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Sample records for cancer cooperative group

  1. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...

  2. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  3. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  4. Paclitaxel for malignant pleural mesothelioma : A phase II study of the EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanMeerbeeck, J; Debruyne, C; vanZandwijk, N; Postmus, PE; Pennucci, MC; vanBreukelen, F; Galdermans, D; Groen, H; Pinson, P; vanGlabbeke, M; vanMarck, E; Giaccone, G

    The EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group undertook a phase II study of paclitaxel in 25 chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Paclitaxel was given intravenously at a dose of 200 mg m(-2), as a 3 h infusion every 3 weeks, after standard premedication with corticosteroids and

  5. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen is an established growth factor in breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that pregnancy associated estrogens may increase the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. In 1997 we published a population-based Danish study indicating no negative prognostic effect of pregnancy...... after breast cancer treatment. The present study is a ten-year update. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group has since 1977 collected population-based data on tumour characteristics, treatment regimes, and follow-up status on Danish women with breast cancer. Pregnancy history...... was added from the Danish Civil Registration System, the National Birth Registry, and the National Induced Abortion registry. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk ratio of dying among women with a pregnancy after breast cancer treatment compared with women without such experience. RESULTS: In all...

  7. Classical pathological variables recorded in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register 1978-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Henrik W; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Nielsen, Bernt B

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register containing data from about 75 000 patients undergoing surgery for primary invasive breast cancer from 1978-2006 has been examined for classical pathological variables. During that period the diagnostic approach of malignant breast tumours...... >50mm from 7 to 4%. The distribution of the histological subtypes of malignant breast tumours has been almost unchanged. We found however a significant increase in the number of high grade tumours. A large increase in the number of removed axillary lymph nodes from 1989-2001 is related to improved...... surgical procedure. The subsequent decline from 2002-2006 is the result of the introduction of the sentinel node technique. In the five-year period 2002-2006 following the introduction of sentinel node technique, the frequency of patients having at least one lymph node metastases (48.7%) was higher than...

  8. Forty years of landmark trials undertaken by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) nationwide or in international collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlertsen, Bent; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Overgaard, Jens

    2018-01-01

    treatments. These trials have been instrumental to establish standards for the treatment of early breast cancer. Methods: The DBCG 82 trials had a global impact by documenting that the significant gain in loco-regional recurrence from postmastectomy radiation added to systemic therapy was associated......Background: Over the past 40 years the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) has made significant contributions to improve outcome and to make treatment of patients with early breast cancer more tolerable through nationwide and international trials evaluating loco-regional and systemic...... by the DBCG 40 years ago on tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide based chemotherapy became instrumental for the development of adjuvant systemic therapy not only due to their positive results but by sharing these important data with other members of the Early Breast Cancer Trialist’ Collaborative Group (EBCTCG...

  9. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration...... between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers...... treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis...

  10. The clinical database and the treatment guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG); its 30-years experience and future promise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, S.; Jensen, M.B.; Ejlertsen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Since 30 years, DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) has maintained a clinical database allowing the conduct of quality control studies, of randomised trials, examination of the epidemiology of breast cancer and of prognostic and predictive factors. Material and methods....... The original database included patients with invasive breast cancer, but has later been expanded to patients with in situ breast cancer and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Results. The multidisciplinary cooperative group has provided successive treatment guidelines and 70% of the 77284...

  11. Minimal requirements in prostate cancer irradiation: a consensus document by the AIRO Lombardia Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdagni, R; Bertoni, F; Bossi, A; Caraffini, B; Corbella, F; Italia, C; Källi, M; Leoni, M; Nava, S; Sarti, E; Vavassori, V; Villa, S

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of establishing clinical and technical criteria to homogenize radiotherapy practice, a working group of AIRO-Lombardia (Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia Oncologica--Gruppo regionale della Lombardia) has tried to define minimal requirements for radical and postoperative irradiation in prostate cancer. The document has been structured in such a way as to be also of interest to the urological and medical oncology communities. The working group, composed of representatives of most of the regional radiotherapy departments in the Lombardy region, had monthly meetings during 1996 and 1997. The document on minimal requirements has been derived from the participants' combined experience and knowledge, from review of the literature, and from a 1995 regional survey on current practice of prostate irradiation. Minimal requirements for radical and postoperative irradiation of prostate cancer have been defined with respect to treatment strategies, pre-treatment diagnostic evaluation and staging, treatment prescription, preparation and execution, and quality assurance procedures. Standards of reference for minimal requirements in prostate cancer irradiation adapted to the regional structures and resources have been defined.

  12. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blichert-Toft, Mogens; Christiansen, Peer; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2008-01-01

    DBCG (Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group) constitutes a multidisciplinary organization established in 1975 by the Danish Surgical Society. The purpose involves first and foremost a nation-wide standardization of breast cancer treatment based on novel therapeutic principles, collaboration between experts handling diagnostic work-up, surgery, radiotherapy, medical oncology, and basic research, and, further, complete registration of relevant clinical data in a national data base attached to DBCG. Data are processed by the Secretariat personnel composed of statisticians, data managers, and data secretaries making current analyses of outcome results feasible. DBCG is run by the Executive Committee consisting of expert members appointed by their respective society. From 1978 the DBCG project gained widely accession from participating units, and since then nearly all newly diagnosed breast cancer incident cases are reported and registered in the national data base. Today, the data base includes approximately 80 000 incidents of primary breast cancer. Annually, the Secretariat receives roughly 1.5 million parameters to be entered into the data base. Over time DBCG has generated seven treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis or randomized trials in national or international protocolized settings. Yearly, about 4 000 new incident cases of primary invasive breast cancer and about 200 in situ lesions enter the national programmes. Further, about 600 women with hereditary disposition of breast cancer are registered and evaluated on a risk scale. The main achievements resulted in a reduction of relative risk of death amounting up to 20% and increased 5-year overall survival ascending from 60% to roughly 80%. This article

  13. Patient-reported outcomes questionnaire compliance in Cancer Cooperative Group Trials (Alliance N0992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Pamela J; Burger, Kelli N; Pederson, Levi D; Kaggal, Suneetha; Sloan, Jeff A

    2016-12-01

    The use of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials is a focal point for research and policy. Non-compliance with planned questionnaires and missing data can threaten both internal validity and generalizability. This retrospective analysis was conducted to determine the extent of, and characteristics associated with, missing patient-reported outcomes. Study characteristics, patient characteristics and adverse events, and reasons for non-compliance were compiled from 14 closed Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, or Mayo Clinic Cancer Research Consortium clinical trials. Compliance rates were calculated for each patient using the number of booklets completed while the patient was on trial divided by the number of booklets the patient was expected to complete. Frequency counts and summary statistics were compiled. Logistic regression techniques were employed. The 1640 included patients had a median age of 58 years and were mostly White (90.8%) and female (73.8%). Compliance rates per study ranged from 84.7% to 97.2%. The primary endpoint of overall compliance rate was 93.1%. A total of 1267 patients were compliant. Those non-compliant were slightly older (mean = 58.6 vs 57.5, p = 0.03) and had different types of cancers (p compliance according to tumor status (p = 0.66), clinical stage (p = 0.81), baseline quality of life (p = 0.42 for ≥8 vs compliance included patient refusal (N = 136), booklet not administered to patient (N = 199), no clinic visit at the scheduled time for booklet completion (N = 40), and at-home-completed booklet not returned (N = 224). Logistic regression indicates gender (p compliance. Patient-reported outcomes have successfully been implemented into Alliance and Mayo Clinic trials with high rates of patient compliance. Further improvement in compliance can be made with staff commitment and education. Patients are typically non-compliant only when the task at hand is

  14. Patient Reported Outcomes Questionnaire Compliance in Cancer Cooperative Group Trials (Alliance N0992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Pamela J; Burger, Kelli N; Pederson, Levi D; Kaggal, Suneetha; Sloan, Jeff A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The use of Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) in clinical trials is a focal point for research and policy. Non-compliance with planned questionnaires and missing data can threaten both internal validity and generalizability. This retrospective analysis was conducted to determine the extent of, and characteristics associated with, missing PROs. Methods Study characteristics, patient characteristics and adverse events, and reasons for non-compliance were compiled from 14 closed Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, or Mayo Clinic Cancer Research Consortium clinical trials. Compliance rates were calculated for each patient using the number of booklets completed while the patient was on trial divided by the number of booklets the patient was expected to complete. Frequency counts and summary statistics were compiled. Logistic regression techniques were employed. Results The 1640 included patients had a median age of 58 years, were mostly white (90.8%) and female (73.8%). Compliance rates per study ranged from 84.7% to 97.2%. The primary endpoint of overall compliance rate was 93.1%. A total of 1267 patients were compliant. Those non-compliant were slightly older (mean 58.6 vs 57.5, p=0.03) and had different types of cancer (pcompliance according to tumor status (p=0.66), clinical stage (p=0.81), baseline quality of life (p=0.42 for ≥8 vs compliance included patient refusal (N=136), booklet not administered to patient (N=199), no clinic visit at the scheduled time for booklet completion (N=40), and at-home completed booklet not returned (N=224). Logistic regression indicates gender (pcompliance. Conclusions PROs have successfully been implemented into Alliance and Mayo Clinic trials with high rates of patient compliance. Further improvement in compliance can be made with staff commitment and education. Patients are typically noncompliant only when the task at hand is burdensome, unclear or logistically challenging. Existing

  15. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... patients were treated and followed according to guidelines of DBCG. In addition to surgery 23% received tamoxifen, 23% chemotherapy and 35% radiotherapy as treatment for primary breast cancer. Second primary cancers were identified by linkage to the population based Danish Cancer Register. Cancer incidence...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  16. Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2, and response to postmastectomy radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyndi, M.; Sorensen, F.B.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    -2+, Rec-/HER-2- (triple negative), and Rec-/HER-2+. Results A significantly improved overall survival after PMRT was seen only among patients characterized by good prognostic markers such as hormonal receptor-positive and HER-2- patients (including the two Rec+ subtypes). No significant overall......Purpose To examine the importance of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), and constructed subtypes in a large study randomly assigning patients to receive or not receive postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT). Patients and Methods...... The present analysis included 1,000 of the 3,083 high-risk breast cancer patients randomly assigned to PMRT in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) protocol 82 trials b and c. Tissue microarray sections were stained for ER, PgR, and HER-2. Median follow-up time for patients alive was 17 years...

  17. [Efficacy and safety of TS-1 monotherapy for advanced/metastatic breast cancer - an observational study by the Kumamoto Breast Cancer Cooperative Group(KBCCG)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yutaka; Nishimura, Reiki; Tanigawa, Tomio; Kawano, Ichiro; Hayashi, Kyoji; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Yamamoto-Ibusuki, Mutsuko; Iwase, Hirotaka

    2014-10-01

    TS-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine, is known to be effective for the treatment of various carcinomas including advanced/metastatic breast cancer.The Kumamoto Breast Cancer Cooperative Group(KBCCG)conducted an observational study, wherein, the efficacy and safety of TS-1 monotherapy was analyzed in 35 patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer.The median time to cancer progression was 3.7 months, overall response rate was 12%, and clinical benefit rate was 32%. Adverse events were observed in 27 patients(77%), and adverse events of Grade >3 were observed in 7 patients(20%). The rate of treatment-related Grade 3 and 4 adverse events increased, and was associated with poor levels of creatinine clearance(Ccr)ie TS-1 monotherapy can potentially be used as a salvage treatment for advanced/metastatic breast cancer owing to its safety and efficacy.Measuring the level of Ccr before TS-1 therapy should be considered to avoid severe adverse events.

  18. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic......, Gunnarsdottir KA, Rasmussen BB, Moeller S, Lanng C. The prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. Breast 2004;13:188-193]....

  19. Between-group competition and human cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikael Puurtinen; Tapio Mappes

    2009-01-01

    .... Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  20. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  1. Between-group competition and human cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolv...

  2. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  3. Sequential Assessments of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Scale Enhance Prognostic Value in Patients With Terminally Ill Cancer Receiving Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Meng-Ting; Liu, Chien-Ting; Hung, Yu-Shin; Kao, Chen-Yi; Chang, Pei-Hung; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Yung-Chang; Chou, Wen-Chi

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the utility of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance scale assessments on days 1 and 8 of palliative care, as well as scale change between these assessments, as prognostic tools for patients with terminally ill cancer. A total of 2392 patients with terminally ill cancer who received palliative care between January 2006 and December 2011 at a single medical center were analyzed. Our study showed that the ECOG scale is a useful prognostic tool to predict life expectancy in patients with terminally ill cancer. The ECOG scale assessments at different time points under palliative care were independent predictors for overall survival. The combined ECOG scale assessments on days 1 and 8 predicted survival more precisely than using day 1 ECOG scale assessment alone. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... receptor (ER) and Progesteron receptor (PR) status. Also mastectomy specimens were included. In 2004 the previous malignancy grading was replaced by the Van Nuys classification, and information on microcalcifications was introduced. The axillary status now included the sentinel node technique only. In 2006...

  5. Structuring Cooperative Group Work in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2003-01-01

    Cooperative, small-group learning is widely recognised as a pedagogical practice that promotes learning and socialisation across a range of curriculum areas from primary school through to high school and college. When children work cooperatively together, they learn to give and receive help, share their ideas and listen to other students'…

  6. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  7. Study of failure pattern among high-risk breast cancer patients with or without postmastectomy radiotherapy in addition to adjuvant systemic therapy: long-term results from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group DBCG 82 b and c randomized studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard; Overgaard, Marie; Grau, Cai

    2006-01-01

    treatment with or without RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A long-term follow-up was performed among the 3,083 patients from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82 b and c trials, except in those already recorded with distant metastases (DM) or contralateral breast cancer (CBC). The end points were LRR, DM......, and CBC, and the follow-up continued until DM, CBC, emigration, or death. Information was selected from medical records, general practitioners, and the National Causes of Death Registry. The median potential follow-up time was 18 years. RESULTS: The 18-year probability of any first breast cancer event...

  8. Working with Cooperative Small Groups. Classroom Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diversified small groups in the classroom provide a good opportunity for students to share information and ideas with each other. The research on cooperative small groups points out the benefits of these interactions and describes the process as a powerful forum for developing students' critical thinking and higher-order skills: (1) Cooperative…

  9. The clinical database and implementation of treatment guidelines by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group in 2007-2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maj-Britt; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Offersen, Birgitte V

    2018-01-01

    guidelines for the management of early breast cancer. By use of the clinical DBCG database we analyze the effectiveness of the implementation of guideline revisions in Denmark. METHODS: From the DBCG guidelines we extracted modifications introduced in 2007-2016 and selected examples regarding surgery......, radiotherapy (RT) and systemic treatment. We assessed introduction of modifications from release on the DBCG webpage to change in clinical practice using the DBCG clinical database. RESULTS: Over a 10-year period data from 48,772 patients newly diagnosed with malignant breast tumors were entered into DBCG......'s clinical database and 42,197 of these patients were diagnosed with an invasive carcinoma following breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy. More than twenty modifications were introduced in the guidelines. Implementations, based on prospectively collected data, varied widely; exemplified with around...

  10. Funding oncology clinical trials: are cooperative group trials sustainable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Hsien-Yeang; Whelan, Patrick; Levine, Mark N; Cowan, Kathryn; Lysakowski, Barbara; Kowaleski, Brenda; Snider, Anne; Xu, Rebecca Y; Arnold, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Many oncology clinical trials departments (CTDs) are in serious fiscal deficit and their sustainability is in jeopardy. This study investigates whether the payment models used to fund industry versus cooperative group trials contribute to the fiscal deficit of a CTD. We examined the lifetime costs of all cooperative group and industry trials activated in the CTD of a cancer center between 2007 and 2011. A trial's lifetime is defined as being from the date the first patient was accrued until the last patient's actual or projected final follow-up visit. For each trial, we calculated the lifetime monthly net income, which was defined as monthly revenue minus monthly costs. Data sources included study protocols, trial budgets, and accrual data. Of the 97 trials analyzed, 64 (66%) were cooperative group trials. The pattern of lifetime net income for cooperative group trials has a positive peak during patient accrual followed by a negative trough during follow-up. In contrast, the pattern for industry trials resembled an "l" shape. The patterns reflect the differing payment models: upfront lump-sum payments (cooperative group) versus milestone payments (industry). The negative trough in the lifetime net income of a cooperative group trial occurs because follow-up costs are typically not funded or are underfunded. CTDs accrue more patients in new trials to offset that deficit. The CTD uses revenue from accrual to existing trials to cross-subsidize past trials in follow-up. As the number of patients on follow-up increases, the fiscal deficit grows larger each year, perpetuating the cycle.

  11. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Krasnow

    Full Text Available Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation

  12. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent’s fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  13. The symptom burden of cancer: Evidence for a core set of cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleeland, Charles S; Zhao, Fengmin; Chang, Victor T; Sloan, Jeff A; O'Mara, Ann M; Gilman, Paul B; Weiss, Matthias; Mendoza, Tito R; Lee, Ju-Whei; Fisch, Michael J

    2013-12-15

    A set of common cancer-related and treatment-related symptoms has been proposed for quality of care assessment and clinical research. Using data from a large, multicenter, prospective study, the authors assessed the effects of disease site and stage on the percentages of patients rating these proposed symptoms as moderate to severe. The severity of 13 symptoms proposed to represent "core" oncology symptoms was rated by 3106 ambulatory patients with cancer of the breast, prostate, colon/rectum, or lung, regardless of disease stage or phase of care; 2801 patients (90%) repeated the assessment 4 to 5 weeks later. At the time of the initial assessment, approximately 33% of the patients reported ≥ 3 symptoms in the moderate-to-severe range; 11 of the 13 symptoms were rated as moderate to severe by at least 10% of all patients and 6 were rated as moderate to severe by at least 20% of those receiving active treatment. Fatigue/tiredness was the most severe symptom, followed by disturbed sleep, pain, dry mouth, and numbness/tingling. More patients with lung cancer and patients receiving active treatment reported moderate to severe symptoms. Percentages of symptomatic patients increased by disease stage, less adequate response to therapy, and declining Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. The percentages of patients reporting moderate to severe symptoms were stable across both assessments. The results of the current study support a core set of moderate to severe symptoms that are common across outpatients with solid tumors, that can guide consideration of progression-free survival as a trial outcome, and that should be considered in clinical care and in assessments of quality of care and treatment benefit. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  14. Randomised study of Casodex 50 MG monotherapy vs orchidectomy in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. The Scandinavian Casodex Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Tveter, K; Varenhorst, E

    1996-01-01

    The effect of Casodex (ICI 176,334), a new, once-daily, selective antiandrogen, given as 50 mg monotherapy, was compared with orchidectomy in a randomised, multicentre, open study in 376 patients with metastatic prostate cancer. At 3 months, PSA was reduced by 86% in the Casodex group and by 96...... in the orchidectomy group. Median survival was significantly longer in the orchidectomy group. Casodex was well-tolerated. The most likely reason for the differences between the groups regarding time to treatment failure and survival is that the dose of Casodex was too small. Further studies with higher doses...

  15. Strategies to Increase Participation in Cooperative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines how focused organization, group roles, and gender grouping impact student participation when working in a cooperative group setting. Fifty-two sixth graders were studied for a period of nine weeks. Results show when students are organized in their cooperative groups, there will be an increase in student participation.…

  16. Group Grade Grubbing versus Cooperative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Alfie

    1991-01-01

    Examines the assumption that interdependence is best achieved by using rewards. An impressive body of social science research has shown that rewards have limited effectiveness and can undermine interest in the task. Cooperative learning programs with appropriately balanced curricula, autonomy, and relationship elements function well without…

  17. Clinical presentation and outcome of non-AIDS defining cancers, in HIV-infected patients in the ART-era: the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and tumors activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, M; Martellotta, F; Di Francia, R; Spina, M; Vaccher, E; Balestreri, L; Borsatti, E; Bearz, A; De Paoli, P; Tirelli, U

    2015-10-01

    The advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly extended the survival rates of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), leading to suppression even though not eradication of HIV. In HIV infected patients, cancer has become a growing problem, representing the first cause of death. A large number of worldwide studies have shown that HIV infection raises the risk of many non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs), including squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA), testis cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the colon and rectum (CRC), skin (basal cell skin carcinoma and melanoma), Hodgkin disease (HD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Generally in HIV positive patients NADCs are more aggressive and in advanced stage disease than in the general population. In the ART era, however, the outcome of HIV positive patients is more similar as in the general population. Only about lung cancer the outcome seems different between HIV positive and HIV negative patients. The aim of this article is to provide an up-date on NADCs within the activity of the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS and Tumors (GICAT) to identify clinical prognostic and predicting factors in patients with HIV infection included in the GICAT.

  18. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elva; Barker, Jessica Livia

    2017-01-01

    and present examples with particular focus on groups in two well-studied but dissimilar taxa: humans and ants. Drivers for the evolution of inter-group cooperation include overarching threats frompredators, competitors or adverse conditions, and group-level resource asymmetries. Resources can differ between......Social interactions are often characterized by cooperation within groups and conflict or competition between groups. In certain circumstances, however, cooperation can arise between social groups. Here, we examine the circumstances under which inter-group cooperation is expected to emerge...... groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one’s own group is essential for social...

  19. Practicing What We Preach: Teacher Reflection Groups on Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.; Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of teacher reflection groups to aid teachers in their efforts to facilitate cooperative learning among their students. It is argued that these teacher reflection groups function best when they are organized with reference to eight cooperative learning principles. Furthermore, it is suggested that these reflective…

  20. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  1. Explaining Cooperation in Groups: Testing Models of Reciprocity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, Guido; Rieskamp, Jorg; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    What are the cognitive processes underlying cooperation in groups? This question is addressed by examining how well a reciprocity model, two learning models, and social value orientation can predict cooperation in two iterated n-person social dilemmas with continuous contributions. In the first of these dilemmas, the public goods game,…

  2. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Papaxoinis

    Full Text Available The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9 and kinase (exon 20 domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer.Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR. PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20 and qPCR (exon 9 (Sanger/qPCR mutations. In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive, molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR negative tumors.PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23% with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24% with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.82. Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel, while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin. The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004. Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified.The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of predominantly lymph-node positive breast cancer

  3. Within-group competition reduces cooperation and payoffs in human groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat; Reeve, H. Kern

    2012-01-01

    Social organisms in many taxa cooperate to produce resources that are shared among group members. Some cooperatively produced resources may be monopolized by individuals who invest in within-group competition, but these have largely been overlooked in empirical and theoretical research on human...... human groups and hence decreases group members' payoffs. Our study thus sheds light on how cooperative production and equal division of shared resources may have evolved, expands on current models of human cooperation to reflect the many natural conditions with opportunities for within-group competition...... cooperation, which has focused on noncontestable public goods. In this study, we allow for the potential of within-group competition over cooperatively produced resources and use a game theoretic “tug-of-war” model and empirical test to show that such competition decreases the degree of cooperation within...

  4. Students' views of cooperative learning and group testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Today's radiologic technology students must learn to collaborate and communicate to function as part of the health care team. Innovative educational techniques such as cooperative learning (working collectively in small groups) and group testing (collaborating on tests) can foster these skills. Assess students' familiarity with and opinions about cooperative learning and group testing before and after participation in a semester-long course incorporating these methods. Twenty-eight students enrolled in a baccalaureate-level radiologic technology program in Louisiana were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester. Results showed that students were more knowledgeable about and more accepting of cooperative learning and group testing after participating in the course. However, some students continued to prefer independent learning. Students are open to new learning methods such as cooperative learning and group testing. These techniques can help them develop the skills they will need to function collaboratively in the workplace.

  5. The influence of review pathology on study outcome of a randomized multicentre superficial bladder cancer trial. Members of the Dutch South East Cooperative Urological Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjes, J A; Kiemeney, L A; Schaafsma, H E; Debruyn, F M

    1994-02-01

    To determine whether differences between local and review pathology in a multicentre study influence the results of treatment and results from prognostic factor analysis. A randomized multicentre study in superficial bladder cancer is reported, in which the influence of local and review pathology on the study outcome was investigated. The conformity between local and review pathology of the pT category was 79.3%, of the grade 70.2%, and the combination of both 59.7%. In local pathology, undergrading was more frequent than overgrading and overstaging more frequent than understaging. However, the risks of recurrent disease in the separate stage and grade groups remained the same after correcting the pathology result. A prognostic factor analysis with regard to the risk of recurrent disease was carried out. The Cox hazard ratios of tumour localization, multiplicity, patient age (significant factors), tumour grade, size, history and gender (not significant) remained almost the same after correction for review pathology. Only the prognostic relevance of tumour stage increased after pathology correction. We conclude that, although review pathology caused considerable changes in the pathology results, this did not change the results of treatment, and hardly altered the results of a prognostic factor analysis in this randomized study.

  6. Remaining a Nonparticipant in a Cooperative Group Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardoff, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A high school history teacher of gifted students examined difficulties in establishing cooperative groups when members changed frequently. Student interviews and surveys indicated that some students were happy to remain nonparticipants in any group. Participation was less a factor of group makeup than a factor of student opinion about grades.…

  7. A theory of leadership in human cooperative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard S; Boone, James L

    2010-08-21

    Two types of models aim to account the origins of rank differentiation and social hierarchy in human societies. Conflict models suggest that the formation of social hierarchies is synonymous with the establishment of relationships of coercive social dominance and exploitation. Voluntary or 'integrative' models, on the other hand, suggest that rank differentiation--the differentiation of leader from follower, ruler from ruled, or state from subject--may sometimes be preferred over more egalitarian social arrangements as a solution to the challenges of life in social groups, such as conflict over resources, coordination failures, and free-riding in cooperative relationships. Little formal theoretical work, however, has established whether and under what conditions individuals would indeed prefer the establishment of more hierarchical relationships over more egalitarian alternatives. This paper provides an evolutionary game theoretical model for the acceptance of leadership in cooperative groups. We propose that the effort of a leader can reduce the likelihood that cooperation fails due to free-riding or coordination errors, and that under some circumstances, individuals would prefer to cooperate in a group under the supervision of a leader who receives a share of the group's productivity than to work in an unsupervised group. We suggest, in particular, that this becomes an optimal solution for individual decision makers when the number of group members required for collective action exceeds the maximum group size at which leaderless cooperation is viable.

  8. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-02-01

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3-10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  9. The Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation: A Story of Success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, C.

    2013-10-01

    The SNGC (Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation) is an alliance founded in 2006 for commercial cooperation between Spanish nuclear companies in order to joint efforts for the commercial promotion in the chinese market. This alliance was originally formed by ENUSA Industrial Avanzadas S. A. (ENUSA). Tecnatom S. A. and Equipos Nucleares, S. A. (ENSA). In 2008 Ringo Valvulas S. L. Joined the alliance, and July 2008 the Nuclear Group for China AIE was incorporated with each of the four companies holding a 25% share. Subsequently, as explained below, the legal name was changed to Spanish Nuclear Group for Cooperation AIE and the trade name of Spanish Nuclear Group/China was maintained as a brand for activities in this country. (Author)

  10. Radiotherapy in breast-conserving treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ: first results of the EORTC randomised phase III trial 10853. EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and EORTC Radiotherapy Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, J P; Bijker, N; Fentiman, I S; Peterse, J L; Delledonne, V; Rouanet, P; Avril, A; Sylvester, R; Mignolet, F; Bartelink, H; Van Dongen, J A

    2000-02-12

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a disorder that has become more common since it may manifest as microcalcifications that can be detected by screening mammography. Since selected women with invasive cancer can be treated safely with breast conservation therapy it is paradoxical that total mastectomy has remained the standard treatment for DCIS. We did a randomised phase III clinical trial to investigate the role of radiotherapy after complete local excision of DCIS. Between 1986 and 1996, women with clinically or mammographically detected DCIS measuring less than or equal to 5 cm were treated by complete local excision of the lesion and then randomly assigned to either no further treatment (n=503) or to radiotherapy (n=507; 50 Gy in 5 weeks to the whole breast). The median duration of follow-up was 4.25 years (maximum 12.0 years). All analyses were by intention to treat. 500 patients were followed up in the no further treatment group and 502 in the radiotherapy group. In the no further treatment group 83 women had local recurrence (44 recurrences of DCIS, and 40 invasive breast cancer). In the radiotherapy group 53 women had local recurrences (29 recurrences of DCIS, and 24 invasive breast cancer). The 4-year local relapse-free was 84% in the group treated with local excision alone compared with 91% in the women treated by local excision plus radiotherapy (log rank p=0.005; hazard ratio 0.62). Similar reductions in the risk of invasive (40%, p=0.04) and non-invasive (35%, p=0.06) local recurrence were seen. Radiotherapy after local excision for DCIS, as compared with local excision alone, reduced the overall number of both invasive and non-invasive recurrences in the ipsilateral breast at a median follow-up of 4.25 years.

  11. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  12. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A.; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce. PMID:25598347

  13. Teaching problem solving through cooperative grouping. Part 2: Designing problems and structuring groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

    1992-07-01

    A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

  14. Communication on a problem solving task in cooperative learning groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Jo; Fawns, Rod

    1992-12-01

    There is some evidence from this study that reflectivity within cooperative learning groups develops over time. Preliminary observations suggest that Slavin's third and fourth levels of skills, those of reflection and reasoning and reconception and reformulation and Kempa and Ayob's higher levels of explanation and insight appear more advanced in groups strategically managed by teachers for such outcomes. Later analyses will permit more detailed accounts of the relationships between the teacher's management strategies, and reflection within groups of different gender composition.

  15. Current Trends in and Indications for Endoscopy-Assisted Breast Surgery for Breast Cancer: Results from a Six-Year Study Conducted by the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chang, Tsai-Wang; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hung, Chin-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS) performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan. Methods The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan. Results A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8%) patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012–2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM) (85.4%) followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM) (14.6%). Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3–68.6) months, there were 3 (1%) cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3%) case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3%) death. Conclusion The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique

  16. Comparison of the Ability of Different Clinical Treatment Scores to Estimate Prognosis in High-Risk Early Breast Cancer Patients: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliarchopoulou, Kyriaki; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Alexopoulou, Zoi; Zagouri, Flora; Veltrup, Elke; Timotheadou, Eleni; Gogas, Helen; Koutras, Angelos; Lazaridis, Georgios; Christodoulou, Christos; Pentheroudakis, George; Laskarakis, Apostolos; Arapantoni-Dadioti, Petroula; Batistatou, Anna; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Kosmidis, Paris; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George

    2016-01-01

    Background-Aim Early breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and, therefore, prognostic tools have been developed to evaluate the risk for distant recurrence. In the present study, we sought to develop a risk for recurrence score (RRS) based on mRNA expression of three proliferation markers in high-risk early breast cancer patients and evaluate its ability to predict risk for relapse and death. In addition the Adjuvant! Online score (AOS) was also determined for each patient, providing a 10-year estimate of relapse and mortality risk. We then evaluated whether RRS or AOS might possibly improve the prognostic information of the clinical treatment score (CTS), a model derived from clinicopathological variables. Methods A total of 1,681 patients, enrolled in two prospective phase III trials, were treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Sufficient RNA was extracted from 875 samples followed by multiplex quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for assessing RACGAP1, TOP2A and Ki67 mRNA expression. The CTS, slightly modified to fit our cohort, integrated the prognostic information from age, nodal status, tumor size, histological grade and treatment. Patients were also classified to breast cancer subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry. Likelihood ratio (LR) tests and concordance indices were used to estimate the relative increase in the amount of information provided when either RRS or AOS is added to CTS. Results The optimal RRS, in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS), was based on the co-expression of two of the three evaluated genes (RACGAP1 and TOP2A). CTS was prognostic for DFS (p3 positive nodes (LR-Δχ2 23.9, p3 positive nodes. PMID:27695115

  17. Science Integrating Learning Objectives: A Cooperative Learning Group Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The integration of agricultural and science curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for secondary agricultural educators. The purpose of this case study was to create information about the employment of Cooperative Learning Groups (CLG) to enhance the science integrating learning objectives…

  18. Co-operative employment education for target groups: solution to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times government has embarked on various programmes to solve the problem of unemployment. However only negligible number of people benefited from these programmes. This paper examines the need for co-operative employment education for target groups as a better solution to the problem of ...

  19. L-Carnitine Supplementation for the Management of Fatigue in Patients With Cancer: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Ricardo A.; Zhang, Jenny J.; Manola, Judith; Cella, David; Ansari, Bilal; Fisch, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose L-carnitine, a popular complementary and alternative medicine product, is used by patients with cancer for the treatment of fatigue, the most commonly reported symptom in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation as a treatment for fatigue in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients with invasive malignancies and fatigue were randomly assigned to either 2 g/d of L-carnitine oral supplementation or matching placebo. The primary end point was the change in average daily fatigue from baseline to week 4 using the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI). Results Three hundred seventy-six patients were randomly assigned to treatment with L-carnitine supplementation or placebo. L-carnitine supplementation resulted in significant carnitine plasma level increase by week 4. The primary outcome, fatigue, measured using the BFI, improved in both arms compared with baseline (L-carnitine: −0.96, 95% CI, −1.32 to −0.60; placebo: −1.11, 95% CI −1.44 to −0.78). There were no statistically significant differences between arms (P = .57). Secondary outcomes, including fatigue measured by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue instrument, depression, and pain, did not show significant difference between arms. A separate analysis of patients who were carnitine-deficient at baseline did not show statistically significant improvement in fatigue or other outcomes after L-carnitine supplementation. Conclusion Four weeks of 2 g of L-carnitine supplementation did not improve fatigue in patients with invasive malignancies and good performance status. PMID:22987089

  20. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nax, Heinrich H.; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-07-01

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner’s dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others’ individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for ‘group scoring’ but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed.

  1. Role of Kras status in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy plus bevacizumab: a TTD group cooperative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Díaz-Rubio

    Full Text Available In the MACRO study, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC were randomised to first-line treatment with 6 cycles of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX plus bevacizumab followed by either single-agent bevacizumab or XELOX plus bevacizumab until disease progression. An additional retrospective analysis was performed to define the prognostic value of tumour KRAS status on progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS and response rates.KRAS data (tumour KRAS status and type of mutation were collected by questionnaire from participating centres that performed KRAS analyses. These data were then cross-referenced with efficacy data for relevant patients in the MACRO study database. KRAS status was analysed in 394 of the 480 patients (82.1% in the MACRO study. Wild-type (WT KRAS tumours were found in 219 patients (56% and mutant (MT KRAS in 175 patients (44%. Median PFS was 10.9 months for patients with WT KRAS and 9.4 months for patients with MT KRAS tumours (p=0.0038; HR: 1.40; 95% CI:1.12-1.77. The difference in OS was also significant: 26.7 months versus 18.0 months for WT versus MT KRAS, respectively (p=0.0002; HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.23-1.96. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that KRAS was an independent variable for both PFS and OS. Responses were observed in 126 patients (57.5% with WT KRAS tumours and 76 patients (43.4% with MT KRAS tumours (p=0.0054; OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18-2.64.This analysis of the MACRO study suggests a prognostic role for tumour KRAS status in patients with mCRC treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab. For both PFS and OS, KRAS status was an independent factor in univariate and multivariate analyses.

  2. A randomized phase II study of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel in platinum sensitive ovarian cancer patients: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briasoulis Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum-based combinations are the standard second-line treatment for platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (OC. This randomized phase II study was undertaken in order to compare the combination of carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (LD with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP in this setting. Methods Patients with histologically confirmed recurrent OC, at the time of or more than 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy, were randomized to six cycles of CP (carboplatin AUC5 + paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, d1q21 or CLD (carboplatin AUC5 + pegylated LD 45 mg/m2, d1q28. Results A total of 189 eligible patients (CP 96, CLD 93, with a median age of 63 years, median Performance Status (PS 0 and a median platinum free interval (PFI of 16.5 months, entered the study. Discontinuation due to toxicity was higher in the CP patients (13.5% versus 3%, P = 0.016. The overall response rate was similar: CP 58% versus CLD 51%, P = 0.309 (Complete Response; CR 34% versus 23% and there was no statistical difference in time-to-progression (TTP or overall survival (OS; TTP 10.8 months CP versus 11.8 CLD, P = 0.904; OS 29.4 months CP versus 24.7 CLD, P = 0.454. No toxic deaths were recorded. Neutropenia was the most commonly seen severe toxicity (CP 30% versus CLD 35%. More frequent in CLD were severe thrombocytopenia (11% versus 2%, P = 0.016, skin toxicity and Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE grade 1-2 (38% versus 9%, PP = 0.029, 20% versus 5%, P = 0.003. PS and PFI were independent prognostic factors for TTP and OS. Conclusions The combination of pegylated LD with carboplatin is effective, showing less neurotoxicity and alopecia than paclitaxel-carboplatin. It thus warrants a further phase III evaluation as an alternative treatment option for platinum-sensitive OC patients. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000436279

  3. Role of Kras Status in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Receiving First-Line Chemotherapy plus Bevacizumab: A TTD Group Cooperative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Gómez-España, Auxiliadora; Massutí, Bartomeu; Sastre, Javier; Reboredo, Margarita; Manzano, José Luis; Rivera, Fernando; Safont, MªJosé; Montagut, Clara; González, Encarnación; Benavides, Manuel; Marcuello, Eugenio; Cervantes, Andrés; Martínez de Prado, Purificación; Fernández-Martos, Carlos; Arrivi, Antonio; Bando, Inmaculada; Aranda, E.; Gómez, A.; Massutí, B.; Yuste, A.; Rubio, E. Díaz; Sastre, J.; Valladares, M.; Abad, A.; Rivera, F.; Safont, MªJosé; Gallén, M.; González, E.; Benavides, M.; Marcuello, E.; Tobeña, M.; Cervantes, A.; Martínez de Prado, P.; Fernández-Martos, C.; Arrivi, A.; López-Ladrón, A.; Lacasta, A.; Llanos, M.; Remón, J.; Anton, A.; Vicent, J. Mª.; Gala´n, A.; Dueñas, R.; Tabernero, J. Mª.; Manzano, H.; Gómez, Mª. J.; Alfaro, J.; Losa, F.; Escudero, P.; García, T.; García López, J. L.; de Paredes, Mª L. García; Velasco, A.; Almenar, D.; Vera, R.; García Puche, J. L.; Carrato, A.; Lescure, A. Rodriguez; Jiménez, E.; Alberola, V.; García-Foncillas, J.; Constenla, M.; Ruiz, A.; Bueso, P.; Cabrera, E.; del Río,, L.; Ponce, J.; Oltra, A.; Checa, T.; Etxeberría, A.; Alonso, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In the MACRO study, patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were randomised to first-line treatment with 6 cycles of capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) plus bevacizumab followed by either single-agent bevacizumab or XELOX plus bevacizumab until disease progression. An additional retrospective analysis was performed to define the prognostic value of tumour KRAS status on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and response rates. Methodology/Principal Findings KRAS data (tumour KRAS status and type of mutation) were collected by questionnaire from participating centres that performed KRAS analyses. These data were then cross-referenced with efficacy data for relevant patients in the MACRO study database. KRAS status was analysed in 394 of the 480 patients (82.1%) in the MACRO study. Wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours were found in 219 patients (56%) and mutant (MT) KRAS in 175 patients (44%). Median PFS was 10.9 months for patients with WT KRAS and 9.4 months for patients with MT KRAS tumours (p = 0.0038; HR: 1.40; 95% CI:1.12–1.77). The difference in OS was also significant: 26.7 months versus 18.0 months for WT versus MT KRAS, respectively (p = 0.0002; HR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.23–1.96). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that KRAS was an independent variable for both PFS and OS. Responses were observed in 126 patients (57.5%) with WT KRAS tumours and 76 patients (43.4%) with MT KRAS tumours (p = 0.0054; OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.18–2.64). Conclusions/Significance This analysis of the MACRO study suggests a prognostic role for tumour KRAS status in patients with mCRC treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab. For both PFS and OS, KRAS status was an independent factor in univariate and multivariate analyses. PMID:23174912

  4. Arm morbidity following sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary lymph node dissection: a study from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Madsen A.; Haugaard, K.; Soerensen, J.

    2008-01-01

    the impact on shoulder mobility of node positive patients having a secondary axillary dissection because of the findings of metastases postoperatively. AIM: We aimed to investigate the objective and subjective arm morbidity in node negative and node positive patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a prospective...... groups of node negative patients. Highly significant difference was found comparing sensibility. Comparing the morbidity in node positive patients who had a one-step axillary dissection with patients having a two-step procedure (sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by delayed axillary dissection) revealed...... no difference in objective or subjective arm morbidity. CONCLUSION: Node negative patients operated with sentinel lymph node biopsy have less arm morbidity compared with node negative patients operated with axillary lymph node dissection. Node positive patients who had a secondary axillary lymph node dissection...

  5. An Enhanced Genetic Approach to Composing Cooperative Learning Groups for Multiple Grouping Criteria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gwo-Jen Hwang; Peng-Yeng Yin; Chi-Wei Hwang; Chin-Chung Tsai

    2008-01-01

    .... The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning efficacy. This is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement...

  6. Treatment of brain metastases of small-cell lung cancer : Comparing teniposide and teniposide with whole-brain radiotherapy - A phase III study of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmus, PE; Haaxma-Reiche, H; Smit, EF; Groen, HJM; Karnicka, H; Lewinski, T; van Meerbeeck, J; Clerico, M; Gregor, A; Curran, D; Sahmoud, T; Kirkpatrick, A; Giaccone, G

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 60% of patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) develop brain metastases, Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) gives symptomatic improvement in more than 50% of these patients. Because brain metastases are a sign of systemic progression, and chemotherapy was found to be

  7. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents, explains and organizes ideas for promoting students’ use of their second language (this term includes foreign language when they work together in cooperative learning groups. The first part of the article reviews arguments as to whether students of second languages should be encouraged to use their second language with classmates when doing group activities. These arguments are discussed with reference to Second Language Acquisition (SLA theory. Practical issues are also explored. Next, the majority of the article presents ideas on how to promote second language use during peer interaction. Twenty-nine of these ideas are explained. The ideas are organized into five categories: a role for the L1; understanding the issue; creating a conducive climate; providing language support; and the task. It is recommended that teachers use ideas from the literature on cooperative learning when they ask students to interact.

  8. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  9. Between-group competition, intra-group cooperation and relative performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Camilo eCardenas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a new public goods experiment with an intra-group cooperation dilemma and inter-group competition. In our design subjects receive information about their relative individual and group performance after each round with non-incentivized and then incentivized group competition. We found that, on average, individuals with low relative performance reduce their contributions to the public good, but groups with low performance increase theirs. With incentivized competition, where the relative ranking of the group increases individual payoffs, the reaction to relative performance is larger with individuals contributing more to the group; further, we observe that the variance of strategies decreases as individual and group rankings increase. These results offer new insights on how social comparison shapes similar reactions in games with different incentives for group performance and how competition and cooperation can influence each other.

  10. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long...

  11. Large group size yields group stability in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D.; Bachar, Z; Taborsky, M; Brouwer, L.

    2005-01-01

    Group size has been shown to positively influence survival of group members in many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, including the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, suggesting Allee effects. However, long-term data are scarce to test how these survival differences translate into

  12. Radiotherapy in breast-conserving treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ: first results of the EORTC randomised phase III trial 10853. EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and EORTC Radiotherapy Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julien, J. P.; Bijker, N.; Fentiman, I. S.; Peterse, J. L.; Delledonne, V.; Rouanet, P.; Avril, A.; Sylvester, R.; Mignolet, F.; Bartelink, H.; van Dongen, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast is a disorder that has become more common since it may manifest as microcalcifications that can be detected by screening mammography. Since selected women with invasive cancer can be treated safely with breast conservation therapy it is

  13. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001...

  14. Return of Individual Research Results and Incidental Findings in the Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The NCI funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects patient samples for correlative research. The Cooperative Group Bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of Incidental Findings (IFs) and Individual Research Results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the ten consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Re-identification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

  15. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of endometrial cancer in members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG. The GCIG is a global association of cooperative groups involved in the research...... and treatment of gynecologic neoplasms. RESULTS: Thirty-four surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of endometrial cancer after hysterectomy, mean (SD) pelvic dose was 47.37 (2.32) Gy. The upper border of the pelvic field was L4/5 in 14 respondents, L5/S1 in 13 respondents...

  16. Online exclusive: functional integration of nursing research into a pediatric oncology cooperative group: finding common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Pamela S; Baggott, Christina; DeSwarte-Wallace, Joetta; Dodd, Marilyn; Haase, Joan; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Hooke, Casey; McGuire Cullen, Patsy; Moore, Ida; Roll, Lona; Ruccione, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    To provide a brief description of the historic role of nursing and nursing research in the culture of previous pediatric oncology cooperative groups and compare the research language used in cooperative groups with the language used in nursing research. Published empirical, clinical, and methodologic reports. The culture and language of nursing research differ from those of medical research and the pediatric oncology cooperative group, the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Different approaches exist to integrate nursing research priorities into the priorities of COG, including freestanding protocols, companion protocols, and research objectives included in therapeutic protocols. Full integration of nursing research into COG is feasible but dependent on recognition of cultural and language differences among researchers. Integration will be demonstrated by the number of concepts and protocols contributed to or developed by active nurses in COG. Significant advances exist for nurses conducting research in COG. These research efforts are facilitated by a familiarity with the science language used by other disciplines in COG and an understanding of COG's research processes. Increased interdisciplinary scientific collaborations involving nurses in COG particularly benefit pediatric patients with cancer.

  17. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumaru, Sunao, E-mail: tokumaru@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Saga University, Saga (Japan); Toita, Takafumi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiko [Radiation Oncology Department, Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Niibe, Yuzuru [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara (Japan); Kazumoto, Tomoko [Department of Radiology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kodaira, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Masaaki [Department of Radiology, National Shikoku Cancer Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Shikama, Naoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Kenjo, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yamauchi, Chikako [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shiga Medical Center for Adults, Moriyama (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer, Osaka (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center and Tsukuba University, Tuskuba (Japan); Teshima, Teruki [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  18. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long

  19. Quality assurance in conservative treatment of early breast cancer. Report on a consensus meeting of the EORTC Radiotherapy and Breast Cancer Cooperative Groups and the EUSOMA (European Society of Mastology)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, H.; Garavaglia, G.; Johansson, K. A.; Mijnheer, B. J.; van den Bogaert, W.; van Tienhoven, G.; Yarnold, J.

    1991-01-01

    A consensus on a quality assurance programme of the treatment of early breast cancer was reached in a multidisciplinary meeting of surgeons, pathologists, radiotherapists, physicists and radiographers. Guidelines for treatment preparation and execution have been set up, including careful location

  20. Cooperation and conflict in cancer: An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Featherston

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary approaches to carcinogenesis have gained prominence in the literature and enhanced our understanding of cancer. However, an appreciation of neoplasia in the context of evolutionary transitions, particularly the transition from independent genes to a fullyintegrated genome, is largely absent. In the gene–genome evolutionary transition, mobile genetic elements (MGEs can be studied as the extant exemplars of selfish autonomous lowerlevel units that cooperated to form a higher-level, functionally integrated genome. Here,we discuss levels of selection in cancer cells. In particular, we examine the tension between gene and genome units of selection by examining the expression profiles of MGE domains in an array of human cancers. Overall, across diverse cancers, there is an aberrant expression of several families of mobile elements, including the most common MGE in the human genome, retrotransposon LINE 1. These results indicate an alternative life-history strategy for MGEs in the cancers studied. Whether the aberrant expression is the cause or effect oftumourigenesis is unknown, although some evidence suggests that dysregulation of MGEs can play a role in cancer origin and progression. These data are interpreted in combination with phylostratigraphic reports correlating the origin of cancer genes with multicellularity and other potential increases in complexity in cancer cell populations. Cooperation and conflict between individuals at the gene, genome and cell level provide an evolutionary medicineperspective of cancer that enhances our understanding of disease pathogenesis and treatment.

