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Sample records for cancer control program

  1. The History and Use of Cancer Registry Data by Public Health Cancer Control Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C.; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Wong, Faye L.; Kohler, Betsy A.; Weir, Hannah K.

    2018-01-01

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. PMID:29205307

  2. The history and use of cancer registry data by public health cancer control programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S; Mariotto, Angela B; Wong, Faye L; Kohler, Betsy A; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. Cancer 2017;123:4969-76. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Gynecologic Cancer Prevention and Control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: Progress, Current Activities, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M.; Larkin, O. Ann; Moore, Angela R.; Hayes, Nikki S.

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  4. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  5. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  6. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  7. The inception and evolution of a unique masters program in cancer biology, prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Carolyn; Blancato, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (LCCC), Georgetown University Medical Center established a Masters Degree Program in Cancer Biology, Prevention and Control at UDC that is jointly administered and taught by UDC and LCCC faculty. The goal of the Masters Degree Program is to educate students as master-level cancer professionals capable of conducting research and service in cancer biology, prevention, and control or to further advance the education of students to pursue doctoral studies. The Program's unique nature is reflected in its philosophy "the best cancer prevention and control researchers are those with a sound understanding of cancer biology". This program is a full-time, 2-year, 36-credit degree in which students take half of their coursework at UDC and half of their coursework at LCCC. During the second year, students are required to conduct research either at LCCC or UDC. Unlike most cancer biology programs, this unique Program emphasizes both cancer biology and cancer outreach training.

  8. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm A. Moore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  9. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer; Control de la calidad en los programas de pesquisa de cancer cervicouterino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.sarduy@infomed.sld.cu [Centro de Investigaciones Medico Quirurgicas, La Habana (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  10. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hextan Y. S. Ngan

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  11. Development and evaluation of a cancer-related fatigue patient education program: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görres Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related fatigue (CRF and its impact on patients' quality of life has been an increasing subject of research. However, in Germany there is a lack of evidence-based interventions consistent with the multidimensional character of fatigue. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a self-management program for disease-free cancer patients to cope with CRF. Methods Based on evidence extracted from a literature review, a curriculum for the self-management program was elaborated. The curriculum was reviewed and validated by an interdisciplinary expert group and the training-modules will be pretested with a small number of participants and discussed in terms of feasibility and acceptance. To determine the efficacy of the program a randomised controlled trial will be carried out: 300 patients will be recruited from oncological practices in Bremen, Germany, and will be allocated to intervention or control group. The intervention group participates in the program, whereas the control group receives standard care and the opportunity to take part in the program after the end of the follow-up (waiting control group. Primary outcome measure is the level of fatigue, secondary outcome measures are quality of life, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and physical activity. Data will be collected before randomisation, after intervention, and after a follow-up of 6 months. Discussion Because there are no comparable self-management programs for cancer survivors with fatigue, the development of the curriculum has been complex; therefore, the critical appraisal by the experts was an important step to validate the program and their contributions have been integrated into the curriculum. The experts appreciated the program as filling a gap in outpatient cancer care. If the results of the evaluation prove to be satisfactory, the outpatient care of cancer patients can be broadened and supplemented. Trial Registration Clinical

  12. Effect of a life review program for Chinese patients with advanced cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huimin; Kwong, Enid; Pang, Samantha; Mok, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Empirical data suggest that life review is an effective psychospiritual intervention. However, it has not been applied to Chinese patients with advanced cancer, and its effects on this population remain unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a life review program on quality of life among Chinese patients with advanced cancer. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, a total of 80 patients were randomly assigned to the life review program group and the control group. The 3-weekly life review program included reviewing a life and formulating a life review booklet. Outcome data were assessed by a collector who was blinded to group assignment before and immediately after the program and at a 3-week follow-up. Significantly better scores in overall quality of life, support, negative emotions, sense of alienation, existential distress, and value of life were found in the life review group immediately after the program and at the 3-week follow-up. This study provides additional data on the potential role of a life review in improving quality of life, particularly psychospiritual well being; it also indicates that the life review program could enable Chinese patients with advanced cancer to express their views on life and death. The life review program offers advanced cancer patients an opportunity to integrate their whole life experiences and discuss end-of-life issues, which lays the ground for further active intervention in their psychospiritual distress. The program could be integrated into daily home care to enhance the psychospiritual well-being of Chinese patients with advanced cancer.

  13. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Chan, Karen K. L.; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J.; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. PMID:21559068

  14. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngan, H. Y. S.; Chan, K. K. L.; Cheung, A. N. Y.; Garland, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to health care is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  15. Assessing Awareness and Use of Evidence-Based Programs for Cancer Control in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A.; Fernández, María E.; Rivera, Mirza; Díaz, Elba C.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Pattatucci, Angela; Wetter, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The Community Cancer Control Outreach Program (CCCOP) is a community-academic partnership aimed at developing and implementing a cancer control outreach, research, and training program in Puerto Rico. The CCCOP surveyed 56 partners to assess their awareness, training needs, and use of resources related to evidence-based programs (EBPs). Despite relatively high levels (70%) of confidence in adopting EBPs, there were low levels of awareness (37%) and use (25%) of existing EBPs resources. Respondents’ who had used EBPs resources were more likely to have positive beliefs about EBPs than nonusers (p<0.05). Training needs were high among respondents and no significant differences were found between those who had and had not used existing EBPs resources. These findings can guide the development of training tools and technical assistance to increase the use of EBPs for Latino audiences. PMID:22528632

  16. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine as an Anti-cancer Vaccine: Collaborative Efforts to Promote HPV Vaccine in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie S.; Steele, C. Brooke; Hayes, Nikki; Bhatt, Achal; Moore, Angela R.

    2018-01-01

    Background Widespread use of the HPV vaccine has the potential to reduce incidence from HPV-associated cancers. However, vaccine uptake among adolescents remains well below the Healthy People 2020 targets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)’s National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program awardees (NCCCP) are well positioned to work with immunization programs to increase vaccine uptake. Methods CDC’s chronic disease management information system was queried for objectives and activities associated with HPV vaccine that were reported by NCCCP awardees from 2013 – 2016 as part of program reporting requirements. A content analysis was conducted on the query results to categorize interventions according to strategies outlined in The Guide to Community Preventive Services and the 2014 President’s Cancer Panel report. Results Sixty-two percent of NCCCP awardees had planned or implemented at least one activity since 2013 to address low HPV vaccination coverage in their jurisdictions. Most NCCCP awardees (86%) reported community education activities, while 65% reported activities associated with provider education. Systems-based strategies such as client reminders or provider assessment and feedback were each reported by less than 25% of NCCCP awardees. Conclusion Many NCCCP awardees report planning or implementing activities to address low HPV vaccination coverage, often in conjunction with state immunization programs. NCCCP awardees can play a role in increasing HPV vaccination coverage through their cancer prevention and control expertise and access to partners in the health care community. PMID:28263672

  17. Toward optimal implementation of cancer prevention and control programs in public health: a study protocol on mis-implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padek, Margaret; Allen, Peg; Erwin, Paul C; Franco, Melissa; Hammond, Ross A; Heuberger, Benjamin; Kasman, Matt; Luke, Doug A; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-03-23

    Much of the cancer burden in the USA is preventable, through application of existing knowledge. State-level funders and public health practitioners are in ideal positions to affect programs and policies related to cancer control. Mis-implementation refers to ending effective programs and policies prematurely or continuing ineffective ones. Greater attention to mis-implementation should lead to use of effective interventions and more efficient expenditure of resources, which in the long term, will lead to more positive cancer outcomes. This is a three-phase study that takes a comprehensive approach, leading to the elucidation of tactics for addressing mis-implementation. Phase 1: We assess the extent to which mis-implementation is occurring among state cancer control programs in public health. This initial phase will involve a survey of 800 practitioners representing all states. The programs represented will span the full continuum of cancer control, from primary prevention to survivorship. Phase 2: Using data from phase 1 to identify organizations in which mis-implementation is particularly high or low, the team will conduct eight comparative case studies to get a richer understanding of mis-implementation and to understand contextual differences. These case studies will highlight lessons learned about mis-implementation and identify hypothesized drivers. Phase 3: Agent-based modeling will be used to identify dynamic interactions between individual capacity, organizational capacity, use of evidence, funding, and external factors driving mis-implementation. The team will then translate and disseminate findings from phases 1 to 3 to practitioners and practice-related stakeholders to support the reduction of mis-implementation. This study is innovative and significant because it will (1) be the first to refine and further develop reliable and valid measures of mis-implementation of public health programs; (2) bring together a strong, transdisciplinary team with

  18. An opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation therapy achieves a high completion rate of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kengo; Matsuura, Kazuto; Zenda, Sadamoto

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate supportive care is essential for intensive chemoradiation therapy (CRT), and pain management is an important supportive care for CRT for head and neck cancer. We developed an opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing CRT, and assessed its efficacy and safety. 110 head and neck cancer patients undergoing platinum-based concomitant CRT were enrolled from 10 cancer centers or university hospitals. Their pain caused by CRT was managed with a four-step opioid-based pain control program, and adverse events and usage of opioid were analyzed. 101 suitable cases of 110 patients were analyzed. 53% of cases suffered grade 3-4 mucositis. The rate of completion of radiotherapy was 99% and the rate of unplanned breaks in radiotherapy was 13%. The usage rate of opioid was 83% and the rate of compliance with the pain control program was 92%. The median maximum quantity of morphine used per day was 35 mg. No patient had to stop the opioid program or radiotherapy due to adverse effects of opioids. An opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients undergoing CRT achieves a high completion rate of radiation. (author)

  19. Cancer control activities in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Keun-Young

    2008-05-01

    South Korea has a population of 47.3 million. The whole population is covered by a mandatory social insurance system (the National Health Insurance Program) that is financed through the contributions paid by the insured and their employers. Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Korea since 1983. About 130 000 people develop cancer annually with 66 000 deaths in 2006. Cancer patients' 5-year survival rates between 1998 and 2002 were 37.8 and 57.0% for men and women, respectively. The five leading primary cancer sites were stomach, lung, liver, colon and rectum, and bladder among males, whereas the most common cancers were stomach, breast, colon and rectum, uterine cervix and lung among females. With the rapidly aging population, reducing cancer burden at the national level has become one of the major political issues in Korea. The government formulated its first 10-year plan for cancer control in 1996. In 2000, the National Cancer Center was created and the Cancer Control Division was set up within the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The Cancer Control Act was legislated in 2003. Korea's major national cancer control programs are anti-smoking campaigns, hepatitis B virus vaccination, cancer registration and networking, promotion of R&D activities for cancer control, education and training for cancer control and prevention, operation of the national cancer information center, operation of the mass screening program for five common cancers, management of cancer patients at home, financial support for cancer patients and designation of regional cancer centers.

  20. Enhancing capacity among faith-based organizations to implement evidence-based cancer control programs: a community-engaged approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Bryan; Allen, Jennifer D; Ospino, Hosffman; Tom, Laura S; Negrón, Rosalyn; Buesa, Richard; Torres, Maria Idalí

    2017-09-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to promote cancer control among Latinos have proliferated in recent years, though adoption and implementation of these interventions by faith-based organizations (FBOs) is limited. Capacity building may be one strategy to promote implementation. In this qualitative study, 18 community key informants were interviewed to (a) understand existing capacity for health programming among Catholic parishes, (b) characterize parishes' resource gaps and capacity-building needs implementing cancer control EBIs, and (c) elucidate strategies for delivering capacity-building assistance to parishes to facilitate implementation of EBIs. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. Key informants concurred about the capacity of Catholic parishes to deliver health programs, and described attributes of parishes that make them strong partners in health promotion initiatives, including a mission to address physical and mental health, outreach to marginalized groups, altruism among members, and existing engagement in health programming. However, resource gaps and capacity building needs were also identified. Specific recommendations participants made about how existing resources might be leveraged to address challenges include to: establish parish wellness committees; provide "hands-on" learning opportunities for parishioners to gain program planning skills; offer continuous, tailored, on-site technical assistance; facilitate relationships between parishes and community resources; and provide financial support for parishes. Leveraging parishes' existing resources and addressing their implementation needs may improve adoption of cancer control EBIs.

  1. Cancer survivorship: a new challenge in comprehensive cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lori A; Greer, Greta E; Rowland, Julia H; Miller, Andy; Doneski, Donna; Coughlin, Steven S; Stovall, Ellen; Ulman, Doug

    2005-10-01

    Cancer survivors are a growing population in the United States because of earlier cancer diagnosis, the aging of society, and more effective risk reduction and treatment. Concerns about the long-term physical, psychosocial, and economic effects of cancer treatment on cancer survivors and their families are increasingly being recognized and addressed by public, private, and non-profit organizations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how survivorship fits within the framework of comprehensive cancer control. We summarize three national reports on cancer survivorship and highlight how various organizations and programs are striving to address the needs of cancer survivors through public health planning, including the challenges these groups face and the gaps in knowledge and available services. As cancer survivorship issues are being recognized, many organizations have objectives and programs to address concerns of those diagnosed with cancer. However, better coordination and dissemination may decrease overlap and increase the reach of efforts and there is limited evidence for the effectiveness and impact of these efforts.

  2. Enhancing organizational capacity to provide cancer control programs among Latino churches: design and baseline findings of the CRUZA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Torres, Maria Idali; Tom, Laura S; Rustan, Sarah; Leyva, Bryan; Negron, Rosalyn; Linnan, Laura A; Jandorf, Lina; Ospino, Hosffman

    2015-04-09

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have been successful in delivering health promotion programs for African Americans, though few studies have been conducted among Latinos. Even fewer have focused on organizational change, which is required to sustain community-based initiatives. We hypothesized that FBOs serving Latinos would be more likely to offer evidence-based strategies (EBS) for cancer control after receiving a capacity enhancement intervention to implement health programs, and designed the CRUZA trial to test this hypothesis. This paper describes the CRUZA design and baseline findings. We identified Catholic parishes in Massachusetts that provided Spanish-language mass (n = 65). A baseline survey assessed organizational characteristics relevant to adoption of health programs, including readiness for adoption, "fit" between innovation and organizational mission, implementation climate, and organizational culture. In the next study phase, parishes that completed the baseline assessment will be recruited to a randomized cluster trial, with the parish as the unit of analysis. Both groups will receive a Program Manual and Toolkit. Capacity Enhancement parishes will also be offered technical support, assistance forming health committees and building inter-institutional partnerships, and skills-based training. Of the 49 parishes surveyed at baseline (75%), one-third (33%) reported having provided at least one health program in the prior year. However, only two program offerings were cancer-specific. Nearly one-fifth (18%) had an active health ministry. There was a high level of organizational readiness to adopt cancer control programs, high congruence between parish missions and CRUZA objectives, moderately conducive implementation climates, and organizational cultures supportive of CRUZA programming. Having an existing health ministry was significantly associated with having offered health programs within the past year. Relationships between health program

  3. A Case-Control Study to Estimate the Impact of the Icelandic Population-Based Mammography Screening Program on Breast Cancer Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabe, R.; Tryggvadottir, L.; Sigfusson, B.F.; Olafsdottir, G.H.; Sigurarsson , K. [Icelandic Cancer Society (Krabbameinsfelag Islands), Reykjavik (Iceland); Duffy, S.W. [Cancer Research UK, Centre for Epidemiology, Mathematics and Stati stics, Wolfson Inst. of Preventive Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Background: The Icelandic breast cancer screening program, initiated November 1987 in Reykjavik and covering the whole country from December 1989, comprises biennial invitation to mammography for women aged 40-69 years old. Purpose: To estimate the impact of mammography service screening in Iceland on deaths from breast cancer. Material and Methods: Cases were deaths from breast cancer from 1990 onwards in women aged 40 and over at diagnosis, during the period November 1987 to December 31, 2002. Age- and screening-area-matched, population-based controls were women who had also been invited to screening but were alive at the time their case died. Results: Using conditional logistic regression on the data from 226 cases and 902 controls, the odds ratio for the risk of death from breast cancer in those attending at least one screen compared to those never screened was 0.59 (95% CI 0.41-0.84). After adjustment for healthy-volunteer bias and screening-opportunity bias, the odds ratio was 0.65 (95% CI 0.39-1.09). Conclusion: These results indicate a 35-40% reduction in breast cancer deaths by attending the Icelandic breast cancer screening program. These results are consistent with the overall evidence from other observational evaluations of mammography-based programs.

  4. A Case-Control Study to Estimate the Impact of the Icelandic Population-Based Mammography Screening Program on Breast Cancer Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabe, R.; Tryggvadottir, L.; Sigfusson, B.F.; Olafsdottir, G.H.; Sigurarsson, K.; Duffy, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Icelandic breast cancer screening program, initiated November 1987 in Reykjavik and covering the whole country from December 1989, comprises biennial invitation to mammography for women aged 40-69 years old. Purpose: To estimate the impact of mammography service screening in Iceland on deaths from breast cancer. Material and Methods: Cases were deaths from breast cancer from 1990 onwards in women aged 40 and over at diagnosis, during the period November 1987 to December 31, 2002. Age- and screening-area-matched, population-based controls were women who had also been invited to screening but were alive at the time their case died. Results: Using conditional logistic regression on the data from 226 cases and 902 controls, the odds ratio for the risk of death from breast cancer in those attending at least one screen compared to those never screened was 0.59 (95% CI 0.41-0.84). After adjustment for healthy-volunteer bias and screening-opportunity bias, the odds ratio was 0.65 (95% CI 0.39-1.09). Conclusion: These results indicate a 35-40% reduction in breast cancer deaths by attending the Icelandic breast cancer screening program. These results are consistent with the overall evidence from other observational evaluations of mammography-based programs

  5. Mobile Breast Cancer e-Support Program for Chinese Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy (Part 2): Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Ebert, Lyn; Liu, Xiangyu; Wei, Di; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2018-04-30

    Women undergoing chemotherapy for the treatment of breast cancer have frequently reported unmet supportive care needs. Moreover, easily accessible and innovative support is lacking. The purpose of this trial was to determine the effectiveness of an app-based breast cancer e-support program to address women's self-efficacy (primary outcome), social support, symptom distress, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Secondary objectives included exploring the association between women's health outcomes and the breast cancer e-support usage data. A multicenter, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 114 women with breast cancer, who were commencing chemotherapy and were able to access internet through a mobile phone, were recruited in the clinics from 2 university-affiliated hospitals in China. Women were randomized either to the intervention group (n=57) receiving breast cancer e-support plus care as usual or the control group (n=57) receiving care as usual alone. The health care team and research assistants collecting data were blinded to the women's group allocation. Bandura's self-efficacy theory and the social exchange theory guided the development of the breast cancer e-support program, which has 4 components: (1) a Learning forum, (2) a Discussion forum, (3) an Ask-the-Expert forum, and (4) a Personal Stories forum. Moderated by an experienced health care professional, the breast cancer e-support program supported women for 12 weeks covering 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Health outcomes were self-assessed through paper questionnaires in clinics at baseline before randomization (T0), after 3 (T1), and 6 months (T2) of follow-ups. Fifty-five participants in the intervention group and 49 in the control group completed the follow-up assessments (response rate: 91.2%). During the 12-week intervention, the log-in frequency ranged from 0 to 774 times (mean 54.7; SD 131.4; median 11; interquartile range, IQR 5-27), and the total usage

  6. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  7. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  8. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  9. [Strengthen the cancer surveillance to promote cancer prevention and control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J

    2018-01-23

    Cancer is a major chronic disease threatening the people's health in China. We reviewed the latest advances on cancer surveillance, prevention and control in our country, which may provide important clues for future cancer control. We used data from the National Central Cancer Registry, to describe and analyze the latest cancer statistics in China. We summarized updated informations on cancer control policies, conducting network, as well as programs in the country. We provided important suggestions on the future strategies of cancer prevention and control. The overall cancer burden in China has been increasing during the past decades. In 2014, there were about 3 804 000 new cancer cases and 2 296 000 cancer deaths in China. The age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were 190.63/100 000 and 106.98/100 000, respectively. China has formed a comprehensive network on cancer prevention and control. Nationwide population-based cancer surveillance has been built up. The population coverage of cancer surveillance has been expanded, and the data quality has been improved. As the aging population is increasing and unhealthy life styles persist in our country, there will be an unnegligible cancer burden in China. Based on the comprehensive rationale of cancer control and prevention, National Cancer Center of China will perform its duty for future precise cancer control and prevention, based on cancer surveillance statistics.

  10. Effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on patients with a positive fecal occult blood test result for colorectal cancer screening: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Chuan; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer and screening and the psychological impact of positive screening results. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2 groups using a pretest and posttest measures design. Patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 51) group. Subjects in the experimental group received a health education and telephone counseling program, while the control group received routine care only. Patients were assessed pretest before intervention (first visit to the outpatient) and posttest at 4 weeks after intervention (4 weeks after first visit to the outpatient). Patients in the experimental group had a significantly better level of knowledge about colorectal cancer and the psychological impact of a positive screening result than did the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the health education and telephone counseling program had a significant main effect on colorectal cancer knowledge. A health education and telephone counseling program can improve knowledge about colorectal cancer and about the psychological impact in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results. The health education and telephone counseling program is an easy, simple, and convenient method of improving knowledge, improving attitudes, and alleviating psychological distress in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results, and this program can be expanded to other types of cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  12. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prostate Cancer Scholars Program is designed to encourage students from under-represented minority groups to enter graduate training and ultimately

  13. Assessment of training needs and preferences for geographic information systems (GIS) mapping in state comprehensive cancer-control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Suellen; Chadwick, Amy E; Parrott, Roxanne L; Ghetian, Christie B; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2009-10-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) mapping technologies have potential to advance public health promotion by mapping regional differences in attributes (e.g., disease burden, environmental exposures, access to health care services) to suggest priorities for public health interventions. Training in GIS for comprehensive cancer control (CCC) has been overlooked. State CCC programs' GIS training needs were assessed by interviewing 49 state CCC directors. A majority perceived a need for GIS training, slightly more than half of state CCC programs had access to geocoded data, and the majority of programs did not require continuing education credits of their staff. CCC directors perceived judging maps and realizing their limitations as important skills and identified epidemiologists, CCC staff, public health officials, policy makers, and cancer coalition members as training audiences. They preferred in-class training sessions that last a few hours to a day. Lessons learned are shared to develop training programs with translatable GIS skills for CCC.

  14. Improving communication in cancer pain management nursing: a randomized controlled study assessing the efficacy of a communication skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivet, Delphine; Delvaux, Nicole; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Brancart, Cyrielle; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius

    2014-12-01

    Effective communication is needed for optimal cancer pain management. This study assessed the efficacy of a general communication skills training program for oncology nurses on communication about pain management. A total of 115 nurses were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or control group (CG). The assessment included the recording of interviews with a simulated cancer patient at baseline for both groups and after training (TG) or 3 months after baseline (CG). Two psychologists rated the content of interview transcripts to assess cancer pain management communication. Group-by-time effects were measured using a generalized estimating equation. Trained nurses asked the simulated patient more questions about emotions associated with pain (relative rate [RR] = 4.28, p = 0.049) and cognitions associated with pain treatment (RR = 3.23, p management (RR = 0.40, p = 0.006) compared with untrained nurses. The general communication skills training program improved only a few of the communication strategies needed for optimal cancer pain management in nursing. General communication skills training programs should be consolidated using specific modules focusing on communication skills related to cancer pain management.

  15. Enhanced recovery programs in lung cancer surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shuangjiang Li,1 Kun Zhou,1 Guowei Che,1 Mei Yang,1 Jianhua Su,2 Cheng Shen,1 Pengming Yu2 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, 2Department of Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program is an effective evidence-based multidisciplinary protocol of perioperative care, but its roles in thoracic surgery remain unclear. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of the ERAS programs for lung cancer surgery. Materials and methods: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify the RCTs that implemented an ERAS program encompassing more than four care elements within at least two phases of perioperative care in lung cancer surgery. The heterogeneity levels between studies were estimated by the Cochrane Collaborations. A qualitative review was performed if considerable heterogeneity was revealed. Relative risk (RR and weighted mean difference served as the summarized statistics for the meta-analyses. Additional analyses were also performed to perceive potential bias risks. Results: A total of seven RCTs enrolling 486 patients were included. The meta-analysis indicated that the ERAS group patients had significantly lower morbidity rates (RR=0.64; p<0.001, especially the rates of pulmonary (RR=0.43; p<0.001 and surgical complications (RR=0.46; p=0.010, than those of control group patients. No significant reduction was found in the in-hospital mortality (RR=0.70; p=0.58 or cardiovascular complications (RR=1.46; p=0.25. In the qualitative review, most of the evidence reported significantly shortened length of hospital and intensive care unit stay and decreased hospitalization costs in the ERAS-treated patients. No significant publication bias was detected in the meta-analyses. Conclusion: Our review demonstrates that the implementation of an ERAS program for lung cancer

  16. Effects of a self-management program on antiemetic-induced constipation during chemotherapy among breast cancer patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Akiko; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Sozu, Takashi; Tsuda, Moe; Arai, Hidenori; Mitani, Akira; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    Research on patient-reported outcomes indicates that constipation is a common adverse effect of chemotherapy, and the use of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5HT3) receptor antagonists aggravates this condition. As cancer patients take multiple drugs as a part of their clinical management, a non-pharmacological self-management (SM) of constipation would be recommended. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a SM program on antiemetic-induced constipation in cancer patients. Thirty patients with breast cancer, receiving 5HT3 receptor antagonists to prevent emesis during chemotherapy were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The SM program consisted of abdominal massage, abdominal muscle stretching, and education on proper defecation position. The intervention group started the program before the first chemotherapy cycle, whereas patients in the wait-list control group received the program on the day before their second chemotherapy cycle. The primary outcome was constipation severity, assessed by the constipation assessment scale (CAS, sum of eight components). The secondary outcome included each CAS component (0-2 points) and mood states. A self-reported assessment of satisfaction with the program was performed. The program produced a statistically and clinically significant alleviation of constipation severity (mean difference in CAS, -3.00; P = 0.02), decrease in the likelihood of a small volume of stool (P = 0.03), and decrease in depression and dejection (P = 0.02). With regards to program satisfaction, 43.6 and 26.4 % patients rated the program as excellent and good, respectively. Our SM program is effective for mitigating the symptoms of antiemetic-induced constipation during chemotherapy.

  17. Cervical Cancer Control in Antioquia and Medellín 1980–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny Valencia Arredondo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rebuild from the actors, the programs implemented in Antioquia and Medellin from 1980 to 2010. Materials and methods: qualitative study of control programs for cervical cancer in Antioquia and Medellin from the actors, taking into account the influence of healthcare system reforms and the different administrations. The information was obtained by documenting and depth interviews with 15 stakeholders related to control activities of this neoplasm review. Results: In the department and the municipality have worked two programs, being more structured program of detection and control of cervical cancer those that ran from 1990 to 199. After the “Ley 100” there have only been disjointed activities and with little impact on mortality from this neoplasm. Conclusions: The developed programs have had direct inuence of changes of administrations, healthcare system and regulation reforms, to which the responsibilities of the different activities have accordingly uctuated, what shows the importance of the political will to take forward such programs. As today, and for over a decade, both Colombia and Antioquia lack of properly structured cervical cancer control programs.

  18. Canadian Cancer Risk Management Model: evaluation of cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Wolfson, Michael C; Flanagan, William M; Shin, Janey; Goffin, John; Miller, Anthony B; Asakawa, Keiko; Earle, Craig; Mittmann, Nicole; Fairclough, Lee; Oderkirk, Jillian; Finès, Philippe; Gribble, Stephen; Hoch, Jeffrey; Hicks, Chantal; Omariba, D Walter R; Ng, Edward

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a decision support tool to assess the potential benefits and costs of new healthcare interventions. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC) commissioned the development of a Cancer Risk Management Model (CRMM)--a computer microsimulation model that simulates individual lives one at a time, from birth to death, taking account of Canadian demographic and labor force characteristics, risk factor exposures, and health histories. Information from all the simulated lives is combined to produce aggregate measures of health outcomes for the population or for particular subpopulations. The CRMM can project the population health and economic impacts of cancer control programs in Canada and the impacts of major risk factors, cancer prevention, and screening programs and new cancer treatments on population health and costs to the healthcare system. It estimates both the direct costs of medical care, as well as lost earnings and impacts on tax revenues. The lung and colorectal modules are available through the CPAC Web site (www.cancerview.ca/cancerrriskmanagement) to registered users where structured scenarios can be explored for their projected impacts. Advanced users will be able to specify new scenarios or change existing modules by varying input parameters or by accessing open source code. Model development is now being extended to cervical and breast cancers.

  19. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    . For colorectal cancer, the stage at diagnosis of cases diagnosed in northeast Pennsylvania was compared to data from prior years. A population-based interview study of healthy adults was conducted to document the status of cancer screening and to estimate the prevalence of established cancer risk factors in this community. This study is similar in design to that used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This program includes two distinct but related projects. The first project uses existing data to conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania, and the second is a population-based study of cancer risk factors and cancer screening behaviors in this same population. HUMAN SUBJECTS CONSIDERATIONS This program includes two projects: cancer surveillance and a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior. The cancer surveillance project involves only the use of existing aggregate data or de-identified data. As such, the surveillance project is exempt from human subjects considerations. The study of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors includes data from a random sample of adult residents of northeast Pennsylvania who are 18 or more years of age. All races, ethnicities and both sexes are included in proportion to their representation in the population. Subjects are interviewed anonymously by telephone; those who are unable to complete an interview in English are ineligible. This project has been reviewed and approved by the Scranton-Temple Residency Program IRB (IRB00001355), which is the IRB for the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute.

  20. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control | Lopes | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the ...

  1. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Oliveira, João Blasques; Tavares, António; Domingos, Clarinha; Santos, Lucio Lara

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important health problem in Africa. The number of cancer cases in this region could double, ranging between 700 000 and 1 600 000 new cases in 2030. The mortality rate is higher than 80% and is explained, mainly, by a lack of early detection, diagnostics and treatment resources. In Angola, about 7,000 patients die of cancer every year. Data were derived from open-ended interviews conducted in 2010-11 with health authorities, clinicians, nurses and Administration of Hospitals. According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the development of Angola cancer control strategies. Malaria remains the leading cause of illness and death in Angola, and other communicable diseases remain a public health problem. However, 9 000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year.The most common types of cancer are: cancer of the cervix, breast, prostate, esophagus, stomach and head and neck, as well as cancers with infectious origin, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and liver and bladder cancer. The foundation for developing national cancer control strategies includes: oncological data; investment and training; identifying and removing barriers; guidance and protection of the patient. Angolan National Cancer Centre, Sagrada Esperança Clinic and Girassol Clinic are now developing a cancer program. Improving the economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which in itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. On the other hand, infectious diseases, associated with the risk of malignant tumors, are endemic. Thus, an increase in patients with malignant disease is expected. A plan is therefore necessary to organize the response to this old

  2. Mobile Breast Cancer e-Support Program for Chinese Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy (Part 1): Qualitative Study of Women's Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Ebert, Lyn; Guo, Dongmei; Yang, Sumei; Han, Qiuying; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2018-04-11

    Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy experience difficulty in accessing adequate cancer care in China. Mobile apps have the potential to provide easily accessible support for these women. However, there remains a paucity of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the effectiveness of app-based programs targeting specifically women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Moreover, women's perceptions and experiences related to using and interacting within the app-based program have rarely been reported. Therefore, an app-based Breast Cancer e-Support program was developed and evaluated using a randomized controlled trial. Based on the incorporation of Bandura's self-efficacy and social exchange theory, Breast Cancer e-Support program lasted for 12 weeks covering 4 cycles of chemotherapy and had 4 components: (1) a Learning forum, (2) a Discussion forum, (3) an Ask-the-Expert forum, and (4) a Personal Stories forum. As a part of the randomized controlled trial, the aim of this study was to explore the participants' perception of Breast Cancer e-Support program, its strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions to improve the program. A descriptive qualitative study was employed. Thirteen women with breast cancer from 2 university-affiliated hospitals in China, who were randomly allocated to the Breast Cancer e-Support program in the randomized controlled trial, were interviewed from November 2016 to February 2017. Purposive sampling was used based on women's scores of self-efficacy after the completion of the intervention. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts, allowing the categories and subcategories to flow from the data. The qualitative interviews revealed that participants perceived the Breast Cancer e-Support program to be helpful in enhancing knowledge, improving confidence level, and promoting emotional well-being. Women also identified access to tailored advice from experts and convenience as the benefits of this program

  3. Multicenter phase II study of an opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenda, Sadamoto; Matsuura, Kazuto; Tachibana, Hiroyuki; Homma, Akihiro; Kirita, Tadaaki; Monden, Nobuya; Iwae, Shigemichi; Ota, Yojiro; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Otsuru, Hiroshi; Tahara, Makoto; Kato, Kengo; Asai, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this multi-center phase II study was to clarify the clinical benefit of an opioid-based pain control program for head and neck cancer patients during chemoradiotherapy. Patients and methods: Head and neck cancer patients who were to receive definitive or postoperative chemoradiotherapy were enrolled. The opioid-based pain control program consisted of a three-step ladder, with basic regimens of: Step 1: acetaminophen at 500–1000 mg three times a day. Step 2: fast-acting morphine at 5 mg three times a day before meals for a single day. Step 3: long-acting morphine administered around-the-clock, with a starting dosage of 20 mg/day and no upper limit set in principle. The primary endpoint of this study was compliance with radiotherapy. Results: A total of 101 patients from 10 institutions were registered between February 2008 and May 2009 and included in the analysis. The major combination chemotherapy regimen was cisplatin alone (76%). The rate of completion of radiotherapy was 99% and the rate of unplanned breaks in radiotherapy was 13% (13/101, 90% confidence interval: 9.9–16.5%). Median maximum quantity of morphine used per day was 35 mg (range 0–150 mg). Conclusions: Use of a systematic pain control program may improve compliance with CRT.

  4. Benefits of E-Cigarettes Among Heavy Smokers Undergoing a Lung Cancer Screening Program: Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchiari, Claudio; Masiero, Marianna; Veronesi, Giulia; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Spina, Stefania; Jemos, Costantino; Omodeo Salè, Emanuela; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-02-03

    Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes' power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers' baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review. Consequently, it is urgent to know if e-cigarettes may have a higher success rate than other nicotine replacement methods and under what conditions. Furthermore, the effects of the therapeutic setting and the relationship between individual characteristics and the success rate have not been tested. This protocol is particularly innovative, because it aims to test the effectiveness of electronic devices in a screening program (the COSMOS II lung cancer prevention program at the European Institute of Oncology), where tobacco reduction is needed to lower individuals' lung cancer risks. This protocol was designed with the primary aim of investigating the role of tobacco-free cigarettes in helping smokers improve lung health and either quit smoking or reduce their tobacco consumption. In particular, we aim to investigate the impact of a 3-month e-cigarettes program to reduce smoking-related respiratory symptoms (eg, dry cough, shortness of breath, mouth irritation, and phlegm) through reduced consumption of tobacco cigarettes. Furthermore, we evaluate the behavioral and psychological (eg, well-being, mood, and quality of life) effects of the treatment. This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-parallel group study. The study is organized as a nested randomized controlled study with 3 branches: a

  5. Cost of Operating Central Cancer Registries and Factors That Affect Cost: Findings From an Economic Evaluation of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Program of Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K L; Subramanian, Sujha; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Weir, Hannah K; Trebino, Diana; Babcock, Frances; Ewing, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) evaluated the economics of the National Program of Cancer Registries to provide the CDC, the registries, and policy makers with the economics evidence-base to make optimal decisions about resource allocation. Cancer registry budgets are under increasing threat, and, therefore, systematic assessment of the cost will identify approaches to improve the efficiencies of this vital data collection operation and also justify the funding required to sustain registry operations. To estimate the cost of cancer registry operations and to assess the factors affecting the cost per case reported by National Program of Cancer Registries-funded central cancer registries. We developed a Web-based cost assessment tool to collect 3 years of data (2009-2011) from each National Program of Cancer Registries-funded registry for all actual expenditures for registry activities (including those funded by other sources) and factors affecting registry operations. We used a random-effects regression model to estimate the impact of various factors on cost per cancer case reported. The cost of reporting a cancer case varied across the registries. Central cancer registries that receive high-quality data from reporting sources (as measured by the percentage of records passing automatic edits) and electronic data submissions, and those that collect and report on a large volume of cases had significantly lower cost per case. The volume of cases reported had a large effect, with low-volume registries experiencing much higher cost per case than medium- or high-volume registries. Our results suggest that registries operate with substantial fixed or semivariable costs. Therefore, sharing fixed costs among low-volume contiguous state registries, whenever possible, and centralization of certain processes can result in economies of scale. Approaches to improve quality of data submitted and increasing electronic reporting can also reduce cost.

  6. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a..., and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The... National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program; presentations on outcomes of Care Coordination...

  7. The effectiveness of a clinical and home-based physical activity program and simple lymphatic drainage in the prevention of breast cancer-related lymphedema: A prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönmez, Ayşe Arıkan; Kapucu, Sevgisun

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a clinical and home-based, nurse-led physical activity program (PAP) and simple lymphatic drainage (SLD) in the prevention of breast cancer-related lymphedema. A total of 52 breast cancer patients were randomized to either a PAP and SLD program (n = 25) or a control group (n = 27). Patients in both groups were also provided training for lymphedema. The PAP and SLD were administered through home visits by the investigators, twice a week for six weeks, in the intervention group. The control group did not undergo intervention. The circumference of the upper extremity, symptom severity, and physical function were measured in both groups. The upper extremity circumference increased by about two times from the baseline, in the control group, especially in the sixth week (p breast cancer surgery, starting from before surgery and continuing until after, to prevent breast cancer-related lymphedema. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of training and technical assistance needs of Colorectal Cancer Control Program Grantees in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Hannon, Peggy; Maxwell, Annette E; Vu, Thuy; Leeman, Jennifer; Dwyer, Andrea; Mason, Caitlin; Sowles, Shaina; Rice, Ketra; Gressard, Lindsay

    2015-01-31

    Practitioners often require training and technical assistance to build their capacity to select, adapt, and implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs). The CDC Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) aims to promote CRC screening to increase population-level screening. This study identified the training and technical assistance (TA) needs and preferences for training related to the implementation of EBIs among CRCCP grantees. Twenty-nine CRCCP grantees completed an online survey about their screening activities, training and technical assistance in 2012. They rated desire for training on various evidence-based strategies to increase cancer screening, evidence-based competencies, and program management topics. They also reported preferences for training formats and facilitators and barriers to trainings. Many CRCCP grantees expressed the need for training with regards to specific EBIs, especially system-level and provider-directed EBIs to promote CRC screening. Grantees rated these EBIs as more difficult to implement than client-oriented EBIs. Grantees also reported a moderate need for training regarding finding EBIs, assessing organizational capacity, implementing selected EBIs, and conducting process and outcome evaluations. Other desired training topics reported with higher frequency were partnership development and data collection/evaluation. Grantees preferred training formats that were interactive such as on-site trainings, webinars or expert consultants. Public health organizations need greater supports for adopting evidence-based interventions, working with organizational-level change, partnership development and data management. Future capacity building efforts for the adoption of EBIs should focus on systems or provider level interventions and key processes for health promotion and should be delivered in a variety of ways to assist local organizations in cancer prevention and control.

  9. Comparing Relaxation Programs for Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, women with breast cancer who have had surgery and are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to one of two different stretching and relaxation programs or to a control group that will receive usual care.

  10. Cancer control falls squarely within the province of the psychological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green McDonald, Paige; O'Connell, Mary; Suls, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of cancer as a contemporary public health challenge, this article presents a selective overview of psychological science contributions to cancer control research, practice, and policy. Initial contributions were circumscribed to awareness campaigns and the assessment of emotional responses to diagnosis and treatment. As evidence linking certain behaviors to cancer risk and outcomes accumulated, psychology emerged as a "hub science" in the Nation's cancer control program. Despite substantial accomplishments, new societal trends further challenge our ability to reduce risk, incidence, and deaths from cancer and enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. Evidence generated from psychological research conducted within each cell of Pasteur's quadrant continues to be relevant and necessary for effective 21st-century approaches to cancer prevention and control at the individual, clinical, and population levels. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  12. Psychosocial effects of a skin camouflage program in female survivors with head and neck cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ching; Huang, Bing-Shen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chien; Wu, Shu-Chen; Lai, Yeur-Hur

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a skin camouflage program on disfigurement, self-esteem, social interaction, and body image in female head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. A prospective, repeated-measures, randomized controlled therapeutic intervention design was used. A total of 66 participants were randomly assigned to each group, with 32 in the experimental group and 34 in the control group. The experimental group received a 4-session skin camouflage program, and the control group received routine care. Patients were assessed at 3 time points: baseline assessment (T0) and then at 1, 2, and 3 months (T1, T2, and T3, respectively) after participating in the skin camouflage program. Patients in the experimental group had significantly less facial disfigurement, depression, fear of social interaction, and anxiety regarding social interaction compared with those in the control group. Participants in both groups had significantly lower levels of facial disfigurement, depression, fear of social interaction, anxiety of social interaction, and body image at the final posttest assessment than at the pretest assessment. There were no differences between the groups and within groups with respect to self-esteem. The 3-month skin camouflage program effectively improved facial disfigurement, fear of social interaction, anxiety of social interaction, and body image of female HNC survivors. A survival care plan should include a skin camouflage program to improve body image perception and decrease anxiety after treatment of HNC. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A dermatitis control program (DeCoP) for head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. A prospective phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenda, Sadamoto; Ishi, Shinobu; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Arahira, Satoko; Ichihashi, Tomiko; Tahara, Makoto; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Kishimoto, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    We speculated that a systematic program to manage radiation dermatitis might decrease the incidence of severe or fatal cases in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Here, we conducted a prospective phase II study to clarify the clinical benefit of a Dermatitis Control Program (DeCoP) that did not use corticosteroids. Head and neck cancer patients scheduled to receive definitive or postoperative radiotherapy were enrolled. Radiation dermatitis was managed with a DeCoP consisting of a three-step ladder: gentle washing; gentle washing and moistening of the wound-healing environment; prevention against infection, gentle washing and moistening of the wound-healing environment. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade 4 dermatitis. A total of 113 patients were registered between January 2009 and February 2010. Eighty patients received radiotherapy as an initial approach, while the remaining 33 received radiotherapy postoperatively. Grade 3 and 4 dermatitis events occurred in 11 (9.7%) and 0 (0%, 95% confidence interval 0-3.2%) patients, respectively. Median radiation dose at the onset of grade 2 dermatitis was 61.5 Gy (range 36-70 Gy) and median period between onset and recovery was 14 days (range 1-46 days). The Dermatitis Control Program has promising clinical potential. Radiation dermatitis might be manageable if gentle washing and moistening of the wound-healing environment is done. (author)

  14. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  15. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  16. Developing a longitudinal cancer nursing education program in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Wise, Barbara; Carlson, Julie R; Dowds, Cynthia; Sarchet, Vanessa; Sanchez, Jose Angel

    2013-12-01

    The present paper is a longitudinal study which aims to develop and deliver cancer nursing education conferences in Honduras using volunteer nurse educators. This program intends to (1) perform site assessments of work environments and resources for cancer care in Honduras, (2) develop cancer nursing education programs, (3) survey conference participants continuing education needs, (4) deliver cancer nursing education conferences, and (5) share data with local and global partners for future cancer programs. The study draws on a longitudinal program development with site assessments, data collection, and educational conferences at two time points. Assessments and surveys were used for conference development and delivery by volunteer nurse educators. Site assessments and conferences were delivered twice. Data were collected regarding assessments and surveys to inform program development. Survey data revealed that 65 % had internet access. Participants desired more information about handling of chemotherapy, symptom management, and palliative care. Volunteer nurse educators perform site assessments and develop educational programming for cancer nurses. Local and global partners should explore internet-based programs between site visits to create sustainable education programs.

  17. Program, policy, and price interventions for tobacco control: quantifying the return on investment of a state tobacco control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Julia A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Boysun, Michael J; Reid, Terry R

    2012-02-01

    We examined health effects associated with 3 tobacco control interventions in Washington State: a comprehensive state program, a state policy banning smoking in public places, and price increases. We used linear regression models to predict changes in smoking prevalence and specific tobacco-related health conditions associated with the interventions. We estimated dollars saved over 10 years (2000-2009) by the value of hospitalizations prevented, discounting for national trends. Smoking declines in the state exceeded declines in the nation. Of the interventions, the state program had the most consistent and largest effect on trends for heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and cancer. Over 10 years, implementation of the program was associated with prevention of nearly 36,000 hospitalizations, at a value of about $1.5 billion. The return on investment for the state program was more than $5 to $1. The combined program, policy, and price interventions resulted in reductions in smoking and related health effects, while saving money. Public health and other leaders should continue to invest in tobacco control, including comprehensive programs.

