.

  4. Tumor markers in breast cancer - European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie; Duffy, Michael J.; Einarsson, Roland; Gion, Massimo; Goike, Helena; Lamerz, Rolf; Nap, Marius; Sölétormos, György; Stieber, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations are presented for the routine clinical use of serum and tissue-based markers in the diagnosis and management of patients with breast cancer. Their low sensitivity and specificity preclude the use of serum markers such as the MUC-1 mucin glycoproteins ( CA 15.3, BR 27.29) and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. However, serial measurement of these markers can result in the early detection of recurrent disease as well as indicate the efficacy of the...

  5. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  6. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa-tion...

  7. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    for Nordic projects of common interests. This created the necessary critical knowledge base in new energy technologies, energy systems and energy markets. Nordic energy policy cooperation followed the ordinary Nordic governance structures, rules and mode of operation with Council of Ministers, supported...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  8. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  9. Effects of the combination of blood transfusion and postoperative infectious complications on prognosis after surgery for colorectal cancer. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Moesgaard, F;

    2000-01-01

    = 740) and time to diagnosis of recurrent disease in the subgroup of patients operated on with curative intention (n = 532). The patients were analysed in four groups divided with respect to administration or not of perioperative blood transfusion and development or non-development of postoperative......BACKGROUND: The frequency of postoperative infectious complications is significantly increased in patients with colorectal cancer receiving perioperative blood transfusion. It is still debated, however, whether perioperative blood transfusion alters the incidence of disease recurrence or otherwise...... affects the prognosis. METHODS: Patient risk variables, variables related to operation technique, blood transfusion and the development of infectious complications were recorded prospectively in 740 patients undergoing elective resection for primary colorectal cancer. Endpoints were overall survival (n...

  10. Evidence-based recommendations of postoperative radiotherapy in lung cancer from Oncologic Group for the Study of Lung Cancer (Spanish Radiation Oncology Society).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A; González, J A; Couñago, F; Vallejo, C; Casas, F; de Dios, N Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a diversified illness in which postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for complete resection with positive hiliar (pN1) and/or mediastinal (pN2) lymph nodes is controversial. Although several studies have shown that PORT has beneficial effects, randomized trials are needed to demonstrate its impact on overall survival. In this review, the Spanish Radiation Oncology Group for Lung Cancer describes the most relevant literature on PORT in NSCLC patients stage pN1-2. In addition, we have outlined the current recommendations of different national and international clinical guidelines and have also specified practical issues regarding treatment volume definition, doses and fractionation. PMID:26280402

  11. Polyurethane dispersion containing quaternized ammonium groups: An efficient nanosize gene delivery carrier for A549 cancer cell line transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefpour Marzbali, Mahsa; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad; Movassaghpour, AliAkbar; Yeganeh, Hamid

    2016-01-25

    A novel polyurethane containing cationic ammonium groups (QPU) was synthesized and used as vector for gene therapy and cancer gene targeting. The synthesized QPU was characterized by Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy methods. An agarose gel retardation electrophoresis assay was conducted to verify the complete complex formation between QPU and pDNA. The particles size and zeta potential of neat polymers, plasmid DNA, polymers/DNA polyplexes were determined by the dynamic light scattering technique. The polyplexes cytotoxicity was determined using [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and its transfection efficiency was examined qualitatively by fluorescent microscopy and quantitatively by flow cytometery methods. The gel retardation assay, particle size and zeta potential measurements were confirmed that the synthesized cationic polymer could condense DNA efficiently in the physiologic condition. QPU polyplexes showed a significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to Polyfect polyplexes in the examined human cancerous (A549) or normal cells (KDR). Based on our findings, the transfection efficiency by QPU was 2.2 fold higher than Polyfect in the A549 cells whereas in the KDR cells, the cell transfection by Polyfect was 18.1 fold higher than QPU. Due to low cytotoxicity for normal cells and high transfection efficiency in cancer cells, the potential applicability of designed QPU as a non-viral gene carrier for targeting of cancer gene therapy was confirmed. PMID:26658031

  12. The Largest Known Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis from Thyroid Cancer Based on Prognostic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhyun Choi

    Full Text Available To analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients with a very rare occurrence of brain metastasis (BM from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.A total of 37 patients with DTC who were diagnosed with BM between 1995 and 2014 were included. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and image findings of BM. Factors associated with survival were evaluated, and the patients were divided into three prognostic groups (Groups A, B, and C for comparative analysis.The median age at BM was 63 years, and the median time from initial thyroid cancer diagnosis to BM was 3.8 years. The median survival and the 1-year actuarial survival rate after BM were 8.8 months and 47%, respectively. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, four good prognostic factors (GPFs were identified including age ≤ 60 years, PS ≤ ECOG 2, ≤ 3 BM sites, and without extracranial metastasis prior to BM. Three prognostic groups were designed based on age and number of remaining GPFs: patients ≤ 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group A had the most favorable prognosis with a median survival of 32.8 months; patients ≤ 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs and those > 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group B had an intermediate prognosis with a median survival of 9.4 months; and patients > 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs (Group C had the least favorable prognosis with a median survival of 1.5 months.The survival of patients with BM form DTC differed among the prognostic groups based on the total number of good prognostic factors.

  13. The Largest Known Survival Analysis of Patients with Brain Metastasis from Thyroid Cancer Based on Prognostic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinhyun; Kim, Jun Won; Keum, Yo Sup; Lee, Ik Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the clinical features and prognostic factors associated with the survival of patients with a very rare occurrence of brain metastasis (BM) from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods and Materials A total of 37 patients with DTC who were diagnosed with BM between 1995 and 2014 were included. We reviewed the clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and image findings of BM. Factors associated with survival were evaluated, and the patients were divided into three prognostic groups (Groups A, B, and C) for comparative analysis. Results The median age at BM was 63 years, and the median time from initial thyroid cancer diagnosis to BM was 3.8 years. The median survival and the 1-year actuarial survival rate after BM were 8.8 months and 47%, respectively. According to univariate and multivariate analyses, four good prognostic factors (GPFs) were identified including age ≤ 60 years, PS ≤ ECOG 2, ≤ 3 BM sites, and without extracranial metastasis prior to BM. Three prognostic groups were designed based on age and number of remaining GPFs: patients ≤ 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group A) had the most favorable prognosis with a median survival of 32.8 months; patients ≤ 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs and those > 60 years of age with at least 2 GPFs (Group B) had an intermediate prognosis with a median survival of 9.4 months; and patients > 60 years of age with fewer than 2 GPFs (Group C) had the least favorable prognosis with a median survival of 1.5 months. Conclusions The survival of patients with BM form DTC differed among the prognostic groups based on the total number of good prognostic factors. PMID:27128487

  14. Cancer patients’ experiences with and perceived outcomes of yoga: results from focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uden-Kraan, van C.F.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Drossaert, C.H.C.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Buffart, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Yoga is a “mind–body” exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients’ motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and

  15. EORTC-GU group expert opinion on metastatic renal cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Reijke; J. Bellmunt; H. van Poppel; S. Marreaud; M. Aapro