  1. Interaction Processes and Student Outcomes in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistich, Victor; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Frequency and quality of cooperative learning activities in fourth through sixth grade were correlated with measures of students' attitudes toward school, perceptions of classroom climate, intrinsic motivation, and performance on a reading comprehension and standardized achievement test. Found that effects of cooperative learning depended on the…

  2. Real Maths in Cooperative Groups in Secondary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, J.; Davidson, N.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes author’s first encounters with cooperative learning and his personal viewpoint on education. In this view, education should be inclusive, adaptive and cooperative. This is followed by a rationale for a realistic mathematics curriculum and its main characteristics. The theory

  3. Does the introduction of sentinel node biopsy increase the number of node positive patients with early breast cancer? A population based study form the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Husted; Jensen, Anni Ravnsbaek; Christiansen, Peer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validation series of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in the treatment of breast cancer have shown that 10-20% more lymph node metastases are detected. However, their impact has never been studied in populations where the method has been fully implemented. In a population-based s...

  4. Metabolic cooperation between cancer and non-cancerous stromal cells is pivotal in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Coelho, Filipa; Gouveia-Fernandes, Sofia; Serpa, Jacinta

    2018-02-01

    The way cancer cells adapt to microenvironment is crucial for the success of carcinogenesis, and metabolic fitness is essential for a cancer cell to survive and proliferate in a certain organ/tissue. The metabolic remodeling in a tumor niche is endured not only by cancer cells but also by non-cancerous cells that share the same microenvironment. For this reason, tumor cells and stromal cells constitute a complex network of signal and organic compound transfer that supports cellular viability and proliferation. The intensive dual-address cooperation of all components of a tumor sustains disease progression and metastasis. Herein, we will detail the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts, cancer-associated adipocytes, and inflammatory cells, mainly monocytes/macrophages (tumor-associated macrophages), in the remodeling and metabolic adaptation of tumors.

  5. Tackling cancer control in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othman, Saleh; Haoudi, Abdelali; Alhomoud, Samar; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Khoja, Tawfik; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in both high income and middle-to-low income countries, and is the second leading cause of death in the world. Although more than a third of cancer could be prevented and another third could be cured if diagnosed early, it remains a huge challenge to health-care systems worldwide. Despite substantial improvements in health services some of the countries in the Gulf region, the burden of non-communicable diseases is a major threat, primarily due to the rapid socioeconomic shifts that have led to unfavourable changes in lifestyle such as increased tobacco use, decreased physical activity, and consumption of unhealthy food. In the Gulf Cooperation Council states (United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, and Kuwait), advanced breast cancer, colorectal cancer, leukaemia, thyroid cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphomas are the most common cancers affecting younger populations compared with other countries. By contrast with cancer prevalence in developed countries, prostate, lung, and cervical cancers are not among the most common cancers in the Gulf region. In view of the increased cost of cancer management worldwide, integrated approaches between primary, secondary, and tertiary health-care systems with special focus on prevention and early detection is an essential step in the countries' efforts in the fight against cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vinorelbine as first-line or second-line therapy for advanced breast cancer: a Phase I-II trial by the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjer, S.T.; Ejlertsen, B.; Mouridsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    proven breast cancer and had received a prior epirubicin based regimen either adjuvant or as first line therapy for advanced disease. Vinorelbine was administered intravenously day 1 and 8 in a 3 weeks' schedule. Subsequently 48 additional patients were treated at one dose-level below MTD. RESULTS: Fifty......-five patients were included in the dose-escalation study, which defined 40 mg/m(2) as the MTD. Neutropenia of short duration and autonomic neuropathy causing constipation were the most common dose-limiting toxicities. At the 35 mg/m(2) dose-level 60 patients were included in total. Seven (12%; 95% CI 6 to 22...

  7. Cooperative Learning--A Double-Edged Sword: A Cooperative Learning Model for Use with Diverse Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Trish; Clark, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Although very little research has been done on cooperative learning (CL) in New Zealand, international research is positive about the educational benefits of working in culturally diverse groups. This paper presents the findings of a research project examining New Zealand experiences with CL in multicultural groups. Data were collected via surveys…

  8. Using Cooperative Small Groups in Introductory Accounting Classes: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietti, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Effective use of cooperative learning groups requires the following: attention to group formation, orientation that sets clear expectations and guidelines, activities to develop teamwork skills, peer evaluation, and other assessments that recognize and measure individual effort on group projects. (SK)

  9. Emergence of spatial structure in cell groups and the evolution of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey D Nadell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On its own, a single cell cannot exert more than a microscopic influence on its immediate surroundings. However, via strength in numbers and the expression of cooperative phenotypes, such cells can enormously impact their environments. Simple cooperative phenotypes appear to abound in the microbial world, but explaining their evolution is challenging because they are often subject to exploitation by rapidly growing, non-cooperative cell lines. Population spatial structure may be critical for this problem because it influences the extent of interaction between cooperative and non-cooperative individuals. It is difficult for cooperative cells to succeed in competition if they become mixed with non-cooperative cells, which can exploit the public good without themselves paying a cost. However, if cooperative cells are segregated in space and preferentially interact with each other, they may prevail. Here we use a multi-agent computational model to study the origin of spatial structure within growing cell groups. Our simulations reveal that the spatial distribution of genetic lineages within these groups is linked to a small number of physical and biological parameters, including cell growth rate, nutrient availability, and nutrient diffusivity. Realistic changes in these parameters qualitatively alter the emergent structure of cell groups, and thereby determine whether cells with cooperative phenotypes can locally and globally outcompete exploitative cells. We argue that cooperative and exploitative cell lineages will spontaneously segregate in space under a wide range of conditions and, therefore, that cellular cooperation may evolve more readily than naively expected.

  10. [Cooperation between physicians and self-help groups in the system of ASHIP. Practical experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litschel, A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased cooperation between doctors' associations and patient self-help groups. Much of this cooperation is dependent on the engagement and involvement of individuals. However, a far reaching, established type of cooperation is still lacking. Several studies show that there are many advantages to be gained from working with self-help organizations. In Germany, ambulatory medical care is managed by the Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (ASHIP). In order to develop the cooperation between patient self-help groups and ASHIP physicians, several information centers (KOSA) for these groups have been established. These information centers support direct communication between patient self-help groups and physicians by means of selective measures, specialist events and expert forums. A cooperation handbook is available for doctors and psychotherapists detailing case studies of the experiences of KOSA members. In addition to these information centers, cooperation is supported by patient advisory boards, round table discussions and symposia.

  11. Could the Addition of Cetuximab to Conventional Radiation Therapy Improve Organ Preservation in Those Patients With Locally Advanced Larynx Cancer Who Respond to Induction Chemotherapy? An Organ Preservation Spanish Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group Phase 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesía, Ricard; Garcia-Saenz, Jose A; Lozano, Alicia; Pastor, Miguel; Grau, Juan J; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Lambeaz, Julio; Martínez-Galán, Joaquina; Mel, Jose R; González, Belen; Vázquez, Silvia; Mañós, Manel; Taberna, Miren; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Del Barco, Elvira; Casado, Esther; Rubió-Casadevall, Jordi; Rodríguez-Jaráiz, Angles; Cruz, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by bioradiotherapy (BRT) to achieve functional larynx preservation in the setting of locally advanced head and neck tumors. This was a phase 2, open-label, multicenter study of patients with stage III and IVA laryngeal carcinoma who were candidates for total laryngectomy. The primary endpoint was the rate of survival with functional larynx (SFL) at 3 years, with a critical value to consider the study positive of SFL >59%. Patients received 3 cycles of IC with TPF (docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil), and those who responded received conventional BRT with cetuximab. In patients with residual nodal disease after BRT, neck dissection was planned 2 months after BRT. Patients who did not respond to IC underwent total laryngectomy plus neck dissection and radiation therapy. A total of 93 patients started TPF. Responses to IC on larynx target lesion were as follows: 37 patients (40%) showed a complete response; 38 patients (41%) showed a partial response; 8 patients (9%) showed stabilization; 2 patients (2%) showed progressive disease, and 8 patients (9%) were not evaluated (2 deaths, 5 adverse events, and 1 lost to follow-up). Seventy-three patients (78%) received BRT: 72 as per protocol, but 1 with only stable disease. Median follow-up was 53.7 months. Three-year actuarial rates were as follows: SFL: 70% (95% confidence interval [CI] 60%-79%); laryngectomy-free survival: 72% (95% CI 61%-81%); overall survival: 78% (95% CI: 63%-82%). The acute toxicity observed during both IC and BRT was as expected, with only 1 toxicity-related death (local bleeding) during BRT. According to this protocol, the SFL rate was clearly higher than the critical value, with acceptable levels of toxicity. The use of cetuximab added to radiation therapy in patients with stage III and IVA laryngeal cancer who respond to TPF could improve functional larynx preservation. A phase 3 trial is warranted. Copyright

  12. Interaction Dynamics of Cooperative Learning Groups in Trinidad's Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, Vena

    1991-01-01

    Investigated adolescents' changes in choice of workmates before and after cooperative learning to identify relationships between these changes and existing friendship and clique patterns, socioeconomic status, race, and achievement perceptions. Pattern that emerged showed that, although actual choices changed, principle upon which choices were…

  13. The Effects of Cooperative Training and Ability Grouping on Microcomputer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Lois J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study of fifth and sixth graders that investigated the effects of cooperative training and ability grouping on microcomputer learning. Results on four measures of achievement did not support the use of cooperative learning or ability grouping to enhance achievement in computer-assisted instruction. (Author/LRW)

  14. The metabolic cooperation between cells in solid cancer tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icard, Philippe; Kafara, Perrine; Steyaert, Jean-Marc; Schwartz, Laurent; Lincet, Hubert

    2014-08-01

    Cancer cells cooperate with stromal cells and use their environment to promote tumor growth. Energy production depends on nutrient availability and O₂ concentration. Well-oxygenated cells are highly proliferative and reorient the glucose metabolism towards biosynthesis, whereas glutamine oxidation replenishes the TCA cycle coupled with OXPHOS-ATP production. Glucose, glutamine and alanine transformations sustain nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis. In contrast, hypoxic cells slow down their proliferation, enhance glycolysis to produce ATP and reject lactate which is recycled as fuel by normoxic cells. Thus, glucose is spared for biosynthesis and/or for hypoxic cell function. Environmental cells, such as fibroblasts and adipocytes, serve as food donors for cancer cells, which reject waste products (CO₂ , H⁺, ammoniac, polyamines…) promoting EMT, invasion, angiogenesis and proliferation. This metabolic-coupling can be considered as a form of commensalism whereby non-malignant cells support the growth of cancer cells. Understanding these cellular cooperations within tumors may be a source of inspiration to develop new anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups) even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility ...

  16. Advocacy groups for breast cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, M.; Batt, S

    1995-01-01

    Breast cancer patient advocacy groups emerged in the 1990s to support and empower women with breast cancer. Women with cancer and oncologists tend to have divergent perspectives on how breast cancer prevention should be defined and what the priorities for research should be. As their American counterparts have done, breast cancer patient advocates in Canada are seeking greater participation in decision making with respect to research. To date they have had more input into research policy deci...

  17. Leader-Member Exchange, the "Pelz Effect," and Cooperative Communication between Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaesub

    1997-01-01

    Explores effects of differential quality of leader-member exchange on cooperative communication among work group members. Suggests that the nature of an individual's exchange with his/her leader and his/her leader's upward leader-member exchange significantly impact perceived use of coworker cooperative communication. Provides evidence of linkage…

  18. Social Behavior in Cooperative Groups: Students at Risk for ADHD and Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Kuester, Deitra A.; Craig, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning has broad support as an instructional strategy to improve achievement. If the social behavior of students at risk for ADHD could be documented, cooperative groups could also provide a context for intervention. To this purpose, we observed 22 same-gender triads, with or without a member at risk for ADHD during problem-solving…

  19. Using Technology-Enhanced, Cooperative, Group-Project Learning for Student Comprehension and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…

  20. UK Groups Plan Cancer Research Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    Two major cancer research groups in the UK have announced plans to create a global cancer center aimed at accelerating drug development and fostering collaboration with industry. The $1.5 billion campus is expected to house 10,000 scientists and clinicians and deliver two additional drug candidates, an increase of 40%, every 5 years. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Group size effect on cooperation in one-shot social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Hélène; Capraro, Valerio

    2015-01-21

    Social dilemmas are central to human society. Depletion of natural resources, climate protection, security of energy supply, and workplace collaborations are all examples of social dilemmas. Since cooperative behaviour in a social dilemma is individually costly, Nash equilibrium predicts that humans should not cooperate. Yet experimental studies show that people do cooperate even in anonymous one-shot interactions. In spite of the large number of participants in many modern social dilemmas, little is known about the effect of group size on cooperation. Does larger group size favour or prevent cooperation? We address this problem both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, we find that there is no general answer: it depends on the strategic situation. Specifically, we find that larger groups are more cooperative in the Public Goods game, but less cooperative in the N-person Prisoner's dilemma. Theoretically, we show that this behaviour is not consistent with either the Fehr &Schmidt model or (a one-parameter version of) the Charness &Rabin model, but it is consistent with the cooperative equilibrium model introduced by the second author.

  2. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooperative learning: Homogeneous and heterogeneous grouping of Iranian EFL learners in a writing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Zamani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the important aspects of learning and teaching through cooperation is the group composition or grouping “who with whom”. An unresolved issue is that of the superiority of heterogeneity or homogeneity in the structure of the groups. The present study was an attempt to investigate the impact that homogeneous and heterogeneous groupings of Iranian EFL learners regarding their prior levels had on their writing ability when working cooperatively. Having administered a standardized preliminary English test (PET and a writing test taken from PET sample tests as a pre-test, 66 high and low proficient learners were assigned into three groups: heterogeneous, homogeneous high, and homogeneous low groups. Following the end of the treatment that took 10 sessions each for 30 min, all groups received a writing test as a post-test. The results demonstrated that learners improved their performance through cooperation, whether working with stronger or weaker peers. However, heterogeneous grouping showed superiority over homogeneous grouping at the low level. Low students in the heterogeneous class made more relative gains than high students in the same class. It must be noted that low students did not improve at the expense of high students. The results revealed that cooperative learning could be especially beneficial for low students. It is hoped that the findings of the present study will give teachers deep insights into group compositions in cooperative learning courses, and will help them make better group experiences for students.

  4. Testing the renormalisation group theory of cooperative transitions at the lambda point of helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, J. A.; Li, Q.; Chui, T. C. P.; Marek, D.

    1988-01-01

    The status of high resolution tests of the renormalization group theory of cooperative phase transitions performed near the lambda point of helium is described. The prospects for performing improved tests in space are discussed.

  5. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  6. Cooperative nanomaterials systems for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Ho

    The unique electromagnetic and biologic properties of nanomaterials are being harnessed to build powerful new medical technologies. Particularly, there have been recently increasing interests in cancer nanotechnology, wherein nanomaterials play an important role in ultrasensitive imaging, targeting, and therapy of cancer. However, these nanomaterials typically function as individual units and are designed to independently perform their tasks. In this dissertation, new cooperative nanosystems consisting of two distinct nanomaterials that work together to target, identify, or treat tumors in vivo were studied. In the first two chapters, the synthesis of worm-shaped dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (nanoworms, NW) exhibiting substantial in vivo circulation times and significant tumor targeting when coated with tumor-homing peptides were studied. NWs are also found to display a greater magnetic resonance (MR) response than the spherical nanoparticles. Next, two types of multifunctional nanoparticles were fabricated for simultaneous detection and treatment of cancer. Micellar hybrid nanoparticles (MHN) that contain magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) within a single PEG-modified phospholipid micelle were first prepared. Simultaneous multimodal imaging (MR and fluorescence) and targeted drug delivery in vitro and in vivo was performed using DOX-incorporated targeted MHN. Secondly, luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (LPSINP) that were drug-loadable, biodegradable and relatively non-toxic were prepared. In contrast to most inorganic nanomaterials, LPSINP were degraded in vivo in a relatively short time with no noticeable toxicity. The clearance and degradation of intravenously injected LPSINP in the bladder, liver, and spleen were established by whole-body fluorescence imaging. Finally, two types of cooperative nanomaterials systems to amplify targeting and deliver drugs efficiently to regions of tumor invasion were

  7. Emergent Leadership in Children's Cooperative Problem Solving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjng; Anderson, Richard C.; Perry, Michelle; Lin, Tzu-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Social skills involved in leadership were examined in a problem-solving activity in which 252 Chinese 5th-graders worked in small groups on a spatial-reasoning puzzle. Results showed that students who engaged in peer-managed small-group discussions of stories prior to problem solving produced significantly better solutions and initiated…

  8. Attaining High Learning Performers in Social Groups using Web-Based Cooperative Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    L Venkateswara Reddy; Lakshmi Paidimarri; Vendoti Monica Reddy; Rufus Chakravarthy Sharma; SUJATHA, B.; I Sheeba

    2011-01-01

    Social groups are considered as a group of people, an organization or social individuals which are connected by social relations such as friendships, cooperative relations or informative exchange In web based cooperative environment, peer to peer inter action often suffers from difficulty due to lack of exploring useful social interaction information, so that peers cannot find appropriate learning between learners. Because of this, it can lead to poor interaction information and achievement b...

  9. A combined analysis of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Medical Research Council randomized clinical trials for the prophylactic treatment of stage TaT1 bladder cancer. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group and the Medical Research Council Working Party on Superficial Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawinski, A.; Sylvester, R.; Kurth, K. H.; Bouffioux, C.; van der Meijden, A.; Parmar, M. K.; Bijnens, L.

    1996-01-01

    The use of prophylactic agents after primary resection can decrease the incidence of tumor recurrence in patients with stage TaT1 bladder cancer. However, the long-term impact on progression to muscle invasive disease as well as on duration of survival is unknown. A combined analysis of individual

  10. Collective induction without cooperation? Learning and knowledge transfer in cooperative groups and competitive auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejovsky, Boris; Budescu, David V

    2007-05-01

    There is strong evidence that groups perform better than individuals do on intellective tasks with demonstrably correct solutions. Typically, these studies assume that group members share common goals. The authors extend this line of research by replacing standard face-to-face group interactions with competitive auctions, allowing for conflicting individual incentives. In a series of studies involving the well-known Wason selection task, they demonstrate that competitive auctions induce learning effects equally impressive as those of standard group interactions, and they uncover specific and general knowledge transfers from these institutions to new reasoning problems. The authors identify payoff feedback and information pooling as the driving factors underlying these findings, and they explain these factors within the theoretical framework of collective induction. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Cooperative Groups: Engaging Elementary Students with Pragmatic Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests that children with language impairments have difficulty working in groups because of deficits in the area of pragmatic language. Pragmatic language skills are identified and suggestions for intervention in the general education classroom are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  12. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  13. Group learning versus local learning: Which is prefer for public cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Han; Song, Qi-Qing

    2018-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on various graphs, focusing on the effects that are brought by different kinds of strategy donors. This highlights a basic feature of a public good game, for which there exists a remarkable difference between the interactive players and the players who are imitated. A player can learn from all the groups where the player is a member or from the typically local nearest neighbors, and the results show that the group learning rules have better performance in promoting cooperation on many networks than the local learning rules. The heterogeneity of networks' degree may be an effective mechanism for harvesting the cooperation expectation in many cases, however, we find that heterogeneity does not definitely mean the high frequency of cooperators in a population under group learning rules. It was shown that cooperators always hardly evolve whenever the interaction and the replacement do not coincide for evolutionary pairwise dilemmas on graphs, while for PG games we find that breaking the symmetry is conducive to the survival of cooperators.

  14. Multi Groups Cooperation based Symbiotic Evolution for TSK-type Neuro-Fuzzy Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Chang; Hsu, Yung-Chi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a TSK-type neuro-fuzzy system with multi groups cooperation based symbiotic evolution method (TNFS-MGCSE) is proposed. The TNFS-MGCSE is developed from symbiotic evolution. The symbiotic evolution is different from traditional GAs (genetic algorithms) that each chromosome in symbiotic evolution represents a rule of fuzzy model. The MGCSE is different from the traditional symbiotic evolution; with a population in MGCSE is divided to several groups. Each group formed by a set of chromosomes represents a fuzzy rule and cooperate with other groups to generate the better chromosomes by using the proposed cooperation based crossover strategy (CCS). In this paper, the proposed TNFS-MGCSE is used to evaluate by numerical examples (Mackey-Glass chaotic time series and sunspot number forecasting). The performance of the TNFS-MGCSE achieves excellently with other existing models in the simulations. PMID:21709856

  15. Differences within the groups of physicians and managers in Dutch hospitals providing leads for intergroup cooperation : Running head: group differences in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effective cooperation between physicians and managers is difficult to achieve but is an important factor in successfully implementing improvement initiatives in hospitals. Intergroup literature suggests that large differences between groups hinder effective cooperation. - Purposes:

  16. 75 FR 66797 - PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”) Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC'') Internal Firm Services Client... read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group... PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group. The amended...

  17. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood gro...... tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). DISCUSSION: Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research.......INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...

  18. Teachers' and students' verbal behaviours during cooperative and small-group learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M

    2006-06-01

    Teachers play a critical role in promoting interactions between students and engaging them in the learning process. This study builds on a study by Hertz-Lazarowitz and Shachar (1990) who found that during cooperative learning teachers' verbal behaviours were more helpful to and encouraging of their students' efforts while during whole-class instruction, their verbal behaviours tended to be more authoritarian, rigid, and impersonal. This study seeks to determine if teachers who implement cooperative learning engage in more facilitative learning interactions with their students than teachers who implement group work only. The study also seeks to determine if students in the cooperative groups model their teachers' behaviours and engage in more positive helping interactions with each other than their peers in the group work groups. The study involved 26 teachers and 303 students in Grades 8 to 10 from 4 large high schools in Brisbane, Australia. All teachers agreed to establish cooperative, small-group activities in their classrooms for a unit of work (4 to 6 weeks) once a term for 3 school terms. The teachers were audiotaped twice during these lessons and samples of the students' language, as they worked in their groups, were also collected at the same time. The results show that teachers who implement cooperative learning in their classrooms engage in more mediated-learning interactions and make fewer disciplinary comments than teachers who implement group work only. Furthermore, the students model many of these interactions in their groups. The study shows that when teachers implement cooperative learning, their verbal behaviour is affected by the organizational structure of the classroom.

  19. Using Student Group Leaders to Motivate Students in Cooperative Learning Methods in Crowded Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Rifat; Efe, Hulya Aslan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of employing student group leaders on the motivation of group members during co-operative learning activities in a secondary school classroom in Turkey. The study was carried out in a period of eight weeks in biology classes during which "living things" and "ecology" topics were taught to a class…

  20. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  1. Oxytocin modulates cooperation within and competition between groups: an integrative review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews evidence that hypothalamic release (or infusion) of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates the regulation of cooperation and conflict among humans because of three reasons. First, oxytocin enables social categorization of others into in-group versus out-group. Second, oxytocin

  2. Group Investigation as a Cooperative Learning Strategy: An Integrated Analysis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mitzi G.; Montgomery, Hilary; Holder, Michelle; Stuart, Dan

    2008-01-01

    The cooperative learning strategy of group investigation has been used extensively in elementary and high school classrooms. Whereas this learning strategy seems to benefit low- and middle-achieving students, the performance of high-achieving students seems to change little. This article examines the literature on group investigation as a…

  3. Cultural evolution of cooperation : The interplay between forms of social learning and group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; Quiñones, Andres; Weissing, Franz J.

    The role of cultural group selection in the evolution of human cooperation is hotly debated. It has been argued that group selection is more effective in cultural evolution than in genetic evolution, because some forms of cultural transmission (conformism and/or the tendency to follow a leader)

  4. When increased group identification leads to outgroup liking and cooperation: the role of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, R Matthew; Pittinsky, Todd L

    2011-01-01

    Two studies explored the influence of group identification and the functional relations between groups on outgroup liking. In a laboratory study, Study 1 (N = 112) found that outgroup liking was highest when group identification was high and relations between groups were cooperative, but outgroup liking was lowest when group identification was high and relations were competitive. In a field replication of Study 1, Study 2 (N = 181) similarly found more liking with high group identification and cooperative relations between groups. Additional analyses revealed that the Identification x Relations interactions found in Studies 1 and 2 were mediated by outgroup trust. We discuss how trust is an important factor for predicting outgroup bias for both high and low group identification.

  5. Probing cooperative force generation in collective cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Amani A.; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Chen, Shaohua; Jiao, Yang; Sun, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Collective cellular dynamics in the three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a crucial role in many physiological processes such as cancer invasion. Both chemical and mechanical signaling support cell-cell communications on a variety of length scales, leading to collective migratory behaviors. Here we conduct experiments using 3D in vitro tumor models and develop a phenomenological model in order to probe the cooperativity of force generation in the collective invasion of breast cancer cells. In our model, cell-cell communication is characterized by a single parameter that quantifies the correlation length of cellular migration cycles. We devise a stochastic reconstruction method to generate realizations of cell colonies with specific contraction phase correlation functions and correlation length a. We find that as a increases, the characteristic size of regions containing cells with similar contraction phases grows. For small a values, the large fluctuations in individual cell contraction phases smooth out the temporal fluctuations in the time-dependent deformation field in the ECM. For large a values, the periodicity of an individual cell contraction cycle is clearly manifested in the temporal variation of the overall deformation field in the ECM. Through quantitative comparisons of the simulated and experimentally measured deformation fields, we find that the correlation length for collective force generation in the breast cancer diskoid in geometrically micropatterned ECM (DIGME) system is a≈ 25~μ \\text{m} , which is roughly twice the linear size of a single cell. One possible mechanism for this intermediate cell correlation length is the fiber-mediated stress propagation in the 3D ECM network in the DIGME system.

  6. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K W De Dreu

    Full Text Available Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i immediate self-interest, (ii vulnerable in-group members, or (iii both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability, and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.

  7. Oxytocin Conditions Intergroup Relations Through Upregulated In-Group Empathy, Cooperation, Conformity, and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Kret, Mariska E

    2016-02-01

    Humans live in, rely on, and contribute to groups. Evolution may have biologically prepared them to quickly identify others as belonging to the in-group (vs. not), to decode emotional states, and to empathize with in-group members; to learn and conform to group norms and cultural practices; to extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation; and to aggressively protect the in-group against outside threat. We review evidence that these components of human group psychology rest on and are modulated by the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin. It appears that oxytocin motivates and enables humans to 1) like and empathize with others in their groups, 2) comply with group norms and cultural practices, and 3) extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation, which may give rise to intergroup discrimination and sometimes defensive aggression against threatening (members of) out-groups. We explore the possibility that deficiencies in (components of) group psychology, seen in autistic spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and borderline personality and social anxiety disorders, may be reduced by oxytocin administration. Avenues for new research are highlighted, and implications for the role of oxytocin in cooperation and competition within and between groups are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immune response gene expression in colorectal cancer carries distinct prognostic implications according to tissue, stage and site: a prospective retrospective translational study in the context of a hellenic cooperative oncology group randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pentheroudakis

    Full Text Available Although host immune response is an emerging prognostic factor for colorectal cancer, there is no consensus on the optimal methodology, surrogate markers or tissue for study.Tumour blocks were prospectively collected from 344 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole section lymphocytic infiltration was studied along with mRNA expression of CD3Z, CD8, CD4, CXCL9, CXCL13, IGHM, FOXP3, SNAI2 and ESR1 by qRT-qPCR in tissue microarray (TMA cores from the centre of tumour, invasive margin and adjacent normal mucosa.Lymphocytic infiltration, deficient MMR (10.9%, KRAS (40.7% and BRAF (4.9% mutations or single mRNA gene expression were not prognostic. Tumour ESR1 gene expression (Hazard Ratio [HR] for relapse 2.33, 95% CI 1.35-4.02; HR for death 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97 and absence of necrosis (HR for relapse 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.71; HR for death 1.98, 95% CI 1.14-3.43 were adverse prognostic features. We used CD3Z and CD8 expression in order to devise the mRNA-based Immune Score (mIS and proceeded to partitioning analysis in 267 patients, with age, stage, tumour site (Right vs Left CRC, KRAS mutation and tumour mIS as input factors. Only in patients with stage III right-sided colon cancer, a low immune response was associated with inferior disease-free survival (mIS-low, HR for relapse 2.28, 95% CI 1.05-8.02. No prognostic significance was seen for tumour mIS in any other stage or site of CRC, or for a similar mIS score derived from adjacent normal mucosa. Independent adverse prognostic significance was retained in multivariable analysis for absence of necrosis, tumour ESR1 expression in all patients and low tumour mIS in stage III right-sided CRC.In localised CRC, mRNA-based CD3Z/CD8 profiling of tumour immune response may have stage, site and tissue-specific prognostic significance, along with ESR1 expression.ANZCTR.org.au ACTRN12610000509066.

  9. Immune response gene expression in colorectal cancer carries distinct prognostic implications according to tissue, stage and site: a prospective retrospective translational study in the context of a hellenic cooperative oncology group randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentheroudakis, George; Raptou, Georgia; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Wirtz, Ralph M; Vrettou, Eleni; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Gourgioti, Georgia; Gakou, Chryssa; Syrigos, Konstantinos N; Bournakis, Evangelos; Rallis, Grigorios; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Galani, Eleni; Lazaridis, Georgios; Papaxoinis, George; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Makatsoris, Thomas; Kalogeras, Konstantine T; Fountzilas, George

    2015-01-01

    Although host immune response is an emerging prognostic factor for colorectal cancer, there is no consensus on the optimal methodology, surrogate markers or tissue for study. Tumour blocks were prospectively collected from 344 patients with stage II/III colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole section lymphocytic infiltration was studied along with mRNA expression of CD3Z, CD8, CD4, CXCL9, CXCL13, IGHM, FOXP3, SNAI2 and ESR1 by qRT-qPCR in tissue microarray (TMA) cores from the centre of tumour, invasive margin and adjacent normal mucosa. Lymphocytic infiltration, deficient MMR (10.9%), KRAS (40.7%) and BRAF (4.9%) mutations or single mRNA gene expression were not prognostic. Tumour ESR1 gene expression (Hazard Ratio [HR] for relapse 2.33, 95% CI 1.35-4.02; HR for death 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97) and absence of necrosis (HR for relapse 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.71; HR for death 1.98, 95% CI 1.14-3.43) were adverse prognostic features. We used CD3Z and CD8 expression in order to devise the mRNA-based Immune Score (mIS) and proceeded to partitioning analysis in 267 patients, with age, stage, tumour site (Right vs Left CRC), KRAS mutation and tumour mIS as input factors. Only in patients with stage III right-sided colon cancer, a low immune response was associated with inferior disease-free survival (mIS-low, HR for relapse 2.28, 95% CI 1.05-8.02). No prognostic significance was seen for tumour mIS in any other stage or site of CRC, or for a similar mIS score derived from adjacent normal mucosa. Independent adverse prognostic significance was retained in multivariable analysis for absence of necrosis, tumour ESR1 expression in all patients and low tumour mIS in stage III right-sided CRC. In localised CRC, mRNA-based CD3Z/CD8 profiling of tumour immune response may have stage, site and tissue-specific prognostic significance, along with ESR1 expression. ANZCTR.org.au ACTRN12610000509066.

  10. The oxidative costs of reproduction are group-size dependent in a wild cooperative breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Dominic L; Blount, Jonathan D; Young, Andrew J

    2015-11-22

    Life-history theory assumes that reproduction entails a cost, and research on cooperatively breeding societies suggests that the cooperative sharing of workloads can reduce this cost. However, the physiological mechanisms that underpin both the costs of reproduction and the benefits of cooperation remain poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that reproductive costs may arise in part from oxidative stress, as reproductive investment may elevate exposure to reactive oxygen species, compromising survival and future reproduction and accelerating senescence. However, experimental evidence of oxidative costs of reproduction in the wild remains scarce. Here, we use a clutch-removal experiment to investigate the oxidative costs of reproduction in a wild cooperatively breeding bird, the white-browed sparrow weaver, Plocepasser mahali. Our results reveal costs of reproduction that are dependent on group size: relative to individuals in groups whose eggs were experimentally removed, individuals in groups that raised offspring experienced an associated cost (elevated oxidative damage and reduced body mass), but only if they were in small groups containing fewer or no helpers. Furthermore, during nestling provisioning, individuals that provisioned at higher rates showed greater within-individual declines in body mass and antioxidant protection. Our results provide rare experimental evidence that reproduction can negatively impact both oxidative status and body mass in the wild, and suggest that these costs can be mitigated in cooperative societies by the presence of additional helpers. These findings have implications for our understanding of the energetic and oxidative costs of reproduction, and the benefits of cooperation in animal societies. © 2015 The Authors.

  11. Cancer across the tree of life: cooperation and cheating in multicellularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, C Athena; Boddy, Amy M; Jansen, Gunther; Hibner, Urszula; Hochberg, Michael E; Maley, Carlo C; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2015-07-19

    Multicellularity is characterized by cooperation among cells for the development, maintenance and reproduction of the multicellular organism. Cancer can be viewed as cheating within this cooperative multicellular system. Complex multicellularity, and the cooperation underlying it, has evolved independently multiple times. We review the existing literature on cancer and cancer-like phenomena across life, not only focusing on complex multicellularity but also reviewing cancer-like phenomena across the tree of life more broadly. We find that cancer is characterized by a breakdown of the central features of cooperation that characterize multicellularity, including cheating in proliferation inhibition, cell death, division of labour, resource allocation and extracellular environment maintenance (which we term the five foundations of multicellularity). Cheating on division of labour, exhibited by a lack of differentiation and disorganized cell masses, has been observed in all forms of multicellularity. This suggests that deregulation of differentiation is a fundamental and universal aspect of carcinogenesis that may be underappreciated in cancer biology. Understanding cancer as a breakdown of multicellular cooperation provides novel insights into cancer hallmarks and suggests a set of assays and biomarkers that can be applied across species and characterize the fundamental requirements for generating a cancer. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Cancer across the tree of life: cooperation and cheating in multicellularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktipis, C. Athena; Boddy, Amy M.; Jansen, Gunther; Hibner, Urszula; Hochberg, Michael E.; Maley, Carlo C.; Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellularity is characterized by cooperation among cells for the development, maintenance and reproduction of the multicellular organism. Cancer can be viewed as cheating within this cooperative multicellular system. Complex multicellularity, and the cooperation underlying it, has evolved independently multiple times. We review the existing literature on cancer and cancer-like phenomena across life, not only focusing on complex multicellularity but also reviewing cancer-like phenomena across the tree of life more broadly. We find that cancer is characterized by a breakdown of the central features of cooperation that characterize multicellularity, including cheating in proliferation inhibition, cell death, division of labour, resource allocation and extracellular environment maintenance (which we term the five foundations of multicellularity). Cheating on division of labour, exhibited by a lack of differentiation and disorganized cell masses, has been observed in all forms of multicellularity. This suggests that deregulation of differentiation is a fundamental and universal aspect of carcinogenesis that may be underappreciated in cancer biology. Understanding cancer as a breakdown of multicellular cooperation provides novel insights into cancer hallmarks and suggests a set of assays and biomarkers that can be applied across species and characterize the fundamental requirements for generating a cancer. PMID:26056363

  13. A Cooperative Learning Group Procedure for Improving CTE and Science Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to create information about the employment of Cooperative Learning Groups (CLG) to enhance the science integrating learning objectives utilized in secondary CTE courses. The objectives of the study were to determine if CLGs were an effective means for increasing the number of: a) science integrating learning…

  14. Investigating the Impact of Mediated Learning Experiences on Cooperative Peer Communication during Group Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert; Dinos, Sokratis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how structured Mediated Learning Experiences may improve peer-cooperative communication within problem-solving task exercises. Two groups (n = 22) of Year 8 students (mean age 13 +/- 5 months) were randomly selected to participate in this study. The study began with two one-hour sessions of activity-based problem-solving…

  15. Perceptions of Group-Led Online Discussions: The Benefits of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz-Uhler, Beth; Lanter, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a cooperative learning activity, students were randomly assigned to small groups and asked to lead an online discussion. Responses to a survey administered at the completion of the course suggest that the activity was effective in meeting its goals of promoting student interaction and increasing perceived student…

  16. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  17. The facilitation of groups and networks: capabilities to shape creative cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The facilitator, defined as a process guide of creative cooperation, is becoming more and more in focus to assist groups,teams and networks to meet these challenges. The author defines and exemplifies different levels of creative coorperation. Core capabilities of facilitation are defined...

  18. Development of curative therapies for Ewing sarcomas by interdisciplinary cooperative groups in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bölling, T.; Braun-Munzinger, G.; Burdach, S.; Calaminus, G.; Craft, A.; Delattre, O.; Deley, M.-C. L.; Dirksen, U.; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B.; Dunst, J.; Engel, S.; Faldum, A.; Fröhlich, B.; Gadner, H.; Göbel, U.; Gosheger, G.; Hardes, J.; Hawkins, D. S.; Hjorth, L.; Hoffmann, C.; Kovar, H.; Kruseova, J.; Ladenstein, R.; Leuschner, I.; Lewis, I. J.; Oberlin, O.; Paulussen, M.; Potratz, J.; Ranft, A.; Rössig, C.; Rübe, C.; Sauer, R.; Schober, O.; Schuck, A.; Timmermann, B.; Tirode, F.; van den Berg, H.; van Valen, F.; Vieth, V.; Willich, N.; Winkelmann, W.; Whelan, J.; Womer, R. B.

    2015-01-01

    Curative therapies for Ewing sarcoma have been developed within cooperative groups. Consecutive clinical trials have systematically assessed the impact and timing of local therapy and the activity of cytotoxic drugs and their combinations. They have led to an increase of long-term disease-free

  19. Investigating the Effects of Group Investigation (GI and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Comprehension (CIRC as the Cooperative Learning Techniques on Learner's Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Karafkan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning consists of some techniques for helping students work together more effectively. This study investigated the effects of Group Investigation (GI and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC as cooperative learning techniques on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension at an intermediate level. The participants of the study were 207 male students who studied at an intermediate level at ILI. The participants were randomly assigned into three equal groups: one control group and two experimental groups. The control group was instructed via conventional technique following an individualistic instructional approach. One experimental group received GI technique. The other experimental group received CIRC technique. The findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between the mean of the reading comprehension score of GI experimental group and CRIC experimental group. CRIC technique is more effective than GI technique in enhancing the reading comprehension test scores of students.

  20. Harvest and group effects on pup survival in a cooperative breeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stansbury, Carisa R.; Stenglein, Jennifer L.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2017-01-01

    Recruitment in cooperative breeders can be negatively affected by changes in group size and composition. The majority of cooperative breeding studies have not evaluated human harvest; therefore, the effects of recurring annual harvest and group characteristics on survival of young are poorly understood. We evaluated how harvest and groups affect pup survival using genetic sampling and pedigrees for grey wolves in North America. We hypothesized that harvest reduces pup survival because of (i) reduced group size, (ii) increased breeder turnover and/or (iii) reduced number of female helpers. Alternatively, harvest may increase pup survival possibly due to increased per capita food availability or it could be compensatory with other forms of mortality. Harvest appeared to be additive because it reduced both pup survival and group size. In addition to harvest, turnover of breeding males and the presence of older, non-breeding males also reduced pup survival. Large groups and breeder stability increased pup survival when there was harvest, however. Inferences about the effect of harvest on recruitment require knowledge of harvest rate of young as well as the indirect effects associated with changes in group size and composition, as we show. The number of young harvested is a poor measure of the effect of harvest on recruitment in cooperative breeders.

  1. Induction Chemotherapy With Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin Followed by Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Taiwan Cooperative Oncology Group Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ch' ang, Hui-Ju [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Lin [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsiu-Po [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Yen-Feng [Institute of Public Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ming-Chu [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chih-Hung [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tien, Yu-Wen [Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jen-Shi [Department of Internal Medicine, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ruey-Kuen [Department of Internal Medicine, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Pin-Wen; Shan, Yan-Shen [Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Ann-Lii [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jang-Yang [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Whang-Peng, Jacqueline [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Tsann-Long, E-mail: hwangtl@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Surgery, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China); and others

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of 3-month triplet induction chemotherapy (ICT) followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). Patients and Methods: Chemonaieve patients with measurable, histologically confirmed LAPC were eligible. The ICT consisted of biweekly gemcitabine (800 mg/m{sup 2}) infusion at a fixed dose rate (10 mg/m{sup 2}/min), followed by 85 mg/m{sup 2} oxaliplatin and 48-h infusion of 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (3000/150 mg/m{sup 2}) for 6 cycles. Patients without disease progression 4 weeks after ICT would receive weekly 400 mg/m{sup 2} gemcitabine and 5040 cGy radiation in 28 fractions. After CCRT, patients were subjected for surgical intervention and/or maintenance chemotherapy until progression or intolerable toxicity. Results: Between December 2004 and August 2008, 50 patients were enrolled. The best responses after ICT were partial response (PR) in 9, stable disease in 26, and progressive disease or not evaluable in 15. Among the former 35 patients, 2 had disease progression before CCRT, and 3 declined to have CCRT. Of the 30 patients receiving CCRT, an additional 4 and 1 patient(s) achieved PR at the end of CCRT and during maintenance chemotherapy, respectively. On intent-to-treat analysis, the overall best response was PR in 14 patients and stable disease in 21. The overall response rate and disease control rate were 28% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.2-42.5%) and 70% (95% CI, 44.4-99.2%), respectively. The median time to progression and overall survival of the intent-to-treat population was 9.3 (95% CI, 5.8-12.8) months and 14.5 (95% CI, 11.9-17.1) months, respectively. One- and two-year survival rates were 68% (95% CI, 55.1-80.9%) and 20.6% (95% CI, 8.7-32.5%), respectively. Neutropenia was the most common Grade 3-4 toxicity of both ICT and CCRT, with a frequency of 28% and 26.7%, respectively. Significant sensory neuropathy occurred in 9 patients (18

  2. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  3. 76 FR 5610 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open Axis Group, Inc... either the membership or planned activity of the group research project. Membership in this group... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research Production Act of 1993--Open Axis...

  4. Professional development regarding small cooperative group instruction in middle school mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, R. Scott

    This study examined the effectiveness of professional development regarding small cooperative group instruction in middle school mathematics and science classrooms on student achievement, attitudes, and behavior. The researcher utilized three standardized benchmark assessments, Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudinal Scale, Instructional Attitudinal Scale, and office referral and suspension records to measure effectiveness. Students involved in small cooperative groups demonstrated an increase of academic performance on standardized assessments. The attitudinal surveys measured student perceived attitudes toward specific forms of instruction and toward the mathematics and science classroom in general. On the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudinal Scale, the students' perceived understanding of teacher attitudes indicated a significant decrease in classroom teachers' positive attitudes during the treatment group. Additionally, office referral ratings indicated that student behavior improved.

  5. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  6. "We've Got to Keep Meeting Like This": A Pilot Study Comparing Academic Performance in Shifting-Membership Cooperative Groups versus Stable-Membership Cooperative Groups in an Introductory-Level Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Bush, Amy; Sanchagrin, Ken; Holland, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined possible ways to increase student engagement in small sections of a large, introductory-level, required university course. Research shows that cooperative group learning boosts achievement through fostering better interpersonal relationships between students. Cooperative group learning is an evidence-based instructional…

  7. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  8. Kiva.org: Crowd-Sourced Microfinance & Cooperation in Group Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley, Scott

    2010-01-01

    At the end of 2008 Kiva.org announced the creation of “Lending Teams,” or cohesive open or closed membership groups established and categorized according to scope. These Lending Teams introduce forms of cooperative many-to-one and many-to-many group lending, based on tenuous concepts of identity. Groups vary according to category, size, scope, and activity, and this impacts participatory vitality of crowd-sourced lending. Looking specifically at Kiva.org as a prominent online community for p...

  9. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  10. Internet cancer support groups: a feminist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2005-01-01

    Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) are an emerging form of support group on Internet specifically for cancer patients. Previous studies have indicated the effectiveness of ICSGs as a research setting or a data-collection method. Yet recent studies have also indicated that ICSGs tend to serve highly educated, high-income White males who tend to be at an early stage of cancer. In this article, a total of 317 general ICSGs and 229 ethnic-specific ICSGs searched through Google.com, Yahoo.com, Msn.com, AOL.com, and ACOR.org are analyzed from a feminist perspective. The written records of group discussions and written memos by the research staff members were also analyzed using content analysis. The idea categories that emerged about these groups include (a) authenticity issues; (b) ethnicity and gender issues; (c) intersubjectivity issues; and (d) potential ethical issues. The findings suggest that (a) researchers adopt multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet sites and/or real settings; (b) researchers raise their own awareness of the potential influences of the health-related resources provided by ICSGs and regularly update their knowledge related to the federal and state standards and/or policies related to ICSGs; and (c) researchers consider adopting a quota-sampling method.

  11. On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Akihiro; Wang, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation.

  12. The tissue microarray data exchange specification: implementation by the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhir Rajiv

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue Microarrays (TMAs have emerged as a powerful tool for examining the distribution of marker molecules in hundreds of different tissues displayed on a single slide. TMAs have been used successfully to validate candidate molecules discovered in gene array experiments. Like gene expression studies, TMA experiments are data intensive, requiring substantial information to interpret, replicate or validate. Recently, an open access Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification has been released that allows TMA data to be organized in a self-describing XML document annotated with well-defined common data elements. While this specification provides sufficient information for the reproduction of the experiment by outside research groups, its initial description did not contain instructions or examples of actual implementations, and no implementation studies have been published. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how the TMA Data Exchange Specification is implemented in a prostate cancer TMA. Results The Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR is funded by the National Cancer Institute to provide researchers with samples of prostate cancer annotated with demographic and clinical data. The CPCTR now offers prostate cancer TMAs and has implemented a TMA database conforming to the new open access Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification. The bulk of the TMA database consists of clinical and demographic data elements for 299 patient samples. These data elements were extracted from an Excel database using a transformative Perl script. The Perl script and the TMA database are open access documents distributed with this manuscript. Conclusions TMA databases conforming to the Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification can be merged with other TMA files, expanded through the addition of data elements, or linked to data contained in external biological databases. This article describes an open access

  13. The group engagement model: procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Tom R; Blader, Steven L

    2003-01-01

    The group engagement model expands the insights of the group-value model of procedural justice and the relational model of authority into an explanation for why procedural justice shapes cooperation in groups, organizations, and societies. It hypothesizes that procedures are important because they shape people's social identity within groups, and social identity in turn influences attitudes, values, and behaviors. The model further hypothesizes that resource judgments exercise their influence indirectly by shaping social identity. This social identity mediation hypothesis explains why people focus on procedural justice, and in particular on procedural elements related to the quality of their interpersonal treatment, because those elements carry the most social identity-relevant information. In this article, we review several key insights of the group engagement model, relate these insights to important trends in psychological research on justice, and discuss implications of the model for the future of procedural justice research.

