WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer control research

  1. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    is conclusive evidence that screening will decrease morality . The methods used to screen for breast cancer include Self Breast Examination, Clinical...Raciathnic Pattern of Cancer in United States. MMWR. 1991;40:754-757. the United States, 1973-1993. Rockville, Md: National Cancer 11. Escobedo LG

  2. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Gestational Diabetes , Sickle Cell Anemia in the laboratories of Jayduff Vadgama, P.D. and of Steven Taylor, M.D. at Charles Drew University of Medicine...Ethnic differences in food consumption in the U-S:Relevance to cancer prevalence . In: Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, proceedings of the Fourth Annual...life events such as sick- nessanddeah (agaw-Siger 198).ment was found-the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Wes Acculturation Scale (Suinn, Ahuman, & Khoo

  3. Quality of reporting randomized controlled trials in cancer nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia-Wen; Sward, Katherine A; Beck, Susan L; Staggers, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide high-level evidence for evidence-based practice (EBP). The quality of RCTs has a substantial influence on providing reliable knowledge for EBP. Little is known about the quality of RCT reporting in cancer nursing. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reporting in published cancer nursing RCTs from 1984 to 2010. A total of 227 RCTs in cancer nursing published in English-language journals and indexed in PubMed or Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were reviewed using the Jadad scale, key methodologic index (KMI), and the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist to assess the quality of reporting methodological aspects of research and the overall quality of reporting RCTs. Adherence to reporting metrics was relatively low, based on the Jadad score (M = 1.94 out of 5, SD = 1.01), KMI scores (M = 0.84 out of 3, SD = .87), and adherence to CONSORT checklist items (M =16.92 out of 37, SD = 4.03). Only 11 of 37 items in the CONSORT checklist were reported in 80% or more of the studies reviewed. The quality of reporting showed some improvement over time. Adherence to reporting metrics for cancer nursing RCTs was suboptimal, and further efforts are needed to improve both methodology reporting and overall reporting. Journals are encouraged to adopt the CONSORT checklist to influence the quality of RCT reports.

  4. Impact of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network: Accelerating the Translation of Research Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-03-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-05-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to the basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this article is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  7. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  8. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  9. Setting a health policy research agenda for controlling cancer burden in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-In; Cho, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Kwang-Sig; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    The aim of study was to provide suggestions for prioritizing research in effort to reduce cancer burden in Korea based on a comprehensive analysis of cancer burden and Delphi consensus among cancer experts. Twenty research plans covering 10 topics were selected based on an assessment of the literature, and e-mail surveys were analyzed using a two-round modified Delphi method. Thirty-four out of 79 experts were selected from four organizations to participate in round one, and 21 experts among them had completed round two. Each item had two questions; one regarding the agreement of the topic as a priority item to reduce cancer burden, and the other about the importance of the item on a nine-point scale. A consensus was defined to be an average lower coefficient of variation with less than 30% in importance. Seven plans that satisfied the three criteria were selected as priority research plans for reducing cancer burden. These plans are "research into advanced clinical guidelines for thyroid cancer given the current issue with over-diagnosis," "research into smoking management plans through price and non-price cigarette policy initiatives," "research into ways to measure the quality of cancer care," "research on policy development to expand hospice care," "research into the spread and management of Helicobacter pylori," "research on palliative care in a clinical setting," and "research into alternative mammography methods to increase the accuracy of breast cancer screenings." The seven plans identified in this study should be prioritized to reduce the burden of cancer in Korea. We suggest that policy makers and administrators study and invest significant effort in these plans.

  10. Research on Skin Cancer-Related Behaviors and Outcomes in the NIH Grant Portfolio, 2000-2014: Skin Cancer Intervention Across the Cancer Control Continuum (SCI-3C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank M; Dwyer, Laura A; Tesauro, Gina; Taber, Jennifer M; Norton, Wynne E; Hartman, Anne M; Geller, Alan C

    2017-05-01

    The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer broadly identified research gaps, but specific objectives are needed to further behavioral intervention research. To review National Institute of Health (NIH) grants targeting skin cancer-related behaviors and relevant outcomes. A portfolio analysis of the title, abstract, specific aims, and research plans of identified grant applications from 2000 to 2014 targeting skin cancer-related behaviors or testing behavioral intervention effects on cancer-relevant outcomes along the cancer continuum. Funding trends were compared along the cancer control continuum, with respect to investigator demographics and use of theory, technology, policy, and changes to environmental surroundings (built environment). A total of 112 submitted applications met inclusion criteria; of these, 40 (35.7%) were funded, and 31 of the 40 were interventions. Comparing the 40 funded grants with the 72 unfunded grants, the overall success rates did not differ significantly between male (33.3%) and female (37.3%) investigators, nor did the frequency of R01 awards (36.7% and 28.1%, respectively). Among intervention awards, most (24 of 31) addressed prevention. Fewer awards targeted detection alone or in conjunction with prevention (3) or cancer survivorship (4), and no grant addressed emotional sequelae or adherence behavior related to diagnosis or treatment. Fewer than half of funded grants aimed for clinically related targets (eg, sunburn reduction). Use of theory and technology occurred in more than 75% of grants. However, the full capability of proposed technology was infrequently used, and rarely did constructs of the proposed behavior change theory clearly and comprehensively drive the intervention approach. Policy or environmental manipulation was present in all dissemination grants but was rarely used elsewhere, and 19.4% included policy implementation and 25.8% proposed changes in built environment. Grant success rate in skin

  11. Directing the senses in contemporary orientations to cancer disease control. Debating symptom research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses ongoing changes in orientations to cancer disease control in the Global North, particularly health promoter attempts to identify the early cancerous body. The paper suggests that the emphasis on early diagnosis of cancer aligns ideas on a symptomatic management of the public...... with a process in which ‘what counts as cancer symptoms’ is steadily being subdivided, classified and expanded. This alignment, the paper suggests, is an example of how biomedicine potentially extends its boundaries into everyday forms of embodied, social life by changing the social and moral value placed...

  12. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  13. Community capacity for cancer control collaboration: Weaving an islander network for cancer awareness, research and training for Pacific Islanders in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Tran, Jacqueline H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Addressing cancer health disparities constitutes a national priority in this country, with funding for Pacific Islander efforts initiated seven years ago by the National Cancer Institute. In 2005, the Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training (WINCART) was launched in Southern California by a collaboration of community and university organizations to build upon past efforts to decrease cancer health disparities for Chamorros, Native Hawaiians, Marshallese, Samoans and Tongans. Methods To assess community organizational capacity to participate in collaborative cancer control for Pacific Islanders, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis was undertaken. Two staff members per community organization (CBO) performed the SWOT analyses, with grids analyzed for commonalities and differences between all organizations. Results Staff informants provided many examples of what they perceived as organizational strengths and weaknesses with regards to promoting cancer control for their respective Pacific Islander populations. CBO strengths included strong leadership and extensive community experience. Challenges included limited resources, lack of staff skills in some areas, and difficulty recruiting volunteers. In addition, many external opportunities and threats to cancer control promotion were identified. Conclusion Results from the SWOT analyses have been used to identify topics for community organizational trainings and supports within WINCART, with the goals of increasing their participation in the development and implementation of collaborative, community-university driven efforts to decrease cancer disparities for Pacific Islanders in Southern California. PMID:18359580

  14. Accomplishments in cancer research. 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortner, J.G. (Cornell Univ., New York, NY (USA). Medical Coll.); Rhoads, J.E. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). School of Medicine)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains several papers on cancer research. Some of the titles are: Controlled DNA Replication Once and Only Once Per Cell Cycle; Tumor Growth Factors; Improvement in Radiotherapy Through Innovative Dose Fractionation; The Role of Surgery in the Treatment of Cancer Metastase; Tumor Promotion; and Molecular Cloning of Protein Kinase C and the Role of PKC in Signal Transduction and Tumor Promotion.

  15. Geospatial cryptography: enabling researchers to access private, spatially referenced, human subjects data for cancer control and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Essex, Aleksander; Curtis, Andrew; Kohler, Betsy; Sherman, Recinda; Emam, Khaled El; Shi, Chen; Kaufmann, Andy; Beale, Linda; Cusick, Thomas; Goldberg, Daniel; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    As the volume, accuracy and precision of digital geographic information have increased, concerns regarding individual privacy and confidentiality have come to the forefront. Not only do these challenge a basic tenet underlying the advancement of science by posing substantial obstacles to the sharing of data to validate research results, but they are obstacles to conducting certain research projects in the first place. Geospatial cryptography involves the specification, design, implementation and application of cryptographic techniques to address privacy, confidentiality and security concerns for geographically referenced data. This article defines geospatial cryptography and demonstrates its application in cancer control and surveillance. Four use cases are considered: (1) national-level de-duplication among state or province-based cancer registries; (2) sharing of confidential data across cancer registries to support case aggregation across administrative geographies; (3) secure data linkage; and (4) cancer cluster investigation and surveillance. A secure multi-party system for geospatial cryptography is developed. Solutions under geospatial cryptography are presented and computation time is calculated. As services provided by cancer registries to the research community, de-duplication, case aggregation across administrative geographies and secure data linkage are often time-consuming and in some instances precluded by confidentiality and security concerns. Geospatial cryptography provides secure solutions that hold significant promise for addressing these concerns and for accelerating the pace of research with human subjects data residing in our nation's cancer registries. Pursuit of the research directions posed herein conceivably would lead to a geospatially encrypted geographic information system (GEGIS) designed specifically to promote the sharing and spatial analysis of confidential data. Geospatial cryptography holds substantial promise for accelerating the

  16. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  17. Multidisciplinary quality assurance and control in oncological trials: Perspectives from European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Quality assurance (QA) programmes are one of the mainstays of clinical research and constitute the pillars on which European Organisation for Research Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) delivers multidisciplinary therapeutic progress. Changing practice treatments require solid evidence-based data, which can only be achieved if integral QA is part of the infrastructure sustaining research projects. Cancer treatment is a multimodality approach, which is often applied either in sequence and/or in combination. Each modality plays a key role in cancer control. The modalities by which QA is applied varies substantially within and across the disciplines. In addition, translational and diagnostic disciplines take an increasing role in the era of precision medicine. Building on the structuring effect of clinical research with fully integrated multidisciplinary QA programmes associated with the solutions addressing the chain of custody for biological material and data integrity as well as compliance ensure at the same time validity of clinical research output but also have a training effect on health care providers, who are more likely to apply such principles as routine. The principles of QA are therefore critical to be embedded in multidisciplinary infrastructure to guarantee therapeutic progress. These principles also provide the basis for the functioning of multidisciplinary tumour board. However, technical, operational and economic challenges which go with the implementation of such programmes require optimal know-how and the coordination of the multiple expertise and such efforts are best achieved through centralised infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How to research cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... summaries on pediatric cancer treatment -- www.cancer.gov/publications/pdq/information-summaries/pediatric-treatment American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org . The American Cancer Society (ACS) ...

  19. Research Training in Biopsychosocial Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrykowski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    ...) in biopsychosocial breast cancer (BC) research. During the 5-year project period, 6 predoctoral and 2 postdoctoral trainees were appointed to the training program and received training in biopsychosocial breast cancer research...

  20. Returning to Vietnam – Building on Collaborations in Cancer Control and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Paul Pearlman presented at the 9th US-Vietnam Joint Committee Meeting on Science and Technology Cooperation, held in Ho Chi Minh City by the Ministry of Science and Technology, and at a national cancer stakeholder meeting in Hanoi, held by the Ministry of Health.

  1. Beta-blocker usage and prostate cancer survival: a nested case-control study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Coleman, Helen G; Murray, Liam J; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Powe, Des G

    2014-06-01

    Recent laboratory and epidemiological evidence suggests that beta-blockers could inhibit prostate cancer progression. We investigated the effect of beta-blockers on prostate cancer-specific mortality in a cohort of prostate cancer patients. Prostate cancer patients diagnosed between 1998 and 2006 were identified from the UK Clinical Practice Research Database and confirmed by cancer registries. Patients were followed up to 2011 with deaths identified by the Office of National Statistics. A nested case-control analysis compared patients dying from prostate cancer (cases) with up to three controls alive at the time of their death, matched by age and year of diagnosis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Post-diagnostic beta-blocker use was identified in 25% of 1184 prostate cancer-specific deaths and 26% of 3531 matched controls. There was little evidence (P=0.40) of a reduction in the risk of cancer-specific death in beta-blocker users compared with non-users (OR=0.94 95% CI 0.81, 1.09). Similar results were observed after adjustments for confounders, in analyses by beta-blocker frequency, duration, type and for all-cause mortality. Beta-blocker usage after diagnosis was not associated with cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in prostate cancer patients in this large UK study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Controlling micro- and nano-environment of tumor and stem cells for novel research and therapy of brain cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Lloyd

    The use of modern technologies in cancer research has engendered a great deal of excitement. Many of these advanced approaches involve in-depth mathematical analyses of the inner working of cells, via genomic and proteomic analyses. However these techniques may not be ideal for the study of complex cell phenotypes and behaviors. This dissertation explores cancer and potential therapies through phenotypic analysis of cell behaviors, an alternative approach. We employ this experimental framework to study brain cancer (glioma), a particularly formidable example of this diverse ailment. Through the application of micro- and nanotechnology, we carefully control the surrounding environments of cells to understand their responses to various cues and to manipulate their behaviors. Subsequently we obtain clinically relevant information that allows better understanding of glioma, and enhancement of potential therapies. We first aim to address brain tumor dispersal, through analysis of cell migration. Utilizing nanometer-scale topographic models of the extracellular matrix, we study the migratory response of glioma cells to various stimuli in vitro. Second, we implement knowledge gained from these investigations to define characteristics of tumor progression in patients, and to develop treatments inhibiting cell migration. Next we use microfluidic and nanotopographic models to study the behaviors of stem cells in vitro. Here we attempt to improve their abilities to deliver therapeutic proteins to cancer, an innovative treatment approach. We analyze the multi-step process by which adipose-derived stem cells naturally home to tumor sites, and identify numerous environmental perturbations to enhance this behavior. Finally, we attempt to demonstrate that these cell culture-based manipulations can enhance the localization of adipose stem cells to glioma in vivo using animal models. Throughout this work we utilize environmental cues to analyze and induce particular behaviors in

  3. Research Training in Biopsychosocial Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrykowski, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes activities and accomplishments during the third year of a four year training program in biopsychosocial breast cancer (BC) research. Three trainees (1 postdoctoral; 2 predoctoral...

  4. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Banglade...

  5. CNK1: A New Component in the Control of Insulin Signaling | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of insulin release after a meal to mediate blood-glucose levels is an essential step in energy regulation. An external signal activates molecular pathways within the cell to control this process.

  6. Integrated Cancer Repository for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  7. Promoting Cancer Control in Africa With "Ubuntu": A Report of the African Organization for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC) 10th Conference, 2015 in Marrakech, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbiri, Kenneth O; Williams, Christopher K; Macaluso, Marcella; Giordano, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC), includes bringing products of decades of advances in cancer research to African populations through local and international collaboration. The consistent and huge growth in participation in the conferences and the diversity of the nations is a witness to the success of the organization thus far. The theme for the Tenth AORTIC International Conference on Cancer in Africa in Morocco in 2015 was "Road map to Cancer Control in Africa" and topics of discussion of paramount importance for low- and middle-income African countries included childhood cancers such as BL, cancers of the cervix, breast, and prostate; cancers associated with HIV-infection such as cervical, vulvar, and anal; as well as cancer care challenges associated with palliative care. The role of environmental factors that underlie some epigenetic changes in some of the cancers was emphasized. Oral and poster presentations from various parts of the continent indicate the growth of basic and translational science of cancer in the region, with studies revealing regional diversity in the frequencies of the triple-negative breast cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, HCC, and Burkitt's lymphoma. There was a sign that Africa is trying to keep pace with the paradigm shift and focusing on translational medicine. This was shown by suggestions for application of genome-wide association studies, new generation sequencing, as well as the evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be responsible for variable susceptibility in some of the prevalent cancers in people of African descent. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2287-2295, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  9. To Be or Not to Be: Controlling Cellular Suicide | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a cell is damaged and can no longer function properly, a complex series of molecular steps is triggered that allows it to die in a controlled manner. This cellular suicide is called programmed cell death, or apoptosis.

  10. Mouse models for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Moore, Lynette; Ji, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to learn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Journal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an ove...

  11. Why I Do Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Cancer Research Day is recognized on September 24, 2017. This day presents an opportunity for all of us to remind the world of the critically important roles research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer. Together with ten other global partners, NCI participated in the planning and launch of this initiative, highlighting the amplified impact of international cooperation in the clinical research arena.

  12. Beta-blocker usage and breast cancer survival: a nested case-control study within a UK clinical practice research datalink cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Coleman, Helen G; Murray, Liam J; Entschladen, Frank; Powe, Des G

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the association between post-diagnostic beta-blocker usage and risk of cancer-specific mortality in a large population-based cohort of female breast cancer patients. A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of breast cancer patients identified from cancer registries in England(using the National Cancer Data repository) and diagnosed between 1998 and 2007. Patients who had a breast cancer-specific death(ascertained from Office of National Statistics death registration data) were each matched to four alive controls by year and age at diagnosis. Prescription data for these patients were available through the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Conditional logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between breast cancer-specific death and beta-blocker usage. Post-diagnostic use of beta-blockers was identified in 18.9% of 1435 breast cancer-specific deaths and 19.4% of their 5697 matched controls,indicating little evidence of association between beta-blocker use and breast cancer-specific mortality [odds ratio (OR) = 0.97,95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83, 1.13]. There was also little evidence of an association when analyses were restricted to cardio non-selective beta-blockers (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.69, 1.17). Similar results were observed in analyses of drug dosage frequency and duration, and beta-blocker type. In this large UK population-based cohort of breast cancer patients,there was little evidence of an association between post-diagnostic beta-blocker usage and breast cancer progression. Further studies which include information on tumour receptor status are warranted to determine whether response to beta-blockers varies by tumour subtypes.

  13. Basic research in kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, E.; Rathmell, W.K.; Junker, K.; Brannon, A.R.; Pouliot, F.; Finley, D.S.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kirkali, Z.; Uemura, H.; Belldegrun, A.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Advances in basic research will enhance prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To discuss advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cancer, targeted therapies, renal cancer and immunity, and genetic factors and renal cell carcinoma

  14. Research Training in Biopsychosocial Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrykowski, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes activities and accomplishments during the second year of a 4 year training program in biopsychosocial breast cancer research. Three new trainees: (1) postdoctoral; and (2) predoctoral...

  15. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...... systematically. The study is based on data from a self-administered baseline questionnaire filled in by 2 174 cancer survivors who registered for a 1-week, publicly paid rehabilitation retreat and were invited to participate in the FOCARE study in the period 25 November 2002 to 31 December 2005. The response...... experience considerably reduced physical health, possibly as late physical effects of treatment. The problems reported by the cancer survivors suggest that cancer rehabilitation should include these aspects of living after cancer and take account of differences among cancer survivors with regard to cancer...

  16. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ...

  17. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  18. Qualitative Research for Tobacco Control: A How-to Introductory ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative ...

  19. Regional Tobacco Control Research Initiative (Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative.

  20. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... successful regression of advanced melanoma. Read More "Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk ...

  1. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and head and neck cancers risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Francesca; Polesel, Jerry; Garavello, Werner; Serraino, Diego; Negri, Eva; Franchin, Gianni; La Vecchia, Carlo; Bosetti, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) have proposed eight recommendations for cancer prevention, related to body fatness, diet, and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the role of adherence to these recommendations on head and neck cancers risk. We obtained an overall score including seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, and examined its relationship with head and neck cancers risk in two Italian case-control studies including 946 patients with oral cavity and pharyngeal (OCP) cancer and 2492 controls, and 689 patients with laryngeal cancer and 1605 controls. Higher adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated to a reduced risk of OCP cancer (odds ratio, OR=0.45, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.33-0.62 for a score of 4-laryngeal cancer were 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92) for a score of 3-cancer prevention is associated with a substantially decreased risk of head and neck cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Building cancer control capacity: a mixed-method evaluation of the Research to Reality (R2R) Mentorship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Michael; Purcell, E Peyton; Michie, Joan S; Tsakraklides, Sophia P; La Porta, Madeline; Vinson, Cynthia

    2014-02-20

    In 2011, the National Cancer Institute launched the Research to Reality (R2R) Pilot Mentorship Program to enhance mentees' core evidence-based public health (EBPH) competencies. In this article, we describe the program and its evaluation results and the program's ability to improve participants' EBPH competencies and appropriateness of program components. Program evaluation consisted of a pre/post program competency questionnaire and interviews with mentees, mentors, mentees' supervisors, and program staff. Mentees reported the same or higher rating in every competency at end of the program, with average increase of 0.6 points on a 4-point scale; the greatest improvements were seen in policy development/program planning. Mentorship programs are a promising strategy to develop EBPH competencies, provide guidance, and disseminate and adapt evidence-based interventions within real-world context.

  3. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release about the launch of the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) study, which will look at factors affecting cancer progression, recurrence, mortality, and quality of life among African-American cancer survivors.

  4. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakitas, Marie; Ahles, Tim A

    2006-01-01

    ... on the Cognitive Effects of Chemotherapy. The scope of the program was to support the trainee's doctoral education with an ultimate career goal of becoming a Clinical Breast Cancer Research Scientist through a mentored research experience. Ms...

  5. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakitas, Marie; Ahles, Tim A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this traineeship is to develop the academic and research skills of an expert advanced practice nurse towards achieving the career goal of becoming a Clinical Breast Cancer Research Scientist...

  6. Basic Research and Progress against Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against cancer. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of crizotinib (Xalkori®) to treat certain non-small cell lung cancers.

  7. Media | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is committed to providing the media with timely and accurate information.  This section offers key resources for patients, cancer researchers, physicians, and media professionals.

  8. A feasibility study related to inactive cancer survivors compared with non-cancer controls during aerobic exercise training.(Research article)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sprod, Lisa K; Klika, Riggs J; Carter, Susan D; Drum, Scott N; Donath, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors (CA) tend to demonstrate metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory alterations due to previous chemotherapy and radiation that may impair adaptability following aerobic exercise training...

  9. Genetically Engineered Mouse Models in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Jessica C.; Hawes, Jessica J.; Van Dyke, Terry; Reilly, Karlyne M.

    2012-01-01

    Mouse models of human cancer have played a vital role in understanding tumorigenesis and answering experimental questions that other systems cannot address. Advances continue to be made that allow better understanding of the mechanisms of tumor development, and therefore the identification of better therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. We review major advances that have been made in modeling cancer in the mouse and specific areas of research that have been explored with mouse models. For example, although there are differences between mice and humans, new models are able to more accurately model sporadic human cancers by specifically controlling timing and location of mutations, even within single cells. As hypotheses are developed in human and cell culture systems, engineered mice provide the most tractable and accurate test of their validity in vivo. For example, largely through the use of these models, the microenvironment has been established to play a critical role in tumorigenesis, since tumor development and the interaction with surrounding stroma can be studied as both evolve. These mouse models have specifically fueled our understanding of cancer initiation, immune system roles, tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, and the relevance of molecular diversity observed among human cancers. Currently, these models are being designed to facilitate in vivo imaging to track both primary and metastatic tumor development from much earlier stages than previously possible. Finally, the approaches developed in this field to achieve basic understanding are emerging as effective tools to guide much needed development of treatment strategies, diagnostic strategies, and patient stratification strategies in clinical research. PMID:20399958

  10. Evidence-Based Cancer Survivorship Activities for Comprehensive Cancer Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J Michael; Lakhani, Naheed; Finifrock, DeAnna; Pinkerton, Beth; Johnson, Krystal L; Mallory, Sharon H; Migliore Santiago, Patricia; Stewart, Sherri L

    2015-12-01

    One of six priorities of CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is to address the needs of cancer survivors within the local population served by individually funded states, tribes, and territories. This report examines cancer survivorship activities implemented in five NCCCP grantees, which have initiated evidence-based activities outlined in A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship: Advancing Public Health Strategies (NAP). NCCCP action plans, submitted annually to CDC, from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed in February 2015 to assess implementation of cancer survivorship activities and recommended strategies consistent with the NAP. Four state-level and one tribal grantee with specific activities related to one of each of the four NAP strategies were chosen for inclusion. Brief case reports describing the initiation and impact of implemented activities were developed in collaboration with each grantee program director. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa programs each implemented activities in surveillance and applied research; communication, education, and training; programs, policies, and infrastructure; and access to quality care and services. This report provides examples for incorporating cancer survivorship activities within Comprehensive Cancer Control programs of various sizes, demographic makeup, and resource capacity. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band developed creative cancer survivorship activities that meet CDC recommendations. NCCCP grantees can follow these examples by implementing evidence-based survivorship interventions that meet the needs of their specific populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    placebo in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Pain, 116(1-2), 109-118. Gralla, R., Casper, E., Kelsen , D., Braun, D., Dukeman, M., Martini, N., et al...etoposide, and cisplatin in extensive stage small cell lung cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 5, 3419-3424. Kelsen , D., Gralla, R., Stoopler, M., Casper, E

  12. Bringing global cancer leaders together at the 4th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research held in April 2016 was developed with a special focus on innovative and low-cost technologies in global cancer control, and brought inspiring keynote speakers such as John Seffrin, Former CEO of the American Cancer Society, and Tom Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

  13. UK Groups Plan Cancer Research Hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Janet

    2016-04-01

    Two major cancer research groups in the UK have announced plans to create a global cancer center aimed at accelerating drug development and fostering collaboration with industry. The $1.5 billion campus is expected to house 10,000 scientists and clinicians and deliver two additional drug candidates, an increase of 40%, every 5 years. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. Shows the milestones that led to development and approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin®) to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  15. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  16. Signaling, Gene Regulation and Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there have been tremendous progress in cancer research and treatment, the mortality caused by this disease is still very high. Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and second leading cause of death in the United States of America. Signaling, Gene Regulation and Cancer covers topics including the role of various signaling pathways in development, regulation of cell fate, tumor angiogenesis, duodenal neoplasias, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer, cancer development and progression, microRNA in cancer and epigenetic regulation of cancer.

  17. Quality, interpretation and presentation of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire core 30 data in randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Kim; King, Madeleine T; Velikova, Galina; Fayers, Peter M; Brown, Julia M

    2008-09-01

    To review reporting standard, presentation and interpretation for quality of life (QOL) outcomes in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Cancer RCTs reporting EORTC QLQ-C30 data were identified and reviewed against a reporting quality checklist. Interpretation/presentation methods for QOL data were also recorded. Eighty-two papers were reviewed. Seventy percent met criteria for high quality reporting; 94% reported mean scores; 84% presented results in tables/graphs; 80% reported p-values or statistical significance. Clinical significance was addressed in 38%. Where clinical significance was not addressed, reliance was usually on statistical significance to interpret the results. EORTC QLQ-C30 results are generally reported well, although it was common to rely on statistical significance alone for interpreting results. Whilst interpretation in terms of clinical significance has improved in recent years, there is still a lack of robust clinical interpretation of QOL results even in papers reported to a high standard.

  18. Quantitative Review of Oral Cancer Research Output from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib; Muller, Steffen; Ahmed, Shahzad; Tonnies, Justus; Nadir, Faryal; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer among men and second only to breast cancer among women in Pakistan. For the effective control and prevention of oral cancer, Pakistan needs to recognize the importance of research and generation of the evidence-base which can inform policy making and planning and implementation of intervention programs. The objective of this review was to quantify oral cancer research output in Pakistan. A systematic electronic search in "Medline", "ISI-Web of Science" and "Pakmedinet", supplemented by a Google search, was carried out in January and February, 2014, to identify literature from Pakistan relevant to oral cancer. The selection of publications for the review was carried out according to preset criteria. Data were recorded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. A total of 166 publications comprising 62 case series, 36 cross sectional, 31 case control, 10 basic laboratory research, eleven reviews and two trials, were included in this review. Some 35 % of the publications focused on risk factors for oral cancer. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology was the institution with the highest contribution. There is a lack of research in the field of oral cancer research in Pakistan. Focused efforts should be put in place to improve both quality and quantity of oral cancer research in the country.

  19. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we...... will breakdown the process of cancer progression and the various roles that LOX plays has in the advancement of cancer. We will highlight why LOX is an exciting therapeutic target for the future....

  20. Alpe d'HuZes Cancer Rehabilitation (A-CaRe) Research: Four Randomized Controlled Exercise Trials and Economic Evaluations in Cancer Patients and Survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Buffart, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Schep, G.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies showed that exercise in cancer patients is feasible and may reduce fatigue and improve physical fitness and quality of life. However, many previous studies had methodological weaknesses related to trial design, sample size, comparison group, outcome measures, short

  1. Alpe d'HuZes Cancer Rehabilitation (A-CaRe) Research: Four Randomized Controlled Exercise Trials and Economic Evaluations in Cancer Patients and Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Buffart, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Schep, G.; Aaronson, N.K.; van Harten, W.H.; Stuiver, M.M.; Kersten, M.J.; Nollet, F.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.; Huisman, J.; Takken, T.; van Tulder, M.W.; Brug, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that exercise in cancer patients is feasible and may reduce fatigue and improve physical fitness and quality of life. However, many previous studies had methodological weaknesses related to trial design, sample size, comparison group, outcome measures, short

  2. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  3. Aquatic plant control research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ghio, E.G. [Pacific Gas & Electric Company, San Francisco, CA (United States). Hydro Generation Engineering

    1997-05-01

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

  4. Control of HIV Through a Cell Surface Protein, HLA-C, and Its Complicated Regulation | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological systems are complex. In many cases, the actions of various components are intertwined, and the effects of manipulating one component may actually be driven by that molecule’s relationship with a different component. Deciphering this kind of regulation is important for identifying the best therapeutic targets. An example of such complexity can be seen in the control of HIV/AIDS.

  5. Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused on the design, generation, characterization and application of genetically engineered and biological animal models of human disease, which are aimed at the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. LASP contributes to advancing human health, developing new treatments, and improving existing treatments for cancer and other diseases while ensuring safe and humane treatment of animals. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The successful candidate for this Scientist I appointment will contribute to scientific, methodological, operational, and logistical oversight of multiple projects that vary in complexity, scope of objectives, number and breadth of participating collaborator organizations, as well as anticipated requirements of budgetary, labor, animal and other resources. This employee will be instrumental in identifying the need, ensuring timely availability, documentation compliance, and assisting in coordinating project efforts with other scientific core facilities, such as the Small Animal Imaging Program, Histopathology Laboratory, and high-throughput genotyping and animal diagnostic facilities, etc. In addition, the Scientist I position is anticipated to initiate, promote, and facilitate project scientific communications among members of Center for Advanced Preclinical Research (CAPR) Preclinical Technology and Optimization (PTO) team at all levels, including periodic scientific data exchanges, interim project status updates, key final deliverables such as project reports, publications, press-releases, and meeting presentations. This employee will also provide support to the PTO team

  6. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN. Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major

  7. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  8. Ethics of Cancer Gene Transfer Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Translation of cancer gene transfer confronts many familiar-and some distinctive-ethical challenges. In what follows, I survey three major ethical dimensions of cancer gene transfer development. Subheading 1 centers on the ethics of planning, designing, and reporting animal studies. Subheading 2 describes basic elements of human subjects protection as pertaining to cancer gene transfer. In Subheading 3, I describe how cancer gene transfer researchers have obligations to downstream consumers of the evidence they produce.

  9. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    test the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in treating superficial bladder cancer. The BCG treatment, in which BCG bacilli are inserted directly into a patient’s bladder via a catheter, proved to be an effective form of immunotherapy and the groundbreaking technique is still used today. In general, studies on immunotherapy have presented researchers with two important conclusions: First and foremost, researchers were finally able to prove that the immune system is indeed capable of recognizing cancer cells as a ‘foreign entity’ although they originate from the body’s own tissues. Secondly, by boosting the immune response, researchers are able to enhance other cancer-killing agents at the same time, thus increasing the chances of a successful treatment via immunotherapy. Based on these conclusions, researchers all over the world now face the challenge of figuring out which therapy works best for a specific type of cancer and why some cancer patients respond better than others to the prescribed treatments.At the ESMO Asia 2016 congress, lead author Dr. Makoto Tahara presented his paper ‘Asian head and neck cancer patients live longer with immunotherapy than mixed race group’, in which his team of researchers reported the sub-analysis results on the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in 26 patients (of Asian Pacific origin who received a fixed dose of the humanized antibody for 24 months until the detection of disease progression or adverse events. They observed that both the median overall survival and the disease control rate were better in Asians than the overall population, i.e. 11.5 versus 8.4 months and 50.5% versus 37.9%, respectively.According to Dr. Tahara, “The fixed dose of pembrolizumab was well-tolerated in Asian Pacific patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Although the Asian population was small, our findings suggest that they have better median overall survival with pembrolizumab than

  10. Fighting liver cancer with combination immunotherapies | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new clinical trial testing the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment combinations against liver cancer is enrolling patients at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Individually, immunotherapy drugs harness the power of the human immune system to better identify and kill cancer cells. Now, researchers at the NIH’s Center for Cancer Research have begun to find evidence that the drugs may work far more effectively when taken in combination with other therapies and with each other than when taken alone.

  11. Three Cancer Researchers Win CZ Biohub Prizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Three cancer researchers are among the first of 47 investigators to receive 5 years of funding through the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub. The financial awards, granted to scientists at the Biohub's three member institutions, will support early stage, high-risk foundational work at the intersection of biology and engineering. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will be presented. Clinical and postdoctoral fellows who want to learn about new biotechnology advances are encouraged to attend this course.