  18. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, L. I.; Forastero, C.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  19. An innovative art therapy program for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, K; Fitch, M; Carman, M

    2000-01-01

    Art therapy is a healing art intended to integrate physical, emotional, and spiritual care by facilitating creative ways for patients to respond to their cancer experience. A new art therapy program was designed to provide cancer patients with opportunities to learn about the McMichael Canadian Art Collection and to explore personal feelings about their cancer experience through combined gallery and studio components. The role of the facilitator was to assist in the interpretation of a participant's drawing in order to reveal meaning in the art. This paper presents patients' perspectives about the new art therapy program. Content analysis of participant feedback provided information about the structure, process, and outcomes of the program. Evaluation of the art therapy/museum education program demonstrated many benefits for cancer patients including support, psychological strength, and new insights about their cancer experience.

  20. The eCALM Trial-eTherapy for cancer appLying mindfulness: online mindfulness-based cancer recovery program for underserved individuals living with cancer in Alberta: protocol development for a randomized wait-list controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernicke Kristin A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stress can exacerbate cancer symptom severity, and after completion of primary cancer treatments, many individuals continue to have significant distress. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR is an 8-week group psychosocial intervention consisting of training in mindfulness meditation and yoga designed to mitigate stress, pain, and chronic illness. Efficacy research shows face-to-face (F2F MBCR programs have positive benefits for cancer patients; however barriers exist that impede participation in F2F groups. While online MBCR groups are available to the public, none have been evaluated. Primary objective: determine whether underserved patients are willing to participate in and complete an online MBCR program. Secondary objectives: determine whether online MBCR will mirror previous efficacy findings from F2F MBCR groups on patient-reported outcomes. Method/design The study includes cancer patients in Alberta, exhibiting moderate distress, who do not have access to F2F MBCR. Participants will be randomized to either online MBCR, or waiting for the next available group. An anticipated sample size of 64 participants will complete measures online pre and post treatment or waiting period. Feasibility will be tracked through monitoring numbers eligible and participating through each stage of the protocol. Discussion 47 have completed/completing the intervention. Data suggest it is possible to conduct a randomized waitlist controlled trial of online MBCR to reach underserved cancer survivors. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01476891

  1. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National

  2. Body Weight and Breast Cancer: Nested Case-Control Study in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kops, Natália Luiza; Bessel, Marina; Caleffi, Maira; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Wendland, Eliana Marcia

    2018-04-28

    Current studies have shown that fast weight gain may be more important than body mass index on the incidence of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body weight and breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a cohort of a breast cancer mammography screening program in Southern Brazil. A trained investigator administered a standardized interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, and body weight history (weight at menarche, at marriage, at first and last pregnancy, and at menopause). Current anthropometric measurements were also made. Fifty-seven women with cancer (66.7% postmenopausal) and 159 controls were included. Current age (60.3 ± 10.4 vs. 55.8 ± 8.4 years, P weight at different stages of life. Women with social vulnerability recruited at a mammography screening program in Southern Brazil showed a large weight gain during life, but no significant differences were found in body weight between women with or without breast cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A multifaceted rehabilitation program for women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J B; Kelly, A W

    1990-01-01

    A multifaceted rehabilitation program for women diagnosed with cancer includes a personal fitness plan, aerobic exercise classes, journaling, and a six-day environmental wilderness experience. The program's purpose is for participants to learn how to cope with uncertainties in life and to promote a wellness concept for living with cancer. This is achieved through successfully meeting the challenges of the program. A descriptive study, using journal entries of the pilot group's 12 women with breast cancer, provides insight into participants' views of the program. Their responses described: personal growth through succeeding at new and difficult experiences; normalization engendered by communicating with others having cancer; exhilaration at focusing on challenging events external to personal health problems; and courage that overrode their fears of facing what seemed impossible.

  4. Training Program in Biostatistics for Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Roderick

    1998-01-01

    The current training program terminates in the summer of 1998. We had originally planned to develop a training program in biostatistics for cancer research for submission to the National Cancer Institute (Task 9...

  5. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  6. Adherence to Cancer Screening Guidelines and Predictors of Improvement Among Participants in the Kansas State Employee Wellness Program

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Shireman, Theresa I.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Employee wellness programs (EWPs) have been used to implement worksite-based cancer prevention and control interventions. However, little is known about whether these programs result in improved adherence to cancer screening guidelines or how participants’ characteristics affect subsequent screening. This study was conducted to describe cancer screening behaviors among participants in a state EWP and identify factors associated with screening adherence among those who were initia...

  7. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Jane T; Roscoe, Joseph A; Morrow, Gary R; Ryan, Julie L

    2007-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist antiemetics such as ondansetron and granistron, up to 70% of patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy agents experience postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting. Delayed postchemotherapy nausea (nausea that occurs >/= 24 hours after chemotherapy administration) and anticipatory nausea (nausea that develops before chemotherapy administration, in anticipation of it) are poorly controlled by currently available antiemetic agents. Scientific studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale) might have beneficial effects on nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness, surgery, and pregnancy. In 2 small studies of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy, addition of ginger to standard antiemetic medication further reduced the severity of postchemotherapy nausea. This article describes a phase II/III randomized, dose-finding, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of ginger for nausea associated with chemotherapy for cancer. The study is currently being conducted by private practice oncology groups that are funded by the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program and affiliated with the University of Rochester Cancer Center Community Clinical Oncology Program Research Base.

  8. Evaluation of a cancer exercise program: patient and physician beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, C; Stewart, A; Segal, R; Wouterloot, E; Scott, C G; Aubry, T

    2009-08-01

    Participation in an exercise intervention during cancer treatment diminishes the side effects associated with cancer therapies, although such benefits vary according to the disease and the patient characteristics. A structured exercise program providing an individualized fitness program tailored to the patients' illness, treatment, and fitness level would address this variability. However, the need, desired components, and anticipated barriers of such a program have not been systematically explored from either the point of view of cancer patients or treating oncologists. Sixty-six cancer patients and 18 medical and radiation oncologists were surveyed on the above variables. Cancer patients and oncologists alike perceived a need for a structured exercise program during and after medical treatment for cancer. Among cancer patients, the most commonly preferred feature was access to consultation with an exercise specialist who could take into account the patient's previous exercise and medical history. Over a third of patients reported interest in a hospital-based fitness program. Oncologists were in favor of appropriate supervision of patients during exercise, and noted insufficient time to discuss exercise in their practice. Respondents noted time and parking as barriers to participation. Overall, results support the need for a supervised exercise program during active treatment for cancer and highlight the desired features of such a program.

  9. Cancer diagnosis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, A.J.; Smith, H.S.; Sartorius, O.W.; Snow, L.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Peralta Cancer Research Institute has organized the Breast Diagnostic Center (BDC) to make available to women information about the breast, and to conduct clinical research to improve methods for early diagnosis and treatment of breast disease. Women entering the center are educated about the anatomy and physiology of the breast, signs of both benign and malignant disease, and factors that influence the risk of developing cancer. The BDC program proposes to demonstrate that the combined use of various diagnostic modalities, when each modality is used at maximum potential, can detect cancers at an earlier stage. Emphasis is placed on the physical examination, using nipple aspiration cytology, contrast ductography, fine-needle aspirations, and mammography. With the financial participation of the Clorox Company, it is shown that the concept of the BDC is economically sound and fills a need in the community

  10. What is the radiotherapy quality control program (PQRT) of the National Cancer Institute - Rio de Janeiro/Brazil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Viegas, C.C.B.; Salomon de Souza, R. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Praca Cruz Vermelha No. 23, Centro 20230-130, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. e-mail: amcampos@inca.gov.br; tld@inca.gov.br; salomon@inca.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The National Cancer Institute (INCA) Quality Program in Radiotherapy (PQRT) started in 1999 as a 3 years pilot program with only 33 participant institutions. Due to its positive results, it has been integrated to the permanent INCA programs and its activities extended to all the radiotherapy services where patients from the National Health System (SUS) are treated. They are about 150 services (90% of all the available Brazilian radiotherapy services). The PQRT activities objective is to allow that radiotherapeutic treatments can be carried out just like planned, according to international quality and safety standards. The PQRT main activities are: on-site quality control audits, postal TLD audits in reference and non-reference conditions, training and development of research projects. The on-site quality control audits have already evaluated 75 teletherapy units (37 Co-60 and 38 linear accelerators), performing dosimetric, electrical, mechanical and safety tests. The Postal TLD audits used, till 2002, for the 33 participants, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) system for reference conditions. Five audits have been performed with this simple system. Since 2003, the PQRT postal TLD audit program is using its own system, developed for reference and non-reference conditions. This new system has been already applied to 58 beams (18 Co-60 and 40 linacs). In total, in reference conditions, PQRT has performed 400 audits in reference conditions (190 Co-60 and 210 linacs). Eighteen courses attended to the participants, covering their main practical problems. In parallel, some research studies have been carried out.

  11. What is the radiotherapy quality control program (PQRT) of the National Cancer Institute - Rio de Janeiro/Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Viegas, C.C.B.; Salomon de Souza, R.

    2004-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (INCA) Quality Program in Radiotherapy (PQRT) started in 1999 as a 3 years pilot program with only 33 participant institutions. Due to its positive results, it has been integrated to the permanent INCA programs and its activities extended to all the radiotherapy services where patients from the National Health System (SUS) are treated. They are about 150 services (90% of all the available Brazilian radiotherapy services). The PQRT activities objective is to allow that radiotherapeutic treatments can be carried out just like planned, according to international quality and safety standards. The PQRT main activities are: on-site quality control audits, postal TLD audits in reference and non-reference conditions, training and development of research projects. The on-site quality control audits have already evaluated 75 teletherapy units (37 Co-60 and 38 linear accelerators), performing dosimetric, electrical, mechanical and safety tests. The Postal TLD audits used, till 2002, for the 33 participants, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) system for reference conditions. Five audits have been performed with this simple system. Since 2003, the PQRT postal TLD audit program is using its own system, developed for reference and non-reference conditions. This new system has been already applied to 58 beams (18 Co-60 and 40 linacs). In total, in reference conditions, PQRT has performed 400 audits in reference conditions (190 Co-60 and 210 linacs). Eighteen courses attended to the participants, covering their main practical problems. In parallel, some research studies have been carried out

  12. The Effects of the Bali Yoga Program for Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Results of a Partially Randomized and Blinded Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestin, Annélie S; Dupuis, Gilles; Lanctôt, Dominique; Bali, Madan

    2017-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been shown to be beneficial in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, conclusive results are lacking in order to confirm its usefulness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized yoga intervention could reduce these adverse symptoms. This was a partially randomized and blinded controlled trial comparing a standardized yoga intervention with standard care. Eligible patients were adults diagnosed with stages I to III breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Patients randomized to the experimental group participated in an 8-week yoga program. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after 8 weeks. Results suggest the yoga program is not beneficial in managing these adverse symptoms. However, considering preliminary evidence suggesting yoga's beneficial impact in cancer symptom management, methodological limitations should be explored and additional studies should be conducted.

  13. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens expressed on the surface of target

  14. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Amri, F.; Saeedi, M.Y.; Al-Tahan, F.M.; Alomary, S.A.; Kassim, K.A.; Ali, A.M.; Mostafa Arafa, M.; Ibrahim, A.K.; Ali, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  15. First German disease management program for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    The first disease management program contract for breast cancer in Germany was signed in 2002 between the Association of Regional of Physicians in North-Rhine and the statutory health insurance companies in Rhineland. At the heart of this unique breast cancer disease management program is a patient-centered network of health care professionals. The program's main objectives are: (1) to improve the quality of treatment and post-operative care for breast cancer patients, (2) to provide timely information and consultation empowering the patient to participate in decisionmaking, (3) to improve the interface between inpatient and outpatient care, and (4) to increase the number of breast-conserving surgeries.

  16. Modeling Canadian Quality Control Test Program for Steroid Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer: Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Teresa; Makrestsov, Nikita; Garatt, John; Torlakovic, Emina; Gilks, C Blake; Mallett, Susan

    The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program monitors clinical laboratory performance for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor tests used in breast cancer treatment management in Canada. Current methods assess sensitivity and specificity at each time point, compared with a reference standard. We investigate alternative performance analysis methods to enhance the quality assessment. We used 3 methods of analysis: meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity of each laboratory across all time points; sensitivity and specificity at each time point for each laboratory; and fitting models for repeated measurements to examine differences between laboratories adjusted by test and time point. Results show 88 laboratories participated in quality control at up to 13 time points using typically 37 to 54 histology samples. In meta-analysis across all time points no laboratories have sensitivity or specificity below 80%. Current methods, presenting sensitivity and specificity separately for each run, result in wide 95% confidence intervals, typically spanning 15% to 30%. Models of a single diagnostic outcome demonstrated that 82% to 100% of laboratories had no difference to reference standard for estrogen receptor and 75% to 100% for progesterone receptor, with the exception of 1 progesterone receptor run. Laboratories with significant differences to reference standard identified with Generalized Estimating Equation modeling also have reduced performance by meta-analysis across all time points. The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program has a good design, and with this modeling approach has sufficient precision to measure performance at each time point and allow laboratories with a significantly lower performance to be targeted for advice.

  17. Efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases: a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvão, Daniel A; Groom, Geoff; Newton, Robert U; Taaffe, Dennis R; Cormie, Prue; Spry, Nigel; Chambers, Suzanne K; Peddle-McIntyre, Carolyn; Baker, Michael; Denham, James; Joseph, David

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bone metastases has excluded participation of prostate cancer patients in exercise intervention studies to date and is also a relative contraindication to supervised exercise in the community setting because of concerns of fragility fracture. However, this group of patients often have developed significant muscle atrophy and functional impairments from prior and continuing androgen deprivation that is exacerbated by subsequent and more intensive interventions such as chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. Multi-site randomized controlled trial in Western Australia and New South Wales to examine the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal physical exercise program in 90 prostate cancer survivors with bone metastases. Participants will be randomized to (1) modular multi-modal exercise intervention group or (2) usual medical care group. The modular multi-modal exercise group will receive a 3-month supervised exercise program based on bone lesion location/extent. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 3 months (end of the intervention) and 6 months follow-up. Delaying or preventing skeletal complication and improving physical function for men with bone metastases would provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients. However, exercise programs must be designed and executed with careful consideration of the skeletal complications associated with bone metastatic disease and cumulative toxicities from androgen deprivation such as osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. The results from this study will form the basis for the development of a specific exercise prescription in this patient group in order to alleviate disease burden, counteract the adverse treatment related side-effects and enhance quality of life. ACTRN: http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12611001158954.aspx

  18. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions involving exercise, patting of the 12 meridians, and spontaneous breathing exercises three times a week for a period of 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was measured as the primary outcome, while the Stress Scale, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy–General determined the secondary outcomes. Insomnia, stress, and anxiety levels were examined weekly, while quality of life was examined on the first visit and the last visit. Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stress Scale scores were reduced after conduct of the Qigong program. Conclusion: This study could provide a better understanding of Qigong’s influence on insomnia and stress in cancer patients. However, a larger controlled trial should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  19. Cost of Services Provided by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Subramanian, Sujha; Trogdon, Justin G.; Miller, Jacqueline W.; Royalty, Janet E.; Li, Chunyu; Guy, Gery P.; Crouse, Wesley; Thompson, Hope; Gardner, James G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) is the largest cancer screening program for low-income women in the United States. This study updates previous estimates of the costs of delivering preventive cancer screening services in the NBCCEDP. METHODS We developed a standardized web-based cost-assessment tool to collect annual activity-based cost data on screening for breast and cervical cancer in the NBCCEDP. Data were collected from 63 of the 66 programs that received funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during the 2006/2007 fiscal year. We used these data to calculate costs of delivering preventive public health services in the program. RESULTS We estimated the total cost of all NBCCEDP services to be $296 (standard deviation [SD], $123) per woman served (including the estimated value of in-kind donations, which constituted approximately 15% of this total estimated cost). The estimated cost of screening and diagnostic services was $145 (SD, $38) per women served, which represented 57.7% of the total cost excluding the value of in-kind donations. Including the value of in-kind donations, the weighted mean cost of screening a woman for breast cancer was $110 with an office visit and $88 without, the weighted mean cost of a diagnostic procedure was $401, and the weighted mean cost per breast cancer detected was $35,480. For cervical cancer, the corresponding cost estimates were $61, $21, $415, and $18,995, respectively. CONCLUSIONS These NBCCEDP cost estimates may help policy makers in planning and implementing future costs for various potential changes to the program. PMID:25099904

  20. Role of the National Cancer Institute in the National Cancer Program on environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: the need for the National Cancer Institute to coordinate all cancer-related activities at the federal level and the desirability of programming so as to exploit the best opportunities for alleviating the mortality, morbidity, and incidence of cancer in the United States; need for assessing opportunities for prevention of environmental carcinogenesis; creation of the Smoking and Health Program in the NCI; development of cancer atlases from a nationwide survey; and role of the NCI with respect to waterborne carcinogens. (HLW)

  1. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azavedo, E.; Svane, G.

    1991-01-01

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Effects of a yoga program on mood states, quality of life, and toxicity in breast cancer patients receiving conventional treatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy counseling on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, toxicity, and quality of life in Stage II and III breast cancer patients on conventional treatment. Methods: Ninety-eight Stage II and III breast cancer patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT or chemotherapy (CT or both at a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45 and supportive therapy counseling (n = 53 over a 24-week period. Intervention consisted of 60-min yoga sessions, daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Assessments included state-trait anxiety inventory, Beck's depression inventory, symptom checklist, common toxicity criteria, and functional living index-cancer. Assessments were done at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. Results: Both groups had similar baseline scores. There were 29 dropouts 12 (yoga and 17 (controls following surgery. Sixty-nine participants contributed data to the current analysis (33 in yoga, and 36 in controls. An ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline differences, showed a significant decrease for the yoga intervention as compared to the control group during RT ( first result and CT (second result, in (i anxiety state by 4.72 and 7.7 points, (ii depression by 5.74 and 7.25 points, (iii treatment-related symptoms by 2.34 and 2.97 points, (iv severity of symptoms by 6.43 and 8.83 points, (v distress by 7.19 and 13.11 points, and (vi and improved overall quality of life by 23.9 and 31.2 points as compared to controls. Toxicity was significantly less in the yoga group (P = 0.01 during CT. Conclusion: The results suggest a possible use for yoga as a psychotherapeutic intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment.

  3. Narrative communication in cancer prevention and control: a framework to guide research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Green, Melanie C; Cappella, Joseph N; Slater, Michael D; Wise, Meg E; Storey, Doug; Clark, Eddie M; O'Keefe, Daniel J; Erwin, Deborah O; Holmes, Kathleen; Hinyard, Leslie J; Houston, Thomas; Woolley, Sabra

    2007-06-01

    Narrative forms of communication-including entertainment education, journalism, literature, testimonials, and storytelling-are emerging as important tools for cancer prevention and control. To stimulate critical thinking about the role of narrative in cancer communication and promote a more focused and systematic program of research to understand its effects, we propose a typology of narrative application in cancer control. We assert that narrative has four distinctive capabilities: overcoming resistance, facilitating information processing, providing surrogate social connections, and addressing emotional and existential issues. We further assert that different capabilities are applicable to different outcomes across the cancer control continuum (e.g., prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship). This article describes the empirical evidence and theoretical rationale supporting propositions in the typology, identifies variables likely to moderate narrative effects, raises ethical issues to be addressed when using narrative communication in cancer prevention and control efforts, and discusses potential limitations of using narrative in this way. Future research needs based on these propositions are outlined and encouraged.

  4. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  5. The Activities and Impact of State Programs to Address Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina F. Trivers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC, at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, released a three-year funding opportunity announcement (FOA for a competitive, non-research cooperative agreement. The agreement enhanced the capacities of state health departments to promote the application of best practices for evidence-based breast cancer genomics through education, surveillance, and policy activities. The FOA required that applicants focus on activities related to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC. The DCPC funded three states: Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon. Georgia was a first-time recipient of cancer genomics funding, whereas Michigan and Oregon had long standing activities in cancer genomics and had received CDC funding in the past. By the end of the funding period, each state had well-functioning and impactful state-based programs in breast cancer genomics. This article highlights the impact of a few key state activities by using CDC’s Science Impact Framework. There were challenges to implementing public health genomics programs, including the need to develop relevant partnerships, the highly technical nature of the subject matter, a lack of genetic services in certain areas, and the difficulty in funding genetic services. Georgia, Michigan, and Oregon have served as models for others interested in initiating or expanding cancer genomics programs, and they helped to determine what works well for promoting and integrating public health genomics into existing systems.

  6. Cervical cancer screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in four US-Affiliated Pacific Islands between 2007 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkomago, Virginia; Royalty, Janet; Miller, Jacqueline W; Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Benard, Vicki B; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-10-01

    Cervical cancer incidence in the US-Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPIs) is double that of the US mainland. American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Guam and the Republic of Palau receive funding from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) to implement cervical cancer screening to low-income, uninsured or under insured women. The USAPI grantees report data on screening and follow-up activities to the CDC. We examined cervical cancer screening and follow-up data from the NBCCEDP programs in the four USAPIs from 2007 to 2015. We summarized screening done by Papanicolaou (Pap) and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) tests, follow-up and diagnostic tests provided, and histology results observed. A total of 22,249 Pap tests were conducted in 14,206 women in the four USAPIs programs from 2007-2015. The overall percentages of abnormal Pap results (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse) was 2.4% for first program screens and 1.8% for subsequent program screens. Histology results showed a high proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (57%) among women with precancers and cancers. Roughly one-third (32%) of Pap test results warranting follow-up had no data recorded on diagnostic tests or follow-up done. This is the first report of cervical cancer screening and outcomes of women served in the USAPI through the NBCCEDP with similar results for abnormal Pap tests, but higher proportion of precancers and cancers, when compared to national NBCCEDP data. The USAPI face significant challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening, particularly in providing and recording data on diagnostic tests and follow-up. The screening programs in the USAPI should further examine specific barriers to follow-up of women with abnormal Pap results and possible solutions to address them. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Applications of genetic programming in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzel, William P; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-02-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allow scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future.

  8. Protocol for Exercise Program in Cancer and Cognition (EPICC): A randomized controlled trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Amanda L; Erickson, Kirk I; Sereika, Susan M; Casillo, Frances E; Crisafio, Mary E; Donahue, Patrick T; Grove, George A; Marsland, Anna L; Watt, Jennifer C; Bender, Catherine M

    2018-04-01

    The Exercise Program in Cancer and Cognition (EPICC) Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to test the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on cognitive function in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer during the first six months of aromatase inhibitor therapy. It is estimated that up to 75% of survivors of breast cancer experience cognitive impairment related to disease and treatment. At present, there are no known interventions to improve or manage cognitive function for women with breast cancer. Here, we describe a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with allocation of 254 postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer to a supervised six-month aerobic exercise intervention or usual care. Prior to beginning aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy, participants complete baseline assessments of cognitive function, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood-based biomarkers, physical activity and sleep, and symptoms (fatigue, sleep problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety). A random subset of participants (n = 150) undergoes neuroimaging procedures that include structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging assessments. All participants maintain an activity diary; physical activity and sleep monitoring is repeated three and seven months post-randomization. The remaining baseline assessments are repeated seven months post-randomization. If successful, exercise could be a low-cost method to improve cognitive function in women with breast cancer that is easily adaptable to the home or community. Clinicaltrials.govNCT02793921. Registered 20 May 2016. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Establishing a Program for Individuals at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiz, Fernando; Kuerer, Henry M.; Puga, Julio; Camacho, Jamile; Cunill, Eduardo; Arun, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our need to create a program for individuals at high risk for breast cancer development led us to research the available data on such programs. In this paper, we summarize our findings and our thinking process as we developed our own program. Breast cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Even though there are known risk factors for breast cancer development, approximately 60% of patients with breast cancer have no known risk factor, although this situation will probably change with further research, especially in genetics. For patients with risk factors based on personal or family history, different models are available for assessing and quantifying risk. Assignment of risk levels permits tailored screening and risk reduction strategies. Potential benefits of specialized programs for women with high breast cancer risk include more cost -effective interventions as a result of patient stratification on the basis of risk; generation of valuable data to advance science; and differentiation of breast programs from other breast cancer units, which can result in increased revenue that can be directed to further improvements in patient care. Guidelines for care of patients at high risk for breast cancer are available from various groups. However, running a high-risk breast program involves much more than applying a guideline. Each high-risk program needs to be designed by its institution with consideration of local resources and country legislation, especially related to genetic issues. Development of a successful high-risk program includes identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; developing a promotion plan; choosing a risk assessment tool; defining “high risk”; and planning screening and risk reduction strategies for the specific population served by the program. The information in this article may be useful for other institutions considering creation of programs for patients with high breast cancer risk. PMID:23833688

  10. Detection of prostate cancer by an FDG-PET cancer screening program: results from a Japanese nationwide survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Senda, Michio; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Terauchi, Takashi; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze detection rates and effectiveness of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program for prostate cancer in Japan, which is defined as a cancer-screening program for subjects without known cancer. It contains FDG-PET aimed at detection of cancer at an early stage with or without additional screening tests such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A total of 92,255 asymptomatic men underwent the FDG-PET cancer screening program. Of these, 504 cases with findings of possible prostate cancer in any screening method were analyzed. Of the 504 cases, 165 were verified as having prostate cancer. Of these, only 61 cases were detected by FDG-PET, which result in 37.0% relative sensitivity and 32.8% positive predictive value (PPV). The sensitivity of PET/computed tomography (CT) scanner was higher than that of dedicated PET (44.0% vs. 20.4%). However, the sensitivity of FDG-PET was lower than that of PSA and pelvic MRI. FDG-PET did not contribute to improving the sensitivity and PPV when performed as combined screening. PSA should be included in FDG-PET cancer screening programs to screen for prostate cancer

  11. PREDOMOS study, impact of a social intervention program for socially isolated elderly cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétel-Durand, Elodie; Nouguerède, Emilie; Le Caer, Hervé; Rousseau, Frédérique; Retornaz, Frédérique; Guillem, Olivier; Couderc, Anne-Laure; Greillier, Laurent; Norguet, Emmanuelle; Cécile, Maud; Boulahssass, Rabia; Le Caer, Francoise; Tournier, Sandrine; Butaud, Chantal; Guillet, Pierre; Nahon, Sophie; Poudens, Laure; Kirscher, Sylvie; Loubière, Sandrine; Diaz, Nadine; Dhorne, Jean; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine

    2017-04-12

    Cancer incidence and social isolation increase along with advanced age, and social isolation potentiates the relative risk of death by cancer. Once spotted, social isolation can be averted with the intervention of a multidisciplinary team. Techniques of automation and remote assistance have already demonstrated their positive impact on falls prevention and quality of life (QoL), though little is known about their impact on socially isolated elderly patients supported for cancer. The primary objective of the PREDOMOS study is to evaluate the impact of establishing a Program of Social intervention associated with techniques of Domotic and Remote assistance (PS-DR) on the improvement of QoL of elderly isolated patients, treated for locally advanced or metastatic cancer. The secondary objectives include treatment failure, tolerance, survival, and autonomy. This trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label, two-parallel group study. The setting is 10 French oncogeriatric centers. Inclusion criteria are patients aged at least 70 years with a social isolation risk and a histological diagnosis of cancer, locally advanced or metastatic disease. The groups are (1) the control group, receiving usual care; (2) the experimental group, receiving usual care associating with monthly social assistance, domotic, and remote assistance. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Evaluation times involve inclusion (randomization) and follow-up (12 months). The primary endpoint is QoL at 3 months (via European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C30); secondary endpoints are social isolation, time to treatment failure, toxicity, dose response-intensity, survival, autonomy, and QoL at 6 months. For the sample size, 320 individuals are required to obtain 90% power to detect a 10-point difference (standard deviation 25) in QoL score between the two groups (20% loss to follow-up patients expected). The randomized

  12. PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    degradation of several cancer -related proteins, including the androgen receptor , which is dysregulated in certain prostate cancers . Overall, the goal of my...Behavior of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Cells Turner, Williamson D., Xavier University of Louisiana, Class...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0677 TITLE: PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy L. Weigel

  13. Contributions and Limitations of National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Korea: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Lee, MPH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contributions and limitations of the cervical cancer screening test with accuracy in Korea. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. The study population consisted of all participants who underwent cervical cancer screening test from 2009 to 2014. The data were obtained from National Health Information Database (NHID which represents medical use records of most Koreans. As the indices for contributions and limitations of the screening test, crude detection rate, incidence rate of interval cancer, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were used. Results: The crude detection rate of screening test per 100,000 participants increased from 100.7 in 2009 to 102.1 in 2014. The incidence rate of interval cancer per 100,000 negatives decreased from 13.0 in 2009 to 10.2 in 2014. The sensitivities of screening test were 88.7% in 2009 and 91.2% in 2014, and the specificities were 98.5% in 2009 and 97.7% in 2014. The positive predictive value of screening decreased from 6.2% in 2009 to 4.3% in 2014. Conclusion: The Korean national cervical cancer screening program has improved in accuracy and has contributed to detection of early stage of cervical cancer over the years. Along with efforts to promote participation in cancer screening programs, quality control over the screening program should be enhanced. Keywords: carcinoma in situ, early detection of cancer, Papanicolaou test, sensitivity and specificity, uterine cervical neoplasms

  14. Intervention levels in a precocious detection program for breast cancer and evaluation of four participant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera M, F.; Velazquez M, S.; Manzano M, F.J.; Sanchez S, J.

    1998-01-01

    It is presented the basis to make a cost benefit analysis for a breast cancer precocious detection program and consequently the keys for its optimization from the radiological point of view. Taking this as a reference it is made an exhaustive quality control to four mammographic unities which were participating or they were candidates to participate in a breast cancer precocious detection program. Also it is presented its results. It is followed the protocol for quality control in mammography in Spain obtaining values for the measurement of twelve interesting parameters. It should be maintained the standard breast dose about 1 mGy/ image. It should be available a 24 x 30 cm portacassete and considering the utilization of a single projection by breast. (Author)

  15. An analysis of content in comprehensive cancer control plans that address chronic hepatitis B and C virus infections as major risk factors for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Richardson, Lisa

    2012-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV) infections are among the leading causes of preventable death worldwide. Chronic viral hepatitis is the cause of most primary liver cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer deaths globally and the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The extent to which comprehensive cancer control (CCC) programs in states, tribal governments and organizations, territories, and Pacific Island jurisdictions address chronic hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C infections as risk factors for liver cancer or recommend interventions for liver cancer prevention in their CCC plans remains unknown. We searched CCC plans for this information using the search tool at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/ncccp/ to access the content of plans for this information. A combination of key search terms including "liver cancer", "hepatitis", "chronic alcohol", and "alcohol abuse" were used to identify potential content regarding liver cancer risk factors and prevention. Relevant content was abstracted for further review and classification. Of 66 (Although CDC funds 65 programs, one of the Pacific Island Jurisdiction grantees is the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). This national program supports four FSM states, each of which submits a cancer plan to CDC for a total of 69 plans. During this time period, 66 plans were available on the website.) CCC plans, 27% (n = 18) addressed liver cancer using the above-mentioned search terms. In the 23 plans that addressed HBV and/or HCV, there were 25 goals, objectives, strategies, and outcomes aimed at reducing the incidence or prevalence of HBV and/or HCV infection. While nearly a third of CCC programs identify at least one goal, objective, strategy, outcome, or prevention program to reduce cancer burden in their CCC plans, few plans discuss specific actions needed to reduce the burden of liver cancer.

  16. Measurement control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the criteria for this type of a measurement control program; (2) understand the kinds of physical standards required for the various measurement processes, e.g., weighing, analytical, NDA; (3) understand the need for and importance of a measurement control program; (4) understand the need for special experiments to provide an improved basis for the measurement of difficult-to-measure materials; (5) understand the general scope of the program's statistical aspects; and (6) understand the basis and scope of the documentation procedures

  17. A rehabilitation program for lung cancer patients during postthoracotomy chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman AJ

    2014-03-01

    mean age of 63 years and a mean of five comorbid conditions; the exercise program was initiated within 4 days after hospital discharge. Participants' CRF severity scores were reduced to mild levels, while the mean number of symptoms decreased from 9 postthoracotomy to 6 after the exercise program, with mean levels of severity and interference decreasing to below prethoracotomy levels. Likewise, participants' functional status and QOL after completing the exercise program improved to near or above prethoracotomy levels. Conclusion: The home-based, light-intensity exercise program for NSCLC patients receiving and completing adjuvant chemotherapy postthoracotomy showed promising trends in improving CRF severity, other symptom severity, functional status, and QOL. Further testing via a two-arm randomized controlled trial is being conducted. Keywords: lung cancer, exercise, cancer-related fatigue, symptoms, functional status, quality of life

  18. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors...... about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure...... to pesticides among colon cancer controls. CONCLUSIONS: Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming....

  19. Case-control Studies on the Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Screening: Insights from the UK Age Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; Broeders, Mireille J M; Verbeek, André L M; Duffy, Stephen W; Moss, Sue M

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing breast cancer screening programs can only be evaluated using observational study designs. Most studies have observed a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but design differences appear to have resulted in different estimates. Direct comparison of case-control and trial analyses gives more insight into this variation. Here, we performed case-control analyses within the randomized UK Age Trial. The Age Trial assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women ages 40-49 years. In our approach, case subjects were defined as breast cancer deaths between trial entry (1991-1997) and 2004. Women were ages 39-41 years at entry. For every case subject, five control subjects were selected. All case subjects were included in analyses of screening invitation (356 case subjects, 1,780 controls), whereas analyses of attendance were restricted to women invited to screening (105 case subjects, 525 age-matched controls). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated with conditional logistic regression. We used and compared two methods to correct for self-selection bias. Screening invitation resulted in a breast cancer mortality reduction of 17% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -36%, +6%), similar to trial results. Different exposure definitions and self-selection adjustments influenced the observed breast cancer mortality reduction. Depending on the method, "ever screened" appeared to be associated with a small reduction (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.40, 1.89) or no reduction (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 2.14) using the two methods of correction. Recent attendance resulted in an adjusted mortality reduction of 36% (95% CI: -69%, +31%) or 45% (95% CI: -71%, +5%). Observational studies, and particularly case-control studies, are an important monitoring tool for breast cancer screening programs. The focus should be on diminishing bias in observational studies and gaining a better understanding of the influence of study design on estimates of mortality reduction.

  20. AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers from the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) work to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related tumors,...

  1. [Impact of an informative intervention on the colorectal cancer screening program in primary care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Aracil, Llúcia; Binefa-Rodriguez, Gemma; Milà-Diaz, Núria; Lluch-Canut, M Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montse; Garcia-Martinez, Montse

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of an intervention in primary care professionals on their current knowledge about colorectal cancer screening, subsequent surveillance recommendations and referral strategies. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Primary Care Centers in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona). Primary Care Professionals (doctors and nurses). Training session in six of the 12 centers (randomly selected) about the colorrectal cancer screening program, and three emails with key messages. Professionals and centers characteristics and two contextual variables; involvement of professionals in the screening program; information about colorectal cancer knowledge, risk factors, screening procedures, surveillance recommendations and referral strategies. The total score mean on the first questionnaire was 8.07 (1.38) and the second 8.31 (1.39). No statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found, however, in 9 out of 11 questions the percentage of correct responses was increased in the intervention group, mostly related to the surveillance after the diagnostic examination. The intervention improves the percentage of correct answers, especially in those in which worst score obtained in the first questionnaire. This study shows that professionals are familiar with colorectal cancer screening, but there's a need to maintain frequent communication in order to keep up to date the information related to the colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Cognitive and affective determinants of decisions to attend a group psychosocial support program for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda D; Booth, Roger J; Schlatter, Melanie; Ziginskas, Danute; Harman, John E; Benson, Stephen R C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study assesses the roles of illness beliefs, emotion regulation factors, and sociodemographic characteristics in decisions to participate in a group support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Women recruited during clinic visits 2 to 4 weeks after diagnosis completed measures of affective and cognitive factors identified by Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of illness self-regulation: cancer-related distress, avoidance tendencies, beliefs that the breast cancer was caused by stress and altered immunity, and personal control beliefs. Measures of general anxiety and depression, social support, and demographic characteristics were also completed; prognostic status information was obtained from medical records. All women were encouraged to participate in a free, 12-week program offering coping skills training and group support. Participation was recorded by program staff. Of the 110 women, 54 (49%) participated in the group support program and 56 (51%) did not. Logistic regression analyses revealed that participation was predicted by stronger beliefs that the cancer was caused by altered immunity, higher cancer-related distress, lower avoidance tendencies, and younger age. Participation in the group psychosocial support program appeared to be guided by cognitive and affective factors identified by the Common-Sense Model. Psychosocial support programs and informational materials promoting their use may attract more participants if they are tailored to focus on resolving cancer-related distress rather than on general anxiety or depression, appeal to those with high avoidance tendencies, address the role of immune function in cancer progression, and meet the needs of older participants.

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of cervical cancer screening programs: the case of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify critical screening program factors for reducing cervical cancer mortality in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Coverage, quality, and screening follow-up were evaluated in four Colombian states with different mortality rates. A case-control study (invasive cancer and healthy controls evaluating screening history was performed. RESULTS: 3-year cytology coverage was 72.7%, false negative rate 49%, positive cytology follow-up 64.2%. There was no association between screening history and invasive cancer in two states having high cytology coverage but high false negative rates. Two states revealed association between deficient screening history and invasive cancer as well as lower positive-cytology follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced number of visits between screening and treatment is more relevant when low access to health care is present. Improved quality is a priority if access to screening is available. Suitable interventions for specific scenarios and proper appraisal of new technologies are compulsory to improve cervical cancer screening. Comprehensive process-failure audits among invasive cancer cases could improve program evaluation since mortality is a late outcome.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores críticos para reducir la mortalidad por cáncer cervical en Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluó cobertura, calidad y seguimiento del tamizaje en cuatro departamentos con tasas de mortalidad diferenciales. Un estudio de casos (cáncer invasor y controles (sanos evaluó historia de tamizaje. RESULTADOS: Cobertura 72,7%; falsos negativos 49%; acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento de HSIL 64,2%. La historia de tamizaje no se asoció con cáncer invasor en dos departamentos con elevada cobertura pero elevada proporción de falsos negativos. Dos departamentos con asociación entre historia de tamizaje deficiente y cáncer invasor tuvieron cobertura aceptable pero bajo acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento. No hubo relación entre mortalidad

  4. A pilot videoconference group stress management program in cancer survivors: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Partridge, Ann H; Blackmon, Jaime E; Morgan, Evan; Recklitis, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a challenging experience and there is evidence that psychosocial interventions are effective at improving adjustment following treatment. At our cancer center, 14 cancer survivors (breast, prostate and blood cancers) completed a four-session cognitive-behavioral stress program. The first session was delivered at the survivor's local cancer center, where they were provided with a loaner tablet. The three subsequent sessions were delivered through group-based videoconference on the tablet. Session content was supplemented with a tailored ebook, designed specifically for this program. Participants provided feedback about the program as well as a standardized measure of perceived stress. Despite evidence that psychosocial programs are effective, there are significant barriers to dissemination, particularly for those residing in rural areas who do not live near academic medical centers where such programming is more readily available. Our experiences delivering a group-based videoconference program in cancer survivors are described, including positives and challenges associated with its design and implementation. Study participants enrolled from across four different US states, and the majority reported at least a 30-minute commute to their cancer center. This travel burden played a meaningful role in their desire to participate in our videoconference-based program. Although participants reported that session content was well suited to addressing stress management concerns, and session facilitators were able to effectively teach program techniques (eg progressive muscle relaxation, cognitive-reframing) and that the program was helpful overall, only modest improvements in perceived stress were seen. Participants noted challenges of the delivery including feeling disconnected from others, difficulty focusing, technical problems, and a desire for a longer program. Thus, although the novel delivery of a group-based, psychosocial program using tablet

  5. The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program: a multi-disciplinary investigation of bone metastases from breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockton, Nigel T; Gill, Stephanie J; Laborge, Stephanie L; Paterson, Alexander H G; Cook, Linda S; Vogel, Hans J; Shemanko, Carrie S; Hanley, David A; Magliocco, Anthony M; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2015-07-10

    potential of metabolomic profiles for risk assessment and early detection and the signalling pathways controlling the metastatic tumour microenvironment. There is substantial synergy between the four projects and it is hoped that this integrated program of research will advance our understanding of key aspects of bone metastases from breast cancer to improve the prevention, prediction, detection, and treatment of these lesions.

  6. The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program: a multi-disciplinary investigation of bone metastases from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockton, Nigel T.; Gill, Stephanie J.; Laborge, Stephanie L.; Paterson, Alexander H. G.; Cook, Linda S.; Vogel, Hans J.; Shemanko, Carrie S.; Hanley, David A.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Friedenreich, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    potential of metabolomic profiles for risk assessment and early detection and the signalling pathways controlling the metastatic tumour microenvironment. There is substantial synergy between the four projects and it is hoped that this integrated program of research will advance our understanding of key aspects of bone metastases from breast cancer to improve the prevention, prediction, detection, and treatment of these lesions

  7. HPV and cofactors for invasive cervical cancer in Morocco: a multicentre case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraho, Mohamed; Amarti-Riffi, Afaf; El-Mzibri, Mohammed; Bezad, Rachid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Benideer, Abdelatif; Matar, Noureddine; Qmichou, Zinab; Abda, Naima; Attaleb, Mohammed; Znati, Kaoutar; El Fatemi, Hind; Bendahhou, Karima; Obtel, Majdouline; Filali Adib, Abdelhai; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Nejjari, Chakib

    2017-06-20

    Limited national information is available in Morocco on the prevalence and distribution of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer and the role of other risk factors. The aim was to determine the frequency of HPV-sub-types of cervical cancer in Morocco and investigate risk factors for this disease. Between November 2009 and April 2012 a multicentre case-control study was carried out. A total of 144 cases of cervical cancer and 288 age-matched controls were included. Odds-ratios and corresponding confidence-intervals were computed by conditional logistic regression models. Current HPV infection was detected in 92.5% of cases and 13.9% of controls. HPV16 was the most common type for both cases and controls. Very strong associations between HPV-sub-types and cervical cancer were observed: total-HPV (OR = 39), HPV16 (OR = 49), HPV18 (OR = 31), and multiple infections (OR = 13). Education, high parity, sexual intercourse during menstruation, history of sexually transmitted infections, and husband's multiple sexual partners were also significantly associated with cervical cancer in the multivariate analysis. Our results could be used to establish a primary prevention program and to prioritize limited screening to women who have specific characteristics that may put them at an increased risk of cervical cancer.