  14. The effect of levels of cooperation within physical science laboratory groups on physical science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huey-Por; Lederman, Norman G.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the levels of group cooperation on students' achievement during a series of physical science laboratory activities. Six intact seventh-grade physical science classes taught by two teachers, with each teacher instructing three classes, were selected from two middle schools. For each teacher, one of the classes was taught with a traditional approach (no cooperative goal structure). The other two classes were assigned to a cooperative goal structure (role assignment and nonrole assignment). For the role assignment class, each student was assigned a specific role, but students in both traditional and nonrole assignment classes were not assigned roles. The Classroom Observation Instrument in Science Laboratory Activity (COISLA), which includes investigative skills (i.e., managing, manipulating, observing, reading, writing, and reporting); social skills (i.e., discussing, encouraging) and nonlearning behaviors (i.e., waiting, off-task), was used to measure the levels of group cooperation. The grades on lab reports and lab quizzes of students who were taught by the same teacher were compared to assess the effects of the different learning conditions. No significant differences on the students' final achievement were found with respect to the three instructional approaches followed by each teacher. The teacher effect was more significant than either instructional approach on managing, manipulating, observing, reading, and writing behaviors. No significant teacher effect was found for the other behaviors. Only one treatment effect was significant, writing behavior. Overall, the teacher effect was more influential than instructional approach on students' behaviors. In teacher A's classes, reading behavior predicted 21% of students' achievement. However, no significant correlations existed between the 10 collaborative behaviors and students' achievement in teacher B's classes.

  15. A Consensus-Based Grouping Algorithm for Multi-agent Cooperative Task Allocation with Complex Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Simon; Meng, Qinggang; Hinde, Chris; Huang, Tingwen

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at consensus algorithms for agent cooperation with unmanned aerial vehicles. The foundation is the consensus-based bundle algorithm, which is extended to allow multi-agent tasks requiring agents to cooperate in completing individual tasks. Inspiration is taken from the cognitive behaviours of eusocial animals for cooperation and improved assignments. Using the behaviours observed in bees and ants inspires decentralised algorithms for groups of agents to adapt to changing task demand. Further extensions are provided to improve task complexity handling by the agents with added equipment requirements and task dependencies. We address the problems of handling these challenges and improve the efficiency of the algorithm for these requirements, whilst decreasing the communication cost with a new data structure. The proposed algorithm converges to a conflict-free, feasible solution of which previous algorithms are unable to account for. Furthermore, the algorithm takes into account heterogeneous agents, deadlocking and a method to store assignments for a dynamical environment. Simulation results demonstrate reduced data usage and communication time to come to a consensus on multi-agent tasks.

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening in 3 Racial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans as these groups differ in CRC incidence and mortality. Methods Participants were surveyed for knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to CRC. Results Predictive regression modeling found, after adjusting for race, CRC risk, and CRC worry, the odds of screening within guidelines were increased for men, those receiving doctor’s recommendation, those with polyp/tumor history, those under 70, those with more knowledge about CRC, and those with fewer barriers to screening. CRC screening rates did not differ by race. Conclusions These results reiterate the importance of knowledge, barriers, and physician recommendation for CRC screening in all racial groups. PMID:17555381

  17. THE ROLE OF SUPPORT GROUPS IN THE COOPERATION BETWEEN PARENTS OF PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES AND PROFESSIONAL STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka NOVAK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the ways of building and developing a better cooperative relationship between parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff is the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Goal: To examine the correlation of the level of cooperative relationship between the parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff with the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Methodology: Respondents: parents (296 of people with severe and profound learning disabilities and staff (298 in five centres across Slovenia; Methods: descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity, the rankit method, one-way analysis of variance; Procedures: survey questionnaires for parents and staff. The data was processed using SPSS software for personal computers. Results: The difference between the variances of the groups (parent found is statistically significant (F = 6.16; p = 0.01. Staff included in support groups have a significantly lower level of cooperative relationship with parents (f=10; M = - 0.12 than staff not included in these groups (f = 191; M = 0.04. Conclusion:In contrast to theoretical findings the results indicated less successful cooperation for professional staff included in support groups. The results furthermore did not confirm any differences in the cooperative relationship of parents included in support groups and those who are not. We suggest an in-depth analysis of the workings of support groups.

  18. Effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention during the clinical practicum of nursing students: a parallel group randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandell-Laine, Camilla; Saarikoski, Mikko; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Salminen, Leena; Suomi, Reima; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a study protocol for a study evaluating the effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention to improve students' competence level, self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum has a vital role in promoting the learning of students. Despite an increasing interest in using mobile technologies to improve the clinical practicum of students, there is limited robust evidence regarding their effectiveness. A multicentre, parallel group, randomized, controlled, pragmatic, superiority trial. Second-year pre-registration nursing students who are beginning a clinical practicum will be recruited from one university of applied sciences. Eligible students will be randomly allocated to either a control group (engaging in standard cooperation) or an intervention group (engaging in mobile cooperation) for the 5-week the clinical practicum. The complex mobile cooperation intervention comprises of a mobile application-assisted, nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation and a training in the functions of the mobile application. The primary outcome is competence. The secondary outcomes include self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Moreover, a process evaluation will be undertaken. The ethical approval for this study was obtained in December 2014 and the study received funding in 2015. The results of this study will provide robust evidence on mobile cooperation during the clinical practicum, a research topic that has not been consistently studied to date. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  20. Cooperative Co-evolution with Formula-based Variable Grouping for Large-Scale Global Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuping; Liu, Haiyan; Wei, Fei; Zong, Tingting; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-09

    For a large-scale global optimization (LSGO) problem, divide-and-conquer is usually considered as an effective strategy to decompose the problem into smaller subproblems, each of which can be then solved individually. Among these decomposition methods, variable grouping is shown to be promising in recent years. Existing variable grouping methods usually assume the problem to be black-box (i.e., assuming that an analytical model of the objective function is unknown), and they attempt to learn appropriate variable grouping that would allow for a better decomposition of the problem. In such cases, these variable grouping methods do not make a direct use of the formula of the objective function. However, it can be argued that many real world problems are white-box problems, i.e., the formulas of objective functions are often known a priori. These formulas of the objective functions provide rich information which can be then used to design an effective variable group method. In this paper, a formulabased grouping strategy (FBG) for white-box problems is first proposed. It groups variables directly via the formula of an objective function which usually consists of a finite number of operations (i.e., four arithmetic operations " + ", " - ", " × ", " ÷ " and composite operations of basic elementary functions). In FBG, the operations are classified into two classes: one resulting in non-separable variables, and the other resulting in separable variables. In FBG, variables can be automatically grouped into a suitable number of non-interacting subcomponents, with variables in each subcomponent being inter-dependent. FBG can be applied to any white-box problem easily and can be integrated into a cooperative co-evolution framework. Based on FBG, a novel cooperative co-evolution algorithm with formula-based variable grouping (so-called CCF) is proposed in this paper for decomposing a large-scale white-box problem into several smaller sub-problems and optimizing them

  1. Eksperimentasi Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Learning (CL dan Group Investigation (GI ditinjau dari Kecerdasan Majemuk Siswa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rohman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Experimentation of Cooperative Learning (CL and Group Investigation (GI Viewed from Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study is to manifest: (1 which learning model of the CL, GI or expository; (2 which multiple intelligences with the linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematials intelligence or spatial inteligence results in a better learning achievement. The research population was all of the students in Grade V of State Primary School first semester of 2013/2014 at Bojonegoro regency. The samples of the research were taken by using the stratified random sampling technique and then chosen three schools namely SD Negeri 1 Dander, SD Negeri 1 Ngulanan, dan SD Negeri 2 Ngumpakdalem. The hypotheses of the research were tested by using the two-way analysis of variance with unequal cells. The result of research were: (1 GI learning and Expository learning have better mathematics achievement than cooperative learning, meanwhile Expository learning have the same mathematics achievement as GI learning, (2 among students with linguistic intelligence, logical mathematical intelligence or visual spatial intelligence have the same mathematics achievement. Keywords: Clustering Technique, Writing Skill, Descriptive Text

  2. Relative Packing Groups in Template-Based Structure Prediction: Cooperative Effects of True Positive Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ryan; Qu, Xiaotao; Swanson, Rosemarie; Bohannan, Zach; Bliss, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Most current template-based structure prediction methods concentrate on finding the correct backbone conformation and then packing sidechains within that backbone. Our packing-based method derives distance constraints from conserved relative packing groups (RPGs). In our refinement approach, the RPGs provide a level of resolution that restrains global topology while allowing conformational sampling. In this study, we test our template-based structure prediction method using 51 prediction units from CASP7 experiments. RPG-based constraints are able to substantially improve approximately two-thirds of starting templates. Upon deeper investigation, we find that true positive spatial constraints, especially those non-local in sequence, derived from the RPGs were important to building nearer native models. Surprisingly, the fraction of incorrect or false positive constraints does not strongly influence the quality of the final candidate. This result indicates that our RPG-based true positive constraints sample the self-consistent, cooperative interactions of the native structure. The lack of such reinforcing cooperativity explains the weaker effect of false positive constraints. Generally, these findings are encouraging indications that RPGs will improve template-based structure prediction. PMID:21210729

  3. Cancer nanotechnology research in the United States and China: cooperation to promote innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Julie A; Grodzinski, Piotr; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology to cancer research is a promising area for US-China cooperation. Cancer is a major public health burden in both countries, and progress in cancer nanotechnology research is increasing in several fields, including imaging, biomarker detection, and targeted drug delivery. The United States and China are international leaders in nanotechnology research, and have both launched national programs to support nanotechnology efforts in the recent past. The accelerating trend of co-authorship among US and Chinese nanotechnology researchers demonstrates that individual scientists already recognize the potential for cooperation, providing a strong platform for creating additional partnerships in pre-competitive research areas. Mechanisms that could help to enhance US-China cancer nanotechnology partnerships include: developing new programs for bi-directional training and exchange; convening workshops focused on specific scientific topics of high priority to both countries; and joint support of collaborative research projects by US and Chinese funders. In addition to the accelerating scientific progress, expanded cooperation will stimulate important dialog on regulatory, policy, and technical issues needed to lay the groundwork for US and Chinese scientists to move greater numbers of cancer nanotechnology applications into the clinic. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. 76 FR 58540 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open Axis Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... in either the membership or planned activity of the group research project. Membership in this group... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Open Axis Group, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on August 22, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the...

  5. Mechanisms of cooperation in cancer nanomedicine: towards systems nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauert, Sabine; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2014-09-01

    Nanoparticles are designed to deliver therapeutics and diagnostics selectively to tumors. Their size, shape, charge, material, coating, and cargo determine their individual functionalities. A systems approach could help predict the behavior of trillions of nanoparticles interacting in complex tumor environments. Engineering these nanosystems may lead to biomimetic strategies where interactions between nanoparticles and their environment give rise to cooperative behaviors typically seen in natural self-organized systems. Examples include nanoparticles that communicate the location of a tumor to amplify tumor homing or self-assemble and disassemble to optimize nanoparticle transport. The challenge is to discover which nanoparticle designs lead to a desired system behavior. To this end, novel nanomaterials, deep understanding of biology, and computational tools are emerging as the next frontier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  7. Cooperative dynamics in the penetration of a group of intruders in a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2010-11-23

    An object moving in a fluid experiences a drag force that depends on its velocity, shape and the properties of the medium. From this simplest case to the motion of a flock of birds or a school of fish, the drag forces and the hydrodynamic interactions determine the full dynamics of the system. Similar drag forces appear when a single projectile impacts and moves through a granular medium, and this case is well studied in the literature. On the other hand, the case in which a group of intruders impact a granular material has never been considered. Here, we study the simultaneous penetration of several intruders in a very low-density granular medium. We find that the intruders move through it in a collective way, following a cooperative dynamics, whose complexity resembles flocking phenomena in living systems or the movement of reptiles in sand, wherein changes in drag are exploited to efficiently move or propel.

  8. Metabolic cooperation between co-cultured lung cancer cells and lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Kalamida, Dimitra; Mitrakas, Achilleas G; Liousia, Maria; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Sivridis, Efthimios; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    Cooperation of cancer cells with stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), has been revealed as a mechanism sustaining cancer cell survival and growth. In the current study, we focus on the metabolic interactions of MRC5 lung fibroblasts with lung cancer cells (A549 and H1299) using co-culture experiments and studying changes of the metabolic protein expression profile and of their growth and migration abilities. Using western blotting, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR, we observed that in co-cultures MRC5 respond by upregulating pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1. In contrast, cancer cells increase the expression of glucose transporters (GLUT1), LDH5, PDH kinase and the levels of phosphorylated/inactivated pPDH. H1299 cells growing in the same culture medium with fibroblasts exhibit a 'metastasis-like' phenomenon by forming nests within the fibroblast area. LDH5 and pPDH were drastically upregulated in these nests. The growth rate of both MRC5 and cancer cells increased in co-cultures. Suppression of LDHA or PDK1 in cancer cells abrogates the stimulatory signal from cancer cells to fibroblasts. Incubation of MRC5 fibroblasts with lactate resulted in an increase of LDHB and of PDH expression. Silencing of PDH gene in fibroblasts, or silencing of PDK1 or LDHA gene in tumor cells, impedes cancer cell's migration ability. Overall, a metabolic cooperation between lung cancer cells and fibroblasts has been confirmed in the context of direct Warburg effect, thus the fibroblasts reinforce aerobic metabolism to support the intensified anaerobic glycolytic pathways exploited by cancer cells.

  9. Cooperation and Conflict: Faction Problem of Western Medicine Group in Modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongeun JO

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China’s intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government. In addition, they formed a faction by the country where they studied or the language they learned. The factions included the Britain - America faction(yingmeipai consisting of the Britain - America studied doctors or graduates from Protestant missions based medical schools, and the Germany - Japan faction(deripai, graduates from medical schools by Japanese or German government and the Chinese government. In 1915, they founded the National Medical Association of China mainly consisting of the Britain - America faction and the National Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of China led by the Germany – Japan faction. Initially, exchanges were active so most of eminent doctors belonged the two associations at the same time. They had a consciousness of a common occupation group as a doctor who had learned Western medicine. Thus, they actively cooperated to keep their profits against Chinese medicine and enjoy their reputation. Their cooperation emitted light particularly in translation of medical terms and unified works. Thanks to cooperation, the two associations selected medical terminologies by properly using the cases of the West and Japan. Additionally, medical schools of the Britain - America faction and the Germany – Japan faction produced various levels of the Western

  10. Cooperation and Conflict: Faction Problem of Western Medicine Group in Modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeongeun

    2016-08-01

    After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government. In addition, they formed a faction by the country where they studied or the language they learned. The factions included the Britain - America faction(yingmeipai) consisting of the Britain - America studied doctors or graduates from Protestant missions based medical schools, and the Germany - Japan faction(deripai), graduates from medical schools by Japanese or German government and the Chinese government. In 1915, they founded the National Medical Association of China mainly consisting of the Britain - America faction and the National Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of China led by the Germany - Japan faction. Initially, exchanges were active so most of eminent doctors belonged the two associations at the same time. They had a consciousness of a common occupation group as a doctor who had learned Western medicine. Thus, they actively cooperated to keep their profits against Chinese medicine and enjoy their reputation. Their cooperation emitted light particularly in translation of medical terms and unified works. Thanks to cooperation, the two associations selected medical terminologies by properly using the cases of the West and Japan. Additionally, medical schools of the Britain - America faction and the Germany - Japan faction produced various levels of the Western Medicine Group doctors

  11. ‘I owe it to my group members... who critically commented on my conducting’ – Cooperative learning in choral conducting education

    OpenAIRE

    Varvarigou, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cooperative learning in choral conducting education. The five characteristics of cooperative learning identified by Adams and Hamm ((1996). Cooperative learning: Critical thinking and collaboration across the curriculum (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publishers): positive interdependence; face-to-face interaction; individual accountability and personal responsibility for reaching groups goals; frequent practice with small-group interpersonal skills; and regul...

  12. The role of host traits, season and group size on parasite burdens in a cooperative mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Viljoen

    Full Text Available The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites. Such patterns of aggregation have been linked to variation in host exposure and susceptibility as well as parasite traits and environmental factors. Host exposure and susceptibility may differ with sexes, reproductive effort and group size. Furthermore, environmental factors may affect both the host and parasite directly and contribute to temporal heterogeneities in parasite loads. We investigated the contributions of host and parasite traits as well as season on parasite loads in highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae. This cooperative breeder exhibits a reproductive division of labour and animals live in colonies of varying sizes that procreate seasonally. Mole-rats were parasitised by lice, mites, cestodes and nematodes with mites (Androlaelaps sp. and cestodes (Mathevotaenia sp. being the dominant ecto- and endoparasites, respectively. Sex and reproductive status contributed little to the observed parasite prevalence and abundances possibly as a result of the shared burrow system. Clear seasonal patterns of parasite prevalence and abundance emerged with peaks in summer for mites and in winter for cestodes. Group size correlated negatively with mite abundance while it had no effect on cestode burdens and group membership affected infestation with both parasites. We propose that the mode of transmission as well as social factors constrain parasite propagation generating parasite patterns deviating from those commonly predicted.

  13. Knowledge extraction algorithm for variances handling of CP using integrated hybrid genetic double multi-group cooperative PSO and DPSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Gang; Jiang, Zhibin; Diao, Xiaodi; Yao, Yang

    2012-04-01

    Although the clinical pathway (CP) predefines predictable standardized care process for a particular diagnosis or procedure, many variances may still unavoidably occur. Some key index parameters have strong relationship with variances handling measures of CP. In real world, these problems are highly nonlinear in nature so that it's hard to develop a comprehensive mathematic model. In this paper, a rule extraction approach based on combing hybrid genetic double multi-group cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) and discrete PSO algorithm (named HGDMCPSO/DPSO) is developed to discovery the previously unknown and potentially complicated nonlinear relationship between key parameters and variances handling measures of CP. Then these extracted rules can provide abnormal variances handling warning for medical professionals. Three numerical experiments on Iris of UCI data sets, Wisconsin breast cancer data sets and CP variances data sets of osteosarcoma preoperative chemotherapy are used to validate the proposed method. When compared with the previous researches, the proposed rule extraction algorithm can obtain the high prediction accuracy, less computing time, more stability and easily comprehended by users, thus it is an effective knowledge extraction tool for CP variances handling.

  14. Response evaluation criteria for solid tumours in dogs (v1.0): a Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S M; Thamm, D H; Vail, D M; London, C A

    2015-09-01

    In veterinary medical oncology, there is currently no standardized protocol for assessing response to therapy in solid tumours. The lack of such a formalized guideline makes it challenging to critically compare outcome measures across various treatment protocols. The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) membership consensus document presented here is based on the recommendations of a subcommittee of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) board-certified veterinary oncologists. This consensus paper has used the human response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST v1.1) as a framework to establish standard procedures for response assessment in canine solid tumours that is meant to be easy to use, repeatable and applicable across a variety of clinical trial structures in veterinary oncology. It is hoped that this new canine RECIST (cRECIST v1.0) will be adopted within the veterinary oncology community and thereby facilitate the comparison of current and future treatment protocols used for companion animals with cancer. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The Relative Effects of Positive Interdependence and Group Processing on Student Achievement and Attitude in Online Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive…

  16. Group in-course assessment promotes cooperative learning and increases performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, Margaret K; Merrick, Deborah; Burr, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe and evaluate a method to motivate medical students to maximize the effectiveness of dissection opportunities by using In-Course-Assessments (ICAs) to encourage teamwork. A student's final mark was derived by combining the group dissection mark, group mark for questions, and their individual question mark. An analysis of the impact of the ICA was performed by comparing end of module practical summative marks in student cohorts who had, or had not, participated in the ICAs. Summative marks were compared by two-way ANOVA followed by Dunnets test, or by repeated measures ANOVA, as appropriate. A cohort of medical students was selected that had experienced both practical classes without (year one) and with the new ICA structure (year two). Comparison of summative year one and year two marks illustrated an increased improvement in year two performance in this cohort. A significant increase was also noted when comparing this cohort with five preceding year two cohorts who had not experienced the ICAs (P learning resources in an active, team-based, cooperative learning environment. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. An informatics model for tissue banks – Lessons learned from the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in molecular biology and growing requirements from biomarker validation studies have generated a need for tissue banks to provide quality-controlled tissue samples with standardized clinical annotation. The NCI Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR is a distributed tissue bank that comprises four academic centers and provides thousands of clinically annotated prostate cancer specimens to researchers. Here we describe the CPCTR information management system architecture, common data element (CDE development, query interfaces, data curation, and quality control. Methods Data managers review the medical records to collect and continuously update information for the 145 clinical, pathological and inventorial CDEs that the Resource maintains for each case. An Access-based data entry tool provides de-identification and a standard communication mechanism between each group and a central CPCTR database. Standardized automated quality control audits have been implemented. Centrally, an Oracle database has web interfaces allowing multiple user-types, including the general public, to mine de-identified information from all of the sites with three levels of specificity and granularity as well as to request tissues through a formal letter of intent. Results Since July 2003, CPCTR has offered over 6,000 cases (38,000 blocks of highly characterized prostate cancer biospecimens, including several tissue microarrays (TMA. The Resource developed a website with interfaces for the general public as well as researchers and internal members. These user groups have utilized the web-tools for public query of summary data on the cases that were available, to prepare requests, and to receive tissues. As of December 2005, the Resource received over 130 tissue requests, of which 45 have been reviewed, approved and filled. Additionally, the Resource implemented the TMA Data Exchange Specification in its TMA program and created a

  18. Assessing stakeholder opinion on relations between cancer patient groups and pharmaceutical companies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto di Priolo, Susanna; Fehervary, Andras; Riggins, Phil; Redmond, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    ' competence to take on this role. Also, pharmaceutical companies and patient groups have a common interest in working together on the development of non-promotional patient information and strategies to support medicines adherence. Respondents also indicated that the two sectors have a legitimate interest in ensuring that patients in need access appropriate treatments in a timely manner. Ongoing cooperation between health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, and cancer patient groups is also viewed as important. Efforts should continue to make relations between pharmaceutical companies and cancer patient groups as equal, open, and transparent as possible. Despite ongoing concerns about the openness and transparency of relations between pharmaceutical companies and patient groups, there is scope for these two sectors to work together on issues of common interest.

  19. Grades Degrade Group Coordination: Deteriorated Interactions and Performance in a Cooperative Motor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Anne-Sophie; Toma, Claudia; Guidotti, Sofia; Oberlé, Dominique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    At school, pupils often cooperate on common projects and must coordinate their different individual actions. However, grades are pervasively used even in cooperative situations, which make the pupils' differences in achievement and their relative rank salient and may reduce their inclination to work constructively with others. Thus, we…

  20. Cooperative Group, Risk-Taking and Inclusion of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…

  1. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Blood group “A” and “Rhesus +ve” have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type “AB” and “Rhesus –ve” are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group “A” and “Rh +ve” as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.

  2. Polymerase chain reaction detection of circulating tumour cells. EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group, Immunotherapy Subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilholz, U; Willhauck, M; Scheibenbogen, C; de Vries, T J; Burchill, S

    1997-08-01

    Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assays to detect occult neoplastic cells offer the highest sensitivity for the study of tumour dissemination and minimal residual disease. The detection of small numbers of tumour cells in a clinical sample may result in a redefinition of what constitutes residual disease and relapse, affecting future patient management. However, there remains disparity in the published data on the clinical value of RT-PCR for the detection of circulating tumour cells. This most likely reflects differences in the methods for sample preparation, RNA extraction, and cDNA synthesis among laboratories. Consequently the need for implementation of standard quality control measures is pressing in order to facilitate meaningful assessment of the methodology and it's clinical value. A 2-day workshop organized by the immunotherapy subgroup of the EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group was held on this topic at the Ludwig Institute in Epalinges-sur-Lausanne, Switzerland in January 1996, with Stefan Carrel as the local host. Many pertinent issues were discussed in great detail, covering every step from sample handling to quality control. This workshop resulted in a concerted action leading to the preparation of laboratory guidelines, which are summarized in this review.

  3. Remote Cooperative Group Strategy Enables Ligands for Accelerative Asymmetric Gold Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixun; Nicolini, Corrado; Hervieu, Cedric; Wong, Yuk-Fai; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Zhang, Liming

    2017-11-15

    An accelerative asymmetric gold catalysis is achieved for the first time via chiral ligand metal cooperation. An asymmetrically positioned remote amide group in the designed chiral binaphthyl-based ligand plays the essential role of a general base catalyst and selectively accelerates the cyclizations of 4-allen-1-ols into one prochiral allene face. The reactions are mostly highly enantioselective with achiral substrates, and due to the accelerated nature of the catalysis catalyst loadings as low as 100 ppm are allowed. With a pre-existing chiral center at any of the backbone sp 3 -carbons, the reaction remained highly efficient and most importantly maintained excellent allene facial selectivities regardless of the substrate stereochemistry. By using different combinations of ligand and substrate enantiomers, it is now possible to access all four stereoisomers of versatile 2-vinyltetrahydrofurans with exceedingly high selectivity. The underpinning design of this chemistry reveals a novel and conceptually distinctive strategy to tackle challenging asymmetric gold catalysis, which to date has relied on decelerative asymmetric steric hindrance approaches.

  4. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, Alysa, E-mail: alysa.fairchild@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Straube, William [Advanced Technology Consortium, Imaged-Guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Followill, David [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  5. Not just like starting over - Leadership and revivification of cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandts, Jordi; Rott, Christina; Solà, Carles

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to study how, after a history of decay, cooperation in a repeated voluntary contribution game can be revived in an enduring way. Simply starting the repeated game over-a simple fresh start-leads to an initial increase of cooperation, but to a subsequent new decay. Motivated by cooperation decay in organizations we study the potential of three interventions of triggering higher and sustained cooperation, which take place at the same time as a restart. Surprisingly, we find that the detailed explanation of the causes of the decay in cooperation of Fischbacher and Gächter (Am Econ Rev 100:541-556, 2010) combined with an advice on how to prevent decay do not have an effect beyond that of just starting over. In contrast, a one-way free form communication message sent by the leader to the followers strongly revives cooperation. We find evidence that repeated free form communication by the leader further strengthens the reviving effect on cooperation. Combining the two previous interventions does not outperform the pure effect of communication. Our content analysis reveals that leader communication is more people oriented than the expert advice.

  6. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  7. Altered TGF-α/β signaling drives cooperation between breast cancer cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Omar E.; Tyson, Darren R.; Konvinse, Katherine C.; Udyavar, Akshata R.; Estrada, Lourdes; Quaranta, Vito; Crawford, Susan E.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    The role of tumor heterogeneity in regulating disease progression is poorly understood. We hypothesized that interactions between subpopulations of cancer cells can affect the progression of tumors selecting for a more aggressive phenotype. We developed an in vivo assay based on the immortalized nontumorigenic breast cell line MCF10A and its Ras-transformed derivatives AT1 (mildly tumorigenic) and CA1d (highly tumorigenic). CA1d cells outcompeted MCF10A, forming invasive tumors. AT1 grafts were approximately 1% the size of CA1d tumors when initiated using identical cell numbers. In contrast, CA1d/AT1 mixed tumors were larger than tumors composed of AT1 alone (100-fold) or CA1d (3-fold), suggesting cooperation in tumor growth. One of the mechanisms whereby CA1d and AT1 were found to cooperate was by modulation of TGF-α and TGF-β signaling. Both of these molecules were sufficient to induce changes in AT1 proliferative potential in vitro. Reisolation of AT1 tumor-derived (AT1-TD) cells from these mixed tumors revealed that AT1-TD cells grew in vivo, forming tumors as large as tumorigenic CA1d cells. Cooperation between subpopulations of cancer epithelium is an understudied mechanism of tumor growth and invasion that may have implications on tumor resistance to current therapies.—Franco, O. E., Tyson, D. R., Konvinse, K. C., Udyavar, A. R., Estrada, L., Quaranta, V., Crawford, S. E., Hayward, S. W. Altered TGF-α/β signaling drives cooperation between breast cancer cell populations. PMID:27383183

  8. Group Heterogeneity and Cooperation on the Geographical Indication Regulations: The Case of the 'Prosciutto di Parma Consortium'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Menozzi, D.; Capelli, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of individual group members’ heterogeneous characteristics, resources and strategies on their level of cooperation on defining the future regulation of Geographical Indications (GIs). By following a “grounded theory” approach, this study combines qualitative evidence

  9. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODELS TYPE GROUP INVESTIGATION AND KINESTHETIC STYLE LEARNING TO SCIENCE PHYSICS SKILL PROCESS ON STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriutami Kholila Mora Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: to determine differences in the physics skills of students with learning model Cooperative Group Investigation using concept maps and Direct Instruction teaching model, to determine differences in the physical skills of students who have high Kinesthetic Learning Styles and Learning Styles low, to determine the interaction between Models of Learning and Kinesthetic Learning Styles toward physical process skills of students. The sample in this study conducted in a cluster random sampling of two classes, where the first class as a class experiment applied learning models Cooperative Group Investigation using Concept Maps as a class and the second class of controls implemented Direct Instruction model. The instrument used in this study is physics instrument science process skills in narrative form as many as 13 questions and instrument kinesthetic learning style questionnaire that has been declared valid and reliable. The results were found: there are differences in physical science process skills students are taught by Cooperative Group Investigation learning model using Concept Maps and Direct Instruction teaching model. There are differences in physical science process skills of students who have kinesthetic learning styles and students who have low kinesthetic learning style. Interaction between learning models Cooperative Group Investigation using Concept Maps and kinesthetic learning styles in influencing the physical science process skills of students.

  10. Video Modeling of Cooperative Discussion Group Behaviors with Students with Learning Disabilities in a Secondary Content-area Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-mediated instructional strategies such as cooperative learning are commonly used in general education classrooms in secondary schools; however, students with disabilities often lack the group interaction and discussion skills necessary to fully benefit from evidence-based interventions. The present study used a multiple baseline across…

  11. The coevolution of cooperation and dispersal in social groups and its implications for the emergence of multicellularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochberg Michael E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work on the complexity of life highlights the roles played by evolutionary forces at different levels of individuality. One of the central puzzles in explaining transitions in individuality for entities ranging from complex cells, to multicellular organisms and societies, is how different autonomous units relinquish control over their functions to others in the group. In addition to the necessity of reducing conflict over effecting specialized tasks, differentiating groups must control the exploitation of the commons, or else be out-competed by more fit groups. Results We propose that two forms of conflict – access to resources within groups and representation in germ line – may be resolved in tandem through individual and group-level selective effects. Specifically, we employ an optimization model to show the conditions under which different within-group social behaviors (cooperators producing a public good or cheaters exploiting the public good may be selected to disperse, thereby not affecting the commons and functioning as germ line. We find that partial or complete dispersal specialization of cheaters is a general outcome. The propensity for cheaters to disperse is highest with intermediate benefit:cost ratios of cooperative acts and with high relatedness. An examination of a range of real biological systems tends to support our theory, although additional study is required to provide robust tests. Conclusion We suggest that trait linkage between dispersal and cheating should be operative regardless of whether groups ever achieve higher levels of individuality, because individual selection will always tend to increase exploitation, and stronger group structure will tend to increase overall cooperation through kin selected benefits. Cheater specialization as dispersers offers simultaneous solutions to the evolution of cooperation in social groups and the origin of specialization of germ and soma in

  12. A Landscape of Therapeutic Cooperativity in KRAS Mutant Cancers Reveals Principles for Controlling Tumor Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace R. Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Combinatorial inhibition of effector and feedback pathways is a promising treatment strategy for KRAS mutant cancers. However, the particular pathways that should be targeted to optimize therapeutic responses are unclear. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we systematically mapped the pathways whose inhibition cooperates with drugs targeting the KRAS effectors MEK, ERK, and PI3K. By performing 70 screens in models of KRAS mutant colorectal, lung, ovarian, and pancreas cancers, we uncovered universal and tissue-specific sensitizing combinations involving inhibitors of cell cycle, metabolism, growth signaling, chromatin regulation, and transcription. Furthermore, these screens revealed secondary genetic modifiers of sensitivity, yielding a SRC inhibitor-based combination therapy for KRAS/PIK3CA double-mutant colorectal cancers (CRCs with clinical potential. Surprisingly, acquired resistance to combinations of growth signaling pathway inhibitors develops rapidly following treatment, but by targeting signaling feedback or apoptotic priming, it is possible to construct three-drug combinations that greatly delay its emergence.

  13. Structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation networks: evidence based on Local Action Groups in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pisani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation projects promoted by Local Action Groups (LAGs in different periods (from LEADER II to LEADER Axis using Social Network Analysis (SNA in a specific case study: the Veneto Region in Italy. The classical indexes of SNA have been critically examined, and the paper also presents innovative indexes that can capture the peculiarity of transnational cooperation: disaggregated densities of the network and transnational centrality of the node. These indexes are useful in order to quantify how transnational a network actually is, and to measure the power-information that each actor (LAG can acquire through its transnational contacts. The methodology can become a tool for Managing Authorities to implement new forms of evaluation of transnational cooperation of LAGs.

  14. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  15. Multinuclear group 4 catalysis: olefin polymerization pathways modified by strong metal-metal cooperative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Jennifer P; Delferro, Massimiliano; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-08-19

    homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, macromolecules with dramatically altered properties, and large-scale industrial processes. It is noteworthy that many metalloenzymes employ multiple active centers operating in close synergistic proximity to achieve high activity and selectivity. Such enzymes were the inspiration for the research discussed in this Account, focused on the properties of multimetallic olefin polymerization catalysts. Here we discuss how modifications in organic ligand architecture, metal···metal proximity, and cocatalyst can dramatically modify polyolefin molecular weight, branch structure, and selectively for olefinic comonomer enchainment. We first discuss bimetallic catalysts with identical group 4 metal centers and then heterobimetallic systems with either group 4 or groups 4 + 6 catalytic centers. We compare and contrast the polymerization properties of the bimetallic catalysts with their monometallic analogues, highlighting marked cooperative enchainment effects and unusual polymeric products possible via the proximate catalytic centers. Such multinuclear olefin polymerization catalysts exhibit the following distinctive features: (1) unprecedented levels of polyolefin branching; (2) enhanced enchainment selectivity for linear and encumbered α-olefin comonomers; (3) enhanced polyolefin tacticity and molecular weight; (4) unusual 1,2-insertion regiochemistry for styrenic monomers; (5) modified chain transfer kinetics, such as M-polymer β-hydride transfer to the metal or incoming monomer; (6) LLDPE synthesis with a single binuclear catalyst and ethylene.

  16. At the United Nation Foundation's Social Good Summit, Vice President Biden Announces New Cancer Moonshot International Cooperation and Investments | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This week, Vice President Joe Biden announced progress on his global vision for the Cancer Moonshot.  Announced were 10 new Memoranda of Understanding or Memoranda of Cooperation for international cancer research and care, as well as new efforts in the emerging scientific areas of precision oncology, the funding of collaborative research centers to address cancer disparities in low- and middle- income (LMIC) countries, and a strengthening of existing U.S. bilateral science and technology engagements around cancer.  

  17. Predicting invasive breast cancer versus DCIS in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvaci, Mehmet U S; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Sickles, Edward A; Nassif, Houssam; Kerlikowske, Karla; Burnside, Elizabeth S

    2014-08-11

    Increasing focus on potentially unnecessary diagnosis and treatment of certain breast cancers prompted our investigation of whether clinical and mammographic features predictive of invasive breast cancer versus ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) differ by age. We analyzed 1,475 malignant breast biopsies, 1,063 invasive and 412 DCIS, from 35,871 prospectively collected consecutive diagnostic mammograms interpreted at University of California, San Francisco between 1/6/1997 and 6/29/2007. We constructed three logistic regression models to predict the probability of invasive cancer versus DCIS for the following groups: women ≥ 65 (older group), women 50-64 (middle age group), and women group). We identified significant predictors and measured the performance in all models using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The models for older and the middle age groups performed significantly better than the model for younger group (AUC = 0.848 vs, 0.778; p = 0.049 and AUC = 0.851 vs, 0.778; p = 0.022, respectively). Palpability and principal mammographic finding were significant predictors in distinguishing invasive from DCIS in all age groups. Family history of breast cancer, mass shape and mass margins were significant positive predictors of invasive cancer in the older group whereas calcification distribution was a negative predictor of invasive cancer (i.e. predicted DCIS). In the middle age group--mass margins, and in the younger group--mass size were positive predictors of invasive cancer. Clinical and mammographic finding features predict invasive breast cancer versus DCIS better in older women than younger women. Specific predictive variables differ based on age.

  18. Prostate cancer among different racial groups in the Western Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. We aimed to compare the presenting features and management of prostate cancer among different racial groups. Patients and methods. We studied all patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Urological Oncology Clinic, Tygerberg Hospital, from January 1995 to December 2005. Most presented ...

  19. Intentions for cooperative conflict resolution in groups : An application of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodoiu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to test to what extent a cooperative conflict management style can be related to attitudes, norms and perceived volitional control. Second, because conflict resolution is an activity that unfolds at the team level, the validity of the theoretical

  20. Inquiry and Groups: Student Interactions in Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…

  1. Grouped Gene Selection of Cancer via Adaptive Sparse Group Lasso Based on Conditional Mutual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juntao; Dong, Wenpeng; Meng, Deyuan

    2017-10-11

    This paper deals with the problems of cancer classification and grouped gene selection. The weighted gene co-expression network on cancer microarray data is employed to identify modules corresponding to biological pathways, based on which a strategy of dividing genes into groups is presented. Using the conditional mutual information within each divided group, an integrated criterion is proposed and the data-driven weights are constructed. They are shown with the ability to evaluate both the individual gene significance and the influence to improve correlation of all the other pairwise genes in each group. Furthermore, an adaptive sparse group lasso is proposed, by which an improved blockwise descent algorithm is developed. The results on four cancer data sets demonstrate that the proposed adaptive sparse group lasso can effectively perform classification and grouped gene selection.

  2. Association of ABO blood group and breast cancer in Jodhpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Shikha; Chawla, Vinod Kumar; Gupta, Kamal Kant; Gaur, Kusum Lata

    2015-01-01

    There is a large amount of evidence that the ABO blood group system may play a role in disease etiology. However, in relation to breast cancer, these findings are inconsistent and contradictory. Present study was conducted for analysis to access ABO blood groups potential role of in breast carcinoma. The study was conducted on 206 clinically diagnosed breast cancer patients from Radiotherapy Department of Mathura Das Mathur Hospital in Jodhpur, from September 2006 to December 2007. The standard agglutination test was used to determine the blood groups. Association of ABO blood groups and risk of breast cancers was found out with Odd Ratios (ORs) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). In reference of proportion of breast cancer in blood group AB [OR 1 with 95% CI 0.476 to 2.103), the breast carcinoma in blood group A [OR 7.444 with 95% CI 4.098 to 13.5222) was found at 7.4 times at higher risk than in blood group 'AB'. Breast cancer was found minimum in blood group 'AB' and maximum in blood group 'A'.

  3. Mechanism of Macroscopic Motion of Oleate Helical Assemblies : Cooperative Deprotonation of Carboxyl Groups Triggered by Photoisomerization of Azobenzene Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Yoshiyuki; Ikegami, Tomonori; Kurokome, Yuta; Takeda, Sadamu

    2016-01-01

    Macroscopic and spatially ordered motions of self-assemblies composed of oleic acid and a small amount of an azobenzene derivative, induced by azobenzene photoisomerization, was previously reported. However, the mechanism of the generation of submillimeter-scale motions by the nanosized structural transition of azobenzene was not clarified. Herein, an underlying mechanism of the motions is proposed in which deprotonation of carboxyl groups in co-operation with azobenzene photoisomerization ca...

  4. BMI1 and H-RAS Cooperate to Drive Breast Cancer Metastasis | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been significant improvements in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages of the disease. However, even when patients are identified early, there is a 30 percent chance of recurrence after apparently successful treatment of the initial tumor. The major cause of death for breast cancer patients is metastasis of the tumor to other organs but, unfortunately, the mechanisms of metastatic progression and cancer recurrence are poorly understood.

  5. A Strategy To Advance the Evidence Base in Palliative Medicine: Formation of a Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Noreen M.; Basch, Ethan; Bull, Janet; Cleeland, Charles S.; Currow, David C.; Fairclough, Diane; Hanson, Laura; Hauser, Joshua; Ko, Danielle; Lloyd, Linda; Morrison, R. Sean; Otis-Green, Shirley; Pantilat, Steve; Portenoy, Russell K.; Ritchie, Christine; Rocker, Graeme; Wheeler, Jane L.; Zafar, S. Yousuf; Kutner, Jean S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Palliative medicine has made rapid progress in establishing its scientific and clinical legitimacy, yet the evidence base to support clinical practice remains deficient in both the quantity and quality of published studies. Historically, the conduct of research in palliative care populations has been impeded by multiple barriers including health care system fragmentation, small number and size of potential sites for recruitment, vulnerability of the population, perceptions of inappropriateness, ethical concerns, and gate-keeping. Methods A group of experienced investigators with backgrounds in palliative care research convened to consider developing a research cooperative group as a mechanism for generating high-quality evidence on prioritized, clinically relevant topics in palliative care. Results : The resulting Palliative Care Research Cooperative (PCRC) agreed on a set of core principles: active, interdisciplinary membership; commitment to shared research purposes; heterogeneity of participating sites; development of research capacity in participating sites; standardization of methodologies, such as consenting and data collection/management; agile response to research requests from government, industry, and investigators; focus on translation; education and training of future palliative care researchers; actionable results that can inform clinical practice and policy. Consensus was achieved on a first collaborative study, a randomized clinical trial of statin discontinuation versus continuation in patients with a prognosis of less than 6 months who are taking statins for primary or secondary prevention. This article describes the formation of the PCRC, highlighting processes and decisions taken to optimize the cooperative group's success. PMID:21105763

  6. Cooperative learning in third graders' jigsaw groups for mathematics and science with and without questioning training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignier, Elmar; Kronenberger, Julia

    2007-12-01

    There is much support for using cooperative methods, since important instructional aspects, such as elaboration of new information, can easily be realized by methods like 'jigsaw'. However, the impact of providing students with additional help like a questioning training and potential limitations of the method concerning the (minimum) age of the students have rarely been investigated. The study investigated the effects of cooperative methods at elementary school level. Three conditions of instruction were compared: jigsaw, jigsaw with a supplementary questioning training and teacher-guided instruction. Nine third grade classes from three schools with 208 students participated in the study. In each school, all the three instructional conditions were realized in three different classes. All classes studied three units on geometry and one unit on astronomy using the assigned instructional method. Each learning unit comprised six lessons. For each unit, an achievement test was administered as pre-test, post-test and delayed test. In the math units, no differences between the three conditions could be detected. In the astronomy unit, students benefited more from teacher-guided instruction. Differential analyses revealed that 'experts' learned more than students in teacher-guided instruction, whereas 'novices' were outperformed by the students in the control classes. Even third graders used the jigsaw method with satisfactory learning results. The modest impact of the questioning training and the low learning gains of the cooperative classes in the astronomy unit as well as high discrepancies between learning outcomes of experts and novices show that explicit instruction of explaining skills in combination with well-structured material are key issues in using the jigsaw method with younger students.

  7. Employer Cooperation in Group Insurance Coverage for Public-School Personnel, 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This study presents data on group insurance coverage for public school personnel during the 1964-65 academic year, collected from 646 school systems of all sizes throughout the United States. Areas covered include (1) group life insurance, (2) group hospitalization insurance, (3) group medical-surgical insurance, (4) group major medical insurance,…

  8. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Margaret A; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M

    2012-05-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses' Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association with ABO genotype in a nested case-control study of 1,138 invasive breast cancer cases and 1,090 matched controls. Finally, we evaluated the association between serologic blood type and survival among 2,036 participants with breast cancer. No clear association was seen between serologic blood type or ABO genotype and risk of total breast cancer, invasive breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes. Compared to women with blood type O, the age-adjusted incidence rate ratios for serologic blood type and total breast cancer were 1.06 (95% CI, 0.98-1.15) for type A, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.93-1.22) for AB and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.96-1.20) for B. In genetic analyses, odds ratios for invasive breast cancer were 1.05 (95% CI, 0.87-1.27) for A/O, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.86-1.69) for A/A, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.56-1.26) for A/B, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.63-1.13) for B/O and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.35-3.86) for B/B, compared to O/O. No significant association was noted between blood type and overall or breast cancer-specific mortality. Our results suggest no association between ABO blood group and breast cancer risk or survival. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  9. The Children’s Oncology Group Childhood Cancer Research Network (CCRN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Jessica R. B.; Spector, Logan G.; Krailo, Mark D.; Reaman, Gregory H.; Linabery, Amy M.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Stork, Susan K.; Adamson, Peter C.; Ross, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Childhood Cancer Research Network (CCRN) was established within the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) in July 2008 to provide a centralized pediatric cancer research registry for investigators conducting approved etiologic and survivorship studies. The authors conducted an ecological analysis to characterize CCRN catchment at >200 COG institutions by demographic characteristics, diagnosis, and geographic location to determine whether the CCRN can serve as a population-based registry for childhood cancer. METHODS During 2009 to 2011, 18,580 US children newly diagnosed with cancer were registered in the CCRN. These observed cases were compared with age-specific, sex-specific, and race/ethnicity-specific expected numbers calculated from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer incidence rates and 2010 US Census data. RESULTS Overall, 42% of children (18,580 observed/44,267 expected) who were diagnosed with cancer at age <20 years were registered in the CCRN, including 45%, 57%, 51%, 44%, and 24% of those diagnosed at birth, ages 1 to 4 years, ages 5 to 9 years, ages 10 to 14 years, and ages 15 to 19 years, respectively. Some malignancies were better represented in the CCRN (leukemia, 59%; renal tumors, 67%) than others (retinoblastoma, 34%). There was little evidence of differences by sex or race/ethnicity, although rates in nonwhites were somewhat lower than rates in whites. CONCLUSIONS Given the low observed-to-expected ratio, it will be important to identify challenges and barriers to registration to improve case ascertainment, especially for rarer diagnoses and older age groups; however, it is encouraging that some diagnoses in younger children are fairly representative of the population. Overall, the CCRN is providing centralized, real-time access to cases for research and could be used as a model for other national cooperative groups. PMID:24889136

  10. [Cancer Education for Children from the Perspective of International Cooperation for Cancer in Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Norie

    2015-08-01

    When considering how Japan can propose cancer prevention strategies for other countries in Asia and what would be the best format for such strategies, involvement in cancer education has the potential to make a significant contribution to cancer control measures in Asia. Such involvement would be effective not only from the perspective of promoting future research collaborations for cancer but also because many countries in Asia are coming to a turning point in their social structures as population growth declines and societies start to age. Cancer involves various stages, from prevention, early detection, early treatment, and treatment with advanced methods to prognosis and follow-up, and prevention of recurrence. In all of these stages, the daily lives of patients and the clinical environment are intricately interlinked on the same level. In addition, decisions on when and how to allocate medical resources that support the various cancer stages affect the health and quality of life of patients. Progress in prevention and early detection can reduce the consumption of medical resources. However, the tendency is to rely on self-help efforts and individual awareness in these areas. It is therefore thought to be necessary to re-appraise prevention and early detection in the context of a framework that aims to bring people together in a way that encourages mutual and public assistance. It would be ideal if children, who represent the future, could acquire awareness about such matters from an existing body of knowledge that has been formed through ongoing interpersonal interactions that have been nurtured through community and blood relationships. It is necessary to consider what cancer education means for individuals and society, and how it can change the way people go about their daily lives, particularly in the context of the changing social structure of Asia.