  13. Regulatory Submission Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides administrative support to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), Protocol Support Office (PSO). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Performs regulatory submission/administrative duties for the Protocol Support Office, NCI/CCR Assists with the preparation of documents to include protocols, investigator brochures, consent forms, and submissions to the FDA Maintains revision logs and tracking versions of the documents Provides accurate filing of pertinent regulatory documents Provides administrative support related to document control requirements including filing of master documents, formatting and typing of various document Attends regulatory and administrative meetings for taking and typing of minutes, reports and summaries Communicates with clinical, administrative and management personnel to gather or convey information Edits and prepares material for final review Participates in planning functions Works in conjunction with other administrative staff to accomplish program requirements Acts as liaison coordinating tasks/deadlines between the Clinical Research ARC and the Branch This position is located in Rockville, Maryland.

  14. Consumer involvement in cancer research: example from a Cancer Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mubashir; Pyne, Sarah; Thornton, Nigel; Palmer, Susan; Sharma, Ricky A

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of consumers and the general public in improving cancer services is an important component of health services. However, consumer involvement in cancer research is relatively unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore different ways of involving consumers in cancer research in one regional network. Thames Valley Cancer Network Consumer Research Partnership (CRP) group was formed in 2009. The group consists of consumers and professionals to help in promoting consumer involvement in Cancer Research in the Thames Valley. This study evaluated the project of consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley from March 2010 to March 2011. We used different indices to judge the level of consumer involvement: number of projects involving consumers through the group, types of projects, level of involvement (ranged from consultation on research documents to collaborating in preparing grant applications) and the methods of involving consumers in cancer research. Fifteen projects were submitted to the CRP group during the 12-month period studied. Of these, eight projects were clinical trials, three were qualitative research projects, two were patients' surveys and two were non-randomized interventional studies. Seven projects requested consumer involvement on patient information sheets for clinical trials. Of these seven applications, three also requested consumers' help in designing research questionnaires and another three requested that consumers should be involved in their project management group. In addition, four projects involved consumers in the proposal development phase and another four projects asked for advice on how to increase trial recruitment, conduct patient interviews or help with grant applications. The creation of the CRP and this audit of its activity have documented consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley. We have clearly shown that consumers can be involved in designing and managing cancer

  15. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  16. Pancreatic cancer: Current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Marco; Kim, Minkyoung; Casari, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Despite the survival rate advancements in different types of cancer in the last 40 years, the perspective for pancreatic cancer patients has seen no substantial changes. Indeed, the five year survival rate remains around 5%. Nevertheless, in the last decade we have witnessed an increased interest in pancreatic cancer biology and this has produced a substantial increment in our knowledge on pancreatic cancer progression. The big challenge is now to translate this knowledge in better outcomes for patients. The aim of this review is to describe the latest discoveries and advancements in pancreatic cancer research and to discuss future directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    degradable particle technology, CpG oligonucleotides and heat shock proteins for generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...oligonucleotides and heat shock proteins for generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr. Salem’s laboratory also

  18. Protein Production Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives. The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR). The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and genetics. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Protein Expression Laboratory (PEL) provides support to the NCI Center for Cancer Research (CCR) by producing high quality protein reagents for a variety of research and development purposes. The PEL creates expression constructs, expresses the encoded recombinant proteins in multiple expression systems, and purifies the recombinant proteins for use in downstream applications. The Protein Production Associate will: Carry out experiments, under the review of a scientist, in the areas of prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein production. Carry out E. coli expression work. Carry out insect cell and mammalian cell culture. Perform microscale protein purification scouting. Perform large-scale purification using FPLC technology. Carry out QC on proteins to ensure high quality reagent production.. Provide timely updates of project progress to supervisor and other staff in both informal and formal reports. Maintain detailed records of all laboratory processes and procedures for quality assurance purposes.

  19. Policy challenges for cancer research: a call to arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R

    2007-01-01

    Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion [2]). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in

  20. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    by the RCMI grant 2Gl2RR003062-22. S60 STRESS AND APOPTOTIC PROTEINS EXPRESSION IN ARSENIC TRIOXIDE-TREATED BREAST AND LUNG CANCER CELLS, Alice M...Robert Boissy Analysis 10:30 Vimla Band Breast Cancer 9:00 Arrival at Morrison Virology Building 9:15 Jack Morris- Welcome and outline of today’s...cycle progression through G 1. This interaction has been shown to regulate proliferation in human skin, neuronal (neural) and breast cancer cells

  1. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0178 TITLE: Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David M. Lubaroff, PhD CONTRACTING...Prostate Cancer Research Training Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0178 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David M...Distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The HBCU Summer Research Training Program accepted a total of 8 students from Lincoln

  2. Surge in Philanthropy Fuels Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Philanthropy could lead to faster cures by funding riskier research-projects more likely to fail but with potentially high impact-and promoting better teamwork among researchers. However, researchers and fundraisers say that it should augment, not replace, government funding. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Cancer Genetics and Signaling | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer, Genetics, and Signaling (CGS) Group at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick  offers a competitive postdoctoral training and mentoring program focusing on molecular and genetic aspects of cancer. The CGS Fellows Program is designed to attract and train exceptional postdoctoral fellows interested in pursuing independent research career tracks. CGS Fellows participate in a structured mentoring program designed for scientific and career development and transition to independent positions.

  4. NCI Cancer Research Data Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic explaining NCI’s present and future efforts to promote a culture of sharing data—clinical, genomic, proteomic, imaging, patient histories, and outcomes data—among stakeholders to impact cancer care.

  5. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flaxseed Alkaline diets Supplements Asparagus Claims Vegetarian and vegan Sugar and other topics in the news Resources ... Coconut Topping Holiday Portion Quiz How the new nutrition facts label can help you lower cancer risk. ...

  6. Planning for cancer control programs: Leadership considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John; Sutcliffe, Simon B

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a significant challenge globally. Reducing the impact of cancer requires a program and plans that address the main aspects of cancer from prevention through to end-of-life care. This article summarizes the requirements of a robust cancer control program and outlines the contextual and leadership considerations that are required to ensure that the planning and implementation of a control program can achieve improved cancer outcomes.

  7. Advanced Control and Autonomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Lombaerts, Thomas; Swei, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This presentation is given at a NASA DLR (German Aerospace Center) meeting at NASA ARC on March 14, 2017. The presentation provides an overview of the Advanced Control and Evolvable Systems (ACES) group at NASA ARC and the research areas in UAS autonomy, stall recovery guidance, and flexible aircraft flight control.

  8. Research Trends for PID Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Visioli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the most significant issues that have been recently been addressed by researchers in the field of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID controllers. In particular, the most recent techniques proposed for tuning and designing PID-based control structures are briefly reviewed, together with methods for assessing their performance. Finally, fractional-order and event-based PID controllers are presented among the most significant developments in the field.

  9. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung-Hun

    2014-07-01

    In 2013, 10 topics were selected for major clinical research advances in gynecologic oncology; these included three topics regarding cervical cancer, three regarding ovarian cancer, two regarding endometrial cancer, and one each regarding breast cancer and radiation oncology. For cervical cancer, bevacizumab was first demonstrated to exhibit outstanding clinical efficacy in a recurrent, metastatic setting. Regarding cervical cancer screening, visual inspections with acetic acid in low-resource settings, p16/Ki-67 double staining, and the follow-up results of four randomized controlled trials of human papillomavirus-based screening methods were reviewed. Laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy before chemoradiation for locally advanced cervical cancer was the final topic for cervical cancer. Regarding front-line ovarian cancer therapies, dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and other targeted agents administered according to combination or maintenance schedules were discussed. Regarding recurrent ovarian cancer treatment, cediranib, olaparib, and farletuzumab were discussed for platinum-sensitive disease. The final overall survival data associated with a combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy for platinum-resistant disease were briefly summarized. For endometrial cancer, the potential clinical efficacy of metformin, an antidiabetic drug, in obese patients was followed by integrated genomic analyses from the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. For breast cancer, three remarkable advances were reviewed: the long-term effects of continued adjuvant tamoxifen for 10 years, the effects of 2-year versus 1-year adjuvant trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive disease, and the approval of pertuzumab in a neoadjuvant setting with a pathologic complete response as the surrogate endpoint. Finally, the recent large studies of intensity-modulated radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer were briefly summarized.

  10. The HPV Vaccine | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two researchers leveraged CCR’s unique environment of investigator-driven inquiry to pursue studies of two cancer-causing genes that eventually led to the development of a vaccine against two forms of human papillomavirus.

  11. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  12. Completed | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the current Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), previously funded initiatives associated with clinical proteomics research included: Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC 2.0) Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer Initiative (CPTC) Mouse Proteomic Technologies Initiative

  13. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  14. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    S.A. (2008). Androgen-independent prostate cancer cells acquire the complete steroidogenic potential of synthesizing testosterone from cholesterol...Prostate  Cancer Metastasis J. Mott  UNMC  MicroRNA in growth regulation and  therapy  E. Rogan UNMC Metabolism  of Dietary and  Environmental Chemicals...nitrocellulose membrane. β‐actin is used for normalization of  samples  • Quantitative  real‐time PCR analysis of alcohol  metabolizing  enzymes:  mRNAs of

  15. Breast and cervical cancer control among Pacific Islander and Southeast Asian Women: participatory action research strategies for baseline data collection in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Park Tanjasiri, Sora; Lee, Susan W; Foo, Mary Anne; Ngoc Nguyen, Tu-Uyen; Tran, Jacqueline H; Valdez, Annalyn

    2006-01-01

    No data exists on the breast and cervical cancer screening practices among Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, and Tongan women. In this article, we describe the efforts required to conduct a baseline survey among these non-English-speaking women using the participatory action research (PAR) approach. We tailored small population sampling techniques to each of the populations in partnership with Community Health Outreach workers. A total of 1825 surveys were successfully conducted in 8 communities. PAR and the culturally based techniques used to conduct the survey proved successful in maintaining scientific rigor, developing true community-researcher partnership, and achieving over 99% participation.

  16. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Bravi, Francesca; Di Maso, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Dalmartello, Michela; Giacosa, Attilio; Montella, Maurizio; Tavani, Alessandra; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released in 2007 eight recommendations for cancer prevention on body fatness, diet and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the relation between adherence to these recommendations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We pooled data from two Italian case-control studies including overall 2419 patients with CRC and 4723 controls. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines was summarised through a score incorporating seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, with higher scores indicating higher adherence to the guidelines. Odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal cancer were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk (OR 0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.80 for a score ≥5 versus cancer (OR 0.67). Inverse associations were observed with the diet-specific WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.61-0.84 for ≥3.5 versus <2.5 points) and with specific recommendations on body fatness (OR 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.97), physical activity (OR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), foods and drinks that promote weight gain (OR 0.70, 95% CI, 0.56-0.89), foods of plant origin (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.76), limiting alcohol (OR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and salt intake (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). Our study indicated that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations is inversely related to CRC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: historical perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed, S I; Williams, C K; Ndom, P; Holland, J F

    2012-01-01

    The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (aortic) is a bilingual (English and French) nonprofit organization dedicated to the promotion of cancer control and palliation in Africa...

  18. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  19. Does Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and β-Blocker Use Reduce the Risk of Primary Liver Cancer? A Case-Control Study Using the U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; McGlynn, Katherine A; Jick, Susan S

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that use of the antihypertensive drugs angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and β-blockers may decrease the risk of primary liver cancer; thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether use of ACE inhibitors and/or β-blockers is associated with a lower risk of liver cancer. Nested case-control study. United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified 490 cases with hypertension and a first-time (incident) diagnosis of primary liver cancer between 1988 and 2011. To account for an induction period, the index date was defined as the date of the first recorded liver cancer diagnosis minus 1 year. Controls were selected from patients with hypertension in the CPRD during the study period with a recorded diagnosis of hypertension who had no diagnosis of liver cancer and were free of any other cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) before the index date; they were matched up to a 4:1 ratio to cases based on index date (same index date as that of their matched case), age (same year of birth), sex, general practice, and number of years of recorded history in the CPRD before the index date (1909 controls). Both cases and controls were required to have at least 2 years of recorded activity in the database before the index date. Exposure was defined as receipt of two or more prescriptions for ACE inhibitors and/or β-blockers before the index date; the reference group was nonuse (0-1 prescription) of ACE or β-blocker prescriptions before the index date. We also examined the effect of duration of use and, separately, the effect of individual drugs within each medication class on risk of liver cancer, and conducted analyses restricted to patients without liver disease or diabetes mellitus. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). No association was found between use of ACE inhibitors and/or β-blockers and the risk of liver cancer compared

  20. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

  1. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  2. EDITORIAL CERVICAL CANCER CAN BE CONTROLLED Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palliative care of invasive cancer(9). But it must also be accepted that even these modest comparisons will mean little to countries where per capita annual expenditure on health is less than five US dollars. This is a realisation that has spurred the search for alternative approaches to cervical cancer screening.

  3. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  4. Breast Cancer Research Training Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    results, but have been less extensive. Breast cancer, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among women, has also been shown to be susceptible to...numbers were determined for each of the groups. Two experiments were performed using identical protocols except the dose of DMBA which was 25 mg/kg ( Expt #1...or 15 mg/kg ( Expt #2). Rats were given 1.25% or 2.5% tea extract. There was no statistically significant effect of black tea on mammary tumor

  5. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  6. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  7. Cancer research priorities and gaps in Iran: the influence of cancer burden on cancer research outputs between 1997 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, A; Salimzadeh, H; Beiki, O; Delavari, F; Majidi, S; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2017-03-01

    As a developing country, Iran is experiencing the increasing burden of cancers, which are currently the third leading cause of mortality in Iran. This study aims to demonstrate that cancer research in Iran concentrates on the cancer research priorities based on the global burden of disease (GBD) reports. Descriptive evaluation of all cancers disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was performed using GBD data. Also a comprehensive search was conducted using cancer-associated keywords to obtain all cancer-related publications from Iran, indexed in Web of Science. Multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients (R2) were used to evaluate the possible associations between cancer research publications and GBD. During 1996-2014, the majority of cancer-related publications in Iran focused on breast cancer, leukaemia and stomach cancer, respectively. This study found hypothetical correlations between cancer publications in Iran in line with the burden of cancer as reported by GBD. Particularly, correlations between years lived with disability (YLD) and cancer-related publications were more obvious. This study introduces a new outline in setting cancer research priorities in the region. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Community-engaged research: cancer survivors as community researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Sanders, Kimberly D

    2014-07-01

    The personal rewards and challenges experienced by community researchers are not well explored. Training laypersons to be engaged in some or all aspects of community-engaged research is becoming more common, highlighting the need to understand the challenges associated with this role. The complexities of this role are magnified when the layperson has multiple identities of overlap with the research participant. In this brief report, we explore the rewards and challenges reported by 8 cancer survivors and 2 cancer caregivers who conducted interviews with 32 other survivors, caregivers, and health care professionals. We report specifically on data from their exit interviews regarding the experience of being a community researcher conducting research on a subject matter that was very personal. Overall, being a community researcher was a rewarding experience that allowed them to reflect critically on their own personal path and cancer experiences. Importantly, this role provided them with insights into cancer and other disparities in their community beyond their own situation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A postdoctoral position is available in the lab of Dr. Steven A. Feldman, Surgery Branch of the National Cancer Institute for a highly-motivated individual to carry out translational research studies aimed at developing and improving novel adoptive T cell therapies for solid cancers. A major focus of the position will utilize gene editing strategies (ZFN and Crispr) to enhance T cell function and/or re-direct T cells by TCR insertion for development of novel personalized cancer therapies based on identifying and targeting immunogenic mutations expressed by a patient’s tumor. 

  10. Cancer in Africa: opportunities for collaborative research and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, C A; Akarolo-Anthony, S

    2009-06-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem causing increasing morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Underlying trends are changing the pattern of cancer and this is also being influenced by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Even though the pattern of cancer varies across Africa, there are identifiable trends. Breast and cervical cancers, and Kaposi sarcoma are the commonest cancers in women, while Kaposi sarcoma, liver and prostate cancers are the commonest in men. Cancer causes more morbidity and mortality in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Infections account for a disproportionate amount of cancers in Africa. The HIV epidemic is contributing to increased prevalence of many cancers particularly those associated with Herpes and Papilloma viruses. Tobacco use, another major carcinogen, is increasing, particularly among the young. Dietary factors, alcohol use, physical inactivity and environmental pollution are also important aetiological factors of cancer in Africa. In developing countries, poverty, limited government health budget and poor health care systems complicate cancer prevention, treatment and outcomes. Coordinated response by international agencies and NGOs is needed to help developing countries and several successful models exist. More action is also needed on ensuring safety and quality of chemotherapy and the price needs to be reduced. Responses advocated for cancer control in Africa include banning tobacco use, better regulation of alcohol sale, better environmental planning and immunization against cancer associated viruses. Training of health care workers to diagnose cancer and treat it effectively within limited budgets is needed. Research to develop these new treatments and others, particularly from natural products is urgently needed and this can be done safely within established health research ethics regulatory frameworks. Several opportunities for collaborative research and

  11. The women in steady exercise research (WISER) survivor trial: The innovative transdisciplinary design of a randomized controlled trial of exercise and weight-loss interventions among breast cancer survivors with lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkels, Renate M; Sturgeon, Kathleen M; Kallan, Michael J; Dean, Lorraine T; Zhang, Zi; Evangelisti, Margaret; Brown, Justin C; Sarwer, David B; Troxel, Andrea B; Denlinger, Crystal; Laudermilk, Monica; Fornash, Anna; DeMichele, Angela; Chodosh, Lewis A; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-10-01

    Breast cancer survivors face dual challenges: long term sequelae of treatment, and risk of recurrent disease. Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle complicate both challenges. The WISER Survivor trial assessed the effects of exercise and/or weight-loss on lymphedema, biomarkers of breast cancer recurrence, and quality of life. We report on the innovative transdisciplinary design of this trial and report attrition rates. This one year trial randomized breast cancer survivors who had a BMI of ≥25kg/m 2 , were sedentary and had breast-cancer-related-lymphedema to 1) exercise (weight training and aerobic exercise) 2) weight-loss 3) exercise and weight-loss 4) or control group. Innovative aspects included: adaptation of a community-based weight training program to a largely home-based program; use of a commercial meal replacement system as part of the lifestyle modification weight-loss program; inclusion of measures of cost-effectiveness to enable economic evaluations; and alignment with a parallel mouse model for breast cancer recurrence to enable transdisciplinary research. In this model, mice bearing dormant residual tumor cells, which spontaneously relapse, were placed on a high-fat diet. Overweight animals were randomly assigned to exercise, calorie restriction, both, or control group and followed for cancer recurrence. The animal model will guide mechanistic biomarkers to be tested in the human trial. 351 participants were randomized; 13 experienced breast cancer recurrence during the trial. Of the 338 participants without recurrence, 83% completed the trial. The WISER Survivor trial will show the effects of exercise and weight-loss on lymphedema outcomes, biomarkers of recurrence and quality of life. NCT ClinicalTrials.gov registration #: NCT01515124. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Epigenetic Research in Cancer Epidemiology: Trends, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L.; Schully, Sheri D.; Nelson, Stefanie; Su, L. Joseph; Ross, Sharon; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M.; Khoury, Muin J.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiological studies in NCI’s grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples also were used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research. PMID:24326628

  13. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    9:00 J. Eudy UNMC DNA Analysis Core 10:30 D . Romberger Pulmonary Disease and Research July 26 UNL 9:00 J. Morris Morrison...Celerion Corp. July 9 UNMC 9:00 J. Eudy DNA Sequencing and Analysis 10:30 K. Bayles Infectious Disease Research at UNMC...Smooth Muscle Cells Mesenchymal Cells Basement Membrane Luminal Basal E P IT H E L IA L C O M P A R T M E N T VITAMIN D

  14. Evaluation of short research experiences in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legardeur, B; Lopez, A; Johnson, W D

    1993-01-01

    For the past 5 years, the Cancer Education Committee of Louisiana State University Medical School (LSUMS) has selected premedical and medical students to participate in cancer research during the summer months. The students' participation is funded through a NCI R-25 training grant. Each year, LSUMS faculty from both the clinical and basic science departments provide opportunities for the students to participate in cancer research. The students also attend weekly seminars on cancer-related topics and biweekly multi-disciplinary Tumor Conferences. At the end of the summer, the students are required to submit and present a summary of their research project and to complete an evaluation form of the program. The overall evaluation of this experience has been favorable. Seventy-nine percent of the students agreed that the experience exceeded their expectations, and 83% responded that they would be willing to repeat the program. However, when asked if they planned to pursue a career in cancer research or medical oncology, 84 and 62%, respectively, were undecided. These findings raise the following questions: (1) When is the most appropriate time period in the student's education for this experience to take place? and (2) How can students' future career decisions be influenced?

  15. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  16. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cagan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled ‘Rethinking Cancer’, which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials.

  17. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled ‘Rethinking Cancer’, which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. PMID:28381596

  18. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  19. Advances in Biomarker Research for Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Kruttika; Wang, Fengfei; Ma, Qingyong; Li, Qinyu; Mallik, Sanku; Hsieh, Tze-chen; Wu, Erxi

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a leading cause of cancer related deaths in United States. The lack of early symptoms results in late-stage detection and a high mortality rate. Currently, the only potentially curative approach for PC is surgical resection, which is often unsuccessful because the invasive and metastatic nature of the tumor masses makes their complete removal difficult. Consequently, patients suffer relapses from remaining cancer stem cells or drug resistance that eventually lead to death. To improve the survival rate, the early detection of PC is critical. Current biomarker research in PC indicates that a serum carbohydrate antigen, CA 19-9, is the only available biomarker with approximately 90% specificity to PC. However, the efficacy of CA 19-9 for assessing prognosis and monitoring patients with PC remains contentious. Thus, advances in technology and the detection of new biomarkers with high specificity to PC are needed to reduce the mortality rate of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22372502

  20. Breast Cancer Research Training Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Program in Research on Women-s Health Female Reproductive Aging : A Window into the Aging Brain Phyllis M. Wise...of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuronal function. - PLEASE POST Phone: 638-4500 Department of B0Si PATHOLOGYI and Laboratory Medicine Boston...AT 1:00 SEPTEMBER 26 Jacob Sloane Brain inflammation in pathologic aging . Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine OCTOBER 3 Dr. Sun Tam The

  1. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  2. Retractions in cancer research: a systematic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzo, Anthony; Bali, Kamal; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The annual number of retracted publications in the scientific literature is rapidly increasing. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and reason for retraction of cancer publications and to determine how journals in the cancer field handle retracted articles. We searched three online databases (MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library) from database inception until 2015 for retracted journal publications related to cancer research. For each article, the reason for retraction was categorized as plagiarism, duplicate publication, fraud, error, authorship issues, or ethical issues. Accessibility of the retracted article was defined as intact, removed, or available but with a watermark over each page. Descriptive data was collected on each retracted article including number of citations, journal name and impact factor, study design, and time between publication and retraction. The publications were screened in duplicated and two reviewers extracted and categorized data. Following database search and article screening, we identified 571 retracted cancer publications. The majority (76.4%) of cancer retractions were issued in the most recent decade, with 16.6 and 6.7% of the retractions in the prior two decades respectively. Retractions were issued by journals with impact factors ranging from 0 (discontinued) to 55.8. The average impact factor was 5.4 (median 3.54, IQR 1.8-5.5). On average, a retracted article was cited 45 times (median 18, IQR 6-51), with a range of 0-742. Reasons for retraction include plagiarism (14.4%), fraud (28.4%), duplicate publication (18.2%), error (24.2%), authorship issues (3.9%), and ethical issues (2.1%). The reason for retraction was not stated in 9.8% of cases. Twenty-nine percent of retracted articles remain available online in their original form. Retractions in cancer research are increasing in frequency at a similar rate to all biomedical research retractions. Cancer retractions are largely due to academic misconduct

  3. Facility Head | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facility HeadConfocal Microscopy Core FacilityLaboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics The Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics (LCBG), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), NCI, NIH, HHS is looking for a motivated and skilled microscopist to fill a Facility Head position to lead its Confocal Microscopy Core Facility. The CCR Microscopy Core provides microscopy equipment and support to approximately 150 active users representing over 20 NCI laboratories. The Core places an emphasis on training independent users, but the staff is available to assist in all phases of experiments. This includes experimental design, data acquisition, and data analysis. The Core provides state-of-the-art microscopic analyses to better understand critical biological structures and cellular processes involved in cancer. The Facility Head will also be expected to participate in the CCR Microscopy Core meetings and to interact extensively with the other microscopy facilities in CCR. Light microscopic techniques and analytic methods currently used in this facility include, but are not limited to: 1) co-localization of fluorescent fusion proteins with organelles; 2) demonstration of membrane ruffling, cytoskeletal organization, focal adhesions and other cell morphology; 3) live time-lapse translocation of fluorescent fusion proteins; 4) fluorescent indicators of oxidative stress in live cells; 5) 4D imaging of cell division; 6) Super-Resolution imaging; 7) tiling; 8) Fluorescent Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET); 9) Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS); 10) Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM); and, 11) Second Harmonic Generation imaging (SHG) of whole live tissue/organ. The Facility's equipment includes a Zeiss LSM 710 NLO for two-photon imaging, a Zeiss LSM 780 for higher sensitivity imaging, a Zeiss LSM 780/ELYRA for super-resolution imaging of fixed cells, and the Zeiss LSM 880/Airyscan for super-resolution imaging of live and

  4. Cancer control and prevention: nutrition and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate recent developments in nutritional epigenomics and related challenges, opportunities, and implications for cancer control and prevention. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and understanding the factors that contribute to cancer development may facilitate the development of strategies for cancer prevention and control. Cancer development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Genetic marks are permanent, whereas epigenetic marks are dynamic, change with age, and are influenced by the external environment. Thus, epigenetics provides a link between the environment, diet, and cancer development. Proper food selection is imperative for better health and to avoid cancer and other diseases. Nutrients either contribute directly to cancer prevention or support the repair of genomic and epigenomic damage caused by exposure to cancer-causing agents such as toxins, free radicals, radiation, and infectious agents. Nutritional epigenomics provides an opportunity for cancer prevention because selected nutrients have the potential to reverse cancer-associated epigenetic marks in different tumor types. A number of natural foods and their bioactive components have been shown to have methylation-inhibitory and deacetylation-inhibitory properties. Natural foods and bioactive food components have characteristics and functions that are similar to epigenetic inhibitors and therefore have potential in cancer control and prevention.

  5. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  6. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  7. Cancer control-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, I

    2017-01-01

    Disparities in cancer control exist in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many countries do not have cancer registries to record incidence, mortality and prevalence and are reliant on Globocan estimates of their cancer burden. Poorer cancer control within and between countries occurs in those living remotely from urban centres, those in a low socioeconomic group and some ethnic groups who have lifestyle and belief systems which impact on cancer control. High-income countries generally have population screening programmes for cervix, breast and bowel cancer. However, simpler forms of screening for cancer of the cervix like visual inspection with acetic acid have been shown to be feasible in developing nations. The widespread use of vaccines to prevent cancer has been achieved with the Hepatitis B vaccine but the human papilloma virus vaccine to prevent cancer of the cervix is largely only available in high-income countries. Access to and training of oncological surgeons in LMICs is limited, while 70% of patients in these countries cannot access radiotherapy. The World Health Organization has developed a list of essential medicines although access remains poor in LMICs. The United Nations has set targets for the control of non-communicable diseases to improve global cancer control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful...

  9. Statistical Analysis of Research Data | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course will be held on April 12-13, 2017 from 9:00 AM – 5:00 PM at the Natcher Conference Center, Balcony A on the Bethesda campus. SARD is designed to provide an overview of the general principles of statistical analysis of research data. The course will be taught by Paul W. Thurman of Columbia University.

  10. Breast Cancer Research Update | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of ... sheet Extended Drug Therapy Benefits Some Women with Breast Cancer Results from a recent clinical trial showed that ...

  11. Senior Clinician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR), NCI, NIH, HHS is seeking to fill several Senior Clinician positions with outstanding oncologists with research experience and expertise in one of the following areas:  1) genitourinary malignancies, 2) thoracic malignancies; 3) gastrointestinal malignancies; 4) lymphomas; 5) pediatric cancers; or 6) genetic tumor predisposition syndromes. These positions are located at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The NIH Clinical Center is the world’s largest research hospital which offers state-of-the-art facilities, collaborative opportunities, and core facilities for advanced technologies.  The Senior Clinician will have available resources including funding for clinical trials, nurse practitioners, research nurses, and patient care coordinators.  In addition, the senior clinician will have access to a robust clinical trials infrastructure including data management, training, protocol support office, regulatory support, information systems and technology, and data safety monitoring.  The CCR’s collaborative culture also offers research staff access to a wide array of intellectual and technological assets, including high-quality technology cores dedicated to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, protein chemistry, natural products chemistry, biophysics, mass spectrometry, imaging, microscopy, proteomics and genomics, bioinformatics/biostatistics, and flow cytometry.  For an overview of CCR, please visit http://ccr.cancer.gov/.  For more information contact Lori Holliday at hollidal@mail.nih.gov.

  12. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  13. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  14. Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henry, Kevin A; Paskett, Electra D; Ellison, Gary L; Oh, April; Taplin, Stephen H; Tatalovich, Zaria; Berrigan, David A

    2017-04-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality display strong geographic patterns worldwide and in the United States (1, 2). The environment where individuals live, work, and play is increasingly being recognized as important across the cancer control continuum, including the risk of cancer development, detection, diagnosis, treatment, mortality, and survivorship (3-5). At the same time, emergent technological capacity in geographic information systems (GIS) and mapping, along with increasing sophistication in applied spatial methods, has resulted in a growing research community developing and applying geospatial approaches in health research (5). Through collaborative, transdisciplinary efforts, and continued data collection efforts, there is great potential to apply these emerging geospatial approaches to various aspects of cancer prevention and control to inform etiology and target interventions and implementation of efficacious risk-reducing strategies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 472-5. ©2017 AACRSee all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  16. An action plan for translating cancer survivorship research into care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Catherine M; Smith, Tenbroeck; de Moor, Janet S; Glasgow, Russell E; Khoury, Muin J; Hawkins, Nikki A; Stein, Kevin D; Rechis, Ruth; Parry, Carla; Leach, Corinne R; Padgett, Lynne; Rowland, Julia H

    2014-11-01

    To meet the complex needs of a growing number of cancer survivors, it is essential to accelerate the translation of survivorship research into evidence-based interventions and, as appropriate, recommendations for care that may be implemented in a wide variety of settings. Current progress in translating research into care is stymied, with results of many studies un- or underutilized. To better understand this problem and identify strategies to encourage the translation of survivorship research findings into practice, four agencies (American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, LIVE STRONG: Foundation, National Cancer Institute) hosted a meeting in June, 2012, titled: "Biennial Cancer Survivorship Research Conference: Translating Science to Care." Meeting participants concluded that accelerating science into care will require a coordinated, collaborative effort by individuals from diverse settings, including researchers and clinicians, survivors and families, public health professionals, and policy makers. This commentary describes an approach stemming from that meeting to facilitate translating research into care by changing the process of conducting research-improving communication, collaboration, evaluation, and feedback through true and ongoing partnerships. We apply the T0-T4 translational process model to survivorship research and provide illustrations of its use. The resultant framework is intended to orient stakeholders to the role of their work in the translational process and facilitate the transdisciplinary collaboration needed to translate basic discoveries into best practices regarding clinical care, self-care/management, and community programs for cancer survivors. Finally, we discuss barriers to implementing translational survivorship science identified at the meeting, along with future directions to accelerate this process. Published by Oxford University Press 2014.

  17. Recombination Origin of Retrovirus XMRV | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus–related virus (XMRV) was first reported in samples from a human prostate tumor in 2006, and, at that time, claims were made that XMRV infection rates ranged from 6 to 27 percent of human prostate cancers.  Later research reported XMRV in the blood of 67 percent of people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). When follow-up studies failed to detect XMRV in multiple sets of specimens from people with prostate cancer or CFS and healthy controls, the original reports came under closer scrutiny.

  18. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    fects XTj XT ~ $e~s~~ Bran es Chemo .. ---- - Bran Mts Hormonal’ Effects Effects Lymphedema F Effects’ anv tlru Piexopathy< CN$PNPS Coriive Peripheral...Saykin Andrew J. Breast cancer chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction. Clinical Breast Cancer 2002;3( Supplement 3):S84-$90. 8. Ahles Tim A., Saykin...429-434. 40. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a double-blind randomized

  19. Team Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are seeking a highly motivated Sr. Scientist to lead the newly established Single Cell Analysis Facility (SCAF) of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at NCI. The SCAF will house state-of-the-art single cell sequencing technologies including 10xGenomics Chromium, BD Genomics Rhapsody, DEPPArray, and other emerging single cell technologies. The successful candidate will be responsible for managing the single cell core activities and will interact with close to 200 laboratories within the CCR to design and carry out single cell experiments for cancer research. In addition to the core activities: - Will be responsible for developing new single cell technologies and making it available for CCR community - Will train/guide staff to carry out wet lab experiment from tissue/cell preparation to NexGen sequencing - Work with dedicated bioinformaticians to perform data qc and analysis - Is expected to author publications in peer reviewed scientific journals

  20. Partners | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank at the University of Iowa NCI’s OCCPR works closely with The University of Iowa's Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank (DSHB) that distributes all hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies from NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer initiative (CPTC). DSHB supplies researchers with monoclonal antibodies, which may be ordered as tissue culture supernatants, ascites, or concentrate; selected hybridomas are also available as frozen or growing cells.

  1. Antibody Characterization Lab | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Antibody Characterization Lab (ACL), an intramural reference laboratory located at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research in Frederick, Maryland, thoroughly characterizes monoclonal antibodies or other renewable affinity binding reagents for use in cancer related research.