  8. Emotional control in Chinese female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Samuel M Y

    2004-11-01

    Chinese persons are not known as strong in expressing emotions, especially negative ones. However, being diagnosed with cancer and going through treatment can be an emotionally traumatic experience and cancer patients are supposed to have a stronger need to express these negative feelings. The control of expression of negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depression in Chinese female cancer survivors (n=139) was examined in the present study using the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS). The reliability, internal consistency and validity of the Chinese CECS were comparable to the original English scale. Correlation analyses suggested that cancer survivors with higher emotional control tended to have higher stress, anxiety and depression levels and to adopt negative coping with cancer. Regression analysis showed that emotional control would positively predict stress level even after the effect of depressed mood was under control. Further investigations are suggested in order to elucidate the causal relationships and specific cultural factors affecting emotional control in Chinese cancer survivors and, most importantly, its effect on health outcomes. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Creating a "culture of research" in a community hospital: Strategies and tools from the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Eileen P; St Germain, Diane; Nacpil, Lianne M; Zaren, Howard A; Swanson, Sandra M; Minnick, Christopher; Carrigan, Angela; Denicoff, Andrea M; Igo, Kathleen E; Acoba, Jared D; Gonzalez, Maria M; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-06-01

    The value of community-based cancer research has long been recognized. In addition to the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical and Minority-Based Oncology Programs established in 1983, and 1991 respectively, the National Cancer Institute established the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program in 2007 with an aim of enhancing access to high-quality cancer care and clinical research in the community setting where most cancer patients receive their treatment. This article discusses strategies utilized by the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program to build research capacity and create a more entrenched culture of research at the community hospitals participating in the program over a 7-year period. To facilitate development of a research culture at the community hospitals, the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program required leadership or chief executive officer engagement; utilized a collaborative learning structure where best practices, successes, and challenges could be shared; promoted site-to-site mentoring to foster faster learning within and between sites; required research program assessments that spanned clinical trial portfolio, accrual barriers, and outreach; increased identification and use of metrics; and, finally, encouraged research team engagement across hospital departments (navigation, multidisciplinary care, pathology, and disparities) to replace the traditionally siloed approach to clinical trials. The health-care environment is rapidly changing while complexity in research increases. Successful research efforts are impacted by numerous factors (e.g. institutional review board reviews, physician interest, and trial availability). The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program sites, as program participants, had access to the required resources and support to develop and implement the strategies described. Metrics are an important component yet often challenging to

  10. Results from an Evaluation of the Georgia Colorectal Cancer Control Program's Community Education and Outreach Events, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Rebecca C; Hermstad, April; Honeycutt, Sally; Brown, Melody; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-06-01

    Although public health practitioners commonly use community education and outreach events to promote cancer screening, the effectiveness of this strategy remains unclear. This study evaluated 23 outreach events, conducted as part of the Georgia Colorectal Cancer Control Program. Of the estimated 1778 individuals who attended these events, those ages 50-75 were eligible to participate in a telephone survey 3 months after attending an event. Surveys measured colorectal cancer (CRC) risk status, CRC screening history at the time of the event, seeking or obtaining CRC screening at 3-month follow-up, and participants' knowledge of their CRC screening status. Of the 335 individuals contacted for this evaluation, 185 completed the survey. Eighty participants (43.2 %) were at elevated risk for CRC and 99 participants (53.5 %) were at average risk. Of the 99 average-risk participants, the majority (n = 69) were not due for CRC screening at the time they attended an event because they had previously received screening within the recommended time intervals. Thirty average-risk participants were due for CRC screening, either because they had never been screened before (n = 19) or because they were due for rescreening (n = 11). Approximately half of these 30 participants who were due for screening either sought (n = 6, 20.0 %) or obtained screening (n = 8, 26.7 %) 3 months following the event. Community education and outreach events may play an important role in motivating participants to seek or obtain CRC screening, but unless priority audiences are identified and recruited, events may attract people who are already compliant with CRC screening.

  11. Interval Cancers in a Population-Based Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480. We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3% were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%. There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%. When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51–8.88 and at more advanced stages (P=0.025. Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured.

  12. A Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention for breast cancer survivors: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Eun Sook; Jung, Kyung Hae; Noh, Dong-Young

    2014-12-01

    Regular exercise and dietary practices have been shown to affect the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival of breast cancer patients. The current study aimed to investigate whether the WSEDI was a feasible and primarily effective method for promoting exercise and dietary behaviours for breast cancer patients. A 12-week randomized, controlled trial. Oncology outpatient treatment clinics at 3 university hospitals and 1 National Cancer Center in South Korea. Fifty-nine breast cancer patients who had received curative surgery and completed primary cancer treatment within 12 months prior to the study and who had been diagnosed with stage 0-III cancers within 2 years prior to the study were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which used a Web-based self-management exercise and diet intervention program incorporating transtheoretical model (TTM)-based strategies (n=29), or to the control group, which used a 50-page educational booklet on exercise and diet (n=28). The intervention efficacy was measured at the baseline and 12 weeks via a Web-based survey that addressed the promotion of exercise and consumption of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables (F&V) per day, dietary quality, HRQOL, anxiety, depression, fatigue, motivational readiness, and self-efficacy. The proportion of subjects who performed at least moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least 150 min per week; ate 5 servings of F&V per day; and had overall improvements in dietary quality, physical functioning and appetite loss (HRQOL), fatigue, and motivational readiness was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. The self-efficacy with respect to exercise and F&V consumption was greater in the intervention group than in the control group. A Web-based program that targets changes in exercise and dietary behaviours might be effective for breast cancer survivors if the TTM theory has been used to inform the program strategy, although

  13. Feasibility of an online mindfulness-based program for patients with melanoma: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Lahiru; Ugalde, Anna; Milne, Donna; Krishnasamy, Meinir; O Seung Chul, Eric; Austin, David W; Chambers, Richard; Orellana, Liliana; Livingston, Patricia M

    2018-04-13

    People with a melanoma diagnosis are at risk of recurrence, developing a new primary or experiencing disease progression. Previous studies have suggested that fear of a cancer recurrence is clinically relevant in this group of patients and, if not addressed, can lead to distress. Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression among various groups of cancer patients. Online mindfulness-based interventions have the potential to reach people unable to attend face-to-face interventions due to limitations such as cancer-related illness, transportation or time constraints. This study aims to (1) examine whether individuals with a melanoma diagnosis are willing to participate and adhere to a 6-week online mindfulness-based intervention and (2) explore potential benefits of the program on fear of cancer recurrence, worries, rumination, perceived stress and trait mindfulness to inform the design of a clinical trial. This is a single-site randomised controlled trial of a feasibility study. Seventy-five participants with stage 2c or 3 melanoma will be recruited from a melanoma outpatient clinic and randomised (2:1) either to an online mindfulness-based program (intervention) or to usual care (control). The intervention is a 6-week program specifically developed for this study. It consists of videos describing the concept of mindfulness, short daily guided meditation practices (5-10 min), automated meditation reminders and instructions for applying mindfulness in daily life to enhance wellbeing. All participants will complete questionnaires at baseline and at 6-week post-randomisation. Participants in the control group will be given access to the online program at the end of the study. Primary outcomes are overall recruitment; retention; extent of questionnaire completion; and usability and acceptability of, and adherence to, the program. The secondary outcomes are fear of cancer recurrence, worries, rumination, perceived

  14. [Classification and characteristics of interval cancers in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto García, M A; Delgado Sevillano, R; Baldó Sierra, C; González Díaz, E; López Secades, A; Llavona Amor, J A; Vidal Marín, B

    2013-09-01

    To review and classify the interval cancers found in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program (PDPCM). A secondary objective was to determine the histological characteristics, size, and stage of the interval cancers at the time of diagnosis. We included the interval cancers in the PDPCM in the period 2003-2007. Interval cancers were classified according to the breast cancer screening program protocol, with double reading without consensus, without blinding, with arbitration. Mammograms were interpreted by 10 radiologists in the PDPCM. A total of 33.7% of the interval cancers could not be classified; of the interval cancers that could be classified, 40.67% were labeled true interval cancers, 31.4% were labeled false negatives on screening, 23.7% had minimal signs, and 4.23% were considered occult. A total of 70% of the interval cancers were diagnosed in the year of the period between screening examinations and 71.7% were diagnosed after subsequent screening. A total of 76.9% were invasive ductal carcinomas, 61.1% were stage II when detected, and 78.7% were larger than 10mm when detected. The rate of interval cancers and the rate of false negatives in the PDPCM are higher than those recommended in the European guidelines. Interval cancers are diagnosed later than the tumors detected at screening. Studying interval cancers provides significant training for the radiologists in the PDPCM. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Community-Based Multidisciplinary Computed Tomography Screening Program Improves Lung Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Mayfield, William R; Luu, Theresa D; Helms, Gerald A; Muster, Alan R; Beckler, Vickie J; Cann, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Overall survival is less than 20%, with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease. The National Lung Screening Trial, performed mainly in academic medical centers, showed that cancer mortality can be reduced with computed tomography (CT) screening compared with chest radiography in high-risk patients. To determine whether this survival advantage can be duplicated in a community-based multidisciplinary thoracic oncology program, we initiated a CT scan screening program for lung cancer within an established health care system. In 2008, we launched a lung cancer CT screening program within the WellStar Health System (WHS) consisting of five hospitals, three health parks, 140 outpatient medical offices, and 12 imaging centers that provide care in a five-county area of approximately 1.4 million people in Metro-Atlanta. Screening criteria incorporated were the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (2008 to 2010) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (2011 to 2013) for moderate- and high-risk patients. A total of 1,267 persons underwent CT lung cancer screening in WHS from 2008 through 2013; 53% were men, 87% were 50 years of age or older, and 83% were current or former smokers. Noncalcified indeterminate pulmonary nodules were found in 518 patients (41%). Thirty-six patients (2.8%) underwent a diagnostic procedure for positive findings on their CT scan; 30 proved to have cancer, 28 (2.2%) primary lung cancer and 2 metastatic cancer, and 6 had benign disease. Fourteen patients (50%) had their lung cancer discovered on their initial CT scan, 11 on subsequent scans associated with indeterminate pulmonary nodules growth and 3 patients who had a new indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Only 15 (54%) of these 28 patients would have qualified as a National Lung Screening Trial high-risk patient; 75% had stage I or II disease. Overall 5-year survival was 64% and 5-year

  16. Cancer Care and Control as a Human Right: Recognizing Global Oncology as an Academic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eniu, Alexandru E; Martei, Yehoda M; Trimble, Edward L; Shulman, Lawrence N

    2017-01-01

    The global burden of cancer incidence and mortality is on the rise. There are major differences in cancer fatality rates due to profound disparities in the burden and resource allocation for cancer care and control in developed compared with developing countries. The right to cancer care and control should be a human right accessible to all patients with cancer, regardless of geographic or economic region, to avoid unnecessary deaths and suffering from cancer. National cancer planning should include an integrated approach that incorporates a continuum of education, prevention, cancer diagnostics, treatment, survivorship, and palliative care. Global oncology as an academic field should offer the knowledge and skills needed to efficiently assess situations and work on solutions, in close partnership. We need medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, pediatric oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists trained to think about well-tailored resource-stratified solutions to cancer care in the developing world. Moreover, the multidisciplinary fundamental team approach needed to treat most neoplastic diseases requires coordinated investment in several areas. Current innovative approaches have relied on partnerships between academic institutions in developed countries and local governments and ministries of health in developing countries to provide the expertise needed to implement effective cancer control programs. Global oncology is a viable and necessary field that needs to be emphasized because of its critical role in proposing not only solutions in developing countries, but also solutions that can be applied to similar challenges of access to cancer care and control faced by underserved populations in developed countries.

  17. Psychosocial Health of Disease-Free Breast Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-cancer Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Lee, Moo Hyun; Kong, Sun-Young; Lee, Eun Sook

    2018-04-05

    The present study investigated the psychosocial health of disease-free breast cancer survivors who receive health examinations compared to matched non-cancer controls in a community setting. We used baseline data from the Health Examinee cohort, which is composed of subjects participating in health. The disease-free breast cancer survivors were defined as those who were ≥2 years from initial diagnosis of breast cancer who had completed treatment. Females without a history of cancer were randomly selected at 1:4 ratio by 5-year age groups, education, and household income as a comparison group. We analyzed results from the Psychosocial Well-being Index-Short Form (PWI-SF) as a psychosocial health measurement. A total of 347 survivors of breast cancer and 1,388 matched controls were included. Total scores on the PWI-SF were lower in breast cancer survivors than matched non-cancer controls (p=0.006), suggesting a lower level of psychosocial stress in breast cancer survivors. In comparison to the control group, prevalence of drinking, smoking and obesity were lower, while exercising for ≥150 min/wk was higher in breast cancer survivors (p psychosocial health status compared to matched non-cancer controls.

  18. Perspective on BVDV control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, M Daniel; Newcomer, Benjamin W

    2015-06-01

    Programs for control and eradication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are often considered prudent when the expense of a control program within a specified time frame effectively prevents loss due to disease and the expense of control does not exceed the costs associated with infection. In some geographic areas, concerns about animal welfare or desires to reduce antibiotic usage may motivate BVDV control even when control programs are associated with a lack of financial return on investment. In other geographic areas, concerns about financial return on investment may be the key motivating factor in considering implementation of BVDV control programs. Past experiences indicate that systematic, well-coordinated control programs have a clear potential for success, while voluntary control programs in cultures of distributed decision-making often result in notable initial progress that ultimately ends in dissolution of efforts. Segmentation of the cattle industry into cow-calf producers, stocker/backgrounders, and feedlot operators amplifies the distribution of decision-making regarding control programs and may result in control measures for one industry segment that are associated with significant costs and limited rewards. Though the host range of BVDV extends well beyond cattle, multiple eradication programs that focus only on testing and removal of persistently infected (PI) cattle have proven to be effective in various countries. While some individuals consider education of producers to be sufficient to stimulate eradication of BVDV, research surrounding the adoption of innovative health care procedures suggests that the process of adopting BVDV control programs has a social element. Collegial interactions and discussions may be crucial in facilitating the systematic implementation necessary to optimize the long-term success of control programs. Compulsory control programs may be considered efficient and effective in some regions; however, in a nation where

  19. From Cancer Screening to Treatment: Service Delivery and Referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W.; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D.; Royalty, Janet E.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies. PMID:25099897

  20. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M; Ferrer, S; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G; Salas, M D; Cuevas, M D

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10 -6 , 6 x 10 -4 ] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10 -3 . The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  1. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. Methods This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls. Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years, type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour, and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment, and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and

  2. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM) study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Katja I; Huisman, Jaap; Kaspers, Gertjan JL; Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline van; Dijk, Elisabeth M van; Veening, Margreet A; Bierings, Marc B; Merks, Johannes HM; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Sinnema, Gerben; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls). Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years) treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years), type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour), and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment), and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program since it may

  3. Coping with Cancer: A Web-based Educational Program for Early and Middle Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Conner-Von, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Educating patients is a primary responsibility of all nurses, however due to time constraints and staff shortages, pediatric oncology nurses are often unable to adequately prepare patients for cancer treatment. Instead, patients frequently rely on the Internet as a source of information about cancer, some of which can be outdated and inaccurate. Adolescents regard the Internet to be a valuable source of health information as it is easily accessible, less threatening and confidential. Considering the need for accurate, readily available information for adolescents with cancer, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate an innovative, interactive web-based educational program to prepare early and middle adolescents for cancer treatment. Entitled Coping with Cancer, this program was developed by the investigator after conducting in-depth interviews of adolescent cancer survivors and their parents. Based on the Transactional Model of Coping, the program focuses on enhancing the adolescent’s knowledge of cancer, cancer treatment, and healthy coping strategies. Coping with Cancer can be an effective resource for pediatric oncology nurses in providing ongoing education for adolescents with cancer. PMID:19448133

  4. Process control program development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dameron, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper details the development and implementation of a ''Process Control Program'' at Duke Power's three nuclear stations - Oconee, McGuire, and Catawba. Each station is required by Technical Specification to have a ''Process Control Program'' (PCP) to control all dewatering and/or solidification activities for radioactive wastes

  5. Targeted breast cancer screening in women younger than 40: results from a statewide program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarff, MaryClare; Schmidt, Katherine; Vetto, John T

    2008-05-01

    Our state Breast and Cervical Cancer Program (BCCP) has previously reported a paucity of data supporting breast screening for asymptomatic women younger than 40 (cancer detection rate of .25% per screening-year). In partnership with the local Affiliate of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Foundation, we began a targeted "screening" program to evaluate women younger than 40 referred for symptoms or other concerns. Retrospective data review of program results, including demographics, symptoms, evaluations performed, and outcomes. A total of 176 women, ages 16 to 39 years, were referred to the BCCP/Komen program. Of the women with documented presenting symptoms, the most common was breast lump (81%). Evaluation triggered 75 surgical referrals and 69 biopsies, yielding 16 cancers (a biopsy positive rate of 23% and overall cancer detection rate from the program of 9%). For women younger than age 40, targeted breast cancer screening is a more efficient utilization of screening resources, with a higher cancer detection rate than asymptomatic screening.

  6. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  7. Cancer control in developing countries: using health data and health services research to measure and improve access, quality and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangolle Alfred CT

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1 Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2 Process: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3 Outcome: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. Summary There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1 Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2 Development of high-quality health data sources. (3 More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4 Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and

  8. Cancer control in developing countries: using health data and health services research to measure and improve access, quality and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Timothy P; Kangolle, Alfred C T

    2010-10-13

    Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1) Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2) PROCESS: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3) OUTCOME: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1) Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2) Development of high-quality health data sources. (3) More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4) Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and international collaboration as well as political

  9. A culturally adapted survivorship programme for Asian early stage breast cancer patients in Singapore: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexandre; Gan, Yan Xiang; Oh, Suan Kai; Ng, Terence; Shwe, Maung; Chan, Raymond; Ng, Raymond; Goh, Brandon; Tan, Yee Pin; Fan, Gilbert

    2017-10-01

    As cancer mortality rates improve in Singapore, there is an increasing need to improve the transition to posttreatment survivorship care. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a psychoeducation group (PEG) intervention program compared with usual care to reduce distress for physical symptom and psychological aspects in Asian breast cancer survivors who have completed adjuvant chemotherapy. This was a randomized, controlled trial comprising 72 Asian early stage breast cancer survivors who were randomized into the PEG (n = 34) or the control (n = 38) arm. The participants in the PEG arm underwent a weekly multidisciplinary PEG program delivered in a group format over 3 weeks coupled with cultural adaptation. Both arms were assessed at baseline and 2 months after intervention using the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and EORTC QLQ-C30. A satisfaction questionnaire was also conducted among those survivors who have participated in the PEG program. Effective sizes were calculated using Cohen d. The mean age ± SD of all participants was 53.0 ± 8.9 years, with the majority being Chinese (84.7%) and Malay (6.9%), and clinical characteristics were well balanced in both arms. Compared to the control arm, the PEG arm showed a significantly greater reduction in physical symptom distress (d = 0.76, P = .01) and fatigue (d = 0.49, P = .04). The 82.4% of the participants in the intervention group responded to the satisfaction questionnaire, and the majority (92.9%) agreed that the overall duration of the PEG intervention program was appropriate. A culturally adapted PEG program was effective in reducing physical symptom distress in Asian breast cancer survivors. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02600299). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  11. Training scholars in dissemination and implementation research for cancer prevention and control: a mentored approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padek, Margaret; Mir, Nageen; Jacob, Rebekah R; Chambers, David A; Dobbins, Maureen; Emmons, Karen M; Kerner, Jon; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Pfund, Christine; Proctor, Enola K; Stange, Kurt C; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-01-22

    As the field of D&I (dissemination and implementation) science grows to meet the need for more effective and timely applications of research findings in routine practice, the demand for formalized training programs has increased concurrently. The Mentored Training for Dissemination and Implementation Research in Cancer (MT-DIRC) Program aims to build capacity in the cancer control D&I research workforce, especially among early career researchers. This paper outlines the various components of the program and reports results of systematic evaluations to ascertain its effectiveness. Essential features of the program include selection of early career fellows or more experienced investigators with a focus relevant to cancer control transitioning to a D&I research focus, a 5-day intensive training institute, ongoing peer and senior mentoring, mentored planning and work on a D&I research proposal or project, limited pilot funding, and training and ongoing improvement activities for mentors. The core faculty and staff members of the MT-DIRC program gathered baseline and ongoing evaluation data regarding D&I skill acquisition and mentoring competency through participant surveys and analyzed it by iterative collective reflection. A majority (79%) of fellows are female, assistant professors (55%); 59% are in allied health disciplines, and 48% focus on cancer prevention research. Forty-three D&I research competencies were assessed; all improved from baseline to 6 and 18 months. These effects were apparent across beginner, intermediate, and advanced initial D&I competency levels and across the competency domains. Mentoring competency was rated very highly by the fellows--higher than rated by the mentors themselves. The importance of different mentoring activities, as rated by the fellows, was generally congruent with their satisfaction with the activities, with the exception of relatively greater satisfaction with the degree of emotional support and relatively lower

  12. [Effects of individualized nutritional education programs on the level of nutrient intake and nutritional status of colorectal cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Ock; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individualized nutritional education programs on nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy. Forty patients with colorectal cancer (19 experimental and 21 control patients) were recruited from a chemotherapy ward at S University Hospital in Seoul, Korea. The experimental group received two individualized nutritional counseling sessions and two telephone counseling sessions over 6 weeks. The control group received nutritional counseling after completion of data collection. Nutritional education included general guidelines for food intake while receiving chemotherapy, dietary guidelines for patients with colorectal cancer, daily meal schedules to overcome cancer, and dietary guideline for each chemotherapy side effect. Data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program 17.0. Two group comparison revealed that the experimental group had significantly improved calorie (p=.038) and total protein intake (p=.001), and serum albumin percentage change (p=.040). Body weight did not increase but remained the same as the baseline in both groups. Study results indicate that this individualized nutritional education programs are effective in enhancing nutrient intake and nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer who are undergoing palliative chemotherapy.

  13. Cervical cancer screening and adherence to follow-up among Hispanic women study protocol: a randomized controlled trial to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duggan Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the US, Hispanic women have a higher incidence of, and mortality from, cervical cancer than non-Hispanic white women. The reason for this disparity may be attributable to both low rates of screening and poor adherence to recommended diagnostic follow-up after an abnormal Pap test. The 'Cervical Cancer Screening and Adherence to Follow-up Among Hispanic Women' study is a collaboration between a research institution and community partners made up of members from community based organizations, the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic and the Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program of the Yakima District . The study will assess the efficacy of two culturally-appropriate, tailored educational programs designed to increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women, based in the Yakima Valley, Washington, US. Methods/design A parallel randomized-controlled trial of 600 Hispanic women aged 21–64, who are non-compliant with Papanicolau (Pap test screening guidelines. Participants will be randomized using block randomization to (1 a control arm (usual care; (2 a low-intensity information program, consisting of a Spanish-language video that educates women on the importance of cervical cancer screening; or (3 a high-intensity program consisting of the video plus a ‘promotora’ or lay-community health educator-led, home based intervention to encourage cervical cancer screening. Participants who attend cervical cancer screening, and receive a diagnosis of an abnormal Pap test will be assigned to a patient navigator who will provide support and information to promote adherence to follow-up tests, and any necessary surgery or treatment. Primary endpoint: Participants will be tracked via medical record review at community-based clinics, to identify women who have had a Pap test within 7 months of baseline assessment. Medical record reviewers will be blinded to randomization arm. Secondary endpoint: An evaluation of the patient

  14. Barriers to overcome for effective cancer control in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Joe B

    2015-08-01

    Cancer control in Africa is complicated due to large differences in cancer incidence between countries caused by differences in exposure to known risk factors. For example, substantial differences are seen when selected cancers in north Africa are compared with those in sub-Saharan Africa. In the future, population growth and demographic shifts are likely to have profound effects on the prevalence of cancer across the continent. Likewise, many factors outside of health care such as language differences, conflict, and poverty can affect cancer control efforts. Although cooperation in cancer control efforts is desirable, differences in cultural and geopolitical factors that characterise African countries and their populations, together with the sheer size of the continent, present unique challenges to effective cancer control. This Series paper discusses factors related to the size, diversity, and conditions within Africa that present barriers to optimal collaboration in cancer control efforts across the continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Breast cancer incidence related with a population-based screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Caicoya, Martín; Prieto, Miguel; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-02-20

    To compare breast cancer cumulative incidence, time evolution and stage at diagnosis between participants and non-participant women in a population-based screening program. Cohort study of breast cancer incidence in relation to participation in a population screening program. The study population included women from the target population of the screening program. The source of information for diagnostics and stages was the population-based cancer registry. The analysis period was 1999-2010. The Relative Risk for invasive, in situ, and total cancers diagnosed in participant women compared with non-participants were respectively 1.16 (0.94-1.43), 2.98 (1.16-7.62) and 1.22 (0.99-1.49). The Relative Risk for participants versus non-participants was 2.47 (1.55-3.96) for diagnosis at stagei, 2.58 (1.67-3.99) for T1 and 2.11 (1.38-3.23) for negative lymph node involvement. The cumulative incidence trend had two joint points in both arms, with an Annual Percent of Change of 92.3 (81.6-103.5) between 1999-2001, 18.2 (16.1-20.3) between 2001-2005 and 5.9 (4.0-7.8) for the last period in participants arm, and 72.6 (58.5-87.9) between 1999-2001, 12.6 (7.9-17.4) between 2001-2005, and 8.6 (6.5-10.6) in the last period in the non-participant arm. Participating in the breast cancer screening program analyzed increased the in situ cumulative cancer incidence, but not the invasive and total incidence. Diagnoses were earlier in the participant arm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of characteristics between frequent participants and non-participants in screening program for stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S; Komatsu, S; Shimizu, H; Satoh, H; Nakatsuka, H; Watanabe, T; Fujisaku, S; Ichinowatari, Y; Kuroda, S

    1992-04-01

    To clarify the differences in characteristics between participants and non-participants in the screening program for stomach cancer, life-style and medical histories were compared among 20, 169 subjects who lived in an urban area (Sendai) and a rural area (Wakuya and Tajiri) in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. All subjects were classified into three groups according to the frequency of participation in the screening program during the last 5 years; i.e., frequent participating group (FPG) for 4 or 5 times, reference group (RG) for 1-3 times and non-participating group (NPG) for 0 times. Subjects in the FPG consumed more milk and green-yellow vegetable whereas those in the NPG consumed less these foods. The age-adjusted proportions of present smokers were higher in the NPG but lower in the FPG significantly. The proportions of subjects who had parental histories of all cancers and stomach cancer and past history of gastro-duodenal ulcer were higher in the FPG and lower in the NPG. To control influences among the variables a stepwise multiple regression analysis was done, and it revealed that smoking and parental history of cancers were strong predictors to explain the frequency of participation.

  17. Use of intervention mapping to adapt a health behavior change intervention for endometrial cancer survivors: the shape-up following cancer treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutoukidis, Dimitrios A; Lopes, Sonia; Atkins, Lou; Croker, Helen; Knobf, M Tish; Lanceley, Anne; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2018-03-27

    About 80% of endometrial cancer survivors (ECS) are overweight or obese and have sedentary behaviors. Lifestyle behavior interventions are promising for improving dietary and physical activity behaviors, but the constructs associated with their effectiveness are often inadequately reported. The aim of this study was to systematically adapt an evidence-based behavior change program to improve healthy lifestyle behaviors in ECS. Following a review of the literature, focus groups and interviews were conducted with ECS (n = 16). An intervention mapping protocol was used for the program adaptation, which consisted of six steps: a needs assessment, formulation of matrices of change objectives, selection of theoretical methods and practical applications, program production, adoption and implementation planning, and evaluation planning. Social Cognitive Theory and Control Theory guided the adaptation of the intervention. The process consisted of eight 90-min group sessions focusing on shaping outcome expectations, knowledge, self-efficacy, and goals about healthy eating and physical activity. The adapted performance objectives included establishment of regular eating, balanced diet, and portion sizes, reduction in sedentary behaviors, increase in lifestyle and organized activities, formulation of a discrepancy-reducing feedback loop for all above behaviors, and trigger management. Information on managing fatigue and bowel issues unique to ECS were added. Systematic intervention mapping provided a framework to design a cancer survivor-centered lifestyle intervention. ECS welcomed the intervention and provided essential feedback for its adaptation. The program has been evaluated through a randomized controlled trial.

  18. In memoriam: an appreciation for the NCI R25T cancer education and career development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shine

    2014-06-01

    On September 7, 2013, the NCI R25T award mechanism ended its final "receipt/review/award cycle" after more than two decades shaping the cancer prevention and control workforce. Created in 1991 to respond to a national shortage of cancer prevention and control researchers, the R25T supported innovative institutional programs with specialized curricula preparing individuals for careers as independent scientists for the field. Required elements ensured developing transdisciplinary sensibilities and skills highly suited to team science, including conducting collaborative research with mentors of complementary expertise. R25Ts provided trainee stipends, research, education, and travel funds at levels far higher than T32 National Service Research Awards to attract individuals from diverse disciplines. Graduates are faculty at all academic ranks, and hold leadership positions such as associate directors of cancer prevention and control. Beyond its trainees, R25Ts also recruited into the field other students exposed through courses in specialized prevention curricula, as well as course instructors and trainee mentors, who did not initially consider their work to be relevant to cancer prevention. Although advances are being achieved, prevention efforts are not yet fully realized, and currently unknown is the impact on the workforce of terminating the R25T, including whether it is another barrier to preventing cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Social cognitive theory mediators of physical activity in a lifestyle program for cancer survivors and carers: findings from the ENRICH randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, F G; James, E L; Chapman, K; Lubans, D R

    2016-04-14

    Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors and evidence that diet and physical activity improves the health of cancer survivors, most do not meet guidelines. Some social cognitive theory (SCT)-based interventions have increased physical activity behavior, however few have used objective physical activity measures. The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH) randomized controlled trial reported a significant intervention effect for the primary outcome of pedometer-assessed step counts at post-test (8-weeks) and follow-up (20-weeks). The aim of this study was to test whether the SCT constructs operationalized in the ENRICH intervention were mediators of physical activity behavior change. Randomized controlled trial with 174 cancer survivors and carers assessed at baseline, post-test (8-weeks), and follow-up (20-weeks). Participants were randomized to the ENRICH six session face-to-face healthy lifestyle program, or to a wait-list control. Hypothesized SCT mediators of physical activity behavior change (self-efficacy, behavioral goal, outcome expectations, impediments, and social expectations) were assessed using valid and reliable scales. Mediation was assessed using the Preacher and Hayes SPSS INDIRECT macro. At eight weeks, there was a significant intervention effect on behavioral goal (A = 9.12, p = 0.031) and outcome expectations (A = 0.25, p = 0.042). At 20 weeks, the intervention had a significant effect on self-efficacy (A = 0.31, p = 0.049) and behavioral goal (A = 13.15, p = 0.011). Only changes in social support were significantly associated with changes in step counts at eight weeks (B = 633.81, p = 0.023). Behavioral goal was the only SCT construct that had a significant mediating effect on step counts, and explained 22 % of the intervention effect at 20 weeks (AB = 397.9, 95 % CI 81.5-1025.5). SCT constructs had limited impact on objectively-assessed step counts in a multiple health

  20. Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Dean

    2002-01-01

    .... The curriculum of the Breast Cancer Training Program extends beyond that of the normal Ph.D. requirements to include didactic classroom teaching, journal clubs, seminars, workshops and mini-symposiums on relevant topics in breast cancer...

  1. Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Dean

    2001-01-01

    .... The curriculum of the Breast Cancer Training Program extends beyond that of the normal Ph.D. requirements to include didactic classroom teaching, journal clubs, seminars, workshops and mini-symposiums on relevant topics in breast cancer...

  2. Ph.D. Post-Doctoral Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Dean

    2004-01-01

    .... The curriculum of the Breast Cancer Training Program extends beyond that of the normal Ph.D. requirements to include didactic classroom teaching, journal clubs, seminars, workshops and mini-symposiums on relevant topics in breast cancer...

  3. Community-Academic Partnership to implement a Breast and Cervical Cancer screening education program in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; González, Daisy; Vélez, Camille; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Soler, Alana Feldman; Escobar, Kelly Ayala; Ayala-Marín, Alelí M.; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Calo, William A.; Aragón, Angela Pattatucci; Rivera-Díaz, Marinilda; Fernández, María E.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe how a community-academic partnership between Taller Salud Inc., a community-based organization, and the Puerto Rico Community Cancer Control Outreach Program of the University of Puerto Rico was crucial in the adaptation and implementation of Cultivando La Salud (CLS), an evidence-based educational outreach program designed to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico. This collaboration facilitated the review and adaptation of the CLS intervention to improve cultural appropriateness, relevance, and acceptability for Puerto Rican women. Methods A total of 25 interviewers and 12 Lay Health Workers (LHWs) were recruited and trained to deliver the program. The interviewers recruited women who were non-adherent to recommended screening guidelines for both breast and cervical cancer. LHWs then provided one-on-one education using the adapted CLS materials. Results A total of 444 women were recruited and 48% of them were educated through this collaborative effort. Conclusions Our main accomplishment was establishing the academic-community partnership to implement the CLS program. Nevertheless, in order to promote better collaborations with our community partners, it is important to carefully delineate and establish clear roles and shared responsibilities for each partner for the successful execution of research activities, taking into consideration the community’s needs. PMID:29220062

  4. Community-Academic Partnership to Implement a Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Education Program in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; González, Daisy; Vélez, Camille; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Feldman-Soler, Alana; Ayala-Escobar, Kelly; Ayala-Marín, Alelí M; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Calo, William A; Pattatucci-Aragón, Angela; Rivera-Díaz, Marinilda; Fernández, María E

    2017-12-01

    To describe how a community-academic partnership between Taller Salud Inc., a community-based organization, and the Puerto Rico Community Cancer Control Outreach Program of the University of Puerto Rico was crucial in the adaptation and implementation of Cultivando La Salud (CLS), an evidencebased educational outreach program designed to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico. This collaboration facilitated the review and adaptation of the CLS intervention to improve cultural appropriateness, relevance, and acceptability for Puerto Rican women. A total of 25 interviewers and 12 Lay Health Workers (LHWs) were recruited and trained to deliver the program. The interviewers recruited women who were non-adherent to recommended screening guidelines for both breast and cervical cancer. LHWs then provided one-on-one education using the adapted CLS materials. A total of 444 women were recruited and 48% of them were educated through this collaborative effort. Our main accomplishment was establishing the academic-community partnership to implement the CLS program. Nevertheless, in order to promote better collaborations with our community partners, it is important to carefully delineate and establish clear roles and shared responsibilities for each partner for the successful execution of research activities, taking into consideration the community's needs.

  5. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer fast-track program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roennegaard, Anders B.; Rosenberg, Tine; Bjørndal, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    -track clinical pathway solutions. Objectives: The objectives of this study were 1) to present the setup of the head and neck cancer (HNC) fast-track program at Odense University Hospital (OUH) as an example of the Danish model and 2) to present patient characteristics, diagnostic outcome, cancer detection rate...

  6. Toy Control Program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H A; Ormond, C; Seeger, B R

    1991-08-01

    The Toy Control Program for the Apple IIe microcomputer is a software and hardware package developed for the training of single-switch scanning skills. The specially designed scanning programs provide on screen visual feedback and activate a battery-powered toy to reinforce performance. This study examined whether the training of preschool subjects in single-switch scanning skills with the Toy Control Program would result in increased task completion scores and increased levels of attention to task, as compared with conditions of toy activation only and microcomputer programs with screen reinforcement only. The results showed that the subjects paid significantly more attention to the toys as reinforcers (p less than .01). No significant difference was found for the performance results of the three conditions. These findings support the use of a program like the Toy Control Program, which integrates the instructional capabilities of a computer with the reinforcement potential of a toy and the creativity of a therapist.

  7. Pan-Cancer Analysis Links PARK2 to BCL-XL-Dependent Control of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxing Gong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mutation of the PARK2 gene can promote both Parkinson's Disease and cancer, yet the underlying mechanisms of how PARK2 controls cellular physiology is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the PARK2 tumor suppressor controls the apoptotic regulator BCL-XL and modulates programmed cell death. Analysis of approximately 10,000 tumor genomes uncovers a striking pattern of mutual exclusivity between PARK2 genetic loss and amplification of BCL2L1, implicating these genes in a common pathway. PARK2 directly binds to and ubiquitinates BCL-XL. Inactivation of PARK2 leads to aberrant accumulation of BCL-XL both in vitro and in vivo, and cancer-specific mutations in PARK2 abrogate the ability of the ubiquitin E3 ligase to target BCL-XL for degradation. Furthermore, PARK2 modulates mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis in a BCL-XL-dependent manner. Thus, like genes at the nodal points of growth arrest pathways such as p53, the PARK2 tumor suppressor is able to exert its antiproliferative effects by regulating both cell cycle progression and programmed cell death.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Breast Cancer Control Interventions in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Sten G.; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Abugattas, Julio E.; Manrique, Javier E.; Sarria, Gustavo; Jeronimo, José; Seinfeld, Janice N.; Lauer, Jeremy A.; Sepulveda, Cecilia R.; Venegas, Diego; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant for the Peruvian context. Methods We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) according to WHO-CHOICE guidelines, from a healthcare perspective. Different screening, early detection, palliative, and treatment interventions were evaluated using mathematical modeling. Effectiveness estimates were based on observational studies, modeling, and on information from Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN). Resource utilizations and unit costs were based on estimates from INEN and observational studies. Cost-effectiveness estimates are in 2012 United States dollars (US$) per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Results The current breast cancer program in Peru ($8,426 per DALY averted) could be improved through implementing triennial or biennial screening strategies. These strategies seem the most cost-effective in Peru, particularly when mobile mammography is applied (from $4,125 per DALY averted), or when both CBE screening and mammography screening are combined (from $4,239 per DALY averted). Triennially, these interventions costs between $63 million and $72 million per year. Late stage treatment, trastuzumab therapy and annual screening strategies are the least cost-effective. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that breast cancer control in Peru should be oriented towards early detection through combining fixed and mobile mammography screening (age 45-69) triennially. However, a phased introduction of triennial CBE screening (age 40-69) with upfront FNA in non-urban settings, and both CBE (age 40-49) and fixed mammography screening (age 50-69) in urban settings, seems a more feasible option and is also cost-effective. The implementation of this

  9. A 3?week multimodal intervention involving high?intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss?Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans?Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare the effects of a 3?week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high?intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer?related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty?eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a ...

  10. Long-Term Impact of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program on Cancer Incidence and Mortality-Model-Based Exploration of the Serrated Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, Marjolein J. E.; Demirel, Erhan; Lew, Jie-Bin; Berkhof, Johannes; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Canfell, Karen; Dekker, Evelien; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Coupé, Veerle M. H.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to predict the long-term colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and colonoscopy demand of the recently implemented Dutch colorectal cancer screening program. The Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal Cancer model was set up to simulate the Dutch screening program consisting of

  11. Implementing a Death with Dignity program at a comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggers, Elizabeth Trice; Starks, Helene; Shannon-Dudley, Moreen; Back, Anthony L; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Stewart, F Marc

    2013-04-11

    The majority of Death with Dignity participants in Washington State and Oregon have received a diagnosis of terminal cancer. As more states consider legislation regarding physician-assisted death, the experience of a comprehensive cancer center may be informative. We describe the implementation of a Death with Dignity program at Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, the site of care for the Fred Hutchinson-University of Washington Cancer Consortium, a comprehensive cancer center in Seattle that serves the Pacific Northwest. Institution-level data were compared with publicly available statewide data from Oregon and Washington. A total of 114 patients inquired about our Death with Dignity program between March 5, 2009, and December 31, 2011. Of these, 44 (38.6%) did not pursue the program, and 30 (26.3%) initiated the process but either elected not to continue or died before completion. Of the 40 participants who, after counseling and upon request, received a prescription for a lethal dose of secobarbital (35.1% of the 114 patients who inquired about the program), all died, 24 after medication ingestion (60% of those obtaining prescriptions). The participants at our center accounted for 15.7% of all participants in the Death with Dignity program in Washington (255 persons) and were typically white, male, and well educated. The most common reasons for participation were loss of autonomy (97.2%), inability to engage in enjoyable activities (88.9%), and loss of dignity (75.0%). Eleven participants lived for more than 6 months after prescription receipt. Qualitatively, patients and families were grateful to receive the lethal prescription, whether it was used or not. Overall, our Death with Dignity program has been well accepted by patients and clinicians.

  12. The effect of a communicational program on psychological distress in the elderly suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Hejazi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological distress is one of the most common psychological symptoms in elderly cancer patients. However, many of these patients do not receive any treatment for distress management. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of a communication program on the psychological distress of elderly cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This two-group clinical trial with a before and after design was conducted in Al-Zahra and Seyed-Al-Shohada hospitals affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A total of 64 elderly patients were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental and control groups. A 3-week intervention (communicational program consisting of distributing educational booklets, practices, and phone follow-ups was performed for the intervention group. All sessions were held during the 3-week period with sessions held twice per week both in the form of personal attendance and phone tracking, and the patients were encouraged to do the tasks assigned to them. The control group received routine care, and at the end of the study, the content of the sessions was explained to them. The demographic and clinical data of the participants were recorded, and all participants completed Kessler's Psychological Distress inventory at baseline and at the end of the 3-week intervention. Results: We found a significant difference in the psychological distress scores between the two groups before and after the intervention (P < 0.001, independent t-test. Moreover, the mean psychological distress scores decreased significantly in the experimental group after the intervention (P < 0.001, paired t-test. Conclusions: Our communicational program had a positive effect on psychological distress in elderly patients with cancer. Therefore, this program could be used as an easy, cheap, and practical approach for reducing psychological distress in these patients.

  13. Teaching medical students cancer risk reduction nutrition counseling using a multimedia program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, K M; Jobe, A C; Miller, M G; Clay, M C

    1999-03-01

    There are many barriers to medical students receiving education about the linkage between nutrition and cancer, including the lack of role models and teachers and insufficient curricular time. We tested the use of a multimedia program as a possible solution to teaching diet-risk assessment and counseling skills. Images of Cancer Prevention, The Nutrition Link is a CD-ROM multimedia program that was developed and evaluated by 147 medical students. Pre-use and post-use surveys, computer log files, and recorded response sessions were used to determine the learner's 1) ease in using the program, 2) attitudes about the treatment of the content, 3) knowledge gain, and 4) attitudes about the role of physicians in nutrition assessment and counseling for cancer risk reduction. Students improved their knowledge of dietary guidelines for cancer risk reduction and made positive changes in their attitudes toward the role of physicians in dietary counseling. However, most students reported that they would not use the program unless it was required that they do so. The multimedia program was successful; it affected students' knowledge and attitudes concerning nutrition as a modifiable risk factor for some cancers. In addition, the design and delivery of the multimedia product was positively reviewed by the students for ease of access, message design, individualized instruction, and flexibility. Despite these favorable ratings, it was not clear that students would use the program unless required to do so.

  14. Senescent cells re-engineered to express soluble programmed death receptor-1 for inhibiting programmed death receptor-1/programmed death ligand-1 as a vaccination approach against breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zehong; Hu, Kang; Feng, Lieting; Su, Ruxiong; Lai, Nan; Yang, Zike; Kang, Shijun

    2018-06-01

    Various types of vaccines have been proposed as approaches for prevention or delay of the onset of cancer by boosting the endogenous immune system. We previously developed a senescent-cell-based vaccine, induced by radiation and veliparib, as a preventive and therapeutic tool against triple-negative breast cancer. However, the programmed death receptor-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway was found to play an important role in vaccine failure. Hence, we further developed soluble programmed death receptor-1 (sPD1)-expressing senescent cells to overcome PD-L1/PD-1-mediated immune suppression while vaccinating to promote dendritic cell (DC) maturity, thereby amplifying T-cell activation. In the present study, sPD1-expressing senescent cells showed a particularly active status characterized by growth arrest and modified immunostimulatory cytokine secretion in vitro. As expected, sPD1-expressing senescent tumor cell vaccine (STCV/sPD-1) treatment attracted more mature DC and fewer exhausted-PD1 + T cells in vivo. During the course of the vaccine studies, we observed greater safety and efficacy for STCV/sPD-1 than for control treatments. STCV/sPD-1 pre-injections provided complete protection from 4T1 tumor challenge in mice. Additionally, the in vivo therapeutic study of mice with s.c. 4T1 tumor showed that STCV/sPD-1 vaccination delayed tumorigenesis and suppressed tumor progression at early stages. These results showed that STCV/sPD-1 effectively induced a strong antitumor immune response against cancer and suggested that it might be a potential strategy for TNBC prevention. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. [Cancer nursing care education programs: the effectiveness of different teaching methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yun-Ju; Kao, Yu-Hsiu

    2012-10-01

    In-service education affects the quality of cancer care directly. Using classroom teaching to deliver in-service education is often ineffective due to participants' large workload and shift requirements. This study evaluated the learning effectiveness of different teaching methods in the dimensions of knowledge, attitude, and learning satisfaction. This study used a quasi-experimental study design. Participants were cancer ward nurses working at one medical center in northern Taiwan. Participants were divided into an experimental group and control group. The experimental group took an e-learning course and the control group took a standard classroom course using the same basic course material. Researchers evaluated the learning efficacy of each group using a questionnaire based on the quality of cancer nursing care learning effectiveness scale. All participants answered the questionnaire once before and once after completing the course. (1) Post-test "knowledge" scores for both groups were significantly higher than pre-test scores for both groups. Post-test "attitude" scores were significantly higher for the control group, while the experimental group reported no significant change. (2) after a covariance analysis of the pre-test scores for both groups, the post-test score for the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group in the knowledge dimension. Post-test scores did not differ significantly from pre-test scores for either group in the attitude dimension. (3) Post-test satisfaction scores between the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to teaching methods. The e-learning method, however, was demonstrated as more flexible than the classroom teaching method. Study results demonstrate the importance of employing a variety of teaching methods to instruct clinical nursing staff. We suggest that both classroom teaching and e-learning instruction methods be used to enhance the quality of cancer nursing care education programs. We

  16. Multilevel Opportunities to Address Lung Cancer Stigma across the Cancer Control Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Heidi A; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Studts, Jamie L; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2018-05-22

    The public health imperative to reduce the burden of lung cancer has seen unprecedented progress in recent years. Realizing fully the advances in lung cancer treatment and control requires attention to potential barriers in their momentum and implementation. In this analysis, we present and evaluate the argument that stigma is a highly significant barrier to fulfilling the clinical promise of advanced care and reduced lung cancer burden. This evaluation of lung cancer stigma is based on a multilevel perspective that incorporates the individual, persons in their immediate environment, the healthcare system, and the larger societal structure which shapes perceptions and decisions. We also consider current interventions and interventional needs within and across aspects of the lung cancer continuum, including prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Current evidence suggests that stigma detrimentally impacts psychosocial, communication, and behavioral outcomes over the entire lung cancer control continuum and across multiple levels. Interventional efforts to alleviate stigma in the context of lung cancer show promise, yet more work is needed to evaluate their impact. Understanding and addressing the multi-level role of stigma is a crucial area for future study in order to realize the full benefits offered by lung cancer prevention, control, and treatment. Coordinated, interdisciplinary, and well-conceptualized efforts have the potential to reduce the barrier of stigma in the context of lung cancer and facilitate demonstrable improvements in clinical care and quality of life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer: A review of evidence from phase III trials and national programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.