    2009-01-01

    There is no consensus on the detailed surveillance of renal cell cancer (RCC) patients after radical resection of the kidney. Where relapse is unlikely, one reasonable option would be to confine investigations to chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound-carried out at 3-month intervals during the first

  16. Considerations of circadian impact for defining 'shift work' in cancer studies: IARC Working Group Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Stevens; J. Hansen; G. Costa; E. Haus; T. Kauppinen; K.J. Aronson; G. Castaño-Vinyals; S. Davis; M.H.W. Frings-Dresen; L. Fritschi; M. Kogevinas; K. Kogi; J.A. Lie; A. Lowden; B. Peplonska; B. Pesch; E. Pukkala; E. Schernhammer; R.C. Travis; R. Vermeulen; T. Zheng; V. Cogliano; K. Straif

    2011-01-01

    Based on the idea that electric light at night might account for a portion of the high and rising risk of breast cancer worldwide, it was predicted long ago that women working a non-day shift would be at higher risk compared with day-working women. This hypothesis has been extended more recently to

  17. A Phase I study of olaparib and irinotecan in patients with colorectal cancer: Canadian Cancer Trials Group IND 187.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric X; Jonker, Derek J; Siu, Lillian L; McKeever, Karyn; Keller, Deborah; Wells, Julie; Hagerman, Linda; Seymour, Lesley

    2016-08-01

    Background Olaparib is an orally available inhibitor of PARP-1. In pre-clinical studies, olaparib was shown to potentiate anti-tumor effects of irinotecan in colon cancer cell lines. This phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of olaparib in combination with irinotecan. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced colorectal cancer whose disease progressed after at least one systemic therapy regimen were enrolled. Dose escalation and de-escalation were based on toxicity assessment. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected in Cycle 1 for olaparib, irinotecan and SN-38. Results Twenty-five patients were enrolled, 11 patients on a schedule of continuous olaparib and irinotecan every 3 weeks (Part A) and 14 patients on a schedule of intermittent olaparib and irinotecan every 2 weeks (Part B). Continuous olaparib administration was associated with higher than expected toxicities and was not considered to be tolerable. Intermittent olaparib administration was better tolerated, and the recommended phase 2 doses were olaparib 50 mg p.o twice daily days 1-5 and irinotecan 125 mg/m(2) i.v. every 2 weeks. Common toxicities included fatigue, anorexia, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and abdominal pain. Nine patients had stable disease as the best response, 2 from Part A (3 and 9 months respectively), and 7 from Part B (median duration: 7.4 months; range: 4 to 13 months). There was no pharmacokinetic interaction between olaparib and irinotecan. Conclusions Olaparib can be combined with irinotecan if administered intermittently. Both olaparib and irinotecan required significant dose reductions. The lack of anti-tumor efficacy observed in this trial makes this combination of little interest for further clinical development. Trial Registration ID NCT00535353. PMID:27075016

  18. Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: We fit phenomenological tumor control probability (TCP) models to biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer patients to quantify the local dose-response of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the outcome after photon beam 3D-CRT of 103 patients with stage T1c-T3 prostate cancer treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (prescribed target doses between 64.8 and 81 Gy) who had a prostate biopsy performed ≥2.5 years after end of treatment. A univariate logistic regression model based on Dmean (mean dose in the planning target volume of each patient) was fit to the whole data set and separately to subgroups characterized by low and high values of tumor-related prognostic factors T-stage (6), and pre-treatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (≤10 ng/ml vs. >10 ng/ml). In addition, we evaluated five different classifications of the patients into three risk groups, based on all possible combinations of two or three prognostic factors, and fit bivariate logistic regression models with Dmean and the risk group category to all patients. Dose-response curves were characterized by TCD50, the dose to control 50% of the tumors, and γ50, the normalized slope of the dose-response curve at TCD50. Results: Dmean correlates significantly with biopsy outcome in all patient subgroups and larger values of TCD50 are observed for patients with unfavorable compared to favorable prognostic factors. For example, TCD50 for high T-stage patients is 7 Gy higher than for low T-stage patients. For all evaluated risk group definitions, Dmean and the risk group category are independent predictors of biopsy outcome in bivariate analysis. The fit values of TCD50 show a clear separation of 9-10.6 Gy between low and high risk patients. The corresponding dose-response curves are steeper (γ50=3.4-5.2) than those obtained when all patients are analyzed together (γ50=2.9). Conclusions: Dose

  19. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  20. Palliative care for cancer patients in a primary health care setting:Bereaved relatives' experience, a qualitative group interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Mette Asbjørn; Olesen, Frede; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the quality and organisation of care to terminally ill cancer patients with a relatives' view in a primary health care setting is limited. The aim of the study is to analyse experiences and preferences of bereaved relatives to terminally ill cancer patients in a primary...... care setting to explore barriers and facilitators for delivery of good palliative home care. Methods: Three focus group interviews with fourteen bereaved relatives in Aarhus County, Denmark. Results: Three main categories of experience were identified: 1) The health professionals' management, where a...... need to optimize was found. 2) Shared care, which was lacking. 3) The relatives' role, which needs an extra focus. Conclusion: Relatives experience insufficient palliative care mainly due to organizational and cultural problems among professionals. Palliative care in primary care in general needs...

  1. The Adherence to Physical Exercise in a Group of Prostate Cancer: an Integrated Model to Improve the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat-Carles Serdà i Ferrer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a model of adherence integrated into an exercise program in men with prostate cancer to get the autonomous practice at home. The study design is qualitative following Grounded Theory principles. The sample of 33 participants and it has been built through an intensive sampling by theoretical representativeness. The analytical procedure corresponds to the Method of Constants Comparisons. The design of simple and flexible program with a modular structure allows the user to adapt the exercise to his health, his symptoms resulting from the disease and his everyday life situation. The figure of professional trainer is essential in the process of achieving the autonomy. Working adherence as a process empowers the participant to maintain the autonomous activity at home. The adherence model integrated to a group exercise program is effective for improving the quality of life of older people affected by prostate cancer.

  2. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  3. Protocol and Recruitment Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Group Phone-Based versus Newsletter Interventions for Weight Loss Maintenance among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Befort, Christie A; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G; Sullivan, Debra K.; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Diaz, Francisco J.; Shireman, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than indivi...

  4. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  5. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted

  6. The sense of well-being in a group of patients with gastro-intestinal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Christina

    1996-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to describe patients with gastro-intestinal cancer and their general health and well-being during different stages of the disease. Questionnaires concerning coping ability, general health, well-being and the frequencies and occurrences of symptoms were used to collect data about the patient's pre- and post-surgical situation. Two of these questionnaires, the Health Index (Hl) and the General Health Rating Index (GHRI), were addressed to a ...