  2. Flow Cytometry Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Flow Cytometry Core (Flow Core) of the Cancer & Inflammation Program (CIP) is a service core which supports the research efforts of the CCR by providing expertise in the field of flow cytometry (fluorescence cell sorting) with the goal of gaining a more thorough understanding of the biology of cancer and cancer cells. The Flow Core provides service to 12-15 CIP laboratories and more than 22 non-CIP laboratories. Flow core staff provide technical advice on the experimental design of applications, which include immunological phenotyping, cell function assays, and cell cycle analysis. Work is performed per customer requirements, and no independent research is involved. The Flow Cytometry Technician will be responsible for: Monitor performance of and maintain high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Operate high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Monitoring lab supply levels and order lab supplies, perform various record keeping responsibilities Assist in the training of scientific end users on the use of flow cytometry in their research, as well as how to operate and troubleshoot the bench-top analyzer instruments Experience with sterile technique and tissue culture

  3. [The influence of the organizational structure on the internal controls of a foundation for cancer research, prevention and care in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacim, Carlos Alberto Grespam; Salgado, André Luís; Girioli, Lumila Souza; de Araujo, Adriana Maria Procópio

    2011-05-01

    This work focuses on a discussion about the extent to which the level of organizational structure interferes in the internal control practices of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), especially those related to health. The objective of this work was to observe the efficiency of the internal control tests applied within the organizational structure of the Foundation for Cancer Research, Prevention and Care, checking the reliability of the accounting records and operational controls. A case study in a third sector health organization was the chosen methodology. The case study involved company interviews and the analysis of confidential reports. After an evaluation of the organizational structure (of the relations between officials and volunteers) and the application of evaluation proceedings on the quality of the internal controls, the extent to which the organizational structure interferes with the internal control practices of the hospital was assessed. It was revealed that there are structured mechanisms of control in the institution, however the implementation of these controls is inadequately performed. It was further detected that the level of the organizational structure does indeed interfere in internal control practices at the entity.

  4. Scientific Management Training | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI intramural program is one of the largest centers for cancer research in the world, with approximately 200 principal investigators and 500 postdoctoral fellows. While outstanding scientific research is conducted at NCI, many of the scientists who go on to lead their own laboratories have few management skills. The Scientific Management Training course focuses on personnel and project management. In the “Art of Supervision” section, the emphasis is on the uniqueness of each person and how each staff member should be treated to achieve desired outcomes.

  5. An overview of cancer research in South African academic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    using an adapted Common Scientific Outline (CSO) categorisation. Results. Information was available on 556 cancer research projects. Overall, 301 projects were classified as clinical, 254 as basic science and. 71 as public health research. The most common cancers being researched were cancers of the breast (n=95 ...

  6. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.

  7. Quantitative Image Informatics for Cancer Research (QIICR) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaging has enormous untapped potential to improve cancer research through software to extract and process morphometric and functional biomarkers. In the era of non-cytotoxic treatment agents, multi- modality image-guided ablative therapies and rapidly evolving computational resources, quantitative imaging software can be transformative in enabling minimally invasive, objective and reproducible evaluation of cancer treatment response. Post-processing algorithms are integral to high-throughput analysis and fine- grained differentiation of multiple molecular targets.

  8. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases and promoting public health, this is a five-year partnership between IDRC and the world's leading independent cancer charity dedicated to saving lives ...

  9. Proteomics in epigenetics: new perspectives for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Till; Borgel, Julie; DiMaggio, Peter A

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of epigenetic processes in the origin and progression of cancer is now widely appreciated. Consequently, targeting the enzymatic machinery that controls the epigenetic regulation of the genome has emerged as an attractive new strategy for therapeutic intervention. The development of epigenetic drugs requires a detailed knowledge of the processes that govern chromatin regulation. Over the recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become an indispensable tool in epigenetics research. In this review, we will give an overview of the applications of MS-based proteomics in studying various aspects of chromatin biology. We will focus on the use of MS in the discovery and mapping of histone modifications and how novel proteomic approaches are being utilized to identify and study chromatin-associated proteins and multi-subunit complexes. Finally, we will discuss the application of proteomic methods in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer based on epigenetic biomarkers and comment on their future impact on cancer epigenetics.

  10. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  11. Office Overview | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) aims to improve prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer by enhancing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer, advancing proteome/proteogenome science and technology development through community resources (data and reagents), and accelerating the translation of molecular findings into the clinic.

  12. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). It will evaluate disparity issues and outcomes in cancer care delivery and treatments. |

  13. Fidelity considerations in translational research: Eating As Treatment - a stepped wedge, randomised controlled trial of a dietitian delivered behaviour change counselling intervention for head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison Kate; Baker, Amanda; Britton, Ben; Wratten, Chris; Bauer, Judith; Wolfenden, Luke; Carter, Gregory

    2015-10-15

    The confidence with which researchers can comment on intervention efficacy relies on evaluation and consideration of intervention fidelity. Accordingly, there have been calls to increase the transparency with which fidelity methodology is reported. Despite this, consideration and/or reporting of fidelity methods remains poor. We seek to address this gap by describing the methodology for promoting and facilitating the evaluation of intervention fidelity in The EAT (Eating As Treatment) project: a multi-site stepped wedge randomised controlled trial of a dietitian delivered behaviour change counselling intervention to improve nutrition (primary outcome) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. In accordance with recommendations from the National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium Treatment Fidelity Workgroup, we sought to maximise fidelity in this stepped wedge randomised controlled trial via strategies implemented from study design through to provider training, intervention delivery and receipt. As the EAT intervention is designed to be incorporated into standard dietetic consultations, we also address unique challenges for translational research. We offer a strong model for improving the quality of translational findings via real world application of National Institutes of Health Behaviour Change Consortium recommendations. Greater transparency in the reporting of behaviour change research is an important step in improving the progress and quality of behaviour change research. ACTRN12613000320752 (Date of registration 21 March 2013).

  14. Bioinformatics Analyst | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) is a part of the Data Science and Information Technology Program at Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. The ABCC provides technology development, scientific consultation, collaboration and training, and high-performance computing support to the NCI and NIH scientists and staff. The Single Cell Analysis Facility (SCAF) is established to utilize a mix of existing and new resources aimed at providing state-of-the-art single-cell technologies to support the cancer research at NCI. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Bioinformatics Analyst Responsible for providing bioinformatics support including project consultation, experimental design, data management and analysis of high throughput sequencing data from next-generation sequencing and single cell technologies Perform single-cell genetic and transcriptional analysis to determine tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution, immune signatures, and mechanism of resistance Design, develop and maintain robust analysis workflows and software pipelines, as well as custom scripts, to support the analysis of high-throughput sequencing data Provide biological interpretation of analysis results and present analysis results in a clear and concise manner, to scientific audiences Work effectively as a member of a team; coordinate activities among groups located at the Bethesda, Frederick, and Rockville NCI campuses; follow sound scientific practices and maintain effective documentation of activities and analyses This position is in support of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  15. An integrative review of South African cancer nursing research published from 2002-2012 : original research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmollgruber, Shelley; Maree, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: This integrative review aimed to quantify the publication output of South African cancer nursing research conducted between 2002 and 2012 and to identify key trends relevant to cancer nurse researchers.Objectives...

  16. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  17. Cancer vaccines: from research to clinical practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bot, Adrian; Obrocea, Mihail; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-01-01

    ..., for both solid and blood borne cancers. Cancer Vaccines: Challenges and Opportunities in Translation is the first text in the field to bring immunotherapy treatments from the laboratory trial to the bedside for the practicing oncologist. Cancer Vaccines...

  18. Study characterizes how DNA-damaging anti-cancer drugs kill cancer cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients whose cancer cells express the SLFN11 protein are more likely to respond to DNA-damaging anti-cancer drugs than those whose cancer cells don’t express SLFN11. In a new study, Center for Cancer Research investigators show how these drugs recruit SLFN11 to block replication and kill cancer cells. Read more…

  19. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S.M.; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  20. Prostate Cancer Disparities throughout the Cancer Control Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Dalton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that 238,590 U.S. men will develop PCa and 29,720 men will die from the disease in 2013. PCa exhibits the most profound racial disparities of all cancers with African American men having a 70% higher incidence rate and more than two times higher mortality rate than Caucasian men. Published research on PCa disparities focuses on singular outcomes such as incidence, mortality or quality of life. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the racial disparities found at each stage of the PCa Care Continuum which includes prevention, detection, treatments, and outcomes and survival. It focuses primarily on disparities among Caucasian (white and African American men.

  1. About Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program supports research in three areas: prevention or treatment of acute or chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment and caregiving (symptom management research); effects on quality of life from cancer, its treatment and caregiving (quality of life research); and end-of-life psychosocial issues, caregiving and treatment strategies (end-of-life research). |

  2. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cofrancesco, Alfred

    1998-01-01

    .... This search for natural plant enemies (insects and fungal pathogens) has led researchers to the native ranges of noxious aquatic plants, located throughout the continents of Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia...

  3. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A postdoctoral fellowship is currently available for productive, highly-motivated, and energetic individuals in the Inflammation and Tumorigenesis Section of Dr. Yinling Hu at the NCI-Frederick campus.  A dynamic research environment and outstanding resources are available for enthusiastic individuals.  Requirements include a Ph.D., M.D., or equivalent degree and experience in Immunology, Molecular Biology, and/or Signaling Research. Candidate must have excellent verbal, written communication and organizational skills, and the ability to handle multiple projects simultaneously. The project will be to investigate mechanisms of IKK/NF-B-involved auto-immunity, infection, innate immunity in mouse models of carcinogenesis/cancer biology, tumor initiating cells, and lymphoid organ development.

  4. Published Research - NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has published much exciting and impactful research over the years. Find here a list of all of these listed in PubMed and others across the field of Cancer Nanotechnology.

  5. Targeting deregulated epigenetic control in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cancer is a multifaceted disease that involves acquisition of genetic mutations, deletions, and amplifications as well as deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms that fine-tune gene regulation. Key epigenetic mechanisms that include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing are often deregulated in a variety of cancers. Subnuclear localization of key proteins in the interphase nucleus and bookmarking of genes by lineage commitment factors in mitosis-a new dimension to epigenetic control of fundamental biological processes-is also modified in cancer. In this review, we discuss the various aspects of epigenetic control that are operative in a variety of cancers and their potential for risk assessment, early detection, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program Fiscal Year 2012 Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    military lifestyle; and $2M for noninvasive cancer ablation treatment including selective targeting with nanoparticles. An inaugural stakeholders...team science, and partnerships for the development of better prevention, earlier detection, and more effective treatments for cancer. Several program...skin cancers, pediatric cancer research, genetic cancer research, kidney cancer, blood cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, mesothelioma

  7. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, S I; Williams, C K; Ndom, P; Holland, J F

    2012-10-01

    The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (aortic) is a bilingual (English and French) nonprofit organization dedicated to the promotion of cancer control and palliation in Africa. Its mission in respect to cancer control in Africa includes support of research and training;provision of relevant and accurate information on the prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliation of cancer;promotion of public awareness about cancer and reduction of the stigma associated with it.In seeking to achieve its goal of cancer control in Africa, aortic strives to unite the continent and to make a positive impact throughout the region by collaboration with health ministries and global cancer organizations. The organization's key objectives are to further research relating to cancers prevalent in Africa, to support training programs in oncology for health care workers, to deal with the challenges of creating cancer control and prevention programs, and to raise public awareness of cancer in Africa. It also plans to organize symposia, workshops, meetings, and conferences that support its mission.Founded in September 1982, aortic was active only between 1983 (when its inaugural conference was held in the City of Lome, Togo, West Africa) and the late 1980s. The organization subsequently became inactive and moribund. In 2000, a group of expatriate African physicians and scientists joined in an effort with their non-African friends and colleagues to reactivate the dormant organization. Since its reactivation, aortic has succeeded in putting cancer on the public health agenda in many African countries by highlighting Africa's urgent need for cancer control and by holding meetings every two years in various African cities. National and international cancer control organizations worldwide have recognized the challenges facing Africa and have joined in aortic's mission.

  8. A research protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility of a couple-based mind-body intervention for patients with metastatic lung cancer and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbury, Kathrin; Tsao, Anne S; Liao, Zhongxing; Owns, April; Engle, Rosalinda; Gonzalez, Edrea A; Bruera, Eduardo; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Given the generally incurable nature of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC), patients and their romantic partners are at risk for existential/spiritual distress. Although a handful of dyadic psychosocial interventions for lung cancer patients and their caregivers exist, none of them target spiritual well-being. Informed by the mindfulness-based intervention literature and our pilot work in couples affected by lung cancer, we developed a brief couple-based mind-body (CBMB) intervention. The primary aim of this research protocol is to determine the feasibility of implementing the CBMB intervention versus an active control (AC) or wait list control (WLC) group in patients with mNSCLC and their partners using a randomized controlled trial design. Seventy-five patients with mNSCLC receiving treatment and their partners are randomized to the CBMB intervention, an AC or a WLC group. Those in the CBMB intervention and AC groups receive four intervention sessions of 60 min each over 4 weeks and complete weekly homework assignments. The first session is delivered in person, and the remaining sessions are delivered via videoconference. The dyads in the AC group discuss cancer-related and personal growth concerns with the interventionist but are not taught coping skills. Patients and partners in all groups complete baseline assessments of quality of life (QOL) prior to randomization. Follow-up assessments are performed 4 weeks and then again 3 months later. The primary outcome is feasibility (i.e., ≥ 30% of eligible couples consent, ≥ 70% of enrolled couples are retained, and ≥ 50% of all CBMB and AC sessions are attended). We will also perform primarily descriptive analyses of the self-reported outcomes (e.g., spiritual well-being and psychological distress) and explore potential intervention mediators (i.e., compassion, communication, mindfulness, and closeness) to inform a larger, future trial. This trial will provide important information

  9. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Cancer Systems Biology Consortium | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer is a complex disease system involving multiple molecular, genetic, and cellular events. From its early initiation through progression and metastasis, cancer can adapt and evolve as a result of both internal and external signals. These properties make cancer difficult to predict, prevent, and treat. There has been significant progress in characterizing the genetics of cancer, as well as the downstream effects on the molecular and cellular pathways that are critical for the initiation and progression of cancer.

  11. EPA RESEARCH IN URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This state-of-the-art on the Environmental Protection Agency' s research in urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control describes the major elements of the Urban Runoff Pollution Control Program. roblem definition, users assistance tools, management alternative...

  12. Programmer Analyst | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) provides technology development, scientific consultation, collaboration, data analysis and training to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) scientists and staff. The Core Infrastructure and Systems Biology (CISB) group in ABCC strives to streamline and provide innovative solutions for the NCI/NIH community to access and use biological information collected across different sources and formats. Integrating diverse data sources to enable disease agnostic access and analysis, variant impact annotation, identifier conversions across species, and merging clinical and research data enables translation from basic to the goal of precision medicine. CISB is looking for an experienced analyst to support the database and application management efforts at the NCI’s Molecular Targets Program (MTP). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Provide data management and analysis support Maintain scientific applications and databases on single-user personal computer through the multi-user, multi-processor large memory mainframe Communicate with the experts in the MTP, gather requirements and provide support Provide training to researchers on a variety of platforms and applications Evaluate and develop methodologies to allow utilization of new software tools and generate the information required by MTP researchers Determine methods and procedures on new assignments Document approaches and mechanisms clearly and comprehensively

  13. Cancer fear and fatalism: how African American participants construct the role of research subject in relation to clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2015-01-01

    Lack of African American participation in cancer clinical trials has been identified as a critical problem. Historical interactions related to race, identity, and power may contribute to continued inequity in healthcare and research participation. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of African Americans regarding cancer and research and how these perceptions shape their beliefs about participating as cancer research subjects. Three African American focus groups were conducted including people who had never participated in cancer research, those who had, and those who were asked but refused (n = 16). Discussion focused on their perceptions of cancer research and actual or potential participation as research subjects. Data were coded using both structured and inductive coding methods. Fear and fatalism emerged in relation to research, race, power, and identity and were related to larger historical and social issues rather than only individual thoughts or feelings. Participants described fears of the unknown, death, mistrust, conspiracy, and discrimination together with positive/negative tensions between self, family, and community responsibilities. Complex identities linked perceptions of cancer and cancer research with broader historical and cultural issues. Fear, fatalism, and current and historical relationships influence how people perceive themselves as research subjects and may influence their decisions to participate in cancer research. Acknowledging how complex factors including race and racism contribute to health disparities may give nurses and other healthcare providers a better appreciation of how historical, social, and cultural dynamics at individual, community, and organizational levels influence access to and participation in cancer research.

  14. A Comprehensive Infrastructure for Big Data in Cancer Research: Accelerating Cancer Research and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkson, Izumi V; Davidsen, Tanja M; Klemm, Juli D; Kerlavage, Anthony R; Kibbe, Warren A

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing and other -omics technologies are accelerating the detailed molecular characterization of individual patient tumors, and driving the evolution of precision medicine. Cancer is no longer considered a single disease, but rather, a diverse array of diseases wherein each patient has a unique collection of germline variants and somatic mutations. Molecular profiling of patient-derived samples has led to a data explosion that could help us understand the contributions of environment and germline to risk, therapeutic response, and outcome. To maximize the value of these data, an interdisciplinary approach is paramount. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has initiated multiple projects to characterize tumor samples using multi-omic approaches. These projects harness the expertise of clinicians, biologists, computer scientists, and software engineers to investigate cancer biology and therapeutic response in multidisciplinary teams. Petabytes of cancer genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, proteomic, and imaging data have been generated by these projects. To address the data analysis challenges associated with these large datasets, the NCI has sponsored the development of the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) and three Cloud Resources. The GDC ensures data and metadata quality, ingests and harmonizes genomic data, and securely redistributes the data. During its pilot phase, the Cloud Resources tested multiple cloud-based approaches for enhancing data access, collaboration, computational scalability, resource democratization, and reproducibility. These NCI-led efforts are continuously being refined to better support open data practices and precision oncology, and to serve as building blocks of the NCI Cancer Research Data Commons.

  15. A Comprehensive Infrastructure for Big Data in Cancer Research: Accelerating Cancer Research and Precision Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi V. Hinkson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in next-generation sequencing and other -omics technologies are accelerating the detailed molecular characterization of individual patient tumors, and driving the evolution of precision medicine. Cancer is no longer considered a single disease, but rather, a diverse array of diseases wherein each patient has a unique collection of germline variants and somatic mutations. Molecular profiling of patient-derived samples has led to a data explosion that could help us understand the contributions of environment and germline to risk, therapeutic response, and outcome. To maximize the value of these data, an interdisciplinary approach is paramount. The National Cancer Institute (NCI has initiated multiple projects to characterize tumor samples using multi-omic approaches. These projects harness the expertise of clinicians, biologists, computer scientists, and software engineers to investigate cancer biology and therapeutic response in multidisciplinary teams. Petabytes of cancer genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, proteomic, and imaging data have been generated by these projects. To address the data analysis challenges associated with these large datasets, the NCI has sponsored the development of the Genomic Data Commons (GDC and three Cloud Resources. The GDC ensures data and metadata quality, ingests and harmonizes genomic data, and securely redistributes the data. During its pilot phase, the Cloud Resources tested multiple cloud-based approaches for enhancing data access, collaboration, computational scalability, resource democratization, and reproducibility. These NCI-led efforts are continuously being refined to better support open data practices and precision oncology, and to serve as building blocks of the NCI Cancer Research Data Commons.

  16. A Comprehensive Infrastructure for Big Data in Cancer Research: Accelerating Cancer Research and Precision Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkson, Izumi V.; Davidsen, Tanja M.; Klemm, Juli D.; Kerlavage, Anthony R.; Kibbe, Warren A.

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing and other -omics technologies are accelerating the detailed molecular characterization of individual patient tumors, and driving the evolution of precision medicine. Cancer is no longer considered a single disease, but rather, a diverse array of diseases wherein each patient has a unique collection of germline variants and somatic mutations. Molecular profiling of patient-derived samples has led to a data explosion that could help us understand the contributions of environment and germline to risk, therapeutic response, and outcome. To maximize the value of these data, an interdisciplinary approach is paramount. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has initiated multiple projects to characterize tumor samples using multi-omic approaches. These projects harness the expertise of clinicians, biologists, computer scientists, and software engineers to investigate cancer biology and therapeutic response in multidisciplinary teams. Petabytes of cancer genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, proteomic, and imaging data have been generated by these projects. To address the data analysis challenges associated with these large datasets, the NCI has sponsored the development of the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) and three Cloud Resources. The GDC ensures data and metadata quality, ingests and harmonizes genomic data, and securely redistributes the data. During its pilot phase, the Cloud Resources tested multiple cloud-based approaches for enhancing data access, collaboration, computational scalability, resource democratization, and reproducibility. These NCI-led efforts are continuously being refined to better support open data practices and precision oncology, and to serve as building blocks of the NCI Cancer Research Data Commons. PMID:28983483

  17. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  18. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  19. Mapping Cancer Cells’ Starting Lines | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the defective regulatory pathways that lead to aberrant proliferation in cancer converge on DNA replication. So replication regulatory pathways could be targeted to more specifically kill cancer cells.  Unfortunately such targeting would require knowing where and when DNA replication starts in the cancer genome.  In yeast, the locations of replication initiation sites on chromatin have been extensively mapped, but in human cancer cells only a handful of these sites have been identified.

  20. Contact Us | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    For more information, please contact: Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research Center for Strategic Scientific Initiatives Office of the Director National Cancer Institute 31 Center Drive, MS 2580 Bethesda, MD 20892-2580 Phone: (240) 781-3370 Email: cancer.proteomics@mail.nih.gov

  1. Trinity | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinity Cancer Transcriptome Analysis Toolkit (CTAT) including de novo transcriptome assembly with downstream support for expression analysis and focused analyses on cancer transcriptomes, incorporating mutation and fusion transcript discovery, and single cell analysis.

  2. CPTAC | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) is a national effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of large-scale proteome and genome analysis, or proteogenomics.

  3. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco Control Research Group (TCRG), University of Beirut (AUB), is a multidisciplinary team of professionals from the health sciences, medicine, chemistry and engineering departments. The Group was established in 1999 with IDRC support ...

  4. Stopping Liver Cancer's Rogue COP | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer type and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Many liver tumors are actually metastases, tumors seeded in the liver by cancer cells from another organ, but hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), the most common liver tumors, are a heterogeneous family of cancers that arise in hepatocytes, the functional cells of the liver. HCCs are often associated with cirrhosis or liver scarring. Because of the variation in tumor phenotypes, the poor understanding of the molecular origins of these tumors, and the increasing number of diagnoses especially in the US, HCC is a major clinical challenge.

  5. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  6. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae-Weon

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of...

  7. A Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using NMR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    mortality. Breast cancer can exist not only in the form of masses, but also in the forms of microcalcifications , asymmetric density, and architectural...treatment of breast cancer calls for early detection of cancerous lesions (e.g., clustered microcalcifications and masses associated with malignant...DAMD17-00-1-0291 TITLE: A Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using NMR Techniques PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul C. Wang, Ph.D

  8. What is being researched in rectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina Duarte, Angel; Ferrer Márquez, Manuel; Rubio Gil, Francisco A; Belda Lozano, Ricardo; Alvarez García, Antonio; Blesa Sierra, Isabel; Fuentes Porcel, Orlando; Vidaña Márquez, Elisa; Rosado Cobian, Rafael

    2014-11-25

    Clinical evidence has a more significant role in medical specialties than in surgery. Rectal cancer (CR) is no exception. This paper explores what CR-related subjects are being investigated at the present time in a quantitative and qualitative way and analyzes this information to know what possible answers clinical research could give us in the future. The data collection was carried out in April 2014 and was based on 3 sources: 2 institutional clinical trials registries -American (clinicaltrials.gov) and European (EU Clinical Trials Register)- and a survey given to members of the Asociación Española de Coloproctología (AECP). The obtained studies were exported to a database designed especially for this review, which included a number of descriptive elements that would allow the cataloging of the different studies. The AECP survey results were analyzed separately. There are currently 216 clinical trials ongoing related to CR. Two-thirds are primarily conducted by oncologists. Nearly a third are surgical. The research focuses on improving preoperative treatment: new drugs, new schemes of chemo-radiotherapy (usually induction or consolidation schemes) or optimization of radiotherapy and its effects. Surgical clinical trials are related to robotics, laparoscopy, stoma, low colorectal anastomosis, distal CR and local treatment. Most of the current clinical trials ongoing on CR are analyzing aspects of chemo-radiotherapy and its effects. A third focus on purely surgical issues. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Advancing Proteomics Research through Collaboration | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  10. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  11. Modeling the Aneuploidy Control of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneuploidy has long been recognized to be associated with cancer. A growing body of evidence suggests that tumorigenesis, the formation of new tumors, can be attributed to some extent to errors occurring at the mitotic checkpoint, a major cell cycle control mechanism that acts to prevent chromosome missegregation. However, so far no statistical model has been available quantify the role aneuploidy plays in determining cancer. Methods We develop a statistical model for testing the association between aneuploidy loci and cancer risk in a genome-wide association study. The model incorporates quantitative genetic principles into a mixture-model framework in which various genetic effects, including additive, dominant, imprinting, and their interactions, are estimated by implementing the EM algorithm. Results Under the new model, a series of hypotheses tests are formulated to explain the pattern of the genetic control of cancer through aneuploid loci. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical behavior of the model. Conclusions The model will provide a tool for estimating the effects of genetic loci on aneuploidy abnormality in genome-wide studies of cancer cells.

  12. Toward Rigorous Data Harmonization in Cancer Epidemiology Research: One Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Betsy; Reid, Suzanna; Stelling, Deanna; Warnick, Greg; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Potter, John D

    2015-12-15

    Cancer epidemiologists have a long history of combining data sets in pooled analyses, often harmonizing heterogeneous data from multiple studies into 1 large data set. Although there are useful websites on data harmonization with recommendations and support, there is little research on best practices in data harmonization; each project conducts harmonization according to its own internal standards. The field would be greatly served by charting the process of data harmonization to enhance the quality of the harmonized data. Here, we describe the data harmonization process utilized at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington) by the coordinating centers of several research projects. We describe a 6-step harmonization process, including: 1) identification of questions the harmonized data set is required to answer; 2) identification of high-level data concepts to answer those questions; 3) assessment of data availability for data concepts; 4) development of common data elements for each data concept; 5) mapping and transformation of individual data points to common data elements; and 6) quality-control procedures. Our aim here is not to claim a "correct" way of doing data harmonization but to encourage others to describe their processes in order that we can begin to create rigorous approaches. We also propose a research agenda around this issue. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Strengthen the cancer surveillance to promote cancer prevention and control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J

    2018-01-23

    Cancer is a major chronic disease threatening the people's health in China. We reviewed the latest advances on cancer surveillance, prevention and control in our country, which may provide important clues for future cancer control. We used data from the National Central Cancer Registry, to describe and analyze the latest cancer statistics in China. We summarized updated informations on cancer control policies, conducting network, as well as programs in the country. We provided important suggestions on the future strategies of cancer prevention and control. The overall cancer burden in China has been increasing during the past decades. In 2014, there were about 3 804 000 new cancer cases and 2 296 000 cancer deaths in China. The age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were 190.63/100 000 and 106.98/100 000, respectively. China has formed a comprehensive network on cancer prevention and control. Nationwide population-based cancer surveillance has been built up. The population coverage of cancer surveillance has been expanded, and the data quality has been improved. As the aging population is increasing and unhealthy life styles persist in our country, there will be an unnegligible cancer burden in China. Based on the comprehensive rationale of cancer control and prevention, National Cancer Center of China will perform its duty for future precise cancer control and prevention, based on cancer surveillance statistics.

  14. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    the areas of molecular biology, cell biology, and cancer research.Some of the awards received by Dr. Snijders include the prestigious President’s Award for Excellence and the Student Travel Award at the 2014’s XXII International Congress of the International Society for Analytical Cytology in Montpellier, France. He was also the co-recipient of the AACR Team Science Award for the conception, technical implementation, dissemination, and pioneering applications of an array comparative genomic hybridization technique from the American Association of Cancer Research in 2008. Meanwhile, Dr. Mao studied applied mathematics at Southeast University, Nanjing, China, and pursued his masters in biostatistics and cancer epidemiology at Beijing Medical University (now Peking University Health Science Center. In 1988, Dr. Mao received the Outstanding Postgraduate Award from Beijing Medical University and two years later, was awarded an Outstanding Lecturer Award from the same university. He then pursued his PhD in cancer genetics at the Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Glasgow, UK. During this period, Dr. Mao was awarded the Oversea Research Student Awards from the Committee of Vice-Chancellor and Principals of the Universities of the United Kingdom, along with the Glasgow University Travel fellowship.Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao joined Berkeley Lab in 2008 as resident scientist and genetic staff scientist, respectively, where their work focuses on using the multi-omics approach to identify critical genes as potential therapeutic targets and prognostic biomarkers. “At the same time, we investigate underlying biological mechanisms and functions using different model systems, including genetically engineered mouse models,” they told AMOR.“Mouse models offer many advantages for the study of the genetic basis of complex traits, including radiation-induced cancers, because of our ability to control both the genetic and environmental components of risk. The goal is

  15. Meharry-Johns Hopkins Center for Prostate Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This project seeks to add to research knowledge that impacts racial disparities in prostate cancer by examining how...project seeks to add to available research on racial disparities in prostate cancer by examining health patterns among sons of fathers with the disease...Institute (NCI) state cancer profiles , the mortality rate is almost three times that of CA men (73.9 per 100,000 AA / 25.6 per 100,000 C). Genetic and

  16. Research Ethics Considerations Regarding the Cancer Moonshot Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    If the Precision Medicine Initiative was the launching pad, the Cancer Moonshot Initiative is the liftoff. A billion-dollar mission to "eliminate cancer as we know it," the Cancer Moonshot Initiative underscores the Precision Medicine Initiative's near-term focus in oncology research and translation. Spearheaded by Vice President Biden, the goal is to condense a decade of research into actionable results within five years.

  17. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site:Targeted Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    targeted therapy on the efficacy of cabazitaxel in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer R. Van Soest1, A. Nieuweboer2, E. De...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0159 TITLE: Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site: Targeted Therapies 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  18. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  19. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. IDRC to populate at a later date. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Nous finançons des chercheurs qui inspirent des changements mondiaux. Abonnez-vous · Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Désabonnez-vous · Plan du site. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter · Youtube ...

  20. Cancer Virology and HIV Think Tank | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Virology and HIV Think Tank Friday, December 15, 2017 9:30 AM - 3:30 PM Abstract submission deadline: November 29, 2017 Porter Neuroscience Center (Building 35A) Room 620/630 Atrium Space Please mark your calendars for the Cancer Virology and HIV Think Tank Meeting on December 15! This is an annual meeting hosted by the CCR Center of Excellence in HIV/AIDS and Cancer Virology that focuses on the exchange of information about the biology of cancer-associated viruses.

  1. The 2011-2016 Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) initiative: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Colditz, Graham A; Hu, Frank B; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ahima, Rexford S; Brownson, Ross C; Carson, Kenneth R; Chavarro, Jorge E; Chodosh, Lewis A; Gehlert, Sarah; Gill, Jeff; Glanz, Karen; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Herbst, Karen Louise; Hoehner, Christine M; Hovmand, Peter S; Irwin, Melinda L; Jacobs, Linda A; James, Aimee S; Jones, Lee W; Kerr, Jacqueline; Kibel, Adam S; King, Irena B; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Natarajan, Loki; Neuhouser, Marian L; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Proctor, Enola K; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Rosner, Bernard; Sarwer, David B; Schwartz, J Sanford; Sears, Dorothy D; Sesso, Howard D; Stampfer, Meir J; Subramanian, S V; Taveras, Elsie M; Tchou, Julia; Thompson, Beti; Troxel, Andrea B; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Thornquist, Mark D

    2013-04-01

    Recognition of the complex, multidimensional relationship between excess adiposity and cancer control outcomes has motivated the scientific community to seek new research models and paradigms. The National Cancer Institute developed an innovative concept to establish a center grant mechanism in nutrition, energetics, and physical activity, referred to as the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) Initiative. This paper gives an overview of the 2011-2016 TREC Collaborative Network and the 15 research projects being conducted at the centers. Four academic institutions were awarded TREC center grants in 2011: Harvard University, University of California San Diego, University of Pennsylvania, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the Coordination Center. The TREC research portfolio includes three animal studies, three cohort studies, four randomized clinical trials, one cross-sectional study, and two modeling studies. Disciplines represented by TREC investigators include basic science, endocrinology, epidemiology, biostatistics, behavior, medicine, nutrition, physical activity, genetics, engineering, health economics, and computer science. Approximately 41,000 participants will be involved in these studies, including children, healthy adults, and breast and prostate cancer survivors. Outcomes include biomarkers of cancer risk, changes in weight and physical activity, persistent adverse treatment effects (e.g., lymphedema, urinary and sexual function), and breast and prostate cancer mortality. The NIH Science of Team Science group will evaluate the value added by this collaborative science. However, the most important outcome will be whether this transdisciplinary initiative improves the health of Americans at risk of cancer as well as cancer survivors.

  2. A hugh marketing research task: birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1968-02-01

    Research in underdeveloped countries to sell family planning is discussed. The article also aims at pinpointing other possible research areas. Census reports were actually the earliest work relevant to birth control. Later came the research on psychosocial factors affecting family size in developed countries. After World War I, client oriented research into family planning began. The history of this type of research is discussed with more emphasis on the surveys of the knowledge, attitude and contraception practices (KAP) in various countries. The author claims the KAP surveys to be the largest worldwide market research job ever done. Propagands campaigns, contraceptive costs, bonuses for contraceptive practices, and effectiveness of persuasion techniques are discussed.

  3. A case cancer control study of reproductive in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee B; Chaudhury S; Sengupta S

    1994-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as, parity, age at menarche, age at first child′s birth have been investigated in a hospital based case-control study, for their independent as well as combined influences on the incidence of female breast cancer. The study indicates that except for parity, these factors have no influence on the age at onset of the disease. Parity is positively correlated with age at onset. The patient and the control groups were found to be similar in respect of ...