  18. The Yo me cuido® Program: Addressing Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Among Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region.

  19. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judith M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating

  20. Health economics evaluation of a gastric cancer early detection and treatment program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Li-Ping; Fang, Xue; Zhou, Bao-Sen

    2014-01-01

    To use health economics methodology to assess the screening program on gastric cancer in Zhuanghe, China, so as to provide the basis for health decision on expanding the program of early detection and treatment. The expense of an early detection and treatment program for gastric cancer in patients found by screening, and also costs of traditional treatment in a hospital of Zhuanghe were assessed. Three major techniques of medical economics, namely cost-effective analysis (CEA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA), were used to assess the screening program. RESULTS from CEA showed that investing every 25, 235 Yuan on screening program in Zhuanghe area, one gastric cancer patient could be saved. Data from CUA showed that it was cost 1, 370 Yuan per QALY saved. RESULTS from CBA showed that: the total cost was 1,945,206 Yuan with a benefit as 8,669,709 Yuan and an CBR of 4.46. The early detection and treatment program of gastric cancer appears economic and society-beneficial. We suggest that it should be carry out in more high risk areas for gastric cancer.

  1. Fox Chase Network: Fox Chase Cancer Center's community hospital affiliation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higman, S A; McKay, F J; Engstrom, P F; O'Grady, M A; Young, R C

    2000-01-01

    Fox Chase Cancer Center developed a format for affiliation with community providers in 1986. Fox Chase Network was formed to establish hospital-based community cancer centers to increase access to patients involved in clinical research. Under this program, the Fox Chase Network now contributes 500 patients per year to prevention and clinical research studies. As relationships with community providers form, patient referrals have increased at Fox Chase Cancer Center and for each Fox Chase Network member. A dedicated staff is required to operate the central office on a day-to-day basis as well as at each affiliate. We have found this to be a critical element in each program's success. New challenges in the cancer business-increasing volumes with declining revenue-have caused us to reconfigure the services offered to affiliates, while maintaining true to our mission: to reduce the burden of human cancer.

  2. Nuevo Amanecer: results of a randomized controlled trial of a community-based, peer-delivered stress management intervention to improve quality of life in Latinas with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nápoles, Anna María; Ortíz, Carmen; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E; Durón, Ysabel; McGuire, Peggy; Luce, Judith

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated a community-based, translational stress management program to improve health-related quality of life in Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer. We adapted a cognitive-behavioral stress management program integrating evidence-based and community best practices to address the needs of Latinas with breast cancer. Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual-care control group. Trained peers delivered the 8-week intervention between February 2011 and February 2014. Primary outcomes were breast cancer-specific quality of life and distress, and general symptoms of distress. Of 151 participants, 95% were retained at 6 months (between May 2011 and May 2014). Improvements in quality of life from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention than the control group on physical well-being, emotional well-being, breast cancer concerns, and overall quality of life. Decreases from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention group on depression and somatization. Results suggest that translation of evidence-based programs can reduce psychosocial health disparities in Latinas with breast cancer. Integration of this program into community-based organizations enhances its dissemination potential.

  3. Subjective evaluation of a peer support program by women with breast cancer: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Miho; Tsuyumu, Yuko; Ota, Hiroko; Okamoto, Reiko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the subjective evaluation of a breast cancer peer support program based on a survey of the participants who completed the program. Semistructured interviews were held with 10 women with breast cancer. The responses were subject to a qualitative inductive analysis. Women with breast cancer who participated in the breast cancer peer support program evaluated the features of the program and cited benefits, such as "Receiving individual peer support tailored to your needs," "Easily consulted trained peer supporters," and "Excellent coordination." Also indicated were benefits of the peer support that was received, such as "Receiving peer-specific emotional support," "Obtaining specific experimental information," "Re-examining yourself," and "Making preparations to move forward." The women also spoke of disadvantages, such as "Strict management of personal information" and "Matching limitations." In this study, the subjective evaluation of a peer support program by women with breast cancer was clarified . The women with breast cancer felt that the program had many benefits and some disadvantages. These results suggest that there is potential for peer support-based patient-support programs in medical services that are complementary to the current support that is provided by professionals. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Transatlantic Roots of Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men: The CaPTC Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Transatlantic Roots of Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men: The CaPTC Program" will be presented by Folakemi Odedina, PhD Professor, Pharmacotherapy & Translational Research and Director, UF Health Cancer Center Cancer Health Disparities at the University of Florida College of Pharmacy in Orlando, FL. Date: March 13, 2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI

  5. Cervix cancer: clinical aspects of tumoral control and radiotherapy treatment time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitto, J.V.

    1994-01-01

    The author analyzed 35 patients with recurrence or residual tumor at the end of the radiotherapy program. These patients were selected out of a group of 338 patients cervix cancer who had also undergone on the same radiotherapy program. Those patients were compared with control group of 30 patients without clinical evidence of the disease, from the same group of 338 patients. It has studied the clinical results considering the total radiotherapy time to developed the radiation program and factors that could modify the time for a longer program, and also modify the final survival results. No significant difference was shown in this study, but it should be taken in consideration the total radiotherapy time, because this is a factor that could change the final results if the time would be longer than what was shown in this work. (author). 26 refs, 10 tabs

  6. Using Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Cancer Screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, Amy; Carter, Aundrea; Kenney, Kristy; Myles, Zachary; Melillo, Stephanie; Royalty, Janet; Rice, Ketra; Gressard, Lindsay; Miller, Jacqueline W

    2016-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides cancer screening to low-income, un-, and underinsured women through more than 11 000 primary care clinics. The program is well-positioned to work with health systems to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase screening among all women. To collect baseline data on EBI use, evaluation of EBIs, and related training needs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a Web-based survey in late 2013 among NBCCEDP grantees for the period July 2012 to June 2013. This was the first systematic assessment of EBIs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's NBCCEDP. Primarily program directors/coordinators for all 67 NBCCEDP grantees. Data captured were used to assess implementation of 5 EBIs, their evaluation, and related training needs. Frequencies and proportions were determined. Cluster analysis identified grantees with similar patterns of EBI use for NBCCEDP clients and providers. On average, 4.1 of 5 EBIs were implemented per grantee for NBCCEDP clients and providers. Four clusters were identified including "high overall EBI users," "high provider EBI users," "high EBI users with no provider assessment and feedback," and "high client EBI users." Only 1.8 EBIs were implemented, on average, with non-NBCCEDP clients and providers. Fewer than half (n = 32, 47.8%) of grantees conducted process or outcome evaluation of 1 or more EBIs. Overall, 47.6% of grantees reported high or medium training needs for client-oriented EBIs and 54.3% for provider-oriented EBIs. The NBCCEDP grantees are implementing EBIs extensively with clients and providers. Increased EBI use among non-NBCCEDP clients/providers is needed to extend the NBCCEDP's reach and impact. Grantee training and technical assistance is necessary across EBIs. In addition, grantees' use of process and outcome evaluation of EBI implementation must be increased

  7. Modeling the Aneuploidy Control of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneuploidy has long been recognized to be associated with cancer. A growing body of evidence suggests that tumorigenesis, the formation of new tumors, can be attributed to some extent to errors occurring at the mitotic checkpoint, a major cell cycle control mechanism that acts to prevent chromosome missegregation. However, so far no statistical model has been available quantify the role aneuploidy plays in determining cancer. Methods We develop a statistical model for testing the association between aneuploidy loci and cancer risk in a genome-wide association study. The model incorporates quantitative genetic principles into a mixture-model framework in which various genetic effects, including additive, dominant, imprinting, and their interactions, are estimated by implementing the EM algorithm. Results Under the new model, a series of hypotheses tests are formulated to explain the pattern of the genetic control of cancer through aneuploid loci. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical behavior of the model. Conclusions The model will provide a tool for estimating the effects of genetic loci on aneuploidy abnormality in genome-wide studies of cancer cells.

  8. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Effectiveness of a psycho-oncology training program for oncology nurses: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yosuke; Okuyama, Toru; Uchida, Megumi; Umezawa, Shino; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Katsuki, Fujika; Nakano, Yumi; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiko; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2016-06-01

    Oncology nurses are expected to play an important role in psychosocial care for cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether a novel training program aimed at enhancing oncology nurses' ability to assess and manage common psychological problems in cancer patients would improve participants' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and attitudes regarding care of patients with common psychological problems (trial register: UMIN000008559). Oncology nurses were assigned randomly to either the intervention group (N = 50) or the waiting list control group (N = 46). The intervention group received a 16-h program, the content of which focused on four psychological issues: normal reactions, clinically significant distress, suicidal thoughts, and delirium. Each session included a role-play exercise, group work, and didactic lecture regarding assessment and management of each problem. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported confidence, knowledge, and attitudes toward the common psychological problems between pre-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were job-related stress and burnout. Intervention acceptability to participants was also assessed. In the intervention group, confidence and knowledge but not attitudes were significantly improved relative to the control group. No significant intervention effects were found for job- related stress and burnout. A high percentage (98%) of participants considered the program useful in clinical practice. This psycho-oncology training program improved oncology nurses' confidence and knowledge regarding care for patients with psychological problems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs; Simulacion de la reduccion de mortalidad por cancer de mama en programas de cribado mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, L. I.; Forastero, C.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  11. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  12. Do the Results of the Process Indicators in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program Predict Future Mortality Reduction from Breast Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Wang, Hege; Thoresen, Steinar

    2004-01-01

    Continuous emphases of quality control are required to achieve reduction in mortality from breast cancer as a consequence of breast cancer screening. Results of the process indicators in the first 6 years in 4 counties in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program are evaluated and will be presented. Data from women who had their initial (n=173?402) and subsequent (n=220?058) screening provide the basis for the analysis. The breast cancer detection ratio was 3.2 the expected incidence (based on the incidence before the screening started, 1991-1995) among the initially screened women, decreasing to 2.3 among the subsequently screened. The ratio of interval cancer among the initially screened was 0.25 and 0.72 of the expected incidence, 0-12 and 13-23 months after screening, respectively. For those subsequently screened the proportions were 0.22 and 0.64, respectively. More than 50% of the invasive tumors were less than 15 mm in size, and more than 75% were lymph node negative, among both the initially and subsequently screened. The process indicators achieved in the NBCSP are promising as regards future mortality reduction. The incidence of interval cancer 13-24 months after screening is higher than recommended in the European guidelines

  13. Surveying the effect of a self-care education program on severity of nausea and emesis in colorectal cancer patients under chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi S

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Saba Karimi,1 Behnam Reza Makhsosi,2 Seyed Jalil Seyedi-Andi,3 Maryam Behzadi,4 Yasaman Moghofeh,5 Kourosh Mohammadinasrabadi,1 Alireza Abdi,1 Pegah Ahmadi1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Surgical Department, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, 3Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, 4Taleghani Hospital, 5Imam Khomeini Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Background and objective: Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in both developed and developing countries, including Iran. One of the treatments available for colorectal cancer is chemotherapy, of which nausea and emesis are the side effects. Owing to problems in controlling the side effects, a combination of medicine and non-medicine interventions is usually used. Self-care is one of the non-medicine interventions in this regard. The present study was aimed at surveying the effect of a self-care education program on severity of nausea and emesis in colorectal cancer patients under chemotherapy.Methods: A semi-experimental study was carried out in Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran. The sample group comprised 52 patients with colorectal cancer under chemotherapy. Data gathering tools included a demographics questionnaire and Morrow Assessment of Nausea and Emesis. To control intensity of nausea and emesis, a package of self-care measures including muscular progressive relaxation, music, and education on nutrition was used. Afterward, the collected data were analyzed using statistical tests such as Shapiro–Wilk test (to check normal distribution of the data, Mann–Whitney U test, Wilcoxon test, and chi-square test with the help of SPSS 20.Results: The results showed a considerable decrease in intensity and frequency of nausea and emesis after the intervention. The p-value of Mann–Whitney U test results with regard to intensity of nausea in

  14. Exercise and Education Program After Breast Cancer: Benefits on Quality of Life and Symptoms at 3, 6, 12, and 24 Months' Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Anne-France; Slomian, Justine; Jerusalem, Guy; Coucke, Philippe; Bury, Thierry; Deflandre, Dorian; Devos, Martine; Bruyère, Olivier; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite; Kaux, Jean-François; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Maquet, Didier

    2018-05-19

    Various clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of physical training offered during and/or after breast cancer treatments. However, given the variety of adverse events that may be encountered, physical training could be combined with psychologic, relational, and social guidance. This kind of multidisciplinary program, as well as its long-term effects, have been little studied so far. Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine the benefits at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of a 3-month exercise and education program among women after breast cancer treatment. Two hundred nine outpatients treated for primary breast carcinoma were divided into a control group (n = 106) and an experimental group (n = 103) which underwent a 3-month rehabilitation program including physical training and psychoeducational sessions. The assessments, performed before the program and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after inclusion, included validated questionnaires on quality of life and symptoms. The analyses revealed an improvement in quality of life and symptoms after the exercise and education program within the experimental group and a maintenance of these improvements during the 2 years of follow-up. These improvements were significantly better than those in the control group, clearly demonstrating that the program has benefits. This trial identified the benefits of a well-detailed 3-month exercise and education program over 24 months' follow-up among women after breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  16. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to receptors...museums (art, natural history, and sports). In addition, there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application...there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with

  17. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  18. Implementation and process evaluation of a workplace colorectal cancer screening program in eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy A; Vu, Thuy; Ogdon, Sara; Fleury, Emily M; Yette, Emily; Wittenberg, Reva; Celedonia, Megan; Bowen, Deborah J

    2013-03-01

    Colorectal cancer screening is a life-saving intervention, but screening rates are low. The authors implemented and evaluated the Spokane Colorectal Cancer Screening Program-a novel worksite intervention to promote colorectal cancer screening that used a combination of evidence-based strategies recommended by the Guide to Community Preventive Services, as well as additional strategies. Over a period of approximately 3 months, participating worksites held one or more physician-led seminars about colorectal cancer screening for employees. They also distributed free fecal immunochemical tests at the worksite to employees 50 years and older, and they provided test results to employees and their primary care physician. The authors measured attendance at seminars, test kits taken and returned, employee awareness of the program, and colorectal cancer screening rates in participating and comparison worksites. It is estimated that 9% of eligible employees received kits at the worksite, and 4% were screened with these kits. The Spokane Colorectal Cancer Screening Program was a promising pilot test of an innovative worksite screening program that successfully translated evidence-based strategies into practical use in a brief period of time, and it merits a larger study to be able to test its effects more rigorously.

  19. Automated Literature Searches for Longitudinal Tracking of Cancer Research Training Program Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Luz A; Desmond, Renee A; Brooks, C Michael; Waterbor, John W

    2018-06-01

    A key outcome measure of cancer research training programs is the number of cancer-related peer-reviewed publications after training. Because program graduates do not routinely report their publications, staff must periodically conduct electronic literature searches on each graduate. The purpose of this study is to compare findings of an innovative computer-based automated search program versus repeated manual literature searches to identify post-training peer-reviewed publications. In late 2014, manual searches for publications by former R25 students identified 232 cancer-related articles published by 112 of 543 program graduates. In 2016, a research assistant was instructed in performing Scopus literature searches for comparison with individual PubMed searches on our 543 program graduates. Through 2014, Scopus found 304 cancer publications, 220 of that had been retrieved manually plus an additional 84 papers. However, Scopus missed 12 publications found manually. Together, both methods found 316 publications. The automated method found 96.2 % of the 316 publications while individual searches found only 73.4 %. An automated search method such as using the Scopus database is a key tool for conducting comprehensive literature searches, but it must be supplemented with periodic manual searches to find the initial publications of program graduates. A time-saving feature of Scopus is the periodic automatic alerts of new publications. Although a training period is needed and initial costs can be high, an automated search method is worthwhile due to its high sensitivity and efficiency in the long term.

  20. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, D'Arcy

    2011-12-15

    Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83) and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74) for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47) for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82) for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63) and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79) for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  1. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  2. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women.

  3. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, E.; Cruz, E.S. da

    1989-01-01

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs

  4. I wanted you to know: Breast cancer survivors' control of workplace communication about cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lynne; Kocum, Lucie; Loughlin, Catherine; Bryson, Lindsay; Dimoff, Jennifer K

    2015-10-01

    Of working women diagnosed with cancer, approximately one-third will have breast cancer. Communicating about their cancer plays an important role in their workplace experience. It is challenging but helpful in eliciting needed social support and accommodations. Fully understanding such communication experiences is important in order to facilitate the well-being and success of such women in their workplaces. A qualitative study permits a richer account of the details of these workplace communications, and a deeper understanding of how women manage the complex and multifaceted communication process. This study used thematic analysis of semistructured interviews from 19 women working full time at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. We found 3 themes that encapsulated unfolding individual experiences, representing a complex interplay of challenges to maintaining a sense of personal control in workplace responses: challenges to control posed by the experience of sharing information in the workplace about the woman's cancer, women's very individual attempts to control how information about their cancer was shared, and the mixed responses of those who were told. The result was unique individual trajectories in which empathic responses tailored to the individual's needs and preferences were most helpful. These findings can provide guidance on managing cancer communication for survivors, and on how to best support and accommodate women workers with breast cancer, facilitating their ability to control how their cancer impacts their work experience. Our website (http://www.iwantedyoutoknow.ca/) provides a video, tip sheet, and other resources for facilitating supportive communication in the workplace. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. How sociodemographics, presence of oncology specialists, and hospital cancer programs affect accrual to cancer treatment trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateren, Warren B; Trimble, Edward L; Abrams, Jeffrey; Brawley, Otis; Breen, Nancy; Ford, Leslie; McCabe, Mary; Kaplan, Richard; Smith, Malcolm; Ungerleider, Richard; Christian, Michaele C

    2002-04-15

    We chose to examine the impact of socioeconomic factors on accrual to National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored cancer treatment trials. We estimated the geographic and demographic cancer burden in the United States and then identified 24,332 patients accrued to NCI-sponsored cancer treatment trials during a 12-month period. Next, we examined accrual by age, sex, geographic residence, health insurance status, health maintenance organization market penetration, several proxy measures of socioeconomic status, the availability of an oncologist, and the presence of a hospital with an approved multidisciplinary cancer program. Pediatric patients were accrued to clinical trials at high levels, whereas after adolescence, only a small percentage of cancer patients were enrolled onto clinical trials. There were few differences by sex. Black males as well as Asian-American and Hispanic adults were accrued to clinical trials at lower rates than white cancer patients of the same age. Overall, the highest observed accrual was in suburban counties. Compared with the United States population, patients enrolled onto clinical trials were significantly less likely to be uninsured and more like to have Medicare health insurance. Geographic areas with higher socioeconomic levels had higher levels of clinical trial accruals. The number of oncologists and the presence of approved cancer programs both were significantly associated with increased accrual to clinical trials. We must work to increase the number of adults who enroll onto trials, especially among the elderly. Ongoing partnership with professional societies may be an effective approach to strengthen accrual to clinical trials.

  6. The Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, Medicaid, and breast cancer outcomes among Ohio's underserved women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroukian, Siran M; Bakaki, Paul M; Htoo, Phyo Than; Han, Xiaozhen; Schluchter, Mark; Owusu, Cynthia; Cooper, Gregory S; Rose, Johnie; Flocke, Susan A

    2017-08-15

    As an organized screening program, the national Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCEDP) was launched in the early 1990s to improve breast cancer outcomes among underserved women. To analyze the impact of the BCCEDP on breast cancer outcomes in Ohio, this study compared cancer stages and mortality across BCCEDP participants, Medicaid beneficiaries, and "all others." This study linked data across the Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System, Medicaid, the BCCEDP database, death certificates, and the US Census and identified 26,426 women aged 40 to 64 years who had been diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer during the years 2002-2008 (deaths through 2010). The study groups were as follows: BCCEDP participants (1-time or repeat users), Medicaid beneficiaries (women enrolled in Medicaid before their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/prediagnosis] or around the time of their cancer diagnosis [Medicaid/peridiagnosis]), and all others (women identified as neither BCCEDP participants nor Medicaid beneficiaries). The outcomes included advanced-stage cancer at diagnosis and mortality. A multivariable logistic and survival analysis was conducted to examine the independent association between the BCCEDP and Medicaid status and the outcomes. The percentage of women presenting with advanced-stage disease was highest among women in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group (63.4%) and lowest among BCCEDP repeat users (38.6%). With adjustments for potential confounders and even in comparison with Medicaid/prediagnosis beneficiaries, those in the Medicaid/peridiagnosis group were twice as likely to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease (adjusted odds ratio, 2.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.83-2.66). Medicaid/peridiagnosis women are at particularly high risk to be diagnosed with advanced-stage disease. Efforts to reduce breast cancer disparities must target this group of women before they present to Medicaid. Cancer 2017;123:3097-106. © 2017 American Cancer Society

  7. Developing cancer control plans in Africa: examples from five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Daniela Cristina; Elzawawy, Ahmed M; Khaled, Hussein M; Ntaganda, Fabien; Asiimwe, Anita; Addai, Beatrice Wiafe; Wiafe, Seth; Adewole, Isaac F

    2013-04-01

    The creation and implementation of national cancer control plans is becoming increasingly necessary for countries in Africa, with the number of new cancer cases per year in the continent expected to reach up to 1·5 million by 2020. Examples from South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Ghana, and Rwanda describe the state of national cancer control plans and their implementation. Whereas in Rwanda the emphasis is on development of basic facilities needed for cancer care, in those countries with more developed economies, such as South Africa and Nigeria, the political will to fund national cancer control plans is limited, even though the plans exist and are otherwise well conceived. Improved awareness of the increasing burden of cancer and increased advocacy are needed to put pressure on governments to develop, fund, and implement national cancer control plans across the continent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer.......The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  9. PROGRAM OF PALLIATIVE CANCER CARE – OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Slánská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually more than 27,000 persons die of cancer in the Czech Republic and the overall incidence of malignancies is still increasing. These data shows the need for affordable and good follow-up care especially for patients without any cancer treatment due to irreversible progression of tumor. Currently the outpatient palliative cancer care gets more into the forefront. Prerequisite for a well working outpatient palliative care is cooperation with general practitioners and home health care agencies. The purpose of the so called program of palliative cancer care is to guide a patient in palliative cancer care and to improve the cooperation among health care providers. Methods: During the period from January 2008 to October 2010 we evaluated in patient without any oncology treatment due to irreversible progression of tumor. Results: In palliative outpatient clinic we treated 446 patients, 119 of them received home care services with average length of 27.8 days. 77 patients died at home, 51 in health facilities and 41 in inpatient hospice care. Conclusion: We present pilot study focusing on outpatient palliative cancer care which shows the real benefit from early indication of palliative cancer care. This type of care allows patients to stay as long as possible at home among their close relatives.

  10. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ≥ 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  11. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, L; Andersen, C; Midtgaard, J; Møller, T; Quist, M; Rørth, M

    2009-02-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction and self-identity. This should be taken into account when designing programs to rehabilitate and encourage these patients through the often-strenuous antineoplastic treatments.

  12. Patient-centered care in cancer treatment programs: the future of integrative oncology through psychoeducation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchinski, Christina M; DiBiase, Ann-Marie; Wong, Raimond K; Sagar, Stephen M

    2014-12-01

    The reciprocal relationship between the mind and body has been a neglected process for improving the psychosocial care of cancer patients. Emotions form an important link between the mind and body. They play a fundamental role in the cognitive functions of decision-making and symptom control. Recognizing this relationship is important for integrative oncology. We define psychoeducation as the teaching of self-evaluation and self-regulation of the mind-body process. A gap exists between research evidence and implementation into clinical practice. The patients' search for self-empowerment through the pursuit of complementary therapies may be a surrogate for inadequate psychoeducation. Integrative oncology programs should implement psychoeducation that helps patients to improve both emotional and cognitive intelligence, enabling them to better negotiate cancer treatment systems.

  13. Intervention levels in a precocious detection program for breast cancer and evaluation of four participant units; Niveles de intervencion en un programa de deteccion precoz del cancer de mama y evaluacion de cuatro unidades participantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera M, F.; Velazquez M, S.; Manzano M, F.J.; Sanchez S, J. [Hospital `Juan Ramon Jimenez` Ronda Norte s/n 21005. Huelva, Espana (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    It is presented the basis to make a cost benefit analysis for a breast cancer precocious detection program and consequently the keys for its optimization from the radiological point of view. Taking this as a reference it is made an exhaustive quality control to four mammographic unities which were participating or they were candidates to participate in a breast cancer precocious detection program. Also it is presented its results. It is followed the protocol for quality control in mammography in Spain obtaining values for the measurement of twelve interesting parameters. It should be maintained the standard breast dose about 1 mGy/ image. It should be available a 24 x 30 cm portacassete and considering the utilization of a single projection by breast. (Author)

  14. National program of breast cancer early detection in Brod-Posavina County (East Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Irena; Kolovrat, Ana; Mitrečić, Drago; Cvitković, Ante

    2014-09-01

    Results of the National Program of Breast Cancer Early Detection in Brod-Posavina County during the 2006-2012 period are presented. Response rate in two National Program cycles, cancers detected according to factors such as first and last menstruation, age at cancer detection, deliveries and mammography findings according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) before diagnosis verification were analyzed. Data were obtained from the software connecting Public Health Institutes via Ministry of Health server and questionnaires filled out by the women presenting for screening and processed by the method of descriptive statistics. Mammography findings were classified according to the BI-RADS classification. In two National Program cycles during the 2006-2012 period, women aged 50-69 were called for mammography screening. In the first cycle, the response rate in Brod-Posavina County was 53.2%, with 71 cancers detected at a mean age of 61.3 years. In the second cycle, the response rate was 57.0%, with 44 cancers detected at a mean age of 62.5 years. In the first and second cycles, there were 21.1% and 14.3% of mammography findings requiring additional work-up (BI-RADS 0), respectively. Particular risk factors such as early menarche, late menopause, parity, positive family history and presence of benign breast lesions were not demonstrated in women with verified cancer. There was no increase in the incidence of breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in the Brod-Posavina County following implementation of the National Program. In conclusion, efforts should be focused on increasing public health awareness, ensuring appropriate professional staff engaged in screening, and improving medical care in order to reduce the time elapsed from establishing suspicion to confirming the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  15. The Prostate cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial:VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy to watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Brawer, Michael K; Barry, Michael J; Jones, Karen M; Kwon, Young; Gingrich, Jeffrey R; Aronson, William J; Nsouli, Imad; Iyer, Padmini; Cartagena, Ruben; Snider, Glenn; Roehrborn, Claus; Fox, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Ninety percent of men with prostate cancer are over aged 60 years, diagnosed by early detection with the prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test and have disease believed confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized). Common treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting surgery to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), external beam radiation therapy and interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy) and androgen deprivation. Little is known about the relative effectiveness and harms of treatments due to the paucity of randomized controlled trials. The VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program Study #407: Prostate cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in 1994, is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy to watchful waiting in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. We describe the study rationale, design, recruitment methods and baseline characteristics of PIVOT enrollees. We provide comparisons with eligible men declining enrollment and men participating in another recently reported randomized trial of radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting conducted in Scandinavia. We screened 13,022 men with prostate cancer at 52 United States medical centers for potential enrollment. From these, 5023 met initial age, comorbidity and disease eligibility criteria and a total of 731 men agreed to participate and were randomized. The mean age of enrollees was 67 years. Nearly one-third were African-American. Approximately 85% reported they were fully active. The median prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 7.8 ng/mL (mean 10.2 ng/mL). In three-fourths of men the primary reason for biopsy leading to a diagnosis of prostate cancer was a PSA elevation or rise. Using previously developed tumor risk categorizations incorporating PSA levels, Gleason

  16. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trialFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Malekpour Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program on quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in peer support program and control group passed a routine educational program during 3 months. The authors administered SF-36 for evaluating the quality of life pre-and post intervention. Also, patient′s adherence was assessed by means of a simple checklist. Results: Two groups were similar with respect of age, age of onset of the disease, duration of having breast cancer, marital status, type of the treatment receiving now, and type of the received surgery. In the control group, there were statistically significant improvements in body pain, role-physical, role-emotional and social functioning. In experimental group, role-physical, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health showed significant improvement. Vitality score and mental health score in experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both with p < 0.001. Also, it was shown that adherence was in high levels in both groups and no significant difference was seen after the study was done. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, supporting the patients with breast cancer by forming peer groups or by means of educational sessions could improve their life qualities.

  17. Economic analysis of the breast cancer screening program used by the UK NHS: should the program be maintained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert Morton,1,2 Meelad Sayma,1,3 Manraj Singh Sura,1,4 1Imperial College Business School, Imperial College London, London, 2Department of Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, 3Knowledge Spa, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Truro, 4Department of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Introduction: One key tool thought to combat the spiraling costs of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis is the use of breast cancer screening. However, over recent years, more effective treatments and questions being raised over the safety implications of using mammography have led to the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening to be highlighted as an important issue to investigate. Methods: A cost–utility analysis was conducted to appraise the breast cancer screening program. The analysis considered the breast cancer screening program and its utility over a 20-year period, accounting for the typical breast cancer screening period taking place between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Analysis was conducted from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS. This accepted NHS threshold was utilized for analysis of £20,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY–£30,000/QALY gain. A systematic literature review was conducted to obtain relevant financial, health, and probability outcomes pertaining to the breast cancer screening program. Results: The mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER calculated was at a value of £11,546.11 with subsequent sensitivity analysis conducted around this value. Three sensitivity analyses were undertaken to evaluate ICERs of a range of scenarios which could occur as the following: 1 maximum costs at each node – £17,254/QALY; 2 all costs are fixed costs: screening center costs, and staff are paid for regardless of use – £14,172/QALY; and 3 combination of (1 and (2 to produce a worst case scenario £20,823/QALY. Discussion and conclusion: The majority of calculations suggested that

  18. Radiation oncology and medical physicists quality assurance in British Columbia Cancer Agency Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Mira; Morris, William James; Spadinger, Ingrid; Araujo, Cynthia; Cheung, Arthur; Chng, Nick; Crook, Juanita; Halperin, Ross; Lapointe, Vince; Miller, Stacy; Pai, Howard; Pickles, Tom

    2013-01-01

    To describe in detail British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency (BCCA) Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy (PB) Quality Assurance (QA) Program. The BCCA PB Program was established in 1997. It operates as one system, unified and supported by electronic and information systems, making it a single PB treatment provider for province of BC and Yukon. To date, >4000 patients have received PB (450 implants in 2011), making it the largest program in Canada. The Program maintains a large provincial prospective electronic database with records on all patients, including disease characteristics, risk stratification, pathology, preplan and postimplant dosimetric data, follow-up of prostate-specific antigen, and toxicity outcomes. QA was an integral part of the program since its inception. A formal QA Program was established in 2002, with key components that include: unified eligibility criteria and planning system, comprehensive database, physics and oncologist training and mentorship programs, peer review process, individual performance outcomes and feedback process, structured continuing education and routine assessment of the program's dosimetry, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen outcomes, administration and program leadership that promotes a strong culture of patient safety. The emphasis on creating a robust, broad-based network of skilled providers has been achieved by the program's requirements for training, education, and the QA process. The formal QA process is considered a key factor for the success of cancer control outcomes achieved at BCCA. Although this QA model may not be wholly transferable to all PB programs, some of its key components may be applicable to other programs to ensure quality in PB and patient safety. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagomez Casimiro, Mariana; Ruiz Trejo, Cesar; Espejo Fonseca, Ruby

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1-4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  20. Individual and setting level predictors of the implementation of a skin cancer prevention program: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownson Ross C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve widespread cancer control, a better understanding is needed of the factors that contribute to successful implementation of effective skin cancer prevention interventions. This study assessed the relative contributions of individual- and setting-level characteristics to implementation of a widely disseminated skin cancer prevention program. Methods A multilevel analysis was conducted using data from the Pool Cool Diffusion Trial from 2004 and replicated with data from 2005. Implementation of Pool Cool by lifeguards was measured using a composite score (implementation variable, range 0 to 10 that assessed whether the lifeguard performed different components of the intervention. Predictors included lifeguard background characteristics, lifeguard sun protection-related attitudes and behaviors, pool characteristics, and enhanced (i.e., more technical assistance, tailored materials, and incentives are provided versus basic treatment group. Results The mean value of the implementation variable was 4 in both years (2004 and 2005; SD = 2 in 2004 and SD = 3 in 2005 indicating a moderate implementation for most lifeguards. Several individual-level (lifeguard characteristics and setting-level (pool characteristics and treatment group factors were found to be significantly associated with implementation of Pool Cool by lifeguards. All three lifeguard-level domains (lifeguard background characteristics, lifeguard sun protection-related attitudes and behaviors and six pool-level predictors (number of weekly pool visitors, intervention intensity, geographic latitude, pool location, sun safety and/or skin cancer prevention programs, and sun safety programs and policies were included in the final model. The most important predictors of implementation were the number of weekly pool visitors (inverse association and enhanced treatment group (positive association. That is, pools with fewer weekly visitors and pools in the enhanced

  1. Effectiveness of an employee skin cancer screening program for secondary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Ugur; Hees, Felix; Winnik, Eva; Uter, Wolfgang; Sticherling, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Incidences of UV-induced skin cancer are continuously increasing. For this reason, early diagnosis is becoming more important. In this study, 783 employees of a technical company participated in an employee skin cancer screening program, which consisted of a physical examination for benign and malignant skin lesions and premalignant conditions. To ensure the quality of the examinations, screening was only performed by 5 trained dermatologists. Participants also were asked to complete a standardized questionnaire prior to examination. A total of 661 skin lesions were diagnosed among 48% of participants; 12.8% of participants exhibited 50 or more melanocytic nevi and the risk for developing skin cancer was categorized as at least moderate for 64.9%. Additionally, 84.4% of participants with at least 1 skin lesion were advised to have a checkup within 1 year. The high rate of suspicious nevi detected in this study suggested that employee skin cancer screening programs are effective and also should be recommended at companies where employees are not at increased risk for developing skin cancer due to the nature of their work (eg, those who work outdoors). Despite the comparatively selective and young study population, these examinations provide evidence of the importance of skin cancer screening for the wider population.

  2. Environmental Restoration Program Control Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration managers need to demonstrate that their programs are under control. Unlike most industrial programs, the public is heavily involved in Environmental Restoration activities. The public is demanding that the country prove that real progress is being made towards cleaning up the environment. A Program Control Management System can fill this need. It provides a structure for planning, work authorization, data accumulation, data analysis and change control. But it takes time to implement a control system and the public is losing its patience. This paper describes critical items essential to the quick development and implementation of a successful control system

  3. A 3-week multimodal intervention involving high-intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effects of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty-eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a group performing exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (LMIE; n = 14) or a group performing high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 14) as part of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation program. No adverse events related to the exercise were reported. Work economy improved following both HIIT and LMIE, with improved peak oxygen uptake following LMIE. HIIT reduced mean total body fat mass with no change in body mass, muscle or fat-free mass (best P body mass. Total energy expenditure (P = 0.45) did not change between the groups, whereas both improved quality of life to a similar high extent and lessened cancer-related fatigue. This randomized controlled study demonstrates that HIIT can be performed by female cancer survivors without adverse health effects. Here, HIIT and LMIE both improved work economy, quality of life and cancer-related fatigue, body composition or energy expenditure. Since the outcomes were similar, but HIIT takes less time, this may be a time-efficient strategy for improving certain aspects of the health of female cancer survivors. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  4. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  5. Psychosocial Intervention In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočníková Jana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1. Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05, however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control group (p = n.s..

  6. Implementation of a Psychoeducational Program for Cancer Survivors and Family Caregivers at a Cancer Support Community Affiliate: A Pilot Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockham, Bonnie; Schafenacker, Ann; Yoon, Hyojin; Ronis, David L; Kershaw, Trace; Titler, Marita; Northouse, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Psychoeducational interventions, tested for efficacy in randomized clinical trials, are seldom implemented in clinical practice where cancer survivors and their family caregivers can benefit from them. This study examined the effectiveness of the FOCUS Program on cancer survivors' and their family caregivers' outcomes when implemented at a Cancer Support Community (CSC) affiliate by agency social workers. Study aims were to (1) test effects of the program on survivor and caregiver outcomes as a unit and (2) determine program feasibility in terms of enrollment, retention, intervention fidelity, and satisfaction. A preintervention and postintervention pilot effectiveness study was conducted with 34 cancer survivor-caregiver dyads (ie, pairs). The FOCUS Program, originally delivered by nurses in dyads' homes, was modified to a small-group format and delivered by CSC social workers. The primary outcome was quality of life (QOL). Intermediary outcomes were benefits of illness/caregiving, communication, support, and self-efficacy. Analyses included repeated-measures analysis of variance. Dyads had significant improvements in total QOL; physical, emotional, and functional QOL; benefits of illness; and self-efficacy. Effect sizes were similar to prior randomized clinical trial findings. Although dyads were difficult to recruit (enrollment, 60%), both retention (92%) and intervention fidelity (94%) were high. It was possible to implement the FOCUS Program at a CSC affiliate by agency staff, obtain positive intervention effects, and maintain intervention fidelity. Researchers and clinicians need to collaborate to implement more evidence-based interventions in practice settings for cancer survivors and their family caregivers.

  7. Physician Training in Cancer Prevention and Control: A Population Health Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Miranda A; Goodman, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Although reducing the number of new cancer cases is a national health goal, the continuing growth of the older adult population ensures that the burden of cancer will increase. Despite documentation of the shortage of oncologists to meet the growing need, relatively limited attention has been focused on increasing the physician workforce trained in the prevention and control of cancer. The existing physician workforce with such specialized training in cancer prevention and control is small, aging, increasing at a low rate, and likely to decrease because of an imbalance between retiring physicians and new entrants. This commentary addresses the imperative for increasing the number of physicians trained in preventive medicine with a specialization in cancer prevention and control by first providing a brief overview of U.S. cancer morbidity and mortality, then describing the status of, and trends in, physician training in cancer prevention and control, and concluding by suggesting opportunities for bolstering physician training in cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Internet-Delivered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, Robert; Amidi, Ali; Damholdt, Malene F; Clausen, Cecilie D R; Dahlgaard, Jesper; Lord, Holly; Thorndike, Frances P; Ritterband, Lee M

    2018-02-20

    Insomnia is two to three times more prevalent in cancer survivors than in the general population, where it is estimated to be 10% to 20%. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the recommended treatment for chronic insomnia, but meeting survivor needs remains a challenge. Internet-delivered CBT-I (iCBT-I) has been shown efficacious in otherwise healthy adults. We tested the efficacy of iCBT-I in breast cancer survivors with clinically significant sleep disturbance. Women from a national sample of Danish breast cancer survivors who experienced clinically significant sleep disturbance were randomly allocated to iCBT-I or waitlist control (55:45). The fully automated iCBT-I program consisted of six cores. Online measures of insomnia severity, sleep quality, and fatigue were collected at baseline, postintervention (nine weeks), and follow-up (15 weeks). Online sleep diaries were completed over two-week periods pre- and postintervention. Intention-to-treat analyses (time × group interactions) were conducted with mixed linear models and corrected for multiple outcomes. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 255 women were randomly allocated to iCBT-I (n = 133) or waitlist control (n = 122). Statistically significant (P ≤ .02) time × group interactions were found for all sleep-related outcomes from pre- to postintervention. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) ranged from 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06 to 0.61) for wake after sleep onset to 1.17 (95% CI = 0.87 to 1.47) for insomnia severity. Improvements were maintained for outcomes measured at follow-up (d = 0.66-1.10). iCBT-I appears to be effective in breast cancer survivors, with additional benefit in terms of reduced fatigue. This low-cost treatment could be incorporated in cancer rehabilitation programs.

  9. Exercise and nutrition routine improving cancer health (ENRICH: The protocol for a randomized efficacy trial of a nutrition and physical activity program for adult cancer survivors and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyes Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH study is investigating a novel lifestyle intervention aimed at improving the health behaviors of adult cancer survivors and their carers. The main purpose of the study is to determine the efficacy of lifestyle education and skill development delivered via group-based sessions on the physical activity and dietary behaviors of participants. This article describes the intervention development, study design, and participant recruitment. Methods/Design ENRICH is a randomized controlled trial, conducted in Australia, with two arms: an intervention group participating in six, two-hour face-to-face sessions held over eight weeks, and a wait-list control group. Intervention sessions are co-facilitated by an exercise physiologist and dietician. Content includes healthy eating education, and a home-based walking (utilizing a pedometer and resistance training program (utilizing elastic tubing resistance devices. The program was developed with reference to social cognitive theory and chronic disease self-management models. The study population consists of cancer survivors (post active-treatment and their carers recruited through community-based advertising and referral from health professionals. The primary outcome is seven-days of sealed pedometry. Secondary outcomes include: self-reported physical activity levels, dietary intake, sedentary behavior, waist circumference, body mass index, quality of life, and perceived social support. The outcomes will be measured at baseline (one week prior to attending the program, eight-weeks (at completion of intervention sessions, and 20-weeks. The intervention group will also be invited to complete 12-month follow-up data collection. Process evaluation data will be obtained from participants by questionnaire and attendance records. Discussion No trials are yet available that have evaluated the efficacy of group-based lifestyle

  10. Male Oncology Research and Education program for men at high risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, J; Liu, S K; Vesprini, D

    2018-04-01

    Three groups of men are at high risk of developing prostate cancer: men with a strong family history of prostate cancer, men of West African or Caribbean ancestry, and men with a germline pathogenic variant in a prostate cancer-associated gene. Despite the fact that those men constitute a significant portion of the male population in North America, few recommendations for prostate cancer screening specific to them have been developed. For men at general population risk for prostate cancer, screening based on prostate-specific antigen (psa) has remained controversial despite the abundance of literature on the topic. As a result, recommendations made by major screening authorities are inconsistent (ranging from no psa screening to baseline psa screening at age 45), allowing physicians to pick and choose how to screen their patients. The Male Oncology Research and Education (more) program is an observational research program that serves as an academic platform for multiple research foci. For its participants, serum and dna are biobanked, medical information is collected, and contact for relevant research-related opportunities is maintained. This research program is paired with a specialized clinic called the more clinic, where men at high risk are regularly screened for prostate cancer in a standard approach that includes physical examination and serum psa measurement. In this article, we describe the goals, participant accrual to date, and projects specific to this unique program.

  11. The effect of psycho educational program on stress and depression among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mardani Hamoleh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Cancer is one of the life-threatening diseases that cause the numerous changes in the life style, public interaction and social activities of the patients. Usually cancer patients have some degrees of stress and depression. This study aimed to determine the effects of educational program on stress and depression among cancer patients. Materials & Methods: This study is a semi experimental research. 52 cancer patients referred to Seyedoshohada hospital of Isfahan were selected through purposeful method and then divided into 2 groups randomly, the Cooper stress and Beck depression questionnaires were used in this study. The two groups of patients (control 24 and experimental 28 both appear for the pre test. Then after one month of applying psychological intervention only on experimental group, both the groups appeared for the post test. The data were collected and analyzed with analysis of covariance. P< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The results of covariance showed significant differences between the 2 groups in the Cooper stress inventory (F=10.8, P<0.003 and Beck depression inventory (F=12.87, P< 0.001 and the hypothesis of study was confirmed. Conclusion: Globally, the findings proved that psychological intervention based on stress and depression reduction would be a successful approach in promoting mental health on cancer patients.