  7. Tribulations of a prostate cancer trial - lessons learned from TOAD, a cancer council Victoria and Transtasman Radiation Oncology Group Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: From 2004-2009 a total of 226 out of a target of 750 prostate cancer patients have been randomised into the Timing of Androgen Deprivation trial between immediate and delayed androgen deprivation. A screening log was kept by participating centres for the first 928 patients, which documented the reasons for non-entry into the trial; 42.7% of screened patients were ineligible and a further 33.0% were not entered for other reasons. Fewer than 10% of patients cited not wanting to be part of a clinical trial as a reason for non-entry. Strategies to improve recruitment included broadening the eligibility criteria, encouraging international collaboration, the use and support of research nurses in the private health care environment, and the use of phone follow-up. Recruitment will be completed at the number originally intended to inform the interim analysis designed to test the validity of the statistical assumptions, and a combined survival analysis with the Canadian study is planned.

  8. Mortality and cancer in relation to ABO blood group phenotypes in the Golestan Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Emadi, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background A few studies have shown an association between blood group alleles and vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, which is thought to be due to the higher level of von Willebrand factor in these individuals and the association of blood group locus variants with plasma lipid levels. No large population-based study has explored this association with overall and cause-specific mortality. Methods We aimed to study the association between ABO blood groups and overall and cause-specif...

  9. The Evolving Biology of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Review of Recommendations From the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethakumari, Praveen Ramakrishnan; Cookson, Michael S; Kelly, William Kevin

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 (PCWG2) developed consensus guidelines for clinical trial design and conduct that redefined trial endpoints, with a dual-objective paradigm: to (1) controlling, relieving, or eliminating disease manifestations at the start of treatment; and (2) preventing or delaying further disease manifestations. Clinical and translational research in prostate cancer has expanded our current-day understanding of the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, as well as the different clinicopathologic and molecular subtypes of the disease, and has improved the therapeutic armamentarium for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). These new advances led to the development of the updated PCWG3 guidelines in 2015. In this review, we analyze our evolving understanding of the biology of CRPC, acquired resistance mechanisms, and emerging therapeutic targets in light of the updated PCWG3 guidelines. We present a joint perspective from the medical oncology and urologic disciplines on the ongoing efforts to advance clinical trial performance in order to discover new therapies for this fatal disease. PMID:26888794

  10. Poly(I:C induces intense expression of c-IAP2 and cooperates with an IAP inhibitor in induction of apoptosis in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzan Catherine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 is an interesting target for anti-cancer therapy. Unfortunately, most laboratory investigations about the impact of TLR3 stimulation on human malignant cells have been performed with very high concentrations - 5 to 100 μg/ml - of the prototype TLR3 ligand, poly(I:C. In a previous study focused on a specific type of human carcinoma - nasopharyngeal carcinoma - we have shown that concentrations of poly(I:C as low as 100 ng/ml are sufficient to induce apoptosis of malignant cells when combined to a pharmacological antagonist of the IAP family based on Smac mimicry. Methods This observation prompted us to investigate the contribution of the IAP family in cell response to poly(I:C in a variety of human malignant cell types. Results We report a rapid, intense and selective increase in c-IAP2 protein expression observed under stimulation by poly(I:C(500 ng/ml in all types of human malignant cells. In most cell types, this change in protein expression is underlain by an increase in c-IAP2 transcripts and dependent on the TLR3/TRIF pathway. When poly(I:C is combined to the IAP inhibitor RMT 5265, a cooperative effect in apoptosis induction and/or inhibition of clonogenic growth is obtained in a large fraction of carcinoma and melanoma cell lines. Conclusions Currently, IAP inhibitors like RMT 5265 and poly(I:C are the subject of separate therapeutic trials. In light of our observations, combined use of both types of compounds should be considered for treatment of human malignancies including carcinomas and melanomas.

  11. Poly(I:C) induces intense expression of c-IAP2 and cooperates with an IAP inhibitor in induction of apoptosis in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is increasing evidence that the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is an interesting target for anti-cancer therapy. Unfortunately, most laboratory investigations about the impact of TLR3 stimulation on human malignant cells have been performed with very high concentrations - 5 to 100 μg/ml - of the prototype TLR3 ligand, poly(I:C). In a previous study focused on a specific type of human carcinoma - nasopharyngeal carcinoma - we have shown that concentrations of poly(I:C) as low as 100 ng/ml are sufficient to induce apoptosis of malignant cells when combined to a pharmacological antagonist of the IAP family based on Smac mimicry. This observation prompted us to investigate the contribution of the IAP family in cell response to poly(I:C) in a variety of human malignant cell types. We report a rapid, intense and selective increase in c-IAP2 protein expression observed under stimulation by poly(I:C)(500 ng/ml) in all types of human malignant cells. In most cell types, this change in protein expression is underlain by an increase in c-IAP2 transcripts and dependent on the TLR3/TRIF pathway. When poly(I:C) is combined to the IAP inhibitor RMT 5265, a cooperative effect in apoptosis induction and/or inhibition of clonogenic growth is obtained in a large fraction of carcinoma and melanoma cell lines. Currently, IAP inhibitors like RMT 5265 and poly(I:C) are the subject of separate therapeutic trials. In light of our observations, combined use of both types of compounds should be considered for treatment of human malignancies including carcinomas and melanomas

  12. MEMBERS' FINANCIAL EVALUATION AND COOPERATIVES' DECISION PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Carlo; Weatherspoon, Dave D.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of cooperative investment decision based on the coalition theoretical framework (Staatz 1983, 1987, 1989). According to this framework, cooperatives can be considered as coalitions of groups with different interests. The behavior of any cooperative is determined by the interaction of its many groups (different types of farmers, managers, lenders, input suppliers, buyers, etc.) with different objectives. The group that can impose its will on the coalition will de...

  13. NCI’s Cooperative Human Tissue Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality biospecimens are a foundational resource for cancer research. One of NCI’s longest running biospecimen programs is the Cooperative Human Tissue Network, a resource mainly for basic discovery and early translational research.

  14. Linguistic Predictors of Peer Responsiveness in an Online Cancer Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about how group cohesion develops in online support group communities. Previous research suggests that message content, self-disclosure, and emotional expression may be central to this process. The purpose of this study was to identify linguistic and qualitative characteristics of participants' messages that…

  15. EGFR testing and clinical management of advanced NSCLC: a Galician Lung Cancer Group study (GGCP 048-10)

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez S; Casal J; Afonso Afonso FJ; Fírvida JL; Santomé L; Barón F; Lázaro M; Pena C; Amenedo M; Abdulkader I; González-Arenas C; Fachal L; Vega A

    2016-01-01

    Sergio Vázquez,1 Joaquín Casal,2 Francisco Javier Afonso Afonso,3 José Luis Fírvida,4 Lucía Santomé,5 Francisco Barón,6 Martín Lázaro,7 Carolina Pena,7 Margarita Amenedo,8 Ihab Abdulkader,9 Carmen González-Arenas,10 Laura Fachal,11 Ana Vega11 On behalf of the Galician Lung Cancer Group (GGCP)1Medical Oncology Department, Lucus Augusti University Hospital, Lugo, 2Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Complex of Vi...