  4. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  5. The communications revolution and health inequalities in the 21st century: implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, K; Nagler, Rebekah H; Bigman-Galimore, Cabral A; McCauley, Michael P; Jung, Minsoo; Ramanadhan, Shoba

    2012-10-01

    The radical and transformative developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) offer unprecedented opportunities to promote cancer control and enhance population and individual health. However, the current context in which these technologies are being deployed--where cancer incidence and mortality and communication are characterized by inequalities among different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status groups--raises important questions for cancer communication research, policy, and practice. Drawing on illustrative data, this essay characterizes the communications revolution and elucidates its implications for cancer control, with a particular focus on communication inequalities and cancer disparities. 2012 AACR

  6. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing.

  7. Next Generation Distributed Computing for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  8. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  9. Targeted Infrared Photoimmunotherapy for Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A longstanding goal of cancer therapy is the extensive destruction of cancer cells with minimal collateral damage to normal cells. This goal has been very hard to accomplish. Most existing efficacious treatments inevitably inflict collateral damage on nearby normal cells and tissue.

  10. Assessment and management of breakthrough pain in cancer patients: current approaches and emerging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Neil A; Biondo, Patricia; Stiles, Carla

    2008-08-01

    Cancer pain is highly prevalent and often severe. Fortunately, most cancer pain can be readily managed, with up to 90% of patients responding well to standard interventions. However, breakthrough cancer pain-brief flares of severe pain superimposed on baseline pain-is common, difficult to manage, and often negatively impacts patients' quality of life. Breakthrough cancer pain is traditionally managed with oral, immediate-release opioids. However, because of its sudden onset and severity, oral opioids often fall short of providing adequate control. Research into novel approaches to pain management has identified several innovative strategies for this difficult cancer pain problem. We describe current approaches to assess, define, characterize, and treat breakthrough cancer pain, and summarize recent clinical research on novel agents, novel routes of drug delivery, and other advances in its management.

  11. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom, is making a grant of up to £1 100 000 to IDRC to cover three years of Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) programming between April 2005 and March ...

  12. CCR Careers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be part of our mission to make breakthrough scientific discoveries to find cures and treatments for cancer. Our Principal Investigators lead teams of laboratory scientists, trainees, clinicians, and administrators to unlock scientific knowledge to advance the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS.

  13. International Partnerships for Clinical Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH co-sponsors the 2015 International Symposium on Cancer Clinical Trials and related meetings held in partnership with the Japanese National Cancer Center (JNCC) and Embassies of France, Korea, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US) in Tokyo on May 14 - 15, 2015.

  14. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening Trial, ...

  15. Nurse's role in controlling cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudh, Salma Said

    2011-10-01

    Nurses spend more time with patients than any other member of the healthcare team. They play a critical, active and very important part in controlling cancer patients' pain and alleviating suffering. In controlling cancer pain the nurse needs to understand the psychological state of the cancer patient, cancer pain, cancer pain treatment, deleterious effects of unrelieved cancer pain and patient's socio cultural background. She needs to understand that there are two types of pain, nociceptive and neuropathic pains and that 80% of the cancer patients in pain could have 2 or more than 4 different pains at the same time. Nurses' role in controlling cancer pain include believing the patient, assessing pain, identifying the root of the problem, planning the care, administering medication, evaluating effectiveness, ensuring good pain control and individualizing treatment. It also includes nursing interventions such as giving tender nursing care, preventing pain, educating, advocating, communicating, comforting, supporting, and counseling the patient. The nurse must use both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments to individualize treatment, know all the drugs that are used for the treatment of Cancer Pain, how these drugs relieve pain and what their side effects are. She must use the WHO guidelines to treat pain and must choose the right drug, right dose, given at the right times, with the right intervals and to the right patient. She must evaluate effectiveness of treatment, give PRN doses for breakthrough pain and recommend for specific changes. The role of the nurse is to anticipate the patient's pain needs, advocate for the patient for what feels appropriate for him within his cultural context and incorporate the patient's belief. The nurse can physically relieve pain by promoting comfort, support painful area, gentleness in handling the patient and use nursing treatments. The nurse can recommend physiotherapy, (TENS)/Acupuncture, Occupational therapy

  16. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each immunotoxin consists of two components an antibody and a toxin that are fused together. The custom-designed antibody acts as a homing signal, seeking out a specific target present on the surface of cancer cells. When the antibody binds its target, the whole immunotoxin is brought inside the cell. Unwittingly, the cancer cell has exposed itself to a powerful poison, a mistake that will likely condemn it to death.

  17. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  18. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Moreira, José M A; Gromova, Irina

    2005-01-01

    Discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer is moving steadily from the study of cell lines to the analysis of clinically relevant samples that, together with the ever increasing number of novel and powerful technologies available within genomics, proteomics and functional genomics......, promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...... biology approach to fight breast cancer....

  19. Eliminating cancer stem cells: an interview with CCR’s Steven Hou | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Hou, Ph.D., senior investigator in the Basic Research Laboratory at the Center for Cancer Research describes his latest research that has uncovered potential ways to eliminate cancer stem cells and may offer hope to patients with reoccurring tumors.  Learn more...

  20. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (U.S.D.A.) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  1. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  2. Chronic Disease Control Research Fellowship Program (Guatemala ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Program will recruit and mentor research fellows to study policy-relevant issues and translate the resulting knowledge into action. The program will focus initially on tobacco control research (smoking prevention, cessation), in recognition that tobacco use is the leading cause of chronic disease. However, as the program ...

  3. Research on Fast Track Surgery Application in Lung Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun YANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Fast track surgery (FTS is a systematical method to accelerate the recovery of surgical patients by reducing the physical and mental trauma stress of them. The research is to investigate the feasibility of FTS application in lung cancer surgery. Methods A total of 80 cases of lung cancer patients with single leaf lobotomy resection were randomized into two groups. While the experimental group was treated with the conception of FTS, and the control group was treated with the traditional methods. The incident rate of post-operation pain degrees, telecasts, pleural effusion, the post-operation time stay in hospital time and the total cost during hospitalization in two groups were compared respectively. Results In FTS group: the VAS score of post-operation pain at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h all significantly decreased compared to the traditional therapy group. The incidence rate of telecast was 10.53%. The incidence rate of pleural effusion was 26.31%. The length of stay after operation was (4±1 d and the total cost was RMB 15 600±7 600. In the control group, the above values were 77.78%, 33.33%, 22.22%, (9±1 d, RMB 23 600±5 400, respectively. The post operation pain (VAS method of FTS group was remarkablely below the control group. There has significant difference of the incident rate of telecasts, stay time in hospital and the total cast in two groups (P < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in the incident rate of pleural effusion. Conclusion The new methods of FTS can apparently accelerates recovery after lung cancer resection, reduces complications, shorten timestay in hospital and cut down the total cost.

  4. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Objectives | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of CPTAC is to systematically identify proteins that derive from alterations in cancer genomes and related biological processes, in order to understand the molecular basis of cancer that is not fully elucidated or not possible through genomics and to accelerate the translation of molecular findings into the clinic.  This is to be achieved through enhancing our understanding of cancer genome biology by adding a complementary functional layer of protein biology (a “proteogenome” approach) that refines/prioritizes driver genes, enhances understanding of pathogenesis

  6. Trends of triple negative breast cancer research (2007?2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiran; Zhai, Xiao; Liu, Chuan; Wang,Ning; Wang, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype. However, there have been limited data to evaluate the trend of TNBC research. This study aims to investigate the trend of TNBC research and compare the contribution of research from different regions, organizations, and authors. Methods: TNBC-related publications from 2007 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013 (Redmond, Washington, USA), GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Pr...

  7. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

  8. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Following the UK "Brexit" vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised.

  9. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A postdoctoral fellow position is available in the Tissue Morphodynamics Unit, headed by Dr. Kandice Tanner, at the National Cancer Institute. The Tanner lab combines biophysical and cell biological approaches to understand the interplay between cell motility and tissue architecture. We use a combination of imaging modalities, cell biology and animal models. Experience with zebrafish is desired but not mandatory. It is expected that as a member of this lab, one will have an opportunity to be exposed to all these areas. We value a vibrant and collaborative environment where lab members share ideas, reagents and expertise and want to work on fundamental problems in the establishment of metastatic lesions. The successful candidate will interact with a diverse group of scientists with backgrounds in biochemistry, motor biophysics and cell biology. The position offers a generous salary and benefits package as well as the possibility of further career advancement if performance is excellent. 1. Kim J, Staunton J.R., and Tanner K. Independent control of topography for three-dimensional patterning of the ECM microenvironment. (Adv Mater 10.1002/adma.201503950, 2015) 2. Blehm, B.H., Devine, A., Staunton J.R., Tanner, K. In Vivo Tissue has Non-linear Rheological Behavior Distinct from 3D Biomimetic Hydrogels as Determined by AMOTIV Microscopy. (Biomaterials 83:66-78, 2016) 3. Staunton J.R, Vieira, W., Fung Leung, K., Lake R Devine, A, Tanner, K, Mechanical properties of the tumor stromal microenvironment probed ex vivo by in situ-calibrated optical trap-based active microrheology (CAMB 9(3):398-417, 2016) 4. Staunton J.R., Blehm, B.H., Devine, A., Tanner, K. In situ calibration of position detection in an optical trap for active microrheology in viscous materials, (Optics Express, In press 2017)

  10. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects.

  11. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  12. Attitudes of patients with metastatic cancer towards research biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Danielle H; Churilov, Leonid; Lin, Nancy U; Lim, Elgene; Seah, Davinia

    2017-11-06

    To evaluate the attitudes of patients with different cancers towards research biopsies outside a clinical trial. Patients with metastatic cancer completed a questionnaire that assessed patients' willingness to consider research biopsies. Research biopsies were divided into two groups: biopsies performed as stand-alone procedures (research purposes only biopsy, RPOB) or performed during a clinically indicated biopsy (additional pass biopsy, APB). Factors analyzed included biopsy timing, biopsy site, sociodemographic information and information about prior trial participation. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted using random-effects logistic regression. One hundred and sixty-five patients with cancer (40 melanoma, 37 colorectal, 32 breast, 30 lung, 26 prostate) completed the questionnaire. Patients with melanoma demonstrated the greatest willingness to consider a research biopsy compared to patients with other cancer types (P biopsies, time since metastatic diagnosis, and previous trial enrolment were all statistically significant for willingness to consider a research biopsy on univariate analysis. When adjusting for statistically significant variables on univariate analysis, the odds of patients considering APBs were 14.6 times greater than RPOBs (P biopsies. Patients with cancer show a greater willingness to consider APBs compared to RPOBs, and biopsies performed at less invasive body sites. There are differences in the attitudes of patients with different cancers towards research biopsies. Further research addressing motivations and barriers to research biopsies should be considered to increase the availability of this important resource. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    .... Methyl and ethyl forms of omega-3 lipids failed to induce apoptosis. Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese mushroom, was found to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and decrease EGF receptor phosphorylation...

  14. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  15. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr. Salem’s laboratory also collaborates with Dr. Lubaroff on the use of...museums (art, natural history, and sports). In addition, there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application...oligonucleotides and heat shock proteins for generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr. Salem’s laboratory also collaborates with

  17. Background | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term "proteomics" refers to a large-scale comprehensive study of a specific proteome resulting from its genome, including abundances of proteins, their variations and modifications, and interacting partners and networks in order to understand cellular processes involved.  Similarly, “Cancer proteomics” refers to comprehensive analyses of proteins and their derivatives translated from a specific cancer genome using a human biospecimen or a preclinical model (e.g., cultured cell or animal model).

  18. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    States Armed Forces. Breast cancer mortality among women អ years accounts for >40% of years of life lost due to this disease. The economic, social and... cancer is a curable disease if it is detected early; as such early detection is related to survivorship, cost of treatment and quality of life for the...certain life style factors as well as comorbidities. For Theme 2 studies, profiling of human biospecimens alone is important but insufficient

  19. Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supportive and palliative care research includes studies to prevent or treat the acute and chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer and its treatment, and to examine the effects of cancer and its treatment on quality of life and psychosocial issues and treatment strategies at the end of life. Active Projects can range from caregiver issues to geriatrics, physical functioning to cognitive dysfunction. | Examining symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment, quality of life and end of life.

  20. Canine cancer patients are included in translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Betina; Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2014-01-01

    Cancer bearing dogs represent a unique clinical cancer model with a direct potential for accelerating translation into human patients. A research collaboration between the veterinary and human medical facilities at Copenhagen University and Rigshospitalet has taken offset in this. Canine cancer...... patients are implemented for development of new strategies in molecular imaging and radiotherapy. The obtained results will be used to guide human clinical trials....

  1. Cancer Deep Phenotyping Extraction from Electronic Medical Records | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As sequencing costs continue to decline, a torrent of cancer genomic data is looming. Very soon, our ability to deeply investigate the cancer genome will outpace our ability to correlate these changes with the phenotypes that they produce. We propose the advanced development and extension of a software platform for performing deep phenotype extraction directly from clinical text of cancer patients, with the goal of enabling translational cancer research and precision medicine.

  2. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  3. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and ...... etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.......Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...... and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate...

  4. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Teenage Pregnancy Section of the National AHEC Conference, Louisville, Kentucky, June 11-14, 1989. 7. Taylor B, Griffith P, Sung JFC and Densler M...accepting than their white counterparts of masturbation , oral sex, and homosexuality as forms of sexual expression,’ 7 sexual satisfaction is as

  5. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    of polyamines in restoration of DNA Synthesis after UV radiation and expression of UV resistance in cockayne syndrome cells. Biochem Biophys Res... syndrome ": an inappropriate term. J Occup Med 1993;35:752. 13. Zhu K., Weiss, NS., Schwartz, SM., Daling JR. Assessing the relationship between marital

  6. Original Research Risk factors for common cancers among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from 504 registered cancer patients were included—300 (59.5%) were female and 204 (40.5%) were male. ... Data management and analysis ..... Agency for Research on Cancer; 2008. 37. Mwanda WO, Orem Jackson et al. Dose-Modified Oral. Chemotherapy in Treatment of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  7. Psychological Issues in Cancer Genetics: Current Research and Future Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Penelope

    1997-01-01

    Data concerning the psychological impact of high risk of cancer are reviewed, including implications of genetic testing, breast screening,and accuracy of women's risk estimates. Work in progress on prophylactic mastectomy and chemoprevention is reviewed. Research on cancer families, and interventions and prevention strategies for high-risk…

  8. Advances in cancer research using gold nanoparticles mediated photothermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Lucian; Matea, Cristian T; Bartos, Dana; Mosteanu, Ofelia; Pop, Teodora; Mocan, Teodora; Iancu, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that nanotechnologies may lead to the development of novel cancer treatment. Gold nanoparticles with their unique physical and chemical properties hold great hopes for the development of thermal-based therapies against human malignancies. This review will focus on various strategies that have been developed to use gold nanoparticles as photothermal agents against human cancers.

  9. Antibody Portal | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central to reproducibility in biomedical research is being able to use well-characterized and defined reagents. The CPTAC Antibody Portal serves as a National Cancer Institute (NCI) community resource that provides access to a large number of standardized renewable affinity reagents (to cancer-associated targets) and accompanying characterization data.

  10. Radiotherapy and local control in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, V; Rosetto, M E; Fares, C; Mantini, G; Salvi, G; Turriziani, A

    1998-01-01

    Recurrence is a stage in the natural history of rectal cancer. Preoperative radiotherapy or postoperative radiochemotherapy lower the rate of recurrence, improving local control. From 1980 to 1997, at the "Divisione di Radioterapia" of the "Università Cattolica del S. Cuore" of Rome 380 patients with rectal cancer of early clinical stage T2-3, candidates for surgery for cure, underwent radiation therapy. 119 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (45-50 Gy); 45 patients underwent "sandwich" radiotherapy (45 Gy:27 Gy before and 28 Gy after surgery), of whom 7 were treated with preoperative radiotherapy alone; 145 patients underwent preoperative concomitant radiochemotherapy according to 3 different protocols, radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with mitomycin C and 5-FU; radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) combined with cisplatin and 5-FU; radiotherapy (45 Gy) combined with 5-FU and folinic acid. 71 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with IORT (10 Gy). Median follow-up was 6 years. Overall local control was 85% at 3 years, 83% at 5 years, 81% at 10 years. The rate of local control at 5 years was: 76% for postoperative radiotherapy, 83% for "sandwich" radiotherapy, 84% for preoperative radiochemotherapy and 93% for preoperative radiotherapy combined with IORT. Local control was shown to be significantly better with preoperative treatment as compared to postoperative treatment (p = 0.02). The incidence of metastases was 35% in the patients with local recurrence and 16% in those with local control. The difference in survival was highly significant in patients with local control as compared to those with local recurrence: at 5 years 87% and 32% respectively. Patients with local control showed a lower incidence of metastasis and a better survival.

  11. Opportunities for Cancer-relevant Innovative Technologies with Transformative Potential | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking input from the community on identifying priorities with regards to supporting innovative technology development for cancer-relevant research. While the NCI provides support for technology development through a variety of mechanisms, it is important to understand whether or not these are sufficient for catalyzing and supporting the development of tools with significant potential for advancing important fields of cancer research or clinical care.

  12. Early pregnancy sex steroids and maternal breast cancer: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Schock, Helena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lehtinen, Matti; Pukkala, Eero; Lakso, Hans-Åke; Tanner, Minna; Kallio, Raija; Joensuu, Heikki; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Surcel, Helja-Marja

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy, parity, and circulating steroid hormone levels are associated with risk of breast cancer, but little is known about hormone concentrations during pregnancy and subsequent breast cancer risk. We evaluated early pregnancy (breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study in the Finnish Maternity Cohort. The cohort includes 98% of pregnancies registered in Finland since 1983. Individuals with samples collected in the first pregnancy leading to a live birth were eligible. Breast cancer cases (n = 1,199) were identified through linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry; 2,281 matched controls were selected using incidence density sampling. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Hormone concentrations were not associated with breast cancer overall. Estradiol was positively associated with risk of breast cancer diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed at age ≥40 [4th vs. 1st quartile OR 0.71 (0.51-1.00); Ptrend = 0.02]. Elevated concentrations of the steroid hormones were associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative tumors in women age pregnancy steroid hormones and risk of ER(-)/PR(-) breast cancer in women diagnosed age breast cancer diagnosed age ≥40. Further research on pregnancy hormones and risk of steroid receptor-negative cancers is needed to further characterize this association. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Protocol Coordinator II | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides programmatic and logistical support for the operations of clinical research for Phase I and Phase II clinical trials Provides deployment of clinical support services for clinical research  Streamlines protocol development timeline Provides data and document collection and compilation for regulatory filing with the FDA and other regulatory authorities Provides technical review and report preparation Provides administrative coordination and general logistical support for regulatory activities Ensures the provision of training for investigators and associate staff to reinforce and enhance a GCP culture Provides quality assurance and quality control oversight Performs regulatory review of clinical protocols, informed consent and other clinical documents  Tracks and facilitates a portfolio of protocols through each process step (IRB, RAC, DSMB, Office of Protocol Services) Assists clinical investigators in preparing clinical research protocols, including writing and formatting protocol documents and consent forms Prepares protocol packages for review and ensures that protocol packages include all the required material and comply with CCR, NCI and NIH policies Collaborates with investigators to resolve any protocol/data issues Coordinates submission of protocols for scientific and ethical review by the Branch scientific review committees, the NCI Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the clinical trial sponsor or the FDA Monitors the review process and maintains detailed, complete and accurate records for each protocol of the approvals at the various stages of the review process, including new protocol submissions, amendments to protocols, and continuing reviews, as well as other submissions such as adverse events Attends and prepares minutes for the Branch Protocol Review Committees For protocols that are performed with other research centers: contacts coordinators at other centers to obtain review committee approvals at these centers,  maintains records of

  14. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  15. 77 FR 20491 - National Cancer Control Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... continues to shed light on the molecular basis of cancer and unlock new therapies. Innovative studies are paving the way for effective treatments to deadly cancers, including melanoma. And new research shows...

  16. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Position Type: Centrosome Biology and Microscopy A fully funded postdoctoral position is available immediately in the Centrosome Biology group in the Laboratory of Protein Dynamics and Signaling at the National Cancer Institute. We combine advanced biochemical and cell biology approaches to study centrosome biogenesis and their ultra-structure and function in normal and cancer conditions. Fellows interested in microscopy will benefit from an outstanding training in various modalities of advanced microscopy; multicolor live cell imaging, super-resolution microscopy (SIM, STORM), correlative light/electron microscopy, and laser microsurgery.

  17. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ashley JR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.

  18. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussinesq M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerca volvulus. Issues such as the Loa loa-related postivermectin serious adverse events, the uncertainties as to whether onchocerciasis can be eliminated by ivermectin treatments, and the possible emergence of ivermectin-resistant O. volvulus populations should be addressed proactively. Doxycycline, moxidectin and emodepside appear to be promising as alternative drugs against onchocerciasis but support to researches in immunology and genomics should also be increased to develop new control tools, including both vaccines and macrofilaricidal drugs.

  19. Leadership in Nigerian health system for cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbimi, R I

    2009-06-01

    Unacceptable health system outcomes are often related to problems with leadership because the ultimate responsibility for assigned work rests on leadership. In this paper, proper leadership at micro and macro-levels can have positive impact on the health and well being of citizens. While this may be readily obvious in other spheres, it has not been addressed adequately in the context of health care systems and its impact on health outcomes. In this paper, I discuss types of work and leadership systems in order to highlight the importance of leadership and leadership training in collaborative training and research for cancer management. The complexity of health systems highlight the expanded role of leadership in terms of capacity and capability to control the environmental risk factors for cancer, deploy adequate resources for the management of cancers, and ensure fruitful and productive post treatment life for citizens. Improved community awareness, better training of health care workers, improved working environment based on better interpersonal relationships between all cadres of health care workers, environmental health and safety initiatives and research on cancer are some of the areas where improved leadership can lead to better health outcomes. Effective leadership requires a set of skills that can be acquired with requisite operating environment, political will and adequate funding in order to generate the expected improvements in outcome.

  20. Identification of a Novel Cancer Biomarker | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    During cancer development, cells accumulate a variety of mutations which alter their normal components and activities. One potential change is in the carbohydrate or sugar polymers which decorate proteins predominately found on the cell surface. The accessibility of these residues makes them ideal targets for the development of diagnostics or therapeutics.

  1. Summer Undergraduate Breast Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folk, William

    2002-01-01

    .... These students participated in faculty-mentored research projects for eight weeks and participated in seminars, brown-bag lunches, and specialty discussion on research, clinical trials, career...

  2. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  3. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  4. Advances in cancer research. Volume 48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.; Weinhouse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following five selections: Oncotrophoblast Gene Expression: Placental Alkaline Phosphatase; Cellular Events during Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats and the Questions of Premalignancy; Human Papillomaviruses and Genital Cancer; Herpes Simplex Type 2 Virus and Cervical Neoplasia; and Transforming Genes and Target Cells of Murine Spleen Focus-Forming Viruses.

  5. Transgenic and gene knockout mice in gastric cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Yingyan

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models are useful tool for carcinogenic study. They will greatly enrich the understanding of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms for gastric cancer. However, only few of mice could develop gastric cancer spontaneously. With the development and improvement of gene transfer technology, investigators created a variety of transgenic and knockout/knockin mouse models of gastric cancer, such as INS-GAS mice and gastrin knockout mice. Combined with helicobacter infection and carcinogens treatment, these transgenic/knockout/knockin mice developed precancerous or cancerous lesions, which are proper for gene function study or experimental therapy. Here we review the progression of genetically engineered mouse models on gastric cancer research, and emphasize the effects of chemical carcinogens or infectious factors on carcinogenesis of genetically modified mouse. We also emphasize the histological examination on mouse stomach. We expect to provide researchers with some inspirations on this field. PMID:27713138

  6. Protocol Coordinator III | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides programmatic and logistical support for the operations of clinical research Provides deployment of clinical support services for clinical research Streamlines the protocol development timeline Provides data and documents collection and compilation for regulatory filing with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory authorities Provides technical review and report preparation Provides administrative coordination and general logistical support for regulatory activities Ensures the provision of training for investigators and associate staff to reinforce and enhance a Good Clinical Practices (GCP) culture Oversees quality assurance and quality control, performs regulatory review of clinical protocols, informed consent and other clinical documents Tracks and facilitates a portfolio of protocols through each process step (Institutional Review Board [IRB], Regulatory Affairs Compliance [RAC], Data Safety Monitoring Board [DSMB], Office of Protocol Services) Assists clinical investigators in preparing clinical research protocols, including writing and formatting consent forms Prepares protocol packages for review and ensures that protocol packages include all required material and complies with CCR, NCI and NIH policies Collaborates with investigators to resolve any protocol/data issues Coordinates submission of protocols for scientific and ethical review by the Branch scientific review committees, the NCI IRB, and the clinical trial sponsor or the FDA Monitors the review process and maintains detailed, complete and accurate approval records for each protocol at the various stages of the review process, including new protocol submissions, amendments to protocols, and continuing reviews, as well as other submissions such as adverse events Attends and prepares minutes for the Branch Protocol Review Committees Contacts coordinators at other centers for protocols that are performed there to obtain review committee approvals at those centers

  7. Nobel's day on recent advances in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, A

    1993-01-01

    The June 7-10th Symposium on 'Recent Advances in Cancer Research', organized by Lorenzo Moretta in San Remo, Italy, on the occasion of Nobel's day, designated cancer genetics and tumor immunology as forefront areas in fundamental cancer research. While the central importance of oncogenes is obvious, this is less the case for the immunology of tumors, which has long been an area of descriptive phenomenology, wild speculation and unfulfilled expectation. The recent molecular identification of genes encoding a human melanoma antigen recognized by T cells, and of cytokines involved in the tumor-host interaction justifies renewed oncological interest in this area.

  8. Optimal control of multiplicative control systems arising from cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, K.; Kim, M.

    1975-01-01

    This study deals with ways of curtailing the rapid growth of cancer cell populations. The performance functional that measures the size of the population at the terminal time as well as the control effort is devised. With use of the discrete maximum principle, the Hamiltonian for this problem is determined and the condition for optimal solutions are developed. The optimal strategy is shown to be a bang-bang control. It is shown that the optimal control for this problem must be on the vertices of an N-dimensional cube contained in the N-dimensional Euclidean space. An algorithm for obtaining a local minimum of the performance function in an orderly fashion is developed. Application of the algorithm to the design of antitumor drug and X-irradiation schedule is discussed.

  9. The breast cancer and the environment research centers: transdisciplinary research on the role of the environment in breast cancer etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Robert A; Haslam, Sandra Z; Osuch, Janet

    2009-12-01

    We introduce and describe the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Centers (BCERC), a research network with a transdisciplinary approach to elucidating the role of environmental factors in pubertal development as a window on breast cancer etiology. We describe the organization of four national centers integrated into the BCERC network. Investigators use a common conceptual framework based on multiple levels of biologic, behavioral, and social organization across the life span. The approach connects basic biologic studies with rodent models and tissue culture systems, a coordinated multicenter epidemiologic cohort study of prepubertal girls, and the integration of community members of breast cancer advocates as key members of the research team to comprise the network. Relevant literature is reviewed that describes current knowledge across levels of organization. Individual research questions and hypotheses in BCERC are driven by gaps in our knowledge that are presented at genetic, metabolic, cellular, individual, and environmental (physical and social) levels. As data collection on the cohort, animal experiments, and analyses proceed, results will be synthesized through a transdisciplinary approach. Center investigators are addressing a large number of specific research questions related to early pubertal onset, which is an established risk factor for breast cancer. BCERC research findings aimed at the primary prevention of breast cancer will be disseminated to the scientific community and to the public by breast cancer advocates, who have been integral members of the research process from its inception.

  10. Tenure Track/Tenure Eligible Investigators | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly established RNA Biology Laboratory at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Frederick, Maryland is recruiting Tenure-eligible or Tenure Track Investigators to join the Intramural Research Program’s mission of high impact, high reward science. These positions, which are supported with stable financial resources, are the equivalent of Assistant Professor/Associate Professor/Professor in an academic department. The RNA Biology Laboratory is looking for candidate(s) who will complement our current group of seven dynamic and collaborative principal investigators (https://ccr.cancer.gov/RNA-Biology-Laboratory). We encourage outstanding scientists investigating any area of RNA Biology to apply. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the roles of RNA-binding proteins, noncoding RNAs and nucleotide modifications in cell and organismal function; the ways in which alterations in RNA homeostasis result in diseases such as cancer, and the development of RNA therapeutics. About NCI's Center for Cancer Research The Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is an intramural research component of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). CCR’s enabling infrastructure facilitates clinical studies at the NIH Clinical Center, the world’s largest dedicated clinical research complex; provides extensive opportunities for collaboration; and allows scientists and clinicians to undertake high-impact laboratory- and clinic-based investigations. Investigators are supported by a wide array of intellectual and technological and research resources, including animal facilities and dedicated, high-quality technology cores in areas such as imaging/microscopy, including cryo-electron microscopy; chemistry/purification, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, SAXS, genomics/DNA sequencing, transgenics and knock out mice, arrays/molecular profiling, and human genetics/bioinformatics. For an overview of CCR, please visit

  11. Lipid Biomarkers Identified for Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer of the liver with poor prognosis and growing incidence in developed countries. Pathology and genetic profiles of HCC are heterogeneous, suggesting that it can begin growing in different cell types. Although human tumors such as HCC have been profiled in-depth by genomics-based studies, not much is known about their overall metabolite modifications and how these changes can form a network that leads to aggressive disease and poor outcome.

  12. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-12-22

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues in virtue of its unique history, epidemiology, and biology. This paper provides preliminary ethical analyses of the especially salient issues of: (i) global health justice, (ii) universal access to malaria control initiatives, (iii) multidrug resistance, including artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance, (iv) mandatory screening, (v) mass drug administration, (vi) benefits and risks of primaquine, and (vii) malaria in the context of blood donation and transfusion. Several ethical issues are also raised by past, present and future malaria research initiatives, in particular: (i) controlled infection studies, (ii) human landing catches, (iii) transmission-blocking vaccines, and (iv) genetically-modified mosquitoes. This article maps the terrain of these major ethical issues surrounding malaria control and elimination. Its objective is to motivate further research and discussion of ethical issues associated with malaria--and to assist health workers, researchers, and policy makers in pursuit of ethically sound malaria control practice and policy.

  13. Conducting Molecular Epidemiological Research in the Age of HIPAA: A Multi-Institutional Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer in African-American and European-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine B. Ambrosone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer in African-American (AA women occurs at an earlier age than in European-American (EA women and is more likely to have aggressive features associated with poorer prognosis, such as high-grade and negative estrogen receptor (ER status. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. To address this, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for high-grade ER- disease in both AA and EA women. With the onset of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, creative measures were needed to adapt case ascertainment and contact procedures to this new environment of patient privacy. In this paper, we report on our approach to establishing a multicenter study of breast cancer in New York and New Jersey, provide preliminary distributions of demographic and pathologic characteristics among case and control participants by race, and contrast participation rates by approaches to case ascertainment, with discussion of strengths and weaknesses.

  14. A training programme to build cancer research capacity in low- and middle-income countries: findings from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lauren D; Barnoya, Joaquin; Gharzouzi, Eduardo N; Benson, Peter; Colditz, Graham A

    2014-04-01

    Guatemala is experiencing an increasing burden of cancer but lacks capacity for cancer prevention, control and research. In partnership with a medical school in the United States of America, a multidisciplinary Cancer Control Research Training Institute was developed at the Instituto de Cancerología (INCAN) in Guatemala City. This institute provided a year-long training programme for clinicians that focused on research methods in population health and sociocultural anthropology. The programme included didactic experiences in Guatemala and the United States as well as applied training in which participants developed research protocols responsive to Guatemala's cancer needs. Although INCAN is the point of referral and service for Guatemala's cancer patients, the institute's administration is also interested in increasing cancer research - with a focus on population health. INCAN is thus a resource for capacity building within the context of cancer prevention and control. Trainees increased their self-efficacy for the design and conduct of research. Value-added benefits included establishment of an annual cancer seminar and workshops in cancer pathology and qualitative analysis. INCAN has recently incorporated some of the programme's components into its residency training and established a research department. A training programme for clinicians can build cancer research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. Training in population-based research methods will enable countries such as Guatemala to gather country-specific data. Once collected, such data can be used to assess the burden of cancer-related disease, guide policy for reducing it and identify priority areas for cancer prevention and treatment.

  15. Ethics of social and behavioural research in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A S

    2009-06-01

    Unlike biomedical research, social and behavioural research has not been thought to require rigorous or mandatory ethical review on the assumption that it can do no harm. As a result, little or no attention is paid to its involvement in health researches. This paper discusses the ethical challenges of social and behavioural research in cancer to identify potential areas for research. Inferences were made from documentary analysis of characteristics of cancer patients. A total of 76 papers were reviewed covering the period from1960 to 2007. The data shows that conducting social and behavioural research on cancer patients in Africa is associated with ethical challenges. These include; respect for person and autonomy, risk minimization, exploitation, inducement and compensation, benefit sharing, gaining access to participant, third party issue, informed consent, coercion, discrimination, conflict of interest and scientific misconduct. The paper concludes that cultural challenges of cancer research, management and administration of informed consent, access to research participant, compensation of research participant and benefit sharing are major potential areas of research.

  16. CB Registration Form | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The registration deadline for the Cancer Biotechnology (CB) class is 1/27/2016. The first 50 registrants for each class offered (Jan. 29 or Feb. 9) will be accepted. Mandatory responses are marked by an asterisk (*). A confirmation e-mail will be sent to the address listed in the "E-mail Address" field upon completion and submission of the form. Questions?

  17. MBCP - Approach - Immunotherapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy CCR investigators pioneered the use of the tuberculosis vaccine—Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)—in the treatment of bladder cancer. In cases where the tumor burden is not too high and direct contact can be made with the urothelium surface of the bladder, BCG application appears to elicit an immune response that attacks the tumor as well as the attenuated virus. Ongoing clinical trials focusing on enhancing the patient’s immune system are listed below.