  12. Implementing exercise in cancer care: study protocol to evaluate a community-based exercise program for people with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cormie, Prue; Lamb, Stephanie; Newton, Robert U.; Valentine, Lani; McKiernan, Sandy; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Taaffe, Dennis R.; Doran, Christopher M.; Galv?o, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical research has established the efficacy of exercise in reducing treatment-related side-effects and increasing wellbeing in people with cancer. Major oncology organisations have identified the importance of incorporating exercise in comprehensive cancer care but information regarding effective approaches to translating evidence into practice is lacking. This paper describes the implementation of a community-based exercise program for people with cancer and the protocol for pr...

  13. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  14. Effect of a Home Based Exercise Program on Postmenopausal Women’s Shoulder Girdle Muscle Strength for Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akoochakian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Reducing in muscle strength of the shoulder girdle is a side effect of breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 4 weeks of resistance and mobility training on the shoulder girdle strength of women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study twenty-seven postmenopausal women with breast cancer (mean age, 51±5.96 years, (mean height, 158.08±7.2 cm, (mean weight, 63.08±11.06 kg who underwent surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, were purposefully selected and divided into two groups of intervention and control. Intervention group performed 4 weeks (4 sessions per week of resistance training with flex-band and stretch training at home, but the control group did not participate in any sports or physical program. Muscle strength before and after intervention was measured using a handheld dynamometer. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results: Significant differences were seen between intervention and control groups in shoulder flexion, scapula abduction and upward rotation, shoulder internal rotation, shoulder external rotation, shoulder horizontal adduction and scapula depression and adduction strength, as all strength variables increased after 4 weeks exercise. Conclusion: Since strength plays an important role in ADL performance and shoulder girdle function in breast cancer survivors, it seems that muscle strength improvement following combined home based exercise program can help patients after treatment to easier and faster rehabilitation. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (3: 185-195

  15. Adherence to cancer screening guidelines and predictors of improvement among participants in the Kansas State Employee Wellness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Engelman, Kimberly K; Shireman, Theresa I; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2013-07-11

    Employee wellness programs (EWPs) have been used to implement worksite-based cancer prevention and control interventions. However, little is known about whether these programs result in improved adherence to cancer screening guidelines or how participants' characteristics affect subsequent screening. This study was conducted to describe cancer screening behaviors among participants in a state EWP and identify factors associated with screening adherence among those who were initially nonadherent. We identified employees and their dependents who completed health risk assessments (HRAs) as part of the Kansas state EWP in both 2008 and 2009. We examined baseline rates of adherence to cancer screening guidelines in 2008 and factors associated with adherence in 2009 among participants who were initially nonadherent. Of 53,095 eligible participants, 13,222 (25%) participated in the EWP in 2008 and 6,205 (12%) participated in both years. Among the multiyear participants, adherence was high at baseline to screening for breast (92.5%), cervical (91.8%), and colorectal cancer (72.7%). Of participants who were initially nonadherent in 2008, 52.4%, 41.3%, and 33.5%, respectively, became adherent in the following year to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Suburban/urban residence and more frequent doctor visits predicted adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening guidelines. The effectiveness of EWPs for increasing cancer screening is limited by low HRA participation rates, high rates of adherence to screening at baseline, and failure of nonadherent participants to get screening. Improving overall adherence to cancer screening guidelines among employees will require efforts to increase HRA participation, stronger interventions for nonadherent participants, and better access to screening for rural employees.

  16. A chronic care ostomy self-management program for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouse, Robert S; Grant, Marcia; McCorkle, Ruth; Wendel, Christopher S; Cobb, Martha D; Tallman, Nancy J; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Sun, Virginia; Hibbard, Judith H; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-05-01

    Individuals with ostomies experience extensive changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and daily routine. Patients and families are typically forced to use trial and error to improve self-management. This is a longitudinal one-group design pilot study of a five-session ostomy self-care curriculum based on the Chronic Care Model to improve HRQOL and self-management for cancer survivors with ostomies. Participants were surveyed to evaluate each session. Multiple instruments were administered to examine outcomes at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6-month follow-up (Patient Activation Measure, self-efficacy, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Ways of Coping, Group Health Association of America Satisfaction with ostomy care survey, and the City of Hope Quality of Life Ostomy). Changes from pre-intervention to post-intervention and pre-intervention to follow-up were evaluated with paired t-tests. Text responses were coded and evaluated for important themes and recommendations. Thirty-eight subjects participated in the study. Most had a history of rectal cancer (60.5%) or bladder cancer (28.9%). Participants rated the overall program high (4.4-4.8 on 5-point scale). Text feedback indicated that participants enjoyed the group forums, wanted more participants, and more hands-on training. Scores on multiple surveys were shown to be improved and sustained, including patient activation (p = 0.0004), self-efficacy (p = 0.006), total HRQOL (p = 0.01), physical well-being (p = 0.005), and social well-being (p = 0.002). Survivor anxiety was significantly reduced by follow-up (p = 0.047). This self-management ostomy program can help cancer survivors with ostomies adapt to their stoma. Initiating this program in the community setting would be beneficial to many cancer survivors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Skin cancer interventions across the cancer control continuum: Review of technology, environment, and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Dickerman, Barbra A; Okhovat, Jean-Phillip; Geller, Alan C; Dwyer, Laura A; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2018-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute's Skin Cancer Intervention across the Cancer Control Continuum model was developed to summarize research and identify gaps concerning skin cancer interventions. We conducted a mapping review to characterize whether behavioral interventions addressing skin cancer prevention and control from 2000 to 2015 included (1) technology, (2) environmental manipulations (policy and/or built environment), and (3) a theoretical basis. We included 86 studies with a randomized controlled or quasi-experimental design that targeted behavioral intervention in skin cancer for children and/or adults; seven of these were dissemination or implementation studies. Of the interventions described in the remaining 79 articles, 57 promoted only prevention behaviors (e.g., ultraviolet radiation protection), five promoted only detection (e.g., skin examinations), 10 promoted both prevention and detection, and seven focused on survivorship. Of the 79 non-dissemination studies, two-thirds used some type of technology (n=52; 65.8%). Technology specific to skin cancer was infrequently used: UVR photography was used in 15.2% of studies (n=12), reflectance spectroscopy was used in 12.7% (n=10), and dermatoscopes (n=1) and dosimeters (n=2) were each used in less than 3%. Ten studies (12.7%) targeted the built environment. Fifty-two (65.8%) of the studies included theory-based interventions. The most common theories were Social Cognitive Theory (n=20; 25.3%), Health Belief Model (n=17; 21.5%), and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action (n=12; 15.2%). Results suggest that skin cancer specific technology and environmental manipulations are underutilized in skin cancer behavioral interventions. We discuss implications of these results for researchers developing skin cancer behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Evaluation of the impact of a breast cancer awareness program in rural Ghana: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Marisa; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Sauvaget, Catherine; Ali, Ibrahim A; Wiafe, Seth A; Dabis, François; Anderson, Benjamin O; Malvy, Denis; Sasco, Annie J

    2014-02-15

    Community awareness is crucial to early detection of breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In Ghana 60% of the cases are detected at late stages. Breast Care International (BCI) is a Ghanaian non-governmental organization dedicated to raising breast cancer awareness. A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the impact of BCI program on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) toward breast cancer among women from rural communities of Ghana. A total of 232 women were interviewed in June 2011 in the Ashanti region; of these 131 participants were from a community that received the BCI program in August 2010 (intervention group) and 101 from another community that received the program post-survey (referent group). Data analysis was performed using Epi-Info version 3.5.3. Knowledge about breast cancer among participants who received the program was better than among those who did not. Only 53.5% of participants from the referent group knew that breast cancer usually appears as painless breast lump when compared to 82.3% from the intervention group. Participants who attended the program were significantly more likely to obtain higher knowledge scores (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.86) and to state practicing breast self-examination (OR = 12.29, 95% CI = 5.31-28.48). The BCI program improved KAP toward breast cancer. Further research is warranted to provide stronger evidence that the program improves breast cancer early detection. © 2013 UICC.

  19. A 3‐week multimodal intervention involving high‐intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of a 3‐week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high‐intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer‐related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty‐eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a group per...

  20. The Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial: VA/NCI/AHRQ Cooperative Studies Program #407 (PIVOT): design and baseline results of a randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with watchful waiting for men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. In the United States, 90% of men with prostate cancer are more than age 60 years, diagnosed by early detection with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, and have disease believed confined to the prostate gland (clinically localized). Common treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer include watchful waiting (WW), surgery to remove the prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), external-beam radiation therapy and interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy), and androgen deprivation. Little is known about the relative effectiveness and harms of treatments because of the paucity of randomized controlled trials. The Department of Veterans Affairs/National Cancer Institute/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Cooperative Studies Program Study #407:Prostate Cancer Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), initiated in 1994, is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing radical prostatectomy with WW in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. We describe the study rationale, design, recruitment methods, and baseline characteristics of PIVOT enrollees. We provide comparisons with eligible men declining enrollment and men participating in another recently reported randomized trial of radical prostatectomy vs WW conducted in Scandinavia. We screened 13 022 men with prostate cancer at 52 US medical centers for potential enrollment. From these, 5023 met initial age, comorbidity, and disease eligibility criteria, and a total of 731 men agreed to participate and were randomized. The mean age of enrollees was 67 years. Nearly one-third were African American. Approximately 85% reported that they were fully active. The median PSA was 7.8ng/mL (mean 10.2ng/mL). In three-fourths of men, the primary reason for biopsy leading to a diagnosis of prostate cancer was a PSA elevation or rise. Using previously developed tumor risk

  1. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe: Current Situation and Recommendations for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Eduard; Bodoky, Gyorgy; Jassem, Jacek; Popescu, Razvan A; Mardiak, Jozef; Pirker, Robert; Čufer, Tanja; Bešlija, Semir; Eniu, Alexandru; Todorović, Vladimir; Kubáčková, Kateřina; Kurteva, Galia; Tomašević, Zorica; Sallaku, Agim; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Bajić, Žarko; Šikić, Branimir I

    2016-10-01

    : The incidence of many cancers is higher in Western European (WE) countries, but mortality is frequently higher in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. A panel of oncology leaders from CEE countries participating in the South Eastern European Research Oncology Group (SEEROG) was formed in 2015, aiming to analyze the current status and trends of oncology care in CEE and to propose recommendations leading to improved care and outcomes. The SEEROG panel, meeting during the 11th Central European Oncology Congress, proposed the following: (a) national cancer control plans (NCCPs) required in all CEE countries, defining priorities in cancer care, including finance allocation considering limited health care budgets; (b) national cancer registries, describing in detail epidemiological trends; (c) efforts to strengthen comprehensive cancer centers; (d) that multidisciplinary care should be mandated by the NCCPs; (e) that smaller hospitals should be connected to multidisciplinary tumor boards via the Internet, providing access to specialized expertise; (f) nationwide primary prevention programs targeting smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption and centrally evaluated secondary prevention programs for cervical, colorectal, and breast cancers; (g) prioritize education for all involved in cancer care, including oncology nurses, general practitioners, and palliative care providers; (h) establish outpatient care in day hospitals to reduce costs associated with the current inpatient model of care in CEE countries and to improve patients' quality of life; (i) long-term pharmacoeconomic evaluations of new therapies in CEE countries; (j) increase national oncology budgets in view of the higher mortality rates in CEE compared with WE countries; and (k) CEE countries urgently need help from the European Union to increase and monitor overall investment in cancer care. Significant differences in cancer incidence and mortality have been observed between European countries

  2. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  3. Effects of an anti-smoking program to prevent lung cancer among urban aboriginals in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei-Hsiang; Huang, Sheu-Jen; Shih, Whei-Mei Jean; Wang, Pao-Yu; Lin, Li-Hui; Hsu, Hsiu-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous people who leave their hometowns and move to the city to earn a living became urban aboriginals. During the process of adapting to urban living situations, they may use various coping strategies such as smoking to overcome their stress. Therefore, it is crucial to provide health education including smoking prevention, increasing knowledge regarding of tobacco hazard, self-efficacy of anti-smoking, and adjusting smoking behavior so as to empower their anti-smoking motivation to prevent lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an anti-smoking program on urban aboriginals in Taiwan. A quasi-experimental study design with purposeful sampling was employed. A total of 125 aboriginal subjects were recruited from two local churches at Shu Lin area in northern Taiwan. Subjects were divided into an experimental group (n =64 ) and a control group (n = 61). Both took pre-tests in order to set baseline values, and only the experimental group participated for 3-weeks in the anti-smoking program classes. Both groups took post-tests immediately after the intervention in order to evaluate the immediate effects of the teaching program, and a follow-up test was conducted four weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way ANCOVA, and repeat measure ANCOVA. After controlling for confounding variables, the results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the self-efficacy of anti-smoking and smoking behavior between experimental and control groups in the immediately post-test and the follow-up test (p smoking at eiter time point. The findings of this study revealed that the anti-smoking program effectively improved self-efficacy of anti-smoking, and decreased the smoking behavior in urban aboriginals. They provide useful information as a reference regarding of aboriginal health promotion to health providers. It is imperative that anti-smoking be reinforced for those regular

  4. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  5. Program Baseline Change Control Board charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this Charter is to establish the Program Baseline Change Control Board (PBCCB) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program, and to describe its organization, responsibilities, and basic methods of operation. Guidance for implementing this Charter is provided by the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan (BMP) and OCRWM Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

  6. Occupation, smoking, opium, and bladder cancer: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayeb Ghadimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, control group included patients who referred to a specialized clinic in the same city and hospitals where patients had been registered. Data were entered into SPSS software. Odds ratios (OR were calculated for occupational variables and other characteristics. Then, using logistic regression, the association between cancer and drugs was studied while smoking was controlled. Results: Cigarette smoking, even after quitting, was also associated with bladder cancer (OR = 2.549. Considering the classification of occupations, the OR of working in metal industry in patients was 10.629. Multivariate analysis showed that use of the drug by itself can be a risk factor for bladder cancer. Drug abuse together with the control of smoking increased the risk of bladder cancer by 4.959. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, contact with metal industries such as welding, and working with tin was found as a risk factor for bladder cancer. In addition, cigarette smoking and opium abuse individually were associated with bladder cancer.

  7. Evaluation of the TSL® Program for Parents of Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwonho; Kim, Jae Yop

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of the "Thank you-Sorry-Love" (TSL®) program on posttraumatic growth (PTG) and cortisol level in parents of children with cancer. Methods: A total of 15 mothers of children with cancer were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 7) with the TSL intervention or a control…

  8. Low-dose irradiation for controlling prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among North American men and the second leading cause of death in those aged 65 and over. The American Cancer Society recommends testing those over age 50 who are expected to live at least 10 years, even though the ability of early detection to decrease prostate cancer mortality has not been demonstrated. So controversy exists about the appropriateness of screening because of the considerable economic and social burden of diagnosing and treating prostate cancer, coupled with the projected large increase in the number of new cases as the population ages. This very important public health issue could be addressed at low cost by total-body low-dose irradiation therapy to stimulate the patient's own defences to prevent and control most cancers, including prostate cancer, with no symptomatic side effects. (author)

  9. 15 CFR 752.11 - Internal Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Control Programs. 752.11... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.11 Internal Control Programs. (a) Scope—(1) Introduction. It is through Internal Control Programs (ICPs) that the SCL holder and the consignee assure that exports and reexports are not...

  10. Union for International Cancer Control International Session: healthcare economics: the significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases political declaration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Masui, Tohru; Takeyama, Kunihiko; Nogimori, Masafumi; Roh, Jae Kyung

    2013-06-01

    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized an international session as part of the official program of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cancer Association to discuss the topic "Healthcare Economics: The Significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Political Declaration in Asia." The presenters and participants discussed the growing cost of cancer in the Asian region and the challenges that are faced by the countries of Asia, all of which face budgetary and other systemic constraints in tackling and controlling cancer in the region. The session benefited from the participation of various stakeholders, including cancer researchers and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. They discussed the significance of the UN Political Declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs (2011) as a means of boosting awareness of cancer in the Asian region and also addressed the ways in which stakeholders can cooperate to improve cancer control and treatment. Other issues that were covered included challenges relating to pharmaceutical trials in Asia and how to link knowledge and research outcomes. The session concluded with the recognition that with the onset of a super-aged society in most countries in Asia and an increasing focus on quality of life rather than quantity of life, it is more important than ever for all stakeholders to continue to share information and promote policy dialogue on cancer control and treatment. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borondy Kitts, Andrea K; McKee, Andrea B; Regis, Shawn M; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer screening may provide a "teachable moment" for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012(®) high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715-1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143-0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477-0.877). Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates. A positive exam result correlated with reduced

  12. Assessing the psychosocial needs and program preferences of adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Lamia P; Galtieri, Liana R; Szalda, Dava; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) are a developmentally distinct cancer group, vulnerable to psychosocial late effects and with a range of unmet psychosocial needs. We sought to better understand psychosocial care needs and program preferences to inform development of more easily accessible and effective AYA psychosocial programs. AYA on and off treatment for cancer (n = 111, ages 12-25 years) were approached during an outpatient clinic visit and completed a survey as part of a quality improvement initiative. The survey comprised an open-ended question on challenges related to cancer and treatment and closed-ended questions on access to and preference for various services and programs. Qualitative analyses were used to summarize themes for most significant challenges, and descriptive statistics were used for closed-ended questions. Most common themes for challenges included treatments and associated physical changes, barriers to pursuit of academic/vocational goals, and social isolation. For preferred program focus, AYA ranked highest increasing strength and endurance/reintegration into sports and dealing with physical changes resulting from treatment. AYA's preferred modalities for program delivery were one-on-one/in person and message boards/Facebook. Most of the sample indicated that lack of awareness prevented their accessing available programs. New information was identified that can be used to address access barriers and to offer AYA psychosocial programs in formats that might improve interest and accessibility. Ongoing evaluation of AYA psychosocial programs is recommended to determine acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness to meet the evolving needs of AYA patients with cancer.

  13. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  14. Progressive Resistance Training and Cancer Testis (PROTRACT) - Efficacy of resistance training on muscle function, morphology and inflammatory profile in testicular cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: design of a randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Andersen, Jesper L; Adamsen, Lis; Lindegaard, Birgitte; Mackey, Abigail L; Nielsen, Rie H; Rørth, Mikael; Daugaard, Gedske

    2011-01-01

    Standard treatment for patients with disseminated germ cell tumors is combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP). This treatment is highly effective, but the majority of patients experience severe adverse effects during treatment and are at risk of developing considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, and pulmonary toxicity. One neglected side effect is the significant muscular fatigue mentioned by many patients with testicular cancer both during and after treatment. Very limited information exists concerning the patho-physiological effects of antineoplastic agents on skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BEP-treatment on the skeletal musculature in testicular cancer patients, and to examine whether the expected treatment-induced muscular deterioration can be attenuated or even reversed by high intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT). The PROTRACT study is a randomized controlled trial in 30 testicular cancer patients undergoing three cycles of BEP chemotherapy. Participants will be randomized to either a 9-week HIPRT program (STR) initiated at the onset of treatment, or to standard care (UNT). 15 healthy matched control subjects (CON) will complete the same HIPRT program. All participants will take part in 3 assessment rounds (baseline, 9 wks, 21 wks) including muscle biopsies, maximum muscle strength tests, whole body DXA scan and blood samples. Primary outcome: mean fiber area and fiber type composition measured by histochemical analyses, satellite cells and levels of protein and mRNA expression of intracellular mediators of protein turnover. Secondary outcomes: maximum muscle strength and muscle power measured by maximum voluntary contraction and leg-extensor-power tests, body composition assessed by DXA scan, and systemic inflammation analyzed by circulating inflammatory markers, lipid and glucose metabolism in blood samples

  15. Application Guidelines | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal Statement of Research Goals In narrative form, describe your research interests and goals and how these relate to cancer prevention and control. Please also provide insight into your short- and long-term career goals, and explain how the CPFP will help you achieve those goals.

  16. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbulaiteye Sam M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC. Cervical cancer (CC, increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times, anal cancer (15-30 times, and lung cancer (4 times are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs. Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore

  17. Reducing the Burden of Cancer in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of CGH is to advance global cancer research, build expertise, and leverage resources across nations to reduce cancer deaths worldwide. To carry out that mission, we facilitate the sharing of knowledge and expertise. CGH's latest effort, the East Africa Cancer Control Leadership Forum, carried out this mission by helping African partners develop their own individual cancer control programs.

  18. Beneficial Effect of Mindfulness-Based Art Therapy in Patients with Breast Cancer-A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seung-Ho; Kang, Seung-Yeon; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) induces emotional relaxation in cancer patients and is a treatment known to improve psychological stability. The objective of this research was to evaluate the treatment effects of MBAT for breast cancer patients. Overall, 24 breast cancer patients were selected as subjects of the study. Two groups, the MBAT group and control group with 12 patients each, were randomly assigned. The patients in the MBAT group were given 12 sessions of treatments. To measure depression and anxiety, low scales of the personality assessment inventory (PAI) was used. Health-related quality of life was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTCQLQ-C30). The treatment results were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that depression and anxiety decreased significantly and health-related quality of life improved significantly in the MBAT group. In the control group, however, there was no significant change. MBAT can be seen as an effective treatment method that improves breast cancer patients׳ psychological stability and quality of life. Evaluation of treatment effects using program development and large-scale research for future clinical application is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast-track program vs traditional care in surgery for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Xing; Liu, Ae-Huey Jennifer; Cen, Ying

    2014-01-14

    To systematically review the evidence for the effectiveness of fast-track program vs traditional care in laparoscopic or open surgery for gastric cancer. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library databases were electronically searched for published studies between January 1995 and April 2013, and only randomized trials were included. The references of relevant studies were manually searched for further studies that may have been missed. Search terms included "gastric cancer", "fast track" and "enhanced recovery". Five outcome variables were considered most suitable for analysis: postoperative hospital stay, medical cost, duration to first flatus, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and complications. Postoperative hospital stay was calculated from the date of operation to the date of discharge. Fixed effects model was used for meta-analysis. Compared with traditional care, fast-track program could significantly decrease the postoperative hospital stay [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.19, 95%CI: -1.79--0.60, P = 0.0001, fixed model], duration to first flatus (WMD = -6.82, 95%CI: -11.51--2.13, P = 0.004), medical costs (WMD = -2590, 95%CI: -4054--1126, P = 0.001), and the level of CRP (WMD = -17.78, 95%CI: -32.22--3.35, P = 0.0001) in laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer. In open surgery for gastric cancer, fast-track program could also significantly decrease the postoperative hospital stay (WMD = -1.99, 95%CI: -2.09--1.89, P = 0.0001), duration to first flatus (WMD = -12.0, 95%CI: -18.89--5.11, P = 0.001), medical cost (WMD = -3674, 95%CI: -5025--2323, P = 0.0001), and the level of CRP (WMD = -27.34, 95%CI: -35.42--19.26, P = 0.0001). Furthermore, fast-track program did not significantly increase the incidence of complication (RR = 1.39, 95%CI: 0.77-2.51, P = 0.27, for laparoscopic surgery; and RR = 1.52, 95%CI: 0.90-2.56, P = 0.12, for open surgery). Our overall results suggested that compared with traditional care, fast-track program could result in shorter

  20. Physical activity and survival among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white long-term breast cancer survivors and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Christina M; Baumgartner, Richard N; Connor, Avonne E; Boone, Stephanie D; Baumgartner, Kathy B

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association of physical activity with survival for 601 Hispanic women and 682 non-Hispanic white women who participated in the population-based breast cancer case-control New Mexico Women's Health Study. We identified 240 deaths among cases diagnosed with a first primary invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 1994, and 88 deaths among controls. Follow-up extended through 2012 for cases and 2008 for controls. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Higher levels of total physical activity were inversely associated with all-cause mortality among Hispanic cases (Quartile (Q)4: HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.31-0.99). A non-significant trend was observed for recreational activity in Hispanic cases also (Q4: HR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.23-1.09, p for trend = 0.08). No significant associations were noted for non-Hispanic white cases or for controls. The results suggest that increasing physical activity may be protective against mortality in Hispanic women with breast cancer, despite reporting lower levels of recreational activity than non-Hispanic white women or Hispanic controls. Public health programs in Hispanic communities should promote physical activity in women as a means of decreasing breast cancer risk and improving survival.

  1. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  2. [Control of cervical cancer in Colombia: the perspective of the health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner-Ceballos, Carolina; Murillo Moreno, Raúl Hernando; Piñeros Petersen, Marion; Tovar-Murillo, Sandra Lourdes; Cendales Duarte, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, Martha Cielo

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the health system stakeholder's perspective on the basics of the political, economic, and sanitary context, as well as the ways in which control activities are being realized in four of Colombia's health departments. This was a qualitative study of four Colombian health departments chosen for their differing cervical cancer mortality rates and their planned disease control efforts (Boyacá, Caldas, Magdalena, and Tolima). Semistructured interviews were conducted of health care managers, insurance coordinators, and public and private health institutions at the departmental and municipals levels. Focus groups comprised of professionals from health insurance companies and health care services providers were convened. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory with open codes related to the roles of health care managers, insurance companies, and heath care services provided. The technical reports were compared to the testimonies of interviewees. Thirty-eight interviews and 14 focus groups (70.9% response rate) were conducted and 12 technical reports reviewed. Cervical cancer is not perceived to be a public health priority. Interest centers on the flow of financial resources within the health system. Findings indicated unsatisfactory communication among the stakeholders and no consensus on the subject. Planning is limited to meeting the status quo. Staffing is inadequate. Cases with positive outcomes are lost to follow-up due to the fragmentation that results from affiliation with different health care systems. The financial situation, normative planning, and the challenges of decentralization affect the skill-building, at-risk coverage, and the control activities needed for effective screening programs. What is needed is an integrated, more efficiently organized program in which all the health system stakeholders participate.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  4. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  5. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakitas, Marie; Ahles, Tim A

    2006-01-01

    ... on the Cognitive Effects of Chemotherapy. The scope of the program was to support the trainee's doctoral education with an ultimate career goal of becoming a Clinical Breast Cancer Research Scientist through a mentored research experience. Ms...

  6. 76 FR 13404 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Option to Collaborator AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National... Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program's Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator. [[Page 13405... Evaluation Program (CTEP)'s Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator. The proposed revision represents a...

  7. 75 FR 17412 - Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... Program Intellectual Property Option to Collaborator AGENCY: National Cancer Institute (NCI), National... Evaluation Program (CTEP) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OPTION. The proposed policy, if finalized, would establish... recommended Intellectual Property Option and Institution Notification if they wish to be considered for...

  8. Computer program CDCID: an automated quality control program using CDC update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, G.L.; Aguilar, F.

    1984-04-01

    A computer program, CDCID, has been developed in coordination with a quality control program to provide a highly automated method of documenting changes to computer codes at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The method uses the standard CDC UPDATE program in such a manner that updates and their associated documentation are easily made and retrieved in various formats. The method allows each card image of a source program to point to the document which describes it, who created the card, and when it was created. The method described is applicable to the quality control of computer programs in general. The computer program described is executable only on CDC computing systems, but the program could be modified and applied to any computing system with an adequate updating program

  9. Current status of patient-controlled analgesia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, C; Bruera, E

    1997-03-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a relatively new technique in which patients are able to self-administer small doses of opioid analgesics when needed. Many different devices are available for opioid infusion, including a syringe pump, disposable plastic cylinder, and battery-operated computer-driven pump. These devices allow patients to choose an intermittent (demand) bolus, continuous infusion, or both modes of administration. Parameters, such as route, drug concentration dose, frequency, and maximum daily or hourly dose, are programmed by the physician. The patient decides whether or not to take a dose. Devices can be used to deliver the drug into a running intravenous infusion, the epidural space, or subcutaneously. Controlled trials indicate that PCA is probably superior to regular opioid administration in postoperative pain. Reported advantages include greater patient satisfaction, decreased sedation and anxiety, and reduced nursing time and hospitalization. Preliminary experience suggests that PCA is also useful and safe for cancer pain, but further research is greatly needed.

  10. Awareness of cervical cancer and willingness to participate in screening program: Public health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Somdatta; Upadhyay, Madhu; Chhabra, Pragti

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women in India. There is a high mortality as patients usually present at an advanced stage because of lack of awareness and nonexistent screening programs. This study was planned to find out awareness about cervical cancer among women and their willingness to utilize screening services in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, India. A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in a resettlement colony of North-West Delhi. Semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect information regarding different aspects of cervical cancer. Analysis was done using SPSS package (SPSS version 16 (UCMS and GTBH, Delhi, India)). A total of 373 women were included in the study. Mean age of study participants was 39.14 years. Two-third of the study population were illiterate. Half of the study population was aware of cervical cancer, and only one-fourth of population were willing to participate in a screening test. Willingness was higher among educated, ever user of family planning method and having knowledge about at least one risk factor, signs or symptoms, or possibility of early diagnosis of cancer cervix. The country's national program advocates for opportunistic and targeted screening of women. An understanding of the factors that influences womens' willingness to participate in screening program is essential for the success of such programs. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for dissemination of knowledge about various aspects of cancer cervix which is critical for uptake of any screening program in a developing country.

  11. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  12. Fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs improve health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, A A; Neil-Sztramko, S E; Morgan, J; Hodson, S; Weller, S; McRae, T; Campbell, K L

    2016-08-01

    Rigorously applied exercise interventions undertaken in a research setting result in improved health-related quality of life (hrqol) in cancer survivors, but research to demonstrate effective translation of that research to practice is needed. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs in the community on hrqol and on self-reported physical activity and its correlates. After enrolment and 17 ± 4 weeks later, new clients (n = 48) to two fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs completed the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (rand-36: rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, U.S.A.), the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, and questions about physical activity correlates. Normal fee-for-service operations were maintained, including a fitness assessment and individualized exercise programs supervised in a group or one-on-one setting, with no minimum attendance required. Fees were associated with the assessment and with each exercise session. Of the 48 participants, 36 (75%) completed both questionnaires. Improvements in the physical functioning, role physical, pain, and energy/fatigue scales on the rand-36 exceeded minimally important differences and were of a magnitude similar to improvements reported in structured, rigorously applied, and free research interventions. Self-reported levels of vigorous-intensity (p = 0.021), but not moderate-intensity (p = 0.831) physical activity increased. The number of perceived barriers to exercise (p = 0.035) and the prevalence of fatigue as a barrier (p = 0.003) decreased. Exercise self-efficacy improved only in participants who attended 11 or more sessions (p = 0.002). Exercise enjoyment did not change (p = 0.629). Enrolment in fee-for-service cancer rehabilitation programs results in meaningful improvements in hrqol comparable to those reported by research interventions, among other benefits. The fee-for-service model could be an effective model for

  13. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis: stability and adaptive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with chemotherapy (n=47), breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy (n=32) and in healthy women (n=58) at 3, 9 and 15 months after diagnosis. Results indicate that personal control was affected only in patients treated with chemotherapy, particularly right after the completion of treatment. Furthermore, the cross-sectional and longitudinal results provide modest support for the stress-buffering potential of control. The findings and future directions of research on the role of personal control in the adjustment to cancer will be discussed. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Measurement control program at model facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data

  15. Population-based cancer survival in the United States: Data, quality control, and statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Harewood, Rhea; Johnson, Christopher J; Carreira, Helena; Spika, Devon; Bonaventure, Audrey; Ward, Kevin; Weir, Hannah K; Coleman, Michel P

    2017-12-15

    Robust comparisons of population-based cancer survival estimates require tight adherence to the study protocol, standardized quality control, appropriate life tables of background mortality, and centralized analysis. The CONCORD program established worldwide surveillance of population-based cancer survival in 2015, analyzing individual data on 26 million patients (including 10 million US patients) diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common malignancies. In this Cancer supplement, we analyzed data from 37 state cancer registries that participated in the second cycle of the CONCORD program (CONCORD-2), covering approximately 80% of the US population. Data quality checks were performed in 3 consecutive phases: protocol adherence, exclusions, and editorial checks. One-, 3-, and 5-year age-standardized net survival was estimated using the Pohar Perme estimator and state- and race-specific life tables of all-cause mortality for each year. The cohort approach was adopted for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003, and the complete approach for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. Articles in this supplement report population coverage, data quality indicators, and age-standardized 5-year net survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Examples of tables, bar charts, and funnel plots are provided in this article. Population-based cancer survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of services in providing equitable health care. The high quality of US cancer registry data, 80% population coverage, and use of an unbiased net survival estimator ensure that the survival trends reported in this supplement are robustly comparable by race and state. The results can be used by policymakers to identify and address inequities in cancer survival in each state and for the United States nationally. Cancer 2017;123:4982-93. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U

  16. Quality Control Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),

  17. Estimation of radiation exposure from lung cancer screening program with low-dose computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan [Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that screening with Low-dose Computed Tomography (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer mortality in a high-risk population. Recently, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) gave a B recommendation for annual LDCT screening for individuals at high-risk. With the promising results, Korea developed lung cancer screening guideline and is planning a pilot study for implementation of national lung cancer screening. With widespread adoption of lung cancer screening with LDCT, there are concerns about harms of screening, including high false-positive rates and radiation exposure. Over the 3 rounds of screening in the NLST, 96.4% of positive results were false-positives. Although the initial screening is performed at low dose, subsequent diagnostic examinations following positive results additively contribute to patient's lifetime exposure. As with implementing a large-scale screening program, there is a lack of established risk assessment about the effect of radiation exposure from long-term screening program. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate cumulative radiation exposure of annual LDCT lung cancer screening program over 20-year period.

  18. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  19. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of Foot Massage Program on Nausea and Vomiting for Cancer Patients: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Guru Prapti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to develop a foot massage program to support care activity in reducing nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Two phases, a literature review and the development of a foot massage program were conducted. The literature review was to analyze state of the art massage techniques by reviewing problems, related theories and supporting evidence. Method: Eight published studies in the English language were reviewed. A massage can be performed for different durations, from 10 minutes up to 60 minutes for three to six weeks and can be applied on various body areas. We found that the soft stroke/effleurage seems to be the best method and is most suitable for patients with cancer. It is also evident that foot massaging can be applied as a modality to reduce nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Result: We developed a foot massage program specifically for patients with cancer. The foot massage program comprised of three sessions, including 1 education session, 2 preparation session, and 3 foot massage session. In the education session, patients obtain brief information about the definition of a foot massage, the benefits and contraindication of foot massaging. During the preparation phase, foot soaking and warming up are performed. Subsequently, the foot massage is applied and should last for 30 minutes. Further research is recommended to test the effectiveness of the proposed foot massage program for nausea and vomiting in cancer patients across countries including Indonesia. Key Words: Foot massage program, chemotherapy, nausea and vomiting

  1. A Formative Evaluation of Healthy Habits, Healthy U: A Collaborative School-Based Cancer Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alicia; Spear, Caile; Pritchard, Mary; George, Kayla; Young, Kyle; Smith, Carrie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Healthy Habits, Healthy U (HHHU) is a two-day school-based primary prevention cancer education program that uses interactive classroom presentations designed to help students learn how to reduce their cancer risks. HHHU is a collaboration between a local cancer hospital, school district and university. HHHU incorporates real cancerous and…

  2. The effects of the Bali Yoga Program (BYP-BC) on reducing psychological symptoms in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: results of a randomized, partially blinded, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, Dominique; Dupuis, Gilles; Marcaurell, Roger; Anestin, Annélie S; Bali, Madan

    2016-12-01

    Background Several cognitive behavioral interventions have been reported to reduce psychological symptoms in breast cancer (BC) patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a yoga intervention in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in BC patients. Methods This study was a randomized, partially blinded, controlled trial comparing a standardized yoga intervention to standard care. It was conducted at three medical centers in Montreal, Canada. Eligible patients were women diagnosed with stage I-III BC receiving chemotherapy. Participants were randomly assigned to receive yoga intervention immediately (experimental group, n=58) or after a waiting period (n=43 control group). The Bali Yoga Program for Breast Cancer Patients (BYP-BC) consisted of 23 gentle Hatha asanas (poses), 2 prayanamas (breathing techniques), shavasanas (relaxation corpse poses) and psychoeducational themes. Participants attended eight weekly sessions lasting 90 min each and received a DVD for home practice with 20- and 40-min sessions. Participants in the wait list control group received standard care during the 8-week waiting period. Results A total of 101 participants took part in the final intention-to-treat analyses. The repeated measures analyses demonstrated that depression symptoms increased in the control group (p=0.007), while no change was reported in the BYP-BC group (p=0.29). Also, depression symptoms decreased in the WL control group after receiving the BYP-BC intervention (p=0.03). Finally, there was no statistical significance in terms of anxiety symptoms (p=0.10). Conclusions Results support the BYP-BC intervention as a beneficial means of reducing and preventing the worsening of depression symptoms during chemotherapy treatment.

  3. Web-based stress management for newly diagnosed cancer patients (STREAM-1): a randomized, wait-list controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossert, Astrid; Urech, Corinne; Alder, Judith; Gaab, Jens; Berger, Thomas; Hess, Viviane

    2016-11-03

    Being diagnosed with cancer causes major psychological distress, yet the majority of newly diagnosed cancer patients lack psychological support. Internet interventions overcome many barriers for seeking face-to-face support and allow for independence in time and place. We assess efficacy and feasibility of the first web-based stress management intervention (STREAM: STREss-Aktiv-Mindern) for newly diagnosed, German-speaking cancer patients. In a prospective, wait-list controlled trial 120 newly diagnosed cancer patients will be included within 12 weeks of starting anti-cancer treatment and randomized between an immediate (intervention group) or delayed (control group) 8-week, web-based intervention. The intervention consists of eight modules with weekly written feedback by a psychologist ("minimal-contact") based on well-established stress management manuals including downloadable audio-files and exercises. The aim of this study is to evaluate efficacy in terms of improvement in quality of life (FACT-F), as well as decrease in anxiety and depression (HADS), as compared to patients in the wait-list control group. A sample size of 120 patients allows demonstrating a clinically relevant difference of nine points in the FACT score after the intervention (T2) with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 and 80 % power. As this is the first online stress management intervention for German-speaking cancer patients, more descriptive outcomes are equally important to further refine the group of patients with the largest potential for benefit who then will be targeted more specifically in future trials. These descriptive endpoints include: patients' characteristics (type of cancer, type of treatment, socio-demographic factors), dropout rate and dropout reasons, adherence and satisfaction with the program. New technologies open new opportunities: minimal-contact psychological interventions are becoming standard of care in several psychological disorders, where their efficacy is often

  4. The Recovery Process When Participating in Cancer Support and Rehabilitation Programs in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Melin-Johansson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to illuminate the meaning of participating in support and rehabilitation programs described by people diagnosed with cancer. Nineteen persons were interviewed in focus groups and face-to-face. Data were analyzed with a qualitative phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experiences. Interpretation proceeded through three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive understanding. Three themes were disclosed: receiving support for recovery when being most vulnerable, recapturing capabilities through supportive activities, and searching to find stability and well-being in a changed life situation. Participating in the programs was an existential transition from living in an unpredictable situation that was turned into something meaningful. Recovery did not mean the return to a state of normality; rather, it meant a continuing recovery from cancer treatments and symptoms involving recapturing capabilities and searching for a balance in a forever changed life. This study provides new insights about the experiences of participating in cancer support and rehabilitation programs.

  5. Return to work in sick-listed cancer survivors with job loss: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Martine P; Duijts, Saskia F A; Vermeulen, Sylvia J; van der Beek, Allard J; Anema, Johannes R

    2015-02-18

    Despite long-term or permanent health problems, cancer survivors are often motivated to return to work. For cancer survivors who have lost their job, return to work can be more challenging compared to employed survivors, as they generally find themselves in a more vulnerable social and financial position. Cancer survivors with job loss may therefore be in need of tailored return to work support. However, there is a lack of return to work intervention programs specifically targeting these cancer survivors. The number of cancer survivors with job loss in developed countries is rising due to, amongst others, increases in the incidence and survivor rate of cancer, the retirement age and the proportion of flexible employment contracts. Hence, we consider it important to develop a tailored return to work intervention program for cancer survivors with job loss, and to evaluate its effectiveness compared to usual care. This study employs a two-armed randomised controlled trial with a follow-up period of 12 months. The study population (n = 164) will be recruited from a national sample of cancer survivors (18-60 years), who have been sick-listed for 12-36 months. Participants will be randomised by using computerized blocked randomisation (blocks of four). All participants will receive usual care as provided by the Dutch Social Security Agency. Additionally, participants in the intervention group will receive a tailored return to work intervention program, which includes vocational rehabilitation and supportive psychosocial components, as well as (therapeutic) placement at work. The primary outcome measure is duration until sustainable return to work; the secondary outcome measure is rate of return to work. Other parameters include, amongst others, fatigue, coping strategy and quality of life. We will perform Cox regression analyses to estimate hazard ratios for time to sustainable return to work. The hypothesis of this study is that a tailored approach for cancer

  6. Preventing cancer: a community-based program for youths in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Wulach, Laura; Yang, Grace J; Evans, Tegan C; Hamdan, Sami U; Davis, Gregory L; Bowen, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of a program that mentors boys aged 14-18 living in inner city public housing, engages them in a basketball league, and provides educational sessions on life skills and ways to resolve conflicts without violence. Such programs have the potential to engage adolescent males living in public housing in activities that reduce cancer-related behaviors and increase protective behaviors. We conducted a feasibility evaluation of the program, which included a survey of participants, interviews with coaches, and observations of games and practices. Lifetime and previous-30-day substance use was common among participants, and many were exposed to and had experienced various forms of violence. Keeping youths active helps prevent their joining gangs and using drugs. Youths from disadvantaged backgrounds are at a high risk for cancer because they are at greater risk for obesity and other adverse health-related conditions than are more affluent youths. Implementing and sustaining community programs for youths in public housing can reduce the effects of exposure to factors that put them at risk for cancer during adulthood: chronic poverty, lack of safe areas for recreation, easy access to alcohol and drugs, and exposure to violence. In addition, workshops to prevent substance use and violence and to teach leadership, sportsmanship, conflict resolution, and healthy youth development are needed for youths, coaches, and parents or guardians. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Connecting people with cancer to physical activity and exercise programs: a pathway to create accessibility and engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, D Santa; Sabiston, C M; Au, D; Fong, A J; Capozzi, L C; Langelier, D; Chasen, M; Chiarotto, J; Tomasone, J R; Jones, J M; Chang, E; Culos-Reed, S N

    2018-04-01

    Recent guidelines concerning exercise for people with cancer provide evidence-based direction for exercise assessment and prescription for clinicians and their patients. Although the guidelines promote exercise integration into clinical care for people with cancer, they do not support strategies for bridging the guidelines with related resources or programs. Exercise program accessibility remains a challenge in implementing the guidelines, but that challenge might be mitigated with conceptual frameworks ("pathways") that connect patients with exercise-related resources. In the present paper, we describe a pathway model and related resources that were developed by an expert panel of practitioners and researchers in the field of exercise and rehabilitation in oncology and that support the transition from health care practitioner to exercise programs or services for people with cancer. The model acknowledges the nuanced distinctions between research and exercise programming, as well as physical activity promotion, that, depending on the available programming in the local community or region, might influence practitioner use. Furthermore, the pathway identifies and provides examples of processes for referral, screening, medical clearance, and programming for people after a cancer diagnosis. The pathway supports the implementation of exercise guidelines and should serve as a model of enhanced care delivery to increase the health and well-being of people with cancer.

  8. Connecting people with cancer to physical activity and exercise programs: a pathway to create accessibility and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, D. Santa; Sabiston, C.M.; Au, D.; Fong, A.J.; Capozzi, L.C.; Langelier, D.; Chasen, M.; Chiarotto, J.; Tomasone, J.R.; Jones, J.M.; Chang, E.; Culos-Reed, S.N.