  11. Designing Cooperative Learning in the Science Classroom: Integrating the Peer Tutoring Small Investigation Group (PTSIG) within the Model of the Six Mirrors of the Classroom Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Khalil, Mahmood; Ron, Salit

    2013-01-01

    The model of the six mirrors of the classroom and its use in teaching biology in a cooperative learning mode were implemented in high school classrooms. In this study we present: a) The model of the six mirrors of the classroom (MSMC). b) Cooperative learning settings: 1. The Group Investigation; 2. The Jigsaw Method; and 3. Peer Tutoring in Small…

  12. Improved Employment Rates after Multiprofessional Cross-Sector Cooperation in Vocational Rehabilitation: A 6-Year Follow-Up with Comparison Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Bjorn; Ekholm, Jan; Bergroth, Alf; Ekholm, Kristina Schuldt

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the long-term effects of an improved model for cooperation on employment between rehabilitation professionals in vocational rehabilitation (VR). To compare these effects with those associated with the traditional model of cooperation. The study featured a group of patients who participated in a…

  13. Couples' experiences with prostate cancer: focus group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Janet; Schafenacker, Ann; Northouse, Laurel; Mood, Darlene; Smith, David; Pienta, Kenneth; Hussain, Maha; Baranowski, Karen

    2002-05-01

    To explore the experiences of couples living with prostate cancer, the impact of the illness on their quality of life, their ability to manage symptoms, and their suggestions for interventions that would help them to improve their daily experiences. Descriptive, qualitative. Six focus groups were used to obtain the data; two were patient-only groups, two were spouse-caregiver groups, and two were dyad groups. The focus groups were conducted at two comprehensive cancer centers in the midwestern region of the United States. 42 participants: 22 men with prostate cancer and 20 spouse-caregivers. Focus group discussions were tape-recorded, and the content was analyzed. Quality of life, symptom experience, and areas for intervention. Four major themes emerged from the data: enduring uncertainty, living with treatment effects, coping with changes, and needing help. Participants had a need for information and support. Both men and spouse-caregivers felt unprepared to manage treatment effects. Symptoms had a broad effect on couples, not just men. Positive effects of the illness, as well as negative effects, emerged from the themes. Attention needs to be given to methods of providing information and support to couples coping with prostate cancer. Both patients and partners need to be included in discussions about the effect of the illness and treatments so that both can feel more prepared to manage them.

  14. Oxytocin conditions intergroup relations through upregulated in-group empathy, cooperation, conformity, and defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Kret, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Humans live in, rely on, and contribute to groups. Evolution may have biologically prepared them to quickly identify others as belonging to the in-group (vs. not), to decode emotional states, and to empathize with in-group members; to learn and conform to group norms and cultural practices; to

  15. Cooperativity of alpha- and beta-subunits of group II chaperonin from the hyperthermophilic archaeum Aeropyrum pernix K1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Jin-Woo; Shin, Eun-Jung; Nam, Soo-Wan

    2011-02-01

    alpha- and beta-subunits (ApCpnA and ApCpnB) are group II chaperonins from the hyperthermophilic archaeum Aeropyrum pernix K1, specialized in preventing the aggregation and inactivation of substrate proteins under conditions of transient heat stress. In the present study, the cooperativity of alpha- and beta-subunits from the A. pernix K1 was investigated. The ApCpnA and ApCpnB chaperonin genes were overexpressed in E. coli Rosetta and Codonplus (DE3), respectively. Each of the recombinant alpha- and beta- subunits was purified to 92% and 94% by using anionexchange chromatography. The cooperative activity between purified alpha- and beta-subunits was examined using citrate synthase (CS), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) as substrate proteins. The addition of both alpha- and beta-subunits could effectively protect CS and ADH from thermal aggregation and inactivation at 43 degreesC and 50 degreesC, respectively, and MDH from thermal inactivation at 80 degreesC and 85 degreesC. Moreover, in the presence of ATP, the protective effects of alpha- and beta-subunits on CS from thermal aggregation and inactivation, and ADH from thermal aggregation, were more enhanced, whereas cooperation between chaperonins and ATP in protection activity on ADH and MDH (at 85 degreesC) from thermal inactivation was not observed. Specifically, the presence of both alpha- and beta- subunits could effectively protect MDH from thermal inactivation at 80 degreesC in an ATP-dependent manner.

  16. Cooperative Learning Groups and the Evolution of Human Adaptability : (Another Reason) Why Hermits Are Rare in Tonga and Elsewhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adrian Viliami; Hernandez, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the prevalence of adaptive culture in part requires understanding the dynamics of learning. Here we explore the adaptive value of social learning in groups and how formal social groups function as effective mediums of information exchange. We discuss the education literature on Cooperative Learning Groups (CLGs), which outlines the potential of group learning for enhancing learning outcomes. Four qualities appear essential for CLGs to enhance learning: (1) extended conversations, (2) regular interactions, (3) gathering of experts, and (4) incentives for sharing knowledge. We analyze these four qualities within the context of a small-scale agricultural society using data we collected in 2010 and 2012. Through an analysis of surveys, interviews, and observations in the Tongan islands, we describe the role CLGs likely plays in facilitating individuals' learning of adaptive information. Our analysis of group affiliation, membership, and topics of conversation suggest that the first three CLG qualities reflect conditions for adaptive learning in groups. We utilize ethnographic anecdotes to suggest the fourth quality is also conducive to adaptive group learning. Using an evolutionary model, we further explore the scope for CLGs outside the Tongan socioecological context. Model analysis shows that environmental volatility and migration rates among human groups mediate the scope for CLGs. We call for wider attention to how group structure facilitates learning in informal settings, which may be key to assessing the contribution of groups to the evolution of complex, adaptive culture.

  17. The database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid Christine; Søgaard, Mette; Mehnert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE DATABASE: The main purpose of the database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DaRenCaData) is to improve the quality of renal cancer treatment in Denmark and secondarily to conduct observational research. STUDY POPULATION: DaRenCaData includes all Danish patients with a first-time diagn......AIM OF THE DATABASE: The main purpose of the database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DaRenCaData) is to improve the quality of renal cancer treatment in Denmark and secondarily to conduct observational research. STUDY POPULATION: DaRenCaData includes all Danish patients with a first...... indicators have been selected for monitoring treatment quality and outcome after renal cancer. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The incidence of renal cancer in Denmark has increased from 12.7 per 100,000 population-years in 2010-2011 to 15.9 per 100,000 population-years in 2014-2015. A total of 3,977 Danish patients...

  18. Using group learning to promote integration and cooperative learning between Asian and Australian second-year veterinary science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Paul C; Woodall, Peter F; Bellingham, Mark; Noad, Michael; Lloyd, Shan

    2007-01-01

    There is a tendency for students from different nationalities to remain within groups of similar cultural backgrounds. The study reported here used group project work to encourage integration and cooperative learning between Australian students and Asian (Southeast Asian) international students in the second year of a veterinary science program. The group project involved an oral presentation during a second-year course (Structure and Function), with group formation engineered to include very high, high, moderate, and low achievers (based on previous grades). One Asian student and three Australian students were placed in each group. Student perceptions of group dynamics were analyzed through a self-report survey completed at the end of the presentations and through group student interviews. Results from the survey were analyzed by chi-square to compare the responses between Asian and Australian students, with statistical significance accepted at p learning experience. Asian students expressed a greater preference for working in a group than for working alone (p = 0.001) and reported more frequently than Australian students that teamwork produces better results (p = 0.01). Australian students were more likely than Asian students to voice their opinion in a team setting (p = 0.001), while Asian students were more likely to depend on the lecturer for directions (p = 0.001). The results also showed that group project work appeared to create an environment that supported learning and was a successful strategy to achieve acceptance of cultural differences.

  19. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Shalvi, S.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a

  20. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu (Carsten); S. Shalvi (Shaul); L.L. Greer (Lindred); G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); M.J.J. Handgraaf (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to

  1. Oxytocin Motivates Non-Cooperation in Intergroup Conflict to Protect Vulnerable In-Group Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreu, de C.K.W.; Shalvi, S.; Greer, L.L.; Kleef, van G.A.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual’s motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a

  2. Health promotion and illness demotion at prostate cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Gerbrandt, Julieta S; Bottorff, Joan L; Hislop, T Gregory

    2010-07-01

    Although health promotion programs can positively influence health practices, men typically react to symptoms, rather than maintain their health, and are more likely to deny than discuss illness-related issues. Prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) provide an intriguing exception to these practices, in that men routinely discuss ordinarily private illness experiences and engage with self-health. This article draws on individual interview data from 52 men, and participant observations conducted at the meetings of 15 groups in British Columbia, Canada to provide insights to how groups simultaneously facilitate health promotion and illness demotion. The study findings reveal how an environment conducive to men's talk was established to normalize prostate cancer and promote the individual and collective health of group members. From a gendered perspective, men both disrupted and embodied dominant ideals of masculinity in how they engaged with their health at PCSGs.

  3. Cancer and Leukemia Group B Pathology Committee guidelines for tissue microarray construction representing multicenter prospective clinical trial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm, David L; Nielsen, Torsten O; Jewell, Scott D; Rohrer, Daniel C; Broadwater, Gloria; Waldman, Frederic; Mitchell, Kisha A; Singh, Baljit; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Frankel, Wendy L; Magliocco, Anthony M; Lara, Jonathan F; Hsi, Eric D; Bleiweiss, Ira J; Badve, Sunil S; Chen, Beiyun; Ravdin, Peter M; Schilsky, Richard L; Thor, Ann; Berry, Donald A

    2011-06-01

    Practice-changing evidence requires confirmation, preferably in multi-institutional clinical trials. The collection of tissue within such trials has enabled biomarker studies and evaluation of companion diagnostic tests. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) have become a standard approach in many cooperative oncology groups. A principal goal is to maximize the number of assays with this precious tissue. However, production strategies for these arrays have not been standardized, possibly decreasing the value of the study. In this article, members of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Pathology Committee relay our experiences as array facility directors and propose guidelines regarding the production of high-quality TMAs for cooperative group studies. We also discuss statistical issues arising from having a proportion of patients available for TMAs and the possibility that patients with TMAs fail to represent the greater study population.

  4. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  5. The cooperation between hMena overexpression and HER2 signalling in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Di Modugno

    Full Text Available hMena and the epithelial specific isoform hMena(11a are actin cytoskeleton regulatory proteins belonging to the Ena/VASP family. EGF treatment of breast cancer cell lines upregulates hMena/hMena(11a expression and phosphorylates hMena(11a, suggesting cross-talk between the ErbB receptor family and hMena/hMena(11a in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hMena/hMena(11a overexpression cooperates with HER-2 signalling, thereby affecting the HER2 mitogenic activity in breast cancer. In a cohort of breast cancer tissue samples a significant correlation among hMena, HER2 overexpression, the proliferation index (high Ki67, and phosphorylated MAPK and AKT was found and among the molecular subtypes the highest frequency of hMena overexpressing tumors was found in the HER2 subtype. From a clinical viewpoint, concomitant overexpression of HER2 and hMena identifies a subgroup of breast cancer patients showing the worst prognosis, indicating that hMena overexpression adds prognostic information to HER2 overexpressing tumors. To identify a functional link between HER2 and hMena, we show here that HER2 transfection in MCF7 cells increased hMena/hMena(11a expression and hMena(11a phosphorylation. On the other hand, hMena/hMena(11a knock-down reduced HER3, AKT and p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation and inhibited the EGF and NRG1-dependent HER2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Of functional significance, hMena/hMena(11a knock-down reduced the mitogenic activity of EGF and NRG1. Collectively these data provide new insights into the relevance of hMena and hMena(11a as downstream effectors of the ErbB receptor family which may represent a novel prognostic indicator in breast cancer progression, helping to stratify patients.

  6. The cooperation between hMena overexpression and HER2 signalling in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Modugno, Francesca; Mottolese, Marcella; DeMonte, Lucia; Trono, Paola; Balsamo, Michele; Conidi, Andrea; Melucci, Elisa; Terrenato, Irene; Belleudi, Francesca; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Alessio, Massimo; Santoni, Angela; Nisticò, Paola

    2010-12-30

    hMena and the epithelial specific isoform hMena(11a) are actin cytoskeleton regulatory proteins belonging to the Ena/VASP family. EGF treatment of breast cancer cell lines upregulates hMena/hMena(11a) expression and phosphorylates hMena(11a), suggesting cross-talk between the ErbB receptor family and hMena/hMena(11a) in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether the hMena/hMena(11a) overexpression cooperates with HER-2 signalling, thereby affecting the HER2 mitogenic activity in breast cancer. In a cohort of breast cancer tissue samples a significant correlation among hMena, HER2 overexpression, the proliferation index (high Ki67), and phosphorylated MAPK and AKT was found and among the molecular subtypes the highest frequency of hMena overexpressing tumors was found in the HER2 subtype. From a clinical viewpoint, concomitant overexpression of HER2 and hMena identifies a subgroup of breast cancer patients showing the worst prognosis, indicating that hMena overexpression adds prognostic information to HER2 overexpressing tumors. To identify a functional link between HER2 and hMena, we show here that HER2 transfection in MCF7 cells increased hMena/hMena(11a) expression and hMena(11a) phosphorylation. On the other hand, hMena/hMena(11a) knock-down reduced HER3, AKT and p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation and inhibited the EGF and NRG1-dependent HER2 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Of functional significance, hMena/hMena(11a) knock-down reduced the mitogenic activity of EGF and NRG1. Collectively these data provide new insights into the relevance of hMena and hMena(11a) as downstream effectors of the ErbB receptor family which may represent a novel prognostic indicator in breast cancer progression, helping to stratify patients.

  7. Women and prostate cancer support groups: the gender connect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Halpin, Michael; Phillips, Melanie; McLean, Graham; Mroz, Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    There are more than 100 prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) in Canada, most of which meet on a monthly basis-yet little attention has been paid to the role of women at these groups. As part of an ongoing ethnographic study of PCSGs, we examined women's motivations for attending the groups, their ways of functioning in PCSGs and the benefits they accrued. Participant observations conducted at 13 British Columbian-based PCSGs and individual interview data from 20 women who regularly attended PCSG meetings were analyzed. Although the groups did not overtly limit women's attendance, the women's decisions to attend and their participation at group meetings were subject to much self-reflection, uncertainty and tension. Motivations to access a PCSG included a desire to support their partners, develop understandings about the illness and disease, and to manage their own experience of prostate cancer. Our analyses revealed that women assume three roles in PCSGs: social facilitator, background supporter and cancer co-survivor. The women reported many interrelated benefits as a result of attending, including information, hope and reassurance, and connecting with other women in similar circumstances. The results from this study reveal how traditional feminine ideals, such as nurturing and caring for the men in their lives, facilitating social connections and the desire to share emotional experiences guided the behaviors. Based on the study findings, we suggest that efforts to support women's involvement in PCSGs are critical to enhancing the effectiveness of the groups for both men and women.

  8. The Influence of Competitive and Cooperative Group Game Play on State Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, Matthew S.

    2007-01-01

    Most research on violent video game play suggests a positive relationship with aggression-related outcomes. Expanding this research, the current study examines the impact group size, game motivation, in-game behavior, and verbal aggression have on postgame play hostility. Consistent with previous research, group size and verbal aggression both…

  9. Online support groups for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Eilis; Parahoo, Kader; Hueter, Irene; Northouse, Laurel; Bradbury, Ian

    2017-03-10

    Survival rates for women with a diagnosis of breast cancer continue to improve. However, some women may experience physical, psychological and emotional effects post diagnosis, throughout treatment and beyond. Support groups can provide opportunities for people to share their experiences and learn from others. As the number of online support groups increases, more and more women with breast cancer will likely access them. To assess effects of online support groups on the emotional distress, uncertainty, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) of women with breast cancer. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Breast Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO on 2 May 2016, and we handsearched journals and reference lists. We also searched the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) search portal and clinicaltrials.gov on 2 May 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing effects of online support groups on women with a diagnosis of breast cancer and women who have completed breast cancer treatment. We included studies comparing online support groups with a usual care group, and studies comparing two or more types of online support groups (without a usual care group). Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We presented outcome data using mean differences (MDs) and standardised mean differences (SMDs) along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and we used the fixed-effect model when appropriate. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included six studies (492 women) that assessed online support groups for women with breast cancer. Online support groups in these six trials lasted from six to 30 weeks. Women participated in these groups between 1.5 and 2.5 hours per week, and investigators conducted all studies in the USA

  10. Transposon mutagenesis identifies chromatin modifiers cooperating with Ras in thyroid tumorigenesis and detects ATXN7 as a cancer gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Conde, Cristina; Leandro-Garcia, Luis J; Chen, Xu; Oler, Gisele; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Ryder, Mabel; Landa, Iñigo; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; La, Konnor; Ghossein, Ronald A; Bajorin, Dean F; Knauf, Jeffrey A; Riordan, Jesse D; Dupuy, Adam J; Fagin, James A

    2017-06-20

    Oncogenic RAS mutations are present in 15-30% of thyroid carcinomas. Endogenous expression of mutant Ras is insufficient to initiate thyroid tumorigenesis in murine models, indicating that additional genetic alterations are required. We used Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon mutagenesis to identify events that cooperate with Hras(G12V) in thyroid tumor development. Random genomic integration of SB transposons primarily generated loss-of-function events that significantly increased thyroid tumor penetrance in Tpo-Cre/homozygous FR-Hras(G12V) mice. The thyroid tumors closely phenocopied the histological features of human RAS-driven, poorly differentiated thyroid cancers. Characterization of transposon insertion sites in the SB-induced tumors identified 45 recurrently mutated candidate cancer genes. These mutation profiles were remarkably concordant with mutated cancer genes identified in a large series of human poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers screened by next-generation sequencing using the MSK-IMPACT panel of cancer genes, which we modified to include all SB candidates. The disrupted genes primarily clustered in chromatin remodeling functional nodes and in the PI3K pathway. ATXN7, a component of a multiprotein complex with histone acetylase activity, scored as a significant SB hit. It was recurrently mutated in advanced human cancers and significantly co-occurred with RAS or NF1 mutations. Expression of ATXN7 mutants cooperated with oncogenic RAS to induce thyroid cell proliferation, pointing to ATXN7 as a previously unrecognized cancer gene.

  11. Cooperative effects of o- and m-methyl groups on the intramolecular charge-transfer emission properties of dibenzoylmethanatoboron difluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mirai; Muraoka, Shunsuke; Matsui, Yasunori; Ohta, Eisuke; Ogaki, Takuya; Mizuno, Kazuhiko; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2017-06-14

    The photophysical properties of o-tolyl-, m-tolyl-, and p-xylyl-substituted asymmetric diaroylmethanatoboron difluorides in a mixture of CH2Cl2 and c-C6H12, and in the crystalline state were determined. In solution, the fluorescence (FL) properties of these substances are controlled by the position and number of methyl groups on the phenyl rings. An especially interesting finding is that FL from the p-xylyl derivative occurs from an excited state which possesses intramolecular charge-transfer character caused by the o- and m-methyl groups cooperatively. The results of X-ray crystallographic analysis reveal that these asymmetric diaroylmethanatoboron difluorides form dyads through orbital overlap of neighboring molecules. This phenomenon governs the unique FL properties of these substances in the solid state.

  12. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) endometrial cancer clinical trials planning meeting: taking endometrial cancer trials into the translational era.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creutzberg, C.L.; Kitchener, H.C.; Birrer, M.J.; Landoni, F.; Lu, K.H.; Powell, M.; Aghajanian, C.; Edmondson, R.; Goodfellow, P.J.; Quinn, M.; Salvesen, H.B.; Thomas, G.; Ottevanger, N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The second Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Endometrial Cancer Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was held on December 1, 2012, and included international multidisciplinary representatives of the 24 member groups. The aims were to review recent advances in molecular pathology of

  13. DNA duplex-supported artificial esterase mimicking by cooperative grafting functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ji, Chuanshi; Bai, Yu; He, Junlin; Liu, Keliang

    2013-05-10

    The molecular structures of enzyme mimics may be modified to optimize their catalytic properties. In this study, to generate artificial enzyme mimics, Watson-Crick base paired DNA duplexes were designed as scaffolds which were assembled by nucleotides modified with specific functional groups. This process allowed various functional groups to be precisely assembled at different sites on the duplexes. By using this strategy, the 5-[2-(1H-imidazolyl-4)-(E)-ethylene]-2'-deoxythymidine (1) analog with the 5-substituted imidazolyl group was incorporated into single strands of DNA. Upon DNA duplex formation, several combinations of the imidazolyl group were formed. Using p-nitrophenyl acetate as the substrate of the catalytic reaction, we evaluated the hydrolysis capabilities of the imidazolyl assemblies. The catalytic ability was closely related to the distribution of imidazolyl groups in the DNA duplex. The most effective catalytic center was that of the duplex O5-O6 construct with three imidazolyl groups. This construct displayed bell-shaped pH-dependent and Mg(2+)-independent kinetic curves, which are typical characteristics of imidazolyl-mediated catalytic reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL GROUP INVESTIGATION AND MOTIVATION TOWARD PHYSICS LEARNING RESULTS MAN TANJUNGBALAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Febri Aristi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine: (1 Is there a difference in student's learning outcomes with the application of learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction teaching model. (2 Is there a difference in students' motivation with the application of learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction teaching model, (3 Is there an interaction between learning models Investigation Group and Direct Instruction to improve students' motivation in learning outcomes Physics. This research is a quasi experimental. The study population was a student of class XII Tanjung Balai MAN. Random sample selection is done by randomizing the class. The instrument used consisted of: (1 achievement test (2 students' motivation questionnaire. The tests are used to obtain the data is shaped essay. The data in this study were analyzed using ANOVA analysis of two paths. The results showed that: (1 there were differences in learning outcomes between students who used the physics model of Group Investigation learning compared with students who used the Direct Instruction teaching model. (2 There was a difference in student's learning outcomes that had a low learning motivation and high motivation to learn both in the classroom and in the classroom Investigation Group Direct Instruction. (3 There was interaction between learning models Instruction Direct Group Investigation and motivation to learn in improving learning outcomes Physics.

  15. Cancer mortality-to-incidence ratio as an indicator of cancer management outcomes in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunji; Lee, Sangeun; Nhung, Bui Cam; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Choi, Kui Son

    2017-01-01

    Assessing long-term success and efficiency is an essential part of evaluating cancer control programs. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) can serve as an insightful indicator of cancer management outcomes for individual nations. By calculating MIRs for the top five cancers in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, the current study attempted to characterize the outcomes of national cancer management policies according to the health system ranking of each country. The MIRs for the five most burdensome cancers globally (lung, colorectal, prostate, stomach, and breast) were calculated for all 34 OECD countries using 2012 GLOBOCAN incidence and mortality statistics. Health system rankings reported by the World Health Organization in 2000 were updated with relevant information when possible. A linear regression model was created, using MIRs as the dependent variable and health system rankings as the independent variable. The linear relationships between MIRs and health system rankings for the five cancers were significant, with coefficients of determination ranging from 49 to 75% when outliers were excluded. A clear outlier, Korea reported lower-than-predicted MIRs for stomach and colorectal cancer, reflecting its strong national cancer control policies, especially cancer screening. The MIR was found to be a practical measure for evaluating the long-term success of cancer surveillance and the efficacy of cancer control programs, especially cancer screening. Extending the use of MIRs to evaluate other cancers may also prove useful.

  16. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha B

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in rural areas of our country. It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1.To find any association between breast cancer and ABO blood group. 2. To know the frequency and risk of each blood group in relation to patients with breast cancer. This study was conducted in the Department of Surgery, Tirunelveli Medical College. Ethical committee approval was obtained.100 breast cancer cases were taken and 100 healthy women with no reports of breast cancer were taken as controls. Blood grouping was done by Standard Agglutination method. Association of ABO blood groups and breast cancer was found out with Odd Ratios (ORs with 95% Confidence Interval (CI. ABO blood group distribution among patients with breast cancer was as follows: Group A- 39%, Group O-31%, Group B- 26% and Group AB- 4% Among 100 healthy controls, ABO blood groups percentage was: Group O- 32%, Group A- 15 %, Group B- 46%, and Group AB- 7%. There is significant association between blood group A and breast Cancer since the p value was <0.05This study showed that there is strong association between ABO blood group system and female breast cancer and the highest risk for breast cancer was in blood group A and minimum in blood group AB.

  17. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...... LDR brachytherapy. In the use of brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in dose prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy practices among member groups of the GCIG are similar in terms of both doses and use of chemotherapy....

  18. Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, Daizaburo

    2009-01-01

    Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  19. Course of breast cancer disease and ABO blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzarová, M; Kovarík, J; Hlávková, J; Kolcová, V

    1985-01-01

    The clinical records of 551 breast cancer patients were retrospectively analysed. Several parameters have been examined: age at presentation, distribution of stages at the time of diagnosis, incidence of any progression and "progression-free" interval after primary treatment, incidence of distant dissemination and distant metastasis-free interval, cancer mortality, time of survival from presentation and time of survival from detection of distant metastases (stage at presentation being taken into account in all evaluations). The results within various ABO blood groups were compared. There were no substantial differences in these parameters within different blood groups. The possible modifications of ABH (O) isoantigens on tumour cells and the immune response to these alien antigens is discussed.

  20. Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group Duchenne Natural History Study demonstrates insufficient diagnosis and treatment of cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurney, Christopher; Shimizu, Reiko; Morgenroth, Lauren P; Kolski, Hanna; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Clemens, Paula R

    2014-08-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common cause of morbidity and death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This investigation was a cross-sectional cross-sectional analysis of clinical data from the multi-institutional Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) DMD Natural History Study of 340 DMD patients aged 2-28 years. Cardiomyopathy was defined as shortening fraction (SF) cardiomyopathy was 27% (47 of 174), and it was associated significantly with age and clinical stage. The association of cardiomyopathy with age and clinical stage was not changed by glucocorticoid use as a covariate (P > 0.68). In patients with cardiomyopathy, 57% (27 of 47) reported not taking any cardiac medications. Cardiac medications were used in 12% (15 of 127) of patients without cardiomyopathy. We found that echocardiograms were underutilized, and cardiomyopathy was undertreated in this DMD natural history cohort. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mechanism of Macroscopic Motion of Oleate Helical Assemblies: Cooperative Deprotonation of Carboxyl Groups Triggered by Photoisomerization of Azobenzene Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Yoshiyuki; Ikegami, Tomonori; Kurokome, Yuta; Takeda, Sadamu

    2016-06-13

    Macroscopic and spatially ordered motions of self-assemblies composed of oleic acid and a small amount of an azobenzene derivative, induced by azobenzene photoisomerization, was previously reported. However, the mechanism of the generation of submillimeter-scale motions by the nanosized structural transition of azobenzene was not clarified. Herein, an underlying mechanism of the motions is proposed in which deprotonation of carboxyl groups in cooperation with azobenzene photoisomerization causes a morphological transition of the self-assembly, which in turn results in macroscopic forceful dynamics. The photoinduced deprotonation was investigated by potentiometric pH titration and FTIR spectroscopy. The concept of hierarchical molecular interaction generating macroscale function is expected to promote the next stage of supramolecular chemistry. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Toll-like receptor 9 agonist IMO cooperates with cetuximab in K-ras mutant colorectal and pancreatic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Roberta; Melisi, Davide; Damiano, Vincenzo; Bianco, Roberto; Garofalo, Sonia; Gelardi, Teresa; Agrawal, Sudhir; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Scarpa, Aldo; Bardelli, Alberto; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2011-10-15

    K-Ras somatic mutations are a strong predictive biomarker for resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancer. We previously showed that the novel Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist immunomodulatory oligonucleotide (IMO) has a strong in vivo activity in colorectal cancer models by interfering with EGFR-related signaling and synergizing with the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab. In the present study, we investigated, both in vitro and in vivo, the antitumor effect of IMO alone or in combination with cetuximab in subcutaneous colon and orthotopic pancreatic cancer models harboring K-Ras mutations and resistance to EGFR inhibitors. We showed that IMO was able to significantly restore the sensitivity of K-Ras mutant cancer cells to cetuximab, producing a marked inhibition of cell survival and a complete suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, when used in combination with cetuximab. IMO interfered with EGFR-dependent signaling, modulating the functional interaction between TLR9 and EGFR. In vivo, IMO plus cetuximab combination caused a potent and long-lasting cooperative antitumor activity in LS174T colorectal cancer and in orthotopic AsPC1 pancreatic cancer. The capability of IMO to restore cetuximab sensitivity was further confirmed by using K-Ras mutant colorectal cancer cell models obtained through homologous recombination technology. We showed that IMO markedly inhibits growth of K-Ras mutant colon and pancreatic cancers in vitro and in nude mice and cooperates with cetuximab via multiple mechanisms of action. Therefore, we propose IMO plus cetuximab as a therapeutic strategy for K-Ras wild-type as well for K-Ras mutant, cetuximab-resistant colorectal and pancreatic cancers. ©2011 AACR.

  3. Two CRM protein subfamilies cooperate in the splicing of group IIB introns in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Bayraktar, Omer Ali; Barkan, Alice

    2008-11-01

    Chloroplast genomes in angiosperms encode approximately 20 group II introns, approximately half of which are classified as subgroup IIB. The splicing of all but one of the subgroup IIB introns requires a heterodimer containing the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase homolog CRS2 and one of two closely related proteins, CAF1 or CAF2, that harbor a recently recognized RNA binding domain called the CRM domain. Two CRS2/CAF-dependent introns require, in addition, a CRM domain protein called CFM2 that is only distantly related to CAF1 and CAF2. Here, we show that CFM3, a close relative of CFM2, associates in vivo with those CRS2/CAF-dependent introns that are not CFM2 ligands. Mutant phenotypes in rice and Arabidopsis support a role for CFM3 in the splicing of most of the introns with which it associates. These results show that either CAF1 or CAF2 and either CFM2 or CFM3 simultaneously bind most chloroplast subgroup IIB introns in vivo, and that the CAF and CFM subunits play nonredundant roles in splicing. These results suggest that the expansion of the CRM protein family in plants resulted in two subfamilies that play different roles in group II intron splicing, with further diversification within a subfamily to accommodate multiple intron ligands.

  4. Self-help friendliness: A German approach for strengthening the cooperation between self-help groups and health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofahl, Christopher; Trojan, Alf; Knesebeck, Olaf von dem; Nickel, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Public and patient involvement in social and health care has proceeded in many civil societies. Depending on the legislations on national and community levels, citizens and patients have a greater say in shaping social and health care. In Germany, the patient involvement by self-help organizations at the macro level (national level and level of federal states) has significantly developed over the last ten years. At the meso level, however, the patient involvement is neither such far nor such systematically developed. The concept of self-help friendliness (SHF) in health care is a patient centred model that allows the development and implementation of patient participation in different health care institutions: hospitals, ambulatory medical care, public health institutions, rehabilitation facilities etc. In a series of projects on SHF we have (1) analysed the needs and wishes of self-help groups for cooperation with health care professionals as well as their experience, (2) gathered facilitators and barriers concerning the cooperation between self-help groups and hospitals, (3) developed a framework concept for SHF in hospitals including eight quality criteria for measuring SHF, and (4) implemented the framework of SHF in about 40 health care institutions (www.selbsthilfefreundlichkeit.de). Further projects followed: development of an instrument for measuring SHF in hospitals, integration of SHF-criteria in quality management systems in inpatient care as well as in out-patient care, and transferring SHF to a) medical ambulatory care, b) public health departments, and c) rehabilitation facilities. Considering advantages and shortcomings of the approach, we can summarize that implementing SHF is feasible, transferable and a helpful measure for promoting patient centeredness in health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Deficiencies and barriers of the cooperation between German general practitioners and occupational health physicians? A qualitative content analysis of focus groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Natanzon, Iris; Manske, Ira; Grutschkowski, Philipp; Rieger, Monika A

    2012-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of work-associated health problems and the significance of work-related stress factors, cooperation between general practitioners (GPs) and occupational health physicians (OPs) is of particular interest to the healthcare system. Both groups of physicians have an important role to play in supporting prevention, rehabilitation and workplace reintegration. In Germany, however, cooperation between GPs and OPs is often lacking or suboptimal. In our study, we assessed relevant deficiencies in and barriers to this cooperation. Three focus groups were interviewed: GPs, OPs, and medical doctors working in both fields. Data were analysed according to the qualitative content analysis method of P. Mayring. Deficiencies such as lack of communication (e.g., opportunity to make phone calls), insufficient cooperation in regard to sick-leave and professional reintegration, lack of knowledge about the specialty and influence of OPs as well as about patients' working conditions in general. Barriers: Prejudices, competition, mistrust, fear of negative consequences for the patients, lack of legal regulations, or limited accessibility. Similar deficiencies and barriers were mentioned in all three focus groups. The data are helpful in understanding the interface between GPs and OPs in Germany to provide an informative basis for the development of quantitative research instruments for further analysis to improve cooperation. This is the basis for additional cooperation projects. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Completeness of T, N, M and stage grouping for all cancers in the Mallorca Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M; Franch, P; Zaforteza, M; Artero, J; Durán, M

    2015-11-04

    TNM staging of cancer is used to establish the treatment and prognosis for cancer patients, and also allows the assessment of screening programmes and hospital performance. Collection of staging data is becoming a cornerstone for cancer registries. The objective of the study was to assess the completeness of T, N, M and stage grouping registration for all cancers in the Mallorca Cancer Registry in 2006-2008 and to explore differences in T, N, M and stage grouping completeness by site, gender, age and type of hospital. All invasive cancer cases during the period 2006-2008 were selected. DCO, as well as children's cancers, CNS, unknown primary tumours and some haematological cases were excluded. T, N, M and stage grouping were collected separately and followed UICC (International Union Against Cancer) 7th edition guidelines. For T and N, we registered whether they were pathological or clinical. Ten thousand two hundred fifty-seven cases were registered. After exclusions, the study was performed with 9283 cases; 39.4 % of whom were women and 60.6 % were men. T was obtained in 48.6 % cases, N in 36.5 %, M in 40 % and stage in 37.9 %. T and N were pathological in 71 % of cases. Stage completeness exceeded 50 % in lung, colon, ovary and oesophagus, although T also exceeded 50 % at other sites, including rectum, larynx, colon, breast, bladder and melanoma. No differences were found in TNM or stage completeness by gender. Completeness was lower in younger and older patients, and in cases diagnosed in private clinics. T, N, M and stage grouping data collection in population-based cancer registries is feasible and desirable.

  7. Cooperative Study of the Spanish Pancreas Transplant Group (GETP): Surgical Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Herraiz, Angel; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luis; Ferrer-Fábrega, Joana; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Pérez-Daga, José Antonio; Muñoz-Casares, Cristóbal; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Casanova-Rituerto, Daniel; Sanchez-Bueno, Francisco; Jimenez-Romero, Carlos; Fernández-Cruz Pérez, Laureano

    2015-05-01

    Technical failure in pancreas transplant has been the main cause of the loss of grafts. In the last few years, the number of complications has reduced, and therefore the proportion of this problem. The Spanish Pancreas Transplant Group wanted to analyze the current situation with regard to surgical complications and their severity. A retrospective and multicenter study was performed. 10 centers participated, with a total of 410 pancreas transplant recipients between January and December 2013. A total of 316 transplants were simultaneous with kidney, 66 after kidney, pancreas-only 10, 7 multivisceral and 11 retrasplants. Surgical complication rates were 39% (n=161). A total of 7% vascular thrombosis, 13% bleeding, 6% the graft pancreatitis, 12% surgical infections and others to a lesser extent. Relaparotomy rate was 25%. The severity of complications were of type IIIb (13%), type II (12%) and type IVa (8.5%). Graft loss was 8%. Early mortality was 0.5%. The percentage of operations for late complications was 17%. The number of surgical complications after transplantation is not negligible, affecting one in 3 patients. They are severe in one out of 5 and, in one of every 10 patients graft loss occurs. Therefore, there is still a significant percentage of surgical complications in this type of activity, as shown in our country. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sujatha B; Sherry Jenilin G

    2016-01-01

    .... It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1...

  9. Early diagnosis of malignant melanoma: Proposal of a working formulation for the management of cutaneous pigmented lesions from the Melanoma Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Satriano, Rocco A; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Bono, Riccardo; Testori, Alessandro; Bosco, Leonardo; Daponte, Antonio; Caracò, Corrado; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Melucci, Maria Teresa; Calignano, Rosario; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Cochran, Alistair J; Castello, Giuseppe

    2003-06-01

    Epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) strongly improves the separation of different types of cutaneous pigmented lesions (CPL) and facilitates the early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM). ELM alone is not 100% accurate in routine diagnosis, and should not be considered the only criterion in the diagnosis of high-risk skin lesions. We have however, demonstrated close agreement between ELM classification criteria and histology in 2,731 cutaneous lesions. In the past five years, our Melanoma Cooperative Group has evaluated 61,000 skin lesions from 30,000 individuals and identified 478 cutaneous melanomas. Most newly diagnosed patients had very early stage melanoma [299 (62%) were Stage I (203 Stage IA and 96 Stage IB), by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) criteria]. We have compared data from the patient histories and clinical evaluations with ELM-based morphological patterns to better characterize skin lesions and minimize interpretative problems. From these comparisons, we propose new guidelines for the management of CPL to provide a standard diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and to foster the early identification of lesions at risk for malignant transformation.

  10. 75 FR 4440 - Meeting of the Working group on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Morocco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) through legislation; technical assistance for a plan to enforce... cooperative activities in four main priority areas: Institutional and policy strengthening; biodiversity...

  11. A cooperative randomized controlled study of adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy for breast cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, R; Tsuchiya, A; Koie, H; Ono, K; Abo, S; Saito, K; Tsukamoto, M; Sato, T; Mori, S; Kikuchi, K

    1994-04-01

    A randomized trial was carried out in 55 Japanese institutions to examine the significance of postoperative adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy in Stages II and IIIA breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. A total of 619 patients were entered from November 1982 to November 1984, of whom 554 were eligible. Patients were administered MMC (13 mg/m2) after surgery, and were randomized by the envelope method into either group A (ftorafur, 400 mg/m2/day; 275 patients), or group B (ftorafur, 400 mg/m2/day, and tamoxifen, 20 mg/day; 279 patients). Treatment was continued for 1 year from postoperative day 7. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to age, menopausal status, ER status, method of operation, stage, or number of positive lymph nodes. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in the 5-year survival and disease-free survival (DFS) rates (Kaplan-Meier method). Stratification by ER status, nodal status, or menopausal status produced no significant differences between the groups. However, postmenopausal patients and lymph node-positive patients who were also ER-positive showed a significantly higher DFS in group B. Furthermore, group B in ER-positive patients with four or more positive lymph nodes also had a higher survival rate.

  12. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group

  13. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Ayoub Meo; Faryal Suraya; Badar Jamil; Fwziah Al Rouq; Anusha Sultan Meo; Kamran Sattar; Mohammad Javed Ansari; Alasiri, Saleh A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the association of “ABO” and “Rhesus” blood groups with incidence of breast cancer. Methods: In this study, we identified 70 research documents from data based search engines including “PubMed”, “ISI-Web of Knowledge”, “Embase” and “Google Scholar”. The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including “ABO blood type”, “Rhesus” blood type and “breast cancer”. The research documents in which “ABO” and “Rhesus” blood ty...

  14. Potential for the development of a marketing option for the specialty local Ban pork of a Thai ethnic smallholder cooperative group in Northwest Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Thanh Huyen; Muth, Philipp C; Markemann, André; Schöll, Kerstin; Zárate, Anne Valle

    2016-02-01

    Based on 12 years of research (SFB 564 "The Uplands Program"), a community-based breeding and marketing cooperative group was transferred to an ethnic farmer group. This study analyses the potential for developing a marketing channel for specialty local Ban pork as an alternative to supplying the local markets to ensure long-term sustainability of the communal local pig breeding and production system. Data on pig-keeping were investigated from 378 farmers who wanted to enroll in the cooperative group in 10 villages (near town, intermediate, and remote zones) in Son La province. The data on Ban pig marketing activities of the cooperative group were investigated for all of its 180 members. Information on the market demand for Ban pigs were collected by interviewing 57 traders in Hanoi city and Son La province. The results show a dominance of local Ban in remote areas, and a preference for crossbreds with exotics in closer-to-town areas. Before farmers joined the cooperative group, the commercialization of pigs in remote villages accounted for only 3.0 pigs/farm/year compared to 9.3 pigs/farm/year in the intermediate zone and 11.2 pigs/farm/year near town. Potential markets have been identified for each product category of the cooperative group. Pure Ban pigs with a weight of 10-15 kg were preferred most by customers in Hanoi city. The regular feedback of information on niche markets for different products has increased the awareness of farmers about the competitiveness of the local pig products, and the power of collective action in the market. Selected pure Ban pigs were increasingly sold to food stores in Hanoi with high prices. Farmers received an average of 9000 VND more compared to the local market price for each kg of live weight. The respective added value for the cooperative group amounted to 11,300 VND/kg live weight. The added value from selling specialty Ban pigs regularly to markets, encouraged farmers toward a market in local pig production and

  15. The Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group: past activities, current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kazuo; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    The Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group was organized in 1986. Initially, 26 collaborative institutions participated. In the early period, the Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group focused on combined modality therapies and conducted nine trials, including JCOG9101: adjuvant chemotherapy for resected small-cell lung cancer, and JCOG9806: induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for superior sulcus tumor, which greatly impacted the treatment strategies for some special kinds of lung cancer. Since the 2000s, the Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group has defined radiologically noninvasive adenocarcinoma: JCOG0201 and investigated adequate modes of surgical resection for small-sized non-small cell lung cancer: JCOG0802, JCOG0804 and JCOG1211. The accrual of these trials is now complete and we are waiting for the maturation of follow-up data. In addition, two adjuvant trials have been conducted: JCOG0707; a Phase III study of adjuvant chemotherapy for resected pathological stage I (T1 > 2 cm) non-small cell lung cancer, and JCOG1205; a Phase III study of adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected pulmonary high-grade neuroendocrine tumor. The accrual of JCOG0707 is complete and we are waiting for the maturation of follow-up data. At present, 44 institutions are active members of the Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group. In addition to thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, pathologists and radiotherapists are participating in the Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group. The Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group continues to conduct various clinical trials in an effort to improve survival in patients with lung cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the past 30 years, as well as the present status and future direction of the Lung Cancer Surgical Study Group. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Successful application of laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for a lateral-spreading mucosal gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunobe, Souya; Hiki, Naoki; Gotoda, Takuji; Murao, Takahisa; Haruma, Ken; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hirai, Toshihiro; Tanimura, Shinya; Sano, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2012-07-01

    In the current era of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer, which carries a negligible risk of lymph node metastasis, local resection of the stomach remains an option for these lesions. This is particularly so for a large intramucosal lesion or a lesion with a strong ulcer scar, for which ESD becomes a difficult option. Here, we describe a case of lateral-spreading intramucosal gastric cancer of 6-cm diameter located at the fornix of the stomach, which was successfully treated by laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) because of the expected risk of complications during ESD. In the LECS procedure, the resection margin was appropriately determined by the endoscopic evaluation in detail and by the ESD technique. If early gastric cancer fits the criteria for endoscopic resection but would present difficulty if performing ESD, this is a good indication for the LECS procedure.

  17. How to create more supportive supervision for primary healthcare: lessons from Ngamiland district of Botswana: co-operative inquiry group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supportive supervision is a way to foster performance, productivity, motivation, and retention of health workforce. Nevertheless there is a dearth of evidence of the impact and acceptability of supportive supervision in low- and middle-income countries. This article describes a participatory process of transforming the supervisory practice of district health managers to create a supportive environment for primary healthcare workers. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore how district health managers can change their practice to create a more supportive environment for primary healthcare providers. Design: A facilitated co-operative inquiry group (CIG was formed with Ngamiland health district managers. CIG belongs to the participatory action research paradigm and is characterised by a cyclic process of observation, reflection, planning, and action. The CIG went through three cycles between March 2013 and March 2014. Results: Twelve district health managers participated in the inquiry group. The major insights and learning that emerged from the inquiry process included inadequate supervisory practice, perceptions of healthcare workers’ experiences, change in the managers’ supervision paradigm, recognition of the supervisors’ inadequate supervisory skills, and barriers to supportive supervision. Finally, the group developed a 10-point consensus on what they had learnt regarding supportive supervision. Conclusion: Ngamiland health district managers have come to appreciate the value of supportive supervision and changed their management style to be more supportive of their subordinates. They also developed a consensus on supportive supervision that could be adapted for use nationally. Supportive supervision should be prioritised at all levels of the health system, and it should be adequately resourced.

  18. Association of ABO blood group and risk of female breast cancer - A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Sujatha B; Sherry Jenilin G

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among females in rural areas of our country. It constitutes around 20-25% of all female cancers in India. ABO blood group has been observed to be associated with gastric and pancreatic cancer, but its association with breast cancer is unsure. AIMS & OBJECTIVES:1.To find any association between breast cancer and ABO blood group. 2. To know the frequency and risk of each blood group in relation to patients with breast cancer. This study was conduct...

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY TEACHING – A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED STUDENT GROUPS AT STRATHMORE UNIVERSITY IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Kibuye Wadawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Learning has been defined as a relationship in a group of students that requires positive interdependence, individual accountability, interpersonal skills, face-to-face promotive interaction, and processing. Several techniques have been used to implement to advance learning amongst groups of tourism and hospitality students. While a number of methods have delivered favourable results in students’ motivation and learning, some have been used with counterproductive results. The purpose of this study therefore was to carry out a practical assessment of a specified cooperative learning technique using selected student groups within the School of Tourism and Hospitality in Strathmore University, Kenya. In this study, identified learning groups were given fundamental rules on how to use the chosen technique and thereafter asked to apply the technique in a specified learning session. Students were then asked to complete a simple questionnaire to make judgement on the learning effectiveness of the technique and their attitude to it regarding group dynamics. This study established that there are aspects typical of cooperative learning that should be encouraged and specific aspects that should be discouraged. The research identified major factors that should be considered to enhance cooperative learning in tourism and hospitality education in Africa

  20. Significance of UICC Activities in Global Health Initiatives on Cancer Looking Towards the Future of Cooperative Networks for Cancer Care in Asia - A Dialogue with the Union for International Cancer Control(UICC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Norie; Adams, Cary; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2017-09-01

    At the 24th Asia Pacific Cancer Conference held in Seoul, Korea from 22 to 24 June 2017, a dialogue with Dr.Cary Adams, CEO of the Union for International Cancer Control(UICC)was held to discuss the significance of UICC activities in global health initiatives on cancer and pathways for cooperation on cancer control and care.UICC is engaged in a wide range of capacity building, advocacy and convening initiatives and is increasingly focusing on multi-sectoral approaches.In Japan activities are still predominantly focused on scientific and clinical research and this dialogue provided an opportunity to discuss the possibilities for expanding cooperation in Asia, using the UICC Asia Regional Office(UICC-ARO)as a platform.Discussion also covered UICC's new C/Can 2025: City Cancer Challenge, a new multi-sectoral initiative that has the potential to bring multiple stakeholders together.