  16. Childhood non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United Kingdom: findings from the UK Children's Cancer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, D; McKeever, P.; Carter, R

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To review the presenting clinical features and the histology of cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) entered into the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group NHL Trial. METHODS: Sections of biopsy specimens from all cases entered into the trial were stained with Giemsa and haematoxylin and eosin. All cases were stained immunohistochemically for CD45, CD3, CD45RO, CD20, and CD30. Sections were stained with either naphthol AS-D chloroacetate esterase or KP1 (CD68) to identify granulocy...

  17. Cooperating with the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Rand, David G.; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Nowak, Martin A.

    2014-07-01

    Overexploitation of renewable resources today has a high cost on the welfare of future generations. Unlike in other public goods games, however, future generations cannot reciprocate actions made today. What mechanisms can maintain cooperation with the future? To answer this question, we devise a new experimental paradigm, the `Intergenerational Goods Game'. A line-up of successive groups (generations) can each either extract a resource to exhaustion or leave something for the next group. Exhausting the resource maximizes the payoff for the present generation, but leaves all future generations empty-handed. Here we show that the resource is almost always destroyed if extraction decisions are made individually. This failure to cooperate with the future is driven primarily by a minority of individuals who extract far more than what is sustainable. In contrast, when extractions are democratically decided by vote, the resource is consistently sustained. Voting is effective for two reasons. First, it allows a majority of cooperators to restrain defectors. Second, it reassures conditional cooperators that their efforts are not futile. Voting, however, only promotes sustainability if it is binding for all involved. Our results have implications for policy interventions designed to sustain intergenerational public goods.

  18. [Phase II study of recombinant human interferon gamma (S-6810) in renal cell carcinoma. Urological Cooperative Study Group of Recombinant Human Interferon Gamma (S-6810)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, T; Koiso, K; Takaku, F; Ogawa, M

    1987-02-01

    A phase II study of recombinant human interferon gamma (rHuIFN-gamma) administered intravenously and intramuscularly was carried out in 84 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma with the cooperation of 18 institutions throughout Japan. The eligibility of the patients and evaluation of the responses were undertaken according to the general criteria proposed by Drs. Koyama and Saito. Out of 84 cases entered in this phase II study, 62 patients were evaluable for antitumor effects. In the case of continuous administration of 8-12 X 10(6) U/m2/day interferon for 4 weeks, 32 patients were evaluable. The response rate was 6.3%. In the case of intermittent therapy of 40 X 10(6) U/m2/day interferon for 8 weeks, six out of 30 patients (20%) were evaluable as responders. Among them, one patient showed a complete response, all patients tolerated this type of interferon well. Major adverse effects were fever (86.8%), anorexia (67.1%), fatigue (53.9%) and leukopenia (42.1%). No life-threatening toxicities were found. The results of this study showed that rHuIFN-gamma had antitumor activity against renal cell carcinoma. PMID:3101607

  19. Development of cooperative learning process scale (CLPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Bay; Bayram Çetin

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important components of social constructivist learning environment is that learners are in co-operation. Effectiveness of cooperative learning process also depends on implementing the requirements of cooperative learning by the learners. The key components of cooperative learning are those positive dependence, personal responsibility, face-to-face supportive interaction, group process, interpersonal social skills. The purpose of this study has taken place to determine the psyc...

  20. Cooperative Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhuan, Huang

    2013-01-01

    The current companies increasingly expect to involve more external sources to achieve more open innovation for value-added. However, the cooperation problem between internal organization and external parties still challenges the top management. This paper aims to find out the solution. The fast spring up Chinese IT market impacts the world market, especially mobile Internet. Therefore, this paper employ the fast growing Chinese Mobile Internet company--- Xiao Mi as the study case. By applying...

  1. Reconsidering Physical Activity Restrictions for Mononephric Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Koh, Chester J; Meeske, Kathleen A; Rangan, Kasey E; Rodgers, Cheryl; Rosenthal, Yael; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Freyer, David R

    2016-07-01

    Although traditional recommendations for mononephric childhood cancer survivors are to avoid contact sports in order to protect the remaining kidney, review of available evidence suggests that the majority of renal loss is caused by accidents not involving sports. An interdisciplinary team performed a review of the English literature published from 1999 to 2012 within the PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and National Guidelines Clearinghouse databases. The level of evidence and proposed recommendations were graded according to an established rubric and GRADE criteria. Our review found that kidney loss is most commonly caused by nonsports activities such as motor vehicle accidents and falls, implying that restrictions on sports-related activity in mononephric pediatric survivors are not well supported. This favors encouraging ordinary sports and related activities without restriction in mononephric childhood cancer survivors because the known benefits of exercise outweigh the exceedingly low risk of renal loss. Accordingly, activity recommendations for mononephric patients have been revised in the most current version of the Children's Oncology Group Long-term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers. This has important implications for this and similar populations who may now undertake individual and organized sports without undue regard for their mononephric status. PMID:26589357

  2. Xeroderma pigmentosum group D 751 polymorphism as a predictive factor in resected gastric cancer treated with chemo-radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RN Zárate R; F Arias; E Bandres; E Cubedo; R Malumbres; J García-Foncillas

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential association of xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) codon 751 variant with outcome after chemo-radiotherapy in patients with resected gastric cancer.METHODS: We used PCR-RFLP to evaluate the genetic XPD Lys751Gln polymorphisms in 44 patients with stage Ⅲ (48%) and Ⅳ (20%) gastric cancer treated with surgery following radiation therapy plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin based chemotherapy.RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed that 75% (12 of 16) of relapse patients showed Lys/Lys genotype more frequently (P = 0.042). The Lys polymorphism was an independent predictor of high-risk relapse-free survival from Cox analysis (HR: 3.07, 95% CI: 1.07-8.78, P =0.036) and Kaplan-Meir test (P = 0.027, log-rank test).CONCLUSION: XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism may be an important marker in the prediction of clinical outcome to chemo-radiotherapy in resected gastric cancer patients.

  3. Study of the effects of group counseling on quality of sexuallife of patients with breast cancer under chemotherapy at Imam Khomeini Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heravi Karimovi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Regarding the importance of quality of sexual life in patients with cancer especially breast cancer, and because of controversy on the impact of counseling on QOL promotion in such patients, this study was performed at cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini hospital Tehran, in 2004, to determine the effects of group counseling on QOSL of patients with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 114 women 25-55 years old undergoing chemotherapy due to breast cancer and with the history of mastectomy were studied in two groups: control group (Standard care n=63 and case group (standard care+ counseling n= 51. Five sessions of counseling were performed for case group and QOSL of patients were measured at start and end of the study by standard questionnaire (QLQ-Br 23.Results: Results revealed that group counseling promoted these items: body image, sexual function and sexual enjoyment. QOSL of such patients were improved by means of group counseling (p<0.001.Conclusion: Regarding the results of the study, group counseling program can be recommended as an effective approach in QOSL promotion in such clients.

  4. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR DEVELOPING BREAST CANCER IN BREAST CANCER (BRCA) GENE CARRIER FEMALE IN- THE 30-60 YEARS AGE GROUP: A META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire S, Shrestha N, BK Baral

    2015-01-01

    The literature linking breast cancer with oral contraceptives and BRCA mutation as possible risk factors is equivocal. Hence, to account for these conflicting results in the existing literature and to observe the net effect, this meta-analysis aims to investigate whether oral contraceptives are a risk factor for developing breast cancer in breast cancer (BRCA) gene carrier female in the 30-60 years age group. Method: Systematic review of the literature, both published and unpublished, and met...