    2018-01-01

    Recent guidelines concerning exercise for people with cancer provide evidence-based direction for exercise assessment and prescription for clinicians and their patients. Although the guidelines promote exercise integration into clinical care for people with cancer, they do not support strategies for bridging the guidelines with related resources or programs. Exercise program accessibility remains a challenge in implementing the guidelines, but that challenge might be mitigated with conceptual frameworks (“pathways”) that connect patients with exercise-related resources. In the present paper, we describe a pathway model and related resources that were developed by an expert panel of practitioners and researchers in the field of exercise and rehabilitation in oncology and that support the transition from health care practitioner to exercise programs or services for people with cancer. The model acknowledges the nuanced distinctions between research and exercise programming, as well as physical activity promotion, that, depending on the available programming in the local community or region, might influence practitioner use. Furthermore, the pathway identifies and provides examples of processes for referral, screening, medical clearance, and programming for people after a cancer diagnosis. The pathway supports the implementation of exercise guidelines and should serve as a model of enhanced care delivery to increase the health and well-being of people with cancer. PMID:29719431

  9. Experiences of cancer patients in a patient navigation program: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Clarice Hwee Hoon; Wilson, Sally; McConigley, Ruth

    2015-03-12

    A patient navigation program is a model of care which entails trained personnel providing individualized and assistive care to adult oncology patients to help the patients overcome barriers. A further aim of the program is to achieve continuity of care as patients experience the complex healthcare system. Patient navigation is a new model of care in many institutions, and as such the experiences of patients in the patient navigation program remains inconclusive. The review seeks to understand the experiences of adult patients in patient navigation programs and how patient navigators impact the challenges patients encounter in the cancer care continuum. Participants of interest were adult cancer patients more than 18 years of age who are receiving or have received cancer care and are in a patient navigation program or had been in a hospital patient navigation program. Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest: The phenomenon of interest was the experiences of adult cancer patients who used patient navigation programs in hospital including how patient navigators impact on the challenges patients encounter in the cancer care continuum. Types of studies: This review considered studies that focused on qualitative data including, but not limited to, designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, action research and exploratory studies. The review includes patient navigation programs within a hospital setting. Types of outcome: The review sought to understand the experiences of patients with cancer in patient navigation programs in the hospital. A three-step search strategy was used. An initial search to identify keywords was undertaken in PubMed and Science Direct followed by an expanded search using all identified keywords and index terms specific to each included database. The reference lists of included papers were then searched for any other relevant studies. Each paper was assessed independently by two reviewers for methodological quality using the Joanna

  10. External radiotherapy prior to thyroid cancer: A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallquist, A.; Loefroth, P.O.; Hardell, L.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study previous radiotherapy of malignant diseases as a risk factor for thyroid cancer. By using the Swedish Cancer Registry all cases of thyroid cancer with another malignant disease at least one year previously and living within the catchment area of the hospital were traced. During 1959-1989 a total of 1056 cases of thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 37 had had another previous malignant disease and they constituted the cases in this study. As controls four persons with at least two malignant diseases, thyroid cancer excluded, were selected for each case from the same cancer registry. Ten (27.0%) of the 37 patients with thyroid cancer as a second tumor had earlier been irradiated with the treatment dose including the thyroid gland as compared with 34 (24.5%) of the 139 control patients. Eight of the ten cases with previous irradiation of the thyroid gland had papillary cancer. The median latency was 13 years. The estimated radiation dose in the thyroid varied between 3 and 40 Gy. External radiotherapy gave a crude odds ratio of 1.1 with 95% confidence interval = 0.5-2.8 for thyroid cancer. The weighted odds ratio was calculated to 2.3 with confidence interval = 0.5-8.9. This case-control study gave a nonsignificantly increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer in patients with external radiotherapy including the thyroid gland. 26 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Design of a randomized controlled trial of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment-induced menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atema, Vera; van Leeuwen, Marieke; Oldenburg, Hester S A; Retèl, Valesca; van Beurden, Marc; Hunter, Myra S; Aaronson, Neil K

    2016-11-25

    Menopausal symptoms are common and may be particularly severe in younger women who undergo treatment-induced menopause. Medications to reduce menopausal symptoms are either contra-indicated or have bothersome side effects. Previous studies have demonstrated that face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer. However, compliance with face-to-face CBT programs can be problematic. A promising approach is to use the Internet to make this form of CBT more accessible and feasible for patients. This study is evaluating the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an Internet-based CBT program, with or without therapist guidance, in alleviating or reducing the severity of menopausal symptoms. In a multicenter, randomized controlled trial we are evaluating the efficacy of two Internet-based CBT programs in alleviating or reducing the impact of menopausal symptoms, and particularly hot flushes and night sweats, in breast cancer survivors who have experienced a treatment-induced menopause. Secondary outcomes include sexual functioning, sleep quality, hot flush frequency, psychological distress, health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness. We will recruit 248 women who will be randomized to either a therapist guided or a self-management version of the 6-week Internet-based CBT program, or to a usual care, waiting list control group. Self-administered questionnaires are completed at baseline (T0), and at 10 weeks (T1) and 24 weeks (T2) post-randomization. Internet-based CBT is a potentially useful treatment for reducing menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors. This study will provide evidence on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of such an Internet-based CBT program, with or without therapist support. If demonstrated to be efficacious and cost-effective, the availability of such structured supportive intervention programs will be a welcome addition to standard medical treatment offered

  12. Environmental Restoration Program Management Control Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This Management Control Plan has been prepared to define the Energy Systems approach to managing its participation in the US DOE's Environmental Restoration (ER) Program in a manner consistent with DOE/ORO 931: Management Plan for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge, Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; and the Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Contract Management Plan (CMP). This plan discusses the systems, procedures, methodology, and controls to be used by the program management team to attain these objectives

  13. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Chang, Siow-Wee; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  14. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Sze Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The potential of genetic programming (GP on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. Method GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS. The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM and logistic regression (LR are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. Result The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341 when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Discussion Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  15. [Effects of educational program of manual lymph massage on the arm functioning and the quality of life in breast cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Sook; Kim, Sung Hyo; Kim, Sun Mi; Sun, Jeong Ju

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of EPMLM (educational program of manual lymph massage) on the arm functioning and QOL (quality of life) in breast cancer patients with lymphedema. Subjects in the experimental group (n=20) participated in EPMLM for 6 weeks from June to July, 2005. The EPMLM consisted of training of lymph massage for 2 weeks and encourage and support of self-care using lymph massage for 4 weeks. The arm functioning assessed at pre-treatment, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks using Arm functioning questionnaire. The QOL assessed at pre-treatment and 6 weeks using SF-36. The outcome data of experimental group was compared with control group (n=20). The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS 10.0 statistical program. The arm functioning of experimental group was increased from 2 weeks after (W=.224, p=.011) and statistically differenced with control group at 2 weeks (Z=-2.241, p=.024) and 6 weeks (Z=-2.453, p=.013). Physical function of QOL domain increased in experimental group (Z=-1.162, p=.050), also statistically differenced with control group (Z=-2.182, p= .030) at 6 weeks. The results suggest that the educational program of manual lymph massage can improve arm functioning and physical function of QOL domain in breast cancer patients with lymphedema.

  16. An ALARA-conscious hot particle control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, W.W.; Bredvad, R.S.; Bevelacqua, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    In 1989 approximately twenty-five percent of the radiation dose received by the Point Beach Nuclear Plant (PBNP) Health Physics group was due to its hot particle control program. The Health Physics group initiated a review of the program with the objective of decreasing the dose expenditure for hot particle control while maintaining a high standard for hot particle detection and control. In this paper the methods and results of this evaluation are described. The components of the hot particle control program, rules of thumb, and radionuclide composition at PBNP are presented

  17. Frequency of CHEK2 mutations in a population based, case–control study of breast cancer in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichsen, Danielle M; Malone, Kathleen E; Doody, David R; Daling, Janet R; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2004-01-01

    The cell-cycle checkpoint kinase (CHEK)2 protein truncating mutation 1100delC has been associated with increased risk for breast or prostate cancer. Multiple studies have found an elevated frequency of the 1100delC variant in specific stratifications of breast cancer patients with a family history of the disease, including BRCA1/BRCA2 negative families and families with a history of bilateral disease or male breast cancer. However, the 1100delC mutation has only been investigated in a few population-based studies and none from North America. We report here on the frequency of three CHEK2 variants that alter protein function – 1100delC, R145W, and I175T – in 506 cases and 459 controls from a population based, case–control study of breast cancer conducted in young women from western Washington. There was a suggestive enrichment in the 1100delC variant in the cases (1.2%) as compared with the controls (0.4%), but this was based on small numbers of carriers and the differences were not statistically significant. The 1100delC variant was more frequent in cases with a first-degree family history of breast cancer (4.3%; P = 0.02) and slightly enriched in cases with a family history of ovarian cancer (4.4%; P = 0.09). The CHEK2 variants are rare in the western Washington population and, based on accumulated evidence across studies, are unlikely to be major breast cancer susceptibility genes. Thus, screening for the 1100delC variant may have limited usefulness in breast cancer prevention programs in the USA

  18. Beliefs and perceptions about the causes of breast cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Allyson K; Heyworth, Jane S; Girschik, Jennifer; Slevin, Terry; Saunders, Christobel; Fritschi, Lin

    2014-08-21

    Attributions of causality are common for many diseases, including breast cancer. The risk of developing breast cancer can be reduced by modifications to lifestyle and behaviours to minimise exposure to specific risk factors, such as obesity. However, these modifications will only occur if women believe that certain behaviours/lifestyle factors have an impact on the development of breast cancer. The Breast Cancer, Environment and Employment Study is a case-control study of breast cancer conducted in Western Australia between 2009 and 2011. As part of the study 1109 women with breast cancer and 1633 women without the disease completed a Risk Perception Questionnaire in which they were asked in an open-ended question for specific cause/s to the development of breast cancer in themselves or in others. The study identified specific causal beliefs, and assessed differences in the beliefs between women with and without breast cancer. The most common attributions in women without breast cancer were to familial or inherited factors (77.6%), followed by lifestyle factors, such as poor diet and smoking (47.1%), and environmental factors, such as food additives (45.4%). The most common attributions in women with breast cancer were to mental or emotional factors (46.3%), especially stress, followed by lifestyle factors (38.6%) and physiological factors (37.5%), particularly relating to hormonal history. While the majority of participants in this study provided one or more causal attributions for breast cancer, many of the reported risk factors do not correspond to those generally accepted by the scientific community. These misperceptions could be having a significant impact on the success of prevention and early detection programs that seek to minimise the pain and suffering caused by this disease. In particular, women who have no family history of the disease may not work to minimise their exposure to the modifiable risk factors.

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to broaden access and facilitate efficient data sharing, the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) has created the Cancer Epidemiology Data Repository (CEDR), a centralized, controlled-access database, where Investigators can deposit individual-level de-identified observational cancer datasets.

  20. Smartphone-Enabled Health Coaching Intervention (iMOVE) to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Feasibility Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Paul; Obadia, Maya; Santa Mina, Daniel; Alibhai, Shabbir; Sabiston, Catherine; Oh, Paul; Campbell, Kristin; McCready, David; Auger, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Background Although physical activity has been shown to contribute to long-term disease control and health in breast cancer survivors, a majority of breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity guidelines. Past research has focused on promoting physical activity components for short-term breast cancer survivor benefits, but insufficient attention has been devoted to long-term outcomes and sustained exercise adherence. We are assessing a health coach intervention (iMOVE) that uses mobile technology to increase and sustain physical activity maintenance in initially inactive breast cancer survivors. Objective This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an initial step in evaluating the iMOVE intervention and will inform development of a full-scale pragmatic RCT. Methods We will enroll 107 physically inactive breast cancer survivors and randomly assign them to intervention or control groups at the University Health Network, a tertiary cancer care center in Toronto, Canada. Participants will be women (age 18 to 74 years) stratified by age (55 years and older/younger than 55 years) and adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) exposure (AHT vs no AHT) following breast cancer treatment with no metastases or recurrence who report less than 60 minutes of preplanned physical activity per week. Both intervention and control groups receive the 12-week physical activity program with weekly group sessions and an individualized, progressive, home-based exercise program. The intervention group will additionally receive (1) 10 telephone-based health coaching sessions, (2) smartphone with data plan, if needed, (3) supportive health tracking software (Connected Wellness, NexJ Health Inc), and (4) a wearable step-counting device linked to a smartphone program. Results We will be assessing recruitment rates; acceptability reflected in selective, semistructured interviews; and enrollment, retention, and adherence quantitative intervention markers as pilot outcome measures. The primary

  1. Formalized exercise program for paediatric and young adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Y. Wonders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Survival rates of childhood cancer patients has steadily increased through the years, making it necessary to develop strategies aimed at long term improvements to quality of life. This paper presents a formalized exercise program for paediatric cancer survivors, based on current risk-based exercise recommendations, with the primary goal of helping families return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. Background Children tend to respond better to anti-cancer treatments, including chemotherapy. Research indicates that proper nutrition and regular physical activity will help a paediatric cancer survivor continue to grow and develop properly, however, at present, there is no standard of care with regards to this subject. Aims To create a fun and supportive atmosphere that encourages movement and healthy eating for the participants while increasing participant knowledge regarding proper nutrition and exercise.

  2. Long-term Diet and Biomarker Changes after a Short-term Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors: The ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Ogden Gaffney, Ann; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Shi, Zaixing; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Santella, Regina M; Blaner, William S; Clugston, Robin D; Cremers, Serge; Pollak, Susan; Sirosh, Iryna; Crew, Katherine D; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-11-01

    Among Hispanic breast cancer survivors, we examined the long-term effects of a short-term culturally based dietary intervention on increasing fruits/vegetables (F/V), decreasing fat, and changing biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. Spanish-speaking women (n = 70) with a history of stage 0-III breast cancer who completed treatment were randomized to ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (n = 34), a culturally based 9-session program (24 hours over 12 weeks, including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips), or a control group (n = 36, written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors). Diet recalls, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We report changes between groups at 12 months in dietary intake and biomarkers using 2-sample Wilcoxon t tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. At 12 months, the intervention group compared with the control group reported higher increases in mean daily F/V servings (total: +2.0 vs. -0.4; P Salud! program was effective at increasing long-term F/V intake in Hispanic breast cancer survivors and changed biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. It is possible for short-term behavioral interventions to have long-term effects on behaviors and biomarkers in minority cancer patient populations. Results can inform future study designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1491-502. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. [Four year follow-up of a screening program for prostate cancer in workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; Piñaga-Solé, Montserrat; Fernández-Fernández, Miguel; Belanger-Quintana, Diego; Gómez-Gallego, Félix

    2013-01-01

    To analyze our four-year follow-up experience (2008-2011) with a prostate cancer screening program offered to employees of a banking company. Data were obtained from the health examinations carried out by the bank's in-house occupational health service (with centers in Barcelona, Madrid and Valencia). PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood levels were measured and cases with high levels (>4 ng/ml) were followed through diagnosis and treatment, including a telephone survey of confirmed cases. Personal and occupational characteristics of the participants were analyzed as well. 750 workers (99% with administrative and/or commercial jobs) met the inclusion criteria for the screening program. Of these, 110 had elevated PSA levels on at least one occasion. The diagnosis of prostate cancer was confirmed in 21 cases. There were no associations between a diagnosis of cancer and the remaining analyzed variables. Urology and pathology records were retrieved for 76% of the contacted cases. The most frequent histological type was adenocarcinoma (98%), the most common Gleason grade at diagnosis was 6-7% (88%), and the majority of cases were treated surgically (90%).With respect to adverse effects, 48% of cases described erectile dysfunction and 33% reported urinary incontinence. In our program the observed prevalence of prostate cancer was above that expected (respectively, 21 confirmed cases vs. 12 expected). The identified cases unanimously expressed their support for the screening program. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  4. 18 CFR 12.40 - Quality control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control... PROJECT WORKS Other Responsibilities of Applicant or Licensee § 12.40 Quality control programs. (a... meeting any requirements or standards set by the Regional Engineer. If a quality control program is...

  5. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Progressive Resistance Training and Cancer Testis (PROTRACT - Efficacy of resistance training on muscle function, morphology and inflammatory profile in testicular cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackey Abigail L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standard treatment for patients with disseminated germ cell tumors is combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP. This treatment is highly effective, but the majority of patients experience severe adverse effects during treatment and are at risk of developing considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, and pulmonary toxicity. One neglected side effect is the significant muscular fatigue mentioned by many patients with testicular cancer both during and after treatment. Very limited information exists concerning the patho-physiological effects of antineoplastic agents on skeletal muscle. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effects of BEP-treatment on the skeletal musculature in testicular cancer patients, and to examine whether the expected treatment-induced muscular deterioration can be attenuated or even reversed by high intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT. Design/Methods The PROTRACT study is a randomized controlled trial in 30 testicular cancer patients undergoing three cycles of BEP chemotherapy. Participants will be randomized to either a 9-week HIPRT program (STR initiated at the onset of treatment, or to standard care (UNT. 15 healthy matched control subjects (CON will complete the same HIPRT program. All participants will take part in 3 assessment rounds (baseline, 9 wks, 21 wks including muscle biopsies, maximum muscle strength tests, whole body DXA scan and blood samples. Primary outcome: mean fiber area and fiber type composition measured by histochemical analyses, satellite cells and levels of protein and mRNA expression of intracellular mediators of protein turnover. Secondary outcomes: maximum muscle strength and muscle power measured by maximum voluntary contraction and leg-extensor-power tests, body composition assessed by DXA scan, and systemic inflammation analyzed by circulating inflammatory markers

  7. The Science of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The science of cancer prevention is described by Dr. Barnett S. Kramer, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute (NCI). The Division of Cancer Prevention administers a broad spectrum of research that spans basic pre-clinical, laboratory research, supportive and palliative care research, early detection, and randomized controlled clinical trials. The Division also supports the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and is devoted to the balanced communication of scientific results.

  8. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis: stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. METHODS: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with

  9. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis : stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Methods: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with

  10. Cervical cancer screening programs: technical cooperation in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, D B

    1996-12-01

    This article presents the findings and recommendations of the evaluation of a project that aimed to decrease mortality from cervical cancer in the Caribbean. The Cervical Cancer Control Project was initiated in 1990 in 10 countries in the Caribbean with a total population of 850,000. The project was directed at women aged 25-69 years and sought to increase cervical screening. The production of education materials was based on a KAP survey conducted in Barbados and Grenada. Findings indicate that Pap smears were more popular among young, better educated women. Men contributed to decision making on reproductive health issues, but women would follow the advice of health professionals. The following informative materials were produced: brochures on prevention, public service announcements, and posters. A follow-up survey indicated little impact of the IEC campaign to increase screenings. Training materials were produced that aimed to assure the quality in performance of Pap smear procedures among health workers. Laboratory-based cervical cytology registries were established that were compatible with PAHO/WHO systems. Quality control in laboratories was reinforced by meetings with pathologists and by exploration of the use of semi-automated cytology screening systems. Meetings were conducted in 1996 to assess whether project goals had been met. It was recommended that cost-benefit studies be conducted in order to prove to policy makers that there was a need to invest in screening programs. It was recommended that community and women's groups be encouraged to participate in awareness creation. Recruitment of the target population should be more flexible and involve possible use of mobile clinics in the workplace and communities. Simple, accurate information needs to be communicated through all available channels, including social marketing. Clinicians need to learn to manage their time and to prioritize their work load.

  11. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...... and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction......Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease...

  12. Cancer Control: A Look to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith Mackay, MB ChB, FRCP (Edin), FRCP (Lon), an international expert from Hong Kong in tobacco control, with posts as a senior advisor for the World Lung Foundation and the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use, presented "Cancer Control: A Look to the Future".

  13. The control and execution of programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, R.; Pathak, N.; Hasnain, S.E.; Sah, N.K.; Athar, M.

    1999-01-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly conserved genetically controlled response of metazoan cells to commit suicide. Non apoptotic programmed cell death seems to operate in single celled eukaryotes implying that evolution of PCD has preceded the evolution of multicellularity. PCD plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular and tissue homeostasis and any aberrations in apoptosis leads to several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and AIDS. The mechanisms by which apoptosis is controlled are varied. In some cells, members of bcl-2 family or p53 are crucial for regulating the apoptosis programme, whereas in other cells Fas ligand is more important. bcl-2 family members have a prime role in the regulation of cell death at all stages including development, whereas cell death during development is independent of p53. bcl-2 family members being localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane, control the mitochondrial homeostasis and cytochrome c redistribution and thereby regulate the cell death process. p53 promotes DNA damage mediated cell death after growth arrest and failed DNA repair. Caspases play a key role in the execution of cell death by mediating highly specific cleavages of crucial cellular proteins collectively manifesting the apoptotic phenotype. Protein inhibitors like crm A, p35 and IAPs could prevent/control apoptosis induced by a broad array of cell death stimuli by several mechanisms specially interfering in caspase activation or caspase activity. Among endonucleases, caspase activated DNase (CAD) plays a crucial role in DNA fragmentation, a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. As regulation of cell death seems to be as complex as regulation of cell proliferation, multiple kinase mediated regulatory mechanisms might control the apoptotic process. Thus, in spite of intensive research over the past few years, the field of apoptosis still remains fertile to unravel among others, the molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c

  14. The control and execution of programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, R.; Pathak, N.; Hasnain, S.E.; Sah, N.K. [National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi (India). Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab.; Taneja, T.K.; Mohan, M. [National Inst. of Immunology, New Delhi (India). Eukaryotic Gene Expression Lab.]|[Dept. of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, New Delhi (India); Athar, M. [Dept. of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, New Delhi (India)

    1999-07-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a highly conserved genetically controlled response of metazoan cells to commit suicide. Non apoptotic programmed cell death seems to operate in single celled eukaryotes implying that evolution of PCD has preceded the evolution of multicellularity. PCD plays a crucial role in the regulation of cellular and tissue homeostasis and any aberrations in apoptosis leads to several diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and AIDS. The mechanisms by which apoptosis is controlled are varied. In some cells, members of bcl-2 family or p53 are crucial for regulating the apoptosis programme, whereas in other cells Fas ligand is more important. bcl-2 family members have a prime role in the regulation of cell death at all stages including development, whereas cell death during development is independent of p53. bcl-2 family members being localized on the outer mitochondrial membrane, control the mitochondrial homeostasis and cytochrome c redistribution and thereby regulate the cell death process. p53 promotes DNA damage mediated cell death after growth arrest and failed DNA repair. Caspases play a key role in the execution of cell death by mediating highly specific cleavages of crucial cellular proteins collectivley manifesting the apoptotic phenotype. Protein inhibitors like crm A, p35 and IAPs could prevent/control apoptosis induced by a broad array of cell death stimuli by several mechanisms specially interfering in caspase activation or caspase activity. Among endonucleases, caspase activated DNase (CAD) plays a crucial role in DNA fragmentation, a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. As regulation of cell death seems to be as complex as regulation of cell proliferation, multiple kinase mediated regulatory mechanisms might control the apoptotic process. Thus, in spite of intensive research over the past few years, the field of apoptosis still remains fertile to unravel among others, the molecular mechanisms of cytochrome c

  15. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo; Ruby, Espejo Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied

  16. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, CP 04510 (Mexico); Ruby, Espejo Fonseca [Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama FUCAM-AC, CP 04980 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  17. Knowledge discovery for pancreatic cancer using inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yushan; Shimada, Kazuaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Maeshiro, Kensei; Ching, Wai-Ki; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Furuta, Koh

    2014-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease and predicting the status of the patients becomes an important and urgent issue. The authors explore the applicability of inductive logic programming (ILP) method in the disease and show that the accumulated clinical laboratory data can be used to predict disease characteristics, and this will contribute to the selection of therapeutic modalities of pancreatic cancer. The availability of a large amount of clinical laboratory data provides clues to aid in the knowledge discovery of diseases. In predicting the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer, using the ILP model, three rules are developed that are consistent with descriptions in the literature. The rules that are identified are useful to detect the differentiation of tumour and the status of lymph node metastasis in pancreatic cancer and therefore contributed significantly to the decision of therapeutic strategies. In addition, the proposed method is compared with the other typical classification techniques and the results further confirm the superiority and merit of the proposed method.

  18. Evaluation of a Web-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program in Cancer Survivors Reporting Cognitive Symptoms After Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Victoria J; Dhillon, Haryana M; Bell, Melanie L; Kabourakis, Michael; Fiero, Mallorie H; Yip, Desmond; Boyle, Frances; Price, Melanie A; Vardy, Janette L

    2017-01-10

    Purpose Cognitive impairment is reported frequently by cancer survivors. There are no proven treatments. We evaluated a cognitive rehabilitation program (Insight) and compared it with standard care in cancer survivors self-reporting cognitive symptoms. Patients and Methods We recruited adult cancer survivors with a primary malignancy (excluding central nervous system malignancies) who had completed three or more cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy in the previous 6 to 60 months and reported persistent cognitive symptoms. All participants received a 30-minute telephone consultation and were then randomly assigned to the 15-week, home-based intervention or to standard care. Primary outcome was self-reported cognitive function (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Cognitive Function [FACT-COG] perceived cognitive impairment [PCI] subscale): difference between groups after intervention (T2) and 6 months later (T3). Results A total of 242 participants were randomly assigned: median age, 53 years; 95% female. The primary outcome of difference in FACT-COG PCI was significant, with less PCI in the intervention group at T2 ( P cognitive symptoms compared with standard care. To our knowledge, this is the first large randomized controlled trial showing an improvement in self-reported cognitive function in cancer survivors, indicating that this intervention is a feasible treatment.

  19. AEC controlled area safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, D W [Nevada Operations Office, Atomic Energy Commission, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  20. AEC controlled area safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, D.W.

    1969-01-01

    The detonation of underground nuclear explosives and the subsequent data recovery efforts require a comprehensive pre- and post-detonation safety program for workers within the controlled area. The general personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site are presented. Some of the more unusual health-physics aspects involved in the operation of this program are also discussed. The application of experience gained at the Nevada Test Site is illustrated by description of the on-site operational and safety programs established for Project Gasbuggy. (author)

  1. [Oncological quality indicators and Colorectal Cancer Program: data from 2009-2010 of University Hospital in Ferrara, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Marzola, Marina; Indelli, Monica; Frassoldati, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the oncological quality indicators on our Colorectal Cancer Program, that are reflective of the scope of care, feasible to implement and supported by evidence. We compared two different populations during the same period: patients referring to our Clinical Oncology Unit coming from Regional Colorectal Cancer Screening Program and the other population that was not in any Colorectal Cancer Program. On the basis of our experience, we concluded for high-quality care for both population. Any critical point should be carefully analysed in order to implement quality of care.

  2. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer: A ... Primary HPV prevention may be the key to reducing incidence and burden of cervical cancer ... Other resources included locally-published articles and additional internet ...

  3. Cancer pain and current theory for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Brian

    2014-05-01

    This article discusses current trends in managing cancer pain, with specific regard to opioid transmission, descending pathway inhabitation, and ways to facilitate the endogenous antinociceptive chemicals in the human body. Various techniques for opioid and nonopioid control of potential pain situations of patients with cancer are discussed. The benefits of using pharmacogenetics to assess the appropriate medications are addressed. Finally, specific treatment of abdominal cancer pain using radiofrequency lesioning is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The state of cancer survivorship programming in Commission on Cancer-accredited hospitals in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Logan J; Patterson, Angela; Lipscomb, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    In Georgia, there are more than 356,000 cancer survivors. Although many encounter challenges as a result of treatment, there is limited data on the availability of survivorship programming. This paper highlights findings from two surveys assessing survivorship care in Commission on Cancer (CoC)-accredited hospitals in Georgia. In 2010, 38 CoC-accredited hospitals were approached to complete a 36-item survey exploring knowledge of national standards and use of survivorship care plans (SCPs), treatment summaries (TSs), and psychosocial assessment tools. In 2012, 37 CoC-accredited hospitals were asked to complete a similar 21-item survey. Seventy-nine percent (n = 30) of cancer centers completed the 2010 survey. Sixty percent (n = 18) reported having a cancer survivorship program in place or in development. Forty-three percent (n = 13) provided survivors with a SCP and 40% (n = 12) a TS. Sixty percent (n = 18) reported either never or rarely using a psychosocial assessment tool. Sixty-two percent (n = 23) completed the 2012 survey. Ninety-six percent (n = 22) were aware of the new CoC guideline 3.3. Thirty-nine percent (n = 9) provided a SCP and/or TS. Eighty-seven percent (n = 20) stated they were very confident or somewhat confident their organization could implement a SCP and/or TS by 2015. The data indicated the importance of collaboration and shared responsibility for survivorship care. Broad implementation of SCPs and TSs can help address the late and long-term effects of treatment. Increasing knowledge on survivorship care is imperative as the Georgia oncology community engages oncologists and primary care providers to achieve higher quality of life for all survivors.

  5. Balancing the benefits and detriments among women targeted by the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Román, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Falk, Ragnhild S

    2016-12-01

    To compute a ratio between the estimated numbers of lives saved from breast cancer death and the number of women diagnosed with a breast cancer that never would have been diagnosed during the woman's lifetime had she not attended screening (epidemiologic over-diagnosis) in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program invites women aged 50-69 to biennial mammographic screening. Results from published studies using individual level data from the programme for estimating breast cancer mortality and epidemiologic over-diagnosis comprised the basis for the ratio. The mortality reduction varied from 36.8% to 43% among screened women, while estimates on epidemiologic over-diagnosis ranged from 7% to 19.6%. We computed the average estimates for both values. The benefit-detriment ratio, number of lives saved, and number of women over-diagnosed were computed for different scenarios of reduction in breast cancer mortality and epidemiologic over-diagnosis. For every 10,000 biennially screened women, followed until age 79, we estimated that 53-61 (average 57) women were saved from breast cancer death, and 45-126 (average 82) were over-diagnosed. The benefit-detriment ratio using average estimates was 1:1.4, indicating that the programme saved about one life per 1-2 women with epidemiologic over-diagnosis. The benefit-detriment ratio estimates of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, expressed as lives saved from breast cancer death and epidemiologic over-diagnosis, should be interpreted with care due to substantial uncertainties in the estimates, and the differences in the scale of values of the events compared. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program: The Impact of a Teacher-Led Intervention on Student Knowledge Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Katherine; Li, Zhenghong; Quintana, Yuri; Van Kirk Villalobos, Aubrey; Klosky, James L

    2017-12-01

    In 2006, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (Memphis, Tennessee) began developing a school-based outreach program known as the St. Jude Cancer Education for Children Program (SJCECP). The aim of this program is to teach Memphis-area children about cells, cancer, and healthy habits that can prevent the development of cancer in adulthood. Initial plans for delivery of the program was for St. Jude staff to present the program at local schools. This plan for disseminating instruction was not feasible due to the limited availability of St. Jude staff. As a next step, during the 2012-2014 academic years, we conducted a study entitled SJCECP2, utilizing the SJCECP curriculum, with the objective of evaluating the impact of the educational intervention on knowledge acquisition and retention among fourth-grade students participating in a modified, teacher-led version of the program. Eighteen teachers and 426 students from 10 local schools in the greater Memphis area participated in the program evaluation. This study used a single-group, pre-test/post-test design to determine the impact of the SJCECP intervention on changes in knowledge scores among fourth-grade students. Testing was on cells, cancer, and healthy living. The mean scores increased from 6.45 to 8.12, 5.99 to 7.65, and 5.92 to 7.96 on cell, cancer, and health behaviors units, respectively (all p values <.001). Preliminary evidence suggests that the SJCECP2 intervention is a useful tool for teachers to improve student knowledge of knowledge of cells, cancer, and healthy living concepts at the fourth-grade level.

  7. How one institution overcame the challenges to start an MRI-based brachytherapy program for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Harkenrider

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Adaptive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based brachytherapy results in improved local control and decreased high-grade toxicities compared to historical controls. Incorporating MRI into the workflow of a department can be a major challenge when initiating an MRI-based brachytherapy program. This project aims to describe the goals, challenges, and solutions when initiating an MRI-based cervical cancer brachytherapy program at our institution. Material and methods : We describe the 6-month multi-disciplinary planning phase to initiate an MRI-based brachytherapy program. We describe the specific challenges that were encountered prior to treating our first patient. Results : We describe the solutions that were realized and executed to solve the challenges that we faced to establish our MRI-based brachytherapy program. We emphasize detailed coordination of care, planning, and communication to make the workflow feasible. We detail the imaging and radiation physics solutions to safely deliver MRI-based brachytherapy. The focus of these efforts is always on the delivery of optimal, state of the art patient care and treatment delivery within the context of our available institutional resources. Conclusions : Previous publications have supported a transition to MRI-based brachytherapy, and this can be safely and efficiently accomplished as described in this manuscript.

  8. Effective colorectal cancer education for Asian Americans: a Michigan program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsu-Yin; Kao, John Y; Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Tang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Judy; Lee, Janilla; Oakley, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Asian Americans are among the fastest growing population groups in the USA. Despite the fact that colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer for this group, Asian Americans have low CRC screening rates. An established health promotion program, Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP), expanded to include community-based CRC education during 2005-2006. Using Asian-language media, HAAP promoted awareness throughout local Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese American communities and recruited men and women over 50 years to attend health fairs at local community/cultural centers. Evaluation data from 304 participants in an evidence-based educational intervention showed significantly increased knowledge and attitudes about the importance of screening. Follow-up conducted between 6 and 12 months showed that 78% of those receiving the educational intervention had been screened in the last 12 months, compared with the 37% who had ever been screened with any of the tests prior to the study. This community-based health promotion program reached underserved populations and the educational intervention improved CRC screening rates. This and similar programs may help lower CRC mortality among Asian Americans.

  9. Radiological control technician: Training program management manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This manual defines and describes the DOE Radiological Control Technician Core Training Program qualification and training process, material development requirements, standards and policies, and administration. The manual applies to Radiological Control Technician Training Programs at all DOE contractor sites

  10. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonaro, Luca A., E-mail: luca.carbonaro@gmail.com [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Azzarone, Antonio [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Paskeh, Bijan Babaei [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Brambilla, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Brunelli, Silvia [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Calori, Anna [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Caumo, Francesca [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Malerba, Paolo [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Menicagli, Laura [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca M. [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Vadalà, Giuseppe [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi [Servizio di Medicina Preventiva delle Comunità, ASL Milano 2, Via Friuli 2, Lacchiarella (Mi) 20084 (Italy); Ciatto, Stefano [Screening Program, ULSS 16, Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  11. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonaro, Luca A.; Azzarone, Antonio; Paskeh, Bijan Babaei; Brambilla, Giorgio; Brunelli, Silvia; Calori, Anna; Caumo, Francesca; Malerba, Paolo; Menicagli, Laura; Sconfienza, Luca M.; Vadalà, Giuseppe; Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi; Ciatto, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  12. Physical and Psychological Effects of a 12-Session Cancer Rehabilitation Exercise Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tricia M; Broomhall, Christine N; Crecelius, Anne R

    2016-12-01

    The positive effects of regular exercise for cancer survivors are becoming increasingly apparent. However, comprehensive examination of the benefits of modest levels of physical activity is somewhat lacking. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that participating in a 12-session exercise program will improve depression, fatigue, aerobic endurance, muscular strength, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer. A group of 20 older adult women with a prior cancer diagnosis were evaluated during a 6- to 10-week exercise program that occurred twice weekly. The majority of patients had breast cancer (n = 14), but treatment status varied (11 were currently undergoing treatment, and 9 were post-treatment). Each patient completed initial and exit assessments, which consisted of three physical function tests and three psychosocial questionnaires. Patient charts contained the initial and final assessment scores and personal demographics. Analyses of pre- and postprogram data using paired t tests revealed that 12 exercise sessions (each lasting about an hour) significantly improved six-minute walk test, 30-second sit-and-stand test, hand grip strength test (dominant and nondominant hand), and overall QOL scores in patients. As a result, moderate levels of exercise have a beneficial effect in this population.

  13. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi-joong Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.

  14. The Cardio-oncology Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Care of Cancer Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Sarah; Pituskin, Edith; Paterson, D Ian

    2016-07-01

    Improved cancer survivorship has resulted in a growing number of Canadians affected by cancer and cardiovascular disease. As a consequence, cardio-oncology programs are rapidly emerging to treat cancer patients with de novo and preexisting cardiovascular disease. The primary goal of a cardio-oncology program is to preserve cardiovascular health to allow the timely delivery of cancer therapy and achieve disease-free remission. Multidisciplinary programs in oncology and cardiology have been associated with enhanced patient well-being and improved clinical outcomes. Because of the complex needs of these multisystem patients, a similar model of care is gaining acceptance. The optimal composition of the cardio-oncology team will typically involve support from cardiology, oncology, and nursing. Depending on the clinical scenario, additional consultation from dietetics, pharmacy, and social services might be required. Timely access to consultation and testing is another prerequisite for cardio-oncology programs because delays in treating cardiac complications and nonadherence to prescribed cancer therapy are each associated with poor outcomes. Recommended reasons for referral to cardio-oncology programs include primary prevention for those at high risk for cardiotoxicity and the secondary treatment of new or worsening cardiovascular disease in cancer patients and survivors. Management is multifaceted and can involve lifestyle education, pharmacotherapy, enhanced cardiovascular surveillance, and support services, such as exercise training. The lack of evidence to guide clinical decisions and recommendations in cardio-oncology is a major challenge and opportunity for health care professionals. Large multicentre prospective registries are needed to adequately power risk model calculations and generate hypotheses for novel interventions. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of happiness educational program on the level of stress, anxiety and depression of the cancer patients′ nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses face a great amount of stress that can threaten their health and reduce their motivation. Nurses′ present working conditions lead to an increase in emotional pressures and depression. Conducting a study on this seems to be necessary, with regard to nurses′ stressful working conditions, in order to take steps toward achieving different and non-meditational treatments to treat their stress, anxiety, and depression and, consequently, promote nurses′ and patients′ health. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial conducted on 52 nurses working in cancer patients wards, who were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Happiness educational program was administered for six sessions once a week in the study group and a communication training sessions with the patients in the control group, and DASS-42 questionnaire was completed before, immediately after, and 1 month after intervention by the subjects in both study and control groups. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, independent t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA through SPSS 18. Results: Mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression showed no significant difference before and after intervention. Meanwhile, independent t-test showed that mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression were significantly lower in the study group compared to the control group immediately after and 1 month after intervention (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Educational planning of happiness can reduce nurses′ depression, anxiety, and stress in the cancer patients′ wards. Psychiatric nurses can reduce depression, anxiety, and stress of nurses working in other hospitals also through application of this program.

  16. Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Pain Control in Irresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavassoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Severepain is a major problem in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy (TS on pain control in these patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods:Between years 2000 to 2011, 20 patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent TS due to severe pain. They were studied in terms of age, sex, location of pancreas tumor, history of previous surgery, response to treatments for pain control (assessed with VAS scoring system and complications of surgery. Results:M/F = 14/6 with a mean age of 63 years. The most common tumour site was at the pancreas head (in 8 patients. The most cause of unresectability was local expansion to critical adjacent elements (in 10 patients. Surgery was performed successfully in all patients. Post-operative complication included only pleural effusion on the left side which was cured by proper treatment. There were no post-op mortalities.  15 patients had acceptable levels of pain at the end of a six month follow-up period. ConclusionTS provides good pain control, little side effects and minimal invasiveness, the technique is recommended for pain control in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  17. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  18. Automatic control of commercial computer programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvov, B.A.; Artem'ev, A.N.; Maevskij, A.G.; Demkiv, A.A.; Kirillov, B.F.; Belyaev, A.D.; Artem'ev, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The way of automatic control of commercial computer programs is presented. The developed connection of the EXAFS spectrometer automatic system (which is managed by PC for DOS) is taken with the commercial program for the CCD detector control (which is managed by PC for Windows). The described complex system is used for the automation of intermediate amplitude spectra processing in EXAFS spectrum measurements at Kurchatov SR source

  19. A quality control program for radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.E. de; Sibata, C.H.; Cecatti, E.R.; Kawakami, N.S.; Alexandre, A.C.; Chiavegatti Junior, M.

    1982-01-01

    An extensive quality control program was established covering the following areas: physical parameters of the therapeutical machines, dosimetric standards, preventive maintenance of radiation sources and measuring instruments. A critical evaluation of this program was done after two years (1977-1979) of routine application and the results will be presented. The fluctuation on physical parameters strongly supports the efforts and cost of a quality control program. This program has certainly improved the accuracy required on the delivery of the prescribed dose for radiotherapy treatment. (Author) [pt

  20. Tailoring mind-body therapies to individual needs: patients' program preference and psychological traits as moderators of the effects of mindfulness-based cancer recovery and supportive-expressive therapy in distressed breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Linda E; Tamagawa, Rie; Stephen, Joanne; Doll, Richard; Faris, Peter; Dirkse, Dale; Speca, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR) and supportive-expressive therapy (SET) are well-validated psycho-oncological interventions, and we have previously reported health benefits of both programs. However, little is known about patients' characteristics or program preferences that may influence outcomes. Therefore, this study examined moderators of the effects of MBCR and SET on psychological well-being among breast cancer survivors. A multi-site randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2007 and 2012 in two Canadian cities (Calgary and Vancouver). A total of 271 distressed stage I-III breast cancer survivors were randomized into MBCR, SET or a 1-day stress management seminar (SMS). Baseline measures of moderator variables included program preference, personality traits, emotional suppression, and repressive coping. Outcome measures of mood, stress symptoms, quality of life, spiritual well-being, post-traumatic growth, social support, and salivary cortisol were measured pre- and post intervention. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess moderator effects on outcomes. The most preferred program was MBCR (55%). Those who were randomized to their preference improved more over time on quality of life and spiritual well-being post-intervention regardless of the actual intervention type received. Women with greater psychological morbidity at baseline showed greater improvement in stress symptoms and quality of life if they received their preferred versus nonpreferred program. Patients' program preference and baseline psychological functioning, rather than personality, were predictive of program benefits. These results suggest incorporating program preference can maximize the efficacy of integrative oncology interventions, and emphasize the methodological importance of assessing and accommodating for preferences when conducting mind-body clinical trials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  1. Effectiveness of Core Stability Exercises and Recovery Myofascial Release Massage on Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cantarero-Villanueva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week multimodal program focused on core stability exercises and recovery massage with DVD support for a 6-month period in physical and psychological outcomes in breast cancer survivors. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Seventy-eight (n=78 breast cancer survivors were assigned to experimental (core stability exercises plus massage-myofascial release and control (usual health care groups. The intervention period was 8 weeks. Mood state, fatigue, trunk curl endurance, and leg strength were determined at baseline, after the last treatment session, and at 6 months of followup. Immediately after treatment and at 6 months, fatigue, mood state, trunk curl endurance, and leg strength exhibited greater improvement within the experimental group compared to placebo group. This paper showed that a multimodal program focused on core stability exercises and massage reduced fatigue, tension, depression, and improved vigor and muscle strength after intervention and 6 months after discharge.

  2. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attent...

  3. Population-based prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria: implications for cervical cancer control programs and human papilloma virus immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J O; Ojemakinde, K O; Ajayi, I O; Omigbodun, A O; Fawole, O I; Oladepo, O

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytological findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. All women aged ≥15 years in each household in Idikan, Ibadan, were invited to participate in a population-based study. Structured questionnaires were administered to all consenting women. Conventional cervical Papanicolaou smears obtained from sexually active women were classified using the 2001 Bethesda system. The diagnoses were correlated with sociodemographic data and risk factors. Of 2,870 women aged ≥15 years estimated to live in Idikan, 1,204 sexually active women consented to pelvic examination and cervical smears. Results were available for 1,104 women (mean age: 39.8 years). Mean ages at menarche, first sexual intercourse and first pregnancy were 16.1, 20.3 and 20.7 years, respectively. Cytological results were categorized into atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and atypical glandular cells 22 (1.99%); low-grade 43 (3.89%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) 17 (1.54%); invasive cancer 2 (0.18%) and normal 593 (53.8%) and reactive changes 427 (38.7%). The prevalence of epithelial abnormalities is 7.6%. Significant host-related factors in those with HSIL and invasive cancer included older age (mean 56.2 years), high parity and gravidity, lack of formal education and being divorced (p prevalence data and local risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in a Nigerian population, which will be useful for planning future cervical cancer control programs. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Recurrence after surgery due to cervical cancer - An evaluation of the follow-up program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective During the last 20 years the follow-up program after surgical treatment for cervical cancer has remained unchanged. Surprisingly, little is communicated in relation to the follow-up program even though it has a huge impact on the life of the women and their relatives for five years....... The focus for this study is to evaluate the follow-up program in fulfilling the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence while reminding and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery, 10 times during five years. Already politicians are focusing on the subject due to the socioeconomic...... consequences, but there is a need for a foundation prior to an adjustment of the follow-up program. Methods Design: retrospective study of a cohort of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer. Material: From the patient register at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics...

  5. Integrative Reiki for cancer patients: a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Kimberly A; Mackenzie, Elizabeth R; Frankel, Eitan S; Seluzicki, Christina; Casarett, David; Mao, Jun J

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study sought to evaluate the outcomes of an integrative Reiki volunteer program in an academic medical oncology center setting. We used de-identified program evaluation data to perform both quantitative and qualitative analyses of participants' experiences of Reiki sessions. The quantitative data were collected pre- and postsession using a modified version of the distress thermometer. The pre- and postsession data from the distress assessment were analyzed using a paired Student's : test. The qualitative data were derived from written responses to open-ended questions asked after each Reiki session and were analyzed for key words and recurring themes. Of the 213 pre-post surveys of first-time sessions in the evaluation period, we observed a more than 50% decrease in self-reported distress (from 3.80 to 1.55), anxiety (from 4.05 to 1.44), depression (from 2.54 to 1.10), pain (from 2.58 to 1.21), and fatigue (from 4.80 to 2.30) with P Reiki, we found 176 (82.6%) of participants liked the Reiki session, 176 (82.6%) found the Reiki session helpful, 157 (73.7%) plan to continue using Reiki, and 175 (82.2%) would recommend Reiki to others. Qualitative analyses found that individuals reported that Reiki induced relaxation and enhanced spiritual well-being. An integrative Reiki volunteer program shows promise as a component of supportive care for cancer patients. More research is needed to evaluate and understand the impact that Reiki may have for patients, caregivers, and staff whose lives have been affected by cancer.

  6. Feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Midtgaard, Julie; Rorth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience considerable loss of physical capacity and general wellbeing when diagnosed and treated for their disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients...... during advanced stages of disease who are undergoing adjuvant or high-dose chemotherapy. The supervised program included high- and low-intensity activities (physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training). A total of 23 patients between 18 and 65 years of age (median 40 years...... significance. It is concluded that an exercise program, which combines high- and low-intensity physical activities, may be used to prevent and/or minimize physical inactivity, fatigue, muscle wasting and energy loss in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy....

  7. Follow-up after rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovdenak Jakobsen, Ida; Juul, Therese; Bernstein, Inge

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main treatment for non-metastatic rectal cancer (RC) is surgical resection. Late adverse effects that are highly prevalent and negatively impact patients' symptom burden and quality of life are: bowel-, urological and sexual dysfunctions; psychological distress; fear of recurrence....... As a consequence, the randomized controlled trial Follow-up after Rectal Cancer (FURCA) has been launched, testing the effect of a new patient-led, follow-up program. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology used in the FURCA study and to report results from the development of the patient-led, follow......, or a control group following the current follow-up program with routine medicals. The primary outcomes are symptom burden and quality of life, measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire. Other outcome and demographic data are collected as patient...

  8. Cancer prevention and control: alarming challenges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-03-01

    China is geographically the third largest country in the world and the most populated low-to-middle-income country. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for some cancers in the USA and European countries have steadily decreased over the last decades, whereas the incidence and mortality of certain cancers in China have been increasing at an alarming speed. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in China have been accompanied by incredible changes in lifestyle and environment combined with an aging population. Mortality caused by lung, colorectal and breast cancers has been steadily increasing, whereas cancer mortality from gastric, esophageal and cervical tumors has tended to decrease. Similar to what has occurred in the United States, unhealthy lifestyles in China, including heavy smoking and poor diet combined with pollution, have contributed to increased cancer risk. China is facing many challenges in cancer treatment and prevention for the general population. The major areas that need to be addressed in the control of cancer in China include cancers associated with environmental pollution, tobacco use, occupational carcinogens, infection, excessive alcohol consumption, dietary deficiencies and obesity. In this perspective, we review the problems in each area and suggest ideas for future directions in cancer research and strategies and actions to reduce the incidence of cancer in China.

  9. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, Isabelle; Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Hennewig, Ulrike; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  10. Recent progress and future direction of cancer epidemiological research in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-06-01

    In 2006, the Cancer Control Act was approved and a Basic Plan, to Promote the Cancer Control Program at the national level, was developed in 2007. Cancer research is recognized as a fundamental component to provide evidence in cancer control program. Cancer epidemiology plays central role in connecting research and policy, since it directly deals with data from humans. Research for cancer epidemiology in Japan made substantial progress, in the field of descriptive studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and activities for summarizing evidences. In future, promoting high-quality large-scale intervention studies, individual-level linkage studies, simulation models and studies for elderly population will be of great importance, but at the same time research should be promoted in well-balanced fashion not placing too much emphasis on one particular research field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. DOE Radiological Control Manual Core Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, H.L.; Maisler, J.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past year, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health (EH-40) has taken a leading role in the development of new standardized radiological control training programs for use throughout the DOE complex. The Department promulgated its Radiological Control (RadCon) Manual in June 1992. To ensure consistent application of the criteria presented in the RadCon Manual, standardized radiological control core training courses and training materials have been developed for implementation at all DOE facilities. In producing local training programs, standardized core courses are to be supplemented with site-specific lesson plans, viewgraphs, student handbooks, qualification standards, question banks, and wallet-sized training certificates. Training programs for General Employee Radiological Training, Radiological Worker I and II Training, and Radiological Control Technician Training have been disseminated. Also, training committees under the direction of the Office of Health (EH-40) have been established for the development of additional core training courses, development of examination banks, and the update of the existing core training courses. This paper discusses the current activities and future direction of the DOE radiological control core training program

  12. Smartphone-Enabled Health Coaching Intervention (iMOVE) to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors: Protocol for a Feasibility Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Paul; Obadia, Maya; Santa Mina, Daniel; Alibhai, Shabbir; Sabiston, Catherine; Oh, Paul; Campbell, Kristin; McCready, David; Auger, Leslie; Jones, Jennifer Michelle

    2017-08-24

    Although physical activity has been shown to contribute to long-term disease control and health in breast cancer survivors, a majority of breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity guidelines. Past research has focused on promoting physical activity components for short-term breast cancer survivor benefits, but insufficient attention has been devoted to long-term outcomes and sustained exercise adherence. We are assessing a health coach intervention (iMOVE) that uses mobile technology to increase and sustain physical activity maintenance in initially inactive breast cancer survivors. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an initial step in evaluating the iMOVE intervention and will inform development of a full-scale pragmatic RCT. We will enroll 107 physically inactive breast cancer survivors and randomly assign them to intervention or control groups at the University Health Network, a tertiary cancer care center in Toronto, Canada. Participants will be women (age 18 to 74 years) stratified by age (55 years and older/younger than 55 years) and adjuvant hormone therapy (AHT) exposure (AHT vs no AHT) following breast cancer treatment with no metastases or recurrence who report less than 60 minutes of preplanned physical activity per week. Both intervention and control groups receive the 12-week physical activity program with weekly group sessions and an individualized, progressive, home-based exercise program. The intervention group will additionally receive (1) 10 telephone-based health coaching sessions, (2) smartphone with data plan, if needed, (3) supportive health tracking software (Connected Wellness, NexJ Health Inc), and (4) a wearable step-counting device linked to a smartphone program. We will be assessing recruitment rates; acceptability reflected in selective, semistructured interviews; and enrollment, retention, and adherence quantitative intervention markers as pilot outcome measures. The primary clinical outcome will be directly

  13. Spiritual therapy to improve the spiritual well-being of Iranian women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Zamani, Ahmadreza; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Emami, Hamid; Loghmani, Amir; Jafari, Nooshin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of spiritual therapy intervention in improving the spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) of Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) recruited 65 women with breast cancer, randomly assigned to a 6-week spirituality-based intervention (n = 34) or control group (n = 31). Before and after six-week spiritual therapy intervention, spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being scale (FACIT-Sp12) and cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30), respectively. t-test, Paired t-test, pearson's correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used for analysis using Predictive Analytic software (PASW, version 18) for Windows. Results. After six spiritual therapy sessions, the mean spiritual well-being score from 29.76 (SD = 6.63) to 37.24 (SD = 3.52) in the intervention group (P spiritual well-being and overall QOL. Social functioning was another significant predictor of spiritual well-being. Conclusion. The results of this randomized controlled trial study suggest that participation in spiritual therapy program is associated with improvements in spiritual well-being and QOL. Targeted interventions to acknowledge and incorporate spiritual needs into conventional treatment should be considered in caring of Iranian patients with breast cancer.

  14. The Effect of Educational-Spiritual Intervention on The Burnout of The Parents of School Age Children with Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Beheshtipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents of children with cancer experience high levels of stress and discomfort. Religious beliefs are important sources of comfort and support for many cancer patients and their families. The present study aimed to assess the effect of educational-spiritual intervention on burnout of the parents of the children with cancer. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 135 parents of children with cancer were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. Data were collected through SMBQ (Shirom and Melamed Burnout Questionnaire from both groups, before, immediately after and one month after the intervention. Educational-spiritual programs were held for six weeks, one session every week. The data were analyzed by SPSS using independent t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA. Results: The results showed that the mean burnout score before the intervention in the intervention group was 4.28±0.61 and in the control group it was 4.23±0.50; most of the parents reported moderate to high burnout. But, there was a significant difference between the intervention and control groups immediately after and one month after the intervention (t=10.16, P<0.0001. The mean burnout score in the intervention group was less than the control group. Results also showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of parental burnout in three times of measurements (F=58.62, P<0.0001. Conclusion: This study indicated that educational-spiritual intervention was effective on reduction of the burnout of the parents of the children with cancer. Due to high burnout of most of the parents, offering such a program could be beneficial for them. More studies in this regard are recommended.

  15. A systematic review of studies evaluating diffusion and dissemination of selected cancer control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peter; Robinson, Paula; Ciliska, Donna; Armour, Tanya; Brouwers, Melissa; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Sussman, Jonathan; Raina, Parminder

    2005-09-01

    With this review, the authors sought to determine what strategies have been evaluated (including the outcomes assessed) to disseminate cancer control interventions that promote the uptake of behavior change. Five topic areas along the cancer care continuum (smoking cessation, healthy diet, mammography, cervical cancer screening, and control of cancer pain) were selected to be representative. A systematic review was conducted of primary studies evaluating dissemination of a cancer control intervention. Thirty-one studies were identified that evaluated dissemination strategies in the 5 topic areas. No strong evidence currently exists to recommend any one dissemination strategy as effective in promoting the uptake of cancer control interventions. The authors conclude that there is a strong need for more research into dissemination of cancer control interventions. Future research should consider methodological issues such as the most appropriate study design and outcomes to be evaluated. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Programming and Quadratic Programming Algorithms for Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc; Acosta, Diana M.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation (NextGen) transport aircraft configurations being investigated as part of the NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project have more control surfaces, or control effectors, than existing transport aircraft configurations. Conventional flight control is achieved through two symmetric elevators, two antisymmetric ailerons, and a rudder. The five effectors, reduced to three command variables, produce moments along the three main axes of the aircraft and enable the pilot to control the attitude and flight path of the aircraft. The NextGen aircraft will have additional redundant control effectors to control the three moments, creating a situation where the aircraft is over-actuated and where a simple relationship does not exist anymore between the required effector deflections and the desired moments. NextGen flight controllers will incorporate control allocation algorithms to determine the optimal effector commands and attain the desired moments, taking into account the effector limits. Approaches to solving the problem using linear programming and quadratic programming algorithms have been proposed and tested. It is of great interest to understand their relative advantages and disadvantages and how design parameters may affect their properties. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the effector commands with respect to the desired moments and show on some examples that the solutions provided using the l2 norm of quadratic programming are less sensitive than those using the l1 norm of linear programming.

  17. Psychosocial consequences of allocation to lung cancer screening: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggestrup, Louise Mosborg; Hestbech, Mie Sara; Siersma, Volkert; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Brodersen, John

    2012-01-01

    To examine the psychosocial consequences of being allocated to the control group as compared with the screen group in a randomised lung cancer screening trial. The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, a randomised controlled trial, ran from 2004 to 2010 with the purpose of investigating the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening. The participants in Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were randomised to either the control group or the screen group and were asked to complete the questionnaires Consequences Of Screening and Consequences Of Screening in Lung Cancer (COS-LC). The Consequences Of Screening and the COS-LC were used to examine the psychosocial consequences of participating in the study, by comparing the control and the screen groups' responses at the prevalence and at the incidence round. There was no statistically significant difference in socio-demographic characteristics or smoking habits between the two groups. Responses to the COS-LC collected before the incidence round were statistically significantly different on the scales 'anxiety', 'behaviour', 'dejection', 'self-blame', 'focus on airway symptoms' and 'introvert', with the control group reporting higher negative psychosocial consequences. Furthermore, the participants in both the control and the screen groups exhibited a mean increase in negative psychosocial consequences when their responses from the prevalence round were compared with their responses from the first incidence round. Participation in a randomised controlled trial on lung cancer screening has negative psychosocial consequences for the apparently healthy participants-both the participants in the screen group and the control group. This negative impact was greatest for the control group.

  18. Telehealth system: A randomized controlled trial evaluating the impact of an internet-based exercise intervention on quality of life, pain, muscle strength, and fatigue in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Ariza-García, Angélica; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Del-Moral-Ávila, Rosario; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2016-10-15

    The chronicity status of breast cancer survivors suggests a growing need for cancer rehabilitation. Currently, the use of technology is a promising strategy for providing support, as reflected in the emergence of research interest in Web-based interventions in cancer survivorship. A randomized controlled trial was conducted that included a total of 81 participants who had completed adjuvant therapy (except hormone treatment) for stage I to IIIA breast cancer. Participants were randomly assigned to an 8-week Internet-based, tailored exercise program (n = 40) or to a control group (n = 41).The instruments used at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6-month follow-up were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core 30 and its breast cancer module, the Brief Pain Inventory, the handgrip dynamometer, the isometric abdominal test, the back dynamometer, the multiple sit-to-stand test, and the Piper Fatigue Scale. After the intervention, the telerehabilitation group had significantly improved scores for global health status, physical, role, cognitive functioning, and arm symptoms (all P < .01) as well as pain severity (P = .001) and pain interference (P = .045) compared with the control group. Significant improvements also were observed favoring the telerehabilitation group for affected and nonaffected side handgrip (both P = .006), abdominal, back and lower body strength (all P < .01), and total fatigue (P < .001). These findings were maintained after 6 months of follow-up, except for role functioning, pain severity, and nonaffected side handgrip. Analysis was based on an intention-to-treat principle. This program may improve adverse effects and maintain benefits in breast cancer survivors. The results of this study have encouraging implications for cancer care. Cancer 2016;122:3166-74. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  19. The Development of a Mindfulness-Based Music Therapy (MBMT) Program for Women Receiving Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Problems with attention and symptom distress are common clinical features reported by women who receive adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Mindfulness practice significantly improves attention and mindfulness programs significantly reduce symptom distress in patients with cancer, and, more specifically, in women with breast cancer. Recently, a pilot investigation of a music therapy program, built on core attitudes of mindfulness practice, reported significant benefits of enhanced attention and decreased negative mood and fatigue in women with breast cancer. This paper delineates the design and development of the mindfulness-based music therapy (MBMT) program implemented in that pilot study and includes clients’ narrative journal responses. Conclusions and recommendations, including recommendation for further exploration of the function of music in mindfulness practice are provided. PMID:27517966

  20. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  1. Electroacupuncture treatment for pancreatic cancer pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Tang-Yi; Kuai, Le; Zhu, Ji; Wu, Cai-Jun; Liu, Lu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is often accompanied by severe abdominal or back pain. It's the first study to evaluate the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on pancreatic cancer pain. A randomized controlled trial compared electroacupuncture with control acupuncture using the placebo needle. Sixty patients with pancreatic cancer pain were randomly assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 30) and the placebo control group (n = 30). Patients were treated on Jiaji (Ex-B2) points T8-T12 bilaterally for 30 min once a day for 3 days. Pain intensity was assessed with numerical rated scales (NRS) before the treatment (Baseline), after 3 treatments, and 2 days follow-up. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. After 3 treatment, pain intensity on NRS decreased compared with Baseline (-1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.46 to -1.87) in the electroacupuncture group; there was little change (-0.13, 95% CI 0.08 to -0.35) in control group; the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P electroacupuncture group compared with the control group (P Electroacupuncture was an effective treatment for relieving pancreatic cancer pain. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Program Baseline Change Control Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This procedure establishes the responsibilities and process for approving initial issues of and changes to the technical, cost, and schedule baselines, and selected management documents developed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This procedure implements the OCRWM Baseline Management Plan and DOE Order 4700.1, Chg 1. It streamlines the change control process to enhance integration, accountability, and traceability of Level 0 and Level I decisions through standardized Baseline Change Proposal (BCP) forms to be used by the Level 0, 1, 2, and 3 Baseline Change Control Boards (BCCBs) and to be tracked in the OCRWM-wide Configuration Information System (CIS) Database.This procedure applies to all technical, cost, and schedule baselines controlled by the Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB) BCCB (Level 0) and, OCRWM Program Baseline Control Board (PBCCB) (Level 1). All baseline BCPs initiated by Level 2 or lower BCCBs, which require approval from ESAAB or PBCCB, shall be processed in accordance with this procedure. This procedure also applies to all Program-level management documents controlled by the OCRWM PBCCB

  3. Web-based cognitive rehabilitation for survivors of adult cancer: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihuta, Mary E; Green, Heather J; Shum, David H K

    2018-04-01

    Cognitive dysfunction associated with cancer is frequently reported and can reduce quality of life. This study evaluated a Web-based cognitive rehabilitation therapy program (eReCog) in cancer survivors compared with a waitlist control group. Adult cancer survivors with self-reported cognitive symptoms who had completed primary treatment at least 6 months prior were recruited. Participants completed telephone screening and were randomly allocated to the 4-week online intervention or waitlist. Primary outcome was perceived cognitive impairment assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cognitive Function version 3. Secondary outcomes were additional measures of subjective cognitive functioning, objective cognitive functioning, and psychosocial variables. Seventy-six women were allocated to the intervention (n = 40) or waitlist (n = 36). A significant interaction was found on the instrumental activities of daily living measure of self-reported prospective memory whereby the intervention group reported a greater reduction in prospective memory failures than the waitlist group. Interaction trends were noted on perceived cognitive impairments (P = .089) and executive functioning (P = .074). No significant interactions were observed on other measures of objective cognitive functioning or psychosocial variables. The Web-based intervention shows promise for improving self-reported cognitive functioning in adult cancer survivors. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which the intervention might contribute to improved self-reported cognition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Guided Synthesis of Control Programs Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hune, T.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Pettersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    the transitions with extra guards. Applying this technique have made synthesis of control programs feasible for a plant producing as many as 60 batches. In comparison, we could only handle plants producing two batches without using guides. The synthesized control programs have been executed in a physical plant...

  5. Exercise and nutrition for head and neck cancer patients: a patient oriented, clinic-supported randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capozzi Lauren C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on physical activity and nutrition interventions aimed at positively impacting symptom management, treatment-related recovery and quality of life has largely excluded head and neck (HN cancer populations. This translates into a lack of clinical programming available for these patient populations. HN cancer patients deal with severe weight loss, with more than 70% attributed to lean muscle wasting, leading to extended recovery times, decreased quality of life (QoL, and impaired physical functioning. To date, interventions to address body composition issues have focused solely on diet, despite findings that nutritional therapy alone is insufficient to mitigate changes. A combined physical activity and nutrition intervention, that also incorporates important educational components known to positively impact behaviour change, is warranted for this population. Our pilot work suggests that there is large patient demand and clinic support from the health care professionals for a comprehensive program. Methods/Design Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to examine the impact and timing of a 12-week PA and nutrition intervention (either during or following treatment for HN cancer patients on body composition, recovery, serum inflammatory markers and quality of life. In addition, we will examine the impact of a 12-week maintenance program, delivered immediately following the intervention, on adherence, patient-reported outcomes (i.e., management of both physical and psychosocial treatment-related symptoms and side-effects, as well as return to work. Discussion This research will facilitate advancements in patient wellness, survivorship, and autonomy, and carve the path for a physical-activity and wellness-education model that can be implemented in other cancer centers. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials NCT01681654

  6. Effects of occupational therapy on quality of life of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Meral; Huri, Emre; Kayihan, Hulya; Altuntas, Onur

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of occupational therapy relative to a home program in improving quality of life (QoL) among men who were treated for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC). Fifty-five men were assigned randomly to either the 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy based occupational therapy (OT-CBSM) intervention (treatment group) or a home program (control group) between March 2012 and August 2014 in the Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was used to measure the occupational performance and identify difficulties in daily living activities. The QoL and symptom status were measured by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and its Prostate Cancer Module. A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention including client-centered training of daily living activities, recreational group activities, and cognitive behavioral stress management intervention were applied. The COPM performance and satisfaction scores, which indicate occupational participation and QoL increased statistically in the treatment group in relation to men who were included in the home-program (p less than or equal to 0.05). A 12-week OT-CBSM intervention was effective in improving QoL in men treated for MPC, and these changes were associated significantly with occupational performance.

  7. 7 CFR 58.141 - Alternate quality control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control program. 58.141 Section 58... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Milk § 58.141 Alternate quality control program. When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality program, at the producer level, which is approved by the...

  8. Graphical programming: On-line robot simulation for telerobotic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, M.J.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia has developed an advanced operational control system approach, caged Graphical Programming, to design and operate robotic waste cleanup and other hazardous duty robotic systems. The Graphical Programming approach produces robot systems that are faster to develop and use, safer in operation, and cheaper overall than altemative teleoperation or autonomous robot control systems. The Graphical Programming approach uses 3-D visualization and simulation software with intuitive operator interfaces for the programming and control of complex robotic systems. Graphical Programming Supervisor software modules allow an operator to command and simulate complex tasks in a graphic preview mode and, when acceptable, command the actual robots and monitor their motions with the graphic system. Graphical Progranuning Supervisors maintain registration with the real world and allow the robot to perform tasks that cannot be accurately represented with models alone by using a combination of model and sensor-based control. This paper describes the Graphical Programming approach, several example control systems that use Graphical Programming, and key features necessary for implementing successful Graphical Programming systems

  9. Progressive resistance training and stretching following surgery for breast cancer: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Leigh C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently 1 in 11 women over the age of 60 in Australia are diagnosed with breast cancer. Following treatment, most breast cancer patients are left with shoulder and arm impairments which can impact significantly on quality of life and interfere substantially with activities of daily living. The primary aim of the proposed study is to determine whether upper limb impairments can be prevented by undertaking an exercise program of prolonged stretching and resistance training, commencing soon after surgery. Methods/design We will recruit 180 women who have had surgery for early stage breast cancer to a multicenter single-blind randomized controlled trial. At 4 weeks post surgery, women will be randomly assigned to either an exercise group or a usual care (control group. Women allocated to the exercise group will perform exercises daily, and will be supervised once a week for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, women will be given a home-based training program to continue indefinitely. Women in the usual care group will receive the same care as is now typically provided, i.e. a visit by the physiotherapist and occupational therapist while an inpatient, and receipt of pamphlets. All subjects will be assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months later. The primary measure is arm symptoms, derived from a breast cancer specific questionnaire (BR23. In addition, range of motion, strength, swelling, pain and quality of life will be assessed. Discussion This study will determine whether exercise commencing soon after surgery can prevent secondary problems associated with treatment of breast cancer, and will thus provide the basis for successful rehabilitation and reduction in ongoing problems and health care use. Additionally, it will identify whether strengthening exercises reduce the incidence of arm swelling. Trial Registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN012606000050550.

  10. Angra nuclear plant - environmental control program; Usina Nuclear de Angra: programa de controle ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kircher, E; Cruz, E.S. da [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The pre-operational studies, that were elaborated before the beginning of Angra I Power Plant operation, are described in particular the environmental radiological safety area till the fuel loading in the core reactor. Several aspects are included, as socio-economic survey, seismological analysis, Meteorological Program, marine biology, water cooling system, exposure measures of natural radiation, marine sediments characterization in the effluent dispersion area and Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. The main environmental programs developed for the operational phase of the Angra I Plant are also presented, citing some considerations about the Meteorological Program, Marine Biology Control Program, Temperature and Chlorine Control in Piraquara de Fora Bay, Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program, Sanitary Effluent Control Program and Radiological Emergency Program. (C.G.C.). 2 refs.

  11. Is breast compression associated with breast cancer detection and other early performance measures in a population-based breast cancer screening program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate early performance measures in a population-based breast cancer screening program stratified by compression force and pressure at the time of mammographic screening examination. Early performance measures included recall rate, rates of screen-detected and interval breast cancers, positive predictive value of recall (PPV), sensitivity, specificity, and histopathologic characteristics of screen-detected and interval breast cancers. Information on 261,641 mammographic examinations from 93,444 subsequently screened women was used for analyses. The study period was 2007-2015. Compression force and pressure were categorized using tertiles as low, medium, or high. χ 2 test, t tests, and test for trend were used to examine differences between early performance measures across categories of compression force and pressure. We applied generalized estimating equations to identify the odds ratios (OR) of screen-detected or interval breast cancer associated with compression force and pressure, adjusting for fibroglandular and/or breast volume and age. The recall rate decreased, while PPV and specificity increased with increasing compression force (p for trend screen-detected cancer, PPV, sensitivity, and specificity decreased with increasing compression pressure (p for trend breast cancer compared with low compression pressure (1.89; 95% CI 1.43-2.48). High compression force and low compression pressure were associated with more favorable early performance measures in the screening program.

  12. Measurement control program for nuclear material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Merrill, J.A.; Brown, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurments of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities, equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality

  13. The advanced controls program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the ''Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor [ALWR] and high temperature gas-cooled reactor [HTGR] designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R ampersand D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs

  14. Well-directed inclusion of hematology in African national cancer control plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann; Yao, Atteby J J; Renner, Lorna; Harif, Mhamed; Lam, Catherine G

    2017-07-01

    In the context of a convergent call for noncommunicable disease integration in the global agenda, recognizing cross-cutting needs and opportunities in national strategies across disease fields with shared priorities in low- and middle-income settings can enhance sustainable development approaches. We reviewed publicly available cancer control plans in Africa to evaluate for inclusion of hematology needs and shared service priorities. Pediatric data remain sparse in cancer control plans. While continental Africa represents incredible diversity, recognizing shared priorities and opportunity for collaboration between oncology and hematology services and across age groups may guide prioritized cancer control efforts and reduce programmatic redundancies in resource-limited settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... 16, 2011. 9 a.m.-12:30 p.m., June 17, 2011. Place: Westin Atlanta Perimeter North, 7 Concourse... program goals and objectives; implementation strategies; and program, priorities including surveillance... Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Marketing Tool kit for increased awareness for the state programs...

  16. Rates and predictors of colorectal cancer screening by race among motivated men participating in a prostate cancer risk assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael J.; Ruth, Karen; Giri, Veda N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Screening by fecal occult blood test and lower endoscopy have lowered colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, but compliance gaps persist. Of concern are possible disparities in uptake of CRC screening between White and African American (AA) men. Our goal was to assess for disparities in uptake of CRC screening among men participating in a high-risk prostate cancer clinic. If present, such disparities could support hypotheses for further research examining racial differences in awareness and patient preferences in undergoing CRC screening. Methods Baseline data on a racially diverse cohort of men age 50–69 at increased risk of prostate cancer collected via the prostate cancer risk assessment program (PRAP) at Fox Chase Cancer Center were analyzed. Predictors of uptake of CRC screening were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Compared to Whites, AA men had statistically significantly lower uptake of fecal occult blood testing (AA 49.0% vs White 60.7%, p=0.035), lower endoscopy (AA 44.1% vs White 58.5%, p=0.011), and any CRC screening (AA 66.2% vs White 76.3%, p=0.053). Predictors of uptake of lower endoscopy among AA men included older age (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.87–6.97), family history of CRC (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.30–9.25), and insurance status (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.04–3.46). Conclusion Despite awareness of cancer risk and motivation to seek prostate cancer screening through a specialized prostate cancer risk assessment program, evidence supporting compliance gaps with CRC screening among men was found. Tailored messages to younger AA men with and without a family history of CRC are needed. PMID:21751189

  17. Improving clinical research and cancer care delivery in community settings: evaluating the NCI community cancer centers program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauser, Steven B; Johnson, Maureen R; O'Brien, Donna M; Beveridge, Joy M; Fennell, Mary L; Kaluzny, Arnold D

    2009-09-26

    In this article, we describe the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) pilot and the evaluation designed to assess its role, function, and relevance to the NCI's research mission. In doing so, we describe the evolution of and rationale for the NCCCP concept, participating sites' characteristics, its multi-faceted aims to enhance clinical research and quality of care in community settings, and the role of strategic partnerships, both within and outside of the NCCCP network, in achieving program objectives. The evaluation of the NCCCP is conceptualized as a mixed method multi-layered assessment of organizational innovation and performance which includes mapping the evolution of site development as a means of understanding the inter- and intra-organizational change in the pilot, and the application of specific evaluation metrics for assessing the implementation, operations, and performance of the NCCCP pilot. The assessment of the cost of the pilot as an additional means of informing the longer-term feasibility and sustainability of the program is also discussed. The NCCCP is a major systems-level set of organizational innovations to enhance clinical research and care delivery in diverse communities across the United States. Assessment of the extent to which the program achieves its aims will depend on a full understanding of how individual, organizational, and environmental factors align (or fail to align) to achieve these improvements, and at what cost.

  18. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  19. Cancer Prevention Programs in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Michael P.

    When employees develop cancer, businesses bear not only the direct medical costs of the disease, but also the indirect costs associated with lost work time, disability payments, loss of a trained employee, and retraining. Research has confirmed that aggressive prevention and screening programs can be, and indeed are, effective in limiting the…

  20. Microenvironment-Programmed Metastatic Prostate Cancer Stem Cells (mPCSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    with meta- static prostate cancer and serum prostate- specific antigen levels of < 10 ng/mL. BJU Int. 2005; 96:303–307. 59. Davis JN, Wojno KJ...renewal in vivo. As an example, in a recent study, prostate- specific antigen (PSA)-positive (PSAþ) and PSA/lo human prostate cancer cells were...In addition, transgene inser- tion of Cre recombinase under the control of a specific pro - moter may alter the function of the endogenous locus via

  1. Evaluation of the quality of the mammography study in the radio-diagnostic service of the National Cancer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Laverde, Alba Lucia; Pineros Petersen, Marion; Betancourt Gil, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    The development of mammography quality control programs at radiology services has had an important progress in the last decades, mainly in developed countries. Although breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality and incidence in Colombia, quality control programs for mammography screening are just beginning to be considered. This article describes the results of a baseline evaluation aimed at establishing a quality control program at the Radiology Unit of the National Cancer Institute, in Colombia. The mammography equipment, the film processing, and all main physical parameters were checked and compared to international standards. Quality of the image in 301 mammographic X-ray plates was evaluated. In order to implement a good quality control program, the need for acquiring essential instruments, improving physical facilities and starting a continuous training program is imperative

  2. A community intervention: AMBER: Arab American breast cancer education and referral program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayash, Claudia; Axelrod, Deborah; Nejmeh-Khoury, Sana; Aziz, Arwa; Yusr, Afrah; Gany, Francesca M

    2011-12-01

    Although the number of Arab Americans is growing in the United States, there is very little data available on this population's cancer incidence and screening practices. Moreover, there are few interventions addressing their unique needs. This study aims to determine effective strategies for increasing breast cancer screening in at-risk underserved Arab American women. AMBER utilizes a community based participatory approach to conduct formative research and program interventions, including culturally appropriate Arabic language breast cancer education, screening coordination, and cultural competency training for healthcare professionals in New York City. In 2 years, 597 women were educated, 189 underserved women were identified as being in need of assistance, 68 were screened, one new case of breast cancer was detected, and four active cases in need of follow-up reconnected with care. The AMBER model is an important intervention for breast cancer screening and care in the underserved Arab American community.

  3. Screening program for prostate cancer at a university hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Saud A.; Kamal, Baher A.

    2005-01-01

    Implementation of a pilot screening program for prostate cancer among Saudi patients that would serve as a nucleus for a Kingdom-wide screening program. A prospective study on 1,213 Saudi males between 50-80 years of age who attended the Outpatient Department at King Fahd Hospital of King Faisal University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during a period of 18 months (April 2001-October 2002). They were included at random from different clinics including the urology clinic. Free and total prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) of the prostate were performed in all patients. Patients with abnormal DRE or PSA were scheduled for transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and ultrasound guided biopsy of the prostate. Abnormal DRE or PSA were present in 84 out of 1,213 patients. Only 63 patients agreed to have TRUS and ultrasound guided biopsies. Prostate cancer was confirmed in 14 out of 1,192 patients who completed the study (1.17%). The incidence of prostate cancer among Saudi men in this hospital based study is low. A population based screening for prostate cancer may reveal the incidence of this disease. (author)

  4. Inhibition of Non-flux-Controlling Enzymes Deters Cancer Glycolysis by Accumulation of Regulatory Metabolites of Controlling Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Hernández, Álvaro; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Del Mazo-Monsalvo, Isis; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Sara; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Saavedra, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Glycolysis provides precursors for the synthesis of macromolecules and may contribute to the ATP supply required for the constant and accelerated cellular duplication in cancer cells. In consequence, inhibition of glycolysis has been reiteratively considered as an anti-cancer therapeutic option. In previous studies, kinetic modeling of glycolysis in cancer cells allowed the identification of the main steps that control the glycolytic flux: glucose transporter, hexokinase (HK), hexose phosphate isomerase (HPI), and glycogen degradation in human cervix HeLa cancer cells and rat AS-30D ascites hepatocarcinoma. It was also previously experimentally determined that simultaneous inhibition of the non-controlling enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PYK), and enolase (ENO) brings about significant decrease in the glycolytic flux of cancer cells and accumulation of intermediate metabolites, mainly fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (Fru1,6BP), and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), which are inhibitors of HK and HPI, respectively. Here it was found by kinetic modeling that inhibition of cancer glycolysis can be attained by blocking downstream non flux-controlling steps as long as Fru1,6BP and DHAP, regulatory metabolites of flux-controlling enzymes, are accumulated. Furthermore, experimental results and further modeling showed that oxamate and iodoacetate inhibitions of PYK, ENO, and glyceraldehyde3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), but not of LDH and phosphoglycerate kinase, induced accumulation of Fru1,6BP and DHAP in AS-30D hepatoma cells. Indeed, PYK, ENO, and GAPDH exerted the highest control on the Fru1,6BP and DHAP concentrations. The high levels of these metabolites inhibited HK and HPI and led to glycolytic flux inhibition, ATP diminution, and accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal. Hence, the anticancer effects of downstream glycolytic inhibitors are very likely mediated by this mechanism. In parallel, it was also found that uncompetitive inhibition of the

  5. Measurement control program for new special recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes the design of the measurement control (MC) program for the New Special Recovery facility. The MC program is divided into two levels. Level 1 MC checks are performed at the individual instrument computer and will always be functional even when the instrument-control computer is down. The level 1 MCs are divided into statistical checks for both bias and precision, and diagnostic checks. All the instruments are connected on line to an instrument-control computer to which the measurement results can be communicated. Level 2 MC analyses are performed at this computer. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted quickly and easily. Recommendations are also made in terms of the frequency of the tests, the standard used, and other operational aspects of the MC program. 16 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  6. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazir, N.; Waheed, A.; Farhat, K.; Ismail, M.

    2015-01-01

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  7. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  8. Innovative fertility preservation strategies and programs for young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson RH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca H Johnson Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Mary Bridge Hospital, MultiCare Health System, Tacoma, WA, USA Abstract: Preservation of fertility is a key issue for young adults newly diagnosed with cancer. Up to 90% of cancer patients under the age of 45 are at risk for fertility impairment following cancer therapy. Cancer patients who are not offered fertility preservation (FP and those who become infertile following therapy may experience long-term psychosocial distress. This review summarizes the numerous effective strategies for preserving fertility, including sperm banking, electroejaculation, and testicular sperm extraction in males and cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes in females. This paper also highlights novel methods currently in development, such as gonadal tissue cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of gametes. In women, anti-Mullerian hormone is emerging as an accurate marker of ovarian reserve, and the use of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs to protect fertility is increasingly well validated. Although national guidelines mandate FP counseling and referral prior to the start of cancer therapy for patients with reproductive potential, only a minority of young cancer patients in the USA currently take steps to preserve fertility prior to the start of therapy. Some cancer centers across the USA are developing institutional strategies to support FP, resulting in increased utilization of fertility services by newly diagnosed cancer patients. Keywords: young adult, cancer, fertility preservation, program, oocyte, sperm

  9. A randomized controlled trial of physical activity, dietary habit, and distress management with the Leadership and Coaching for Health (LEACH) program for disease-free cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Kim, Young Ae; Lee, Myung Kyung; Sim, Jin Ah; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Sung; Kim, Si-Young; Cho, Chi-Heum; Jung, Kyung Hae; Chun, Mison; Lee, Soon Nam; Park, Kyong Hwa; Park, Sohee

    2017-05-02

    We aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of the Leadership and Coaching for Health (LEACH) program on physical activity (PA), dietary habits, and distress management in cancer survivors. We randomly assigned 248 cancer survivors with an allocation ratio of two-to-one to the LEACH program (LP) group, coached by long-term survivors, or the usual care (UC) group. At baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, we used PA scores, the intake of vegetables and fruits (VF), and the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as primary outcomes and, for secondary outcomes, the Ten Rules for Highly Effective Health Behavior adhered to and quality of life (QOL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). For primary outcomes, the two groups did not significantly differ in PA scores or VF intake but differed marginally in PTGI. For secondary outcomes, the LP group showed a significantly greater improvement in the HADS anxiety score, the social functioning score, and the appetite loss and financial difficulties scores of the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales from baseline to 3 months. From baseline to 12 months, the LP group showed a significantly greater decrease in the EORTC QLQ-C30 fatigue score and a significantly greater increase in the number of the Ten Rules for Highly Effective Health Behavior. Our findings indicate that the LEACH program, coached by long-term survivors, can provide effective management of the QOL of cancer survivors but not of their PA or dietary habits. Clinical trial information can be found for the following: NCT01527409 (the date when the trial was registered: February 2012).

  10. Low priority main reason not to participate in a colorectal cancer screening program with a faecal occult blood test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, A.F. van; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Deutekom, M.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Fockens, P.; Bossuyt, P.M.; Dekker, E. den; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compared with screening programs for breast and cervical cancer, reported participation rates for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are low. The effectiveness of a screening program is strongly influenced by the participation rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the main

  11. Establishing and Sustaining a Prospective Screening Program for Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema at the Massachusetts General Hospital: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Brunelle

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing call to prospectively screen patients with breast cancer for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL following their breast cancer treatment. While the components of a prospective screening program have been published, some centers struggle with how to initiate, establish, and sustain a screening program of their own. The intent of this manuscript is to share our experience and struggles in establishing a prospective surveillance program within the infrastructure of our institution. It is our hope that by sharing our history other centers can learn from our mistakes and successes to better design their own prospective screening program to best serve their patient population.

  12. Cancer and risk of cerebral venous thrombosis: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, S. M.; Hiltunen, S.; Lindgren, E.; Jood, K.; Zuurbier, S. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Putaala, J.; Cannegieter, S. C.; Tatlisumak, T.; Coutinho, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cancer is an established risk factor for leg vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Controlled studies assessing the risk of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in patients with cancer have not been performed. Objective: To assess whether cancer is a risk factor for CVT. Patients/Methods:

  13. Dissemination of evidence-based cancer control interventions among Catholic faith-based organizations: results from the CRUZA randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Torres, Maria Idalí; Tom, Laura S; Leyva, Bryan; Galeas, Ana V; Ospino, Hosffman

    2016-05-18

    The CRUZA randomized trial tested the efficacy of an organizational-level intervention to increase the capacity of Catholic faith-based organizations (FBOs) serving Latinos to implement evidence-based strategies (EBS) for cancer control. Thirty-one Catholic parishes were enrolled. Twenty were randomized to a "capacity enhancement" (CE) intervention and 11 to a "standard dissemination" (SD) condition. Each received a Program Implementation Manual and Toolkit of materials culturally adapted for FBOs with Latino audiences for five types of EBS recommended by the US Preventive Services Community Guide. CE parishes were offered a menu of capacity-building activities over a 3-month period, while SD parishes were provided a one-time consultation by an Intervention Specialist. Baseline and follow-up surveys compared the number and types of EBS offered. At baseline, only one parish had offered any cancer-related program in the prior year, yet a third (36 %) had offered some other type of health program or service. At post-intervention follow-up, all parishes offered a greater number of EBS. The only statistically significant difference between CE and SD groups was the number of parishes offering small media interventions (90 % in CE, 64 % in SD; p support to carry out programming. Further research is needed to examine the extent to which program offerings continued after the period of grant funding. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01740219 .

  14. North Carolina Summer Undergraduate Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    W81XWH-16-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kounosuke Watabe, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: kwatabe@wakehealth.edu 5f...Achieved: Mentees attend all activities and prepare a poster /abstract for presentation. Specific Aim 3: To track and guide trainees on their progress...a mini-symposium where students presented their results. Friday, July 22, 2016 11:00 – 11:15 am Arrive at the Cancer Center with posters

  15. Response Across the Health-Literacy Spectrum of Kidney Transplant Recipients to a Sun-Protection Education Program Delivered on Tablet Computers: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June K; Friedewald, John J; Desai, Amishi; Gordon, Elisa J

    2015-08-18

    Sun protection can reduce skin cancer development in kidney transplant recipients, who have a greater risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma than the general population. A culturally sensitive sun-protection program (SunProtect) was created in English and Spanish with the option of choosing audio narration provided by the tablet computer (Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 10.1). The intervention, which showed skin cancer on patients with various skin tones, explained the following scenarios: skin cancer risk, the ability of sun protection to reduce this risk, as well as offered sun-protection choices. The length of the intervention was limited to the time usually spent waiting during a visit to the nephrologist. The development of this culturally sensitive, electronic, interactive sun-protection educational program, SunProtect, was guided by the "transtheoretical model," which focuses on decision making influenced by perceptions of personal risk or vulnerability to a health threat, importance (severity) of the disease, and benefit of sun-protection behavior. Transportation theory, which holds that narratives can have uniquely persuasive effects in overcoming preconceived beliefs and cognitive biases because people transported into a narrative world will alter their beliefs based on information, claims, or events depicted, guided the use of testimonials. Participant tablet use was self-directed. Self-reported responses to surveys were entered into the database through the tablet. Usability was tested through interviews. A randomized controlled pilot trial with 170 kidney transplant recipients was conducted, where the educational program (SunProtect) was delivered through a touch-screen tablet to 84 participants. The study involved 62 non-Hispanic white, 60 non-Hispanic black, and 48 Hispanic/Latino kidney transplant recipients. The demographic survey data showed no significant mean differences between the intervention and control groups in age, sex, income, or time since

  16. Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Training Program for Developing Nanomedicines to Treat Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    ABSTRACT We conducted an integrated training and educational program for improving the participation of HBCU undergraduate students in prostate cancer...None 1. INTRODUCTION We conducted an integrated training and educational program for improving the participation of HBCU undergraduate...strategies and their limitations and potential of combination therapy. She determined the recurrence and subsequent metastatic transformation

  17. Budget Impact Analysis of Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods (ACCION): A Successful Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program for a Medically Underserved Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumyang; Lairson, David R; Chung, Tong Han; Kim, Junghyun; Shokar, Navkiran K

    2017-06-01

    Given the uncertain cost of delivering community-based cancer screening programs, we developed a Markov simulation model to project the budget impact of implementing a comprehensive colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention program compared with the status quo. The study modeled the impacts on the costs of clinical services, materials, and staff expenditures for recruitment, education, fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), colonoscopy, follow-up, navigation, and initial treatment. We used data from the Against Colorectal Cancer In Our Neighborhoods comprehensive CRC prevention program implemented in El Paso, Texas, since 2012. We projected the 3-year financial consequences of the presence and absence of the CRC prevention program for a hypothetical population cohort of 10,000 Hispanic medically underserved individuals. The intervention cohort experienced a 23.4% higher test completion rate for CRC prevention, 8 additional CRC diagnoses, and 84 adenomas. The incremental 3-year cost was $1.74 million compared with the status quo. The program cost per person was $261 compared with $86 for the status quo. The costs were sensitive to the proportion of high-risk participants and the frequency of colonoscopy screening and diagnostic procedures. The budget impact mainly derived from colonoscopy-related costs incurred for the high-risk group. The effectiveness of FIT to detect CRC was critically dependent on follow-up after positive FIT. Community cancer prevention programs need reliable estimates of the cost of CRC screening promotion and the added budget impact of screening with colonoscopy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Incorporating person centred care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer management program: An experiential account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallath Nandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates a definite positive impact on treatment outcomes when an integrative approach that focuses on symptom control and quality of life is provided along with the standard therapeutic regimens. However implementation or practice of this approach is not seen widely due to the culture of medical training and practice. This article presents the initial development of a program for incorporating integrative care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer care program at a tertiary centre. The key purpose of the program being to develop, facilitate, and establish comprehensive and holistic processes including palliative care principles, that would positively enhance the quantity and quality of life of the person with disease, as well as create an environment that reflects and sustains this approach. The vision, objectives, goals, strategies, activities and results within the 7 months of implementation are documented. The new learnings gained during the process have also been noted in the hope that the model described may be used to conceptualize similar care giving facilities in other centres.

  19. Low priority main reason not to participate in a colorectal cancer screening program with a faecal occult blood test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, A. F.; van Rossum, L. G. M.; Deutekom, M.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Fockens, P.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Compared with screening programs for breast and cervical cancer, reported participation rates for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are low. The effectiveness of a screening program is strongly influenced by the participation rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the main reasons not to

  20. Local-regional control in breast cancer patients with a possible genetic predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Laura M.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Thames, Howard D.; Strom, Eric A.; McNeese, Marsha D.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Singletary, S. Eva; Heaton, Keith M.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Local control rates for breast cancer in genetically predisposed women are poorly defined. Because such a small percentage of breast cancer patients have proven germline mutations, surrogates, such as a family history for breast cancer, have been used to examine this issue. The purpose of this study was to evaluate local-regional control following breast conservation therapy (BCT) in patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed records of all 58 patients with bilateral breast cancer and a breast cancer family history treated in our institution between 1959 and 1998. The primary surgical treatment was a breast-conserving procedure in 55 of the 116 breast cancer cases and a mastectomy in 61. The median follow-up was 68 months for the BCT patients and 57 months for the mastectomy-treated patients. Results: Eight local-regional recurrences occurred in the 55 cases treated with BCT, resulting in 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates of 86% and 76%, respectively. In the nine cases that did not receive radiation as a component of their BCT, four developed local-regional recurrences (5- and 10-year local-regional control rates of BCT without radiation: 49% and 49%). The 5- and 10-year actuarial local-regional control rates for the 46 cases treated with BCT and radiation were 94% and 83%, respectively. In these cases, there were two late local recurrences, developing at 8 years and 9 years, respectively. A log rank comparison of radiation versus no radiation actuarial data was significant at p = 0.009. In the cases treated with BCT, a multivariate analysis of radiation use, patient age, degree of family history, margin status, and stage revealed that only the use of radiation was associated with improved local control (Cox regression analysis p = 0.021). The 10-year actuarial rates of local-regional control following mastectomy with and without radiation were 91% and 89

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Control Strategies in Central America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niëns, Laurens M.; Zelle, Sten G.; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F. H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50–70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40–70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  2. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented southwester minorities, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  3. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2005-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented Southwestern minorities, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  4. Global variations in cancer survival. Study Group on Cancer Survival in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Black, R J

    1996-12-15

    Population-based cancer registries from Algeria, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, India, the Philippines, and Thailand are collaborating with the International Agency for Research on Cancer in a study of cancer survival in developing countries. Comparisons with the SEER program results of the National Cancer Institute in the United States, and the EUROCARE study of survival in European countries revealed considerable differences in the survival of patients with certain tumors associated with intensive chemotherapeutic treatment regimes (Hodgkin's disease and testicular tumors), more modest differences in the survival of patients with tumors for which early diagnosis and treatment confer an improved prognosis (carcinomas of the large bowel, breast, and cervix), and only slight differences for tumors associated with poor prognosis (carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas, and lung). With limited resources to meet the challenge of the increasing incidence of cancer expected in the next few decades, health authorities in developing countries should be aware of the importance of investing in a range of cancer control activities, including primary prevention and early detection programs as well as treatment.

  5. Transatlantic Roots of Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men: The CaPTC Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Odedina is Professor in the Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine at the University of Florida. She is also the PI and Program Director for the NCI-funded (P20 award) Florida Minority Cancer Research & Training (MiCaRT) Center as well as the PI and Founder of the NCI-EGRP supported Prostate Cancer Transatlantic Consortium (CaPTC). She leads the Research Core of the Florida Health Equity Research Institute, a Florida Board of Governors-approved institute. Dr. Odedina’s research program, primarily funded by NIH and Department of Defense, focuses on the predictors of health disparities and cost-effective, community-based behavioral interventions to improve the health of minority populations, especially Black men. She has directed over 30 research projects, including genetic-environmental determinants of prostate cancer disparity studies. Her NCI EGRP-supported consortium, CaPTC, facilitates and supports recruitment and retention of minorities in biomedical research and biobanking for Black men’s research globally. Her contribution to Health Equity in Florida dates back to 1997 and has resulted in multiple accomplishments and recognitions. As far back as 2009, her leadership in health disparities was recognized by the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacy and the Association of Black Health-System Pharmacists with the Inaugural (1st) Leadership Award for Health Disparities. Due to her extensive experiences in prostate cancer disparity research, she was selected by the US Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs to give the inaugural Dr. Barbara Terry-Koroma Health Disparity Legacy Lecture in 2013. Her efforts in training underrepresented minorities for over two decades was recognized through the INSIGHT Into Diversity 2016 Inspiring Women in STEM Award. Her most recent awards include the Living Legend Award for innovations with health/economic impact from the Africa Clinical Trial Summit in 2017 and the 2017 Williams Award for Innovation in Cancer

  6. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  7. P27 in cell cycle control and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    2000-01-01

    In order to survive, cells need tight control of cell cycle progression. The control mechanisms are often lost in human cancer cells. The cell cycle is driven forward by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The CDK inhibitors (CKIs) are important regulators of the CDKs. As the name implies, CKIs were...

  8. The influence of selected factors on the attendance of the high-risk population in the early lung cancer detection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Agata; Szczepanowska, Magdalena; Książek, Janina; Biadacz, Iwona; Dziedzic, Robert; Jelitto-Górska, Małgorzata; Rzyman, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, killing almost 22,000 people in Poland every year. Low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is the most promising tool of secondary prophylaxis leading to early detection and thus successful treatment of this malignancy. Knowledge about socio-demographic factors that affect participation in lung cancer early detection programs is essential for the future design and implementation of such programs. Among the 8649 participants of the Pomeranian Lung Cancer Screening Program (PLCSP), 1619 individuals responded to a questionnaire that had been designed to assess socio-demographic data of participants at high risk of developing lung cancer. The survey was conducted on-site after reception of results by the program participants. Among the survey participants, 777 (48%) were current cigarette smokers. The majority of them represented low or medium level of wealth status. The respondents positively evaluated the promotional campaign during the PLCSP, although 43% of them indicated family and friends as a source of information about the program. As the most important action that stimulated the participation, 46% of the respondents indicated the awareness campaign involving a celebrity, and 45% of them indicated the presence of cancer in the family. The influence of healthcare employees on the participation in the screening program was minimal. More than half of the respondents (53%) declared a willingness to co-finance a similar prophylactic program in the future in an amount not exceeding 100 PLN. An effective promotional campaign in the media, the influence of family and a campaign involving a celebrity promoted attendance at the screening program. The influence of healthcare employees on the participation in the program was minimal. The majority of the screened population declared a willingness to actively participate in the costs of LDCT examination.

  9. The effect of a supportive educational program based on COPE model on caring burden and quality of life in family caregivers of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Masoud; Farzi, Saba

    2014-03-01

    The family caregivers of the people with cancer such as breast cancer experience a decrease in their quality of life and an increase of their caring burden. In most of the cases, the researchers consider the quality of life and physical and psychological problems in patients with cancer and pay less attention to the family caregivers. To reduce the caring burden imposed to the caregivers and improve their quality of life, supportive strategies such as problem solving can be used. These interventions may have benefits for the caregivers although the research results are contradictory. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of a supportive educational program, based on COPE model, which focuses on creativity, optimism, planning, and expert information on individuals, on the caring burden and quality of life in the family caregivers of women with breast cancer. The present study is a clinical trial, which was conducted in Seyed-Al-Shohada Hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and a private center of chemotherapy in 2012. In this study, researchers investigated the effect of a supportive educational program based on COPE model on the caring burden and quality of life in the family caregivers of women with breast cancer. This supportive educational program included two hospital visits and two telephone sessions based on COPE model for 9 days. A total of 64 patients were selected based on the inclusion criteria and randomly assigned into two groups. Data were collected by use of Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOL-C), World Health Organization Quality of Life - Bref(WHOQOL-Bref)_, and Zarit caring burden at the beginning of the intervention and a month after the intervention. The results showed that in the experimental group, the mean score of physical, mental, spiritual, environmental domains and overall quality of life in the family caregivers was significantly increased compared to the control group, but there was no change in the

  10. VlincRNAs controlled by retroviral elements are a hallmark of pluripotency and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Laurent, Georges; Shtokalo, Dmitry; Dong, Biao; Tackett, Michael R; Fan, Xiaoxuan; Lazorthes, Sandra; Nicolas, Estelle; Sang, Nianli; Triche, Timothy J; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Xiao, Weidong; Kapranov, Philipp

    2013-07-22

    The function of the non-coding portion of the human genome remains one of the most important questions of our time. Its vast complexity is exemplified by the recent identification of an unusual and notable component of the transcriptome - very long intergenic non-coding RNAs, termed vlincRNAs. Here we identify 2,147 vlincRNAs covering 10 percent of our genome. We show they are present not only in cancerous cells, but also in primary cells and normal human tissues, and are controlled by canonical promoters. Furthermore, vlincRNA promoters frequently originate from within endogenous retroviral sequences. Strikingly, the number of vlincRNAs expressed from endogenous retroviral promoters strongly correlates with pluripotency or the degree of malignant transformation. These results suggest a previously unknown connection between the pluripotent state and cancer via retroviral repeat-driven expression of vlincRNAs. Finally, we show that vlincRNAs can be syntenically conserved in humans and mouse and their depletion using RNAi can cause apoptosis in cancerous cells. These intriguing observations suggest that vlincRNAs could create a framework that combines many existing short ESTs and lincRNAs into a landscape of very long transcripts functioning in the regulation of gene expression in the nucleus. Certain types of vlincRNAs participate at specific stages of normal development and, based on analysis of a limited set of cancerous and primary cell lines, they appear to be co-opted by cancer-associated transcriptional programs. This provides additional understanding of transcriptome regulation during the malignant state, and could lead to additional targets and options for its reversal.

  11. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above

  12. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  13. DCP Leading NIH Glycoscience Common Fund Program; Funding Opportunities Open | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention is a leading participant for a key initiative in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Glycoscience Common Fund program. This program supports development of accessible and affordable new tools and technologies for studying the role complex carbohydrates in health and disease. |

  14. Dynamic mapping of genes controlling cancer stem cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong eWang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing evidence that cancer originates from stem cells holds a great promise to eliminate this disease by designing specific drug therapies for removing cancer stem cells. Translation of this knowledge into predictive tests for the clinic is hampered due to the lack of methods to discriminate cancer stem cells from non-cancer stem cells. Here, we address this issue by describing a conceptual strategy for identifying the genetic origins of cancer stem cells. The strategy incorporates a high-dimensional group of differential equations that characterizes the proliferation, differentiation, and reprogramming of cancer stem cells in a dynamic cellular and molecular system. The deployment of robust mathematical models will help uncover and explain many still unknown aspects of cell behavior, tissue function, and network organization related to the formation and division of cancer stem cells. The statistical method developed allows biologically meaningful hypotheses about the genetic control mechanisms of carcinogenesis and metastasis to be tested in a quantitative manner.

  15. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented Southwestern minorIties, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  16. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  17. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-12-16

    High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and August 2013. Information on dietary calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and locations of the colorectal cancers were classified as proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, and rectal cancer. Binary and polytomous logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of colorectal cancer. A total of 922 colorectal cancer cases and 2766 controls were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest calcium intake quartile, the highest quartile group showed a significantly reduced risk of colorectal cancer in both men and women. (Odds ratio (OR): 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.11-0.24 for men; OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29 for women). Among the highest calcium intake groups, decrease in cancer risk was observed across all sub-sites of colorectum in both men and women. In conclusion, calcium consumption was inversely related to colorectal cancer risk in Korean population where national average calcium intake level is relatively lower than Western countries. A decreased risk of colorectal cancer by calcium intake was observed in all sub-sites in men and women.

  18. [Attendance rate in the Polish Cervical Cancer Screening Program in the years 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaczyński, Marek; Karowicz-Bilinska, Agata; Rokita, Wojciech; Molińska-Glura, Marta; Januszek-Michalecka, Lucyna; Seroczyński, Przemysław; Uchlik, Joanna; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2010-09-01

    In Poland in 2007, according to the National Cancer Registry 3431 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and 1907 died. To change the unfavorable epidemiologic situation, in 2005 the Ministry of Health (MH), the National Health Fund (NHF) and the Polish Gynecological Society following WHO/IARC guidelines developed a National Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Its implementation and roll-out started in 2006. The target population are women aged 25 to 59 insured in the National Health Fund. A Pap test is done with a three-year interval, free of charge. The system is based on personal invitations sent by regular post. Invitation to screening is supported by a social educational campaign "Choose Life" run under one slogan and logo across the whole country The NHF data base enables identification of women to screen. Pap smears are collected by gynecologists and since 2008 also by midwives trained and certified by the Program National Coordinating Center Pap test results are reported in the Bethesda 2001 system. The Screening Program has its system of quality assurance and control and is supported by a specially designed computer data base called SIMP (System of Information Monitoring in Prophylaxis) with online access to all records. In addition to organized, population-based screening there is also opportunistic screening in Poland practiced either by private gynecological practices or by some units that cooperate with the National Health Fund, but do Pap tests as an element of comprehensive gynecological examination. Those smears are not registered in the SIMP. Our aim was analysis of attendance rate in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in the years 2007-2009. We also investigated correlation between screening coverage and invitation sending schedule, as well as between coverage and screening accessibility determined by the number of gynaecological practices where Pap smears are collected. Attendance rate in the Screening Program was evaluated

  19. Implementing a Fee-for-Service Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment Program in Cameroon: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, Geneva; Manga, Simon; Kiyang, Edith; Manjuh, Florence; Bradford, Leslie; Cholli, Preetam; Wamai, Richard; Ogembo, Rebecca; Sando, Zacharie; Liu, Yuxin; Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Nulah, Kathleen; Welty, Thomas; Welty, Edith; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2017-07-01

    Cervical cancer screening is one of the most effective cancer prevention strategies, but most women in Africa have never been screened. In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services, a large faith-based health care system in Cameroon, initiated the Women's Health Program (WHP) to address this disparity. The WHP provides fee-for-service cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC), prioritizing care for women living with HIV/AIDS. They also provide clinical breast examination, family planning (FP) services, and treatment for reproductive tract infection (RTI). Here, we document the strengths and challenges of the WHP screening program and the unique aspects of the WHP model, including a fee-for-service payment system and the provision of other women's health services. We retrospectively reviewed WHP medical records from women who presented for cervical cancer screening from 2007-2014. In 8 years, WHP nurses screened 44,979 women for cervical cancer. The number of women screened increased nearly every year. The WHP is sustained primarily on fees-for-service, with external funding totaling about $20,000 annually. In 2014, of 12,191 women screened for cervical cancer, 99% received clinical breast exams, 19% received FP services, and 4.7% received treatment for RTIs. We document successes, challenges, solutions implemented, and recommendations for optimizing this screening model. The WHP's experience using a fee-for-service model for cervical cancer screening demonstrates that in Cameroon VIA-DC is acceptable, feasible, and scalable and can be nearly self-sustaining. Integrating other women's health services enabled women to address additional health care needs. The Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services Women's Health Program successfully implemented a nurse-led, fee-for-service cervical cancer screening program using visual inspection with acetic acid-enhanced by digital cervicography in

  20. Stochastic control theory dynamic programming principle

    CERN Document Server

    Nisio, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the optimal stochastic control theory via the dynamic programming principle, which is a powerful tool to analyze control problems. First we consider completely observable control problems with finite horizons. Using a time discretization we construct a nonlinear semigroup related to the dynamic programming principle (DPP), whose generator provides the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, and we characterize the value function via the nonlinear semigroup, besides the viscosity solution theory. When we control not only the dynamics of a system but also the terminal time of its evolution, control-stopping problems arise. This problem is treated in the same frameworks, via the nonlinear semigroup. Its results are applicable to the American option price problem. Zero-sum two-player time-homogeneous stochastic differential games and viscosity solutions of the Isaacs equations arising from such games are studied via a nonlinear semigroup related to DPP (the min-ma...

  1. Overview of Japanese control rods development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Japanese control rods development program was established based on the fast breeder reactor program. Therefore, PNC's efforts have been made mainly for the development of analysis, design and fabrication technologies for ''JOYO'' and ''MONJU'' control rods. Laboratory studies were performed to obtain the information for absorber materials. The design and fabrication of the sealed and vented type control rod pins were completed, and water loop tests and in-sodium tests were carried out. Irradiation behavior of enriched B 4 C pellets with low and high density in DFR was examined. Japan's experimental fast reactor, JOYO, has been operated at the rated power of 50MWt and 75MWt since April 1977 when the MK-I core (breeder core) attained initial criticality. Post irradiation examinations on control rod, removed from the reactor, were carried out and their performance behavior were evaluated. In the MK-II core, a control rods monitoring program has been in investigation. Absorber Materials Irradiation Rigs (AMIR) are scheduled to be loaded and irradiated in the JOYO MK-II core from 1984. (author)

  2. Improving clinical research and cancer care delivery in community settings: evaluating the NCI community cancer centers program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fennell Mary L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this article, we describe the National Cancer Institute (NCI Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP pilot and the evaluation designed to assess its role, function, and relevance to the NCI's research mission. In doing so, we describe the evolution of and rationale for the NCCCP concept, participating sites' characteristics, its multi-faceted aims to enhance clinical research and quality of care in community settings, and the role of strategic partnerships, both within and outside of the NCCCP network, in achieving program objectives. Discussion The evaluation of the NCCCP is conceptualized as a mixed method multi-layered assessment of organizational innovation and performance which includes mapping the evolution of site development as a means of understanding the inter- and intra-organizational change in the pilot, and the application of specific evaluation metrics for assessing the implementation, operations, and performance of the NCCCP pilot. The assessment of the cost of the pilot as an additional means of informing the longer-term feasibility and sustainability of the program is also discussed. Summary The NCCCP is a major systems-level set of organizational innovations to enhance clinical research and care delivery in diverse communities across the United States. Assessment of the extent to which the program achieves its aims will depend on a full understanding of how individual, organizational, and environmental factors align (or fail to align to achieve these improvements, and at what cost.

  3. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soejarto, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with

  4. Factors associated with quality of life of outpatients with breast cancer and gynecologic cancers and their family caregivers: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamad Hussein MA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QOL issues are of interest in cancer because effective methods of treatment and detection have led to an increase in the number of long-term survivors. The objectives of the study were: to assess the subjective QOL of stable Sudanese women cancer outpatients and their family caregivers, using the WHO 26-item QOL Instrument; compare with matched general population groups, as well as diabetic and psychiatric patient groups; examine patient-caregiver concordance in ratings; and assess the variables associated with their QOL, with a view to identifying factors that can enhance quality of care. Methods Responses of oncology outpatients with breast cancer (117, cervical cancer (46 and ovarian cancer (18 (aged 44.6, SD 11.5 were compared with those of their family caregivers and matched general population groups. Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate statistics. Results The cancer groups had similar QOL domain scores, which were significantly lower than those of their caregivers, but higher than the control group as well as those of psychiatric and diabetic patients studied previously. Patients who were married, with higher education, better employment, and with longer duration of illness had higher QOL. Patients on radiotherapy and their caregivers had higher QOL scores. Correlations between patient's ratings and caregiver impression of patient's QOL were high. Caregiver impression was a significant predictor of patient's and caregiver's QOL. Other predictors for the patient were: currently feeling sick and duration of illness; for the caregiver: feeling sick, relationship to patient, and age. Conclusion Cancer patients in stable condition and with psychosocial support can hope to enjoy good QOL with treatment. The findings constitute an evidence base for the country's cancer care program, to boost national health education about prognosis in cancer. Families living with women cancer patients are

  5. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a... detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national.... Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised...

  6. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, S I; Williams, C K; Ndom, P; Holland, J F

    2012-10-01

    The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (aortic) is a bilingual (English and French) nonprofit organization dedicated to the promotion of cancer control and palliation in Africa. Its mission in respect to cancer control in Africa includes support of research and training;provision of relevant and accurate information on the prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliation of cancer;promotion of public awareness about cancer and reduction of the stigma associated with it.In seeking to achieve its goal of cancer control in Africa, aortic strives to unite the continent and to make a positive impact throughout the region by collaboration with health ministries and global cancer organizations. The organization's key objectives are to further research relating to cancers prevalent in Africa, to support training programs in oncology for health care workers, to deal with the challenges of creating cancer control and prevention programs, and to raise public awareness of cancer in Africa. It also plans to organize symposia, workshops, meetings, and conferences that support its mission.Founded in September 1982, aortic was active only between 1983 (when its inaugural conference was held in the City of Lome, Togo, West Africa) and the late 1980s. The organization subsequently became inactive and moribund. In 2000, a group of expatriate African physicians and scientists joined in an effort with their non-African friends and colleagues to reactivate the dormant organization. Since its reactivation, aortic has succeeded in putting cancer on the public health agenda in many African countries by highlighting Africa's urgent need for cancer control and by holding meetings every two years in various African cities. National and international cancer control organizations worldwide have recognized the challenges facing Africa and have joined in aortic's mission.

  7. Awareness of cervical cancer and willingness to participate in screening program: Public health policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdatta Patra

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The country's national program advocates for opportunistic and targeted screening of women. An understanding of the factors that influences womens' willingness to participate in screening program is essential for the success of such programs. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for dissemination of knowledge about various aspects of cancer cervix which is critical for uptake of any screening program in a developing country.

  8. Welding and lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Van Gelder, Rainer; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, H-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Consonni, Dario; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Marcus, Michael; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Mates, Dana; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Boffetta, Paolo; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Several epidemiologic studies have indicated an increased risk of lung cancer among welders. We used the SYNERGY project database to assess welding as a risk factor for developing lung cancer. The database includes data on 15,483 male lung cancer cases and 18,388 male controls from 16 studies in Europe, Canada, China, and New Zealand conducted between 1985 and 2010. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between regular or occasional welding and lung cancer were estimated, with adjustment for smoking, age, study center, and employment in other occupations associated with lung cancer risk. Overall, 568 cases and 427 controls had ever worked as welders and had an odds ratio of developing lung cancer of 1.44 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 1.67) with the odds ratio increasing for longer duration of welding. In never and light smokers, the odds ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.79). The odds ratios were somewhat higher for squamous and small cell lung cancers than for adenocarcinoma. Another 1,994 cases and 1,930 controls had ever worked in occupations with occasional welding. Work in any of these occupations was associated with some elevation of risk, though not as much as observed in regular welders. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that welding is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.

  9. The effect of aerobic exercise on quality of life among breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiana Murtezani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that 10 week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program significantly improves QOL and physical functioning in breast cancer survivors. Future studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of similar exercise programs over longer periods of time and involving a greater number of breast cancer survivors.

  10. An international comparison of stakeholder motivation to implement liver cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John F P; Joy, Susan M; Blauvelt, Barri M; Yan, Weili; Marsteller, Jill A

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization offers clear guidance on the development of national cancer control programmes based on a country's level of resources, yet the motivation to implement such programmes may be driven by factors other than resources. To compare stakeholder motivation to implement a national liver cancer control programme and assess if variation in motivation was associated with stakeholder characteristics or with national indicators of need and resources. Relevant stakeholders were purposively selected from 13 countries (Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Nigeria, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey and USA) to participate in a structured survey on liver cancer control. Respondents included 12 individuals working in clinical, 5 in policy and 3 in advocacy roles from each country. Stakeholders' motivation was measured using a scale grounded in expectancy theory and knowledge gained during previous qualitative interviews. Comparisons across countries and respondent characteristics were conducted using hierarchical regression. Country level motivation scores, holding constant individual level covariates, were correlated with indicators of need and resources and tested using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In total, 260 stakeholders, equally drawn from the study countries, completed the survey (45% response rate). At the national level, motivation was highest in Nigeria, Thailand and China (P motivation was observed among stakeholders working at the international level relative to the local level (P = 0.017). Motivation was positively associated with a country's relative burden of liver cancer (P = 0.015) and negatively associated with their level of resources (P = 0.018). This study provides the first empirical evidence on the motivation of stakeholders to implement national cancer control programmes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that motivation is more clearly associated with a country's cancer control needs rather than resources

  11. A proposed methodology for performing risk analysis of state radiation control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornsife, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is comprised of viewgraphs from a conference presentation. Topics discussed include barriers to effective risk assessment and management, and real versus perceived risk for various radiation programs in the state of Pennsylvania. Calculation results for Pennsylvania are provided for low-level radioactive waste transportation risks, indoor radon risk, and cancer morbidity risk from x-rays. A methodology for prioritizing radiation regulatory programs based on risk is presented with calculations for various Pennsylvania programs

  12. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  13. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control.

  14. Applicability and evaluation of a psychosocial intervention program for childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Takken, Tim; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Streng, Isabelle C.; Bierings, Marc; Merks, Johannes H.; Eibrink, Marry; Veening, Margreet A.; Huisman, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of a psychosocial intervention in childhood cancer patients. This individualized structured psychosocial program to enhance social-emotional functioning and coping with disease-related effects includes six sessions for children and two

  15. Role of Private Enterprise in Cancer Control in Low to Middle Income Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwogu, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    About 65% of cancer deaths globally occur in low to middle income countries (LMICs) where prioritization and allocation of resources to cancer care are often quite poor. In the absence of governmental focus on this problem, public-private partnerships may be an avenue to provide effective cancer control. Methods. This manuscript highlights the establishment of a non governmental organization (NGO) to stimulate the development of partnerships between oncology professionals, private enterprise, and academic institutions, both locally and internationally. Examples of capacity building, grant support, establishment of collaborative networks, and the development of a facility to provide clinical care are highlighted. Results. Collaborations were established between oncology professionals at academic institutions in the US and Nigeria. Cancer control workshops were conducted in Nigeria with grant support from the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). A monthly tumor board conference was established at LASUTH in Lagos, and further capacity building is underway with grant support from the United States NCI. An outpatient, privately funded oncology clinic in Lagos has been launched. Conclusion. In LMICs, effective partnership between public and private institutions can lead to tangible strides in cancer control. The use of creative healthcare financing models can also support positive change

  16. Model-Checking Real-Time Control Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, T. K.; Kristoffersen, K. J.; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for automatic verification of real-time control programs running on LEGO(R) RCX(TM) bricks using the verification tool UPPALL. The control programs, consisting of a number of tasks running concurrently, are automatically translated into the mixed automata model...... of UPPAAL. The fixed scheduling algorithm used by the LEGO(R) RCX(TM) processor is modeled in UPPALL, and supply of similar (sufficient) timed automata models for the environment allows analysis of the overall real-time system using the tools of UPPALL. To illustrate our technique for sorting LEGO(R) bricks...

  17. IADC's well control accreditation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropla, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    WellCAP is a well control accreditation program devised and implemented by the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC). It is a worldwide comprehensive system that defines a well control training curriculum, establishes minimum standards and recommends guidelines for course structure. The program began in mid-1993 and is viewed as a means for training institutions to demonstrate industry recognition to customers, contractors and local governments. Schools can apply to have their courses accredited. The accreditation system is administered by a review panel. The application process requires that the school perform a detailed review of its curriculum and operations and bring them in line with the WellCAP curriculum and accreditation criteria. Currently, more than 75 schools around the world have requested application materials for WellCAP. To date fifteen schools have been fully accredited

  18. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  19. Programming Programmable Logic Controller. High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Kevin

    This training module on programming programmable logic controllers (PLC) is part of the memory structure and programming unit used in a packaging systems equipment control course. In the course, students assemble, install, maintain, and repair industrial machinery used in industry. The module contains description, objectives, content outline,…

  20. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a

  1. Development and pilot evaluation of Native CREST-a Cancer Research Experience and Student Training program for Navajo undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine A; Bauer, Mark C; Horazdovsky, Bruce F; Garrison, Edward R; Patten, Christi A; Petersen, Wesley O; Bowman, Clarissa N; Vierkant, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and Diné College received funding for a 4-year collaborative P20 planning grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2006. The goal of the partnership was to increase Navajo undergraduates' interest in and commitment to biomedical coursework and careers, especially in cancer research. This paper describes the development, pilot testing, and evaluation of Native CREST (Cancer Research Experience and Student Training), a 10-week cancer research training program providing mentorship in a Mayo Clinic basic science or behavioral cancer research lab for Navajo undergraduate students. Seven Native American undergraduate students (five females, two males) were enrolled during the summers of 2008-2011. Students reported the program influenced their career goals and was valuable to their education and development. These efforts may increase the number of Native American career scientists developing and implementing cancer research, which will ultimately benefit the health of Native American people.

  2. Control of cancer growth using single input autonomous fuzzy Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Razmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single input fuzzy controller is applied on autonomous drug-encapsulated nanoparticles (ADENPs to restrict the cancer growth. The proposed ADENPs, swarmly release the drug in local cancerous tissue and effectively decreases the destruction of normal tissue. The amount of released drug is defined considering to feed backed values of tumor growth rate and the used drug. Some significant characteristics of Nano particles compared to Nano-robots is their ability to recognize the cancerous tissue from the normal one and their simple structure. Nano particles became an attractive topic in Nano science and many efforts have been done to manufacture these particles. Simulation results show that the proposed controlling method not only decreases the cancerous tissue effectively but also reduces the side effects of drug impressively.

  3. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  4. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  5. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences

  6. Controlled thermonuclear reactions and Tora Supra program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The research programs for the nuclear energy production by means of thermonuclear fusion are shown. TORA SUPRA, Joint European Torus, Next European Torus and those developed at the Atomic Energy Center are described. The controlled fusion necessary conditions, the energy and confinement balance, and the research of a better tokamak configuration are discussed. A description of TORA SUPRA, the ways of achieving the project and the expected delays are shown. The Controlled Fusion Research Department functions, concerning these programs, are described. The importance of international cooperation and the perspectives about the use of controlled fusion are underlined [fr

  7. Controlled thermonuclear research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Plasma Physics and Controlled-Fusion Research Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is divided into five projects: Plasma Production and Heating Experiments, Plasma Theory, Atomic Physics Studies, the Tormac Project, and Neutral-Beam Development and Technology listed in order of increasing magnitude, as regards manpower and budget. Some cross sections and yields are shown in atomic physics

  8. Breast cancer survivors' barriers and motives for participating in a group-based physical activity program offered in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda; St-Aubin, Anik; Brunet, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the barriers and motives experienced by women attending an 8-week group-based physical activity program offered in the community following treatment for breast cancer. Seven women were interviewed during the first and last week of the program. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Factors that hindered women's continued participation could be subdivided into situational barriers, which encompassed community (i.e., distance of center and traffic) and institutional factors (i.e., competing roles and responsibilities), and internal barriers, which consisted of cancer-specific limitations. Motives for initial and continued participation were situational (i.e., gaining social support, networking, and being around similar others) and internal (i.e., feeling a sense of personal fulfillment, acquiring health benefits, and recovering from cancer). The findings contribute to a deeper understanding of women's motives to engage in a group-based physical activity program after treatment for breast cancer. Further, they underscore the necessity of considering situational and internal barriers when developing group-based physical activity programs to increase regular participation, optimize adherence, and reduce drop-out.

  9. Modified metabolic syndrome and second cancers in women: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos-Manuel; Pérez-Chávez, Ernesto; Fuente-Vera, Tania-Angélica De-la

    2016-01-01

    According to some studies, the metabolic syndrome causes diverse primary cancers; however, there is no evidence about metabolic syndrome impact on second cancers development in women. To find out the implication of the modified metabolic syndrome in women with second cancers. This was a case-control study, at a general hospital in Mexico City, in women with second cancers (cases) and age-matched women with only one neoplasm (controls). The analysis comprised: Tumor (s), anthropometric features, and body mass index (BMI); moreover, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. The sample was of nine cases and 27 controls. In cases, the metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus or glucose > 99 mg/dL + hypertension or blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mm Hg + triglycerides > 149 mg/dL or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) was more frequent (odds ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-227.1). Our results suggest that in women, the modified metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for second cancers.

  10. Modified metabolic syndrome and second cancers in women: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos-Manuel Ortiz-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to some studies, the metabolic syndrome causes diverse primary cancers; however, there is no evidence about metabolic syndrome impact on second cancers development in women. Aim: To find out the implication of the modified metabolic syndrome in women with second cancers. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study, at a general hospital in Mexico City, in women with second cancers (cases and age-matched women with only one neoplasm (controls. The analysis comprised: Tumor (s, anthropometric features, and body mass index (BMI; moreover, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Results: The sample was of nine cases and 27 controls. In cases, the metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus or glucose > 99 mg/dL + hypertension or blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mm Hg + triglycerides > 149 mg/dL or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 was more frequent (odds ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-227.1. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in women, the modified metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for second cancers.

  11. Program History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how the National Cancer Institute transitioned the former Cooperative Groups Program to the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) program. The NCTN gives funds and other support to cancer research organizations to conduct cancer clinical trials.

  12. A case-control study on risk of changing food consumption for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Xiangping; Nakama, Hidenori; Zhang, Xing; Wei, Ning; Zhang, Xiulan; Zhang, Leshan

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the relative risk factor of food items for colorectal cancer in four time periods through a case-control study in a Chinese rural area. Colorectal cancer patients diagnosed at a county cancer center, Hebei Province, China, and non-cancer outpatients with similar age, sex, and place of residence were selected for cases and controls, respectively. There were 102 (93.6%) colorectal cancer patients and 99 (90.8%) outpatients being the cases and controls, respectively in the present investigation, who agreed to be interviewed about their food intake, during a 20-year period, through a food frequency questionnaire. The risks of intake of different food items and lifestyle for colorectal cancer were compared between cases and controls. During the 20-year period, diets of both cases and controls changed with increase in intake of animal foods and fruits, and alcohol consumption tended to increase. In the food items, milk intake showed a protective effect in both males and females, and the odds ratios were 0.38 (95% CI 0.16-0.90) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.10-0.81) for males and females, respectively. A reduced risk of fruit intake could be seen in males, while a reduced risk of vegetables could be observed in females. Meat intake and saturated fats were the prominent risk factors for colorectal cancer in males and females, respectively. A comparison of life habits, showed that tea drinking had a consistent protective effect in females, and the odds ratios were 0.21 (0.08-0.58), 0.23 (0.08-0.67), 0.25 (0.10-0.64), and 0.11 (0.04-0.30) for periods of 20-, 10-, 5-years ago, and current time, respectively. These findings indicate that change in food consumption is strongly associated with a change in risk of colorectal cancer, and dietary meat has increased the risk of colorectal cancer. Increase in the consumption of milk and fruits may be a significant measure for colorectal cancer prevention in low-incidence areas.

  13. Development of a Breast Cancer Treatment Program in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences From the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Rachel; Patberg, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Dieudina; Al-Quran, Samer; Kasher, Matthew; Heldermon, Coy; Daily, Karen; Auguste, Joseph R.; Suprien, Valery C.; Hurley, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The nonprofit Project Medishare launched a breast cancer treatment program in Port-au-Prince in July 2013 to address the demand for breast cancer care in Haiti. We outline the development of the program, highlight specific challenges, and discuss key considerations for others working in global oncology. Methods We reflected on our experiences in the key areas of developing partnerships, building laboratory capacity, conducting medical training, using treatment algorithms, and ensuring access to safe, low-cost chemotherapy drugs. We also critically reviewed our costs and quality measures. Results The program has treated a total of 139 patients with breast cancer with strong adherence to treatment regimens in 85% of patients. In 273 chemotherapy administrations, no serious exposure or adverse safety events were reported by staff. The mortality rate for 94 patients for whom we have complete data was 24% with a median survival time of 53 months. Our outcome data were likely influenced by stage at presentation, with more than half of patients presenting more than 12 months after first noticing a tumor. Future efforts will therefore focus on continuing to improve the level of care, while working with local partners to spread awareness, increase screening, and get more women into care earlier in the course of their disease. Conclusion Our experiences may inform others working to implement protocol-based cancer treatment programs in resource-poor settings and can provide valuable lessons learned for future global oncology efforts. PMID:28717677

  14. The role of serum osteoprotegerine in metastatic prostate cancer - a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siampanopoulou, M; El, Mantani; Moustakas, G; Haritanti, A; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplastic diseases in men. Early control of the disease progression contributes significantly to survival rates and patients' quality of life. Osteoprotegerin is a dimeric glycoprotein, which affects bone metabolism and inhibits osteoclastogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of osteoprotegerin in the serum of prostate cancer patients with or without skeletal metastases. The expression of serum osteoprotegerin, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, has been studied in 82 patients with locally controlled prostate cancer, in 49 patients with metastatic bone disease and in a control group of 41 healthy males. At sampling time 65/131 of included patients were newly diagnosed, while 66/131 patients were already under hormonal therapy. All eligible prostate cancer patients had histologically confirmed malignancy. Serum total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was determined by an immunoradiometric assay. We investigated the expression of osteoprotegerin in hormone-dependent and hormone-refractory prostate cancer and its relation to disease progression. Among the 131 patients with prostate cancer, higher osteoprotegerin and PSA concentrations have been observed in metastatic bone patients' sera (p cancer patients has shown a statistically significant area curve (p cancer patients (p cancer reflect the bone metastatic extent and may potentially be used in metastatic patients' follow-ups. Hippokratia 2016, 20(2): 133-138.

  15. Spiritual Therapy to Improve the Spiritual Well-Being of Iranian Women with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jafari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of spiritual therapy intervention in improving the spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL of Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT recruited 65 women with breast cancer, randomly assigned to a 6-week spirituality-based intervention (n=34 or control group (n=31. Before and after six-week spiritual therapy intervention, spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL were assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being scale (FACIT-Sp12 and cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30, respectively. t-test, Paired t-test, pearson's correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used for analysis using Predictive Analytic software (PASW, version 18 for Windows. Results. After six spiritual therapy sessions, the mean spiritual well-being score from 29.76 (SD=6.63 to 37.24 (SD=3.52 in the intervention group (P<0.001. There was a significant difference between arms of study (F=22.91, P<0.001. A significant positive correlation was detected between meaning and peace with all subscales of functional subscales on European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30 (P<0.05. Hierarchical regression analyses of participants indicated that the study arm, pain, and financial impact were significant predictors of spiritual well-being and overall QOL. Social functioning was another significant predictor of spiritual well-being. Conclusion. The results of this randomized controlled trial study suggest that participation in spiritual therapy program is associated with improvements in spiritual well-being and QOL. Targeted interventions to acknowledge and incorporate spiritual needs into conventional treatment should be considered in caring of Iranian patients with breast cancer.

  16. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  17. Monitoring control program as a tool for regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Peres, Sueli da; Lauria, Dejanaira C.; Martins, Nadia S.F.; Rio, Monica A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) of the Brazilian Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for developing, establishing and carrying out an independent assessment to verify the adequacy, effectiveness and accuracy of environmental radiological control carried out by licensed and controlled facilities. This independent assessment is performed by Environmental Monitoring Control Program (MCP). The MCP is a regulatory control and its main goal is to provide public and environment with an appropriate protection level against harmful effects of ionising radiation. The main purpose of the MCP is to verify whether applicable requirements prescribed by legislation are met, the environmental radiological control of the facilities are adequate and effective and the facilities are able to generate valid measuring results. The MCP is carried out in order to evaluate the quality of environmental radiation monitoring programs (EMP) and the effectiveness of their implementation, sampling conditions in the field, changes of environmental aspects in the impact area, adequacy of and adherence to procedures established and other applicable documents, technical competence of the staff and the necessary resources to ensure the required quality of the EMP. The MCP has been performed by activities should include inspecting and auditing of several types of nuclear and radioactive facilities. The inspection programme include the joint sampling program (CCP). The aim of the CCP is to check data of environmental monitoring of operator. The MCP was implemented in 1994. Ever since several problems related to the environmental control performed by operator was identified. The most important of them include problems related to the preparation and analysis of environmental samples, training of personnel, necessary resources, adherence of procedures to the purpose of the monitoring, fulfillment of procedures established, adequacy of the EMP and EMP

  18. Quality control for the mammography screening program in Serbia: Physical and technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Bozovic, P.; Lazarevic, D.; Arandjic, D.; Kosutic, D.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the major cause of mortality among female population in Serbia. It is presumed that the introduction of screening programme will reduce mortality and therefore, 47 new mammography units were installed for the purpose of population-based screening program in 2011. In parallel, Quality assurance and Quality control (QC) in mammography has received increasing attention as an essential element of the successful breast cancer campaign that is for the first time initialed in Serbia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the need for and the possible implementation of the comprehensive QC programme for the mammography screening in Serbia, with special focus on physical and technical aspect. In the first phase, a QC protocols containing list of parameters, methodology, frequency of tests and reference values for screen-film, computed radiography and full-filed digital mammography) units, were developed. The second phase is focused on the initial implementation of these protocols. The paper presents results of tests of the selected parameters in 35 mammography units, with special emphasis on patient dose and image quality descriptors. After initial implementation at the beginning of the population based breast cancer screening campaign, it is essential to establish system of regular and periodic QC equipment monitoring and to ensure high quality mammograms with minimal possible radiation dose to population included in the screening. (authors)

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  20. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  1. Role of Private Enterprise in Cancer Control in Low to Middle Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwumere E. Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. About 65% of cancer deaths globally occur in low to middle income countries (LMICs where prioritization and allocation of resources to cancer care are often quite poor. In the absence of governmental focus on this problem, public-private partnerships may be an avenue to provide effective cancer control. Methods. This manuscript highlights the establishment of a nongovernmental organization (NGO to stimulate the development of partnerships between oncology professionals, private enterprise, and academic institutions, both locally and internationally. Examples of capacity building, grant support, establishment of collaborative networks, and the development of a facility to provide clinical care are highlighted. Results. Collaborations were established between oncology professionals at academic institutions in the US and Nigeria. Cancer control workshops were conducted in Nigeria with grant support from the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC. A monthly tumor board conference was established at LASUTH in Lagos, and further capacity building is underway with grant support from the United States NCI. An outpatient, privately funded oncology clinic in Lagos has been launched. Conclusion. In LMICs, effective partnership between public and private institutions can lead to tangible strides in cancer control. The use of creative healthcare financing models can also support positive change.

  2. Exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors after participation in a randomized controlled trial: an attribution theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sela, Rami A; Quinney, H Arthur; Rhodes, Ryan E; Jones, Lee W

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine postprogram exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors who participated in the Group Psychotherapy and Home-Based Physical Exercise (GROUP-HOPE; Courneya, Friedenreich, Sela, Quinney, & Rhodes, 2002) trial. At the completion of the GROUP-HOPE trial, 46 of 51 (90%) participants in the exercise group completed measures of attribution theory constructs. A 5-week follow-up self-report of exercise was then completed by 30 (65%) participants. Correlational analyses indicated that program exercise, perceived success, expected success, and affective reactions were strong predictors of postprogram exercise. In multivariate stepwise regression analyses, program exercise and perceived success were the strongest predictors of postprogram exercise. Additionally, perceived success was more important than objective success in understanding the attribution process, and it interacted with personal control to influence expected success and negative affect. Finally, postprogram quality of life and changes in physical fitness were correlates of perceived success. We concluded that attribution theory may have utility for understanding postprogram exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors.

  3. Digitoxin medication and cancer; case control and internal dose-response studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spigset Olav

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digitoxin induces apoptosis in different human malignant cell lines in vitro. In this paper we investigated if patients taking digitoxin for cardiac disease have a different cancer incidence compared to the general population. Methods Computer stored data on digitoxin concentrations in plasma from 9271 patients with cardiac disease were used to define a user population. Age and sex matched controls from the Norwegian Cancer Registry were used to calculate the number of expected cancer cases. Results The population on digitoxin showed a higher incidence of cancer compared to the control population. However, an additional analysis showed that the population on digitoxin had a general increased risk of cancer already, before the start on digitoxin. Leukemia/lymphoma were the cancer types which stood out with the highest risk in the digitoxin population before starting on digitoxin. This indicates that yet unknown risk factors exist for cardiovascular disease and lymphoproliferative cancer. An internal dose-response analysis revealed a relationship between high plasma concentration of digitoxin and a lower risk for leukemia/lymphoma and for cancer of the kidney/urinary tract. Conclusion Morbidity and mortality are high in the population on digitoxin, due to high age and cardiac disease.These factors disturb efforts to isolate an eventual anticancer effect of digitoxin in this setting. Still, the results may indicate an anticancer effect of digitoxin for leukemia/lymphoma and kidney/urinary tract cancers. Prospective clinical cancer trials have to be done to find out if digitoxin and other cardiac glycosides are useful as anticancer agents.

  4. Digitoxin medication and cancer; case control and internal dose-response studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haux, Johan; Klepp, Olbjørn; Spigset, Olav; Tretli, Steinar

    2001-01-01