  18. Developmental Scientist III | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishes, implements and maintains standardized processes and assesses performance to make recommendations for improvement Provides support and guidance to the cellular therapy or vector production facilities at the NIH Clinical Center engaged in the manufacture of patient specific therapies Manufactures cellular therapy products for human use Develops and manufactures lentiviral and/or retroviral vectors Prepares technical reports, abstracts, presentations and program correspondence concerning assigned projects through research and analysis of information relevant to government policy, regulations and other relevant data and monitor all assigned programs for compliance Provides project management support with planning and development of project schedules and deliverables, tracking project milestones, managing timelines, preparing status reports and monitoring progress ensuring adherence to deadlines Facilitates communication through all levels of staff by functioning as a liaison between internal departments, senior management, and the customer Serves as a leader/mentor to administrative staff and prepares employee performance evaluations Develops and implements procedures/programs to ensure effective and efficient business and operational processes  Identifies potential bottlenecks in upcoming development processes and works with team members and senior management for resolution Analyzes and tracks initiatives and contracts Coordinates and reviews daily operations and logistics, including purchasing and shipping of miscellaneous equipment, laboratory and office supplies to ensure compliance with appropriate government regulations  Coordinates the administrative, fiscal, contractual, and quality aspects of all projects Ensures that internal budgets, schedules and performance requirements are met Monitors workflow and timelines to ensure production operations are on schedule and adequate raw materials and supplies are available Ensures all activities are in

  19. Summer Undergraduate Breast Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folk, William R; Blockus, Linda

    2004-01-01

    ...) supported 4 students in 2003. These students participated in faculty-mentored research projects for eight weeks and participated in seminars, brown-bag lunches, and specialty discussions on research, clinical trials, career...

  20. Summer Undergraduate Breast Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Folk, William

    2003-01-01

    ...) supported 6 students in 2002. These students participated in faculty-mentored research projects for eight weeks and participated in seminars, brown-bag lunches, and specialty discussions on research, clinical trials, career...

  1. Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Collins

    Full Text Available An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated.Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death.As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66-2.37, but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels.With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure.

  2. Translating Research into Policy: Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research).    Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation.  Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer.  She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act.  These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed.  They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening.  Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening.  The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public

  3. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-06-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. In this perspective, we consider modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in women in relation to the development of smartphone apps to promote healthy behaviors associated with breast cancer-risk reduction. First, we provide a summary of breast cancer risk factors that are modifiable through behavioral change including their corresponding relative risk. Second, we discuss scientific issues related to the development of smartphone apps for the primary prevention of breast cancer and offer suggestions for further research. Smartphone apps for preventing breast cancer should be tailored for women at different life stages (e.g., young women, women who are post-menopausal, and older women). Topics such as breastfeeding and oral contraceptives are appropriate for younger women. Weight management, physical activity, avoiding cigarette smoking, and dispelling breast cancer myths are appropriate for women of all ages. As women age, topics such as hormone replacement therapy or comorbid health conditions become more important to address. Apps for breast cancer prevention should be grounded in a behavioral theory or framework and should be suitable for people with varying levels of health literacy. Future developments in smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention should include apps that are tailored for specific cultural, racial, and ethnic groups.

  4. Evaluating Progress in Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, Pascal; Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio

    2017-04-04

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) funds every state, seven tribes, seven territories and the District of Columbia to develop formal cancer plans that focus efforts in cancer control. A 2010 review of cancer plans identified radon-related activities in 27 (42%) plans. Since then, 37 coalitions have updated their plans with new or revised cancer control objectives. There has also been recent efforts to increase awareness about radon among cancer coalitions. This study assesses NCCCP grantees current radon activities and changes since the 2010 review. We reviewed all 65 NCCCP grantee cancer plans created from 2005 to 2015 for radon related search terms and categorized plans by radon activities. The program's most recent annual progress report to CDC was also reviewed. We then compared the results from the updated plans with the findings from the 2010 review to assess changes in radon activities among cancer coalitions. Changes in state radon laws between 2010 and 2015 were also assessed. While a number of cancer plans have added or expanded radon-specific activities since 2010, approximately one-third of NCCCP grantees still do not include radon in their cancer plans. Cancer programs can consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs to further reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially among non-smokers.

  5. Physician Assistant | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    counseling within the boundaries of his/her specialty area of education and clinical preparation (pediatrics, adults, urologic, surgical, etc.). Review assigned patient resident reports and carry and answer the resident pager. Provide coverage for the post-call resident’s patients, while working closely with the Inpatient/Fellowship staff.  Support in-patient and out-patient care of subjects enrolled in experimental protocols and clinical trials. Work as a member of a multidisciplinary clinical team to provide comprehensive care to patients in a research environment. Write prescriptions. Explain the care management/discharge plan to all members of the covering team (inpatient NPs, attendings) at signout. This position is located in Bethesda, Maryland in support of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  6. Wnt Inactivation for Liver Cancer Therapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common and third most deadly type of cancer in the world. The majority of cases occur in Asia and Africa, resulting in most cases being diagnosed only at advanced stages of the disease when drug resistance is high. HCC typically follows damage to the liver such as cirrhosis, making radiation and chemotherapy a more challenging prospect. Surgery is also not a very viable option because less than one in four carcinomas can be completely removed. The limitations in these treatment modalities create the need for alternative therapeutic approaches.

  7. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:25872896

  8. Utilization of Cancer Information System for Breast Cancer Control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: there is a substantial increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Nigeria usually with the late stage presentations and subsequent poor rates of survival attributed mainly to a low level of cancer awareness and ignorance amongst patients. Cancer information system (CIS) is now assuming an emerging role in ...

  9. Research advances in zebrafish as a model of liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xinjuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of liver cancer tends to increase in recent years, and the molecular and pathogenic mechanisms of liver cancer should be further investigated to guarantee health. As an important model organism, zebrafish have highly conserved genes and grow fast. The early embryo of zebrafish is transparent, which helps with the real-time observation of the development process. Zebrafish are similar to humans in the composition, function, and signaling pathways of hepatocytes, as well as response to injury. In modern biological studies, zebrafish have been wildly used as the model of liver diseases. This article summarizes the research advances in the application of zebrafish as the model of liver cancer, and points out that the techniques for establishing the zebrafish model of liver cancer have become mature. With the constant development of experimental techniques, great achievements will be achieved in the field of liver cancer.

  10. Application of single-cell technology in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Fu, Li-Wu

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. The future prospects now are to bring single-cell technology into the clinical arena. We believe that the clinical application of single-cell technology will be beneficial in cancer diagnostics and treatment, and ultimately improve survival in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Obesity-Linked Mouse Models of Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy Stauffer, Ph.D., and colleagues working with Robert  Wiltrout, Ph.D., in CCR’s Cancer and Inflammation Program, along with collaborators in the Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, have developed a novel mouse model that demonstrates how fat-producing phenotypes can influence the development of hepatic cancer.   The team recently reported their findings in Cancer Research.

  12. CPTAC Team Releases Targeted Proteomic Assays for Ovarian Cancer | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigators in the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), announces the public release of 98 targeted mass spectrometry-based assays for ovarian cancer research studies.  Chosen based on proteogenomic observations from the recently published multi-institutional collaborative project between PNNL and Johns Hopkins University that comprehensively examined the collections of proteins in the tumors of ovarian cancer patients (highlighted in a paper in

  13. Cancer therapies in HIV cure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Thomas A; Anderson, Jenny L; Wightman, Fiona; Lewin, Sharon R

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of anticancer therapies in various stages of clinical development as potential interventions to target HIV persistence. Epigenetic drugs developed for cancer have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in clinical trials as interventions aimed at reversing HIV latency and depleting the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors induced HIV expression in patients on antiretroviral therapy but did not reduce the frequency of infected cells. Other interventions that may accelerate the decay of latently infected cells, in the presence or absence of latency-reversing therapy, are now being explored. These include apoptosis-promoting agents, nonhistone deacetylase inhibitor compounds to reverse HIV latency and immunotherapy interventions to enhance antiviral immunity such as immune checkpoint inhibitors and Toll-like receptor agonists. A curative strategy in HIV will likely need to both reduce the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy and improve anti-HIV immune surveillance. Although we continue to explore advances in the field of oncology including cancer immunotherapy, there are major differences in the risk-benefit assessment between HIV-infected individuals and patients with malignancies. Drug development specifically targeting HIV persistence will be the key to developing effective interventions with an appropriate safety profile.

  14. Technology research for digital flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carestia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of advanced digital systems for flight control and guidance for a specific mission is investigated. The research areas include advanced electronic system architectures, tests with the global positioning system (GPS) in a helicopter, and advanced integrated systems concept for rotorcraft. Emphasis is on a search and rescue mission, differential global positioning systems to provide a data base of performance information for navigation, and a study to determine the present usage and trends of microcomputers and microcomputer components in the avionics industries.

  15. Dedicated researcher brings cancer care to rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Bhuller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics

  16. THE 2011-2016 TRANSDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH IN ENERGETICS AND CANCER (TREC) INITIATIVE: RATIONALE AND DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Hu, Frank B.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Ahima, Rexford S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Gehlert, Sarah; Gill, Jeff; Glanz, Karen; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Herbst, Karen Louise; Hoehner, Christine M.; Hovmand, Peter S.; Irwin, Melinda L.; Jacobs, Linda A.; James, Aimee S.; Jones, Lee W.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Kibel, Adam S.; King, Irena B.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Natarajan, Loki; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Olefsky, Jerrold M.; Proctor, Enola K.; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L.; Rosner, Bernard; Sarwer, David B.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Sears, Dorothy D.; Sesso, Howard D.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Subramanian, S. V.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Tchou, Julia; Thompson, Beti; Troxel, Andrea B.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Thornquist, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Recognition of the complex, multidimensional relationship between excess adiposity and cancer control outcomes has motivated the scientific community to seek new research models and paradigms. Methods The National Cancer Institute developed an innovative concept to establish a centers grant mechanism in nutrition, energetics, and physical activity; referred to as the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) Initiative. This paper gives an overview of the 2011-2016 TREC Collaborative Network and the 15 research projects being conducted at the Centers. Results Four academic institutions were awarded TREC center grants in 2011: Harvard University, University of California San Diego, University of Pennsylvania, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the Coordination Center. The TREC research portfolio includes 3 animal studies, 3 cohort studies, 4 randomized clinical trials, 1 cross-sectional study, and 2 modeling studies. Disciplines represented by TREC investigators include basic science, endocrinology, epidemiology, biostatistics, behavior, medicine, nutrition, physical activity, genetics, engineering, health economics, and computer science. Approximately 41,000 participants will be involved in these studies, including children, healthy adults, and breast and prostate cancer survivors. Outcomes include biomarkers of cancer risk, changes in weight and physical activity, persistent adverse treatment effects (e.g., lymphedema, urinary and sexual function), and breast and prostate cancer mortality. Conclusion The NIH Science of Team Science group will evaluate the value-added by this collaborative science. However, the most important outcome will be whether this transdisciplinary initiative improves the health of Americans at risk for cancer as well as cancer survivors. PMID:23378138

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid ... Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin ... Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research ...

  19. Empowering Promotores de Salud as partners in cancer education and research in rural southwest Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupertino, Ana Paula; Saint-Elin, Mercedes; de Los Rios, Johana Bravo; Engelman, Kimberly K; Greiner, K Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Nápoles, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    To describe community-based participatory processes used to develop promotore training on cancer research, and to assess the feasibility of training promotores from rural communities to disseminate cancer research information. Prospective, cohort design. Rural communities in the state of Kansas. 34 Spanish-speaking promotores attended an information session; 27 enrolled and 22 completed training. With input from a community advisory board, the authors developed a leadership and cancer curriculum and trained Spanish-speaking promotores to disseminate information on cancer research. Promotores completed pretraining and post-training surveys in Spanish to assess demographic characteristics and changes in knowledge of cancer, cancer treatment and cancer research studies, and intent to participate in cancer research. Cancer knowledge, awareness of cancer clinical trials, interest in participating in cancer clinical research studies. Compared to pretraining, after training, promotores were more likely to correctly define cancer, identify biopsies, describe cancer stages, and report ever having heard of cancer research studies. Completion rates of the training and willingness to participate in cancer research were high, supporting the feasibility of training promotores to deliver community-based education to promote cancer research participation. Nursing professionals and researchers can collaborate with promotores to disseminate cancer education and research among underserved rural Latino communities in Kansas and elsewhere. Members of these communities appear willing and interested in improving their knowledge of cancer and cancer clinical trials.

  20. Patient engagement in research with older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, Martine T E; Sattar, Schroder; Ghodraty-Jabloo, Vida; Hsu, Tina; Fitch, Marg; Szumacher, Ewa; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is a disease that mostly affects older adults. Older adults have been under-represented in clinical cancer research. Around the world there is a push for patient engagement on study teams as it is anticipated to improve study design, recruitment and dissemination of findings. In the current overview we examined the evidence with regard to: 1) the history of patient engagement in research and frameworks developed; 2) impact of patient engagement on patient and research outcomes; 3) use of patient engagement in geriatrics and oncology, 4) recommendations for successful engagement; and 5) gaps in the literature that should be studied further. A narrative review was conducted. Articles published in English were searched in Medline with the help of a librarian. Patient engagement has been shown to improve the conduct of studies by making the study design more relevant and feasible, and improving recruitment rates and uptake of research findings by patients. However, the best way to engage patients is not clear yet. Several resources have been developed to support researchers engaging older adults with cancer in research. While patient engagement in research seems promising to improve study outcomes, little evidence is available thus far in geriatric oncology settings. Several gaps in the literature are identified that should be further studied to determine the value of, and best approaches to, patient engagement with older adults with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interventions to promote energy balance and cancer survivorship: priorities for research and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Catherine M; Molfino, Alessio; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    The growing population of cancer survivors worldwide and the growing epidemics of obesity and physical inactivity have brought increased attention to the role that interventions to promote exercise and a healthy body weight may play in mitigating the chronic and late effects of cancer. In this light, the authors describe the similarities and differences in research and clinical priorities related to energy balance interventions among post-treatment cancer survivors in Europe versus North America. Randomized controlled trials that targeted nutrition, exercise, and weight are reviewed to determine the affect on survivorship outcomes. Interventions focused on improving prognosis or survival are investigated along with the emerging literature on the interventions targeting pathways and mechanisms of prognosis or survival. Current North American and European guidelines for diet, exercise, and weight control among cancer survivors also are investigated along with the implications of the current state of this science for clinical care. Finally, the authors delineate future European and American priorities for research and care involving energy balance among survivors. It is hoped that this dialogue launches an international conversation that will lead to better research and care for all post-treatment cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  2. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Escorcia Lab within the Molecular Imaging Program (MIP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking a highly motivated postdoctoral candidate with a background in cancer biology and/or radiation biology to lead projects to develop and assess new tumor-selective imaging and therapeutic agents. MIP provides a collaborative environment of experts in (radio)chemistry, biology and physics and offers a unique opportunity to translate successful imaging and therapeutic agents into clinical trials in the NCI. The primary focus of the lab involves developing tumor-selective imaging agents (e.g. PET, SPECT) to inform cytotoxic therapies such as immuno-oncology agents, small molecule chemotherapy, external radiotherapy, or targeted radioimmunotherapy agents, which can be engineered in the lab. In addition, we aim to develop methods to enhance therapeutic efficacy of ionizing radiation, especially targeted nuclide therapies (TNTs), and utilize state of the art dose modeling and detection techniques to ensure therapeutic doses to tumors. Our group is uniquely poised to take advantage of recent approvals of TNTs in humans to expand the repertoire of preclinical agents and translate the most promising ones to the clinic. Our approach is multidisciplinary and spans bioinformatics (e.g. analysis of RNASeq data) to help identify novel imaging and therapeutic targets, genetic engineering (e.g. CRISPR/Cas9) and pharmacologic manipulation to study radiosensitivity, as well as radio- and bioconjugate-chemistry and medical physics to generate/assess our imaging and therapeutic agents. Accordingly, the lab is part of a multidisciplinary team of chemists, physicists, biologists, and physician-scientists who all collaborate to advance the mission of the lab and MIP as a whole, providing an excellent environment for motivated postdoctoral candidates to learn and thrive as scientists.

  3. Team Members | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Team Members The Foregut Team includes experts in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases listed below. Our clinical experience and active research offers patients the highest quality care in the setting of groundbreaking clinical trials.

  4. Multimorbidity and cancer outcomes: a need for more research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen HT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Toft Sørensen Editor in Chief Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkCancer incidence increases with age, and about 43% of men and 30% of women aged 65 will develop cancer in their remaining lifetimes.1 The global population is rapidly aging, and by 2030 about 70% of cancer in, for example, the US, will be diagnosed in older patients.2 Fortunately, cancer survival has improved and 5-year survival exceeds 80% for many common cancers.3 As a result of these two complementary trends, the population of cancer survivors is growing at a rate of almost 2% per year.4As comorbidities accumulate with age, the number of patients with multimorbidity, ie, the coexistence of several chronic diseases, is increasing dramatically.5 In the US, about 80% of Medicare funds are spent on patients with four or more chronic conditions. Multimorbidity is associated with mortality, disability, low functional status, and risks of adverse drug events.6,7Clinical and epidemiological research on cancer prognosis has mainly focused on cancers in isolation, ignoring the impact of comorbidity and co-medication on the risk of complications and mortality. Comorbidity is a medical condition that exists at the time of diagnosis of the cancer or later, but which is not a consequence of the cancer itself.8Comorbidity is common in cancer patients, who often have adverse lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, obesity, and smoking, which cause other chronic diseases. Thus, many cancer patients have chronic disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis.9–13 With the growing population of elderly patients with cancer and other chronic diseases, modern medicine will need to address multiple medical problems at once, focusing on mortality, treatment complications, quality of life, and implications for screening.7,14 In this issue of Clinical Epidemiology

  5. Dissemination and Translation: A Frontier for Cancer Survivorship Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pollack, Lori A; Hawkins, Nikki A; Peaker, Brandy L.; Buchanan, Natasha; Risendal, Betsy C.

    2011-01-01

    As the field of survivorship research grows, the need for translation is imperative to expand new knowledge into arenas that directly impact survivors. This commentary seeks to encourage research focused on dissemination and translation of survivorship interventions and programs, including practice-based research. We overview diffusion, dissemination and translation in the context of cancer survivorship and present the RE-AIM and Knowledge to Action frameworks as approaches that can be used t...

  6. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attendee Testimonial Plenty of Food for Thought Served Up at the John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum by Julia Tobacyk Read the Testimonial (DOC, 3.3MB) Date: March 12-16, 2018 |

  7. The Future of LGBT Cancer Care: Practice and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, David; Schabath, Matthew B

    2018-02-01

    To synthesize state of the knowledge collected in this volume and propose future directions for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer practice, education, research, and advocacy. Current and extant literature. Health care disparities that are known but not yet fully elucidated in the LGBT population carry into the cancer arena. Substantially more effort is required in the domains of patient care, nursing practice, nursing and patient-facing services provider education, patient education, nursing and interprofessional research, governmental commitment, professional organization action, and patient advocacy. Professional nurses are committed to the uniqueness of each individual and respect and value the health and well-being of each individual. To that commitment, oncology nurses are positioned to advance the research in the field, which will help to clarify the issues and concerns related to LGBT cancer, address the health care inequities in this important population, and lead to improved outcomes for all. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling a description logic vocabulary for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Frank W; de Coronado, Sherri; Dionne, Robert; Fragoso, Gilberto; Golbeck, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute has developed the NCI Thesaurus, a biomedical vocabulary for cancer research, covering terminology across a wide range of cancer research domains. A major design goal of the NCI Thesaurus is to facilitate translational research. We describe: the features of Ontylog, a description logic used to build NCI Thesaurus; our methodology for enhancing the terminology through collaboration between ontologists and domain experts, and for addressing certain real world challenges arising in modeling the Thesaurus; and finally, we describe the conversion of NCI Thesaurus from Ontylog into Web Ontology Language Lite. Ontylog has proven well suited for constructing big biomedical vocabularies. We have capitalized on the Ontylog constructs Kind and Role in the collaboration process described in this paper to facilitate communication between ontologists and domain experts. The artifacts and processes developed by NCI for collaboration may be useful in other biomedical terminology development efforts.

  9. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As developing economies[1] around the world become more socially affluent in the coming decades, the incidence of cancer-related mortality is expected rise significantly owing to a combination of lifestyle changes and multiple environmental factors (Figure 1. Based on statistics from the World Health Organization, developing countries accounted for nearly 72% of cancer mortality in 2008 even though the average disease incidence in these countries is lower compared to that of high-income nations[3]It has been projected that up to 60% (ca. 15–20 million of new cancer cases will occur in developing countries by the year 2020[4-6], causing more deaths than AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis combined. In the past, cancer management in developing countries has focused heavily on disease prevention, general awareness improvement, and early detection, while deprioritizing treatment and research efforts as a result of limited resources[7]. However, given the severity of the situation, it is now necessary to recalibrate our focus and reprioritize the investment of valuable resources in the fight against cancer.With respect to cancer research in developing countries, a major challenge faced by international researchers is the lack of reliable data[6], along with a limited research output from the developing world, which hampers our general understanding of the capability of these countries in dealing with the cancer pandemic. From 2011 to 2015, the average combined research output from developing countries constituted only 20% of the total publication output of the world’s top 100 most published countries in the field of oncology (Figure 2. Nonetheless, developing countries have recorded an impressive 20% average year-on-year increase in terms of their publication output during this period, and five of these countries contributed to more than three quarter of the total number of papers published (Figure 3.In contrast, developed nations only registered a 4

  10. Why nursing research in tobacco control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is an epidemic of overwhelming proportions affecting survival, causing millions of deaths every year, causing untold human suffering worldwide, and contributing to escalating health care costs. Nursing research is vital to advancing knowledge in the field and to the translation of science to evidence-based practice. As the largest group of health care professionals (17 million worldwide), nurses have the capacity for an enormous impact on this leading cause of preventable death. This chapter thus provides a historical overview of the tobacco epidemic, health risks of smoking and benefits of quitting, nicotine addiction, and recommendations of evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment as a backdrop for understanding the importance and need for nursing scholarship. Also examined are nursing science efforts and leadership in removing two barriers to mounting programs of nursing research in tobacco control: (1) lack of nursing education and training in tobacco control, and (2) limited research funding and mentorship. The chapter also addresses the issue of smoking in the profession as it impacts nurses' health, clinical practice, and, potentially, scholarship efforts.

  11. Current researches on breast cancer epidemiology in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2003-01-01

    As a cause of death in women, breast cancer ranks second to stomach cancer in Korea. Age-standardized mortality rates for breast cancer steadily increased during the 1980s and 1990s. There are big differences in the incidence rates for breast cancer compared with Western countries. Epidemiological features, trends in morbidity and mortality, various age-specific incidence curves, migrant study results, and analysis of the risk factors, however, suggest that the incidence of breast cancer might be further increasing in Korea. The key epidemiological hormonal risk factors for breast cancer are all explicable in terms of the estrogen augmented by progesterone hypothesis. These include older age, family history of breast cancer, early menarche, late menopause, late full-term pregnancy, and never a breast feeding. Both the establishment of high-risk groups and the estimation of lifetime risk are essential to develop a control strategy against breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common histologic type of breast cancer in Korea, and the five-year survival rate has been estimated as 80-83%. Recent studies on the identification of susceptibility factors such as genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1/T1/P1, COMT, CYP2E1, CYP19, CYP17, ER-alpha, XRCC1, XRCC3, RAD52, TGF-alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-1B, IL-1RN, CDK7 etc. that predispose individuals to breast cancer by gene-environment or gene-gene interactions may possibly give further insight into both the etiology and the prevention of this malignancy.

  12. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer. Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglyce...

  13. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Oliveira, João Blasques; Tavares, António; Domingos, Clarinha; Santos, Lucio Lara

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important health problem in Africa. The number of cancer cases in this region could double, ranging between 700 000 and 1 600 000 new cases in 2030. The mortality rate is higher than 80% and is explained, mainly, by a lack of early detection, diagnostics and treatment resources. In Angola, about 7,000 patients die of cancer every year. Data were derived from open-ended interviews conducted in 2010-11 with health authorities, clinicians, nurses and Administration of Hospitals. According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the development of Angola cancer control strategies. Malaria remains the leading cause of illness and death in Angola, and other communicable diseases remain a public health problem. However, 9 000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year.The most common types of cancer are: cancer of the cervix, breast, prostate, esophagus, stomach and head and neck, as well as cancers with infectious origin, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and liver and bladder cancer. The foundation for developing national cancer control strategies includes: oncological data; investment and training; identifying and removing barriers; guidance and protection of the patient. Angolan National Cancer Centre, Sagrada Esperança Clinic and Girassol Clinic are now developing a cancer program. Improving the economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which in itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. On the other hand, infectious diseases, associated with the risk of malignant tumors, are endemic. Thus, an increase in patients with malignant disease is expected. A plan is therefore necessary to organize the response to this old

  14. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:

  15. Proteogenomics | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteogenomics, or the integration of proteomics with genomics and transcriptomics, is an emerging approach that promises to advance basic, translational and clinical research.  By combining genomic and proteomic information, leading scientists are gaining new insights due to a more complete and unified understanding of complex biological processes.

  16. Writing Essentials | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    To effectively communicate research results, the manuscript should be carefully structured to tell a compelling story. As a rule, the introduction should bring the reader from a broad understanding of the topic to the specific question being addressed. In contrast, the discussion should transition the reader from the specific results to their broader implications.

  17. CRISPR-Cas9: from Genome Editing to Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Sun, Heng; Miao, Kai; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process triggered by innate and acquired mutations, which cause the functional abnormality and determine the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Gene editing is a widely used engineering tool for generating mutations that enhance tumorigenesis. The recent developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system renews the genome editing approach into a more convenient and efficient way. By rapidly introducing genetic modifications in cell lines, organs and animals, CRISPR-Cas9 system extends the gene editing into whole genome screening, both in loss-of-function and gain-of-function manners. Meanwhile, the system accelerates the establishment of animal cancer models, promoting in vivo studies for cancer research. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 system is modified into diverse innovative tools for observing the dynamic bioprocesses in cancer studies, such as image tracing for targeted DNA, regulation of transcription activation or repression. Here, we view recent technical advances in the application of CRISPR-Cas9 system in cancer genetics, large-scale cancer driver gene hunting, animal cancer modeling and functional studies.

  18. Health Beliefs and Locus of Control as Predictors of Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OR= 0.35, p < 0.05), internal locus of control (OR = 1.43, p < 0.05) and health risks behaviour (OR= 0.42, p < 0.05) all significantly predicted cervical cancer screening behaviour of women. Keywords: Health beliefs, Health locus of control, cancer ...

  19. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  20. Perceived control, adjustment, and communication problems in laryngeal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, G W; Dineen, M; Kauffman, S M; Raimondi, S C; Simpson, K C

    1993-12-01

    Health locus of control, adjustment to cancer, and communication experiences after a laryngectomy were investigated in 63 laryngeal cancer survivors. Survivors who showed internal control also scored as better adjusted and had fewer communication problems. Scales were intercorrelated (.68 to .92).

  1. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  2. Statistical process control in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Denise F; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2012-02-01

    In intervention studies in which randomization to groups is not possible, researchers typically use quasi-experimental designs. Time series designs are strong quasi-experimental designs but are seldom used, perhaps because of technical and analytic hurdles. Statistical process control (SPC) is an alternative analytic approach to testing hypotheses about intervention effects using data collected over time. SPC, like traditional statistical methods, is a tool for understanding variation and involves the construction of control charts that distinguish between normal, random fluctuations (common cause variation), and statistically significant special cause variation that can result from an innovation. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of SPC and to illustrate its use in a study of a nursing practice improvement intervention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Atomic data for controlled fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.F.; Ray, J.A.; Ricci, E.; Wilker, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Gilbody, H.B.

    1977-02-01

    Presented is an evaluated graphical and tabular compilation of atomic and molecular cross sections of interest to controlled thermonuclear research. The cross sections are tabulated and graphed as a function of energy for collision processes involving heavy particles, electrons, and photons with atoms and ions. Also included are sections on data for particle penetration through macroscopic matter, particle transport properties, particle interactions with surfaces, and pertinent charged particle nuclear cross sections and reaction rates. In most cases estimates have been made of the data accuracy.

  4. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  5. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Jackson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of ‘non-animal human tissue’ models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models.

  6. Bringing Cancer Prevention Research Competencies to the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Melinda S; Chang, Shine; Lee, Hwa-Young; Faupel-Badger, Jessica; Cameron, Carrie

    2018-02-01

    The field of cancer prevention incorporates research all along the spectrum from basic science studies at the laboratory bench to epidemiology, behavioral sciences, and clinical studies, with the convergence of evidence from these different approaches aimed at implementing public health interventions that reduce the burden of this disease. Due to the necessity of multiple disciplines interacting in order to achieve a public health outcome, traditional discipline-specific training may not be adequately preparing the cancer prevention research workforce. We propose that cancer prevention researchers establish defined professional competencies which will allow them to shape the future directions of the field as well as to collaborate effectively in multidisciplinary teams, disseminate new findings beyond their own scientific circles, and advocate for their implementation for the public good. We previously proposed that these core competencies focus on knowledge of issues in other research fields, interdisciplinary communication, and leadership/teamwork. Here, we describe the reorganization of an existing course to incorporate activities deliberately designed to foster these competencies. We provide details about the course structure, student feedback, and ideas for future versions of this course. We hope this framework will be useful to others who are engaged in the collective effort to develop leaders in the field of cancer prevention research.

  7. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Yoga into cancer care: A review of the evidence-based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram P Agarwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To cope with cancer and its treatment-related side effects and toxicities, people are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. Consequently, integrative oncology, which combines conventional therapies and evidence-based CAM practices, is an emerging discipline in cancer care. The use of yoga as a CAM is proving to be beneficial and increasingly gaining popularity. An electronic database search (PubMed, through December 15, 2016, revealed 138 relevant clinical trials (single-armed, nonrandomized, and randomized controlled trials on the use of yoga in cancer patients. A total of 10,660 cancer patients from 20 countries were recruited in these studies. Regardless of some methodological deficiencies, most of the studies reported that yoga improved the physical and psychological symptoms, quality of life, and markers of immunity of the patients, providing a strong support for yoga's integration into conventional cancer care. This review article presents the published clinical research on the prevalence of yoga's use in cancer patients so that oncologists, researchers, and the patients are aware of the evidence supporting the use of this relatively safe modality in cancer care.

  9. Work stress and cancer researchers: an exploration of the challenges, experiences and training needs of UK cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, F; Hicks, B; Yarker, J

    2014-07-01

    Work stress is a significant issue for many UK healthcare professionals, in particular those working in the field of oncology. However, there have been very few attempts to explore the challenges, experiences or training needs of researchers working in cancer research. In doing so, we will be better positioned to support and develop these researchers. Eighteen UK oncology researchers from a variety of backgrounds took part in a semi-structured interview. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis identified two overarching themes: logistical research issues (workload, accessing/recruiting participants, finances) and sensitive research issues (emotional demands, professional boundaries, sensitivity around recruitment). One cross-cutting theme, supportive strategies (support and training, coping mechanisms), was seen to influence both logistical and sensitive research issues. While further research is needed to fully understand the causes and impact of work stress on cancer researchers, three specific issues were highlighted: emotional demands are relevant to quantitative and mixed methods researchers as well as those engaged in qualitative research; the researchers' background (experience; clinical/non-clinical) was influential and an exploration of effective coping strategies is required; and there is a clear need for adequate support systems and training to be available, particularly for early career researchers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All Cancer Types ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  11. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed.

  12. From patient to participant: enhancing the validity and ethics of cancer research through participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Connie G; Mitchell, Terry L; Fitch, Margaret I

    2013-06-01

    Participatory health research involves a wide spectrum of participation from the population of study. We describe the participatory research processes of a large mixed method study on the psychosocial impact of dragon boating in individuals with breast cancer. In particular, we discuss the involvement of a Community Advisory Group (consisting of five breast cancer patients/survivors) in the development of the research study, data collection and analysis, and dissemination of the study results. We also outline the elements of a research workshop, in which 13 breast cancer patients/survivors were involved in the development of a provincial survey for the study. The purpose of this article is to share our experience of engaging cancer patients/survivors in a participatory research study. We discuss the value-based elements of participatory research (power sharing, voice and respect, reciprocity, and mutual benefit), and provide a case-based example of how these participatory elements were employed to potentially increase the validity of the survey instrument, to enhance the ethics of working with a cancer population, and ultimately contributed to a high survey response rate.

  13. Worksite Cancer Prevention Activities in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmias, Zachary; Townsend, Julie S; Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-08-01

    Workplaces are one setting for cancer control planners to reach adults at risk for cancer and other chronic diseases. However, the extent to which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded National Comprehensive Cancer Control Programs (NCCCP) implement interventions in the workplace setting is not well characterized. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of program action plans submitted by NCCCP grantees from 2013 to 2015 to identify and describe cancer prevention objectives and interventions in the workplace setting. Nearly half of NCCCP action reports contained at least one cancer prevention objective or intervention in the workplace setting. Common interventions included education about secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace, and the importance of obtaining colorectal cancer screening. Workplace interventions were relatively common among NCCCP action plans, and serve as one way to address low percentages of CRC screening, and reduce risk for obesity- and tobacco-related cancers.