  1. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  2. Salivary gland carcinoma : Independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival: Results of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, CHJ; Lubsen, H; Van der Tweel, [No Value; Hilgers, FJM; Eijkenboom, WMH; Marres, HAM; Tjho-Heslinga, RE; de Jong, JMA; Roodenburg, JLN

    Background. We analyzed the records of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors, as diagnosed in centers of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in search of independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival. Methods. In 565

  3. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator and immediate angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction. : One-year follow up. The European Cooperative Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); D.P. de Bono (David); J.G.P. Tijssen (Jan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M. Verstraete (Marc); J. Lubsen (Jacob); F.J.J. van de Werf (Frans)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. The European Cooperative Study Group conducted two randomized trials in patients with suspected myocardial infarction to assess the effect of 100 mg single-chain recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) on enzymatic infarct size, left ventricular

  4. Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles on Solving Problems, Achievement in, and Attitudes towards Math in Six Graders with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…

  5. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed.......The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  6. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  7. Can we get some cooperation around here? The mediating role of group norms on the relationship between team personality and individual helping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mulé, Erik; DeGeest, David S; McCormick, Brian W; Seong, Jee Young; Brown, Kenneth G

    2014-09-01

    Drawing on the group-norms theory of organizational citizenship behaviors and person-environment fit theory, we introduce and test a multilevel model of the effects of additive and dispersion composition models of team members' personality characteristics on group norms and individual helping behaviors. Our model was tested using regression and random coefficients modeling on 102 research and development teams. Results indicated that high mean levels of extraversion are positively related to individual helping behaviors through the mediating effect of cooperative group norms. Further, low variance on agreeableness (supplementary fit) and high variance on extraversion (complementary fit) promote the enactment of individual helping behaviors, but only the effects of extraversion were mediated by cooperative group norms. Implications of these findings for theories of helping behaviors in teams are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. AN ASSESSMENT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY TEACHING – A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED STUDENT GROUPS AT STRATHMORE UNIVERSITY IN KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Kibuye Wadawi

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative Learning has been defined as a relationship in a group of students that requires positive interdependence, individual accountability, interpersonal skills, face-to-face promotive interaction, and processing. Several techniques have been used to implement to advance learning amongst groups of tourism and hospitality students. While a number of methods have delivered favourable results in students’ motivation and learning, some have been used with counterproductive results. The p...

  9. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  10. AKT1E¹⁷K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6-2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype.

  11. [Visits to cancer patients in hospital by members of cancer self-help groups in the context of visit programmes - process and outome indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesina, W; Rennert, D; Weber, A

    2014-12-01

    In Germany since the 1970s, several self-help groups of cancer patients have begun to conduct patient visits to the hospital for cancer patients. Until today the conversations between cancer patients and visiting services were not subject to scientific investigation. Therefore, a cooperation study by the Deutsche ILCO, the women's self-help for cancer and the Section of Medical Sociology of a German university was conducted with the aim of evaluating the quality of the visitor conversations with patients with colon cancer and breast cancer. An observational cohort study with 2 time points (T1: during the hospital stay; T2 3 months after hospital discharge) combined a descriptive cross-sectional analysis for process quality of the conversations with a hypothesis-based longitudinal analysis of outcome quality of conversations. Data were collected by written, postal patient questionnaires. The T1 and T2 questionnaires were developed in consultation with a number of regional self-help groups. The questionnaires included socio-demographic and disease-related questions, validated scales for the burden of cancer patients (FBK-R10), for depression (CES-D) and health locus of control (GKÜ) and specially developed questions for cancer about process and outcome quality of the conversations with the visitors of self-help groups. The majority of patients rated the appearance and behaviour of the visitors in regard to several parameters as very positive. Thus, most patients found the conversation to be useful for their mental status and situation by reducing fears, building hope, courage, confidence, and the resulting suggestions for coping. However, disease-related stress, depression and health locus of control were found at 3 months after hospital discharge (T2) for the characteristics in patients with no evidence of a positive/salutogenetic effect of the visitor's conversation. The results of the study indicate that the opportunity to talk with members of self-help groups

  12. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  13. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Trial of Yeast-Derived Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Versus Peptide Vaccination Versus GM-CSF Plus Peptide Vaccination Versus Placebo in Patients With No Evidence of Disease After Complete Surgical Resection of Locally Advanced and/or Stage IV Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E4697).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David H; Lee, Sandra; Zhao, Fengmin; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Margolin, Kim A; Ernstoff, Marc S; Atkins, Michael B; Cohen, Gary I; Whiteside, Theresa L; Butterfield, Lisa H; Kirkwood, John M

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and peptide vaccination (PV) on relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with resected high-risk melanoma. Patients with completely resected stage IV or high-risk stage III melanoma were grouped by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) -A2 status. HLA-A2-positive patients were randomly assigned to receive GM-CSF, PV, both, or placebo; HLA-A2-negative patients, GM-CSF or placebo. Treatment lasted for 1 year or until recurrence. Efficacy analyses were conducted in the intent-to-treat population. A total of 815 patients were enrolled. There were no significant improvements in OS (stratified log-rank P = .528; hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% repeated CI, 0.77 to 1.15) or RFS (P = .131; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.04) in the patients assigned to GM-CSF (n = 408) versus those assigned to placebo (n = 407). The median OS times with GM-CSF versus placebo treatments were 69.6 months (95% CI, 53.4 to 83.5 months) versus 59.3 months (95% CI, 44.4 to 77.3 months); the 5-year OS probability rates were 52.3% (95% CI, 47.3% to 57.1%) versus 49.4% (95% CI, 44.3% to 54.3%), respectively. The median RFS times with GM-CSF versus placebo were 11.4 months (95% CI, 9.4 to 14.8 months) versus 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.5 to 11.2 months); the 5-year RFS probability rates were 31.2% (95% CI, 26.7% to 35.9%) versus 27.0% (95% CI, 22.7% to 31.5%), respectively. Exploratory analyses showed a trend toward improved OS in GM-CSF-treated patients with resected visceral metastases. When survival in HLA-A2-positive patients who received PV versus placebo was compared, RFS and OS were not significantly different. Treatment-related grade 3 or greater adverse events were similar between GM-CSF and placebo groups. Neither adjuvant GM-CSF nor PV significantly improved RFS or OS in patients with high-risk resected melanoma. Exploratory analyses suggest

  14. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Endometrial Cancer Clinical Trials Planning Meeting: taking endometrial cancer trials into the translational era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzberg, Carien L; Kitchener, Henry C; Birrer, Michael J; Landoni, Fabio; Lu, Karen H; Powell, Melanie; Aghajanian, Carol; Edmondson, Richard; Goodfellow, Paul J; Quinn, Michael; Salvesen, Helga B; Thomas, Gillian

    2013-10-01

    The second Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Endometrial Cancer Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was held on December 1, 2012, and included international multidisciplinary representatives of the 24 member groups. The aims were to review recent advances in molecular pathology of endometrial cancer, focusing on molecular-based therapy, and to identify key hypotheses and issues to be addressed through international collaborative clinical trials. Reviews and summaries of current knowledge were presented followed by parallel working group sessions for surgery, adjuvant and systemic therapy, and translational research. Plenary discussions were held to integrate translational and clinical issues, and a final discussion session to agree on key trial concepts. Proposals to take forward on the following trials were agreed: (1) lymphadenectomy to direct adjuvant treatment in women with high-risk endometrial cancer, including a sentinel node substudy; (2) conservative therapy for low-risk endometrial cancers in morbidly obese women with high surgical risks and for fertility-sparing treatment in premenopausal patients; (3) adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage carcinosarcoma. A proposal was made that a GCIG Early Phase Consortium be developed to serve as an international platform for rapid assessment of biomarkers.

  15. Intervention to Enhance Empowerment in Breast Cancer Self-Help Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2010-01-01

    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately four months. Each group of...

  16. HER2 and uPAR cooperativity contribute to metastatic phenotype of HER2-positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Vineesh Indira; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Vine, Kara Lea; Ranson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive breast carcinoma is highly aggressive and mostly metastatic in nature though curable/manageable in part by molecular targeted therapy. Recent evidence suggests a subtype of cells within HER2-positive breast tumors that concomitantly expresses the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) with inherent stem cell/mesenchymal-like properties promoting tumor cell motility and a metastatic phenotype. This HER-positive/uPAR-positive subtype may be partially responsible for the failure of HER2-targeted treatment strategies. Herein we discuss and substantiate the cumulative preclinical and clinical evidence on HER2-uPAR cooperativity in terms of gene co-amplification and/or mRNA/protein co-overexpression. We then propose a regulatory signaling model that we hypothesize to maintain upregulation and cooperativity between HER2 and uPAR in aggressive breast cancer. An improved understanding of the HER2/uPAR interaction in breast cancer will provide critical biomolecular information that may help better predict disease course and response to therapy. PMID:25897424

  17. Etoposide in malignant pleural mesothelioma : Two phase II trials of the EORTC Lung Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahmoud, T; Postmus, PE; van Pottelsberghe, C; Mattson, K; Tammilehto, L; Splinter, TAW; Planting, AST; Sutedja, T; van Pawel, J; van Zandwijk, N; Baas, P; Roozendaal, KJ; Schrijver, M; Kirkpatrick, A; Van Glabbeke, M; Ardizzoni, A; Giaccone, G

    1997-01-01

    Intravenous and oral etoposide (VP 16-213) were tested in two sequential phase II trials in chemotherapy-naive patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. In the first trial, etoposide was given intravenously (i.v.) at a dose of 150 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3 and 5 every 3 weeks. The second trial

  18. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national rehabilitat......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...... by participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...... of Internet-based support groups in cancer patients still needs to confirm long-lasting psychological effects....

  19. Cancer-related concerns among women with a new diagnosis of gynecological cancer: an exploration of age group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David W; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm; Graff, John J

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to characterize cancer-related concerns among women with a new diagnosis of gynecological cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. The study compared the degree of cancer-related concern between young women (45 years or younger), middle age women (46-64 years), and older women (65 years or older). Data from women (N = 243) with a condition diagnosed as primary gynecological cancer who were participating in a randomized control trial were analyzed. Women completed a measure that assessed the degree of concern in 12 cancer-related domains (physical functioning, cancer treatment, emotional functioning, sexual functioning, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, relationship with others, employment, and finances). Multivariate comparisons were made between the 3 age groups on the cancer-related concerns. There were age group differences in overall cancer-related concern and specific cancer-related domains. Young women reported the greatest cancer-related concern (P < 0.001). They reported greater concern over emotional functioning (P < 0.001) and sexual functioning (P < 0.001) compared to the middle- and older-age groups. Older women reported less concern over the impact of cancer on finances (P = 007). There were no differences between age groups in concern over physical impairment, cancer treatment, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, and relationship with others. Age may play an important role in the impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis in domains of functioning, specifically emotional functioning, sexual functioning, and finances. Other cancer-related areas may represent more universal degree of impact. Professionals may benefit from considering the impact of cancer from a developmental life stage perspective.

  20. Cancer-Related Concerns among Women Newly Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer: An Exploration of Age Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers Virtue, Shannon; Manne, Sharon L.; Ozga, Melissa; Kissane, David; Rubin, Stephen; Heckman, Carolyn; Rosenblum, Norm; Graff, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to characterize cancer-related concerns among women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. The study compared degree of cancer-related concern between young women (≤ 45 years), middle age women (46–64 years), and older women (≥ 65 years). Methods/Materials Data from women (N =243) diagnosed with primary gynecological cancer who were participating in a randomized control trial were analyzed. Women completed a measure that assessed degree of concern in twelve cancer-related domains (physical functioning, cancer treatment, emotional functioning, sexual functioning, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, relationship with others, employment, and finances). Multivariate comparisons were made between the three age groups on the cancer-related concerns. Results There were age group differences in overall cancer-related concern and specific cancer-related domains. Young women reported the greatest cancer-related concern (p < .001). They reported greater concern over emotional functioning (p < .001) and sexual functioning (p < .001) compared to the middle and older age groups. Older women reported less concern over the impact of cancer on finances (p = 007). There were no differences between age groups in concern over physical impairment, cancer treatment, disease progression/death, own well-being, partner well-being, relationship with spouse/partner, body image, and relationship with others. Conclusions Age may play an important role in the impact of a gynecological cancer diagnosis in domains of functioning, specifically emotional functioning, sexual functioning, and finances. Other cancer-related areas may represent more universal degree of impact. Professionals may benefit form considering the impact of cancer from a developmental life stage perspective. PMID:24346489

  1. Effectiveness of group psychotherapy compared to social support groups in patients with primary, non-metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Petra J.; Visser, Adriaan P.; Garssen, Bert; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of experiential-existential group psychotherapy with a social support group for women with a primary breast cancer on psychosocial adjustment. A total of 67 well-adjusted women, who had been operated not earlier than 4 months before start

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Prostate cancer among different racial groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of prostate cancer varies worldwide, with the highest rates reported in the USA, and the lowest in parts of Asia. Prostate cancer incidence rates are 1.6 - 1.9 times higher, and mortality rates. 2 - 3 times higher, among African-American men (AAM) than. Caucasian-American men (CAM).1-6 AAM are younger at ...

  3. CBP loss cooperates with PTEN haploinsufficiency to drive prostate cancer: implications for epigenetic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, L.; Chen, S.; Liu, P.; Pan, Y.; Zhong, J.; Regan, K.M.; Wang, L.; Yu, C.; Rizzardi, A.; Cheng, L.; Zhang, Jun; Schmechel, S.C.; Cheville, J.C.; Deursen, J. van; Tindall, D.J.; Huang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high incidence and mortality of prostate cancer, the etiology of this disease is not fully understood. In this study, we develop functional evidence for CBP and PTEN interaction in prostate cancer based on findings of their correlate expression in the human disease.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL TYPE GROUP INVESTIGATION (GI AND MASTERY MATTER PHYSICS PREREQUISITES PHYSICS TOWARDS STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: To determine differences in learning outcomes of students with learning model Cooperative Group Investigation and Direct Instruction teaching model, to determine differences in learning outcomes student's mastery of the material that has low prerequisite Physics and Physics prerequisite mastery high, to determine the interaction between Models of Learning and the level of mastery learning model materials physics prerequisite in improving student learning outcomes Physics. The sample in this study conducted in a cluster random sampling of two classes, where the first class as a class experiment applied learning models Cooperative Group Investigation as a class and the second class of controls implemented Direct Instruction model. The instrument is used in this study is physics learning outcomes tests in narrative form as many as 10 questions and materials physics prerequisite mastery tests in narrative form as many as 7 questions that have been declared valid and reliable. The results were found: there are differences in physical students learning outcomes are taught by Cooperative Group Investigation learning model and Direct Instruction teaching model. There is a difference in student's learning outcomes that have a low mastery of prerequisite Physics and Physics prerequisite mastery of the material is high. There is interaction between learning models and the level of student mastery of the material prerequisites of Physics in influencing the physical students learning outcomes.

  5. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-11-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive 'Cliques': recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both 'competitively' (contests between Cliques) and 'cooperatively' (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group.

  6. What do cancer support groups provide which other supportive relationships do not? The experience of peer support groups for people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussher, Jane; Kirsten, Laura; Butow, Phyllis; Sandoval, Mirjana

    2006-05-01

    This qualitative study examined the questions of what cancer support groups provide that other supportive relationships do not, and what the self perceived consequences are of support group attendance. Nine representative Australian cancer peer support groups, consisting of a total of 93 interviewees, 75 women, and 18 men, with a mean age of 62, took part in participant observation and focus group interviews, with the data analysed using positioning theory. Support groups were positioned by participants as providing a unique sense of community, unconditional acceptance, and information about cancer and its treatment, in contrast to the isolation, rejection, and lack of knowledge about cancer frequently experienced outside the group. Groups were also positioned as occasionally emotionally challenging, in contrast to the experience of normalising support from family and friends. Increased empowerment and agency were positioned as the most significant consequences of group support, consisting of increased confidence and a sense of control in relation to self, living with cancer, and interactions with others, in particular the medical profession. The support group was also positioned as facilitating positive relationships with family and friends because of relieving their burden of care, by providing a safe space for the expression of emotion. No difference was found between professionally led and peer led support groups, suggesting that it is not the professional background of the leader which is of importance, but whether the group provides a supportive environment, mutuality, and a sense of belonging, and whether it meets the perceived needs of those attending. It is suggested that future research should examine the construction and experience of social support in those who drop out of, or who do not attend, cancer support groups, in order to provide further insight into the contrast between social support within groups and support in other contexts.

  7. Genome-wide Search of Oncogenic Pathways Cooperating with ETS Fusions in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 13 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Table of Contents...TMPRSS2 has been reported as the principal 59 fusion partner of ERG, whereas more het- erogeneous 59 fusion partners, such asTMPRSS2, SCL45A3, or ACSL3...urogenital area (e.g., in lymphatic vessel) Figure 2. Cooperation of Tmprss2-ERG and Tmprss2-ETV1 gene fusions with Pten loss. (A) Bar graph

  8. P2Y2 Receptor and EGFR Cooperate to Promote Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via ERK1/2 Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hua Li

    Full Text Available As one member of G protein-coupled P2Y receptors, P2Y2 receptor can be equally activated by extracellular ATP and UTP. Our previous studies have proved that activation of P2Y2 receptor by extracellular ATP could promote prostate cancer cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo via regulating the expressions of some epithelial-mesenchymal transition/invasion-related genes (including IL-8, E-cadherin, Snail and Claudin-1, and the most significant change in expression of IL-8 was observed after P2Y2 receptor activation. However, the signaling pathway downstream of P2Y2 receptor and the role of IL-8 in P2Y2-mediated prostate cancer cell invasion remain unclear. Here, we found that extracellular ATP/UTP induced activation of EGFR and ERK1/2. After knockdown of P2Y2 receptor, the ATP -stimulated phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2 was significantly suppressed. Further experiments showed that inactivation of EGFR and ERK1/2 attenuated ATP-induced invasion and migration, and suppressed ATP-mediated IL-8 production. In addition, knockdown of IL-8 inhibited ATP-mediated invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells. These findings suggest that P2Y2 receptor and EGFR cooperate to upregulate IL-8 production via ERK1/2 pathway, thereby promoting prostate cancer cell invasion and migration. Thus blocking of the P2Y2-EGFR-ERK1/2 pathway may provide effective therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.

  9. The Start-Up of the first Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Center in the Iraqi Kurdistan: a Capacity-Building Cooperative Project by the Hiwa Cancer Hospital, Sulaymaniyah, and the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation: an Innovative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Majolino, Ignazio; Othman, Dosti; Rovelli, Attilio; Hassan, Dastan; Rasool, Luqman; Vacca, Michele; Abdalrahman, Nigar; Abdullah, Chra; Ahmed, Zhalla; Ali, Dlir; Ali, Kosar; Broggi, Chiara; Calabretta, Cinzia; Canesi, Marta; Ciabatti, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    We describe the entire process leading to the start-up of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation center at the Hiwa Cancer Hospital, in the city of Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Iraqi Region. This capacity building project was funded by the Italian Development Cooperation Agency and implemented with the support of the volunteer work of Italian professionals, either physicians, nurses, biologists and technicians. The intervention started in April 2016, was based exclusively on training and coachi...

  10. SKI and MEL1 cooperate to inhibit transforming growth factor-beta signal in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Mami; Inoue, Yasumichi; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Imoto, Issei; Koinuma, Daizo; Hayashi, Makoto; Ichikura, Takashi; Yamori, Takao; Nagasaki, Koichi; Yoshida, Mika; Matsuoka, Masao; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Yuki, Keiko; Hanyu, Aki; Miyazawa, Keiji; Inazawa, Johji; Miyazono, Kohei; Imamura, Takeshi

    2009-01-30

    Chromosomal amplification occurs frequently in solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Several reports demonstrated the cooperative effects of oncogenic factors in the same amplicon during cancer development. However, the functional correlation between the factors remains unclear. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling plays important roles in cytostasis and normal epithelium differentiation, and alterations in TGF-beta signaling have been identified in many malignancies. Here, we demonstrated that transcriptional co-repressors of TGF-beta signaling, SKI and MDS1/EVI1-like gene 1 (MEL1), were aberrantly expressed in MKN28 gastric cancer cells by chromosomal co-amplification of 1p36.32. SKI and MEL1 knockdown synergistically restored TGF-beta responsiveness in MKN28 cells and reduced tumor growth in vivo. MEL1 interacted with SKI and inhibited TGF-beta signaling by stabilizing the inactive Smad3-SKI complex on the promoter of TGF-beta target genes. These findings reveal a novel mechanism where distinct transcriptional co-repressors are co-amplified and functionally interact, and provide molecular targets for gastric cancer treatment.

  11. Syndecan-2 promotes perineural invasion and cooperates with K-ras to induce an invasive pancreatic cancer cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Tiago; Abiatari, Ivane; Raulefs, Susanne; Sauliunaite, Danguole; Erkan, Mert; Kong, Bo; Friess, Helmut; Michalski, Christoph W; Kleeff, Jörg

    2012-04-03

    We have identified syndecan-2 as a protein potentially involved in perineural invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Syndecan-2 (SDC-2) expression was analyzed in human normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and PDAC tissues. Functional in vitro assays were carried out to determine its role in invasion, migration and signaling. SDC-2 was expressed in the majority of the tested pancreatic cancer cell lines while it was upregulated in nerve-invasive PDAC cell clones. There were 2 distinct expression patterns of SDC-2 in PDAC tissue samples: SDC-2 positivity in the cancer cell cytoplasm and a peritumoral expression. Though SDC-2 silencing (using specific siRNA oligonucleotides) did not affect anchorage-dependent growth, it significantly reduced cell motility and invasiveness in the pancreatic cancer cell lines T3M4 and Su8686. On the transcriptional level, migration-and invasion-associated genes were down-regulated following SDC-2 RNAi. Furthermore, SDC-2 silencing reduced K-ras activity, phosphorylation of Src and--further downstream--phosphorylation of ERK2 while levels of the putative SDC-2 signal transducer p120GAP remained unaltered. SDC-2 is a novel (perineural) invasion-associated gene in PDAC which cooperates with K-ras to induce a more invasive phenotype.

  12. Syndecan-2 promotes perineural invasion and cooperates with K-ras to induce an invasive pancreatic cancer cell phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Oliveira Tiago

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have identified syndecan-2 as a protein potentially involved in perineural invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells. Methods Syndecan-2 (SDC-2 expression was analyzed in human normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and PDAC tissues. Functional in vitro assays were carried out to determine its role in invasion, migration and signaling. Results SDC-2 was expressed in the majority of the tested pancreatic cancer cell lines while it was upregulated in nerve-invasive PDAC cell clones. There were 2 distinct expression patterns of SDC-2 in PDAC tissue samples: SDC-2 positivity in the cancer cell cytoplasm and a peritumoral expression. Though SDC-2 silencing (using specific siRNA oligonucleotides did not affect anchorage-dependent growth, it significantly reduced cell motility and invasiveness in the pancreatic cancer cell lines T3M4 and Su8686. On the transcriptional level, migration-and invasion-associated genes were down-regulated following SDC-2 RNAi. Furthermore, SDC-2 silencing reduced K-ras activity, phosphorylation of Src and - further downstream - phosphorylation of ERK2 while levels of the putative SDC-2 signal transducer p120GAP remained unaltered. Conclusion SDC-2 is a novel (perineural invasion-associated gene in PDAC which cooperates with K-ras to induce a more invasive phenotype.

  13. The Creative Journey: A Model for Short-Term Group Art Therapy with Posttreatment Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzatto, Paola; Gabriel, Bonnie

    2000-01-01

    Cancer patients who have completed medical treatment are often left with unresolved psychological issues. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York offers a group art therapy program for cancer patients to help them regain their self-confidence and readjust their self-identity. The response of 70 participants has been positive and has…

  14. Predictive model of oral cancer metastasis for different cancer sites and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardena, Bogahawatte Samarakoon Mudiyanselage Samadarani; Rasnayaka, Rasnayaka Mudiynaselage Sumudu Geethika Kumari; Masood, Yaghma; Masood, Mohd; Kumarasiri, Pallegoda Vithanage Ranjith; Tilakaratne, Wanninayake Mudiyanselage

    2016-05-01

    The high incidence rates for oral cancer (excluding lip) are especially found in the South and South-East Asia. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sex, age, site, and metastasis of a large sample with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A total of 989 OSCC treated with neck dissection were selected. All the relevant data were recorded from biopsy request forms. The patients were divided into seven groups, and there were nine different oral sites. The male-to-female ratio of the sample was 4:1. Most of the patients were aged between 30 and 60 years. Of the 989 patients, approximately 40% patients had metastasis. Age age groups, but it was not statistically significant. Palate cancers had more than 14 times higher chance of metastasis, followed by maxilla (4.6 times) and tongue (2.8 times). The present study provides important information on the metastatic potential of OSCC in different oral sites, and identifies high-risk age groups for metastasis. This will be helpful in planning neck treatment for OSCC. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Cancer and the experience of meaning: a group psychotherapy program for people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, M; Breitbart, W

    2000-01-01

    Cancer illness affects people in many ways, physical, financial, and existential. In this paper, we describe a proposed group intervention for individuals with advanced disease who want help finding a sense of meaning at this critical juncture in their lives. This intervention has a brief, semi-structured format, and is informed by the work of Viktor Frankl, empirical findings in the area of meaning and trauma, and the empirical findings of other group interventions for cancer patients. Individual sessions focus on different aspects of meaning, including responsibility to others, creativity, transcendence, and ascertaining one's values and priorities. Having goals on which to focus and feeling like part of a larger whole are critically important to the ability to find meaning and cope with terminal illness. Such goals may be generated by a number of sources, including connectedness with others, or a sense of the temporal continuity of one's own life despite the disruption posed by severe illness. Didactic discussions and experiential exercises help to facilitate exploration of these various elements in group members' lives. The finite structure of the intervention may also highlight these issues, as people who are faced with similar issues work together in a limited time frame in order to accomplish the goals they set out for themselves.

  16. ABO blood groups and risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bai-Lin; He, Na; Huang, Yu-Bei; Song, Feng-Ju; Chen, Ke-Xin

    2014-01-01

    For decades, studies have been performed to evaluate the association between ABO blood groups and risk of cancer. However, whether ABO blood groups are associated with overall cancer risk remains unclear. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to assess this association. A search of Pubmed, Embase, ScienceDirect, Wiley, and Web of Knowledge databases (to May 2013) was supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles and relevant reviews. We included case-control studies and cohort studies with more than 100 cancer cases. The search yielded 89 eligible studies that reported 100,554 cases at 30 cancer sites. For overall cancer risk, the pooled OR was 1.12 (95%CI: 1.09-1.16) for A vs. non- A groups, and 0.84 (95%CI: 0.80-0.88) for O vs. non-O groups. For individual cancer sites, blood group A was found to confer increased risk of gastric cancer (OR=1.18; 95%CI: 1.13-1.24), pancreatic cancer (OR=1.23; 95%CI: 1.15-1.32), breast cancer (OR=1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.24), ovarian cancer (OR=1.16; 95%CI: 1.04-1.27), and nasopharyngeal cancer (OR=1.17; 95%CI: 1.00-1.33). Blood group O was found to be linked to decreased risk of gastric cancer (OR=0.84; 95%CI: 0.80-0.88), pancreatic cancer (OR=0.75; 95%CI: 0.70-0.80), breast cancer (OR=0.90; 95%CI: 0.85-0.95), colorectal cancer (OR=0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.96), ovarian cancer (OR=0.76; 95%CI: 0.53-1.00), esophagus cancer (OR=0.94; 95%CI: 0.89-1.00), and nasopharyngeal cancer (OR=0.81; 95%CI: 0.70-0.91). Blood group A is associated with increased risk of cancer, and blood group O is associated with decreased risk of cancer.

  17. Nutrients, food groups, dietary patterns, and risk of pancreatic cancer in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Flood, Andrew; Robien, Kim; Anderson, Kristin

    2011-04-01

    Identifying modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer is important because of its poor prognosis. Previous findings on diet are inconsistent. Associations between intake of nutrients, food groups, dietary patterns, and pancreatic cancer risk were examined among 34,642 postmenopausal women in the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS). No significant associations were observed between intake of nutrients and food groups or dietary patterns and pancreatic cancer. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that fruits, vegetables, and red meat are associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Dietary intake, assessed in multiple aspects in a large prospective cohort study, was not associated with pancreatic cancer.

  18. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, Margaret A; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    ...‐reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases...

  19. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both

  20. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  1. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group - The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Consortium; The Cancer Institute of New Jersey/University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School...University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer...cilengitide in children with refractory brain tumors: pediatric brain tumor consortium study PBTC-012. J Clin Oncol 26:919–924 29. Moreno J, DeBono

  2. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    cerebrovascular accident , myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary artery stenting within 6 months of enrollment, or a history of venous thrombosis...Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer: NCI 8476 Dr. David Smith JHU (Princess Margaret Hospital ) Activated at UM site on 10/20/2011. On-hold to...University Hospital , Philadelphia, PA; New York University Cancer Institute, New York, NY; Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN; ImClone

  3. MDGA2 is a novel tumour suppressor cooperating with DMAP1 in gastric cancer and is associated with disease outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunning; Liang, Qiaoyi; Li, Xiaoxing; Tsoi, Ho; Zhang, Jingwan; Wang, Hua; Go, Minnie Y Y; Chiu, Philip W Y; Ng, Enders K W; Sung, Joseph J Y; Yu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Using the promoter methylation assay, we have shown that MDGA2 (MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 2) is preferentially methylated in gastric cancer. We analysed its biological effects and prognostic significance in gastric cancer. MDGA2 methylation status was evaluated by combined bisulfite restriction analysis and bisulfite genomic sequencing. The effects of MDGA2 re-expression or knockdown on cell proliferation, apoptosis and the cell cycle were determined. MDGA2 interacting protein was identified by mass spectrometry and MDGA2-related cancer pathways by reporter activity and PCR array analyses. The clinical impact of MDGA2 was assessed in 218 patients with gastric cancer. MDGA2 was commonly silenced in gastric cancer cells (10/11) and primary gastric cancers due to promoter hypermethylation. MDGA2 significantly inhibited cell proliferation by causing G1-S cell cycle arrest and inducing cell apoptosis in vitro, and suppressed xenograft tumour growth in both subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft mouse models (both pgastric cancer. This interaction activated their downstream key elements of p53/p21 signalling cascades. Moreover, promoter methylation of MDGA2 was detected in 62.4% (136/218) of gastric cancers. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with MDGA2 hypermethylation had a significantly decreased survival (p=0.005). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that MDGA2 hypermethylation was significantly associated with shortened survival in patients with early gastric cancer. MDGA2 is a critical tumour suppressor in gastric carcinogenesis; its hypermethylation is an independent prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Theorizing about social support and health communication in a prostate cancer support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, Michael Irvin

    2010-01-01

    This article inquires into whether and how uncertainty reduction theory and problematic integration theory, two theories relevant to social support as enacted within a chapter of the Man-to-Man prostate cancer support group, inform us of how such groups can assist group members most effectively. Interview data from members of a prostate cancer support group shed light on theoretical assumptions about uncertainty. Although the group applies elements of both theories, prostate cancer survivors likely would benefit from a more comprehensive and flexible treatment of social support theory.

  5. Cooperative coupling of the Li cation and groups to amplify the charge transfer between C60 and corannulene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Xu, Jing; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Lei, E.; Liu, Xiang-Shuai; Liu, Chun-Guang

    2017-02-01

    In present work, four complexes have been designed to investigate the effect of Li+ cation and substituent on the geometric structures and a series of electronic properties using density functional theory. The calculated results indicate that the charge decomposition (CDA) analysis and extend charge decomposition analysis (ECDA) of four complexes have the same sequence. The average d values defined the distances between C60 and corannulene display the inverse sequence. Consequently, the cooperative coupling of the Li+ cation and appropriate substituent is predicted to be an effective way to enhance the charge transfer between the C60 and corannulene derivatives.

  6. Modelling population-based cancer survival trends using join point models for grouped survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binbing; Huang, Lan; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J; Johnson, Karen A

    2009-04-01

    In the United States cancer as a whole is the second leading cause of death and a major burden to health care, thus the medical progress against cancer is a major public health goal. There are many individual studies to suggest that cancer treatment breakthroughs and early diagnosis have significantly improved the prognosis of cancer patients. To better understand the relationship between medical improvements and the survival experience for the patient population at large, it is useful to evaluate cancer survival trends on the population level, e.g., to find out when and how much the cancer survival rates changed. In this paper, we analyze the population-based grouped cancer survival data by incorporating joinpoints into the survival models. A joinpoint survival model facilitates the identification of trends with significant change points in cancer survival, when related to cancer treatments or interventions. The Bayesian Information Criterion is used to select the number of joinpoints. The performance of the joinpoint survival models is evaluated with respect to cancer prognosis, joinpoint locations, annual percent changes in death rates by year of diagnosis, and sample sizes through intensive simulation studies. The model is then applied to the grouped relative survival data for several major cancer sites from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute. The change points in the survival trends for several major cancer sites are identified and the potential driving forces behind such change points are discussed.

  7. Epigenomic characterization of locally advanced anal cancer: a radiation therapy oncology group 98-11 specimen study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Erin M; Eschrich, Steven; Winter, Kathryn; Riggs, Bridget; Berglund, Anders; Ajidahun, Abidemi; Simko, Jeff; Moughan, Jennifer; Ajani, Jaffer; Magliocco, Anthony; Elahi, Abul; Hoffe, Sarah; Shibata, David

    2014-08-01

    The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 clinical trial demonstrated the superiority of standard 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin-C over 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin in combination with radiation in the treatment of anal squamous cell cancer. Tumor size (>5 cm) and lymph node metastases are associated with disease progression. There may be key molecular differences (eg, DNA methylation changes) in tumors at high risk for progression. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are differences in DNA methylation at individual CpG sites and within genes among locally advanced anal cancers, with large tumor size and/or nodal involvement, compared with those that are less advanced. This was a case-case study among 121 patients defined as high risk (tumor size >5 cm and/or nodal involvement; n = 59) or low risk (≤5 cm, node negative; n = 62) within the mitomycin-C arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-11 trial. DNA methylation was measured using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 Array. The study was conducted in a tertiary care cancer center in collaboration with a national clinical trials cooperative group. The patients consisted of 74 women and 47 men with a median age of 54 years (range, 25-79 years). DNA methylation differences at individual CpG sites and within genes between low- and high-risk patients were compared using the Mann-Whitney test (p Epigenetic events likely play a significant role in the progression of anal cancer and may serve as potential biomarkers.

  8. Efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, N; Vos, J; van Uden-Kraan, C F; Breitbart, W.; Cuijpers, P; Holtmaat, K; Witte, B I; Tollenaar, R.A.E.M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors (MCGP-CS) to improve personal meaning, compared with supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) and care as usual (CAU). METHOD: A total of 170 cancer survivors were randomly assigned

  9. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  10. How breast cancer survivors cope with fear of recurrence : A focus group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; den Oudsten, B.L.; Jacobs, P.M.; Roukema, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the ways in which breast cancer survivors cope with fear of recurrence. Methods Three focus groups were held with breast cancer survivors. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative techniques.

  11. Relationship of Blood Groups (ABO & Rhesus and Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mostafa Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of blood groups with breast cancer in our country is not fully established elaborately and large scale studies have not been carried out till now. Therefore this study was designed to find out the possible relationship of different blood groups with breast cancer. Objective: To determine the relationship of various types of breast cancer with ABO and Rh blood groups among the female patients of our people. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in the cancer unit of Delta Medical College and Hospital, Dhaka from January 2011 to February 2013. After proper and ethical consideration total 112 female patients with breast cancer were included in this study. Various factors like age, family history, metastasis, type of cancer were considered in this study. The blood groups of the patients were done by standard ABO and Rh typing methods (Forward & Reverse grouping by test tube method. Results: Among 112 breast cancer patients of our country, ductal breast cancer was found in 108 (96.42% subjects, distant metastasis was found in 93 (86.9% cases and positive family history in 70 (62.50% subjects. Conclusion: Ductal type of breast cancer with positive family history and distant metastasis is common in different blood groups in our country.

  12. ERG Cooperates with Androgen Receptor in Regulating Trefoil Factor 3 in Prostate Cancer Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Rickman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the role of ETS gene fusions in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, we characterized the transcriptome of 54 CRPC tumor samples from men with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 emerged as the most highly differentially regulated gene with respect to ERG rearrangement status and resistance to hormone ablation therapy. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-polymerase chain reaction and ChIP followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq revealed direct binding of ERG to ETS binding sites in the TFF3 promoter in ERG-rearranged prostate cancer cell lines. These results were confirmed in ERG-rearranged hormone-naive prostate cancer (HNPC and CRPC tissue samples. Functional studies demonstrated that ERG has an inhibitory effect on TFF3 expression in hormone-naive cancer but not in the castration-resistant state. In addition, we provide evidence suggesting an effect of androgen receptor signaling on ERG-regulated TFF3 expression. Furthermore, TFF3 overexpression enhances ERG-mediated cell invasion in CRPC prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for enhanced tumor cell aggressiveness resulting from ERG rearrangement in the castration-resistant setting through TFF3 gene expression.

  13. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists…

  14. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that

  15. MYC and MCL1 Cooperatively Promote Chemotherapy-Resistant Breast Cancer Stem Cells via Regulation of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Giltnane, Jennifer M; Balko, Justin M; Schwarz, Luis J; Guerrero-Zotano, Angel L; Hutchinson, Katherine E; Nixon, Mellissa J; Estrada, Mónica V; Sánchez, Violeta; Sanders, Melinda E; Lee, Taekyu; Gómez, Henry; Lluch, Ana; Pérez-Fidalgo, J Alejandro; Wolf, Melissa Magdalene; Andrejeva, Gabriela; Rathmell, Jeffrey C; Fesik, Stephen W; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2017-10-03

    Most patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) develop drug resistance. MYC and MCL1 are frequently co-amplified in drug-resistant TNBC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Herein, we demonstrate that MYC and MCL1 cooperate in the maintenance of chemotherapy-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) in TNBC. MYC and MCL1 increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mtOXPHOS) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), processes involved in maintenance of CSCs. A mutant of MCL1 that cannot localize in mitochondria reduced mtOXPHOS, ROS levels, and drug-resistant CSCs without affecting the anti-apoptotic function of MCL1. Increased levels of ROS, a by-product of activated mtOXPHOS, led to the accumulation of HIF-1α. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α attenuated CSC enrichment and tumor initiation in vivo. These data suggest that (1) MYC and MCL1 confer resistance to chemotherapy by expanding CSCs via mtOXPHOS and (2) targeting mitochondrial respiration and HIF-1α may reverse chemotherapy resistance in TNBC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. AKT1E¹⁷K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Malanga

    Full Text Available The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6-2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26 locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype.

  17. AKT1E17K Is Oncogenic in Mouse Lung and Cooperates with Chemical Carcinogens in Inducing Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; Belmonte, Stefania; Colelli, Fabiana; Scarfò, Marzia; De Marco, Carmela; Oliveira, Duarte Mendes; Mirante, Teresa; Camastra, Caterina; Gagliardi, Monica; Rizzuto, Antonia; Mignogna, Chiara; Paciello, Orlando; Papparella, Serenella; Fagman, Henrik; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The hotspot AKT1E17K mutation in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1 occurs in approximately 0.6–2% of human lung cancers. Recently, we have demonstrated that AKT1E17K transforms immortalized human bronchial cells. Here by use of a transgenic Cre-inducible murine strain in the wild type Rosa26 (R26) locus (R26-AKT1E17K mice) we demonstrate that AKT1E17K is a bona-fide oncogene and plays a role in the development of lung cancer in vivo. In fact, we report that mutant AKT1E17K induces bronchial and/or bronchiolar hyperplastic lesions in murine lung epithelium, which progress to frank carcinoma at very low frequency, and accelerates tumor formation induced by chemical carcinogens. In conclusion, AKT1E17K induces hyperplasia of mouse lung epithelium in vivo and cooperates with urethane to induce the fully malignant phenotype. PMID:26859676

  18. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    not allowed to be initiated while on the study. No concurrent herbal or food supplements (such as PC-SPES or saw palmetto) other than a daily...University of California, San Francisco; Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1600 Divisadero Street , Box 1711, San Francisco, CA 94143-1711

  19. Intermediate-risk grouping of cervical cancer patients treated with radical hysterectomy: a Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, S Y; Kim, M H; Nam, B H; Lee, T S; Song, E S; Park, C Y; Kim, J W; Kim, Y B; Ryu, H S; Park, S Y; Kim, K T; Cho, C H; Lee, C; Kim, S M; Kim, B G; Bae, D S; Kim, Y T; Nam, J-H

    2014-01-21

    In this study, we sought to identify a criterion for the intermediate-risk grouping of patients with cervical cancer who exhibit any intermediate-risk factor after radical hysterectomy. In total, 2158 patients with pathologically proven stage IB-IIA cervical cancer with any intermediate-risk factor after radical hysterectomy were randomly assigned to two groups, a development group and a validation group, at a ratio of 3 : 1 (1620 patients:538 patients). To predict recurrence, multivariate models were developed using the development group. The ability of the models to discriminate between groups was validated using the log-rank test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Four factors (histology, tumour size, deep stromal invasion (DSI), and lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI)) were significantly associated with disease recurrence and included in the models. Among the nine possible combinations of the four variables, models consisting of any two of the four intermediate-risk factors (tumour size ≥3 cm, DSI of the outer third of the cervix, LVSI, and adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma histology) demonstrated the best performance for predicting recurrence. This study identified a 'four-factor model' in which the presence of any two factors may be useful for predicting recurrence in patients with cervical cancer treated with radical hysterectomy.

  20. Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Safioleas, Constnatinos; Manti, Christina; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-08-18

    To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups. In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece. The ductal type of breast cancer was differentially distributed in blood groups Rh (+) (P breast cancer was present in 49.6% of cases, in relation to the other blood groups and in AB blood group the same type occurred rarely (3.6%). Rh (+) women with positive family history were more often found in A blood group. The relative risk of metastasis in Rh (-) patients was 4.2 times higher than that in Rh (+) patients. Among Rh (+) patients, the relative risk of metastasis was 1.29 times higher in A blood group than in other blood groups. Blood group A is often associated with ductal breast cancer (49.6%), in contrast to the other blood groups and particularly to blood group AB (3.6%). Blood group A and, particularly, A (-) has the worst prognosis of all.

  1. Factors influencing work functioning after cancer diagnosis: a focus group study with cancer survivors and occupational health professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Dorland, H. F.; Abma, F. I.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Smink, J. G.; Ranchor, A V; Bultmann, U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer survivors (CSs) frequently return to work, but little is known about work functioning after return to work (RTW). We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators of work functioning among CSs. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with CSs (n?=?6, n?=?8 and n?=?8) and one focus group with occupational health professionals (n?=?7). Concepts were identified by thematic analysis, using the Cancer and Work model as theoretical framework to structure the results. Results Long-las...

  2. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie

    2012-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes is under debate. We aimed to establish two models to predict non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes, to guide the decision...... for ALND. 1577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008, were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological...... variables in a logistic regression analysis. We identified tumor size, proportion of positive sentinel nodes, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor status and location of tumor in upper lateral quadrant of the breast as risk factors for NSN metastases in patients with micrometastases. A model based...

  3. Incorporating cancer risk information into general practice: a qualitative study using focus groups with health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Silarova, Barbora; Ward, Alison; Youell, Jane; Muir, Kenneth R; Campbell, Jackie; Warcaba, Joanne

    2017-03-01

    It is estimated that approximately 40% of all cases of cancer are attributable to lifestyle factors. Providing people with personalised information about their future risk of cancer may help promote behaviour change. To explore the views of health professionals on incorporating personalised cancer risk information, based on lifestyle factors, into general practice. Qualitative study using data from six focus groups with a total of 24 general practice health professionals from the NHS Nene Clinical Commissioning Group in England. The focus groups were guided by a schedule covering current provision of lifestyle advice relating to cancer and views on incorporating personalised cancer risk information. Data were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and then analysed using thematic analysis. Providing lifestyle advice was viewed as a core activity within general practice but the influence of lifestyle on cancer risk was rarely discussed. The word 'cancer' was seen as a potentially powerful motivator for lifestyle change but the fact that it could generate health anxiety was also recognised. Most focus group participants felt that a numerical risk estimate was more likely to influence behaviour than generic advice. All felt that general practice should provide this information, but there was a clear need for additional resources for it to be offered widely. Study participants were in support of providing personalised cancer risk information in general practice. The findings highlight a number of potential benefits and challenges that will inform the future development of interventions in general practice to promote behaviour change for cancer prevention. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  4. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes that cooperate with mutant Pten in breast cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Roberto; Lee, Song-Choon; Hon-Kim Ban, Kenneth; Guzman-Rojas, Liliana; Mann, Michael B.; Newberg, Justin Y.; McNoe, Leslie A.; Selvanesan, Luxmanan; Ward, Jerrold M.; Rust, Alistair G.; Chin, Kuan-Yew; Black, Michael A.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the worst prognosis of any breast cancer subtype. To better understand the genetic forces driving TNBC, we performed a transposon mutagenesis screen in a phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) mutant mice and identified 12 candidate trunk drivers and a much larger number of progression genes. Validation studies identified eight TNBC tumor suppressor genes, including the GATA-like transcriptional repressor TRPS1. Down-regulation of TRPS1 in TNBC cells promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by deregulating multiple EMT pathway genes, in addition to increasing the expression of SERPINE1 and SERPINB2 and the subsequent migration, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. Transposon mutagenesis has thus provided a better understanding of the genetic forces driving TNBC and discovered genes with potential clinical importance in TNBC. PMID:27849608

  5. MELK and EZH2 Cooperate to Regulate Medulloblastoma Cancer Stem-like Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hailong; Sun, Qianwen; Sun, Youliang; Zhang, Junping; Yuan, Hongyu; Pang, Shuhuan; Qi, Xueling; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Mingshan; Zhang, Hongwei; Yu, Chunjiang; Gu, Chunyu

    2017-09-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Although accumulated research has suggested that cancer stem-like cells play a key role in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis, the specific molecular mechanism regarding proliferation remains elusive. Here, we reported more abundant expression of maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) in medulloblastoma stem-like cells than in neural stem cells and the interaction between the two proteins could mediate the self-renewal of sonic hedgehog subtype medulloblastoma. In human medulloblastoma, extensive nodularity and large-cell/anaplastic subgroups differed according to the staining levels of MELK and EZH2 from the other two subgroups. The proportion of MELK- or EZH2-positive staining status could be considered as a potential indicator for survival. Mechanistically, MELK bound to and phosphorylated EZH2, and its methylation was induced by EZH2 in medulloblastoma, which could regulate the proliferation of cancer stem-like cells. In xenografts, loss of MELK or EZH2 attenuated medulloblastoma stem-like cell-derived tumor growth and promoted differentiation. These findings indicate that MELK-induced phosphorylation and EZH2-mediated methylation in MELK/EZH2 pathway are essential for medulloblastoma stem-like cell-derived tumor proliferation, thereby identifying a potential therapeutic strategy for these patients.Implications: This study demonstrates that the interaction occurring between MELK and EZH2 promotes self-proliferation and stemness, thus representing an attractive therapeutic target and potential candidate for diagnosis of medulloblastoma. Mol Cancer Res; 15(9); 1275-86. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. The needs of men with prostate cancer: results of a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Meredith; Storms, Sherri

    2007-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in men in the United States and accounts for 43% of all newly diagnosed malignancies. This year, approximately 218,890 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2007). Of all men diagnosed with cancer each year, more than 30% will be diagnosed with prostate cancer. Receiving a diagnosis of cancer can be very difficult and emotionally challenging for patients and their families. There is limited research surrounding the psychosocial and educational needs of men diagnosed with prostate cancer and the effectiveness of existing support services for this population. The purpose of this qualitative and grounded theory study was to explore the psychosocial needs of men with prostate cancer using a previously developed cancer model. Demographic questionnaires and focus groups were used with a sample of 16 men aged between 49 and 81 years. The results of the qualitative analysis revealed consistency with a previously tested breast cancer model and identified unique concerns of men within three stages of the prostate cancer experience. Implications for nursing research and practice are presented.