  5. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case–control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time 55 years old. PMID:27100427

  6. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  7. Ability of Group IVB metallocene polyethers containing dienestrol to arrest the growth of selected cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monomeric Group IVB (Ti, Zr and Hf) metallocenes represent a new class of antitumor compounds. There is literature on the general biological activities of some organotin compounds. Unfortunately, there is little information with respect to the molecular level activity of these organotin compounds. We recently started focusing on the anti-cancer activity of organotin polymers that we had made for other purposes and as part of our platinum anti-cancer effort. For this study, we synthesized a new series of metallocene-containing compounds coupling the metallocene unit with dienestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen. This is part of our effort to couple known moieties that offer antitumor activity with biologically active units hoping to increase the biological activity of the combination. The materials were confirmed to be polymeric using light scattering photometry and the structural repeat unit was verified employing matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy results. The polymers demonstrated the ability to suppress the growth of a series of tumor cell lines originating from breast, colon, prostrate, and lung cancers at concentrations generally lower than those required for inhibition of cell growth by the commonly used antitumor drug cisplatin. These drugs show great promise in vitro against a number of cancer cell lines and due to their polymeric nature will most likely be less toxic than currently used metal-containing drugs such as cisplatin. These drugs also offer several addition positive aspects. First, the reactants are commercially available so that additional synthetic steps are not needed. Second, synthesis of the polymer is rapid, occurring within about 15 seconds. Third, the interfacial synthetic system is already industrially employed in the synthesis of aromatic nylons and polycarbonates. Thus, the ability to synthesize large amounts of the drugs is straight forward

  8. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  9. Factors which influence quality of life in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A radiation therapy oncology group study (RTOG 89-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prospectively evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients with NSCLC participating in a randomized phase III study conducted by the RTOG and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Determine the factors which influence QOL during and post therapy. Materials and Methods: From (4(90)) to (4(94)) to 75 patients (pts) were randomized on RTOG 89-01 between a regimen containing radiation therapy (RT) versus a regimen containing surgery (S). All pts received induction vinblastine and cisplatin, followed by either S or RT and consolidation chemotherapy (CT). Pts were given the self-assessment QOL forms prior to the start of therapy, post induction CT, post RT or S, and periodically during follow-up. Two questionnaires were used: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for lung cancer patients (FACT-L) and Functional Living Index-Cancer (FLIC). The FACT-L consists of 44 questions covering 6 domains (physical, social, and emotional well-being, relationship with physician, fulfilment, and lung cancer specific concerns), FLIC contains 22 questions summing to one total score. Results: 51 pts participated in the QOL endpoint, 24 were excluded: 3 pts refused, institution did not administer QOL questionnaires in 9 pts, 3 completed QOL after start of therapy, 1 institution refused to participate, 5 questionnaires were incomplete/unusable, 1 pt could not read English, and 2 were ineligible for treatment. Participation in QOL was not predicted by any pretreatment characteristic. Women had worse pretreatment QOL (p<0.005, by FLIC) and more problems with disease-related symptoms (p<0.005, by FACT) than men. Pts with KPS 90-100 had better pretreatment QOL than pts with KPS 60-80 (p<0.025, FLIC). Neither race, marital status, education level, age, prior weight loss, nor disease symptoms statistically significantly influenced pretreatment QOL. Initial QOL did not predict overall survival. FACT-L was reported on 25 pts post induction CT. Follow-up FACT-L was available on 12 pts

  10. Cooperative rescue and predator fatality involving a group-living strepsirrhine, Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli), and a Madagascar ground boa (Acrantophis madagascariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charlie J; Radolalaina, Patrick; Rajerison, Mahandry; Greene, Harry W

    2015-04-01

    The interactions between primates and their snake predators are of interest because snakes have influenced the evolution of primate visual systems and predation has driven the evolution of primate behaviour, including group living. However, there are few accounts of primate-snake interactions in the wild. We report an incident from Northwest Madagascar in which a large female Madagascar ground boa (Acrantophis madagascariensis) captured an adult female Coquerel's sifaka (Propithecus coquereli); upon capture, the prey's group members proceeded to bite and scratch the snake until it released the prey, which survived. However, a broken mandible suffered by the boa during the incident led to its death by starvation 2 months later. Our observations demonstrate that, in addition to improved predator detection and deterrence (i.e., mobbing), active defence against some predators may provide an additional benefit to group living in Coquerel's sifaka, and suggest that predation on group-living primates may be more costly for predators than attacking a solitary species of similar body size. PMID:25737055

  11. Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Multi-Institutional Prospective Study of Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia Among Eight Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: A multi-institutional prospective single-arm study was conducted among eight Asian countries. Between 1999 and 2002, 120 patients (64 with Stage IIB and 56 with Stage IIIB) with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated with accelerated hyperfractionated RT. External beam RT consisted of 30 Gy to the whole pelvis, 1.5 Gy/fraction twice daily, followed by 20 Gy of pelvic RT with central shielding at a dose of 2-Gy fractions daily. A small bowel displacement device was used with the patient in the prone position. In addition to central shielding RT, intracavitary brachytherapy was started. Acute and late morbidities were graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Results: The median overall treatment time was 35 days. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 4.7 years. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate for all patients was 84% and 70%, respectively. The 5-year pelvic control and overall survival rate was 78% and 69% for tumors ≥6 cm in diameter, respectively. No treatment-related death occurred. Grade 3-4 late toxicities of the small intestine, large intestine, and bladder were observed in 1, 1, and 2 patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial rate of Grade 3-4 late toxicity at any site was 5%. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that accelerated hyperfractionated RT achieved sufficient pelvic control and survival without increasing severe toxicity. This treatment could be feasible in those Asian countries where chemoradiotherapy is not available

  12. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean liver cancer study group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines compared with other guidelines and remaining issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Won [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed 'washout' in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  13. Analysis of toxicity in a group of patients treated for pancreatic cancer with combined modality 3D radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the acute toxicity of a group of 37 pancreatic cancer patients treated with noncoplanar, nonopposed, conformal radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy (5-FU). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a group of initially nonadvanced 37 pancreatic cancer patients treated with combined concurrent chemotherapy and 3D radiation therapy treated between 1992 until 1995. During this period we began treating the initially unresectable patients with preoperative chemo-RT (50.4 Gy) after treating an initial group of unresectable patients to a higher dose of 66.6 Gy. We also include a group of patients who received postop chemo-RT after Whipple resection (59.4 Gy). All radiation was delivered at a 1.8 Gy per fraction dose rate. The total group was made up of 37 patients of whom 21 were male (57%) and 16 female (43%). There were 22 (59%) head of pancreas lesions, 10 (27%) body of pancreas lesions, and 5 (14%) head and body of pancreas cancers. Of these 37 patients 7 (19%) were treated with chemo-RT as their only treatment, 10 patients (29%) were treated post Whipple resection, and 20 patients (54%) were treated with preoperative intent. Results: Three patients (8%) required a treatment break, one with a body and 2 with head lesions. Two of these patients stopped RT short of planned dose (32.56 and 46.8 Gy) both suffering from nausea, vomiting, and anorexia with the third, who finished a planned 66.6 Gy dose, after a 4 day rest for leukopenia. One of 20 patients (5%) preop patients underwent the planned post chemo-RT Whipple resection, while 4 of the 20 patients (20%), remained unresectable, but without disease progression and had Iodine 125 interstitial implants at exploration delivering a minimal tumor dose of 120 Gy on top or the 50.4 Gy delivered preoperatively. Four patients (11%) maintained a minimal Karnofsky score of 100, 23 patients (62%) maintained a minimal KPS of 90, 6 patients (16%) maintained a minimal KPS of 80, and 4