  14. Ovarian cancer: density equalizing mapping of the global research architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Pulch, Katharina; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Groneberg, David A

    2017-01-13

    Despite its impact on female health worldwide, no efforts have been made to depict the global architecture of ovarian cancer research and to understand the trends in the related literature. Hence, it was the objective of this study to assess the global scientific performance chronologically, geographically and in regards to economic benchmarks using bibliometric tools and density equalizing map projections. The NewQIS platform was employed to identify all ovarian cancer related articles published in the Web of Science since 1900. The items were analyzed regarding quantitative aspects (e.g. publication date, country of origin) and parameters describing the recognition of the work by the scientific community (e.g. citation rates). 23,378 articles on ovarian cancer were analyzed. The USA had the highest activity of ovarian cancer research with a total of n = 9312 ovarian cancer-specific publications, followed by the UK (n = 1900), China (n = 1813), Germany (n = 1717) and Japan (n = 1673). Ovarian cancer-specific country h-index also showed a leading position of the USA with an h-index (HI) of 207, followed by the UK (HI = 122), Canada (HI = 99), Italy (HI = 97), Germany (HI = 84), and Japan (HI = 81). In the socio-economic analysis, the USA were ranked first with an average of 175.6 ovarian cancer-related publications per GDP per capita in 1000 US-$, followed by Italy with an index level of 46.85, the UK with 45.48, and Japan with 43.3. Overall, the USA and Western European nations, China and Japan constituted the scientific power players publishing the majority of highly cited ovarian cancer-related articles and dominated international collaborative efforts. African, Asian and South American countries played almost no visible role in the scientific community. The quantity and scientific recognition of publications related to ovarian cancer are continuously increasing. The research endeavors in the field are concentrated in high-income countries

  15. Mapping cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Rodrigues

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents performance indicators for the Brazilian cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research areas from 1981 to 1995. The data show an increasing number of papers since 1981 and author numbers indicate a continuous growth of the scientific community and suggest an expected impact of scientific activity on biomedical education. The data also characterize cardiovascular research as a well-established area and cancer research as a faster growing consolidating field. The 1989-1994 share of Brazilian articles among world publications shows a growing trend for the cancer (1.61 and cardiovascular (1.59 areas, and a decrease for the malaria area (0.89. The burden of the three diseases on society is contrasted by the small number of consolidated Brazilian research groups, and a questionable balance of thematic activity, especially with regard to malaria. Brazilian periodicals play an important role in increasing the international visibility of science produced in the country. Cancer and cardiovascular research is strongly concentrated in the Southeastern and in Southern regions of Brazil, especially in São Paulo (at least one address from São Paulo in 64.5% of the 962 cancer articles and in 66.9% of the 2250 cardiovascular articles, the second state being Rio de Janeiro with at least one address in 14.1 and 11% of those articles, respectively. Malaria research (468 articles is more evenly distributed across the country, following the pattern of the endemic distribution of the disease. Surveying these national indicator trends can be useful to establish policies in the decision process about health sciences, medical education and public health.

  16. NASA Iced Aerodynamics and Controls Current Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Gene

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the state of current research in the area of aerodynamics and aircraft control with ice conditions by the Aviation Safety Program, part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Controls Project (IRAC). Included in the presentation is a overview of the modeling efforts. The objective of the modeling is to develop experimental and computational methods to model and predict aircraft response during adverse flight conditions, including icing. The Aircraft icing modeling efforts includes the Ice-Contaminated Aerodynamics Modeling, which examines the effects of ice contamination on aircraft aerodynamics, and CFD modeling of ice-contaminated aircraft aerodynamics, and Advanced Ice Accretion Process Modeling which examines the physics of ice accretion, and works on computational modeling of ice accretions. The IRAC testbed, a Generic Transport Model (GTM) and its use in the investigation of the effects of icing on its aerodynamics is also reviewed. This has led to a more thorough understanding and models, both theoretical and empirical of icing physics and ice accretion for airframes, advanced 3D ice accretion prediction codes, CFD methods for iced aerodynamics and better understanding of aircraft iced aerodynamics and its effects on control surface effectiveness.

  17. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac. L'Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac finance la recherche novatrice sur les politiques fiscales qui appuient la lutte antitabac dans les pays à faible revenu ...

  18. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-17

    Jul 17, 2015 ... 3École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 15 parvis René Descartes, 69007, Lyon, France. *Corresponding author (Email, didier.wion@ujf-grenoble.fr). Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has ...

  19. Pediatric Oncology Branch - Support Services | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support Services As part of the comprehensive care provided at the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch, we provide a wide range of services to address the social, psychological, emotional, and practical facets of pediatric cancer and to support patients and families while they are enrolled in clinical research protocols.

  20. Software Tools | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CPTAC program develops new approaches to elucidate aspects of the molecular complexity of cancer made from large-scale proteogenomic datasets, and advance them toward precision medicine.  Part of the CPTAC mission is to make data and tools available and accessible to the greater research community to accelerate the discovery process.

  1. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not ...

  2. Tumor Cold Ischemia | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  3. NCI RNA Biology 2017 symposium recap | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent discovery of new classes of RNAs and the demonstration that alterations in RNA metabolism underlie numerous human cancers have resulted in enormous interest among CCR investigators in RNA biology. In order to share the latest research in this exciting field, the CCR Initiative in RNA Biology held its second international symposium April 23-24, 2017, in Natcher Auditorium. Learn more...

  4. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  5. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  6. Research Programs & Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH develops international initiatives and collaborates with other NCI divisions, NCI-designated Cancer Centers, and other countries to support cancer control planning, encourage capacity building, and support cancer research and research networks.

  7. Trends of triple negative breast cancer research (2007–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiran; Zhai, Xiao; Liu, Chuan; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yajie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype. However, there have been limited data to evaluate the trend of TNBC research. This study aims to investigate the trend of TNBC research and compare the contribution of research from different regions, organizations, and authors. Methods: TNBC-related publications from 2007 to 2015 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Excel 2013 (Redmond, Washington, USA), GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Prism Software Inc., San Diego, CA), and VOSviewer (Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands) software were used to analyze the trend of TNBC research. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Results: A total of 1695 papers were identified and were cited 34,078 times with a time limit of May 27, 2016. The United States accounted for 43.10% of the articles, 57.59% of the citations, and the highest H-index (64). China ranked second in total number of articles, but seventh in citation frequency (1998) and ninth in H-index (21). The journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment had the highest number of publications. The author, Narod SA, has published the most papers in this field (30). The keyword “receptor” was mentioned the most, 1489 times, and the word “myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1)” was the latest hot spot by 2015. Conclusion: Literature growth related to TNBC is expanding rapidly in recent years. The quality of the articles from China still requires improvement. Newest progress of the TNBC research may be released by the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment first. Narod SA, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, and Hortobagyi GN may be good candidates for collaborative research in this field. MCL-1 is an emerging topic that should be closely observed. PMID:27861384

  8. Donation Intentions for Cancer Genetics Research Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K; Troxel, Andrea B.; Shea, Judy A.; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-se...

  9. TREC to WHERE? Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Gehlert, Sarah; Patterson, Ruth E; Colditz, Graham A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Hu, Frank B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Sturgeon, Kathleen M; Thornquist, Mark; Tobias, Deirdre; Nebeling, Linda C

    2016-04-01

    When information is exchanged across disciplinary boundaries, resources are shared, and discipline-specific approaches are altered to achieve a common scientific goal, we create a new intellectual space for transdisciplinary research. This approach, fostered heavily by multiple NCI-funded initiatives, has the potential to forge new understanding of major public health issues. By breaking down disciplinary barriers, we work toward making real, meaningful, and lasting forward motion in addressing key public health issues. One of the transdisciplinary initiatives of the NCI is TREC: Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer. In this article, we review the goals and scope of TREC, as well as the ways in which the initiative promotes transdisciplinary science. A particular focus is on multiple examples of the most unique aspect of the initiative: the funding of developmental projects across multiple TREC centers, toward the goal of incubating high-risk science that has the potential to translate into major leaps forward in understanding energetics in cancer. As we enter an era of greater focus on investigator-initiated science, new approaches may be needed to ensure that the peer review process is not solely organized along disciplinary lines. Inclusion of expertise regarding transdisciplinarity, as well as representation from multiple scientific disciplines within a panel, may allow transdisciplinary research to receive an educated hearing. The body of researchers trained to work in a transdisciplinary research space is ideally suited to address these challenges. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Genetically engineered mouse models in oncology research and cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Kelly; de Visser, Karin E; van Miltenburg, Martine H; Jonkers, Jos

    2017-02-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have contributed significantly to the field of cancer research. In contrast to cancer cell inoculation models, GEMMs develop de novo tumors in a natural immune-proficient microenvironment. Tumors arising in advanced GEMMs closely mimic the histopathological and molecular features of their human counterparts, display genetic heterogeneity, and are able to spontaneously progress toward metastatic disease. As such, GEMMs are generally superior to cancer cell inoculation models, which show no or limited heterogeneity and are often metastatic from the start. Given that GEMMs capture both tumor cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors that drive de novo tumor initiation and progression toward metastatic disease, these models are indispensable for preclinical research. GEMMs have successfully been used to validate candidate cancer genes and drug targets, assess therapy efficacy, dissect the impact of the tumor microenvironment, and evaluate mechanisms of drug resistance. In vivo validation of candidate cancer genes and therapeutic targets is further accelerated by recent advances in genetic engineering that enable fast-track generation and fine-tuning of GEMMs to more closely resemble human patients. In addition, aligning preclinical tumor intervention studies in advanced GEMMs with clinical studies in patients is expected to accelerate the development of novel therapeutic strategies and their translation into the clinic. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. The history and use of cancer registry data by public health cancer control programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S; Mariotto, Angela B; Wong, Faye L; Kohler, Betsy A; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. Cancer 2017;123:4969-76. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Alcohol Control Efforts in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans and Alcohol Use Among Adults in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S. Jane; Kanny, Dafna; Roland, Katherine B.; Grossman, Melissa; Peaker, Brandy; Liu, Yong; Gapstur, Susan M.; White, Mary C.; Plescia, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand how US cancer control plans address alcohol use, an important but frequently overlooked cancer risk factor, and how many US adults are at risk. Methods We reviewed alcohol control efforts in 69 comprehensive cancer control plans in US states, tribes and jurisdictions. Using the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the prevalence of current alcohol use among US adults and the proportion of these drinkers who exceeded guidelines for moderate drinking. Results Most comprehensive cancer control plans acknowledged alcohol use as a cancer risk factor but fewer than half included a goal, objective or strategy to address alcohol use. More than half of US adults reported current alcohol use in 2011, and two of three drinkers exceeded moderate drinking guidelines at least once in the past month. Many states that did not address alcohol use in comprehensive cancer control plans also had a high proportion of adults at risk. Conclusion Alcohol use is a common cancer risk factor in the USA, but alcohol control strategies are not commonly included in comprehensive cancer control plans. Supporting the implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent the excessive use of alcohol is one tool the cancer control community can use to reduce the risk of cancer. PMID:25313255

  13. Emerging Research on Equol and Cancer1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms of action of equol described using in vitro studies suggest possible effects of this compound in relation to cancer risk. However, experimental data are lacking with regard to the effects of S-(-)-equol (a gut bacterial product of daidzein), racemic equol, or even daidzein on tumorigenesis in vivo. Rodent studies, using racemic equol or daidzein in equol-producing animals, suggest that equol exposure does not stimulate mammary tumor growth, but there is little evidence that it is protective either. Racemic equol has been shown to inhibit skin carcinogenesis in hairless mice. Epidemiologic studies of associations between urinary or plasma isoflavone concentrations and breast cancer risk in women have reported no association nor increased risk associated with higher equol measures in low-soy–consuming populations but have reported a trend toward decreased cancer risk with increased equol in Asian populations. These population-based differences have been reported for prostate cancer too. Several studies in Asian men report lower equol concentrations or a lower prevalence of equol-producers among men with prostate cancer compared with controls, whereas studies in European populations report no association. Studies using intermediate biomarkers of cancer risk and susceptibility in humans also have examined the effects the equol-producer phenotype in relation to soy intake with varying results. Overall, the role of equol in relation to cancer remains unclear. With the availability of R- and S-equol, animal studies of carcinogenesis and human intervention studies addressing effects of the equol enantiomers on intermediate biomarkers may help to ascertain the role of equol in cancer risk. PMID:20505018

  14. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Li Ying [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Liu Gaung [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zhang Junjie [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 {mu}m depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  15. VIDEO: Dr. Henry Rodriguez - Proteogenomics in Cancer Medicine | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Henry Rodriguez, director of the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) at NCI, speaks with ecancer television at WIN 2017 about the translation of the proteins expressed in a patient's tumor into a map for druggable targets. By combining genomic and proteomic information (proteogenomics), leading scientists are gaining new insights into ways to detect and treat cancer due to a more complete and unified understanding of complex biological processes.

  16. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for

  17. Optimizing Social Network Support to Families Living With Parental Cancer: Research Protocol for the Cancer-PEPSONE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauken, May Aasebø; Senneseth, Mette; Dyregrov, Atle; Dyregrov, Kari

    2015-12-30

    Parental cancer can have a significant impact on a family's psychosocial functioning and quality of life, whereby the children's situation is strongly related to parental coping and capacity. Such parents ask for more help in order to increase their care capacity, while the network is often insecure about how to help and thereby withdraw. They ask for guidance and training to be able to support cancer families. Based on this, the Cancer- Psycho-Educational Program for the SOcial NEtwork (PEPSONE) study was developed. To optimize social network support through a psycho-educational program for families living with parental cancer and their network members in order to increase parental capacity and thereby secure the children's safety and quality of life. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which families (N=60) living with parental cancer will be randomized to either an intervention group or a control group. The intervention will last for 3 hours and includes (1) introduction, (2) psycho-education (living with cancer in the family and the importance of social network support), and (3) discussion (this family's need for social support). Primary outcomes are social support, mental health, and quality of life, and secondary outcomes are resilience and parental capacity. Data will be collected by a set of questionnaires distributed to healthy parents (N=60) living with a partner with cancer, one child in the family between 8-18 years of age (N=60), and network members (N=210) of the intervention families at inclusion, and after 3 and 6 months. Comparing differences between the intervention group (n=30) and the control group (n=30), the power analysis shows that Peducational program for families living with parental cancer and their network members, as well as provide an evidence basis for social network support. The results may provide important knowledge that is useful for clinical practice and further research. The trial is reported according to the CONSORT

  18. Quantitative Analyses of Esophageal Cancer Research in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Saeed; Ujjan, Ikram Din; Iqbal, Asif; Khan, Ramsha; Khan, Bilal Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare research is a neglected discipline in Pakistan and research related to esophageal cancer (ranks 9th in Pakistani males and 5th in females) is no exception in this regard. Particularly, there are no data available to delineate the overall status of esophageal cancer epidemiological studies in Pakistan. This study describes the first ever effort to make a systematic quantification, in an attempt to provide a roadmap to all stakeholders for designing appropriate epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. International (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge) and local (PakMedinet) scientific databases as well as Google search engine were searched using specified keywords to extract relevant publication. Well defined inclusion criteria were implemented to select publications for final analyses. All data were recorded by at least 3 authors and consensus data were entered into and analyzed for descriptive statistics (such as frequencies, percentages and annual growth rates) using Microsoft Excel and SPSS software. A total of 79 publications fulfilled the inclusion criteria including 20 publications for which full texts were not available. Of the 79 publications, 59 (74.6%) were original/research publications, 5 (6.3%) were case reports, 4 (5.1%) were research communications, 2 (2.5%) were review articles, 1 was (1.2%) correspondence and 8 (10.1%) were un defined categories. Only 13 research is largely unfathomed in Pakistan. Urgent/dramatic steps are required by all concerned to address this common (and under reported) cancer of Pakistan.

  19. Genetic Gastric Cancer Susceptibility in the International Clinical Cancer Genomics Community Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Thomas; Neuhausen, Susan L; Rybak, Christina; Solomon, Ilana; Nehoray, Bita; Blazer, Kathleen; Niell-Swiller, Mariana; Adamson, Aaron W; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Yang, Kai; Sand, Sharon; Castillo, Danielle; Herzog, Josef; Wu, Xiwei; Tao, Shu; Chavez, Tanya; Woo, Yanghee; Chao, Joseph; Mora, Pamela; Horcasitas, Darling; Weitzel, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Few susceptibility genes for gastric cancer have been identified. We sought to identify germline susceptibility genes from participants with gastric cancer from an international hereditary cancer research network. Adults with gastric cancer of any histology, and with a germline DNA sample (n = 51), were retrospectively selected. For those without previously identified germline mutations (n = 43), sequencing was performed for 706 candidate genes. Twenty pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were identified among 18 participants. Eight of the 18 participants had previous positive clinical testing, including six with CDH1 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants, and two with pathogenic MSH2 and TP53 variants. Of the remaining 10, six were in BRCA1 DNA damage response pathway genes (ATM, ATR, BRCA2, BRIP1, FANCC, TP53), other variants were identified in CTNNA1, FLCN, SBDS, and GNAS. Participants identified with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were younger at gastric cancer diagnosis than those without, 39.1 versus 48.0 years, and over 50% had a close family member with gastric cancer (p-values < 0.0001). In conclusion, many participants were identified with mutations in clinically-actionable genes. Age of onset and family history of gastric cancer were mutation status predictors. Our findings support multigene panels in identifying gastric cancer predisposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving cancer pain control with NCCN guideline-based analgesic administration: a patient-centered outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjan, Nora

    2014-09-01

    Improving the control of cancer-related pain (CRP) is a clinical and ethical imperative. Clinical research has documented improved treatment tolerance and survival rates among patients with cancer who have effective pain control. Barriers to CRP control include inadequate patient and physician education. Meta-analyses of patient education studies correlate improvements in CRP control with improved communications with health care providers and the implementation of strategies that assist with adherence to medication schedules. These strategies build patient confidence, allowing better self-management of pain and reduced psychological consequences. For physicians, ample educational resources exist in CRP management. However, in both the inpatient and outpatient settings, compliance with NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Adult Cancer Pain continues to be less than 70%, and more than one-third of patients continue to receive inadequate doses of analgesics. Patient-centered outcomes have become an integral end point in health policy, and the nation's medical training, research, and delivery systems are transforming to a value-based accreditation and reimbursement system. Pain control is a significant patient-centered outcome in cancer care, because pain adversely impacts function and affects all domains of quality of life. Agreement is clear on the value of health care interventions that relieve suffering from cancer pain and restore personal dignity. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  1. Advancing Transdisciplinary Research: The Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah; Hall, Kara; Vogel, Amanda; Hohl, Sarah; Hartman, Sheri; Nebeling, Linda; Redline, Susan; Schmitz, Kathryn; Thornquist, Mark; Patterson, Ruth; Thompson, Beti

    2014-09-01

    Strategies for constructing and maintaining cross-disciplinary teams are in their infancy. We outline strategies to support one form, transdisciplinary research, in a major initiative of the National Cancer Institute, the Transdisciplinary Research in Energetics and Cancer 2 (TREC2) initiative. Discussion of the TREC2 sites' experiences with transdisciplinarity is structured around a conceptual model that identifies four iterative phases of transdisciplinary research. An active coordination center, regular face-to-face meetings, and input from external advisors were instrumental in moving TREC2 to the translation phase. The possibilities for advancements in the science of energetics and cancer increased as investigator ties became denser. TREC2 can be seen as a flagship effort in transdisciplinary science that provides lessons on moving ideas from development to translation.

  2. Chromatin Configuration Determines Cell Responses to Hormone Stimuli | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ever since selective gene expression was established as the central driver of cell behavior, researchers have been working to understand the forces that control gene transcription. Aberrant gene expression can cause or promote many diseases, including cancer, and alterations in gene expression are the goal of many therapeutic agents. Recent work has focused on the potential role of chromatin structure as a contributor to gene regulation. Chromatin can exist in a tightly packed/inaccessible or loose/accessible configuration depending on the interactions between DNA and its associated proteins. Patterns of chromatin structure can differ between cell types and can also change within cells in response to certain signals. Cancer researchers are particularly interested in the role of chromatin in gene regulation because many of the genomic regions found to be associated with cancer risk are in open chromatin structures.

  3. Global nutrition research: nutrition and breast cancer prevention as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, Sophie A; Weaver, Connie M

    2013-11-01

    The gene-environment interaction is paramount in light of the worldwide rise in incidence of chronic diseases, with cancers in the pole position. Diet is an environmental factor with potential to influence cancer onset by shaping the epigenome (i.e., the genome organization that controls the differential expression of genes). Yet, there is no consensus regarding how diet might help prevent breast cancer, the second most frequent malignancy globally. The complexity of breast cancers requires working on a global and multidisciplinary scale to further understand the relationship between breast cancer type, diet, and the epigenome. This article describes the International Breast Cancer & Nutrition collaboration as one such approach. A global endeavor brings the diversity necessary to pinpoint important diet-gene relationships. Being developed are models, detection and assessment tools, and funding and public policy frameworks necessary to advance primary prevention research for the benefit of all populations affected by breast cancer. This paradigm can be adapted to understanding diet-gene relationships for other chronic diseases. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  4. An ecological framework for cancer communication: implications for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kevin; Intille, Stephen S; Zabinski, Marion F

    2005-07-01

    The field of cancer communication has undergone a major revolution as a result of the Internet. As recently as the early 1990s, face-to-face, print, and the telephone were the dominant methods of communication between health professionals and individuals in support of the prevention and treatment of cancer. Computer-supported interactive media existed, but this usually required sophisticated computer and video platforms that limited availability. The introduction of point-and-click interfaces for the Internet dramatically improved the ability of non-expert computer users to obtain and publish information electronically on the Web. Demand for Web access has driven computer sales for the home setting and improved the availability, capability, and affordability of desktop computers. New advances in information and computing technologies will lead to similarly dramatic changes in the affordability and accessibility of computers. Computers will move from the desktop into the environment and onto the body. Computers are becoming smaller, faster, more sophisticated, more responsive, less expensive, and--essentially--ubiquitous. Computers are evolving into much more than desktop communication devices. New computers include sensing, monitoring, geospatial tracking, just-in-time knowledge presentation, and a host of other information processes. The challenge for cancer communication researchers is to acknowledge the expanded capability of the Web and to move beyond the approaches to health promotion, behavior change, and communication that emerged during an era when language- and image-based interpersonal and mass communication strategies predominated. Ecological theory has been advanced since the early 1900s to explain the highly complex relationships among individuals, society, organizations, the built and natural environments, and personal and population health and well-being. This paper provides background on ecological theory, advances an Ecological Model of Internet

  5. New Paradigms in Translational Science Research in Cancer Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Paul D.; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investments in basic science by the US National Institutes of Health, there is a concern that the return on this investment has been limited in terms of clinical utility. In the field of biomarkers, translational research is used to bridge the gap between the results of basic research that identify biomolecules involved in or the consequence of carcinogenesis and their incorporation into medical application. The cultural separation between different scientific disciplines often makes it difficult to establish the multidisciplinary and multi-skilled teams that are necessary for successful translational research. The field of biomarker research requires extensive interactions between academic researchers and industrial developers, and clinicians are needed to help shape the research direction that can only be addressed by multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. In this article, we provide our perspective on the relatively slow pace of cancer biomarker translation, especially those for early detection and screening. PMID:22424436

  6. A Comprehensive Infrastructure for Big Data in Cancer Research: Accelerating Cancer Research and Precision Medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hinkson, Izumi V; Klemm, Juli D; Kerlavage, Anthony R; Kibbe, Warren A; Davidsen, Tanja M

    2017-01-01

    ..., therapeutic response, and outcome. To maximize the value of these data, an interdisciplinary approach is paramount. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has initiated multiple projects to characterize tumor samples using multi-omic approaches. These projects harness the expertise of clinicians, biologists, computer scientists, and software engineers t...

  7. The eighth Asia cancer forum: seeking to advance the outcomes of the UN summit: 'global health as the key to a new paradigm in cancer research'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Norie; Akaza, Hideyuki; Roh, Jae Kyung; Shibuya, Kenji; Inoue, Hajime; Takemi, Keizo; Nozaki, Shinjiro; Kawakami, Koji; Iwasaki, Masaru

    2012-12-01

    To date, the Asia Cancer Forum has focused its efforts on creating a common concept for collaborative efforts in international cancer research with a focus on Asia, where cancer incidence is rising dramatically, and also sharing information and knowledge among cancer specialists about the importance of cancer as a global health agenda issue. The Eighth Asia Cancer Forum was held following the historic outcome of the High-level Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases held in New York in September 2011, at which cancer was duly recognized as a global health agenda issue. Despite this significant development, however, the issue of cancer, one of the most intractable of all non-communicable diseases, still faces a variety of challenges if it is to be addressed on the global level. The Eighth Asia Cancer Forum sought to address these various issues, seeking ways to capitalize on the outcomes of the UN Meeting and take global collaborative studies and alliances in the field of cancer further. It was recognized that one of the main challenges for the Asia Cancer Forum is to formulate a proposal that demonstrates how middle-income countries can provide a good level of care using only their own limited medical resources. Given that the Asia Cancer Forum is one of the organizations that can provide assistance in working to further boost awareness about cancer research and the situation relating to cancer in Asian countries, discussion also focused on how to concretize activities in the future.

  8. The Lancet Oncology's Cancer Control in Africa | Michael | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  9. THE LANCET ONCOLOGY'S CANCER CONTROL IN AFRICA O.S. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  10. Regional Cancer Control in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Proposal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an impending cancer epidemic in Africa. In Nigeria, this disease is causing untold devastation, and control measures are desperately needed. Breast, cervical, prostate, and liver cancers are the most common types in Nigerian adults. In children, the predominant malignant diseases are Burkitt's lymphoma, acute ...

  11. Control of breast cancer using health education | Nzarubara | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Todetermine theefficacy of massscreening in the control of primary breast cancer among a selected group of women from Mpigi district, Uganda. Design: Qualitative study by comparing the level of knowledge of risk factors, attitude and practice to breast cancer and the ability to carry out self breast examination ...

  12. Long-term quality of life after breast cancer: a French registry-based controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Delphine; Mercier, Mariette; Abeilard, Edwige; Puyraveau, Marc; Danzon, Arlette; Dalstein, Véronique; Pozet, Astrid; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Henry-Amar, Michel; Velten, Michel

    2011-08-01

    Population-based studies on quality of life (QOL) of long-term breast cancer survivors are quite recent and insufficient attention has been paid to the effect of time since diagnosis. We compared long-term QOL of population-based breast cancer survivors 5, 10, and 15 years after diagnosis with that of healthy controls. Breast cancer survivors were randomly selected from three population-based cancer registries (Bas-Rhin, Calvados and Doubs, France) along with healthy controls, stratified for age and place of residence, randomly selected from electoral rolls. Participants completed five self-administered questionnaires: the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Short Form-36 (SF-36), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) and a life conditions questionnaire. An analysis of variance was used to compare QOL scores of breast cancer survivors by period (5, 10, or 15 years) of diagnosis with those of controls, adjusted for sociodemographic data and comorbidities. Six hundred and fifty-two cases and 1,188 controls participated in the study. For many QOL scales, scores were significantly different between cancer survivors and controls. A clinically significant difference was evidenced for the fatigue scales, the SF36 physical functioning, role-physical, and role-emotional scales, with more favorable results for controls. Differences decreased with time and 15-year cancer survivors were generally not different from controls. Scores were particularly influenced by age and mean household income. More efforts should be made, specifically during the first 5 to 10 years after diagnosis, to help women with breast cancer to overcome their impairment in QOL.

  13. Evolution of a CDC Public Health Research Agenda for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ingrid J.; Smith, Judith Lee

    2016-01-01

    Men with prostate cancer face difficult choices when selecting a therapy for localized prostate cancer. Comparative data from controlled studies are lacking and clinical opinions diverge about the benefits and harms of treatment options. Consequently, there is limited guidance for patients regarding the impact of treatment decisions on quality of life. There are opportunities for public health to intervene at several decision-making points. Information on typical quality of life outcomes associated with specific prostate cancer treatments could help patients select treatment options. From 2003 to present, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control at CDC has supported projects to explore patient information-seeking behavior post-diagnosis, caregiver and provider involvement in treatment decision making, and patient quality of life following prostate cancer treatment. CDC's work also includes research that explores barriers and facilitators to the presentation of active surveillance as a viable treatment option and promotes equal access to information for men and their caregivers. This article provides an overview of the literature and considerations that initiated establishing a prospective public health research agenda around treatment decision making. Insights gathered from CDC-supported studies are poised to enhance understanding of the process of shared decision making and the influence of patient, caregiver, and provider preferences on the selection of treatment choices. These findings provide guidance about attributes that maximize patient experiences in survivorship, including optimal quality of life and patient and caregiver satisfaction with information, treatment decisions, and subsequent care. PMID:26590643

  14. Can cancer researchers accurately judge whether preclinical reports will reproduce?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is vigorous debate about the reproducibility of research findings in cancer biology. Whether scientists can accurately assess which experiments will reproduce original findings is important to determining the pace at which science self-corrects. We collected forecasts from basic and preclinical cancer researchers on the first 6 replication studies conducted by the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology (RP:CB to assess the accuracy of expert judgments on specific replication outcomes. On average, researchers forecasted a 75% probability of replicating the statistical significance and a 50% probability of replicating the effect size, yet none of these studies successfully replicated on either criterion (for the 5 studies with results reported. Accuracy was related to expertise: experts with higher h-indices were more accurate, whereas experts with more topic-specific expertise were less accurate. Our findings suggest that experts, especially those with specialized knowledge, were overconfident about the RP:CB replicating individual experiments within published reports; researcher optimism likely reflects a combination of overestimating the validity of original studies and underestimating the difficulties of repeating their methodologies.

  15. Pancreatic cancer treatment and research: an international expert panel discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempero, M A; Berlin, J; Ducreux, M; Haller, D; Harper, P; Khayat, D; Schmoll, H-J; Sobrero, A; Van Cutsem, E

    2011-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer has proven extremely challenging to treat. A collaborative effort is needed to advance research and improve treatment. An expert conference was conducted to elicit perspectives regarding the current treatment and future research of pancreatic cancer. The conference comprised an international panel of experts representing five European countries and the United States. Adjuvant radiotherapy is used more frequently in the United States than in Europe. In locally advanced disease, there is now more emphasis on early chemotherapy in both Europe and the United States. In metastatic disease, combination chemotherapy is commonly used in Europe and the United States. This varies by country. Advancing pancreatic research will require improving biorepositories and developing a roadmap to prioritize therapeutic targets in different models. Small randomized phase II trials of both non-selected and enriched patient populations will help identify activity of new agents. Phase III trials should only be initiated in appropriate patients based on strong clinical and biological signals. Developing drugs in the adjuvant setting may be preferable to eliminate some of the challenges of drug development in the advanced disease setting. Progress in research combined with encouraging improvements from the past offer hope for the future of pancreatic cancer patients.

  16. A bibliometric analysis of diets and breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas; Wannaiampikul, Sivaporn; Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Duangmano, Suwit

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research publications in the field of diets and breast cancer. The impact of economic outcome on national academic productivity was also investigated. Data were retrieved using Pubmed for English-language publications. The search included all research for which articles included words relating to "diets and breast cancer". Population and national income data were obtained from publicly available databases. Impact factors for journals were obtained from Journal Citation Reports® (Thomson Scientific). There were 2,396 publications from 60 countries in 384 journals with an impact factor. Among them, 1,652 (68.94%) publications were Original articles. The United States had the highest quantity (51% of total) and highest of mean impact factor (8.852) for publication. Sweden had the highest productivity of publication when adjusted for number of population (6 publications per million population). Publications from the Asian nation increased from 5.3% in 2006 to 14.6% in 2012. The Original article type was also associated with geography (poutput continues to increase annually worldwide including publications from Asian countries. Although the United States produced the most publications, European nations per capita were higher in publication output.

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  18. Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do, this booklet includes tips about managing your pain with medicine and other treatments. PDF Kindle ePub This booklet covers: The types and causes of cancer pain How to talk about your pain with your ...

  19. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  20. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  1. Role of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hon Man Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein in all eukaryotes—highlighting its important functions in the cell. Previous studies revealed that TCTP is implicated in many biological processes, including cell growth, tumor reversion, and induction of pluripotent stem cell. A recent study on the solution structure from fission yeast orthologue classifies TCTP under a family of small chaperone proteins. There is growing evidence in the literature that TCTP is a multifunctional protein and exerts its biological activity at the extracellular and intracellular levels. Although TCTP is not a tumor-specific protein, our research group, among several others, focused on the role(s of TCTP in cancer progression. In this paper, we will summarize the current scientific knowledge of TCTP in different aspects, and the precise oncogenic mechanisms of TCTP will be discussed in detail.

  2. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  3. NanoParticle Ontology for Cancer Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from cancer nanotechnology research are so diverse and large in volume that it is difficult to share and efficiently use them without informatics tools. In particular, ontologies that provide a unifying knowledge framework for annotating the data are required to facilitate the semantic integration, knowledge-based searching, unambiguous interpretation, mining and inferencing of the data using informatics methods. In this paper, we discuss the design and development of NanoParticle Ontology (NPO), which is developed within the framework of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and implemented in the Ontology Web Language (OWL) using well-defined ontology design principles. The NPO was developed to represent knowledge underlying the preparation, chemical composition, and characterization of nanomaterials involved in cancer research. Public releases of the NPO are available through BioPortal website, maintained by the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. Mechanisms for editorial and governance processes are being developed for the maintenance, review, and growth of the NPO. PMID:20211274

  4. Inflammation and Cancer: Two Pieces of the Same Puzzle? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic inflammation, in Crohn’s disease for example, is a known risk factor for malignant transformation, however the role inflammation plays in cancer initiation is poorly understood. STAT2, an important protein that regulates gene activation, is known to be stimulated by immune factors that inhibit cell growth. STAT2 also has reduced expression in the immune cells of patients with Crohn’s disease, which suggested to Ana Gamero, Ph.D., a former NCI Scholar of the Laboratory of Experimental Immunology, CCR, and now Assistant Professor at Temple University in collaboration with Nancy Colburn, Ph.D. of the Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and her colleagues, that STAT2 may be a key protein in regulating inflammation-induced cancer progression. The results of their studies were recently published in a Cancer Prevention Research article.

  5. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies. | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  6. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  7. An integrative review of South African cancer nursing research published from 2002–2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johanna Maree; Shelley Schmollgruber

    2014-01-01

    Background: This integrative review aimed to quantify the publication output of South African cancer nursing research conducted between 2002 and 2012 and to identify key trends relevant to cancer nurse researchers. Objectives...