  7. The Children's Oncology Group Childhood Cancer Research Network (CCRN): case catchment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Jessica R B; Spector, Logan G; Krailo, Mark D; Reaman, Gregory H; Linabery, Amy M; Poynter, Jenny N; Stork, Susan K; Adamson, Peter C; Ross, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    The Childhood Cancer Research Network (CCRN) was established within the Children's Oncology Group (COG) in July 2008 to provide a centralized pediatric cancer research registry for investigators conducting approved etiologic and survivorship studies. The authors conducted an ecological analysis to characterize CCRN catchment at >200 COG institutions by demographic characteristics, diagnosis, and geographic location to determine whether the CCRN can serve as a population-based registry for childhood cancer. During 2009 to 2011, 18,580 US children newly diagnosed with cancer were registered in the CCRN. These observed cases were compared with age-specific, sex-specific, and race/ethnicity-specific expected numbers calculated from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer incidence rates and 2010 US Census data. Overall, 42% of children (18,580 observed/44,267 expected) who were diagnosed with cancer at age Cancer Society.

  8. ABO and Rh blood groups frequency in women with HER2 positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urun, Y; Utkan, G; Altundag, K; Arslan, O; Onur, H; Arslan, U Y; Kocer, M; Dogan, I; Senler, F C; Yalcin, B; Demirkazik, A; Akbulut, H; Icli, F

    2012-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in the development of cancer is widely accepted. Data on the role of ABO blood group and Rh factor in breast cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a possible association between HER2 (+) breast cancer in Turkish women and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. In 294 female patients with HER2 (+) breast cancer, ABO blood groups and Rh factor were examined. The relationship of blood groups with age, menopausal status, and family history of cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status of these patients was evaluated. Blood groups distribution of 22,821 healthy blood donors was also assessed and compared with the patients' blood groups distribution. The median patient age was 47 years (range 20-80) and 56% of the patients were premenopausal. ER and PR were positive in 50 and 60% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the ABO blood group distribution of the 294 HER2 (+) breast cancer patients was similar to that of the healthy blood donors (p=0.36). Likewise there was no correlation between blood type and ER, PR and menopausal status. Rh (-) patients had more frequent family cancer history and this difference was significant for patients with blood group B Rh (-) and O Rh (-) (p = 0.04). In the present study we didn't find any relationship between HER2 status and ABO blood group and Rh factor. However, further studies with larger number of patients are needed to establish the role (if any) of blood groups in patients with breast cancer.

  9. Lunatic Fringe and p53 Cooperatively Suppress Mesenchymal Stem-Like Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Chung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Claudin-low breast cancer (CLBC is a poor prognosis molecular subtype showing stemness and mesenchymal features. We previously discovered that deletion of a Notch signaling modulator, Lunatic Fringe (Lfng, in the mouse mammary gland induced a subset of tumors resembling CLBC. Here we report that deletion of one copy of p53 on this background not only accelerated mammary tumor development but also led to a complete penetrance of the mesenchymal stem-like phenotype. All mammary tumors examined in the Lfng/p53 compound mutant mice displayed a mesenchymal/spindloid pathology. These tumors showed high level expressions of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers including Vimentin, Twist, and PDGFRα, a gene known to be enriched in CLBC. Prior to tumor onset, Lfng/p53 mutant mammary glands exhibited increased levels of Vimentin and E-cadherin, but decreased expressions of cytokeratin 14 and cytokeratin 8, accompanied by elevated basal cell proliferation and an expanded mammary stem cell-enriched population. Lfng/p53 mutant glands displayed increased accumulation of Notch3 intracellular fragment, up-regulation of Hes5 and down-regulation of Hes1. Analysis in human breast cancer datasets found the lowest HES1 and second lowest LFNG expressions in CLBC among molecular subtypes, and low level of LFNG is associated with poor survival. Immunostaining of human breast cancer tissue array found correlation between survival and LFNG immunoreactivity. Finally, patients carrying TP53 mutations express lower LFNG than patients with wild type TP53. Taken together, these data revealed genetic interaction between Lfng and p53 in mammary tumorigenesis, established a new mouse model resembling CLBC, and may suggest targeting strategy for this disease.

  10. FoxP3 Functions as a Novel Breast Cancer Suppressor Gene Through Cooperation with NFAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it...carcinogenesis.INTRODUCTION Genetic lesions of several autosomal tumor suppressor genes, including PTEN (Sansal and Sellers, 2004; Suzuki et al., 1998), NKX3.1 ( Emmert -Buck...features with human prostate tumors. Cancer Cell 4, 223–238. Emmert -Buck, M.R., Vocke, C.D., Pozzatti, R.O., Duray, P.H., Jennings, S.B., Florence, C.D

  11. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  12. Group selection, kin selection, altruism and cooperation: when inclusive fitness is right and when it can be wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Group selection theory has a history of controversy. After a period of being in disrepute, models of group selection have regained some ground, but not without a renewed debate over their importance as a theoretical tool. In this paper I offer a simple framework for models of the evolution of

  13. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  14. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, J.; Buffart, L.M.; Korstjens, I.; van Weert, E.; Brug, J.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Mesters, I.; van den Borne, B.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.H.M.; Ros, W.J.G.; May, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Methods: Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n =

  15. Evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children treated for cancer: A descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, H.; Silberbusch, L.M.; Last, B.F.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present paper reports about the content and evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children growing up with a history of cancer, Op Koers Oncologie (OK Onco). OK Onco is aimed at empowerment of survivors of childhood cancer by teaching disease-related skills. The

  16. The Race Gap in Support Group Participation by Breast Cancer Survivors: Real or Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, Barret; Van Willigen, Marieke; Wilson, Kenneth; Schreier, Ann; Williams, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Addressing methodological weaknesses of previous research, this study assesses whether African American women are, in fact, less likely to participate in breast cancer support groups than are White women. Of the breast cancer survivors, 958 (26% African Americans, 73% Caucasian) completed interviews concerning demographic characteristics, other…

  17. THINKING ALOUD, TALKING, AND LEAThinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups Thinking aloud, talking, and learning to read: esl reading comprehension training in small cooperative groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Bejanaro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness. Training students to become independent skillful readers is a major concern of the EFL reading teacher. How can we best train students in selecting and applying reading strategies so that they become more efficient readers? Can we ensure that an increase in students’ awareness of the need to use strategies will help them become more skillful readers? These questions served as a trigger for this study. The aim of this study was to investigate whether verbal articulation of reading behavior in a small group will improve foreign language comprehension. It is our contention that using verbalization in small groups will raise metacognitive awareness which will in turn enhance effective use of skills and strategies and result in improvement in reading comprehension. We assume that the special features that characterize small group interactions can provide an appropriate setting for raising metacognitive awareness.

  18. Septin cooperation with tubulin polyglutamylation contributes to cancer cell adaptation to taxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux-Klipfel, Laurence; Targa, Benjamin; Cantaloube, Isabelle; Ahmed-Zaïd, Hayat; Poüs, Christian; Baillet, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of cancer cell adaptation to the anti-microtubule agents of the taxane family are multifaceted and still poorly understood. Here, in a model of breast cancer cells which display amplified microtubule dynamics to resist Taxol®, we provide evidence that septin filaments containing high levels of SEPT9_i1 bind to microtubules in a way that requires tubulin long chain polyglutamylation. Reciprocally, septin filaments provide a scaffold for elongating and trimming polyglutamylation enzymes to finely tune the glutamate side-chain length on microtubules to an optimal level. We also demonstrate that tubulin retyrosination and/or a high level of tyrosinated tubulin is crucial to allow the interplay between septins and polyglutamylation on microtubules and that together, these modifications result in an enhanced CLIP-170 and MCAK recruitment to microtubules. Finally, the inhibition of tubulin retyrosination, septins, tubulin long chain polyglutamylation or of both CLIP-170 and MCAK allows the restoration of cell sensitivity to taxanes, providing evidence for a new integrated mechanism of resistance. PMID:26460824

  19. Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Maiya, Arun S; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2011-08-01

    The form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. Social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. We show three groups of capuchin monkeys from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their group have particular "social personalities." Although there is no significant correlation for any of the network measures between giving and receiving aggression, suggesting that dominance relationships do not follow a simple hierarchy, strong correlations emerge for many measures between the aggression and grooming networks. At the local, but not global, scale, receiving aggression and giving grooming are strongly linked in all groups. Proximity shows no correlation with aggression at either the local or the global scale, suggesting that individuals neither seek out nor avoid aggressors. Yet, grooming has a global but not local connection to proximity. Extensive groomers who tend to direct their efforts at other extensive groomers also spend time in close proximity to many other individuals. These results indicate the important role that prosociality plays in shaping female social relationships. We also show that females who receive the least aggression, and thus pay low costs for group living, are most likely to participate in group defense. No consistent "social personality" traits characterize the males who invest in group defense. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Breast and ovarian cancer survivors' experience of participating in a cognitive-existential group intervention addressing fear of cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheu, Christine; Lebel, Sophie; Tomei, Christina; Singh, Mina; Esplen, Mary Jane

    2015-08-01

    Currently, very few clinical approaches are offered to cancer survivors dealing with fear of cancer recurrence (FCR). This paper provides an overview of cancer survivors' experience and satisfaction after taking part in a six-week, cognitive-existential (CE) group intervention that aimed to address FCR. In this qualitative descriptive study, 12 women with breast or ovarian cancer provided in-depth interviews of their experience in taking part in the CE group intervention. Analysis of their accounts revealed struggles to face their fears. Yet, by embracing their group experience, the women learned how to confront their fears and gain emotional control. The women reported that the group work was highly valuable. From the women's analysed accounts, the authors have proposed recommendations for changes to the group work process before moving the study to a full clinical trial. The study's findings also provide valuable insights to other cancer survivor groups who may also be experiencing FCR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of group cohesion on rehabilitation outcome in cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; van den Borne, Bart; Mesters, Ilse; van der Schans, Cees P.; Ros, Wynand J. G.

    Objective: Group-based physical training interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing quality of life in cancer survivors. Until now, however, the impact of cohesion within the group on intervention outcome has not been investigated. Methods: We examined self-reported individual group

  2. Cooperativity of Rb, Brca1, and p53 in malignant breast cancer evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar

    Full Text Available Breast cancers that are "triple-negative" for the clinical markers ESR1, PGR, and HER2 typically belong to the Basal-like molecular subtype. Defective Rb, p53, and Brca1 pathways are each associated with triple-negative and Basal-like subtypes. Our mouse genetic studies demonstrate that the combined inactivation of Rb and p53 pathways is sufficient to suppress the physiological cell death of mammary involution. Furthermore, concomitant inactivation of all three pathways in mammary epithelium has an additive effect on tumor latency and predisposes highly penetrant, metastatic adenocarcinomas. The tumors are poorly differentiated and have histologic features that are common among human Brca1-mutated tumors, including heterogeneous morphology, metaplasia, and necrosis. Gene expression analyses demonstrate that the tumors share attributes of both Basal-like and Claudin-low signatures, two molecular subtypes encompassed by the broader, triple-negative class defined by clinical markers.

  3. Nanomedicines Eradicating Cancer Stem-like Cells in Vivo by pH-Triggered Intracellular Cooperative Action of Loaded Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoh, Hiroaki; Miura, Yutaka; Chida, Tsukasa; Liu, Xueying; Mizuno, Kazue; Fukushima, Shigeto; Morodomi, Yosuke; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Cabral, Horacio; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-06-28

    Nanomedicines capable of control over drug functions have potential for developing resilient therapies, even against tumors harboring recalcitrant cancer stem cells (CSCs). By coordinating drug interactions within the confined inner compartment of core-shell nanomedicines, we conceived multicomponent nanomedicines directed to achieve synchronized and synergistic drug cooperation within tumor cells as a strategy for enhancing efficacy, overcoming drug resistance, and eradicating CSCs. The approach was validated by using polymeric micellar nanomedicines co-incorporating the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine (STS), which was identified as the most potent CSC inhibitor from a panel of signaling-pathway inhibitors, and the cytotoxic agent epirubicin (Epi), through rationally contriving the affinity between the drugs. The micelles released both drugs simultaneously, triggered by acidic endosomal pH, attaining concurrent intracellular delivery, with STS working as a companion for Epi, down-regulating efflux transporters and resistance mechanisms induced by Epi. These features prompted the nanomedicines to eradicate orthotopic xenografts of Epi-resistant mesothelioma bearing a CSC subpopulation.

  4. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn...

  5. The development of common data elements for a multi-institute prostate cancer tissue bank: The Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Jonathan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (CPCTR is a consortium of four geographically dispersed institutions that are funded by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI to provide clinically annotated prostate cancer tissue samples to researchers. To facilitate this effort, it was critical to arrive at agreed upon common data elements (CDEs that could be used to collect demographic, pathologic, treatment and clinical outcome data. Methods The CPCTR investigators convened a CDE curation subcommittee to develop and implement CDEs for the annotation of collected prostate tissues. The draft CDEs were refined and progressively annotated to make them ISO 11179 compliant. The CDEs were implemented in the CPCTR database and tested using software query tools developed by the investigators. Results By collaborative consensus the CPCTR CDE subcommittee developed 145 data elements to annotate the tissue samples collected. These included for each case: 1 demographic data, 2 clinical history, 3 pathology specimen level elements to describe the staging, grading and other characteristics of individual surgical pathology cases, 4 tissue block level annotation critical to managing a virtual inventory of cases and facilitating case selection, and 5 clinical outcome data including treatment, recurrence and vital status. These elements have been used successfully to respond to over 60 requests by end-users for tissue, including paraffin blocks from cases with 5 to 10 years of follow up, tissue microarrays (TMAs, as well as frozen tissue collected prospectively for genomic profiling and genetic studies. The CPCTR CDEs have been fully implemented in two major tissue banks and have been shared with dozens of other tissue banking efforts. Conclusion The freely available CDEs developed by the CPCTR are robust, based on "best practices" for tissue resources, and are ISO 11179 compliant. The process for CDE development described in this

  6. Haemostatic alterations in a group of canine cancer patients are associated with cancer type and disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreasen Eva B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemostatic alterations are commonly detected in human and canine cancer patients. Previous studies have described haemostatic dysfunction in canine patients with haemangiosarcomas and carcinomas, and haemostasis has been assessed in dogs with various malignant and benign neoplasias. Few studies have addressed the effect of cancer type and progression of disease on the presence of haemostatic alterations in canine patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate haemostatic variables of coagulation and fibrinolysis in a group of canine cancer patients, and to compare haemostatic changes to the cancer type and progression of disease. Methods The study population consisted of 71 dogs with malignant neoplasia presented to the University Hospital for Companion Animals, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. The study was designed as a prospective observational study evaluating the haemostatic function in canine cancer patients stratified according to type of cancer disease and disease progression. The coagulation response was evaluated by thromboelastrography (TEG, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, prothombin time (PT, fibrinogen and antithrombin (AT; and fibrinolysis by d-dimer and plasminogen. Results Hypercoagulability was the most common haemostatic dysfunction found. Non mammary carcinomas had increased clot strength (TEG G, aPTT and fibrinogen compared to the other groups. When stratifying the patients according to disease progression dogs with distant metastatic disease exhibited significantly increased fibrinogen, and d-dimer compared to dogs with local invasive and local non-invasive cancers. Conclusion Hypercoagulability was confirmed as the most common haemostatic abnormality in canine cancer patients and haemostatic dysfunction in canine cancer patients was found related to the cancer type and progression of disease. Increase in TEG G, aPTT and fibrinogen

  7. Multifaceted enrichment analysis of RNA-RNA crosstalk reveals cooperating micro-societies in human colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Tommaso; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Fusilli, Caterina; Capocefalo, Daniele; Panza, Anna; Biagini, Tommaso; Castellana, Stefano; Gentile, Annamaria; De Cata, Angelo; Palumbo, Orazio; Stallone, Raffaella; Rubino, Rosa; Carella, Massimo; Piepoli, Ada

    2016-05-19

    Alterations in the balance of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles contribute to the onset and development of colorectal cancer. The regulatory functions of individual miRNA-gene pairs are widely acknowledged, but group effects are largely unexplored. We performed an integrative analysis of mRNA-miRNA and miRNA-miRNA interactions using high-throughput mRNA and miRNA expression profiles obtained from matched specimens of human colorectal cancer tissue and adjacent non-tumorous mucosa. This investigation resulted in a hypernetwork-based model, whose functional backbone was fulfilled by tight micro-societies of miRNAs. These proved to modulate several genes that are known to control a set of significantly enriched cancer-enhancer and cancer-protection biological processes, and that an array of upstream regulatory analyses demonstrated to be dependent on miR-145, a cell cycle and MAPK signaling cascade master regulator. In conclusion, we reveal miRNA-gene clusters and gene families with close functional relationships and highlight the role of miR-145 as potent upstream regulator of a complex RNA-RNA crosstalk, which mechanistically modulates several signaling pathways and regulatory circuits that when deranged are relevant to the changes occurring in colorectal carcinogenesis. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. The Organization of European Cancer Institute Pathobiology Working Group and its support of European biobanking infrastructures for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegman, Peter H J; de Jong, Bas W D; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Today's translational cancer research increasingly depends on international multi-center studies. Biobanking infrastructure or comprehensive sample exchange platforms to enable networking of clinical cancer biobanks are instrumental to facilitate communication, uniform sample quality, and rules for exchange. The Organization of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Pathobiology Working Group supports European biobanking infrastructure by maintaining the OECI-TuBaFrost exchange platform and organizing regular meetings. This platform originated from a European Commission project and is updated with knowledge from ongoing and new biobanking projects. This overview describes how European biobanking projects that have a large impact on clinical biobanking, including EuroBoNeT, SPIDIA, and BBMRI, contribute to the update of the OECI-TuBaFrost exchange platform. Combining the results of these European projects enabled the creation of an open (upon valid registration only) catalogue view of cancer biobanks and their available samples to initiate research projects. In addition, closed environments supporting active projects could be developed together with the latest views on quality, access rules, ethics, and law. With these contributions, the OECI Pathobiology Working Group contributes to and stimulates a professional attitude within biobanks at the European comprehensive cancer centers. Improving the fundamentals of cancer sample exchange in Europe stimulates the performance of large multi-center studies, resulting in experiments with the desired statistical significance outcome. With this approach, future innovation in cancer patient care can be realized faster and more reliably.

  9. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till James E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

  10. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare pemetrexed/carboplatin with a standard regimen as first-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) plus carboplatin...... area under the curve (AUC) = 5 (Calvert's formula) on day 1 or gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin AUC = 5 on day 1 every 3 weeks for up to four cycles. The primary end point was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) defined as global quality of life, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea...... for the primary HRQoL end points or in overall survival between the two treatment arms (pemetrexed/carboplatin, 7.3 months; gemcitabine/carboplatin, 7.0 months; P = .63). The patients who received gemcitabine/carboplatin had more grade 3 to 4 hematologic toxicity than patients who received pemetrexed/carboplatin...

  11. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  12. "I Owe It to My Group Members…who Critically Commented on My Conducting"--Cooperative Learning in Choral Conducting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article explores cooperative learning in choral conducting education. The five characteristics of cooperative learning identified by Adams and Hamm ((1996). "Cooperative learning: Critical thinking and collaboration across the curriculum" (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas Publishers): positive interdependence; face-to-face…

  13. ABO blood group alleles and prostate cancer risk: Results from the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium (BPC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Shui, Irene M; Unger, Robert H; Urun, Yuksel; Berg, Christine D; Black, Amanda; Brennan, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gapstur, Susan M; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Canzian, Federico; Larranga, Nerea; Le Marchand, Loic; Ma, Jing; Naccarati, Alessio; Siddiq, Afshan; Stampfer, Meir J; Stattin, Par; Stevens, Victoria L; Stram, Daniel O; Tjønneland, Anne; Travis, Ruth C; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Ziegler, Regina G; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A; Choueiri, Toni K; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney, and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate age and study-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between blood type, genotype, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Gleason score ≥8 or locally advanced/metastatic disease (stage T3/T4/N1/M1). We found no association between ABO blood type and risk of aggressive prostate cancer (Type A: OR = 0.97, 95%CI = 0.87-1.08; Type B: OR = 0.92, 95%CI =n0.77-1.09; Type AB: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 0.98-1.59, compared to Type O, respectively). Similarly, there was no association between "dose" of A or B alleles and aggressive prostate cancer risk. ABO blood type was not associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  15. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M K; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Aoki, D

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), which was held in Tokyo, Japan, in November 2015. Three important questions were identified: (i) What are the subgroups for clinical trials i...

  16. [Developing the predictive model for the group at high risk for colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ae Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Yi; Park, Il Soo; Kim, Su Young; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Jeong, Baek-Geun

    2006-09-01

    We developed the predictive model for the incidence of colon cancer by utilizing the health screening data of the National Health Insurance in Korea. We also explored the characteristics of the high risk group for colon cancer. The predictive model was used to determine those people who have a high risk for colon cancer within 2 years of their NHI health screening, and we excluded the people who had already been treated for cancer or who were cancer patient. The study population is the insured of the NHI, aged 40 or over and they had undergone health screening from the year 2000 to 2004, according to NHI health screening formula. We performed logistic regression analysis and used SAS Enterprise Miner 4.1. This study shows that there exists a higher rate of colon cancer in males than females. Also, for the population in their 60s, the incidence rate of colon cancer is much higher by 5.36 times than that for those people in their 40s. Amongst the behavioral factors, heavy drinking is the most important determinant of the colon cancer incidence (7.39 times in males and 21.51 times in females). Our study confirms that the major influencing factors for the incidence of colon cancer are drinking, lack of exercise, a medical history of colon polypus and a family history of colon cancer. As a result, we can choose the group that is at a high risk for colon cancer and provide customized medical information and selective management services according to their characteristics.

  17. Social and psychological determinants of levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: posters, lurkers, and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Yoon, Hye Jin; Shim, Minsun; McTavish, Fiona M; Gustafson, David H

    2012-01-01

    Despite the benefits and growing availability of online cancer support groups, many breast cancer patients still do not actively participate in them. To better understand cancer patients' online information- and support-seeking behaviors, this study explores how various social and psychological characteristics predict different levels of engagement with an online breast cancer support group: posters, lurkers, and nonusers. The study sample included 231 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Data included baseline survey scores of demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors and automatically collected discussion group use data over the 4-month intervention. Patterns of engagement with the cancer support group differed according to the patients' characteristics, suggesting that (a) cancer patients have very different orientations to and engagement with an online support group, and (b) deficits in social and psychological resources may not be barriers to participation in a cancer support group, but rather motivators to interact with other patients. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of their findings.

  18. Classification of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes according to the FAB co-operative group's proposals. Proposals for a redefinition of blast cell type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B; Thiede, T; Sundström, C; Hagberg, H

    1984-05-01

    53 patients with the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) were classified according to the proposals of the FAB cooperative group 1982. 29 patients had refractory anaemia (RA), 10 refractory anaemia with excess of blasts ( RAEB ), 5 RAEB in transformation, 7 RA with ringed sideroblasts and 2 chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia ( CMML ). Counting blast cells type I and II involved no difficulties. 4 of 15 patients who developed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) according to the FAB classification of 1976 did not fulfill the new 1982 criteria for AML. A redefinition of the blast cell type II to include a more granulated blast cells, without the characteristics of promyelocytes, would solve this problem. We conclude that a redefinition of the blast cell type II might turn out to be useful.

  19. Education and counselling group intervention for women treated for gynaecological cancer: does it help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Blaaka, Gunnhild; Buestad, Ingjerd; Tengesdal, Ellen; Paulsen, Anita; Vika, Margrethe

    2014-03-01

    Women who have been through gynaecological cancer, experience challenges on many levels after diagnosis and treatment. Studies show that, in order to help women in their rehabilitation process, there is a need for holistic care and follow-up. The aim of this qualitative study is to provide insight into women's own lived experiences of participating in an education and counselling group intervention after curative treatment for gynaecological cancer. A qualitative study based on data from three focus groups with 17 women who had participated in a nurse-led education and counselling group intervention after treatment for gynaecological cancer. The main findings show that participation in the rehabilitation group was described as a special community of mutual understanding and belonging. Education and the sharing of knowledge provided a clearer vocabulary for, and understanding of, the women's own lived experiences. The presence of dedicated and professional care workers was reported to be essential for the outcome of the group intervention. Attending a nurse-led education and counselling group intervention had a positive impact on various aspects of the women's lived experiences. The programme also provided professionals with important insights into the patients' views and feelings regarding cancer treatment, trajectories and rehabilitation. This knowledge has already proven itself useful in clinical practice for improving staff communication skills and psycho-social support related to gynaecological cancer care. © 2013 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  20. Mechanisms of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Raymond; Qiu, Hongming; Lee, Suk-Hwan; García-Aguilar, Julio

    2005-11-01

    The proportion of colorectal cancers located proximal to the splenic flexure increases with age. Colorectal cancers of the microsatellite instability phenotype are preferentially located in the proximal colon. We investigated the location of colorectal cancer with this phenotype in different age groups to determine whether different molecular mechanisms could account for the changes in distribution of colorectal cancers. A representative sample of 230 colorectal cancers from three age groups (87 years) was selected from a subset of The Upper Midwest Oncology Medical Registries database. Microsatellite instability was determined by polymerase chain reaction using a panel of five microsatellite markers. The presence of new microsatellite alleles at two or more loci was scored as microsatellite instability. Tumors were otherwise considered microsatellite stable. MLH1 and MSH2 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Methylation of the MLH1 gene promotor was determined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay. The proportion of tumors of the microsatellite instability phenotype was 21 percent in the young group, 15 percent in the middle group, and 33 percent in the old group. More tumors of the microsatellite instability phenotype were proximal compared with microsatellite-stable tumors in all three age groups, but the differences were significant only for the old group. Tumors of the microsatellite instability phenotype in the older group were associated with MLH1 inactivation (24/29 or 83 percent), MLH1 promoter methylation (18/29 or 62 percent), and proximal location (25/29 or 86 percent), while tumors in the young group were associated with MSH2 inactivation (8/18 or 44 percent) and distal location (11/18 or 62 percent). The age-related proximal shift of colorectal cancers is associated with the microsatellite instability phenotype, MLH1 inactivation, and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation.

  1. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  2. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  3. Cervical cancer screening and chinese women: insights from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S C H; Woo, J S T; Yau, V; Gorzalka, B B; Brotto, L A

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health

  4. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters-individuals who profit without cooperating themselves-have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making

  5. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin

    2015-01-01

    in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...... of manual workers has been the driving force behind the dramatic increase in the Norwegian incidence of colon cancer. This development resulted in a reversal of the socio-economic gradient from the classic European pattern with the highest incidence in the upper socio-economic groups to an American pattern...

  6. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...

  7. Enhancing Women's Lives: The Role of Support Groups among Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    1999-01-01

    Reviews research indicating that group psychotherapy is an effective adjunctive therapy to medical treatment for women with breast cancer. States that Supportive-Expressive group therapy has been effective in assisting patients in reducing anxiety related to death and dying, strengthening interpersonal relationships, and improving the quality of…

  8. Intervention to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2010-03-01

    As arduous psychological reactions and loss of control almost inevitably represent a challenge for women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer, a participatory intervention study was initiated that aimed to enhance empowerment in breast cancer self-help groups. Women newly diagnosed with breast cancer were invited to participate. The intervention encompassed three professionally led self-help groups running sequentially, each group for approximately 4 months. Each group of five to seven participants met weekly. Several empowerment strategies were initiated by two professional facilitators, aiming to promote empowerment processes and to manage stress. The participants experienced group participation as both empowering and as a valuable source of support, and although the group processes developed very differently, a strong sense of fellowship developed in all three groups. The discussion highlights the findings in relation to several theoretical perspectives including social capital, social cohesion, risky agreements, helper-therapy and power/empowerment. We conclude that empowerment strategies that are implemented in professionally led breast cancer self-help groups can contribute to participant empowerment and function as an important source of re-discovery and confirmation of the participants' strengths and abilities.

  9. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  10. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MAC...... improved over time, in both the control and intervention groups. Conclusion: Psycho-education and group psychotherapy did not decrease psychological distress or increase Quality of Life, Mental Adjustment or improve marital relationship among patients with primary breast cancer. (C) 2011 Published...... were offered two weekly 6-h sessions of psycho-education and eight weekly 2-h sessions of group psychotherapy. All participants were followed up for Quality of Life, coping ability and social relations 1, 6 and 12 months after the intervention and on survival 4 years after surgical treatment. Results...

  11. MYB Promotes Desmoplasia in Pancreatic Cancer through Direct Transcriptional Up-regulation and Cooperative Action of Sonic Hedgehog and Adrenomedullin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Arun; Srivastava, Sanjeev K; Singh, Seema; Tyagi, Nikhil; Arora, Sumit; Carter, James E; Khushman, Moh'd; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-07-29

    Extensive desmoplasia is a prominent pathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC) that not only impacts tumor development, but therapeutic outcome as well. Recently, we demonstrated a novel role of MYB, an oncogenic transcription factor, in PC growth and metastasis. Here we studied its effect on pancreatic tumor histopathology and associated molecular and biological mechanisms. Tumor-xenografts derived from orthotopic-inoculation of MYB-overexpressing PC cells exhibited far-greater desmoplasia in histological analyses compared with those derived from MYB-silenced PC cells. These findings were further confirmed by immunostaining of tumor-xenograft sections with collagen-I, fibronectin (major extracellular-matrix proteins), and α-SMA (well-characterized marker of myofibroblasts or activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs)). Likewise, MYB-overexpressing PC cells provided significantly greater growth benefit to PSCs in a co-culture system as compared with the MYB-silenced cells. Interrogation of deep-sequencing data from MYB-overexpressing versus -silenced PC cells identified Sonic-hedgehog (SHH) and Adrenomedullin (ADM) as two differentially-expressed genes among others, which encode for secretory ligands involved in tumor-stromal cross-talk. In-silico analyses predicted putative MYB-binding sites in SHH and ADM promoters, which was later confirmed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation. A cooperative role of SHH and ADM in growth promotion of PSCs was confirmed in co-culture by using their specific-inhibitors and exogenous recombinant-proteins. Importantly, while SHH acted exclusively in a paracrine fashion on PSCs and influenced the growth of PC cells only indirectly, ADM could directly impact the growth of both PC cells and PSCs. In summary, we identified MYB as novel regulator of pancreatic tumor desmoplasia, which is suggestive of its diverse roles in PC pathobiology. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. An overview of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group (JBCRG) activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Shinji; Kuroi, Katsumasa; Toi, Masakazu

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the current status and future perspectives of the Japan Breast Cancer Research Group (JBCRG). The JBCRG was organized in 2002, with the following purpose: to plan and promote clinical trials and basic research in breast cancer domestically and multilaterally; to conduct research and surveys on domestic and foreign information on medical care for breast cancer and to diffuse and highlight such information; to improve and promote clinical technologies for breast cancer; to act as an intermediary to liaise and strengthen alliances with affiliated organizations; and, to contribute to the public welfare by improving outcomes in breast cancer. The clinical trials are led by doctors/investigators in the JBCRG. And the purpose is to establish standard treatment for patients and provide substantial evidence. The JBCRG implements international collaboration in some researches/studies. As of January 2012, fourteen trials have been closed and nine are open to recruitment.

  13. The effectiveness of support groups in Asian breast cancer patients: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Chou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries. The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  14. The Effectiveness of Support Groups in Asian Breast Cancer Patients: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Yu; Lee-Lin, Frances; Kuang, Lily Y

    2016-01-01

    Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC) patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries). The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  15. Worldwide comparison of ovarian cancer survival: Histological group and stage at diagnosis (CONCORD-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Melissa; Coleman, Michel P; Carreira, Helena; Salmerón, Diego; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Allemani, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer comprises several histological groups with widely differing levels of survival. We aimed to explore international variation in survival for each group to help interpret international differences in survival from all ovarian cancers combined. We also examined differences in stage-specific survival. The CONCORD programme is the largest population-based study of global trends in cancer survival, including data from 60 countries for 695,932 women (aged 15-99years) diagnosed with ovarian cancer during 1995-2009. We defined six histological groups: type I epithelial, type II epithelial, germ cell, sex cord-stromal, other specific non-epithelial and non-specific morphology, and estimated age-standardised 5-year net survival for each country by histological group. We also analysed data from 67 cancer registries for 233,659 women diagnosed from 2001 to 2009, for whom information on stage at diagnosis was available. We estimated age-standardised 5-year net survival by stage at diagnosis (localised or advanced). Survival from type I epithelial ovarian tumours for women diagnosed during 2005-09 ranged from 40 to 70%. Survival from type II epithelial tumours was much lower (20-45%). Survival from germ cell tumours was higher than that of type II epithelial tumours, but also varied widely between countries. Survival for sex-cord stromal tumours was higher than for the five other groups. Survival from localised tumours was much higher than for advanced disease (80% vs. 30%). There is wide variation in survival between histological groups, and stage at diagnosis remains an important factor in ovarian cancer survival. International comparisons of ovarian cancer survival should incorporate histology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Breast Cancer in Iranian Woman: Incidence by Age Group, Morphology and Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Salehiniya, Hamid; Lotfi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the first cause of cancer death in women worldwide, with infiltrating duct carcinoma as the most common morphology. This study aimed to investigate trend of breast cancer incidence by age groups and histological changes in Iranian women between 2003 and 2008. This is analytic study, carried out based on re-analysis of the Cancer Registry Center report of health deputy for women's breast cancer in Iran during a 6-year period (2003-2008). Statistical analysis for incidence time trends and morphology change percentage carried out joinpoint regression analysis using the software Joinpoint Regression Program. A total of 36,340 cases were reported for Iranian women in the six years. Analytical trend showed an increasing incidence trend with significant annual percentage change (APC) of 15.2 (CI: 11.6 to 18.8). The lowest and highest significant increased trend were related to age groups of 40 to 44 years and above 85 years, respectively; with APCs of 13.0 and 25.1, respectively. Of total cases, 78.7% of cases were infiltrating duct carcinoma, decreasing from 82.0% in 2003 to 76.6% in 2008, which was significant with an APC equal to -1.76 (CI:-2.7 to -0.8). The incidence trend of breast cancer is rising in Iranian women. The highest incidence was observed in the age groups 45-65 and 80-85. In conclusion, to reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer, especially in young women, are recommended in Iran.

  17. Seeking support on facebook: a content analysis of breast cancer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jacqueline L; Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria-Carolina; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-02-04

    Social network sites have been growing in popularity across broad segments of Internet users, and are a convenient means to exchange information and support. Research on their use for health-related purposes is limited. This study aimed to characterize the purpose, use, and creators of Facebook groups related to breast cancer. We searched Facebook (www.Facebook.com) using the term breast cancer. We restricted our analysis to groups that were related to breast cancer, operated in English, and were publicly available. Two of us independently extracted information on the administrator and purpose of the group, as well as the number of user-generated contributions. We developed a coding scheme to guide content analysis. We found 620 breast cancer groups on Facebook containing a total of 1,090,397 members. The groups were created for fundraising (277/620, 44.7%), awareness (236, 38.1%), product or service promotion related to fundraising or awareness (61, 9%), or patient/caregiver support (46, 7%). The awareness groups as a whole contained by far the most members (n = 957,289). The majority of groups (532, 85.8%) had 25 wall posts or fewer. The support oriented groups, 47% (27/57) of which were established by high school or college students, were associated with the greatest number of user-generated contributions. Facebook groups have become a popular tool for awareness-raising, fundraising, and support-seeking related to breast cancer attracting over one million users. Given their popularity and reach, further research is warranted to explore the implications of social network sites as a health resource across various health conditions, cultures, ages, and socioeconomic groups.

  18. Talking with text: communication in therapist-led, live chat cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Joanne; Collie, Kate; McLeod, Deborah; Rojubally, Adina; Fergus, Karen; Speca, Michael; Turner, Jill; Taylor-Brown, Jill; Sellick, Scott; Burrus, Kimberly; Elramly, Mai

    2014-03-01

    CancerChatCanada is a pan-Canadian initiative with a mandate to make professionally led cancer support groups available to more people in Canada. Although online support groups are becoming increasingly popular, little is known about therapist-led, synchronous groups using live chat. The purpose of this study was to generate a rich descriptive account of communication experiences in CancerChatCanada groups and to gain an understanding of processes associated with previously-reported benefits. We used interpretive description to analyze interview segments from 102 patients, survivors and family caregivers who participated in CancerChatCanada groups between 2007 and 2011. The analysis yielded four inter-related process themes (Reaching Out From Home, Feeling Safe, Emotional Release, and Talking With Text) and one outcome theme (Resonance and Kinship). The findings extend previous research about text-only online support groups and provide novel insights into features of facilitated, live chat communication that are valued by group members. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of a Prognostic Gleason Grade Grouping System to Assess Distant Prostate Cancer Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leapman, Michael S; Cowan, Janet E; Simko, Jeffry; Roberge, Gray; Stohr, Bradley A; Carroll, Peter R; Cooperberg, Matthew R

    2017-05-01

    There is growing enthusiasm for the adoption of a novel grade grouping system to better represent Gleason scores. To evaluate the ability of prognostic Gleason grade groups to predict prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality (PCSM) and bone metastatic progression. We identified patients with PCa enrolled in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor (CaPSURE) registry across treatment strategies, including conservative and nondefinitive therapy. We examined the prognostic ability of Gleason grade groups to predict risk of PCSM and bone metastasis using the Kaplan-Meier method and unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We identified 10529 men with PCa followed for a median of 81 mo (interquartile range 40-127), including 64% in group I (bone metastasis were significantly associated with prognostic grade groupings for both biopsy and prostatectomy samples (all pGleason sums collapsed within grade group V were not significant; however, this analysis was limited by a small representation of men with Gleason pattern ≥ 4 + 5. The prognostic grade grouping system is associated with risk of PCSM and metastasis across management strategies, including definitive therapy, conservative management, and primary androgen deprivation. A five-level reporting system for prostate cancer pathology is associated with the risk of late prostate cancer endpoints. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Breast cancer survivorship in urban India: self and care in voluntary groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the lives of middle-class women who have had breast cancer and are charity volunteers for small associative patient groups in urban India. It is through their activities and experiences as ‘post-cancer volunteers’ that the thesis attends to the notion of breast cancer ‘survivorship’ in relation to emergent forms of solidarity, belonging and personhood. The thesis has three main areas of concern. The first explores the role of survivorship in generating a novel form of lay...

  1. Prostate cancer detection rate at second and third biopsy. Predictive factors and risk groups for cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello-Porcar, Ana; García-Morata, Francisco; Martinez-Jabaloyas, Jose María

    2014-09-01

    The diagnosis of prostate cancer is obtained with the performance of a prostate biopsy. Repetition of biopsies is required in patients with negative biopsies when there is high suspicion for cancer. The objective of this study is to know the prostate cancer detection rate in second and third prostatic biopsies and to identify the clinical factors with predictive value for positivity. We also want to establish risk groups for cancer diagnosis after one or two previous negative biopsies. Retrospective study of patients undergoing a second or third prostatic biopsy. We determined the rate of cancer diagnosis for both. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis (multiple logistic regression) to analyse any relationship between clinical variables (PSA, PSA density, PSA F/T ratio, PSA velocity, digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasonography, prostate volume, time between biopsies, pathological result and number of cores obtained in the first biopsy) and positivity in the second and third biopsies. Logistic regression analysis was performed to know which factors are predictors for positivity in 2nd and 3 th biopsies. According to the probabilities obtained, different risk groups were established. 4.532 patients underwent prostate biopsy between 1999 and 2010. 663 patients were included for second biopsy and 191 for third biopsy. Detection rates for prostate cancer were 24,3% and 17.8% respectively. According to the multivariate analysis, the probability for positivity on second biopsy increases when first biopsy was sextant (p=0,049), patients were >65 years old (p=0,005) and PSA density was >0,15 (p=0,000). Four risk groups were established with a range of probability for prostate cancer between 7 and 37%. For third biopsy, predictive variables were: suspicious digital rectal examination (p=0,007), age >64 years (p=0,009), and PSA density >0,20 (p=0,001). Also risk groups were established with probabilities between 1,6 and 61%. Detection rate for

  2. When life gives you lemons: The effectiveness of culinary group intervention among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Nahum, Ayelet; Haim, Limor Ben; Ginzburg, Karni

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the dietary habits of cancer patients and survivors have significant implications for their recovery and quality of life. The current study examined the effectiveness of an innovative culinary group intervention on cancer patients' quality of life through changes in their eating behaviors, as manifested by an increase in their tendency towards intuitive eating and healthy food choices. In total, 190 cancer patients participated in this study, and were allocated to an intervention or a wait-list control group. A battery of self-report questionnaires assessing food choices, intuitive eating, health-related quality of life, and subjective well-being was administered at two time points: Before the intervention (T1) and at the end of the three month intervention (T2). Analyses revealed an increase in health-related quality of life and well-being among the intervention group. Intuitive eating and healthy food choices also increased among the intervention but not wait-list control group. Finally, results indicated that participation in the culinary group intervention and improvements in health-related quality of life and well-being were mediated by changes in eating behaviors. Our findings demonstrate that nutrition and eating behaviors have a significant effect on cancer patients' physical and emotional adjustment. A culinary group intervention seems to target patients' physical and emotional needs and promote their adjustment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the effectiveness of cooperative learning on discipline problems, interdependence between students, and teacher-student interactions. Explains how to group students and introduces a laboratory activity on covalent and ionic bonds. (YDS)

  4. THE START-UP OF THE FIRST HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION CENTER IN THE IRAQI KURDISTAN: A CAPACITY-BUILDING COOPERATIVE PROJECT BY THE HIWA CANCER HOSPITAL, SULAYMANIYAH, AND THE ITALIAN AGENCY FOR DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazio Majolino

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the entire process leading to the start-up of an hematopoietic stem cell transplantation center at the Hiwa Cancer Hospital, in the city of Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Iraqi Region. This capacity building project was funded by the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation, and implemented with the support of the volunteer work of Italian professionals, either physicians, nurses, biologists and technicians. The intervention started in April 2016, was based exclusively on training and coaching, and led to a first autologous transplantation in June 2016 and to an allogeneic transplantation in October. At the time of reporting, 9 months from the initiation of the project, 18 patients have been transplanted, 15with an autologous and 3 with an allogeneic graft. The center at the HCH represents the first transplantation center in Kurdistan and the second in wide Iraq. We conclude that international development cooperation may play an important role also in the field of high-technology medicine, and contribute to improved local centers capabilities through country to country scientific exchanges.

  5. The Start-Up of the first Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Center in the Iraqi Kurdistan: a Capacity-Building Cooperative Project by the Hiwa Cancer Hospital, Sulaymaniyah, and the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation: an Innovative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolino, Ignazio; Othman, Dosti; Rovelli, Attilio; Hassan, Dastan; Rasool, Luqman; Vacca, Michele; Abdalrahman, Nigar; Abdullah, Chra; Ahmed, Zhalla; Ali, Dlir; Ali, Kosar; Broggi, Chiara; Calabretta, Cinzia; Canesi, Marta; Ciabatti, Gloria; Del Fante, Claudia; De Sapio, Elisabetta; Dore, Giovanna; Frigato, Andrea; Gabriel, Marcela; Ipsevich, Francesco; Kareem, Harem; Karim, Dana; Leone, Rosa; Mahmood, Tavan; Manna, Annunziata; Massei, Maria Speranza; Mastria, Andrea; Mohammed, Dereen; Mohammed, Rebar; Najmaddin, Khoshnaw; Noori, Diana; Ostuni, Angelo; Palmas, Angelo; Possenti, Marco; Qadir, Ali; Real, Giorgio; Shrif, Rebwar; Valdatta, Caterina; Vasta, Stefania; Verna, Marta; Vittori, Mariangela; Yousif, Awder; Zallio, Francesco; Calisti, Alessandro; Quattrocchi, Sergio; Girmenia, Corrado

    2017-01-01

    We describe the entire process leading to the start-up of a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation center at the Hiwa Cancer Hospital, in the city of Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan Iraqi Region. This capacity building project was funded by the Italian Development Cooperation Agency and implemented with the support of the volunteer work of Italian professionals, either physicians, nurses, biologists and technicians. The intervention started in April 2016, was based exclusively on training and coaching on site, that represent a significant innovative approach, and led to a first autologous transplant in June 2016 and to the first allogeneic transplant in October. At the time of reporting, 9 months from the initiation of the project, 18 patients have been transplanted, 15 with an autologous and 3 with an allogeneic graft. The center at the HCH represents the first transplantation center in Kurdistan and the second in wide Iraq. We conclude that international development cooperation may play an important role also in the field of high-technology medicine, and contribute to improved local centers capabilities through country to country scientific exchanges. The methodology to realize this project is innovative, since HSCT experts are brought as volunteers to the center(s) to be started, while traditionally it is the opposite, i.e. the local professionals to be trained are brought to the specialized center(s). PMID:28512560

  6. Expressing positive emotions within online support groups by women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Shaw, Bret R; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McTavish, Fiona; Gustafson, David H

    2008-11-01

    Based upon Fredrickson's Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions, this study examined the role of expressing positive emotions in online support groups for women with breast cancer. Underserved women with breast cancer in rural Wisconsin and Detroit, Michigan were recruited from 2001 to 2003, and they were given access to online support groups. Both pretest and four-month posttest surveys were conducted with a sample of 231 women. Messages from 96 active participants were analyzed using a computerized text analysis program. Psychological benefits that occurred following the expression of positive emotions were greater among those who expressed more negative emotions.