  14. 13,14-Dihydroxy groups are critical for the anti-cancer effects of garcinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao-Ming; Zhou, Xin-Ying; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Xin

    2015-06-01

    In the presence of K2CO3/Cs2CO3 (molar ratio 10:1), garcinol was subjected to methylation by reaction with iodomethane at room temperature to afford 13,14-dimethoxy garcinol. The methylated garcinol derivative was screened against oral cancer cell line SCC15 for cell proliferation and apoptosis. 13,14-Dimethoxy garcinol showed weaker inhibitory activity on SCC15 cell growth than garcinol, and had little effect on cell cycle and apoptosis of SCC15, whereas garcinol effectively induced cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Meanwhile, the ELISA data showed that the inhibitory effect of garcinol on 5-Lox pathway was more potent than 13,14-dimethoxy garcinol (Pgarcinol. PMID:26000492

  15. 借助小组合作学习模式构建高效初中数学课堂%With Group Cooperative Learning Model to Build Efficient Junior Middle School Mathematics Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦刚友

    2014-01-01

    The new junior middle school mathematics curriculum standards states:“effective mathematics learning activities can not simply rely on imitation and memory, hands-on, self-exploration and cooperation exchange is an important way of learning mathematics.”Visible, group cooperative learning model is the new curriculum reform since one of the three learning modes. So, in teaching, teachers should conscientiously implement the model, we must continue to inject new vitality into the classroom in order to ensure the smooth realization of efficient mathematics classroom.%《义务教育数学课程标准》指出:“有效的数学学习活动不能单纯地依赖模仿与记忆,动手实践、自主探索与合作交流是学生学习数学的重要方式。”可见,小组合作学习模式是新课程改革以来三大学习模式之一。所以,在教学中,教师要认真贯彻落实该模式,要不断给课堂注入新的活力,以确保高效数学课堂的顺利实现。

  16. High School Information Technology Group Cooperative Learning Problems and Solutions%高中信息技术小组合作学习常见问题及解决策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石小琴

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is the exploration of classroom teaching mode of information technology, it will help realize the unity of information technology learning cognition, emotion and skill target. But the process of group cooperative learning in the implementation of information technology curriculum in senior high school, it also has some problems inevitably, I after continu-ous exploration and try to find some methods to solve. Of course, this model could meet the new problems in the future applica-tion, but as long as we continue to explore, to maximize its advantages.%小组合作学习是对信息技术课堂教学模式的探索,它更有利于实现信息技术学习的认知、情感和技能目标的统一。但小组合作学习模式在高中信息技术课程实施的过程中,也不可避免地出现了一些问题,我经过不断地摸索和尝试找到了一些解决的方法。当然这种模式在今后的应用中可能还会遇到新的问题,但只要我们不断探索,一定能够最大程度的发挥它的优点。

  17. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.;

    2009-01-01

    treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer......Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease- and...

  18. Preoperative chemoradiation for advanced vulvar cancer: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of using preoperative chemoradiotherapy to avert the need for more radical surgery for patients with T3 primary tumors, or the need for pelvic exenteration for patients with T4 primary tumors, not amenable to resection by standard radical vulvectomy. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three evaluable patients with clinical Stage III-IV squamous cell vulvar carcinoma were enrolled in this prospective, multi-institutional trial. Treatment consisted of a planned split course of concurrent cisplatin/5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy followed by surgical excision of the residual primary tumor plus bilateral inguinal-femoral lymph node dissection. Radiation therapy was delivered to the primary tumor volume via anterior-posterior-posterior-anterior (AP-PA) fields in 170-cGy fractions to a dose of 4760 cGy. Patients with inoperable groin nodes received chemoradiation to the primary vulvar tumor, inguinal-femoral and lower pelvic lymph nodes. Results: Seven patients did not undergo a post-treatment surgical procedure: deteriorating medical condition (2 patients); other medical condition (1 patient); unresectable residual tumor (2 patients); patient refusal (2 patients). Following chemoradiotherapy, 33/71 (46.5%) patients had no visible vulvar cancer at the time of planned surgery and 38/71 (53.5%) had gross residual cancer at the time of operation. Five of the latter 38 patients had positive resection margins and underwent: further radiation therapy to the vulva (3 patients); wide local excision and vaginectomy necessitating colostomy (1 patient); no further therapy (1 patient). Using this strategy of preoperative, split-course, twice-daily radiation combined with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy, only 2/71 (2.8%) had residual unresectable disease. In only three patients was it not possible to preserve urinary and/or gastrointestinal continence. Toxicity was acceptable, with acute cutaneous reactions to chemoradiotherapy and

  19. Farmers' reactions to the internationalisation of cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ollila, Petri; Nilsson, Jerker; Hess, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which farmer cooperatives enjoy social capital within their memberships as they become internationalised. The empirical basis was a survey of farmers in Finland. Findings from limited dependent variable regression models suggest that the farmers who are most loyal to their cooperatives tend to oppose its foreign investments. Another group of farmers tended to switch membership status between different cooperatives, and a third group tended to opt out of coope...

  20. IAEA advisory group meeting on nuclear and atomic data for radiotherapy and related radiobiology in co-operation with the Radiobiological Institute of the Division for Health Research TNO, 16-20 September 1985, Rijswijk, the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on ''Nuclear and Atomic Data for Radiotherapy and Related Radiobiology'' was held at Rijswijk, the Netherlands, from 16 to 20 September 1985, in co-operation with the Radiobiological Institute TNO. The meeting participants reviewed the current and future requirements on nuclear and atomic data for radiotherapy and radiobiology, identified data requirements and their priorities, and issued a number of specific recommendations for future technical work in nuclear and atomic data required to establish a more solid nuclear physics foundation of radiotherapy and related radiobiology. The recommendations in this report are directed to three areas, namely beam production and field description, dosimetry, and interpretation and optimization of biological effects. The final proceedings will be issued as an IAEA publication in 1986. (author)

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in locally advanced prostate cancer: secondary analysis of radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) 8610

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiogenesis is a key element in solid-tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. VEGF is among the most potent angiogenic factor thus far detected. The aim of the present study is to explore the potential of VEGF (also known as VEGF-A) as a prognostic and predictive biomarker among men with locally advanced prostate cancer. The analysis was performed using patients enrolled on RTOG 8610, a phase III randomized control trial of radiation therapy alone (Arm 1) versus short-term neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation and radiation therapy (Arm 2) in men with locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Tissue samples were obtained from the RTOG tissue repository. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed, and paraffin blocks were immunohistochemically stained for VEGF expression and graded by Intensity score (0–3). Cox or Fine and Gray’s proportional hazards models were used. Sufficient pathologic material was available from 103 (23%) of the 456 analyzable patients enrolled in the RTOG 8610 study. There were no statistically significant differences in the pre-treatment characteristics between the patient groups with and without VEGF intensity data. Median follow-up for all surviving patients with VEGF intensity data is 12.2 years. Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between the intensity of VEGF expression and overall survival, distant metastasis, local progression, disease-free survival, or biochemical failure. VEGF expression was also not statistically significantly associated with any of the endpoints when analyzed by treatment arm. This study revealed no statistically significant prognostic or predictive value of VEGF expression for locally advanced prostate cancer. This analysis is among one of the largest sample bases with long-term follow-up in a well-characterized patient population. There is an urgent need to establish multidisciplinary initiatives for coordinating further research in the area of

  2. Syntheses, characterization, and anti-cancer activities of pyridine-amide based compounds containing appended phenol or catechol groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Deepak Bansal; Nagendra K Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Neha Kaushik; Eun Ha Choi; Rajeev Gupta

    2014-07-01

    Several pyridine-amide compounds appended with phenol/catechol groups are synthesized. These compounds consist of protected or deprotected phenol/catechol groups and offer pyridine, amide, and phenol/catechol functional groups. All compounds have been well-characterized by various spectroscopic methods, elemental analysis, thermal studies, and crystallography. The biological activities of all compounds were investigated while a few compounds significantly decreased the metabolic viability, growth and clonogenicity of T98G cells in dose dependent manner. Accumulation of ROS was observed in T98G cells, which displayed a compromised redox status as evident from increased cellular Caspase 3/7 activity and formation of micronuclei. The in silico pharmacokinetic studies suggest that all compounds have good bioavailability, water solubility and other drug-like parameters. A few compounds were identified as the lead molecules for future investigation due to their: (a) high activity against T98G brain, H-460 lung, and SNU-80 thyroid cancer cells; (b) low cytotoxicity in non-malignant HEK and MRC-5 cells; (c) low toxic risks based on in silico evaluation; (d) good theoretical oral bioavailability according to Lipinski ‘rule of five’ pharmacokinetic parameters; and (e) better drug-likeness and drug-score values.

  3. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  4. Cancer predictive value of cytogenetic markers used in occupational health surveillance programs: a report from an ongoing study by the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Bonassi, S; Strömberg, U; Mikoczy, Z; Lando, C; Hansteen, I L; Montagud, A H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, H; Reuterwall, C; Tinnerberg, H; Brogger, A; Forni, A; Högstedt, B; Lambert, B; Mitelman, F; Nordenson, I; Salomaa, S; Skerfving, S

    1998-01-01

    as biomarkers for genotoxic effects which will result in an enhanced cancer risk. In order to assess this problem, Nordic and Italian cohorts were established, and preliminary results from these two studies indicated a predictive value of CA frequency for cancer risk, whereas no such associations...... were observed for SCE or MN. A collaborative study between the Nordic and Italian research groups, will enable a more thorough evaluation of the cancer predictivity of the cytogenetic endpoints. We here report on the establishment of a joint data base comprising 5271 subjects, examined 1965-1988 for at...... least one cytogenetic biomarker. Totally, 3540 subjects had been examined for CA, 2702 for SCE and 1496 for MN. These cohorts have been followed-up with respect to subsequent cancer mortality or cancer incidence, and the expected values have been calculated from rates derived from the general...

  5. A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Alliance, Group Cohesion, Empathy, and Goal Consensus/Collaboration in Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Cancer: Uncommon Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of four empirically supported therapeutic relationship factors (therapeutic alliance, empathy, goal consensus/collaboration, and group cohesion) on the outcome of psychotherapeutic interventions conducted with individuals living with cancer were systematically reviewed. PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched from their inception through November 13, 2008. Studies of psychotherapeutic interventions targeted to individuals living with cancer, which also empirically assessed the ...

  6. Comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival in young American women aged 18–39 years in different ethnic groups with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, P.; Li, X; E.A. Mittendorf; Li, J.; Du, X L; He, J.; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K. K.; Yi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates...

  7. Protocol and recruitment results from a randomized controlled trial comparing group phone-based versus newsletter interventions for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befort, Christie A; Klemp, Jennifer R; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G; Sullivan, Debra K; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Diaz, Francisco J; Shireman, Theresa

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than individual phone counseling, and provides group support which may be ideal for rural breast cancer survivors who are more likely to have unmet support needs. Women (n=210) diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer in the past 10 years who are ≥ 3 months out from initial cancer treatments, have a BMI 27-45 kg/m(2), and have physician clearance were enrolled from multiple cancer centers. During Phase I (months 0 to 6), all women receive a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered through group phone sessions. Women who successfully lose 5% of weight enter Phase II (months 6 to 18) and are randomized to one of two extended care arms: continued group phone-based treatment or a mail-based newsletter. During Phase III, no contact is made (months 18 to 24). The primary outcome is weight loss maintenance from 6 to 18 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, serum biomarkers, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide essential information on how to reach rural survivors in future efforts to establish weight loss support for breast cancer survivors as a standard of care. PMID:24486636

  8. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. Methods One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members’ evaluations of the discussions. Results Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others’ experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Conclusions Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a

  9. Assessing lung cancer incidence disparities between Puerto Ricans and other racial/ethnic groups in the United States, 1992–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Calo, William A.; Suárez, Erick; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Quintana, Rafael A.; Ana P. Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the incidence of lung cancer among Puerto Ricans (PRs) with that of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in the United States. We computed age-standardized rates of lung cancer during 1992–2010 and percentages of change over time. Standardized rate ratios (SRR) were estimated to assess racial/ethnic and gender differences. All men groups showed a significant decline in lung cancer over time but PRs observed the smallest change (−1.2%). For both men and women, PRs had lower incide...

  10. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  11. Technical guidelines for head and neck cancer IMRT on behalf of the Italian association of radiation oncology - head and neck working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) requires robust training and experience. Thus, in 2011, the Head and Neck Cancer Working Group (HNCWG) of the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) organized a study group with the aim to run a literature review to outline clinical practice recommendations, to suggest technical solutions and to advise target volumes and doses selection for head and neck cancer IMRT. The main purpose was therefore to standardize the technical approach of radiation oncologists in this context. The following paper describes the results of this working group. Volumes, techniques/strategies and dosage were summarized for each head-and-neck site and subsite according to international guidelines or after reaching a consensus in case of weak literature evidence

  12. Impact of High-Dose Chemotherapy on the Ability to Deliver Subsequent Local-Regional Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 9082

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report, from Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 9082, the impact of high-dose cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and BCNU (HD-CPB) vs. intermediate-dose CPB (ID-CPB) on the ability to start and complete the planned course of local-regional radiotherapy (RT) for women with breast cancer involving ≥10 axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 1998, 785 patients were randomized. The HD-CPB and ID-CPB arms were balanced regarding patient characteristics. The HD-CPB and ID-CPB arms were compared on the probability of RT initiation, interruption, modification, or incompleteness. The impact of clinical variables and interactions between variables were also assessed. Results: Radiotherapy was initiated in 82% (325 of 394) of HD-CPB vs. 92% (360 of 391) of ID-CPB patients (p = 0.001). On multivariate analyses, RT was less likely given to patients who were randomized to HD treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 0 .38, p < 0.001), older (p = 0.005), African American (p = 0.003), postmastectomy (p = 0.02), or estrogen receptor positive (p = 0.03). High-dose treatment had a higher rate of RT interruption (21% vs. 12%, p = 0.001, OR = 2.05), modification (29% vs. 14%, p = 0.001, OR = 2.46), and early termination of RT (9% vs. 2%, p = 0.0001, OR = 5.35), compared with ID. Conclusion: Treatment arm significantly related to initiation, interruption, modification, and early termination of RT. Patients randomized to HD-CPB were less likely to initiate RT, and of those who did, they were more likely to have RT interrupted, modified, and terminated earlier than those randomized to ID-CPB. The observed lower incidence of RT usage in African Americans vs. non-African Americans warrants further study.

  13. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  14. Development of cooperative learning process scale (CLPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Bay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of social constructivist learning environment is that learners are in co-operation. Effectiveness of cooperative learning process also depends on implementing the requirements of cooperative learning by the learners. The key components of cooperative learning are those positive dependence, personal responsibility, face-to-face supportive interaction, group process, interpersonal social skills. The purpose of this study has taken place to determine the psychometric properties of the measurement tool that was developed to examine effectiveness of cooperative learning process. The study was carried out on 177 students at the Gaziantep University, Faculty of Education. Learning environment was instructed under the social constructivist approach and the students have done their assigned tasks in cooperation with. 48-item test was applied to students. Factor analysis was implemented to the obtained data. Results of the study indicated that measurement tool should be used to measure process of cooperative learning.

  15. Effectiveness of Group Psycho-education on Well-being and Depression Among Breast Cancer Survivors of Melaka, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Shanker Ram; Rajagopal Narayanasamy; Ankur Barua

    2013-01-01

    Background: The psychological stress after diagnosis of breast cancer is often severe. Most of the women with breast cancer and their families suffer from emotional, social, financial and psychological disturbances. Materials and Methods: A cluster non-randomized trial was conducted at a Cancer Society in Melaka, Malaysia to assess the effectiveness of psycho-education on well-being status and depression among breast cancer patients. The study period was for one month (11 th June 2011 and ...

  16. Downregulation of high mobility group box 1 modulates telomere homeostasis and increases the radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shaobo; Zhou, Fuxiang; Yang, Hui; Wei, Yuehua; Gong, Jun; Mei, Zijie; Wu, Lin; Yu, Haijun; Zhou, Yunfeng

    2015-03-01

    The functions of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in tumor cells include replenishing telomeric DNA and maintaining cell immortality. There is a negative correlation between human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Our aim was to elucidate the relationship among HMGB1, telomere homeostasis and radiosensitivity in MCF-7 cells. In this study, we established stably transfected control (MCF-7-NC) and HMGB1 knockdown (MCF-7-shHMGB1) cell lines. The expression of HMGB1 mRNA and the relative telomere length were examined by real-time PCR. Radiosensitivity was detected by clonogenic assay. The protein expressions were determined by western blot analysis. The telomerase activity was detected by PCR-ELISA. Proliferation ability was examined by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry. DNA damage foci were detected by immunofluorescence. ShRNA-mediated downregulation of HMGB1 expression increased the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells, and reduced the accumulation of hTERT and cyclin D1. Moreover, knockdown of HMGB1 in MCF-7 cells inhibited telomerase activity and cell proliferation, while increasing the extent of apoptosis. Downregulation of HMGB1 modulated telomere homeostasis by changing the level of telomere-binding proteins, such as TPP1 (PTOP), TRF1 and TRF2. This downregulation also inhibited the ATM and ATR signaling pathways. The current data demonstrate that knockdown of HMGB1 breaks telomere homeostasis, enhances radiosensitivity, and suppresses the repair of DNA damage in human breast cancer cells. These results suggested that HMGB1 might be a potential radiotherapy target in human breast cancer. PMID:25501936

  17. Family history of cancer and risk of pediatric and adolescent Hodgkin lymphoma: A Children's Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linabery, Amy M; Erhardt, Erik B; Richardson, Michaela R; Ambinder, Richard F; Friedman, Debra L; Glaser, Sally L; Monnereau, Alain; Spector, Logan G; Ross, Julie A; Grufferman, Seymour

    2015-11-01

    Family history of lymphoid neoplasm (LN) is a strong and consistently observed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk factor, although it has been only marginally examined in pediatric/adolescent patients. Here, healthy control children identified by random digit dialing were matched on sex, race/ethnicity and age to HL cases diagnosed at 0-14 years at Children's Oncology Group institutions in 1989-2003. Detailed histories were captured by structured telephone interviews with parents of 517 cases and 783 controls. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) RNA detection was performed for 355 available case tumors. Two analytic strategies were applied to estimate associations between family cancer history and pediatric/adolescent HL. In a standard case-control approach, multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In a reconstructed cohort approach, each relative was included as a separate observation, and multivariate proportional hazards regression was used to produce hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Using the latter, pediatric/adolescent HL was associated with a positive family history (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.36), particularly early-onset cancers (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.59) and those in the paternal lineage (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.16-1.65), with a suggested association for LN in first-degree relatives (HR = 3.61, 95% CI: 0.87-15.01). There were no discernable patterns for EBV+ versus EBV- HL. The clustering of LN within pedigrees may signal shared genetic susceptibility or common environmental exposures. Heritable genetic risk variants have only recently begun to be discovered, however. These results are consistent with other studies and provide a compelling rationale for family-based studies to garner information about genetic susceptibility to HL. PMID:25940226

  18. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, Philippe, E-mail: radiologie@skynet.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Silva, Celso, E-mail: caras@uma.pt [Human Anatomy of Medical Course, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Gryspeerdt, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan@sgryspeerdt.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Rodrigues, António, E-mail: nucleo@nid.pt [Nucleo Imagem Diagnostica, Rua 5 De Outubro, 9000-216 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Rita, E-mail: rita@uma.pt [Department of Engineering and Mathematics, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Teixeira, Ricardo, E-mail: j.teixeira1947@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Central Hospital of Funchal, Avenida Luís de Camões, 9004513 Funchal (Portugal); Gouveia, Francisco Henriques de, E-mail: fhgouveia@netmadeira.com [LANA, Pathology Centre, Rua João Gago, 10, 9000-071 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer.

  19. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer

  20. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.