  8. Senior Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused on the design, generation, characterization and application of genetically engineered and biological animal models of human disease, which are aimed at the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. LASP contributes to advancing human health, developing new treatments, and improving existing treatments for cancer and other diseases while ensuring safe and humane treatment of animals. Key Roles/Responsibilities The Senior Laboratory Animal Technician will be responsible for: Daily tasks associated with the care, breeding and treatment of research animals for experimental purposes Management of rodent breeding colonies consisting of multiple, genetically complex strains and associated record keeping and database management Colony management procedures including: tail clipping, animal identification, weaning Data entry consistent with complex colony management Collection of routine diagnostic samples Coordinating shipment of live animals and specimens Performing rodent experimental procedures including basic necropsy and blood collection Observation and recording of physical signs of animal health Knowledge of safe working practices using chemical carcinogen and biological hazards Work schedule may include weekend and holiday hours

  9. An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC takes advantage of the specific binding between antigen and antibody to measure the presence and abundance of antigen while simultaneously providing morphologic context on a tissue section. Since the revolutionary application of heat-induced epitope retrieval methods on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, which started in early 1990s, IHC has been routinely used in diagnostic pathology. This approach has also enabled mining of the rich archives of pathologic specimens for exploration in translational cancer research. Newer IHC biomarkers are being continuously found as aids in differential diagnosis, prediction of outcome or response to molecular-targeted therapies. These are prime examples for translational cancer research. The last decade has witnessed some significant improvements in the use of this technology. This review provides an overview on the current status of IHC as applied in translational cancer research, commenting on the underlying principles in specimen preparation, reagent choice, staining procedure, and results evaluation so that both beginners and seasoned users could appreciate the key factors and benefit from this update.

  10. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  11. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO) was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions. PMID:21703017

  12. Contract Funding Opportunities Available for Innovative SBIR Development | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does your small business need early-stage financing to take its cancer research to the next level? The National Cancer Institute Small Business Innovation Research (NCI SBIR) Development Center has released $5 million for new contract funding opportunities to support cancer research and technology development in key emerging areas of need. The NCI SBIR can help you finance and advance innovations in cancer prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and basic research.

  13. Disparities in Cancer Clinical Trials: An Analysis of Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Moniek Felder, Tisha; Pena, Gabriela D.; Chapital, Bridget F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Disparities in enrollment of adults in cancer clinical trials are well documented, but little is known about the attention given to this topic in comprehensive cancer control (CCC) plans. We assessed the extent to which CCC plans address disparities in clinical trials and whether jurisdictions whose plans address disparities also mandate third-party reimbursement for clinical trial participation. Methods We analyzed 57 CCC plans identified from Cancer PLANET (Plan, Link, Act, Net...

  14. Anti-viral treatment and cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Liang; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chen, Pei-Jer

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contribute to about 10-15 % global burden of human cancers. Conventional chemotherapy or molecular target therapies have been used to treat virus-associated cancers. However, a more proactive approach would be the use of antiviral treatment to suppress or eliminate viral infections to prevent the occurrence of cancer in the first place. Antiviral treatments against chronic HBV and HCV infections have achieved this goal, with significant reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in treated patients. Antiviral treatments for EBV, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) had limited success in treating refractory EBV-associated lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, KSHV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients, and HTLV-1-associated acute, chronic, and smoldering subtypes of adult T-cell lymphoma, respectively. Therapeutic HPV vaccine and RNA-interference-based therapies for treating HPV-associated cervical cancers also showed some encouraging results. Taken together, antiviral therapies have yielded promising results in cancer prevention and treatment. More large-scale studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of antiviral therapy. Further investigation for more effective and convenient antiviral regimens warrants more attention.

  15. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2016: 10-year special edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, 13 topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, study results supporting previous ones regarding surgical preventive strategies were reported. There were several targeted agents that showed comparable responses in phase III trials, including niraparib, cediranib, and nintedanib. On the contrary to our expectations, dose-dense weekly chemotherapy regimen failed to prove superior survival outcomes compared with conventional triweekly regimen. Single-agent non-platinum treatment to prolong platinum-free-interval in patients with recurrent, partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer did not improve and even worsened overall survival (OS). For cervical cancer, we reviewed robust evidences of larger-scaled population-based study and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent vaccine for expanding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage. Standard of care treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) was briefly reviewed. For uterine corpus cancer, new findings about appropriate surgical wait time from diagnosis to surgery were reported. Advantages of minimally invasive surgery over conventional laparotomy were reconfirmed. There were 5 new gene regions that increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Regarding radiation therapy, Post-Operative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC)-3 quality of life (QOL) data were released and higher local control rate of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy was reported in LACC. In addition, 4 general oncology topics followed: chemotherapy at the end-of-life, immunotherapy with reengineering T-cells, actualization of precision medicine, and artificial intelligence (AI) to make personalized cancer therapy real. For breast cancer, adaptively randomized trials, extending aromatase inhibitor therapy, and ribociclib and palbociclib were introduced. PMID:28382802

  16. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2016: 10-year special edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Miseon; Kim, Kidong; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Jae Weon

    2017-05-01

    In 2016, 13 topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, study results supporting previous ones regarding surgical preventive strategies were reported. There were several targeted agents that showed comparable responses in phase III trials, including niraparib, cediranib, and nintedanib. On the contrary to our expectations, dose-dense weekly chemotherapy regimen failed to prove superior survival outcomes compared with conventional triweekly regimen. Single-agent non-platinum treatment to prolong platinum-free-interval in patients with recurrent, partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer did not improve and even worsened overall survival (OS). For cervical cancer, we reviewed robust evidences of larger-scaled population-based study and cost-effectiveness of nonavalent vaccine for expanding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage. Standard of care treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) was briefly reviewed. For uterine corpus cancer, new findings about appropriate surgical wait time from diagnosis to surgery were reported. Advantages of minimally invasive surgery over conventional laparotomy were reconfirmed. There were 5 new gene regions that increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Regarding radiation therapy, Post-Operative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer (PORTEC)-3 quality of life (QOL) data were released and higher local control rate of image-guided adaptive brachytherapy was reported in LACC. In addition, 4 general oncology topics followed: chemotherapy at the end-of-life, immunotherapy with reengineering T-cells, actualization of precision medicine, and artificial intelligence (AI) to make personalized cancer therapy real. For breast cancer, adaptively randomized trials, extending aromatase inhibitor therapy, and ribociclib and palbociclib were introduced. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

  17. Control of research oriented software development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L.C.; Dronkers, J.J.; Pitsker, B.

    1985-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to dispose permanently high level radioactive waste and civilian spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. DOE has responded by creating an organizational structure that directs all the activities necessary to carry out the legislative demands. LLNL is conducting research in the earth sciences and is developing some unique computer codes to help establish the feasibility of geologic repositories for nuclear waste. LLNL has several codes under development. This paper examines the administrative and organizational measures that were and still are being undertaken in order to control the development of the two major codes. In the case of one code, the software quality assurance requirements were imposed five years after the code began its development. This required a retroactive application of requirements. The other code is still in the conceptual stages of development and here requirements can be applied as soon as the initial code design begins. Both codes are being developed by scientists, not computer programmers, and both are modeling codes, not data acquisition and reduction codes. Also the projects for which these codes are being developed have slightly different software quality assurance requirements. All these factors contribute unique difficulties in attempts to assure that the development not only results in a reliable prediction, but that whatever the reliability, it can be objectively shown to exist. The paper will examine a software management model. It will also discuss the reasons why it is felt that this particular model would stand a reasonable chance for success. The paper will then describe the way in which the model should be integrated into the existing management configuration and tradition.

  18. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  19. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa (CTCA), based at Makerere University in Uganda, serves as a regional centre, providing tools and evidence to support tobacco control ...

  20. Research study: Space vehicle control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likins, P. W.; Longman, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    From the control point of view, spacecraft are classified into two main groups: those for which the spacecraft is fully defined before the control system is designed; and those for which the control system must be specified before certain interchangeable parts of a multi-purpose spacecraft are selected for future missions. Consideration is given to both classes of problems.

  1. The motivations and methodology for high-throughput PET imaging of small animals in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Aide, Nicolas; Visser, Eric P.; Lheureux, Stéphanie; Heutte, Natacha; Szanda, Istvan; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, small-animal PET imaging has become a vital platform technology in cancer research. With the development of molecularly targeted therapies and drug combinations requiring evaluation of different schedules, the number of animals to be imaged within a PET experiment has increased. This paper describes experimental design requirements to reach statistical significance, based on the expected change in tracer uptake in treated animals as compared to the control group, the num...

  2. A Transdisciplinary Training Program for Behavioral Oncology and Cancer Control Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Anna M.; Champion, Victoria L.; Kroenke, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Transdisciplinary health research training has been identified as a major initiative to achieve the vision for research teams of the future as articulated in the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. To address the need for scientists who can integrate diverse scientific approaches and work in transdisciplinary teams to solve complex health problems, Indiana University has designed an innovative training program that will provide the didactic and research experiences to enable trainees to establish productive careers in behavioral oncology and cancer control research. Development of a successful transdisciplinary training program requires mentorship, research, and a specialized curriculum that encompass a broad range of disciplines. The program capitalizes on a unique set of existing and emerging training opportunities resulting from the collaborative activities of the Indiana University (IU) Simon Cancer Center, the IU Schools of Nursing and Medicine, and multiple research institutes and academic centers located in Indiana and neighboring states. PMID:18501750

  3. Pseudoscience in Instructional Technology: The Case of Learner Control Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    Scientific research that is conducted without the structure of a supporting scientific paradigm should be labeled pseudoscience in that such research is deceptive or false science. It is argued that much of the research in educational technology is pseudoscience, with the focus on learner control research. Learner control is the design feature of…

  4. Advancing Prostate Cancer Research by Providing Summer Research Opportunities for HBCU Students at the Cancer Center at UTHSCSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    in September 2017 Nangah Tabukum, Yanming Wu, Kexin Xu, PhD. Plasmid Construction - A way to study the role of ATAD2 2017 Summer Research...its biological function in prostate cancer cells. She was able to construct ATAD2- expressing plasmid with FLAG/HA tandem tags and transfect into...Biobanking and Pathology ; new award UTHSCSA CTRC $46,401 12/15/2016-12/14/2017 0.12 cal months Recruiting and Retaining Underrepresented Students

  5. Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Molinuevo, Amaia; de Batlle, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Moreno, Victor; Vidal, Carmen; Castelló, Adela; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesús; Urtiaga, Carmen; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Huerta, José María; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Altzibar, Jone; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Núria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Amiano, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    Prostate, breast and colorectal cancer are the most common tumours in Spain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. A total of 1,718 colorectal, 1,343 breast and 864 prostate cancer cases and 3,431 population-based controls recruited between 2007 and 2012, were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on six recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods and alcoholic drinks; score range 0-6) was constructed. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. One-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score was associated with 25% (95% CI 19-30%) lower risk of colorectal, and 15% (95% CI 7-22%) lower risk of breast cancer; no association with prostate cancer was detected, except for cases with a Gleason score ≥7 (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated tumours) (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). These results add to the wealth of evidence indicating that a great proportion of common cancer cases could be avoided by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Radon control activities for lung cancer prevention in national comprehensive cancer control program plans, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L; Angell, William

    2013-08-08

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms "radon," "radiation," or "lung." Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program's most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n=21), remediation (n=11), support radon policy activities (n=13), and policy evaluation (n=1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n=21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs.

  7. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

  8. The Common Data Elements for Cancer Research: Remarks on Functions and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Brandt, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has developed the Common Data Elements (CDE) to serve as a controlled vocabulary of data descriptors for cancer research, to facilitate data interchange and inter-operability between cancer research centers. We evaluated CDE’s structure to see whether it could represent the elements necessary to support its intended purpose, and whether it could prevent errors and inconsistencies from being accidentally introduced. We also performed automated checks for certain types of content errors that provided a rough measure of curation quality. Methods Evaluation was performed on CDE content downloaded via the NCI’s CDE Browser, and transformed into relational database form. Evaluation was performed under three categories: 1) compatibility with the ISO/IEC 11179 metadata model, on which CDE structure is based, 2) features necessary for controlled vocabulary support, and 3) support for a stated NCI goal, set up of data collection forms for cancer research. Results Various limitations were identified both with respect to content (inconsistency, insufficient definition of elements, redundancy) as well as structure – particularly the need for term and relationship support, as well as the need for metadata supporting the explicit representation of electronic forms that utilize sets of common data elements. Conclusions While there are numerous positive aspects to the CDE effort, there is considerable opportunity for improvement. Our recommendations include review of existing content by diverse experts in the cancer community; integration with the NCI thesaurus to take advantage of the latter’s links to nationally used controlled vocabularies, and various schema enhancements required for electronic form support. PMID:17149500

  9. Novel applications of next-generation sequencing in breast cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of medicine, the studies of genes have become increasingly concerned by more people and being the contend of a great of researches. The next generation sequencing with its own advantages has been widely used in gene research nowadays. It has almost replaced the traditional sequencing methods (such as Sanger sequencing method, and played an important role in a variety of complex disease researches, including breast cancer. The next generation sequencing technology has the advantages of high speed, high throughput and high accuracy. It has been widely used in various cancers (such as prostate cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, etc., especially in breast cancer. Moreover, the use of the next generation sequencing technology to make DNA sequence analysis and risk prediction has made a great contribution to the research of breast cancer. We will focus on the application of whole genome sequencing, exon sequencing and targeted gene sequencing in breast cancer gene research.

  10. National Cancer Institute Patient Navigation Research Program: methods, protocol, and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Karen M; Battaglia, Tracy A; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Dudley, Donald J; Fiscella, Kevin; Paskett, Electra; Raich, Peter C; Roetzheim, Richard G

    2008-12-15

    Patient, provider, and systems barriers contribute to delays in cancer care, a lower quality of care, and poorer outcomes in vulnerable populations, including low-income, underinsured, and racial/ethnic minority populations. Patient navigation is emerging as an intervention to address this problem, but navigation requires a clear definition and a rigorous testing of its effectiveness. Pilot programs have provided some evidence of benefit, but have been limited by evaluation of single-site interventions and varying definitions of navigation. To overcome these limitations, a 9-site National Cancer Institute Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) was initiated. The PNRP is charged with designing, implementing, and evaluating a generalizable patient navigation program targeting vulnerable populations. Through a formal committee structure, the PNRP has developed a definition of patient navigation and metrics to assess the process and outcomes of patient navigation in diverse settings, compared with concurrent continuous control groups. The PNRP defines patient navigation as support and guidance offered to vulnerable persons with abnormal cancer screening or a cancer diagnosis, with the goal of overcoming barriers to timely, quality care. Primary outcomes of the PNRP are 1) time to diagnostic resolution; 2) time to initiation of cancer treatment; 3) patient satisfaction with care; and 4) cost effectiveness, for breast, cervical, colon/rectum, and/or prostate cancer. The metrics to assess the processes and outcomes of patient navigation have been developed for the NCI-sponsored PNRP. If the metrics are found to be valid and reliable, they may prove useful to other investigators.

  11. Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality today. It is estimated that around 43% of cancer deaths are due to tobacco use, unhealthy diets, alcohol consumption, inactive lifestyles and infection. Low-income and disadvantaged groups are generally more exposed to avoidable risk factors such as environmental carcinogens, alcohol, infectious agents, and tobacco use. These groups also have less access to the health services and health education that would empower them to make decisions to protect and improve their own health. Oro-pharyngeal cancer is significant component of the global burden of cancer. Tobacco and alcohol are regarded as the major risk factors for oral cancer. The population-attributable risks of smoking and alcohol consumption have been estimated to 80% for males, 61% for females, and 74% overall. The evidence that smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer was confirmed recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Studies have shown that heavy intake of alcoholic beverages is associated with nutrient deficiency, which appears to contribute independently to oral carcinogenesis. Oral cancer is preventable through risk factors intervention. Prevention of HIV infection will also reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS-related cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. The WHO Global Oral Health Programme is committed to work for country capacity building in oral cancer prevention, inter-country exchange of information and experiences from integrated approaches in prevention and health promotion, and the development of global surveillance systems for oral cancer and risk factors. The WHO Global Oral Health Programme has established a global surveillance system of oral cavity cancer in order to assess risk factors and to help the planning of effective national intervention programmes. Epidemiological data on oral cancer (ICD-10: C00-C08) incidence and mortality are stored in the Global Oral Health Data Bank. In 2007, the World

  12. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  13. A New Phase in Cancer Research at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first meeting of the ENLIGHT network, set up to co-ordinate the development of light ion cancer therapy projects in Europe, took place at CERN last week. This is a form of therapy ideally suited to the treatment of deep-seated tumours and those near critical organs. Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology transfer and scientific computing, and Director General Luciano Maiani during the opening of the first meeting of the ENLIGHT network that was held at CERN last week. The fruit of several years of work, this meeting offers new hope for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Around 70 specialists, including radiotherapists, oncologists, physicists and engineers, got together at CERN for the first meeting of a European cancer therapy research network named ENLIGHT (European Network for research in LIGHt ion Therapy(1)). This initiative, headed by oncologists and funded by the European Commission, aims to promote the development of light ion (hadron) therapy projects. The choice of CERN as a venue for ...

  14. The project data sphere initiative: accelerating cancer research by sharing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Angela K; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Corty, Robert W; Basch, Ethan; Milowsky, Mathew I; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Bennett, Antonia V; Wood, William A

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we provide background and context regarding the potential for a new data-sharing platform, the Project Data Sphere (PDS) initiative, funded by financial and in-kind contributions from the CEO Roundtable on Cancer, to transform cancer research and improve patient outcomes. Given the relatively modest decline in cancer death rates over the past several years, a new research paradigm is needed to accelerate therapeutic approaches for oncologic diseases. Phase III clinical trials generate large volumes of potentially usable information, often on hundreds of patients, including patients treated with standard of care therapies (i.e., controls). Both nationally and internationally, a variety of stakeholders have pursued data-sharing efforts to make individual patient-level clinical trial data available to the scientific research community. For researchers, shared data have the potential to foster a more collaborative environment, to answer research questions in a shorter time frame than traditional randomized control trials, to reduce duplication of effort, and to improve efficiency. For industry participants, use of trial data to answer additional clinical questions could increase research and development efficiency and guide future projects through validation of surrogate end points, development of prognostic or predictive models, selection of patients for phase II trials, stratification in phase III studies, and identification of patient subgroups for development of novel therapies. Data transparency also helps promote a public image of collaboration and altruism among industry participants. For patient participants, data sharing maximizes their contribution to public health and increases access to information that may be used to develop better treatments. Concerns about data-sharing efforts include protection of patient privacy and confidentiality. To alleviate these concerns, data sets are deidentified to maintain anonymity. To address industry

  15. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  16. Research on automatic control system of greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Qi, Guoyang; Li, Zeyu; Wu, Qiannan; Meng, Yupeng

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a kind of automatic control system of single-chip microcomputer and a temperature and humidity sensor based on the greenhouse, describes the system's hardware structure, working principle and process, and a large number of experiments on the effect of the control system, the results show that the system can ideally control temperature and room temperature and humidity, can be used in indoor breeding and planting, and has the versatility and portability.

  17. Mapping the networks of cancer research in Portugal: first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, O.R.; Cointet, J.P.; Nunes, J.A.; David, L.; Cambrosio, A.

    2016-07-01

    Social studies of cancer research at the international level have contributed to a better understanding of the developmental dynamics – both organizational and epistemic – of this field (Keating & Cambrosio, 2012). In contrast, despite its robust development, oncology research in Portugal has been the subject of only few studies. Most of them have a strong focus on the first half of the 20th century (Raposo, 2004; Costa, 2010, 2012a; 2012b), while a few focus on more contemporary events (Nunes, 2001). Consequently, we do not have a clear picture of recent trends in oncology research in Portugal, and how it integrates into the international landscape. This hinders public accountability of oncology research while also limiting the analysis of how this research relates to health care delivery, health outcomes, and health policy formulations. This paper presents the first results of an ongoing research project on the organizational and epistemic development of oncology research in Portugal, covering the period from the end of the 20th century to 2015. Among other issues, we intend to explore the extent to which oncology research in Portugal mirrors the international dynamics at a smaller scale, and the extent to which it presents features of its own. The study draws upon computer-based analysis of publications using the platform CorText (http://www.cortext.net/) of IFRIS (Institut Francilien Recherche, Innovation, Société), along with interviews with Portuguese oncologists and related practitioners. (Author)

  18. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)-developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-12-23

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the recommendations in these documents. Published by the

  19. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  20. Research Progress of Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua MA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal metastases is one of the most serious complications of lung cancer, the patients with poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastasis in patients with lack specificity of clinical manifestations. The main clinical performance are the damage of cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve and spinal nerve. The diagnosis primarily based on the history of tumor, clinical symptoms, enhance magnetic resnance image (MRI scan and cerebrospinal fluid cytology. In recent years, new ways of detecting clinically, significantly increase the rate of early detection of leptomeningeal metastases. The effect of comprehensive treatments are still sad. The paper make a review of research progress in pathologic physiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatments of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastases.

  1. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  2. Opportunity for collaboration: a conceptual model of success in tobacco control and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Frances A; Schmitt, Carol L; Rosas, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Collaborations between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs can leverage scarce resources to address noncommunicable diseases globally, but barriers to cooperation and actual collaboration are substantial. To foster collaboration between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs, the Global Health Partnership conducted research to identify similarities and differences in how the 2 programs viewed program success. Using concept mapping, cancer prevention and tobacco control experts generated statements describing the components of a successful cancer prevention or tobacco control program and 33 participants sorted and rated the final 99 statements. Multidimensional scaling analysis with a 2-dimensional solution was used to identify an 8-cluster conceptual map of program success. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients for all 99 statements to compare the item-level ratings of both groups and used t tests to compare the mean importance of ratings assigned to each cluster. Eight major clusters of success were identified: 1) advocacy and persuasion, 2) building sustainability, 3) partnerships, 4) readiness and support, 5) program management fundamentals, 6) monitoring and evaluation, 7) utilization of evidence, and 8) implementation. We found no significant difference between the maps created by the 2 groups and only 1 mean difference for the importance ratings for 1 of the clusters: cancer prevention experts rated partnerships as more important to program success than did tobacco control experts. Our findings are consistent with those of research documenting the necessary components of successful programs and the similarities between cancer prevention and tobacco control. Both programs value the same strategies to address a common risk factor: tobacco use. Identifying common ground between these 2 research and practice communities can benefit future collaborations at the local, state, tribal, national, and international levels, and inform the

  3. Regional Controller | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Regional Controller is responsible for the management of administrative services, finance and accounting, grant administration, human resources, information technology and information management related to the functioning of the Regional Office. In carrying out these responsibilities the Regional Controller is ...

  4. Motor Control Research Requires Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The author comments on the original article "The Cinderella of psychology: The neglect of motor control in the science of mental life and behavior," by D. A. Rosenbaum. Rosenbaum draws attention to the study of motor control and evaluates seven possible explanations for why the topic has been relatively neglected. The point of this comment is that…

  5. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Cancer Research Participation Beliefs and Behaviors of a Southern Black Population: A Quantitative Analysis of the Role of Structural Factors in Cancer Research Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities.

  7. Differences in cancer information-seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness between cancer survivors and healthy controls: a national, population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Abbey R; Lykins, Emily L B; Gochett, Celestine G; Brechting, Emily H; Graue, Lili O; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. We examined data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information-seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey. The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information, but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information-seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information-seeking preferences and experience. However, awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer.

  8. Differences in Cancer Information Seeking Behavior, Preferences, and Awareness Between Cancer Survivors and Healthy Controls: A National, Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Abbey R.; Lykins, Emily L.B.; Gochett, Celestine G.; Brechting, Emily H.; Graue, Lili O.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. Methods Data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was examined. Results The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Conclusions Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information seeking preferences and experience. However awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer. PMID:19259869

  9. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Completed Supportive and Palliative Care Research Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Active Supportive and Palliative Care Research Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. P27 in cell cycle control and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    2000-01-01

    In order to survive, cells need tight control of cell cycle progression. The control mechanisms are often lost in human cancer cells. The cell cycle is driven forward by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The CDK inhibitors (CKIs) are important regulators of the CDKs. As the name implies, CKIs were...

  14. Association between endometriosis and risk of histological subtypes of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Templeman, Claire; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice; Near, Aimee M; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Doherty, Jennifer A; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Wicklund, Kristine G; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T; Moysich, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hogdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Larson, Melissa C; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Palmieri, Rachel T; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Vitonis, Allison F; Titus, Linda J; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gentry-Maharaj, Alexandra; Ramus, Susan J; Anderson, A Rebecca; Brueggmann, Doerthe; Fasching, Peter A; Gayther, Simon A; Huntsman, David G; Menon, Usha; Ness, Roberta B; Pike, Malcolm C; Risch, Harvey; Wu, Anna H; Berchuck, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Endometriosis is a risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer; however, whether this risk extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumours is not clear. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess the association between endometriosis and histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Data from 13 ovarian cancer case-control studies, which were part of the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, were pooled and logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess the association between self-reported endometriosis and risk of ovarian cancer. Analyses of invasive cases were done with respect to histological subtypes, grade, and stage, and analyses of borderline tumours by histological subtype. Age, ethnic origin, study site, parity, and duration of oral contraceptive use were included in all analytical models. 13 226 controls and 7911 women with invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis. 818 and 738, respectively, reported a history of endometriosis. 1907 women with borderline ovarian cancer were also included in the analysis, and 168 of these reported a history of endometriosis. Self-reported endometriosis was associated with a significantly increased risk of clear-cell (136 [20·2%] of 674 cases vs 818 [6·2%] of 13 226 controls, odds ratio 3·05, 95% CI 2·43-3·84, pSmith Foundation, European Community's Seventh Framework Programme, German Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany, Programme of Clinical Biomedical Research, German Cancer Research Centre, Eve Appeal, Oak Foundation, UK National Institute of Health Research, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Cancer Council Tasmania, Cancer Foundation of Western Australia, Mermaid 1, Danish Cancer Society, and Roswell Park Alliance Foundation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Randomised controlled trials in educational research: Ontological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based practice in medical and clinical settings because they are associated with a particular ontological and epistemological perspective that is situated within a positivist world view. It assumes that environments and variables can be controlled ...

  16. The Cervix Cancer Research Network: Increasing Access to Cancer Clinical Trials in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Suneja, Gita; Bacon, Monica; Small, William; Sang Y Ryu; Kitchener, Henry C; Gaffney, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The burden of cervical cancer is large and growing in developing countries, due in large part to limited access to screening services and lack of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. In spite of modern advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes from cervical cancer have not markedly improved in recent years. Novel clinical trials are urgently needed to improve outcomes from cervical cancer worldwide. Methods: The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN), a su...

  17. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN): Increasing access to cancer clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gita eSuneja; Monica eBacon; William eSmall; Sang Y Ryu; Kitchener, Henry C; Gaffney, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The burden of cervical cancer is large and growing in developing countries, due in large part to limited access to screening services and lack of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. In spite of modern advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes from cervical cancer have not markedly improved in recent years. Novel clinical trials are urgently needed to improve outcomes from cervical cancer worldwide. Methods: The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN), a sub...

  18. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA based on gene coexpression network (GCN increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies.

  19. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi-joong Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.

  20. The Effect of Smoking and Opium on Bladder Cancer in Yazd Province: A Case - Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bladder cancer is regarded as the most common urinary malignancy in the world. As other cancers, its incidence has increased in recent years. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between smoking and opium and bladder cancer in residents of Yazd province. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 patients with bladder cancer and 200 matched healthy individuals in Yazd province. Research data was gathered through interview and administration of a researcher-made questionnaire.  Furthermore, chi-square and regression tests were carried out with SPSS software (version 18. Results: The mean and standard deviation of age in case and control groups were reported to be 61.54 ± 13.61 and 61.45 ± 13.3 respectively. Education level, type of oil consumed, weekly frequency of smoking and fried foods, white meat, red meat consumption involve the predictive factors for bladder cancer; as consumption of hydrogenated fats, animal fats, fried foods more than 4 times per week and red meat had (OR=1.31;95% CL,0.63-2.71, (OR= 6.32;95% CL,2.03-19.8, (OR=2.86;95% CL,1.2-6.8 and (OR=51.18;95% CL,14.78-177.03 times greater risk for bladder cancer respectively and also low education level. White meat intake had a protective effect. Moreover, in line with increasing number of cigarettes per day, the risk of bladder cancer increased. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that smoking and opium are risk factors of bladder cancer. Thus, appropriate training and intervention program need to be taken into account in order to prevent the cancer.

  1. Cancer research in Brazil - stuck in second gear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lepique

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main issues regarding clinical cancer research in Brazil, including both the opportunities and the hurdles. Scientists and clinicians in this field had the opportunity to talk to regulatory agencies and to the Health Ministry representative at a meeting held in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in April 2014. Our conclusions are that we do indeed have opportunities; however, we need to move forward regarding partnerships between academia and industry, increase the availability of funding, and provide easier navigation through the regulatory processes.

  2. Pilot Mentorship Program for Tobacco Control Researchers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so by offering expanded capacity-building opportunities for tobacco control researchers through a parallel mentorship program. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) has identified an initial cadre of awardees who possess excellent tobacco control leadership potential. The idea is to enhance the ...

  3. Comparison of serum lipid profiles between normal controls and breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pikul Laisupasin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have reported association of plasma/serum lipids and lipoproteins with different cancers. Increase levels of circulating lipids and lipoproteins have been associated with breast cancer risk. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare serum lipid profiles: total-cholesterol (T-CHOL, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C between breast cancer patients and normal participants. Materials and Methods: A total of 403 women in this study were divided into two groups in the period during May 2006-April 2007. Blood samples were collected from 249 patients with early stage breast cancer and 154 normal controls for serum lipid profiles (T-CHOL, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C analysis using Hitachi 717 Autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostic GmbH, Germany. TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C levels in breast cancer group were significantly increased as compared with normal controls group (P < 0.001, whereas HDL-C and T-CHOL levels were not. Results: The results of this study suggest that increased serum lipid profiles may associate with breast cancer risk in Thai women. Further studies to group important factors including, cancer stages, types of cancer, parity, and menopausal status that may affect to lipid profiles in breast cancer patients along with an investigation of new lipid profiles to clarify most lipid factors that may involve in breast cancer development are needed.

  4. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  5. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  6. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  7. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and epithelial ovarian cancer in the New England Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Murphy, Megan A; Vitonis, Allison F; Cramer, Daniel W; Titus, Linda J; Tworoger, Shelley S; Terry, Kathryn L

    2013-11-15

    Previous studies have observed that tubal ligation and hysterectomy are associated with a decreased risk of ovarian cancer; however, little is known about whether these associations vary by surgical characteristics, individual characteristics or tumor histology. We used logistic regression to examine tubal ligation, simple hysterectomy and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy in relation to risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the New England Case-Control Study. Our primary analysis included 2,265 cases and 2,333 controls. Overall, tubal ligation was associated with a lower risk of epithelial ovarian cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68-0.97], especially for endometrioid tumors (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.29-0.69). The inverse association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk was stronger for women who had undergone the procedure at the time of last delivery (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.42-0.84) rather than at a later time (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.75-1.15). Overall, simple hysterectomy was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.83-1.42), although it was associated with a nonsignificant decreased risk of ovarian cancer among women who underwent the procedure at age 45 or older (RR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.40-1.02) or within the last 10 years (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.38-1.13). Overall, women who had a hysterectomy with a unilateral oophorectomy had significantly lower risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.94). In summary, tubal ligation and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy were inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Additional research is necessary to understand the potential biologic mechanisms by which these procedures may reduce ovarian cancer risk. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  8. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  9. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...

  10. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  11. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... In Canada people have come to recognize the harmful effects of tobacco on health. In many poorer countries, however, the globalization of the tobacco industry, the lack of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco combine to create a growing health crisis. Currently ...

  12. African Tobacco Control Research Initiative Scoping Exercise ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Tobacco Situational Analysis (ATSA) supported by IDRC and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation investigated the critical determinants of success for tobacco control in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As the initiative evolved an additional goal was added, that of identifying, implementing and enforcing ...

  13. Bioinformatics resources for cancer research with an emphasis on gene function and structure prediction tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kihara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The immensely popular fields of cancer research and bioinformatics overlap in many different areas, e.g. large data repositories that allow for users to analyze data from many experiments (data handling, databases, pattern mining, microarray data analysis, and interpretation of proteomics data. There are many newly available resources in these areas that may be unfamiliar to most cancer researchers wanting to incorporate bioinformatics tools and analyses into their work, and also to bioinformaticians looking for real data to develop and test algorithms. This review reveals the interdependence of cancer research and bioinformatics, and highlight the most appropriate and useful resources available to cancer researchers. These include not only public databases, but general and specific bioinformatics tools which can be useful to the cancer researcher. The primary foci are function and structure prediction tools of protein genes. The result is a useful reference to cancer researchers and bioinformaticians studying cancer alike.

  14. Cancer-Related Fatigue and Rehabilitation : A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial Comparing Physical Training Combined With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy With Physical Training Only and With No Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E.; May, A.M.; Korstjens, I.; Post, W.J.; van der Schans, C.P.; van den Borne, B.; Mesters, I.; Ros, W.J.G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, J.E.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Research suggests that cancer rehabilitation reduces fatigue in survivors of cancer. To date, it is unclear what type of rehabilitation is most beneficial. Objective. This randomized controlled trial compared the effect on cancer-related fatigue of physical training combined with

  15. Physical health, self-reliance, and emotional control as moderators of the relationship between locus of control and mental health among men treated for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Shaun Michael; Mahalik, James R

    2006-12-01

    This investigation examined the moderating effects of physical health and scripts for masculinity (i.e., self-reliance and emotional control) on the relationship between powerful other people locus of control and mental health for 230 men treated for prostate cancer. Regression analyses indicated that physical health and masculine gender scripts moderated the association between powerful other people locus of control and mental health. Specifically, men with poor physical health evinced negative mental health when they endorsed masculine gender scripts and believed powerful other people (i.e., family, friends, or peers) were influential in controlling their cancer. By comparison, men reporting poor physical health, strong beliefs that powerful other people controlled their cancer, and less adherence to masculine scripts experienced positive mental health. The authors discuss future research directions and potential mental health implications for men treated for prostate cancer.

  16. NCI Funding Trends and Priorities in Physical Activity and Energy Balance Research Among Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Catherine M; Bluethmann, Shirley M; Tesauro, Gina; Perna, Frank; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Elena, Joanne W; Ross, Sharon A; O'Connell, Mary; Bowles, Heather R; Greenberg, Deborah; Nebeling, Linda

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a healthy lifestyle consisting of physical activity, healthy diet, and weight control is associated with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality after cancer. However, these behavioral interventions are not widely adopted in practice or community settings. Integrating heath behavior change interventions into standard survivorship care for the growing number of cancer survivors requires an understanding of the current state of the science and a coordinated scientific agenda for the future with focused attention in several priority areas. To facilitate this goal, this paper presents trends over the past decade of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) research portfolio, fiscal year 2004 to 2014, by funding mechanism, research focus, research design and methodology, primary study exposures and outcomes, and study team expertise and composition. These data inform a prioritized research agenda for the next decade focused on demonstrating value and feasibility and creating desire for health behavior change interventions at multiple levels including the survivor, clinician, and healthcare payer to facilitate the development and implementation of appropriately targeted, adaptive, effective, and sustainable programs for all survivors. Published by Oxford University Press (2015). This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Yoga and self-reported cognitive problems in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Heather M; Jaremka, Lisa M; Bennett, Jeanette M; Peng, Juan; Andridge, Rebecca; Shapiro, Charles; Malarkey, William B; Emery, Charles F; Layman, Rachel; Mrozek, Ewa; Glaser, Ronald; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-08-01

    Cancer survivors often report cognitive problems. Furthermore, decreases in physical activity typically occur over the course of cancer treatment. Although physical activity benefits cognitive function in noncancer populations, evidence linking physical activity to cognitive function in cancer survivors is limited. In our recent randomized controlled trial, breast cancer survivors who received a yoga intervention had lower fatigue and inflammation following the trial compared with a wait list control group. This secondary analysis of the parent trial addressed yoga's impact on cognitive complaints. Posttreatment stage 0-IIIA breast cancer survivors (n = 200) were randomized to a 12-week, twice-weekly Hatha yoga intervention or a wait list control group. Participants reported cognitive complaints using the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Cognitive Problems Scale at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Cognitive complaints did not differ significantly between groups immediately postintervention (p = 0.250). However, at 3-month follow-up, yoga participants' Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Cognitive Problems Scale scores were an average of 23% lower than wait list participants' scores (p = 0.003). These group differences in cognitive complaints remained after controlling for psychological distress, fatigue, and sleep quality. Consistent with the primary results, those who practiced yoga more frequently reported significantly fewer cognitive problems at 3-month follow-up than those who practiced less frequently (p complaints and prompt further research on mind-body and physical activity interventions for improving cancer-related cognitive problems. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. PARP inhibitors may affect normal cells in patients with a BRCA mutation | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARP inhibition has been approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with BRAC1 and BRAC2 mutations and is being studied in the treatment advanced breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer.  A new study by Center for Cancer Research scientists in the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program and the Laboratory of Genome Integrity, raises concerns that when cancer patients with a BRCA mutation are treated with PARP inhibitors their normal cells may also be affected.  

  19. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  20. Top 100 Cited Classic Articles in Breast Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Erdal

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 100 most cited articles in breast cancer research. The data in this study were obtained by a search conducted on the Web of Science (WOS). In brief, the term "breast cancer" was typed in the search box of WOS basic research including all the years and the data. The analysis was carried out by compiling the top 100 cited articles in the shortlist as sorted by the journals, categories of the studies, the countries, the centers, the authors and the publication date. No statistical methods were used in the study. All data were reported as percentages, numbers and bar charts on tables. Our findings showed that the most frequently cited article received 7609 citations to date. Most articles were published in the New England Journal of Medicine. 81% of the studies originated from the USA. The National Institutes of Health (NIH USA) was ranked the first with 21% and it was followed by Harvard University in terms of number of published articles. 42% of the articles were published under the category of medicine and general internal medicine. Top 100 most cited articles originated from the United States. The highest number of articles among the top 100 articles were published in New England Journal of Medicine and National Institutes of Health NIH USA was the leading institutes published the most articles.

  1. Current state and future prospects of research on fear of cancer recurrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebel, S.; Ozakinci, G.; Humphris, G.; Thewes, B.; Prins, J.B.; Dinkel, A.; Butow, P.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a rapidly growing research interest in fear of cancer recurrence, lack of consensus on definition and measurement including clinical fear of cancer recurrence, sparse model development and testing, and limited available clinical interventions have impeded knowledge transfer into patient

  2. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research

    OpenAIRE

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-N??ez, V?nia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues ...

  3. Research on the Controller of a Testbench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Gustaitis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes investigation into the controller of the 3 axis rotation table used for simulating complex trajectory motion. The mathematical model of the 3 axis rotation table is developed applying Denavit and Hartenberg’s (D-H parameters. Graphical modelling, simulation and experimental results are presented to verify the validity of the mathematical model of the 3 axis rotation table.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Chapter 29: Knowledge gaps and priorities for research on prevention of HPV infection and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo L; Bosch, F Xavier; Cuzick, Jack; Schiller, John T; Garnett, Geoffrey P; Meheus, André; Wright, Thomas C

    2006-08-31

    The recognition that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the necessary cause of cervical cancer brought new prevention paradigms in screening and HPV immunization. We now face many questions about how to implement an ambitious evidence-based agenda for cervical cancer prevention. Much is known about the epidemiology and natural history of HPV infection but several key variables remain to be elucidated. Research on HPV transmission requires new study designs to provide useful insights into preventive strategies. HPV testing has carved a niche in clinical practice but to consolidate its role in screening still requires evidence of long-term benefit. The rapidly evolving field of HPV diagnostics has contributed useful information concerning the value of HPV typing. Other screening methods hold promise in specific settings. The decade-long process that brought HPV vaccines to the doorstep of public health application is over. Many questions remain concerning long-term efficacy, correlates of protection, age of vaccination, and delivery. As vaccination makes inroads as a cancer control strategy, screening practices must be reformulated to maximize the synergy between primary and secondary prevention. Research on how to achieve an efficient combination of these modalities is yet to begin, but mathematical models have provided a useful road map for field-testing of promising algorithms. Daunting questions loom large concerning delivery of vaccines to those populations that need it the most. The field of HPV and cervical cancer prevention has never been so multi-disciplinary. A new era has begun and the challenges are many.

  5. Impact of patient navigation on timely cancer care: the Patient Navigation Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Karen M; Battaglia, Tracy A; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Darnell, Julie S; Dudley, Donald J; Fiscella, Kevin; Hare, Martha L; LaVerda, Nancy; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Levine, Paul; Murray, David M; Patierno, Steven R; Raich, Peter C; Roetzheim, Richard G; Simon, Melissa; Snyder, Frederick R; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Winters, Paul; Young, Gregory S; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-06-01

    Patient navigation is a promising intervention to address cancer disparities but requires a multisite controlled trial to assess its effectiveness. The Patient Navigation Research Program compared patient navigation with usual care on time to diagnosis or treatment for participants with breast, cervical, colorectal, or prostate screening abnormalities and/or cancers between 2007 and 2010. Patient navigators developed individualized strategies to address barriers to care, with the focus on preventing delays in care. To assess timeliness of diagnostic resolution, we conducted a meta-analysis of center- and cancer-specific adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) comparing patient navigation vs usual care. To assess initiation of cancer therapy, we calculated a single aHR, pooling data across all centers and cancer types. We conducted a metaregression to evaluate variability across centers. All statistical tests were two-sided. The 10521 participants with abnormal screening tests and 2105 with a cancer or precancer diagnosis were predominantly from racial/ethnic minority groups (73%) and publically insured (40%) or uninsured (31%). There was no benefit during the first 90 days of care, but a benefit of navigation was seen from 91 to 365 days for both diagnostic resolution (aHR = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.84; P < .001)) and treatment initiation (aHR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.86; P < .007). Metaregression revealed that navigation had its greatest benefits within centers with the greatest delays in follow-up under usual care. Patient navigation demonstrated a moderate benefit in improving timely cancer care. These results support adoption of patient navigation in settings that serve populations at risk of being lost to follow-up. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cancer Control Related to Stimulation of Immunity by Low-Dose Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies showed that low dose radiation (LDR) could stimulate the immune system in both animal and human populations. This paper reviews the present status of relevant research as support to the use of LDR in clinical practice for cancer prevention and treatment. It has been demonstrated that radiation-induced changes in immune activity follows an inverse J-shaped curve, i.e., low dose stimulation and high dose suppression. The stimulation of immunity by LDR concerns most anticancer parameters, including antibody formation, natural killer activity, secretion of interferon and other cytokines as well as other cellular changes. Animal studies have revealed that LDR retards tumor growth, decreases cancer metastasis, and inhibits carcinogenesis induced by high dose radiation. These effects of LDR on cancer control were found to be related to its stimulation on immunity. The experimental data may well explain the efficacy of the clinical trial of LDR in the treatment of cancer. PMID:18648611

  7. Rising Cost of Cancer Pharmaceuticals: Cost Issues and Interventions to Control Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glode, Ashley E; May, Megan Brafford

    2017-01-01

    The rising cost of pharmaceuticals and, in particular, cancer drugs has made headline news in recent years. Several factors contribute to increasing costs and the burden this places on the health care system and patients. Some of these factors include costly cancer pharmaceutical research and development, longer clinical trials required to achieve drug approval, manufacturing costs for complex compounds, and the economic principles surrounding oncology drug pricing. Strategies to control costs have been proposed, and some have already been implemented to mitigate cancer drug costs such as the use of clinical treatment pathways and tools to facilitate cost discussions with patients. In this article, we briefly review some of the potential factors contributing to increasing cancer pharmaceutical costs and interventions to mitigate costs, and touch on the role of health care providers in addressing this important issue. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  8. Researches regarding primary control in hydraulic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tița Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology in wind turbines has developed very rapidly but there are still a lot that can be improved also regarding new technologies. One example is wind turbine with hydraulic transmission. At the beginning low power wind turbines are in view. First of all the wind energy is meant to be used by isolated users for household and garden equipment or pumping water. Later, if results will be as expected, and wind potential satisfactory, such systems could be connected to electric grid. In our research laboratory we must build an experimental setup. The simulation for wind turbine and fixed displacement pump coupled to it will be realized using a variable displacement piston pump. As the variable wind speed has as a result variations of the pump flow, the variable displacement pump from the test rig may reproduce a similar variation law. In this paper some aspects regarding the variable displacement pump are detailed. This study is necessary for the future development of the research.

  9. As the bell tolls: a foundation study on pancreatic cancer consumer's research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gooden Helen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is the first investigation of its kind to explore the views of people affected by pancreatic cancer with regard to research priorities. Pancreatic cancer has an extremely poor outlook in terms of early diagnosis, effective treatment and survival. Those affected by the disease generally lack opportunities to voice their needs or concerns in an organised manner, link with others affected by the condition and take part in research. Methods This qualitative study adopts a self-selected telephone focussed discussion group approach. Information was obtained from distinct carer and patient groups after adequate controls such as the 'safe space' technique (repeatedly enquiring on and respecting the emotional needs were implemented to protect participants from undue physical and psychological distress. Results Five themes emerged overall, with three themes being common between the patients and carers groups. Early detection, clinician communication and public awareness were areas of recurring discussion and consensus for both groups. The fourth theme to emerge for the patient group centred on quality of care, while the fourth theme of the carer group focused on the need for more and improved treatment options. Conclusion Research priorities for pancreatic cancer consumers have been identified via an investigation that was tailored to meet exceptional needs. This research gives us a primary understanding of the role that pancreatic cancer patients can play in identifying areas of research that are responsive to their needs and priorities when suitably planned. Importantly it also provides a much greater understanding of the grim realities of the disease for those affected. This work is likely to be of value to anyone planning to work with those with a time limited, challenging condition.

  10. Metabolic Plasticity in Cancer Cells: Reconnecting Mitochondrial Function to Cancer Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2015-06-01

    Anomalous increase in glycolytic activity defines one of the key metabolic alterations in cancer cells. A realization of this feature has led to critical advancements in cancer detection techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) as well as a number of therapeutic avenues targeting the key glycolytic steps within a cancer cell. A normal healthy cell's survival relies on a sensitive balance between the primordial glycolysis and a more regulated mitochondrial bioenergetics. The salient difference between these two bioenergetics pathways is that oxygen availability is an obligatory requirement for mitochondrial pathway while glycolysis can function without oxygen. Early observations that some cancer cells up-regulate glycolytic activity even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis) led to a hypothesis that such an altered cancer cell metabolism stems from inherent mitochondrial dysfunction. While a general validity of this hypothesis is still being debated, a number of recent research efforts have yielded clarity on the physiological origins of this aerobic glycolysis phenotype in cancer cells. Building on these recent studies, we present a generalized scheme of cancer cell metabolism and propose a novel hypothesis that might rationalize new avenues of cancer intervention.

  11. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study1,4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, A.C.; Romaguera, D.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Chan, D.S.; Romieu, I.; Freisling, H.; Ferrari, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Dartois, L.; Li, K.; Tikk, K.; Bergmann, M.M.; Boeing, H.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C.C.; Redondo, M.L.; Agudo, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Crowe, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Orfanos, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Masala, G.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; May, A.; Wirfalt, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Johansson, I.; Hallmans, G.; Lund, E.; Weiderpass, E.; Parr, C.L.; Riboli, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We

  12. No Association Between Vitamin D Intake, VDR Polymorphisms, and Colorectal Cancer in a Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Joseph H; Gallagher, Carla J; Lesko, Samuel M; Muscat, Joshua E; Hartman, Terryl J; Lazarus, Philip

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that greater intakes of vitamin D may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer. Variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have the potential to modify associations between vitamin D intake and colorectal cancer. Associations between intakes of vitamin D and colorectal cancer were studied in a large case-control study conducted in central and northeastern Pennsylvania including 1,012 cases with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer and 1,080 population-based controls. Associations between 35 tagSNPs encompassing the VDR gene and risk for colorectal cancer as well as gene-diet associations were also assessed among a subset of the population (770 controls, 710 cases). No significant trends were observed between vitamin D intake and colorectal cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, none of the SNPs or haplotypes within the VDR gene were associated with colorectal cancer. There were also no interactions between dietary factors and variants in the entire VDR gene. Overall, results from this study suggest that vitamin D intake and variants in the VDR gene have little effect on risk for colorectal cancer. Increasing vitamin D intake from the diet may not result in decreasing the incidence of colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Targeting Lung Cancer Stem Cells: Research and Clinical Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norashikin Zakaria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, accounting for 1.8 million new cases and 1.6 million deaths in 2012. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, which is one of two types of lung cancer, accounts for 85–90% of all lung cancers. Despite advances in therapy, lung cancer still remains a leading cause of death. Cancer relapse and dissemination after treatment indicates the existence of a niche of cancer cells that are not fully eradicated by current therapies. These chemoresistant populations of cancer cells are called cancer stem cells (CSCs because they possess the self-renewal and differentiation capabilities similar to those of normal stem cells. Targeting the niche of CSCs in combination with chemotherapy might provide a promising strategy to eradicate these cells. Thus, understanding the characteristics of CSCs has become a focus of studies of NSCLC therapies.

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer ... Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities ...

  15. Rationale and design of the Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research Trial (MANTICORE 101 - Breast: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer using cardiac MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekowitz Justin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MANTICORE 101 - Breast (Multidisciplinary Approach to Novel Therapies in Cardiology Oncology Research is a randomized trial to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or beta-blocker can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling, measured with cardiac MRI, among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty-nine patients with histologically confirmed HER2+ breast cancer will be enrolled in a parallel 3-arm, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind design. After baseline assessments, participants will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril, beta-blocker (bisoprolol, or placebo. Participants will receive drug or placebo for 1 year beginning 7 days before trastuzumab therapy. Dosages for all groups will be systematically up-titrated, as tolerated, at 1 week intervals for a total of 3 weeks. The primary objective of this randomized clinical trial is to determine if conventional heart failure pharmacotherapy can prevent trastuzumab-mediated left ventricular remodeling among patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, as measured by 12 month change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume using cardiac MRI. Secondary objectives include 1 determine the evolution of left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer, 2 understand the mechanism of trastuzumab mediated cardiac toxicity by assessing for the presence of myocardial injury and apoptosis on serum biomarkers and cardiac MRI, and 3 correlate cardiac biomarkers of myocyte injury and extra-cellular matrix remodeling with left ventricular remodeling on cardiac MRI in patients with HER2+ early breast cancer. Discussion Cardiac toxicity as a result of cancer therapies is now recognized as a significant health problem of increasing prevalence. To our knowledge, MANTICORE will be the first

  16. Nurse Practitioner/Physician Assistant | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  17. Decellularized colorectal cancer matrix as bioactive microenvironment for in vitro 3D cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Martina; D'Angelo, Edoardo; Crotti, Sara; Sensi, Francesca; Urbani, Luca; Maghin, Edoardo; Burns, Alan; De Coppi, Paolo; Fassan, Matteo; Rugge, Massimo; Rizzolio, Flavio; Giordano, Antonio; Pilati, Pierluigi; Mammano, Enzo; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Agostini, Marco

    2017-12-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) cancer models are overlooking the scientific landscape with the primary goal of bridging the gaps between two-dimensional (2D) cell lines, animal models and clinical research. Here we describe an innovative tissue engineering approach applied to colorectal cancer (CRC) starting from decellularized human biopsies in order to generate an organotypic 3D-bioactive model. This in vitro 3D system recapitulates the ultrastructural environment of native tissue as demonstrated by histology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses. Mass spectrometry of proteome and secretome confirmed a different stromal composition between decellularized healthy mucosa and CRC in terms of structural and secreted proteins. Importantly, we proved that our 3D acellular matrices retained their biological properties: using CAM assay, we observed a decreased angiogenic potential in decellularized CRC compared with healthy tissue, caused by direct effect of DEFA3. We demonstrated that following a 5 days of recellularization with HT-29 cell line, the 3D tumor matrices induced an over-expression of IL-8, a DEFA3-mediated pathway and a mandatory chemokine in cancer growth and proliferation. Given the biological activity maintained by the scaffolds after decellularization, we believe this approach is a powerful tool for future pre-clinical research and screenings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypnosis in breast cancer care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Paul, Anna; Langhorst, Jost; Kümmel, Sherko; Dobos, Gustav J

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer patients and survivors experience pain and emotional stress related to their disease, its diagnostic procedures, or treatment. Hypnosis has long been used for the treatment of such symptoms. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of hypnosis in women with breast cancer, breast cancer survivors, and in women undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and CAMBASE were screened through February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of hypnosis in women with breast cancer or undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. RCTs on postmenopausal women without a history of breast cancer were also eligible. Primary outcomes were pain, distress, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and hot flashes. Safety was defined as secondary outcome measure. Risk of bias was assessed by 2 reviewers independently using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Thirteen RCTs with 1357 patients were included. In women undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy (3 RCTs), hypnosis positively influenced pain and distress; 1 RCT on breast cancer surgery found effects of hypnosis on pain, distress, fatigue, and nausea. For women undergoing radiotherapy (3 RCTs), hypnosis combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy improved distress and fatigue. In 3 RCTs on women with and without a history of breast cancer experiencing hot flashes, hypnosis improved hot flashes and distress. Three RCTs on women with metastatic breast cancer found effects on pain and distress. This systematic review found sparse but promising evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in breast cancer care. While more research is needed to underpin these results, hypnosis can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the management of breast cancer-related symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive bias modification to reduce fear of breast cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Corner, Geoffrey W; Slivjak, Elizabeth T; Roberts, Kailey E; Li, Yuelin; Breitbart, William; Lacey, Stephanie; Tuman, Malwina; DuHamel, Katherine N; Blinder, Victoria S; Beard, Courtney

    2017-04-15

    The most common, persistent concern among survivors of breast cancer is the fear that their disease will return, yet to the authors' knowledge, few interventions targeting fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) have been developed to date. The current pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-delivered cognitive bias modification intervention to reduce FCR. The intervention, called Attention and Interpretation Modification for Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence (AIM-FBCR), targeted 2 types of cognitive biases (ie, attention and interpretation biases). A total of 110 survivors of breast cancer were randomized to receive 8 sessions of 1 of 2 versions of AIM-FBCR or a control condition program. Computer-based assessments of cognitive biases and a self-report measure of FCR were administered before the intervention, after the intervention, and 3 months after the intervention. Improvements in health worries (P = .019) and interpretation biases (rates of threat endorsement [Pcancer. Future research should attempt to replicate these findings in a larger-scale trial using a more sophisticated, user-friendly program and additional measures of improvement in more diverse samples. Cancer 2017;123:1424-1433. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  1. Blocking protein quality control to counter hereditary cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeyer, Caroline; Nielsen, Sofie V.; Clausen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    imbalance, which makes them more dependent on protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms than normal cells. Accordingly, blocking PQC, e.g. by proteasome inhibitors, may cause a lethal proteotoxic crisis in cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unaffected. Evidence, however, suggests that the PQC system...

  2. Cervical cancer control and prevention in Malawi: need for policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents finding on a qualitative study which carried out to determine the suitability of the national sexual and reproductive health and rights [SRHR] in mitigating challenges in cervical cancer control and prevention. Methods: a desk review of the Malawi National Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights ...

  3. Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Pain Control in Irresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavassoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Severepain is a major problem in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy (TS on pain control in these patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods:Between years 2000 to 2011, 20 patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent TS due to severe pain. They were studied in terms of age, sex, location of pancreas tumor, history of previous surgery, response to treatments for pain control (assessed with VAS scoring system and complications of surgery. Results:M/F = 14/6 with a mean age of 63 years. The most common tumour site was at the pancreas head (in 8 patients. The most cause of unresectability was local expansion to critical adjacent elements (in 10 patients. Surgery was performed successfully in all patients. Post-operative complication included only pleural effusion on the left side which was cured by proper treatment. There were no post-op mortalities.  15 patients had acceptable levels of pain at the end of a six month follow-up period. ConclusionTS provides good pain control, little side effects and minimal invasiveness, the technique is recommended for pain control in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  4. Pancreatic cancer control: is vitamin D the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sarah; Naseem, Imrana

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by late detection, resistance to therapy, poor prognosis, and an exceptionally high mortality rate. Epidemiology ascribes a chemopreventive role to vitamin D in several cancers including pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D therapy has been ascribed a role previously in tumor inhibition and differentiation in addition to reduction of inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the role of vitamin D in pancreatic cancer prevention or therapy remains elusive to date. Studies have shown a negative correlation between the risk of pancreatic cancer and serum vitamin D levels. It is believed that vitamin D binding to certain conserved sequences called vitamin D response elements in the DNA can alter the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. Recent research has elucidated the role of zinc in carcinogenesis, which in turn is found to be affected by vitamin D supplementation. In the light of numerous new-found roles for vitamin D, we review and evaluate the potential actions of the sunshine vitamin with respect to pancreatic cancer prevention and therapy.

  5. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  6. Immunohistochemical Biomarkers in Gastric Cancer Research and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lastraioli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer still represents a major health problem, despite a decrease in its incidence in the last years. Due to the social impact of gastric cancer (GC, there is a need for novel biomarkers in order to stratify patients into appropriate screening, surveillance, or treatment programs. Although histopathology remains the most reliable and less expensive method, numerous efforts have been made searching for novel biomarkers. In recent years, several molecules have been identified and tested for their clinical relevance in GC management. In this paper, we will focus on a well-known GC marker, whose determination is mandatory in GC, HER2, a marker whose correlation with prognosis is still controversial (VEGF-A and a quite novel, unconventional marker, the ether-à-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1. All these proteins can be easily detected with immunohistochemistry, a technique widely used both in diagnostic and research laboratories that represents a link between surgical and molecular pathology, basic science, and clinical medicine.

  7. Cancer survivors' experience of exercise-based cancer rehabilitation - a meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Hammer, Nanna Maria; Andersen, Christina; Larsen, Anders; Bruun, Ditte-Marie; Jarden, Mary

    2015-05-01

    Evidence for the safety and benefits of exercise training as a therapeutic and rehabilitative intervention for cancer survivors is accumulating. However, whereas the evidence for the efficacy of exercise training has been established in several meta-analyses, synthesis of qualitative research is lacking. In order to extend healthcare professionals' understanding of the meaningfulness of exercise in cancer survivorship care, this paper aims to identify, appraise and synthesize qualitative studies on cancer survivors' experience of participation in exercise-based rehabilitation. Five electronic databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, Cinahl and Scopus) were searched systematically for articles published up to May 2014 using keywords and MeSH terms. To be included, studies had to contain primary data pertaining to patient experiences from participation in supervised, structured moderate to vigorous-intensity exercise. In total 2447 abstracts were screened and 37 papers were read in full. Of these, 19 studies (n = 390) were selected for inclusion and critically appraised. Synthesis of data extracted from eight studies including in total 174 patients (77% women, age 28-76 years) exclusively reporting experiences of participation in structured, supervised exercise training resulted in nine themes condensed into three categories: 1) emergence of continuity; 2) preservation of health; and 3) reclaiming the body reflecting the benefits of exercise-based rehabilitation according to cancer survivors. Accordingly, the potential of rebuilding structure in everyday life, creating a normal context and enabling the individual to re-establish confidentiality and trust in their own body and physical potential constitute substantial qualities fundamental to the understanding of the meaningfulness of exercise-based rehabilitation from the perspective of patients. In addition to the accumulating evidence for the efficacy of exercise training in cancer rehabilitation, it is incumbent upon

  8. Advances in mass spectrometry-based cancer research and analysis: from cancer proteomics to clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, John F; Hale, Oliver J; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The last 20 years have seen significant improvements in the analytical capabilities of biological mass spectrometry (MS). Studies using advanced MS have resulted in new insights into cell biology and the etiology of diseases as well as its use in clinical applications. This review discusses recent developments in MS-based technologies and their cancer-related applications with a focus on proteomics. It also discusses the issues around translating the research findings to the clinic and provides an outline of where the field is moving. Expert commentary: Proteomics has been problematic to adapt for the clinical setting. However, MS-based techniques continue to demonstrate potential in novel clinical uses beyond classical cancer proteomics.

  9. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns of psychological symptoms between trajectories. This naturalistic study focused on 241 cancer patients receiving psychological care at psycho-oncology institutions. Data were collected before the initiation of psychological care, and 3 and 9 months thereafter. Latent class growth analysis was applied to identify personal control trajectories. Three personal control trajectories were identified: enduring improvement (41%), temporary improvement (50%), and deterioration (9%). Education and baseline physical symptoms distinguished these trajectories. In the whole group, improvements in personal control were associated with improvements in psychological symptoms. Patients at distinct trajectories reported different levels of psychological symptoms, but did not differ in their courses of psychological symptoms. Patients in the enduring and temporary control improvement groups experienced significant psychological symptoms reductions over time, whereas patients in the control deterioration group maintained high psychological symptoms. Improvements in personal control seem to depend on initial control level: those who start with the highest control levels show subsequent improvements, whereas those with the lowest control levels show subsequent deterioration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshram II

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban field practice area, Sadar, without any malignancy. Bivariate analyses included odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI for odds ratio. Results: Earlier age at menarche ≤ 12 years of age, late age at first full term delivery, nulliparity, Lack of breast-feeding were found to be significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer in both pre menopausal & post menopausal women while age at menopause at or after 50 years was significantly associated with the risk in post menopausal women. Conclusions: Study suggests that the changes in menstrual and reproductive patterns among women i.e. early age at menarche and late age at first childbirth and some environmental factors in Central India may have contributed to the increase in breast cancer risk, particularly among younger women.

  11. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19).

  12. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  13. The voice of experience: results from Cancer Control New Zealand's first national cancer care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Inga; Britton, Emma; Sarfati, Diana; Naylor, Wayne; Borman, Barry; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Simpson, Andrew; Tamblyn, Craig; Atkinson, Chris

    2010-11-05

    The 2009 Cancer Care Survey aimed to gather information from patients about their experiences receiving outpatient cancer care. In mid-2009, Cancer Control New Zealand sent an NRC+Picker postal survey to a stratified sample of 3251 eligible adults, who had received outpatient cancer care between October 2008 and March 2009. Eight cancer treatment facilities across New Zealand provided patient lists from which potential respondents were selected. The final response rate to the survey was 68%. Most of the patients surveyed responded very positively to questions related to specialist care coordination (91% positive response; 95%CI: 90-93), the level of privacy (87% positive response; 95%CI: 85-89), and the dignity and respect provided by healthcare professionals (86% positive response; 95%CI: 85-88). However, patients tended to be much less positive about the level of information they received on the effects of cancer treatment on their day-to-day life (responses ranging between 30% and 40% positive) and the level of emotional support provided (36% positive response; 95%CI: 33-39). Responses from different cancer services tended to follow similar patterns, although for twelve questions there was at least a 20% difference in response between services. Overall, patients rated their outpatient cancer care experiences as positive, but important gaps exist in the provision of information, emotional support, and treating patients within the context of their living situation. Cancer patient experience surveys can achieve high response rates and generate useful information on patient perceptions of their care. This data can be used to inform quality improvement efforts at both national and cancer treatment service levels.

  14. Research advances in relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Xiangyi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer (PC is one of common malignant digestive diseases. It is mostly diagnosed at advanced stage, with an extremely poor progression. The relationship between diabetes and PC was shown by numerous epidemiological studies for decades. Retrospective clinical studies and research on molecular mechanisms in recent years have led to a new understanding of the relationship between diabetes, especially new-onset diabetes, and PC, the effect of antidiabetic medication on PC, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the connection between diabetes and PC. It is suggested by recent data that long-standing diabetes is one of the risk factors for PC development, new-onset diabetes may facilitate early diagnosis of PC, diabetes may have an impact on the prognosis of PC, the option of antidiabetic medication may influence the incidence of PC, and exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the association between diabetes and PC may help to identify the new therapeutic target for PC.

  15. Vaccines 2.0 | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1974, Jay A. Berzofsky, M.D., Ph.D., now Chief of CCR’s Vaccine Branch, came to NIH to study protein folding. His curious mind and collaborative spirit quickly led him into the intertwined fields of immunology and vaccine development. With close to 500 publications to his name, Berzofsky has pioneered the characterization of B- and T-cell epitopes and their modification to make vaccines directed against cancer and chronic infectious diseases. He has also characterized and taken advantage of the cellular and molecular regulators of immune responses in order to enhance tumor immunity and vaccine efficacy. In the last several years, he has translated many of these strategies into promising clinical trials. From the microcosm of his laboratory, he brings the same spirit of cross-fertilizing, bench-to-bedside research to leading the Vaccine Branch as a whole.

  16. The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program: a multi-disciplinary investigation of bone metastases from breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brockton, Nigel T; Gill, Stephanie J; Laborge, Stephanie L; Paterson, Alexander H G; Cook, Linda S; Vogel, Hans J; Shemanko, Carrie S; Hanley, David A; Magliocco, Anthony M; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    .... The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program consists of a prospective cohort of incident breast cancer patients and four sub-projects that are investigating priority areas in breast cancer bone metastases...

  17. Optimal control for mathematical models of cancer therapies an application of geometric methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schättler, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This book presents applications of geometric optimal control to real life biomedical problems with an emphasis on cancer treatments. A number of mathematical models for both classical and novel cancer treatments are presented as optimal control problems with the goal of constructing optimal protocols. The power of geometric methods is illustrated with fully worked out complete global solutions to these mathematically challenging problems. Elaborate constructions of optimal controls and corresponding system responses provide great examples of applications of the tools of geometric optimal control and the outcomes aid the design of simpler, practically realizable suboptimal protocols. The book blends mathematical rigor with practically important topics in an easily readable tutorial style. Graduate students and researchers in science and engineering, particularly biomathematics and more mathematical aspects of biomedical engineering, would find this book particularly useful.

  18. An integrative review of South African cancer nursing research published from 2002–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Maree; Shelley Schmollgruber

    2014-01-01

    Background: This integrative review aimed to quantify the publication output of South African cancer nursing research conducted between 2002 and 2012 and to identify key trends relevant to cancer nurse researchers.Objectives: To describe the publication output of cancer nursing research in terms of the journals of publication, authors, focus, participants and methods used, to explore whether the published work was funded and to assess the quality of the studies published.Methods: An integrati...

  19. Cancer patient and survivor research from the cancer information service research consortium: a preview of three large randomized trials and initial lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alfred C; Diefenbach, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L; Miller, Suzanne M; Fleisher, Linda; Raich, Peter C; Morra, Marion E; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Tran, Zung Vu; Bright, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe 3 large randomized trials from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium. Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 also tests a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the 2-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1: n =208; Project 2: n =340; Project 3: n =792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52%, and 67% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most, or some) was 90%, 85%, and 83% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium interventions, perceived usefulness and benefit was high, and more than 90% reported that they would recommend them to other cancer patients. The authors present 5 initial lessons learned that may help inform future cancer communications research.

  20. Challenges in Recruiting Aging Women Holocaust Survivors to a Case Control Study of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shai; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are underrepresented in medical research for many reasons, including recruitment difficulties. Recruitment of older adults for research studies is often a time-consuming process and can be more challenging when the study involves older adults with unique exposures to traumatic events and from minority groups. The current article provides a brief overview of (a) challenges encountered while recruiting aging women Holocaust survivors for a case control study and (b) strategies used for meeting those challenges. The case group comprised women Holocaust survivors who were recently diagnosed with breast cancer and the control group comprised healthy women from a Holocaust-survivor community in Israel. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.