  7. Retrospective study of cancer types in different ethnic groups and genders at Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study of Cancer types in different ethnic groups & genders determines the pattern of cancers in different ethnic groups & genders during the last eight years reported in Oncology wards of hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Every single one male & female case with histologically and cytologically established cancer was enrolled from January 2003 to December 2010. Data for all patients were collected retrospectively by patient's file & charts, which represents the population of Karachi, Interior Sindh & Balochistan. 5134 patients (Male = 2432 / Female = 2702) investigated for their diagnosis of cancer type, ethnicity, age & gender. Classification of malignancy was done according to the International Classification of Disease coding system by W.H.O (ICD-10). The statistical analysis was performed for mean, standard error & proportions for ethnic groups & genders. Proportionately 47.37% males and among which major ethnic groups 17% Sindhi, 17% Immigrant, 4% Baloch, 3% Pukhtoon, ≈ 4% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 2% Minorities and 52.62% females, in which 16% Sindhi, 21% Immigrant, 4% Baloch 3% Pukhtoon, 5% Punjabi, 1% Siraiki, 3% Minorities. Mean age of males = 45.75 years, SE ± 0.227 and for females = 44.07, SE ± 0.183. The three most occurring tumors in all cancers of male were found Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT, and females Breast, Head & Neck, Adenoma/Carcinoma of Glands & Body cavity membranes, GIT. The analysis of data indicates Head & Neck is most common cancer among male, in the similar way Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among female.

  8. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health.

  9. How prostate cancer support groups do and do not survive: British Columbian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Halpin, Michael; Bottorff, Joan L; Hislop, T Gregory; McKenzie, Michael; Mroz, Lawrence

    2008-06-01

    Many prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) have formed in North America during the past decade, yet their operation or factors influencing sustainability are poorly understood. This article reports micro (intragroup), meso (intergroup), and macro (group/structure) analyses drawn from the fieldwork and participant observations conducted for an ethnographic study of PCSGs based in British Columbia, Canada. The findings indicate that effective group leadership is integral to group sustainability and the recruitment and retention of attendees. At the meso level, intergroup connections and communication were often informal; however, the primary purpose of all the PCSGs was to provide information and support to men and their families. Many PCSGs were uncertain how formal associations with cancer fund-raising societies would influence group effectiveness. Macro issues such as prostate cancer activism resided with individual group "champions" through activities coordinated by provincial and national PCSG organizations. However, activism did not guarantee group sustainability. The study findings reveal why some groups flourish while others appear untenable, and form the basis for discussion about how PCSG sustainability might be best achieved.

  10. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  11. The Power of Cooperation in International Paleoclimate Science: Examples from the PAGES 2k Network and the Ocean2k Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Past Global Changes (PAGES) project of IGBP and Future Earth supports research to understand the Earth's past environment to improve future climate predictions and inform strategies for sustainability. Within this framework, the PAGES 2k Network was established to provide a focus on the past 2000 years, a period that encompasses Medieval Climate Anomaly warming, Little Ice Age cooling, and recent anthropogenically-forced climate change. The results of these studies are used for testing earth system models, and for understanding decadal- to centennial-scale variability, which is needed for long-term planning. International coordination and cooperation among the nine regional Working Groups that make up the 2k Network has been critical to the success of PAGES 2k. The collaborative approach is moving toward scientific achievements across the regional groups, including: (i) the development of a community-driven open-access proxy climate database; (ii) integration of multi-resolution proxy records; (iii) development of multivariate climate reconstructions; and (iv) a leap forward in the spatial resolution of paleoclimate reconstructions. The last addition to the 2k Network, the Ocean2k Working Group has further innovated the collaborative approach by: (1) creating an open, receptive environment to discuss ideas exclusively in the virtual space; (2) employing an array of real-time collaborative software tools to enable communication, group document writing, and data analysis; (3) consolidating executive leadership teams to oversee project development and manage grassroots-style volunteer pools; and (4) embracing the value-added role that international and interdisciplinary science can play in advancing paleoclimate hypotheses critical to understanding future change. Ongoing efforts for the PAGES 2k Network are focused on developing new standards for data quality control and archiving. These tasks will provide the foundation for new and continuing "trans-regional" 2k

  12. Qualitative evaluation of mobile cancer apps with particular attention to the target group, content, and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Cathleen; von Osthoff, Marc Baron; Frey, Katrin; Hübner, Jutta

    2017-10-19

    Medical apps are gaining importance rapidly. Also in the field of cancer care, apps are offered. Yet, so far little is known with respect to their quality. In a pilot phase we developed a rating tool based on formal and content-related criteria for the assessment of cancer apps. We used this instrument on cancer apps available in the App Store (iOS) concerning breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. The results were stratified according to target group, content and advertising. We assessed 41 mobile cancer apps. Six apps (14.63%) scored very high, fifteen apps (36.59%) high, seventeen apps (41.46%) were deficient, and three apps (7.32%) were insufficient. The largest group of apps represents those apps with the "deficient" rating. The very good to good apps had reliable sources, a concrete intent/ purpose in their app description, and a strict distinction of scientific content and advertisement. Apps with the predicates "deficient" or "insufficient" had particularly poor ratings, e.g. in the subscales "information on sources" and "data protection". Almost half of the tested apps were deficient or insufficient. In order to improve safety of patients using apps, some regulation seems mandatory. Putting apps under the legislation for medical products might be one way to better regulate and control quality. Second, efforts should focus on the development of checklists that make it easier for patients to search for suitable cancer apps.

  13. Cancer patients' experiences with and perceived outcomes of yoga: results from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden-Kraan, C F; Chinapaw, M J M; Drossaert, C H C; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; Buffart, L M

    2013-07-01

    Yoga is a "mind-body" exercise, a combination of physical poses with breathing and meditation, and may have beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial symptoms. We aimed to explore cancer patients' motives for practicing yoga, experiences of practicing yoga, and perceived physical and psychosocial outcomes. Participants (n = 45) following yoga classes for cancer patients were asked to participate in focus group interviews, of whom 29 participated. The focus groups (n = 5) were audio taped with prior consent and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed by two coders and independently coded into key issues and themes. Mean age of the participants was 53.8 (SD 10.8) years, of whom 25 were women, and 18 were diagnosed with breast cancer. Motives for participation in yoga were relaxation, the will to be physically active, the wish to pay more attention to one's body, coping with psychosocial symptoms, contributing to their cancer rehabilitation process, and combing physical and mental processes. Main physical and psychosocial experiences of yoga mentioned by patients were regaining body awareness, raising attention to the inner self, learning how to relax, enjoyment, and finding recognition and understanding. Increased physical fitness and function, mental strength and resilience, increased coping, being more relaxed, and happiness were frequently mentioned experiences of patients. Patients with different types of cancer perceived several benefits on physical and psychosocial outcomes by practicing yoga. Therefore, yoga can be a valuable form of supportive care for cancer patients.

  14. High mobility group box-1 and its clinical value in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shanping Sun,1,2 Wei Zhang,2 Zhaoqing Cui,2 Qi Chen,2 Panpan Xie,2 Changxin Zhou,2 Baoguo Liu,2 Xiangeng Peng,2 Yang Zhang21Department of Breast Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is a factor regulating malignant tumorigenesis, proliferation, and metastasis, and is associated with poor clinical pathology in various human cancers. We investigated the differential concentrations of HMGB1 in tissues and sera, and their clinical value for diagnosis in patients with breast cancer, benign breast disease, and healthy individuals.Methods: HMGB1 levels in tumor tissues, adjacent normal tissues, and benign breast disease tissues was detected via immunohistochemistry. Serum HMGB1 was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 56 patients with breast cancer, 25 patients with benign breast disease, and 30 healthy control subjects. The clinicopathological features of the patients were compared. Tissues were evaluated histopathologically by pathologists.Results: HMGB1 levels in the tissues and sera of patients with breast cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with benign breast disease or normal individuals. The 56 cancer patients were classified as having high tissue HMGB1 levels (n=41 or low tissue HMGB1 levels (n=15, but the corresponsive serum HMGB1 in these two groups was not significantly different. HMGB1 levels in breast cancer tissues significantly correlated with differentiation grade, lymphatic metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage, but not patient age, tumor size, or HER-2/neu expression; no association between serum HMGB1 levels and these clinicopathological parameters was found. The sensitivity and specificity of tissue HMGB1 levels for the diagnosis of breast cancer were 73.21% and 84

  15. Enhancing a cancer prevention and control curriculum through interactive group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, L P; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B M; Kent, E E; Lai, G Y; Lin, S W; Luhn, P; Faupel-Badger, J M

    2012-06-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This 4-week postgraduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g., epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, cancer prevention fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking among the course participants and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current cancer prevention fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87 and 8/10, respectively) reported a high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in a greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated that they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses.

  16. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S.M.; Hamilton, J.G.; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G.Y.; Lin, S.W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, Cancer Prevention Fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking amongst the course participants, and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current Cancer Prevention Fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87, and 8/10, respectively), reported high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses. PMID:22661264

  17. Community-based colorectal cancer screening trials with multi-ethnic groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jay B; Dallo, Florence J; Julka, Manjula

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize the current literature of community-based colorectal cancer screening randomized controlled trials with multi-ethnic groups. The CDC reports 40% of adults do not receive time-appropriate colorectal cancer screening. Although overall screening rates have improved since 2000, disparities remain. Studies examining community characteristics may offer insight into improving screening rates and eliminating disparities. We identified community-based colorectal cancer screening studies using PubMed and Ovid Medline database searches. Inclusion criteria were: community-based, randomized controlled trials; English language; published from 1/2001 to 8/2009; all colorectal cancer screening test interventions recommended in the 2008 "Joint Consensus" report; and study participants from at least two racial/ethnic groups, with not more than 90% representation from one group. There were 29 relevant articles published during 2001-2009; with 15 meeting inclusion criteria. We categorized the final studies (n = 15) into the four categories of Patient mailings (n = 3), Telephone outreach (n = 3), Electronic/multimedia (n = 4), and Counseling/community education (n = 5). Of 15 studies, 11 (73%) demonstrated increased screening rates for the intervention group compared to controls, including all studies (100%) from the Patient mailings and Telephone outreach groups, 4 of 5 (80%) Counseling/community education studies, and 1 of 4 (25%) Electronic/multimedia interventions. Patient choice and tailoring of information were common features of trials that increased screening rates across study categories. Including community-level factors and social context may be useful in future design and evaluation of colorectal cancer interventions to reduce or prevent new cases of colorectal cancer.

  18. Nurse-Led Programs to Facilitate Enrollment to Children's Oncology Group Cancer Control Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Maureen; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Leonard, Marcia; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian; Mowbray, Catriona; Landier, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    The progress made over the past 50 years in disease-directed clinical trials has significantly increased cure rates for children and adolescents with cancer. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) is now conducting more studies that emphasize improving quality of life for young people with cancer. These types of clinical trials are classified as cancer control (CCL) studies by the National Cancer Institute and require different resources and approaches to facilitate adequate accrual and implementation at COG institutions. Several COG institutions that had previously experienced problems with low accruals to CCL trials have successfully implemented local nursing leadership for these types of studies. Successful models of nurses as institutional leaders and "champions" of CCL trials are described. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  19. Versatile cooperative ligand effects in group 9 transition metal catalysis: Applications in transfer hydrogenation & hydrogen autotransfer reactions, ketene & ketene imine synthesis and hydroformylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative ligand effects of transition metal complexes have a profound impact on the reaction outcome of catalytic reactions, and development of (new) cooperative metal-ligand systems is a hot topic in current catalysis research. Conventional ligands with hydride-accepting/delivering activities

  20. Opinion Leaders in Online Cancer Support Groups: An Investigation of Their Antecedents and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyung; Scheufele, Dietram A; Han, Jeong Yeob; Shah, Dhavan

    2017-02-01

    With a focus on the nature and dynamic process of social interactions among breast cancer patients, this study argues that the notion of opinion leaders can be another crucial factor in explaining positive psychosocial health outcomes within computer-mediated social support (CMSS) groups. This study investigates the relationship between opinion leaders and their psychosocial health benefits by considering two overarching questions: (a) Who are the opinion leaders? (b) What role do these opinion leaders play in explaining health outcomes? The data analyzed in this study resulted from merging human-coded content analysis of discussion group messages, action log data analysis of interactive health system usage, and longitudinal survey data. Surveys were administered to 221 women with breast cancer; participants were provided free access to and training for the CMSS groups developed by the Comprehensive Health Support System (CHESS) project. The findings suggest that opinion leaders obtained psychosocial health benefits, such as higher levels of cancer information competence, breast cancer knowledge, and better problem-focused coping strategies. Those who had a higher baseline level of breast cancer knowledge and optimism in coping with challenges in their life were more likely to act as opinion leaders. Implications for research and improving psychosocial interventions for people with health concerns are discussed.

  1. Organizational Fluidity and Sustainable Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Glance, N S; Glance, Natalie; Huberman, Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    Abstract We show that fluid organizations display higher levels of cooperation than attainable by groups with either a fixed social structure or lacking one altogether. By moving within the organization, individuals cause restructurings that facilitate cooperation. Computer experiments simulating fluid organizations faced with a social dilemma reveal a myriad of complex cooperative behaviors that result from the interplay between individual strategies and structural changes. Significantly, fluid organizations can display long cycles of sustained cooperation interrupted by short bursts of defection.

  2. Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children's Oncology Group report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Karen E; Migliorati, Cesar A; Hudson, Melissa M; McMullen, Kevin P; Kaste, Sue C; Ruble, Kathy; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Shah, Ami J; Castellino, Sharon M

    2014-07-01

    Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children's Oncology Group. An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network "Categories of Consensus" system. The Children's Oncology Group oral-dental panel selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Additionally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life.

  3. Psychological Effects of Group Hypnotherapy on Breast Cancer Patients During Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Arnoldo; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Martínez-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Juárez-García, Dehisy M; Sanchez-Armass, Omar; Sánchez, Teresa; Segura, Guillermo; Jaime-Bernal, Leticia

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of group hypnotherapy on anxiety, depression, stress, self-esteem, optimism, and social support during chemotherapy, in patients with breast cancer, compared with a control group with standard medical care. Hypnotherapy consisted of 24 sessions that included suggestions to encourage relaxation, self-esteem, the resolution of past traumatic events, physical healing, and optimism. Results show that the hypnotherapy group significantly decreased anxiety, distress, increased self-esteem, and optimism in the first 12 sessions. However, at the end of the 24 sessions, only self-esteem and optimism remained significant compared with the control group. The convenience of using hypnotherapy to encourage optimism and self-esteem in patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy treatment is discussed given its protective effect on health.

  4. [Modern networks : Topics in the working group "Bladder cancer research" of the GeSRU Academics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofbauer, S; Kalogirou, C; Roghmann, F; Seitz, A-K; Vallo, S; Wezel, F; Worst, T; Nawroth, R

    2017-02-01

    In January 2015, the research group "bladder cancer research" was founded as part of the GeSRU Academics research initiative. A general challenge to work successfully in a novel network structure is to identify common scientific topics and technical expertise in the group. Thus, one of the first tasks was to learn about current research projects from members within the group in order to address a project that suits the group's expertise. The following review summarizes three different directions that are key projects in Urologic Departments at German Universities that will be the basis to start fruitful collaborations.

  5. A case series report of cancer patients undergoing group body psychotherapy [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Grossert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disturbances in bodily wellbeing represent a key source of psychosocial suffering and impairment related to cancer. Therefore, interventions to improve bodily wellbeing in post-treatment cancer patients are of paramount importance. Notably, body psychotherapy (BPT has been shown to improve bodily wellbeing in subjects suffering from a variety of mental disorders. However, how post-treatment cancer patients perceive and subjectively react to group BPT aiming at improving bodily disturbances has, to the best of our knowledge, not yet been described. Methods: We report on six patients undergoing outpatient group BPT that followed oncological treatment for malignant neoplasms. The BPT consisted of six sessions based on a scientific embodiment approach, integrating body-oriented techniques to improve patients’ awareness, perception, acceptance, and expression regarding their body. Results: The BPT was well accepted by all patients. Despite having undergone different types of oncological treatment for different cancer types and locations, all subjects reported having appreciated BPT and improved how they perceived their bodies. However, individual descriptions of improvements showed substantial heterogeneity across subjects. Notably, most patients indicated that sensations, perceptions, and other mental activities related to their own body intensified when proceeding through the group BPT sessions. Conclusion: The findings from this case series encourage and inform future studies examining whether group BPT is efficacious in post-treatment cancer patients and investigating the related mechanisms of action. The observed heterogeneity in individual descriptions of perceived treatment effects point to the need for selecting comprehensive indicators of changes in disturbances of bodily wellbeing as the primary patient-reported outcome in future clinical trials. While increases in mental activities related to their own body are commonly

  6. Detecting Emotional Expression in Face-to-Face and Online Breast Cancer Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, Anna; Simon, Wendy; Yutsis, Maya; Owen, Jason E.; Piemme, Karen Altree; Golant, Mitch; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2008-01-01

    Accurately detecting emotional expression in women with primary breast cancer participating in support groups may be important for therapists and researchers. In 2 small studies (N = 20 and N = 16), the authors examined whether video coding, human text coding, and automated text analysis provided consistent estimates of the level of emotional…

  7. Emotional coping differences among breast cancer patients from an online support group: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, A.E.; Das, H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come

  8. Determinants of participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Visser, Adriaan; Fischer, M.; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    Objective: This study aims at determining factors related to the intention to participate and actual participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients, using the framework of the theory of planned behavior. The factors studied are background variables, medical variables,

  9. Determinants of participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, B.; Visser, A.; Fischer, M.; Garssen, B.; Andel, G. van; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims at determining factors related to the intention to participate and actual participation in social support groups for prostate cancer patients, using the framework of the theory of planned behavior. The factors studied are background variables, medical variables,

  10. Cancer patients' perspectives on multidisciplinary team working: an exploratory focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Shah, Sujay; Brown, Katrina; Allchorne, Paula; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, focus-group study explores what patients understand about the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in cancer care. Participants were positive towards MDT working, and by strengthening the role of nurses in MDT decision-making, the representation of patients' interests can be improved.

  11. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study...... investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ...

  12. Interim positron emission tomography scans in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an independent expert nuclear medicine evaluation of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E3404 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Sandra J; Juweid, Malik E; Schöder, Heiko; Wiseman, Gregory; McMillan, Alex; Swinnen, Lode J; Advani, Ranjana; Gascoyne, Randy; Quon, Andrew

    2010-01-28

    Positive interim positron emission tomography (PET) scans are thought to be associated with inferior outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In the E3404 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma study, PET scans at baseline and after 3 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone were centrally reviewed by a single reader. To determine the reproducibility of interim PET interpretation, an expert panel of 3 external nuclear medicine physicians visually scored baseline and interim PET scans independently and were blinded to clinical information. The binary Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) study criteria were based on modifications of the Harmonization Criteria; the London criteria were also applied. Of 38 interim scans, agreement was complete in 68% and 71% by ECOG and London criteria, respectively. The range of PET(+) interim scans was 16% to 34% (P = not significant) by reviewer. Moderate consistency of reviews was observed: kappa statistic = 0.445 using ECOG criteria, and kappa statistic = 0.502 using London criteria. These data, showing only moderate reproducibility among nuclear medicine experts, indicate the need to standardize PET interpretation in research and practice. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00274924 [corrected].

  13. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A

    2009-03-01

    In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  14. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  15. Group support for patients with metastatic cancer. A randomized outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, D; Bloom, J R; Yalom, I

    1981-05-01

    The effects of weekly supportive group meetings for women with metastatic carcinoma of the breast were systematically evaluated in a one-year, randomized, prospective outcome study. The groups focused on the problems of terminal illness, including improving relationships with family, friends, and physicians and living as fully as possible in the face of death. We hypothesized that this invention would lead to improved mood, coping strategies, and self-esteem among those in the treatment group. Eighty-six patients were tested at four-month intervals. The treatment group had significantly lower mood-disturbance scores on the Profile of Mood States scale, had fewer maladaptive coping responses, and were less phobic than the control group. This study provides objective evidence that a supportive group intervention for patients with metastatic cancer results in psychological benefit. Mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of this group intervention are explored.

  16. Assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapy: checking assumptions with the focus group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, D W; Boyd, C P

    1999-12-01

    Cancer and cancer therapies impair sexual health in a multitude of ways. The promotion of sexual health is therefore vital for preserving quality of life and is an integral part of total or holistic cancer management. Nursing, to provide holistic care, requires research that is meaningful to patients as well as the profession to develop educational and interventional studies to promote sexual health and coping. To obtain meaningful research data instruments that are reliable, valid, and pertinent to patients' needs are required. Several sexual functioning instruments were reviewed for this study and found to be lacking in either a conceptual foundation or psychometric validation. Without a defined conceptual framework, authors of the instruments must have made certain assumptions regarding what women undergoing cancer therapy experience and what they perceive as important. To check these assumptions before assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapies in a larger study, a pilot study was designed to compare what women experience and perceive as important regarding their sexuality with what is assessed in several currently available research instruments, using the focus group technique. Based on the focus group findings, current sexual functioning questionnaires may be lacking in pertinent areas of concern for women treated for breast or gynecologic malignancies. Better conceptual foundations may help future questionnaire design. Self-regulation theory may provide an acceptable conceptual framework from which to develop a sexual functioning questionnaire.

  17. Meeting Report From the Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Working Group on Radium-223.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Morris, Michael; Soule, Howard R

    2017-02-01

    The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) convened a Scientific Working Group Meeting on Radium-223 on September 8, 2016, at The Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The meeting was attended by 18 investigators with expertise in radium-223, bone biology, molecular imaging, biomarkers, and prostate cancer clinical trials. The goal of this meeting was to discuss the known and unknown surroundings the therapeutic effects of the bone targeting agent radium-223, in bone metastatic prostate cancer therapy, and to outline the most critical studies needed to improve the clinical use of this agent. Three major topic areas were discussed: (1) the basic science of radium; (2) immuno-adjuvant properties of radium therapy; and (3) high impact clinical trials and correlative science. This article reviews the major topics discussed at the meeting for the purpose of accelerating studies that will improve the use of radium-223 in the treatment of prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:245-254, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Expression and Effects of High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoao Pang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1 and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer. HMGB1, forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3, IL-2, and IL-10 protein expression was analyzed in 100 cervical tissue samples including cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and healthy control samples using immunohistochemistry. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag was immunoradiometrically measured in 32 serum samples from 37 cases of squamous cervical cancer. HMGB1 and SCC-Ag were then correlated to clinicopathological characteristics. HMGB1 expression tends to increase as cervical cancer progresses and it was found to be significantly correlated to FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. These findings suggest that HMGB1 may be a useful prognostic indicator of cervical carcinoma. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between HMGB1 and FOXP3 or IL-10 expression (both p < 0.05. In contrast, HMGB1 and IL-2 expression was negatively correlated (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis (p < 0.05. HMGB1 expression and levels of SCC-Ag were directly correlated in SCC (p < 0.05. Thus, HMGB1 may be a useful biomarker for patient prognosis and cervical cancer prediction and treatment.

  19. Comparison of groups with different patterns of symptom cluster intensity across the breast cancer treatment trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Ju; McDermott, Paul A; Barsevick, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    Comparing subgroups with different patterns of change in symptom intensity would assist in sorting out individuals at risk for more severe symptoms and worse functional outcomes. The objectives of this study were to identify and compare subgroups of breast cancer patients with different patterns of change in a psychoneurological symptom cluster intensity across the treatment trajectory. This secondary analysis used the data from 160 breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Psychoneurological symptom cluster intensity was a composite score of 5 symptoms (depressed mood, cognitive disturbance, fatigue, insomnia, and pain) in a psychoneurological cluster at each of 3 time points (ie, at baseline and at 2 follow-ups after chemotherapy or radiation treatment). Five distinct subgroups representing different patterns of psychoneurological symptom cluster intensity during breast cancer treatment were identified: the gradually increasing pattern subgroup (group 1), the constantly low pattern subgroup (group 2), the start low with dramatic increase and decrease pattern subgroup (group 3), the constantly high pattern subgroup (group 4), and the start high with dramatic decrease and leveling pattern subgroup (group 5). Patients without previous cancer treatment experience, with higher level of education, treated with chemotherapy, and/or with more limitations at the baseline were more likely to follow the pattern group 4. Patients in group 4 had the most serious functional limitations measured at the second follow-up time point. The results suggest the need to evaluate interventions for specific subgroups and to examine the causal mechanisms underlying a psychoneurological symptom cluster. Clinicians should consider these diverse symptom experiences for assessment/management.

  20. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of meaning-centered group psychotherapy in cancer survivors: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, N.; Vos, J.; van Uden-Kraan, C.F.; Breitbart, W.; Cuijpers, P.; Knipscheer-Kuipers, K.; Willemsen, V.W.B.; Tollenaar, R.A.; van Asperen, C.J.; de Leeuw, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Meaning-focused coping may be at the core of adequate adjustment to life after cancer. Cancer survivors who experience their life as meaningful are better adjusted, have better quality of life and psychological functioning. Meaning-Centered Group Psychotherapy for Cancer Survivors

  1. Gender, cancer experience and internet use: a comparative keyword analysis of interviews and online cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive; Ziebland, Sue; Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    A new method, comparative keyword analysis, is used to compare the language of men and women with cancer in 97 research interviews and two popular internet based support groups for people with cancer. The method is suited to the conjoint qualitative and quantitative analysis of differences between large bodies of text, an alternative to the 'code and retrieval' approach used in much thematic analysis of qualitative materials. Web forums are a rich source of data about illness experience and gender differences. Marked differences in the performance of gender are evident. These differences follow linguistic and other behavioural patterns (such as social network differences) established in other contexts. Men with prostate cancer indicate in research interviews that they are more likely to seek information on the internet; women with breast cancer that they are more likely to seek social and emotional support. Men's concerns cluster around treatment information, medical personnel and procedures. Their experience of disease is more localised on particular areas of the body, while women's experience is more holistic. Women's forum postings orientate much more towards the exchange of emotional support, including concern with the impact of illness on a wide range of other people. Women's use of superlatives as well as words referring to feelings indicate their enactment of greater emotional expressivity. Web forums are platforms for an intensification of men's knowledge gathering activities. Web forums, though actually quite publicly visible, appear to be subjectively experienced by both sexes as relatively private places for the exchange of intimate personal information. The 'privacy' of the breast cancer forum facilitated interactions found in other studies to be characteristic of women's friendship groups.

  2. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer...... with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier...

  3. [FRancilian Oncogeriatric Group (FROG)'s focus on management of elderly patients with bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebriou, Djamel; Avenin, Danièle; Caillet, Philippe; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Durdux, Catherine; Massard, Christophe; Culine, Stéphane

    2014-09-01

    Bladder cancer is diagnosed more often in the elderly. The most effective treatment strategies are mostly very aggressive and are not applicable to all patients in a very heterogeneous population. However, effective options exist to treat the most vulnerable subjects. A multidisciplinary approach including a geriatric assessment is essential for optimal adaptation of treatment. The FRancilian Oncogeriatric Group (FROG) conducted a comprehensive literature search in order to review the applicable therapeutic options according to oncological and geriatric settings. International recommendations are essential to harmonize the management of elderly patients with bladder cancer.

  4. Participant perceptions of a mindful movement program for older women with breast cancer: focus group results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane-Okada, Rebecca; Kiger, Holly; Anderson, Nancy L R; Carroll-Johnson, Rose Mary; Sugerman, Fred; Shapiro, Shauna L; Wyman-McGinty, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been directed to the longer-term survivorship phase for older breast cancer survivors (BCSs) who often continue to struggle with late and long-term adverse effects of treatment including lower physical functioning, fear of recurrence, stress and anxiety, neuropathies, and pain. Creative and accessible strategies are needed that offer support to this population of cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to examine participant perceptions of the effects of a Mindful Movement Program intervention on quality of life and mindfulness through focus groups. This was part of a pilot feasibility study testing the intervention with older women at more than 1 year after treatment for breast cancer. Eight to 9 weeks after completion of 12 weekly, 2-hour mindful movement sessions, focus groups were held with 3 experimental group cohorts of participants who had attended on average 10.4 classes. Focus group interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative techniques for recurrent themes. Four themes emerged from the direct quotes of the participants: freedom, rediscovering, body sense in moving, and in the moment. Participants also contributed opinions about program delivery. Participants described how the Mindful Movement Program experience affected their lives. Their feedback indicated that the intervention yielded positive results and was feasible for a variety of older BCSs. Research with a wider group of participants is needed. Preliminary indications are that mindful movement may offer an acceptable strategy for increasing activity and decreasing stress among older BCSs.

  5. The Effect of Group Research and Cooperative Reading-Writing-Application Techniques in the Unit of "What Is the Earth's Crust Made Of?" on The Academic Achievements of the Students and the Permanent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Gokhan; Gurbuz, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of the group research technique and cooperative reading-writing application technique in the science and technology course in the unit of "what is the Earth's crust made of" on the academic achievement of the students and whether the change observed in the student achievement is permanent…

  6. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  7. Issues and challenges with integrating patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials supported by the National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Bryan, Charlene J; Aaronson, Neil; Blackmore, C Craig; Brundage, Michael; Cella, David; Ganz, Patricia A; Gotay, Carolyn; Hinds, Pamela S; Kornblith, Alice B; Movsas, Benjamin; Sloan, Jeff; Wenzel, Lari; Whalen, Giles

    2007-11-10

    The objective of this report is to provide a historical overview of and the issues and challenges inherent in the incorporation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) into multinational cancer clinical trials in the cancer cooperative groups. An online survey of 12 cancer cooperative groups from the United States, Canada, and Europe was conducted between June and August of 2006. Each of the cooperative groups designated one respondent, who was a member of one of the PRO committees within the cooperative group. There was a 100% response rate, and all of the cancer clinical trial cooperative groups reported conducting PRO research. PRO research has been conducted in the cancer cooperative groups for an average of 15 years (range, 6 to 30 years), and all groups had multidisciplinary committees focused on the design of PRO end points and the choice of appropriate PRO measures for cancer clinical trials. The cooperative groups reported that 5% to 50% of cancer treatment trials and an estimated 50% to 75% of cancer control trials contained PRO primary and secondary end points. There was considerable heterogeneity among the cooperative groups with respect to the formal and informal policies and procedures or cooperative group culture towards PROs, investigator training/mentorship, and resource availability for the measurement and conduct of PRO research within the individual cooperatives. The challenges faced by the cooperative groups to the incorporation of PROs into cancer clinical trials are varied. Some common opportunities for improvement include the adoption of standardized training/mentorship mechanisms for investigators for the conduct of PRO assessments and data collection and the development of minimal criteria for PRO measure acceptability. A positive cultural shift has occurred in most of the cooperative groups related to the incorporation of PROs in clinical trials; however, financial and other resource barriers remain and need to be addressed.

  8. Issues and Challenges With Integrating Patient-Reported Outcomes in Clinical Trials Supported by the National Cancer Institute–Sponsored Clinical Trials Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Deborah Watkins; Bryan, Charlene J.; Aaronson, Neil; Blackmore, C. Craig; Brundage, Michael; Cella, David; Ganz, Patricia A.; Gotay, Carolyn; Hinds, Pamela S.; Kornblith, Alice B.; Movsas, Benjamin; Sloan, Jeff; Wenzel, Lari; Whalen, Giles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this report is to provide a historical overview of and the issues and challenges inherent in the incorporation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) into multinational cancer clinical trials in the cancer cooperative groups. Methods An online survey of 12 cancer cooperative groups from the United States, Canada, and Europe was conducted between June and August of 2006. Each of the cooperative groups designated one respondent, who was a member of one of the PRO committees within the cooperative group. Results There was a 100% response rate, and all of the cancer clinical trial cooperative groups reported conducting PRO research. PRO research has been conducted in the cancer cooperative groups for an average of 15 years (range, 6 to 30 years), and all groups had multidisciplinary committees focused on the design of PRO end points and the choice of appropriate PRO measures for cancer clinical trials. The cooperative groups reported that 5% to 50% of cancer treatment trials and an estimated 50% to 75% of cancer control trials contained PRO primary and secondary end points. There was considerable heterogeneity among the cooperative groups with respect to the formal and informal policies and procedures or cooperative group culture towards PROs, investigator training/mentorship, and resource availability for the measurement and conduct of PRO research within the individual cooperatives. Conclusion The challenges faced by the cooperative groups to the incorporation of PROs into cancer clinical trials are varied. Some common opportunities for improvement include the adoption of standardized training/mentorship mechanisms for investigators for the conduct of PRO assessments and data collection and the development of minimal criteria for PRO measure acceptability. A positive cultural shift has occurred in most of the cooperative groups related to the incorporation of PROs in clinical trials; however, financial and other resource barriers remain and need

  9. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... on regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  10. Effectiveness of Group Training Based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Anxiety and Depression of Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Maleki-Rizi, Fatemeh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women that as a sudden event has profound effects on all aspects of patients? lives. Psychosocial interventions may play important roles in reducing anxiety and depression among breast-cancer survivors. Therefore, group training based on acceptance and commitment therapy may help women to cope better with their condition, and decrease their anxiety and depression. Methods In a quasi-experimental study, 30 patients with breast cancer were s...

  11. Learning as an empowerment process in breast cancer self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, Ingun; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2009-07-01

    This intervention study aimed to promote and examine empowerment processes in women recovering from breast cancer and participating in self-help groups. Feelings of powerlessness may follow from being diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. In theory, self-help groups may stimulate empowerment, which stands in contrast to powerlessness, by increasing the participants' sense of control. Professional assistance may contribute positively, by assuring that the issue of empowerment is addressed. The study had an intervention design based on the ideas of empowerment and self-help. Three professionally led self-help groups were established. The groups ran sequentially and met weekly for approximately four months. Eighteen women in groups of 5-7 participated in self-help group discussions and also in focus group interviews, which provided the main study data. Each group was interviewed three times. Observation data provided a basis for comprehension of the groups' culture, relationships and processes. Learning appeared as one of three salient components in empowerment processes in the self-help groups. This learning component consists of four elements: consciousness-raising, acquisition of objective knowledge, learning from others' experiences and discovery of new perspectives in life and in oneself. The study shows that self-help groups focusing on empowerment issues made a valuable contribution to recovery and are strongly recommended by the participants. This study suggests that best practice, for those who manage self-help programmes of all types, may be to arrange for empowerment to be an explicit aspect of the intervention, guided by professionals with training in group facilitation and knowledgeable about the facilitation of empowerment in particular.

  12. Cooperative Team Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    framework and motivation for this mathematical formalization for cooperative principles. The insight was the quantification of an individual’s...theories need to be formalized so they can better inform mathematical and computational models. The interest is clearly there. This conference was meant...this mathematical formalization for cooperative principles. The insight was the quantification of an individual’s contribution to the group effort

  13. Cooperation: integrating evolutionary and ecological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam P

    2006-11-21

    Putting a competitive squeeze on a cooperative group has long been considered to encourage cheats. Now we learn that competition, by driving diversification among cooperators, can create groups that are both more productive and more resistant to defection.

  14. Quality evaluation of value sets from cancer study common data elements using the UMLS semantic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an approach to evaluate the quality of terminological annotations on the value set (ie, enumerated value domain) components of the common data elements (CDEs) in the context of clinical research using both unified medical language system (UMLS) semantic types and groups. The CDEs of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Data Standards Repository, the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt) concepts and the UMLS semantic network were integrated using a semantic web-based framework for a SPARQL-enabled evaluation. First, the set of CDE-permissible values with corresponding meanings in external controlled terminologies were isolated. The corresponding value meanings were then evaluated against their NCI- or UMLS-generated semantic network mapping to determine whether all of the meanings fell within the same semantic group. Of the enumerated CDEs in the Cancer Data Standards Repository, 3093 (26.2%) had elements drawn from more than one UMLS semantic group. A random sample (n=100) of this set of elements indicated that 17% of them were likely to have been misclassified. The use of existing semantic web tools can support a high-throughput mechanism for evaluating the quality of large CDE collections. This study demonstrates that the involvement of multiple semantic groups in an enumerated value domain of a CDE is an effective anchor to trigger an auditing point for quality evaluation activities. This approach produces a useful quality assurance mechanism for a clinical study CDE repository.

  15. Clinico-pathological features and prognostic analysis of gastric cancer patients in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Hongliang; Wang, Huiling; Li, Chunfeng; Kang, Yue; Xue, Yingwei

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic value of age on patients with gastric cancer is not well defined. The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the impact of age on survival in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 1800 patients with gastric carcinoma, who had undergone gastrectomy between 1997-2007 years were included. They were divided into six different age groups (21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51- 60, 61-70 and 71-80 years). We reviewed patient's clinico-pathological characteristics and the prognosis with special reference to their ages. Among the six age groups, the younger patients have more female-dominated patients and poorly differentiated carcinoma, whereas the older patients have a higher incidence of large tumors (≥5 cm) and more patients with stage T3. Moreover, there were more liver metastases in the older age groups. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in 5-year survival rates among the six age groups. Multivariate analysis confirmed age, tumor size, pT stage, pN stage and curability were independent prognostic factors. There are several distinctive properties related to age of patients with gastric cancer, the older patients have more aggressive features and poorer prognosis than the younger patients.

  16. Prognosis after treatment for loco-regional recurrence after mastectomy or breast conserving therapy in two randomised trials (EORTC 10801 and DBCG-82TM). EORTC Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienhoven, G.; Voogd, A. C.; Peterse, J. L.; Nielsen, M.; Andersen, K. W.; Mignolet, F.; Sylvester, R.; Fentiman, I. S.; van der Schueren, E.; van Zijl, K.; Blichert-Toft, M.; Bartelink, H.; van Dongen, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the prognosis after treatment for loco-regional recurrences (LR) after (modified) radical mastectomy (MRM) or breast conserving therapy (BCT), in terms of overall survival and time to subsequent LR, in patients originally treated in two European

  17. Breast cancer risk reduction options: awareness, discussion, and use among women from four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Haas, Jennifer S; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Gregorich, Steven E; Somkin, Carol; Des Jarlais, Genevieve; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2006-01-01

    With recent advances in breast cancer risk reduction practices, it is increasingly important to assess both the breadth of and disparities in use across different racial/ethnic groups. We conducted telephone interviews with 1,700 women ages 40 to 74, from four racial/ethnic groups, without prior history of breast cancer, who received mammograms at one of five mammography facilities in San Francisco. Main outcomes measured included recognition of tamoxifen, raloxifene, genetic testing, and prophylactic surgery. Global indicators (recognition of any therapy, discussion of breast cancer risk) were developed from original outcome measures and analyzed using logistic regression. Multivariate analyses indicate that race/ethnicity and interview language affected recognition of therapies and discussion of risk. White women were more likely than all other women to recognize any therapy and more likely than Asian-Americans to discuss risk. Women at high risk, who had a prior abnormal mammogram, who perceived themselves to be at high risk, or who were exposed to breast health information were more likely to discuss risk. Women are aware of preventive therapies, although discussion and use is limited. Interventions to increase use of therapies should focus on those at high risk. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006;15(1):162-6).

  18. Sentiment Analysis of an Online Breast Cancer Support Group: Communicating about Tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabling, Mark L; Turner, Jeanine W; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Zhang, Yihong; Jiang, Xinyang; Drago, Fabrizio; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2017-07-05

    A better understanding of the breast cancer online narrative is important for a clearer conceptualizing of the role of online platforms in mediating health-related support. Sentiment analysis was conducted on a breast cancer online support group regarding Tamoxifen to understand users' emotions and opinions. This analysis was then contextualized within online social support literature. Out of the 498 users, the most active users were 80% more positive than least active users, while least active users were 48% more negative than most active ones; both differences were statistically significant. The higher the stage of cancer a user had, the less likelihood that she would have posted, and if she were to post, the post would have focused on her side effects and the anxiety/sadness that tailgates those side effects. The lower the stage of cancer a user had, the more likelihood that she would have posted, additionally remained active on the forum, and encouraged more (online) social support. This finding suggests that the online support platform may provide a context that exacerbates support for like-minded users where stronger ties are created around a specific sentiment within the community with less connection from those with dissimilar sentiments to the dominant group.

  19. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea practice guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC.

  20. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-07

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Breast cancer: a manual for a proposed group treatment integrating evidence based resilience factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Sørlie, Tore; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2005-08-01

    The paper presents the structure and content of a manual for a proposed treatment of breast cancer patients in groups. The proposed treatment is structured, time limited, and integrates elements from 1995 work of Spiegel and the Yalom 1995 theory of group therapy as well as empirically derived resilience factors. Addressing the psychological specificity of breast cancer, the overall treatment goals are to help patients to acquire new coping skills for relieving stress, to increase their personal and social competence and their use of available social support, to increase family coherence, to enhance optimism and quality of life, and to help patients develop new values and priorities that comply with their current and future life situation.

  2. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA366, containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  3. Understanding personal risk of oropharyngeal cancer: risk-groups for oncogenic oral HPV infection and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, G; McNeel, T S; Fakhry, C

    2017-10-19

    Incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer is increasing. There is interest in identifying healthy individuals most at risk for development of oropharyngeal cancer to inform screening strategies. All data are from 2009 to 2014, including 13 089 people ages 20-69 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), oropharyngeal cancer cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 18) registries (representing ∼28% of the US population), and oropharyngeal cancer mortality from National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Primary study outcomes are (i) prevalence of oncogenic HPV DNA in an oral rinse and gargle sample, and (ii) incident oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer. Oncogenic oral HPV DNA is detected in 3.5% of all adults age 20-69 years; however, the lifetime risk of oropharyngeal cancer is low (37 per 10 000). Among men 50-59 years old, 8.1% have an oncogenic oral HPV infection, 2.1% have an oral HPV16 infection, yet only 0.7% will 'ever' develop oropharyngeal cancer in their lifetime. Oncogenic oral HPV prevalence was higher in men than women, and increased with number of lifetime oral sexual partners and tobacco use. Men who currently smoked and had ≥5 lifetime oral sexual partners had 'elevated risk' (prevalence = 14.9%). Men with only one of these risk factors (i.e. either smoked and had 2-4 partners or did not smoke and had ≥5 partners) had 'medium risk' (7.3%). Regardless of what other risk factors participants had, oncogenic oral HPV prevalence was 'low' among those with only ≤1 lifetime oral sexual partner (women = 0.7% and men = 1.7%). Screening based upon oncogenic oral HPV detection would be challenging. Most groups have low oncogenic oral HPV prevalence. In addition to the large numbers of individuals who would need to be screened to identify prevalent oncogenic oral HPV, the lifetime risk of developing oropharyngeal caner among those with infection remains

  4. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M; Ros, Wynand J G; May, Anne M

    2015-09-01

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list control group (n = 62). The main outcome measure was global QoL, assessed with the EORTC QLQ-C30 at baseline and 12 weeks later. Potential moderators were age, gender, education level, marital status, employment status, type of treatment, time since treatment, the presence of comorbidities, fatigue, general self-efficacy, depression, and anxiety. Linear regression analyses were used to test effect modification of the intervention by each moderator variable using interaction tests (p ≤ 0.10). The physical exercise intervention effect on global QoL was larger for cancer survivors who received radiotherapy (β = 10.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 4.4; 16.2) than for cancer survivors who did not receive radiotherapy (β = 1.8, 95 % CI = -5.9; 9.5, p interaction = 0.10), larger for cancer survivors who received a combination of chemoradiotherapy (β = 13.0, 95 % CI = 6.0; 20.1) than for those who did not receive this combination of treatments (β = 2.5, 95 % CI = -3.7; 8.7, p interaction = 0.02), and larger for cancer survivors with higher baseline levels of fatigue (β = 12.6, 95 % CI = 5.7; 19.6) than for those with lower levels (β = 2.4, 95 % CI = -3.9; 8.7, p interaction = 0.03). No other moderating effects were found. This study suggests that cancer treatment modality and baseline fatigue levels moderate the effect of a physical exercise program on cancer survivors'global QoL.

  5. Cooperative Learning in the Physical Education Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven E.; Wilson, Rolayne

    1991-01-01

    Presents guidelines for promoting and using cooperative learning in physical education. To establish cooperative learning, teachers must plan for specific group dynamics. Physical educators need to understand their roles with groups and how groups should be structured. The article offers two cooperative learning lesson examples. (SM)

  6. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyu; Lilly, Michael B; Koziol, James A; Chen, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Yipeng; Skarecky, Douglas; Sutton, Manuel; Sawyers, Anne; Ruckle, Herbert; Carpenter, Philip M; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Pan, Cong; Zhu, Jian-Guo; McLaren, Christine E; Gurley, Michael J; Lee, Chung; McClelland, Michael; Ahlering, Thomas; Kattan, Michael W; Mercola, Dan

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS) based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets) whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  7. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  8. Multidisciplinary department of "Return to Work After a Cancer": a French experience of support groups for vocational rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasi, G; Bouteyre, E; Bretteville, J; Boucher, L; Rollin, L

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative pilot exploratory study focuses on support groups for vocational rehabilitation after cancer implemented in a French and innovative multidisciplinary department of "Return to Work after a Cancer." Sixty-three patients were invited to participate to constitute two support groups of 20 participants. Questionnaires are sent to assess their benefit according to the participants' point of view. For 58% of participants, support groups helped the return to work, and for 70% it provided personal, family, and relational support. Support groups are a relevant response to expectations and specific issues of patients experiencing return to work after cancer.

  9. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast cancer: Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beral, V.; Bull, D.; Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Reeves, G.; van den Brandt, P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G; Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. BACKGROUND: The Collaborative Group on

  10. Cooperative cytotoxic activity of Zn and Cu in bovine serum albumin-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites in PC12 cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Yu, Xue-Hong; Wang, Cai-Feng; Cao, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Series of self-assembled and mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with different Zn/Cu ratios had been successfully synthesized by a combination method of the biomimetic synthesis and ion-exchange strategy under the gentle conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, Fourier transform infrared spectra and zeta potential analysis demonstrated that BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with well dispersity had the hierarchical structure and BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and surface electro-negativity of final products. The real-time monitoring by atomic absorption spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the Zn/Cu ratio of nano-composites could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. In addition, the metabolic and morphological assays indicated that the metabolic proliferation and spread of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells could be inhibited by nano-composites, with the high anti-cancer activity at a low concentration (4 ppm). What were more important, Zn and Cu in nano-composites exhibited a positive cooperativity at inhibiting cancer cell functions. The microscope observation and biochemical marker analysis clearly revealed that the nano-composites-included lipid peroxidation and disintegration of membrane led to the death of PC12 cells. Summarily, the present study substantiated the potential of BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites as anti-cancer drug.

  11. Ethical aspects of participation in the database of genotypes and phenotypes of the National Center for Biotechnology Information: the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Shapira, Iuliana; Deshields, Teressa; Kroetz, Deanna; Friedman, Paula; Spears, Patricia; Collyar, Deborah E; Shulman, Lawrence N; Dressler, Lynn; Bertagnolli, Monica M

    2012-10-15

    The rapid pace of genetics research, coupled with evolving standards for informed consent, can create ethical challenges regarding future use of tissue or information from completed clinical trials. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Oncology Cooperative Group was faced with an ethical dilemma regarding sharing genetic data from a completed genome-wide association study (GWAS) that was conducted as part of a large, multicenter breast cancer clinical trial with a national database: the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes National Center for Biotechnology Information (dbGaP). The CALGB Ethics Committee conducted a series of multidisciplinary meetings and teleconferences involving patient advocates, bioethicists, clinical researchers, and clinical oncologists to evaluate the ethical issues raised by this case and to identify lessons for improving informed consent to future genetics research in oncology trials. The Ethics Committee recommended that GWAS data be provided to dbGaP consistent with documented consent for future use of tissue among trial participants. Ethical issues, including adequacy of informed consent to future research, limitations of privacy in modern genetics research, the potential impact of population-based genetics research on health disparities, and recontact of research participants for clinical care or further research, were identified as major ethical considerations in this area. Although modern standards for informed consent should not prohibit research or sharing of data consistent with participant's intent and the public interest, there is an urgent need for national consensus on the appropriate use of archived tissue and standardized informed consent for future research among cancer clinical trial participants. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  12. Psychosocial Late Effects in Pediatric Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsko, Matthew J; Cohen, Debra; Dillon, Robyn; Harvey, Jeanne; Krull, Kevin; Klosky, James L

    2016-02-01

    This review was conducted to update the Children's Oncology Group (COG) Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines (COG-LTFU Guidelines, version 4.0) regarding screening for psychosocial late effects of pediatric cancer. Articles published between August 2009 and January 2011 that addressed psychosocial late effects of long-term survivors of pediatric cancer (n = 35) were reviewed by a multidisciplinary team of COG late effect experts. The majority of studies in this time period indicate that survivors experience few psychosocial problems in long-term survivorship. A critical subset, however, is at increased risk for psychosocial late effects secondary to the treatment. Highlighted findings from this review include increased rates of suicidal ideation (SI), and health beliefs as robust predictors of SI, anxiety, and global distress. Survivors' health beliefs were associated with their perceptions of physical limitations, overall late effects, and cancer-related pain. While many survivorship studies continue to specify risk factors for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms/posttraumatic stress disorder, others outcomes (e.g., developmental, interpersonal, and familial factors) appear to be emerging in importance. Although the majority of childhood cancer survivors do not experience psychosocial problems, a subset will. The recent research findings have been included in the new COG-LTFU Guidelines that will assist in the targeted assessment and the treatment of survivors' psychosocial health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Psychosocial Late Effects in Pediatric Cancer Survivors: A report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsko, Matthew J.; Cohen, Debra; Dillon, Robyn; Harvey, Jeanne; Krull, Kevin; Klosky, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background This review was conducted to update the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines (COG-LTFU Guidelines; version 4.0) regarding screening for psychosocial late effects of pediatric cancer. Procedure Articles published between August 2009 and January 2011 that addressed psychosocial late effects of long-term survivors of pediatric cancer (n = 35) were reviewed by a multidisciplinary team of COG late effect experts. Results The majority of studies in this time period indicate that survivors experience few psychosocial problems in long-term survivorship. A critical subset, however, are at increased risk for psychosocial late effects secondary to treatment. Highlighted findings from this review include increased rates of suicidal ideation (SI), and health beliefs as robust predictors of SI, anxiety, and global distress. Survivors’ health beliefs were associated with their perceptions of physical limitations, overall late effects, and cancer-related pain. While many survivorship studies continue to specify risk factors for anxiety and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)/disorder (PTSD), others outcomes (e.g. developmental, interpersonal, and familial factors) appear to be emerging in importance. Conclusions Although the majority of childhood cancer survivors do not experience psychosocial problems, a subset will. The recent research findings have been included in the new COG-LTFU guidelines that will assist in the targeted assessment and treatment of survivors’ psychosocial health. PMID:26488337

  14. High Mobility Group B Proteins, Their Partners, and Other Redox Sensors in Ovarian and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Barreiro-Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells try to avoid the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by metabolic rearrangements. These cells also develop specific strategies to increase ROS resistance and to express the enzymatic activities necessary for ROS detoxification. Oxidative stress produces DNA damage and also induces responses, which could help the cell to restore the initial equilibrium. But if this is not possible, oxidative stress finally activates signals that will lead to cell death. High mobility group B (HMGB proteins have been previously related to the onset and progressions of cancers of different origins. The protein HMGB1 behaves as a redox sensor and its structural changes, which are conditioned by the oxidative environment, are associated with different functions of the protein. This review describes recent advances in the role of human HMGB proteins and other proteins interacting with them, in cancerous processes related to oxidative stress, with special reference to ovarian and prostate cancer. Their participation in the molecular mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin, a drug commonly used in chemotherapy, is also revised.

  15. Prognostic factors in patients with metastatic (stage D2) prostate cancer: experience from the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group Study-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, T; Kanagasingam, Y; Kaalhus, O; Tveter, K J; Bryne, M; Skjørten, F; Berner, A; Danielsen, H E

    1997-07-01

    Nuclear texture reflects the overall structures of the chromatin organization. We recently reported the principles and prognostic importance of image analysis of nuclei from metastatic prostate cancer. Immunohistochemical up regulation of the adhesion molecule sialyl Lewis(x) is also reported to be a prognostic parameter. Presently we analyzed statistically the prognostic impact of these 2 new parameters compared to well-known clinical parameters in metastatic prostate cancer. Prognostic factors, such as sedimentation rate, alkaline and acid phosphatases, hemoglobin, testosterone, performance status, pain due to metastasis, T category, histological grade and patient age, were included in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis based on 262 patients from the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group Study-2. Extent of bone lesions, deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy, texture analysis and sialyl Lewis(x) molecules based on subsets of these 262 patients were also analyzed in the same multivariate model. This test identified chromatin texture as the most important factor (p < 0.001), followed by reaction of the oligosaccharide sialyl Lewis(x) (p < 0.01). Among the routine clinical and laboratory data, sedimentation rate, alkaline phosphatase and hemoglobin (p < 0.05) showed prognostic importance. Performance status, pain due to metastasis and extent of bone lesions showed prognostic value in the univariate analysis (p < 0.05). These data indicate that computerized nuclear texture analysis as well as up regulation of sialyl Lewis(x) molecules may be new important prognostic factors in metastatic prostate cancer. Furthermore the prognostic importance of sedimentation rate, alkaline phosphatase and hemoglobin was confirmed.

  16. Genetic modelling of PIM proteins in cancer: proviral tagging, cooperation with oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and carcinogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enara eAguirre

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The PIM proteins, which were initially discovered as proviral insertion sites in Moloney murine leukemia virus infection, are a family of highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that have been reported to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM proteins have also been associated with metastasis and overall treatment responses and implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, the cell cycle, and homing and migration, which makes these proteins interesting targets for anticancer drug discovery. The use of retroviral insertional mutagenesis and refined approaches such as complementation tagging has allowed the identification of myc, pim and a third group of genes (including bmi1 and gfi1 as complementing genes in lymphomagenesis. Moreover, mouse modeling of human cancer has provided an understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in tumor initiation and progression at the physiological level. In particular, genetically modified mice have allowed researchers to further elucidate the role of each of the Pim isoforms in various tumor types. PIM kinases have been identified as weak oncogenes because experimental overexpression in lymphoid tissue, prostate and liver induces tumors at a relatively low incidence and with a long latency. However, very strong synergistic tumorigenicity between Pim1/2 and c-Myc and other oncogenes has been observed in lymphoid tissues. Mouse models have also been used to study whether the inhibition of specific PIM isoforms is required to prevent carcinogen-induced sarcomas, indicating that the absence of Pim2 and Pim3 greatly reduces sarcoma growth and bone invasion; the extent of this effect is similar to that observed in the absence of all 3 isoforms. This review will summarize some of the animal models that have been used to understand the isoform-specific contribution of PIM kinases to tumorigenesis.

  17. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Denong; Tang, Jin; Liu, Shaoyi; Huang, Jiaoti

    2015-01-01

    Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gp(HAE3), was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  18. [Papillomatosis as a criteria for the formation of the group at risk of laryngeal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremisina, O V; Choinzonov, E L; Pankova, O V; Mukhamedov, M R; Urazova, L N; Dvorayninova, O Yu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence of dysplastic pre-neoplastic alterations in the patients presenting with papillomatosis. The results of the clinical, endoscopic, and morphological examination of 42 patients presenting with laryngeal papillomas made it possible to diagnose grade II-III laryngeal cancer in 7 (16.7%) patients. Half of them exhibited pre-neoplastic changes in laryngeal mucosa. The following criteria for the formation of laryngeal cancer risk groups, besides grade II-III epithelial dysplasia, were identified: long (over 12 months) history of papillomatosis, human papilloma virus infection, the history of smoking over 20 years, professional contacts with petroleum, oil, and lubrication materials, and the male gender. An algorithm of observation and treatment for each group of patients differing in the degree of dysplastic changes in laryngeal mucosa was proposed. It is concluded that adequate clinical and endoscopic monitoring of the patients at risk of laryngeal cancer makes it possible to increase the frequency of detection of this condition at the early stages of its development.

  19. Carbohydrate Microarrays Identify Blood Group Precursor Cryptic Epitopes as Potential Immunological Targets of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using carbohydrate microarrays, we explored potential natural ligands of antitumor monoclonal antibody HAE3. This antibody was raised against a murine mammary tumor antigen but was found to cross-react with a number of human epithelial tumors in tissues. Our carbohydrate microarray analysis reveals that HAE3 is specific for an O-glycan cryptic epitope that is normally hidden in the cores of blood group substances. Using HAE3 to screen tumor cell surface markers by flow cytometry, we found that the HAE3 glycoepitope, gpHAE3, was highly expressed by a number of human breast cancer cell lines, including some triple-negative cancers that lack the estrogen, progesterone, and Her2/neu receptors. Taken together, we demonstrate that HAE3 recognizes a conserved cryptic glycoepitope of blood group precursors, which is nevertheless selectively expressed and surface-exposed in certain breast tumor cells. The potential of this class of O-glycan cryptic antigens in breast cancer subtyping and targeted immunotherapy warrants further investigation.

  20. A Retrospective Survival Analysis of Anatomic and Prognostic Stage Group Based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th Edition Cancer Staging Manual in Luminal B Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The prognostic staging system proposed in the AJCC 8th edition refines the anatomic stage group in Luminal B HER2-negative breast cancer and will lead to a more personalized approach to breast cancer treatment.

  1. Validity of Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry data used in the predictors of breast cancer recurrence (ProBeCaRe) premenopausal breast cancer cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Ahern, Thomas P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Validation studies of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry show good agreement with medical records for adjuvant treatment data, but inconsistent recurrence information. No studies have validated changes in menopausal status or endocrine therapy during follow-up. In a longit......BACKGROUND: Validation studies of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry show good agreement with medical records for adjuvant treatment data, but inconsistent recurrence information. No studies have validated changes in menopausal status or endocrine therapy during follow......-up. In a longitudinal study, we validated DBCG data using medical records as the gold standard. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From a cohort of 5959 premenopausal women diagnosed during 2002-2010 with stage I-III breast cancer, we selected 151 patients - 77 estrogen-receptor-positive and 74 estrogen-receptor-negative - from......). The PPV for DBCG-recorded recurrence was 100%. However, of 19 patients who had a recurrence documented in their medical record, 13 had the recurrence registered in DBCG. CONCLUSIONS: DBCG data are valid for most epidemiological studies of breast cancer treatment. Data on menopausal transition may be less...

  2. Cancer patients' preferences for therapy decisions can be grouped into categories and separated by demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnholdt, Jana; Haier, Jörg

    2017-08-01

    Shared decision-making is based on comparable understanding of decision criteria on both sides that requires knowledge about preferences, reception/prioritization of benefits and covariates influencing these criteria. We addressed identification of cancer patients' preferences for treatment decisions and covariates for preference patterns in certain patient cohorts. Using preference surveys ordinal ranking of decisional preferences in life (PL) and during therapy (PT) were obtained and aggregated by factorial analysis. Demographic and clinical data enabled clustering of patient groups including non-malignant control group with distinct preference patterns. Covariates for these patterns were determined by multivariate ANOVA. 1777 cancer and 367 non-oncological patients (≥18 years) were evaluable (response 56.0%). Patient-reported PT was grouped into distinctive categories: immediate treatment effectivity, long-term effects and survival, empathy, easy treatment and employability/healing. Gender, parenthood, family status, age and educational level mainly determine importance of PL (52.1% variance) and PT (55.1% variance) enabling discrimination of specific preference patterns in patients: older males, non-single, younger males, non-single female with children and young, single patients without children that mainly significantly differed from non-cancer patients (p groups. If patients recognize direct social responsibility, immediate treatment effects gain importance accompanied by reduced impact of employability, rehabilitation and financial security. For young and independent patients empathy has similar impact as treatment effects. Consequently, clinical research should consider age-specific endpoints and distinct decisional preferences to match patients' perspective by specific evidence.

  3. BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations cooperatively identify the most aggressive papillary thyroid cancer with highest recurrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xing, Mingzhao; Liu, Rengyun; Liu, Xiaoli; Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Zhu, Guangwu; Zeiger, Martha A; Pai, Sara; Bishop, Justin

    2014-01-01

    ...), individually and in their coexistence, in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We performed a retrospective study of the relationship of BRAF and TERT C228T mutations with clinicopathologic outcomes of PTC in 507 patients...

  4. Glucocorticoids and histone deacetylase inhibitors cooperate to block the invasiveness of basal-like breast cancer cells through novel mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, M E; Corsino, P E; Jahn, S C

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive cancers often express E-cadherin in cytoplasmic vesicles rather than on the plasma membrane and this may contribute to the invasive phenotype of these tumors. Therapeutic strategies are not currently available that restore the anti-invasive function of E-cadherin in cancers. MDA-MB-231...... cells are a frequently used model of invasive triple-negative breast cancer, and these cells express low levels of E-cadherin that is mislocalized to cytoplasmic vesicles. MDA-MB-231 cell lines stably expressing wild-type E-cadherin or E-cadherin fused to glutathione S-transferase or green fluorescent...... protein were used as experimental systems to probe the mechanisms responsible for cytoplasmic E-cadherin localization in invasive cancers. Although E-cadherin expression partly reduced cell invasion in vitro, E-cadherin was largely localized to the cytoplasm and did not block the invasiveness...

  5. Pancreatic Cancer: Multicenter Prospective Data Collection and Analysis by the Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Gábor; Balázs, Anita; Kui, Balázs; Gódi, Szilárd; Szücs, Ákos; Szentesi, Andrea; Szentkereszty, Zsolt; Szmola, Richárd; Kelemen, Dezső; Papp, Róbert; Vincze, Áron; Czimmer, József; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szabó, Imre; Izbéki, Ferenc; Halász, Adrienn; Leindler, László; Farkas, Gyula; Takács, Tamás; Czakó, László; Szepes, Zoltán; Hegyi, Péter; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with poor prognosis. There is very limited information available regarding the epidemiology and treatment strategies of pancreatic cancer in Central Europe. The purpose of the study was to prospectively collect and analyze data of pancreatic cancer in the Hungarian population. The Hungarian Pancreatic Study Group (HPSG) organized prospective, uniform data collection. Altogether 354 patients were enrolled from 14 Hungarian centers. Chronic pancreatitis was present in 3.7% of the cases, while 33.7% of the patients had diabetes. Family history for pancreatic cancer was positive in 4.8%. The most frequent presenting symptoms included pain (63.8%), weight loss (63%) and jaundice (52.5%). The reported frequency of smoking and alcohol consumption was lower than expected (28.5% and 27.4%, respectively). The majority of patients (75.6%) were diagnosed with advanced disease. Most patients (83.6%) had a primary tumor located in the pancreatic head. The histological diagnosis was ductal adenocarcinoma in 90.7% of the cases, while neuroendocrine tumor was present in 5.3%. Biliary stent implantation was performed in 166 patients, 59.2% of them received metal stents. Primary tumor resection was performed in 60 (16.9%) patients. Enteral or biliary bypass was done in 35 and 49 patients, respectively. In a multivariate Cox-regression model, smoking status and presence of gemcitabine-based chemotherapy were identified as independent predictors for overall survival. We report the first data from a large cohort of Hungarian pancreatic cancer patients. We identified smoking status and chemotherapy as independent predictors in this cohort.

  6. Autologous stem-cell transplantation for Hodgkin's disease: results and prognostic factors in 494 patients from the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Transplante Autólogo de Médula Osea Spanish Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, A; Arranz, R; Iriondo, A; Carreras, E; Lahuerta, J J; García-Conde, J; Jarque, I; Caballero, M D; Ferrà, C; López, A; García-Laraña, J; Cabrera, R; Carrera, D; Ruiz-Romero, M D; León, A; Rifón, J; Díaz-Mediavilla, J; Mataix, R; Morey, M; Moraleda, J M; Altés, A; López-Guillermo, A; de la Serna, J; Fernández-Rañada, J M; Sierra, J; Conde, E

    2001-03-01

    To analyze clinical outcome and significant prognostic factors for overall (OS) and time to treatment failure (TTF) in a group of 494 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Detailed records from the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Transplante Autólogo de Médula Osea Spanish Cooperative Group Database on 494 HD patients who received an ASCT between January 1984 and May 1998 were reviewed. Two hundred ninety-eight males and 196 females with a median age of 27 years (range, 1 to 63 years) received autografts while in complete remission (n = 203) or when they had sensitive disease (n = 206) or resistant disease (n = 75) at a median time of 26 months (range, 4 to 259 months) after diagnosis. Most patients received high-dose chemotherapy without radiation for conditioning (n = 443). The graft consisted of bone marrow (n = 244) or peripheral blood (n = 250). The 100-day mortality rate was 9%. The 5-year actuarial TTF and OS rates were 45.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.5% to 50.5%) and 54.5% (95% CI, 48.4% to 60.6%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the presence of active disease at transplantation, transplantation before 1992, and two or more lines of therapy before transplantation were adverse prognostic factors for outcome. Sixteen patients developed a secondary malignancy (5-year cumulative incidence of 4.3%) after transplantation. Adjuvant radiotherapy before transplantation, the use of total-body irradiation (TBI) in the conditioning regimen, and age > or = 40 years were found to be predictive factors for the development of second cancers after ASCT. ASCT achieves long-term disease-free survival in HD patients. Disease status before ASCT is the most important prognostic factor for final outcome; thus, transplantation should be considered in early stages of the disease. TBI must be avoided in the conditioning regimen because of a significantly higher rate of late complications, including secondary

  7. Increased breast cancer mortality only in the lower education group: age-period-cohort effect in breast cancer mortality by educational level in South Korea, 1983-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Jinwook; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2017-03-31

    A steadily increasing pattern of breast cancer mortality has been reported in South Korea since the late 1980s. This paper explored the trends of educational inequalities of female breast cancer mortality between 1983 and 2012 in Korea, and conducted age-period-cohort (APC) analysis by educational level. Age-standardized mortality rates of breast cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated. Relative index of inequality (RII) for breast cancer mortality was used as an inequality measure. APC analyses were conducted using the Web tool for APC analysis provided by the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. An increasing trend in breast cancer mortality among Korean women between 1983 and 2012 was due to the increased mortality of the lower education groups (i.e., no formal education or primary education and secondary education groups), not the highest education group. The breast cancer mortality was higher in women with a tertiary education than in women with no education or a primary education during 1983-1992, and the reverse was true in 1993-2012. Consequently, RII was changed from positive to negative associations in the early 2000s. The lower education groups had the increased breast cancer mortality and significant cohort and period effects between 1983 and 2012, whereas the highest group did not. APC analysis by socioeconomic position used in this study could provide an important clue for the causes on breast cancer mortality. The long-term monitoring of socioeconomic patterning in breast cancer risk factors is urgently needed.

  8. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE GROUP INVESTIGATION (GI TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR IPS TERPADU KELAS VIII SEMESTER GENAP SMPYPI 1 BANDAR MATARAM LAMPUNG TENGAH T.P 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Fatmawati Maryatun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metode cooperative learning tipe group investigation merupakan model pembelajaran kooperatif yang dapat melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam kegiatan pembelajaran mulai dari merencanakan topik-topik yang akan dipelajari, bagaimana melaksanakan investigasinya, hingga melakukan presentasi kelompok dan evaluasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya pengaruh penggunaan model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe Group Investigation terhadap hasil belajar IPS Terpadu peserta didik kelas VIII semester genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram  Lampung Tengah tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Hipotesis yang penulis ajukan adalah “Ada pengaruh yang positif pada model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe Group Investigation terhadap hasil belajar IPS Terpadu peserta didik kelas VIII semester genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram  Lampung Tengah tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram Lampung Tengah Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016 yaitu berjumlah 48 orang siswa dan diantaranya terdiri dari 2 kelas. Dan yang menjadi sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah kelas VIIIa dan VIIIb. Kelas VIIIa sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas VIIIb sebagai kelas control, sampel diambil menggunakan teknik purposive sampling, Eksperimen dilaksanakan pada siswa kelas VIIIa Semester Genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram Lampung Tengah Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016 yang berjumlah 24 peserta didik. Data penelitian ini dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan  metode observasi, wawancara, dokumentasi, dan tes. Sedangkan untuk mengetahui tingkat validitas dan reliabilitas penulis menggunakan rumus K-R 20. Kemudian untuk menguji/membuktikan hipotesis digunakan rumus Regresi Linier Sederhana yaitu  Ŷ = a + bx. Nilai Ŷ = 73,33+ 0,5 X yang dilanjutkan dengan rumus thitung > ttabel.pada daftar signifikan 5% yaitu 4 > 1,72  dan pada taraf signifikan 1% yaitu 4 > 2,52. Dengan demikian hipotesisnya diterima karena ada pengaruh yang positif

  9. A qualitative study of an internet-based support group for women with sexual distress due to gynecologic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiljer, David; Urowitz, Sara; Barbera, Lisa; Chivers, Meredith L; Quartey, Naa Kwarley; Ferguson, Sarah E; To, Matthew; Classen, Catherine C

    2011-09-01

    Internet-based support groups for cancer patients have been studied extensively; very few have focused on gynecologic cancer. We pilot-tested a web-based support group for gynecologic cancer patients and assessed women's perceptions of the intervention. Twenty-seven gynecologic cancer patients were randomized to an immediate intervention or a waitlist control group. Women participated in a 12-week, web-based support group focusing on sexuality-related topics. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of the intervention. Women reported benefits to participating in the intervention, including receiving support from group members and moderators, increased emotional well-being, improved feelings of body image and sexuality, and comfort in discussing sexuality online. Web-based support groups are both feasible and accepted by gynecologic cancer patients with psychosexual distress. The online format provided women with easy access to the support group and anonymity in discussing psychosexual concerns. Women with gynecologic cancer may benefit from participating in online support groups which provide an environment of relative anonymity to discuss psychosexual concerns.

  10. 78 FR 42977 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ...--Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical Stratigraphy and Natural Deformation in Eagle Ford Formation and... seq. (``the Act''), Southwest Research Institute-- Cooperative Research Group on Mechanical... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  11. ABO blood group and risk of cancer: A register-based cohort study of 1.6 million blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nyrén, Olof; Ullum, Henrik; Pedersen, Ole B V; Erikstrup, Christian; Melbye, Mads; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Pawitan, Yudi; Edgren, Gustaf

    2016-10-01

    The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. We estimated associations between different ABO blood groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal tract (mouth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophageal adenocarcinoma and stomach). Our study reconfirms the association between ABO blood group and cancer risk and exact underlying mechanisms involved needs further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Breast Cancer Family Registry: an infrastructure for cooperative multinational, interdisciplinary and translational studies of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    John, EM; Hopper, Jl; Beck, JC; Knight, JA; Neuhausen, SL; Senie, RT; Ziogas, A; Andrulis, IL; Anton-Culver, H; Boyd, N.; Buys, Ss; Daly, Mb; O'Malley, Fp; Santella, RM; Southey, Mc

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The etiology of familial breast cancer is complex and involves genetic and environmental factors such as hormonal and lifestyle factors. Understanding familial aggregation is a key to understanding the causes of breast cancer and to facilitating the development of effective prevention and therapy. To address urgent research questions and to expedite the translation of research results to the clinical setting, the National Cancer Institute (USA) supported in 1995 the establishmen...

  13. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  14. Information contracting tools in a cancer specialist unit:the role of Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Marlow

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for high quality management information within the contracting process has driven many of the major developments in health service computing. These have often merged clinical and financial requirements, usually along patient-centred lines. In order to identify a common currency for a range of clinical activities that are inherently variable, price tariffs have been drawn up on the basis of 'episodes of care' within specialties. Healthcare Resource Groups (HRGs were designed to meet the need for a common information currency. However, they were designed for acute care. The study on which this paper is based aims to examine their applicability to chronic care in a cancer specialist unit. The data were drawn from the patient information system within a major cancer unit. The focus of the investigation is encapsulated in the following questions: a Do HRGs really work as a grouping and costing methodology? b How relevant are HRG classifications for long-term patient care? The investigation demonstrated that not all HRGs are iso-resource within this environment. The findings from the data analysis are echoed by the NHS Executive's own evaluation . This does not negate advantages in their use. Furthermore, the development of Health Benefit Groups as information management tools, through a focus on health conditions and interventions rather than on purely on treatments, offers potential for greater validity within a chronic care situation.

  15. Definitions, End Points, and Clinical Trial Designs for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Recommendations From the International Bladder Cancer Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamat, A.M.; Sylvester, R.J.; Bohle, A.; Palou, J.; Lamm, D.L.; Brausi, M.; Soloway, M.; Persad, R.; Buckley, R.; Colombel, M.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To provide recommendations on appropriate clinical trial designs in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) based on current literature and expert consensus of the International Bladder Cancer Group. METHODS: We reviewed published trials, guidelines, meta-analyses, and reviews and

  16. [Evaluation of a support group for children of parents with cancer after 4 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Virginie; Kitzmann, Rebecca; Rios, Maria; Pegliasco, Caroline; Olivier, Jean-Baptiste; Raft, Julien

    2013-03-01

    When a parent is diagnosed with cancer, this is a major stress for him and his family. Children are often left out but perceive their parent's distress. This misunderstanding may cause multiple problems for their future. Support groups have been organized in order to limit these risks. After several years of practical experience and given its specific organisation, the care program's pertinence/benefit must be evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the first four years of existence of a support group for children of parents with cancer within a cancer centre (between September 2007 and April 2011). A questionnaire was sent to the participating families. The descriptive analysis of the results was anonymous. The questions focused on the organization, expectations, satisfactions, felt benefits or not and the future. Sixteen of 30 families (53%) responded. The expectations were met in 87% of the cases especially with the establishment of an intra-family communication (90% of the cases). The sessions with several families were preferred as the other families' presence was perceived as a benefit without inconvenience (9 of 11 cases (82%). The support group was assistance for the future in most cases (10 of 13 cases (77%). There seems to be an evolution in the parent's awareness and anticipation concerning their children's need of information: 73% (22/30) of participation were at a curative stage. The short-term benefits in relation to initial expectations are described in this study. They are based on a solid and structured organization that has been well accepted by the families. Despite a small cohort, these encouraging results should allow other care providers to take over the model. A longer term evaluation is obviously necessary, according special attention to developmental issues.

  17. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Jia

    Full Text Available It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  18. Polycomb group proteins: navigators of lineage pathways led astray in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate lineage choices during development and differentiation. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of how the PcG proteins regulate cell fate decisions and how their deregulation potentially contributes to cancer....... In this Review we discuss the emerging roles of long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and a subset of transcription factors, which we call cell fate transcription factors, in the regulation of PcG association with target genes. We also speculate about how their deregulation contributes to tumorigenesis....

  19. Evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children treated for cancer: a descriptive pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Silberbusch, Lobke M.; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present paper reports about the content and evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children growing up with a history of cancer, Op Koers Oncologie (OK Onco). OK Onco is aimed at empowerment of survivors of childhood cancer by teaching disease-related skills. The

  20. Evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children treated for cancer: A descriptive pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice-Stam, H.; Last, B.F.; Silberbusch, L.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present paper reports about the content and evaluation of a psycho-educational group intervention for children growing up with a history of cancer, Op Koers Oncologie (OK Onco). OK Onco is aimed at empowerment of survivors of childhood cancer by teaching disease-related skills. The

  1. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact, will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  2. Coping, life attitudes, and immune responses to imagery and group support after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M A; Post-White, J; Grimm, E A; Moye, L A; Singletary, S E; Justice, B

    1997-09-01

    The pilot study used clinical trial methodology to differentiate the effects of imagery and support on coping, life attitudes, immune function, quality of life, and emotional well-being after breast cancer. Women (N = 47) who completed treatment for primary breast cancer, excluding stage IV, were randomly assigned to standard care (n = 15) or six weekly support (n = 16) or imagery (n = 16) sessions. Self-report measures included Ways of Coping-Cancer, Life Attitude Profile, Quality of Life (FACT-B), Profile of Mood States, and Functional Support. Immune measures included natural killer cell activity, plasma neopterin, interferon-gamma, interleukins 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 2, and beta-endorphin levels. Differences between groups over time were tested using general linear models, adjusted for pretest score and covariates (age, stage, and months posttreatment). For all women, interferon-gamma increased, neopterin decreased, quality of life improved, and natural killer activity remained unchanged. Compared with standard care, both interventions improved coping skills (seeking support) and perceived social support, and tended to enhance meaning in life. Support boosted overall coping and death acceptance. When comparing imagery with support, imagery participants tended to have less stress, increased vigor, and improved functional and social quality of life. Although imagery reduced stress and improved quality of life, both imagery and support improved coping, attitudes, and perception of support. The clinical implications of these changes warrant further testing.

  3. Integrating spirituality into a group psychological therapy program for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alastair J

    2005-06-01

    Although the importance of spiritual issues to people with cancer is by now widely acknowledged, there has been almost no research on the value of interventions specifically designed to enhance the spiritual experience of these patients. The present report describes an exploratory study on the effects of a brief psychoeducational course emphasizing spiritual aspects of coping and healing. Ninety-seven patients with various types and stages of cancer took part in the 8-session course as the third stage in a progressive, stepwise program of support and psychological education. Standard psychometric tests were administered at entry, 8 weeks, and 6 months. Written home assignments, returned by participants, provided an insight into their experience. Significant improvements in scores were found immediately following the intervention; by 6 months, however, these improvements above entry level had declined to about half the 8-week value. In their written homework, patients grappled with such issues as doubts about the existence of a god, judgment and forgiveness, guilt, projection, self-importance, and the meaning of love. As the course progressed, many claimed to be better able to accept their condition and to experience an enhanced sense of meaning in their lives, coupled with a heightened appreciation for the events of everyday life and less tendency to conflict with others. These preliminary findings indicate that further, more rigorous investigation would be worthwhile and support the growing view that addressing spiritual issues within the framework of group therapy can be of great benefit to people with cancer.

  4. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of the A......OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in the year 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology...... in 2004 remain valid 3 yr later, refinements in the treatment of early- and advanced-stage testicular cancer have emerged from clinical trials. Despite technical improvements, expert clinical skills will continue to be one of the major determinants for the prognosis of patients with germ cell cancer...

  5. Barriers and facilitators for return to work in cancer survivors with job loss experience: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, M P; Duijts, S F A; Loyen, A; Vermeulen, S J; van der Beek, A J; Anema, J R

    2017-09-01

    Over 50% of cancer survivors lose their job or quit working. Cancer survivors who experience job loss may face different challenges regarding return to work, compared to cancer survivors with employers. This qualitative study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators for return to work in cancer survivors with job loss and in insurance physicians who assist cancer survivors in their return to work. We conducted five focus groups and one interview (cancer survivors, N = 17; insurance physicians, N = 23). Topics included, among others, experience of job loss and barriers and facilitators for return to work. Data were audio recorded and analysed using thematic analysis. Our main finding was that cancer survivors experienced a double loss: loss of job on top of loss of health. As a result, cancer survivors feared for job applications, lacked opportunities to gradually increase work ability, and faced reluctance from employers in hiring them. Insurance physicians expressed a need for more frequent and longer consultations with cancer survivors with job loss. We conclude that cancer survivors who experience double loss encounter specific barriers in the return to work process. This calls for a tailored approach regarding return to work support. © The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Trastuzumab beyond progression in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer: a german breast group 26/breast international group 03-05 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Minckwitz, Gunter; du Bois, Andreas; Schmidt, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Trastuzumab shows clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive early and advanced breast cancer. In the German Breast Group 26/Breast International Group 03-05 trial, we investigated if trastuzumab treatment should be continued beyond progression. METHODS......: Patients with HER-2-positive breast cancer that progresses during treatment with trastuzumab were randomly assigned to receive capecitabine (2,500 mg/m(2) body-surface area on days 1 through 14 [1,250 mg/m(2) semi-daily]) alone or with continuation of trastuzumab (6 mg/kg body weight) in 3-week cycles...... with increased toxicity. CONCLUSION: Continuation of trastuzumab plus capecitabine showed a significant improvement in overall response and time to progression compared with capecitabine alone in women with HER-2-positive breast cancer who experienced progression during trastuzumab treatment....

  7. Implementation and scientific evaluation of rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients: study protocol of the ProRehab Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Eva M; Braun, Moritz; Machtens, Stefan; Zumbé, Jürgen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Baumann, Freerk T

    2012-07-24

    Although treatment regimen have improved in the last few years, prostate cancer patients following a radical prostatectomy still experience severe disease- and treatment-related side effects, including urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction and psychological issues. Despite high incidence rates and the common adverse effects there is a lack of supportive measures for male patients and specific physical exercise recommendations for prostate cancer patients during rehabilitation or in the aftercare are still missing. The ProRehab Project aims to establish rehabilitative sports groups particularly for prostate cancer patients and to evaluate the effects of the offered exercise program. Starting 8-12 weeks after prostatectomy or combination therapy, prostate cancer patients will exercise for 15 months within a patient preference randomized controlled trial. One exercise session will be conducted within a pre-established rehabilitative sports group, while the other will be completed independently. Patients in the control group will not participate in the intervention. The main outcomes of the study include aerobic fitness, quality of life, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. By combining science, practice, and public relations the first rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients in Germany have been set up and thus contribute to the care structure for prostate cancer patients. By offering a 15-month physical exercise intervention that is conducted in supervised group sessions, long-term lifestyle changes and therefore improvements in quality of life in prostate cancer patients can be expected. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00004184.

  8. Implementation and scientific evaluation of rehabilitative sports groups for prostate cancer patients: study protocol of the ProRehab Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zopf, Eva M; Braun, Moritz; Machtens, Stefan; Zumbé, Jürgen; Bloch, Wilhelm; Baumann, Freerk T

    2012-01-01

    ... during rehabilitation or in the aftercare are still missing. The ProRehab Project aims to establish rehabilitative sports groups particularly for prostate cancer patients and to evaluate the effects of the offered exercise program...

  9. Dietary intakes of selected nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Chaitali; Baker, Julie A; Moysich, Kirsten B; Rivera, Ruqayyah; Brasure, John R; McCann, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between intakes of selected dietary nutrients and food groups and risk of cervical cancer in a hospital-based, case-control study including 239 cases diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and 979 hospital patients with nonneoplastic diagnoses who completed a self-administered questionnaire between 1982 and 1998 at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, smoking status, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and spermicides, family history of cervical cancer, year questionnaire completed, and energy intake. Significant reductions in risk of approximately 40-60% were observed for women in the highest vs. lowest tertiles of dietary fiber (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37-0.94), vitamin C (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.33-0.80), vitamin E (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.27-0.72), vitamin A (OR=0.47, 95% CI=0.30-0.73), alpha-carotene (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.27-0.63), beta-carotene (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.29-0.68), lutein (OR=0.51, 95% CI=0.33-0.79), folate (OR=0.55, 95% CI=0.34-0.88), and total fruit and vegetable intake (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.34-0.77). Our findings suggest that a diet rich in plant-based nutrients may be important in reducing the risk of cervical cancer.

  10. Food groups and laryngeal cancer risk: a case-control study from Italy and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Cristina; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Levi, Fabio; Dal Maso, Luigino; Franceschi, Silvia

    2002-07-20

    Besides tobacco and alcohol, diet has been thought to be associated with laryngeal cancer risk. We thus analyzed the role of various food groups, as well as specific seasoning fats, in a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy and the Swiss Canton of Vaud from 1992 to 2000. Our study included 527 incident, histologically confirmed cases and 1,297 frequency-matched controls, selected among patients admitted to the same hospitals as cases for acute, nonneoplastic conditions, unrelated to smoking, alcohol consumption and long-term modifications of diet. The subjects' usual diet was investigated through a validated food frequency questionnaire, including 78 foods and beverages. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models. After adjustment for major confounding factors, a significant trend of increasing risk was observed for eggs (OR = 1.7 for the highest compared to the lowest quintile), red meat (OR = 3.1), processed meat (OR = 1.7), fish (OR = 1.6) and sugars (OR = 1.6). Significant inverse associations were observed for pulses (OR = 0.7), raw vegetables (OR = 0.2), cooked vegetables (OR = 0.3), citrus fruit (OR = 0.6) and other fruit (OR = 0.5). In regard to seasoning fats, a significant reduction of cancer risk was observed for olive oil (OR = 0.4) and specific seed oils (OR = 0.6), while mixed seed oils were directly associated with laryngeal cancer risk (OR = 2.2). Our study suggests that increasing vegetables and fruit, decreasing meat consumption and perhaps substituting olive oil or specific seed oils for other types of seasoning lipids might help reduce laryngeal cancer risk. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. High Mobility Group A2 protects cancer cells against telomere dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Suchitra; Begum, Farhana; Gim, Jeonga; Wark, Landon; Henderson, Dana; Davie, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The non-histone chromatin binding protein High Mobility Group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) plays important roles in the repair and protection of genomic DNA in embryonic stem cells and cancer cells. Here we show that HMGA2 localizes to mammalian telomeres and enhances telomere stability in cancer cells. We present a novel interaction of HMGA2 with the key shelterin protein TRF2. We found that the linker (L1) region of HMGA2 contributes to this interaction but the ATI-L1-ATII molecular region of HMGA2 is required for strong interaction with TRF2. This interaction was independent of HMGA2 DNA-binding and did not require the TRF2 interacting partner RAP1 but involved the homodimerization and hinge regions of TRF2. HMGA2 retained TRF2 at telomeres and reduced telomere-dysfunction despite induced telomere stress. Silencing of HMGA2 resulted in (i) reduced binding of TRF2 to telomere DNA as observed by ChIP, (ii) increased telomere instability and (iii) the formation of telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIF). This resulted in increased telomere aggregation, anaphase bridges and micronuclei. HMGA2 prevented ATM-dependent pTRF2T188 phosphorylation and attenuated signaling via the telomere specific ATM-CHK2-CDC25C DNA damage signaling axis. In summary, our data demonstrate a unique and novel role of HMGA2 in telomere protection and promoting telomere stability in cancer cells. This identifies HMGA2 as a new therapeutic target for the destabilization of telomeres in HMGA2+ cancer cells. PMID:26799419

  12. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  13. Attitudes Toward Breast Cancer Genetic Testing in Five Special Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J; Muñoz, Edgar; Holden, Alan E; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Smith, Selina A; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wyatt, Stephen W; Suarez, Lucina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined interest in and attitudes toward genetic testing in 5 different population groups. The survey included African American, Asian American, Latina, Native American, and Appalachian women with varying familial histories of breast cancer. A total of 49 women were interviewed in person. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to assess ethnic group differences. Overall, interest in testing was high. All groups endorsed more benefits than risks. There were group differences regarding endorsement of specific benefits and risks: testing to "follow doctor recommendations" (p=0.017), "concern for effects on family" (p=0.044), "distrust of modern medicine" (p=0.036), "cost" (p=0.025), and "concerns about communication of results to others" (p=0.032). There was a significant inverse relationship between interest and genetic testing cost (p<0.050), with the exception of Latinas, who showed the highest level of interest regardless of increasing cost. Cost may be an important barrier to obtaining genetic testing services, and participants would benefit by genetic counseling that incorporates the unique cultural values and beliefs of each group to create an individualized, culturally competent program. Further research about attitudes toward genetic testing is needed among Asian Americans, Native Americans, and Appalachians for whom data are severely lacking. Future study of the different Latina perceptions toward genetic testing are encouraged.

  14. Meaning-centered group psychotherapy for patients with advanced cancer: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, William; Rosenfeld, Barry; Gibson, Christopher; Pessin, Hayley; Poppito, Shannon; Nelson, Christian; Tomarken, Alexis; Timm, Anne Kosinski; Berg, Amy; Jacobson, Colleen; Sorger, Brooke; Abbey, Jennifer; Olden, Megan

    2010-01-01

    An increasingly important concern for clinicians who care for patients at the end of life is their spiritual well-being and sense of meaning and purpose in life. In response to the need for short-term interventions to address spiritual well-being, we developed Meaning Centered Group Psychotherapy (MCGP) to help patients with advanced cancer sustain or enhance a sense of meaning, peace and purpose in their lives, even as they approach the end of life. Patients with advanced (stage III or IV) solid tumor cancers (N=90) were randomly assigned to either MCGP or a supportive group psychotherapy (SGP). Patients were assessed before and after completing the 8-week intervention, and again 2 months after completion. Outcome assessment included measures of spiritual well-being, meaning, hopelessness, desire for death, optimism/pessimism, anxiety, depression and overall quality of life. MCGP resulted in significantly greater improvements in spiritual well-being and a sense of meaning. Treatment gains were even more substantial (based on effect size estimates) at the second follow-up assessment. Improvements in anxiety and desire for death were also significant (and increased over time). There was no significant improvement on any of these variables for patients participating in SGP. MCGP appears to be a potentially beneficial intervention for patients' emotional and spiritual suffering at the end of life. Further research, with larger samples, is clearly needed to better understand the potential benefits of this novel intervention. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology...... trials. Despite technical improvements, expert clinical skills will continue to be one of the major determinants for the prognosis of patients with germ cell cancer. In addition, the particular needs of testicular cancer survivors have been acknowledged Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  16. Asymmetry within social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2016-01-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...

  17. Card9-dependent IL-1β regulates IL-22 production from group 3 innate lymphoid cells and promotes colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Hanna; Roth, Susanne; Pechloff, Konstanze; Kiss, Elina A; Kuhn, Sabine; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Diefenbach, Andreas; Greten, Florian R; Ruland, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are key risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms that link intestinal inflammation with carcinogenesis are insufficiently understood. Card9 is a myeloid cell-specific signaling protein that regulates inflammatory responses downstream of various pattern recognition receptors and which cooperates with the inflammasomes for IL-1β production. Because polymorphisms in Card9 were recurrently associated with human IBD, we investigated the function of Card9 in a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model. Card9 -/- mice develop smaller, less proliferative and less dysplastic tumors compared to their littermates and in the regenerating mucosa we detected dramatically impaired IL-1β generation and defective IL-1β controlled IL-22 production from group 3 innate lymphoid cells. Consistent with the key role of immune-derived IL-22 in activating STAT3 signaling during normal and pathological intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation, Card9 -/- mice also exhibit impaired tumor cell intrinsic STAT3 activation. Our results imply a Card9-controlled, ILC3-mediated mechanism regulating healthy and malignant IEC proliferation and demonstrates a role of Card9-mediated innate immunity in inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. High stathmin expression is a marker for poor clinical outcome in endometrial cancer: An NRG oncology group/gynecologic oncology group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Henry D; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Devor, Eric J; Zhang, Yuping; Thiel, Kristina W; Samuelson, Megan I; McDonald, Megan; Stephan, Jean-Marie; Hanjani, Parviz; Guntupalli, Saketh; Tewari, Krishnansu S; Backes, Floor; Ramirez, Nilsa; Fleming, Gini F; Filiaci, Virginia; Birrer, Michael J; Leslie, Kimberly K

    2017-08-01

    Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 177 demonstrated that addition of paclitaxel to a backbone of adriamycin/cisplatin improves overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. Using patient specimens from GOG-177, our objective was to identify potential mechanisms underlying the improved clinical response to taxanes. Stathmin (STMN1) is a recognized poor prognostic marker in endometrial cancer that functions as a microtubule depolymerizing protein, allowing cells to transit rapidly through mitosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that one possible mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of paclitaxel could be to counter the impact of stathmin. We analyzed the expression of stathmin by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 69 specimens from patients enrolled on GOG-177. We also determined the correlation between stathmin mRNA expression and clinical outcomes in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset for endometrial cancer. We first established that stathmin expression was significantly associated with shorter PFS and OS for all analyzed cases in both GOG-177 and TCGA. However, subgroup analysis from GOG-177 revealed that high stathmin correlated with poor PFS and OS particularly in patients who received adriamycin/cisplatin only. In contrast, there was no statistically significant association between stathmin expression and OS or PFS in patients treated with paclitaxel/adriamycin/cisplatin. Our findings demonstrate that high stathmin expression is a poor prognostic marker in endometrial cancer. Paclitaxel may help to negate the impact of stathmin overexpression when treating high risk endometrial cancer cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  20. Drug screening and grouping by sensitivity with a panel of primary cultured cancer spheroids derived from endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Yumiko; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kubota, Satoshi; Okuyama, Hiroaki; Endo, Hiroko; Ueda, Yutaka; Kimura, Toshihiro; Kimura, Tadashi; Kamiura, Shoji; Inoue, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Several molecular targeting drugs are being evaluated for endometrial cancer; selecting patients whose cancers are sensitive to these agents is of paramount importance. Previously, we developed the cancer tissue-originated spheroid method for primary cancer cells taken from patients' tumors as well as patient-derived xenografts. In this study, we successfully prepared and cultured cancer tissue-originated spheroids from endometrial cancers. Characteristics of the original tumors were well retained in cancer tissue-originated spheroids including morphology and expression of p53 or neuroendocrine markers. We screened 79 molecular targeting drugs using two cancer tissue-originated spheroid lines derived from endometrioid adenocarcinoma grade 3 and serous adenocarcinoma. Among several hits, we focused on everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor, and YM155, a survivin inhibitor. When sensitivity to everolimus or YM155 was assessed in 12 or 11 cancer tissue-originated spheroids, respectively, from different endometrial cancer patients, the sensitivity varied substantially. The cancer tissue-originated spheroids sensitive to everolimus showed remarkable suppression of proliferation. The phosphorylation status of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 downstream molecules before and after everolimus treatment did not predict the effect of the drug. In contrast, the cancer tissue-originated spheroids sensitive to YM155 showed remarkable cell death. The effect of YM155 was also confirmed in vivo. The histological type correlated with YM155 sensitivity; non-endometrioid adenocarcinomas were sensitive and endometrioid adenocarcinomas were resistant. Non-canonical autophagic cell death was the most likely cause of cell death in a sensitive cancer tissue-originated spheroid. Thus, sensitivity assays using cancer tissue-originated spheroids from endometrial cancers may be useful for screening drugs and finding biomarkers. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer