WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer control program

  1. Planning for cancer control programs: Leadership considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John; Sutcliffe, Simon B

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a significant challenge globally. Reducing the impact of cancer requires a program and plans that address the main aspects of cancer from prevention through to end-of-life care. This article summarizes the requirements of a robust cancer control program and outlines the contextual and leadership considerations that are required to ensure that the planning and implementation of a control program can achieve improved cancer outcomes.

  2. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  3. Worksite Cancer Prevention Activities in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmias, Zachary; Townsend, Julie S; Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-08-01

    Workplaces are one setting for cancer control planners to reach adults at risk for cancer and other chronic diseases. However, the extent to which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded National Comprehensive Cancer Control Programs (NCCCP) implement interventions in the workplace setting is not well characterized. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of program action plans submitted by NCCCP grantees from 2013 to 2015 to identify and describe cancer prevention objectives and interventions in the workplace setting. Nearly half of NCCCP action reports contained at least one cancer prevention objective or intervention in the workplace setting. Common interventions included education about secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace, and the importance of obtaining colorectal cancer screening. Workplace interventions were relatively common among NCCCP action plans, and serve as one way to address low percentages of CRC screening, and reduce risk for obesity- and tobacco-related cancers.

  4. Evaluating Progress in Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2011-2015.

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    Acree, Pascal; Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio

    2017-04-04

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) funds every state, seven tribes, seven territories and the District of Columbia to develop formal cancer plans that focus efforts in cancer control. A 2010 review of cancer plans identified radon-related activities in 27 (42%) plans. Since then, 37 coalitions have updated their plans with new or revised cancer control objectives. There has also been recent efforts to increase awareness about radon among cancer coalitions. This study assesses NCCCP grantees current radon activities and changes since the 2010 review. We reviewed all 65 NCCCP grantee cancer plans created from 2005 to 2015 for radon related search terms and categorized plans by radon activities. The program's most recent annual progress report to CDC was also reviewed. We then compared the results from the updated plans with the findings from the 2010 review to assess changes in radon activities among cancer coalitions. Changes in state radon laws between 2010 and 2015 were also assessed. While a number of cancer plans have added or expanded radon-specific activities since 2010, approximately one-third of NCCCP grantees still do not include radon in their cancer plans. Cancer programs can consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs to further reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially among non-smokers.

  5. The history and use of cancer registry data by public health cancer control programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S; Mariotto, Angela B; Wong, Faye L; Kohler, Betsy A; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. Cancer 2017;123:4969-76. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  7. An urban intergenerational program for cancer control education.

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    Lowe, J I; Barg, F K; Norman, S; Mccorkle, R

    1997-01-01

    Recognizing the disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality that exist between African Americans and whites, an urban university and its neighborhood community undertook the development of an education program to transfer state-of-the-art cancer prevention, detection, and treatment information from an academic medical center to community residents, including school-age children. An intergenerational, multilevel intervention was developed to: 1) assess the health beliefs of the community, 2) identify, develop, and train an intergenerational group of community residents who would serve as health educators, and 3) promote behavioral change among the target population. Ten community residents were trained as educators. Over the course of two years they conducted cancer education programs that reached 775 adults. During the same period, the school-based educational intervention reached 264 seventh-grade students. Implications for the design and implementation of community-based cancer education programs in this African American community are identified.

  8. Radon control activities for lung cancer prevention in national comprehensive cancer control program plans, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Antonio; Stewart, Sherri L; Angell, William

    2013-08-08

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms "radon," "radiation," or "lung." Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program's most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n=21), remediation (n=11), support radon policy activities (n=13), and policy evaluation (n=1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n=21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs.

  9. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Angell, William

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalitions recognize radon as an important carcinogen. Methods We reviewed 65 cancer plans created from 2005 through 2011 for the terms “radon,” “radiation,” or “lung.” Plan activities were categorized as radon awareness, home testing, remediation, supporting radon policy activities, or policy evaluation. We also reviewed each CCC program’s most recent progress report. Cancer plan content was reviewed to assess alignment with existing radon-specific policies in each state. Results Twenty-seven of the plans reviewed (42%) had radon-specific terminology. Improving awareness of radon was included in all 27 plans; also included were home testing (n = 21), remediation (n = 11), support radon policy activities (n = 13), and policy evaluation (n = 1). Three plans noted current engagement in radon activities. Thirty states had radon-specific laws; most (n = 21) were related to radon professional licensure. Eleven states had cancer plan activities that aligned with existing state radon laws. Conclusion Although several states have radon-specific policies, approximately half of cancer coalitions may not be aware of radon as a public health issue. CCC-developed cancer coalitions and plans should prioritize tobacco control to address lung cancer but should consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs. PMID:23928457

  10. Urgent need to strengthen and expand screening and other cancer control programs in the CARICOM Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Renee A; Simeon, Donald T

    2017-11-01

    With high mortality in breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancers in Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries, we examined cancer control initiatives including screening as well as the implementation of relevant international and regional mandates. Secondary data were used to examine cancer control initiatives, which included the presence of national policies, programs, and screening services as well as the implementation of international and regional mandates. To identify the data, an on-line search was conducted using Google/Google Scholar. Data were available for 14 of the 15 full members of CARICOM. Although only six countries had distinct cancer control policies, strategies or action plans, all 14 had key elements of cancer control programs. Screening services were available in the 14 countries for cervical, in 12 countries for breast and in 11 for colorectal cancer. However, only four countries had screening policies. In addition, screening guidelines were available for cervical cancer in nine countries, in one country for breast and in none for colorectal cancer. Selected tobacco control policies were present in the 14 countries and immunization policies for human papillomavirus (HPV) in 13. Treatment services included chemotherapy in 10 countries and radiotherapy in six. Nine countries had palliative care services for patients with advanced disease. The countries were at different stages of implementation/compliance with international and regional mandates and frameworks. There is an urgent need to develop and implement comprehensive and customized cancer control policies addressing screening programs, treatment and palliative care.

  11. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hextan Y. S. Ngan

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  12. Challenges in the development and implementation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program in Mexico.

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    Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Meneses-García, Abelardo; Erazo-Valle, Aura; Escudero-de Los Ríos, Pedro; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including cancer, have become the leading cause of human morbidity and mortality. In Mexico, cancer is the third leading cause of death, with a high incidence among the economically active population, a high proportion of advanced stages at diagnosis and limited care coverage for patients. However, no public policy aimed at managing this important public health problem has been developed and implemented to date. This manuscript describes the first interinstitutional proposal of a National Program for Cancer Control, considering the known risk factors, early detection, treatment, palliative care and patient rehabilitation. This manuscript also outlines a series of thoughts on the difficulties and needs that the Mexican health system faces in achieving the main objectives of the program: to decrease the incidence of cancer, to increase survival and to improve the quality of life for this group of patients.

  13. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm A. Moore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the resources available at local, national and international levels. The present review concerns elements of cancer control programs established in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Japan in North-East Asia, Viet Nam, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia as representative larger countries of South-East Asia for comparison, using the published literature as a guide. While major advances have been made, there are still areas which need more attention, especially in South-East Asia, and international cooperation is essential if standard guidelines are to be generated to allow effective cancer control efforts throughout the Far East.

  14. Asia Oceania Guidelines for the Implementation of Programs for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Hextan Y. S.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R.; Chan, Karen K. L.; Cheung, Annie N. Y.; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J.; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed. PMID:21559068

  15. Asia oceania guidelines for the implementation of programs for cervical cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Hextan Y S; Garland, Suzanne M; Bhatla, Neerja; Pagliusi, Sonia R; Chan, Karen K L; Cheung, Annie N Y; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Domingo, Efren J; Qiao, You Lin; Park, Jong Sup; Tay, Eng Hseon; Supakarapongkul, Wisit

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for health professionals, to develop a comprehensive cervical cancer program for a clinic, a community, or a country. Ensuring access to healthcare is the responsibility of all societies, and the Asia Oceania Research Organisation in Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) is committed to working collaboratively with governments and health professionals to facilitate prevention programs, to protect girls and women from cervical cancer, a disease that globally affects 500,000 and kills nearly 300,000 women annually, just over half of whom are in the Asia Oceania region. We share the vision that a comprehensive program of vaccination, screening, and treatment should be made accessible to all girls and women in the world. The primary purpose of these guidelines is to provide information on scientific evidence on the different modalities and approaches of cervical cancer prevention programs, for high resource and low resource settings. The secondary purpose is to provide an overview of the current situation of cervical cancer control and prevention in various Asian Oceania countries: their views of an ideal program, identified obstacles, and suggestions to overcome them are discussed.

  16. A Transdisciplinary Training Program for Behavioral Oncology and Cancer Control Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Anna M.; Champion, Victoria L.; Kroenke, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Transdisciplinary health research training has been identified as a major initiative to achieve the vision for research teams of the future as articulated in the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. To address the need for scientists who can integrate diverse scientific approaches and work in transdisciplinary teams to solve complex health problems, Indiana University has designed an innovative training program that will provide the didactic and research experiences to enable trainees to establish productive careers in behavioral oncology and cancer control research. Development of a successful transdisciplinary training program requires mentorship, research, and a specialized curriculum that encompass a broad range of disciplines. The program capitalizes on a unique set of existing and emerging training opportunities resulting from the collaborative activities of the Indiana University (IU) Simon Cancer Center, the IU Schools of Nursing and Medicine, and multiple research institutes and academic centers located in Indiana and neighboring states. PMID:18501750

  17. Forming a Stress Management and Health Promotion Program for Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekasis, Panagiotis; Zisi, Georgia; Koumarianou, Anna; Marioli, Androniki; Chrousos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Darviri, Christina

    2016-06-01

    To assess the effects of an 8-week stress management and health promotion program on women undergoing breast cancer chemotherapy treatment. Patients and methods A total of 61 patients were recruited in 2 cancer centers and were randomly assigned to the intervention program (n = 30) or control group (n = 31). The intervention program consisted of different stress management techniques, which were combined with instructions for lifestyle modification. Assessments were carried out through questionnaires and measurement of body mass index (BMI) at baseline and at the end of the 8-week program. In all, 25 participants completed the intervention program, whereas 28 participants completed the observational control program. The intervention program resulted in a small effect size on internal dimension of Health Locus of Control (HLC) and a medium effect size on stress, depression, anxiety, night sleep duration, and chance dimension of HLC. A strong effect size was recorded for BMI and sleep onset latency. Self-rated health, spiritual well-being, and powerful others dimension of HLC were not significantly affected. Additionally, some of the participants reported a reduction in the side effects caused by chemotherapy. The intervention resulted in several benefits for the general health status of patients. Therefore, it should be considered as feasible and potentially beneficial for women undergoing breast cancer chemotherapy. However, it is necessary for this intervention to be tested through a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of patients before adopting this program in standard cancer care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Modeling Canadian Quality Control Test Program for Steroid Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer: Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Teresa; Makrestsov, Nikita; Garatt, John; Torlakovic, Emina; Gilks, C Blake; Mallett, Susan

    The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program monitors clinical laboratory performance for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor tests used in breast cancer treatment management in Canada. Current methods assess sensitivity and specificity at each time point, compared with a reference standard. We investigate alternative performance analysis methods to enhance the quality assessment. We used 3 methods of analysis: meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity of each laboratory across all time points; sensitivity and specificity at each time point for each laboratory; and fitting models for repeated measurements to examine differences between laboratories adjusted by test and time point. Results show 88 laboratories participated in quality control at up to 13 time points using typically 37 to 54 histology samples. In meta-analysis across all time points no laboratories have sensitivity or specificity below 80%. Current methods, presenting sensitivity and specificity separately for each run, result in wide 95% confidence intervals, typically spanning 15% to 30%. Models of a single diagnostic outcome demonstrated that 82% to 100% of laboratories had no difference to reference standard for estrogen receptor and 75% to 100% for progesterone receptor, with the exception of 1 progesterone receptor run. Laboratories with significant differences to reference standard identified with Generalized Estimating Equation modeling also have reduced performance by meta-analysis across all time points. The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program has a good design, and with this modeling approach has sufficient precision to measure performance at each time point and allow laboratories with a significantly lower performance to be targeted for advice.

  19. Development and evaluation of a cancer-related fatigue patient education program: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görres Stefan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related fatigue (CRF and its impact on patients' quality of life has been an increasing subject of research. However, in Germany there is a lack of evidence-based interventions consistent with the multidimensional character of fatigue. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a self-management program for disease-free cancer patients to cope with CRF. Methods Based on evidence extracted from a literature review, a curriculum for the self-management program was elaborated. The curriculum was reviewed and validated by an interdisciplinary expert group and the training-modules will be pretested with a small number of participants and discussed in terms of feasibility and acceptance. To determine the efficacy of the program a randomised controlled trial will be carried out: 300 patients will be recruited from oncological practices in Bremen, Germany, and will be allocated to intervention or control group. The intervention group participates in the program, whereas the control group receives standard care and the opportunity to take part in the program after the end of the follow-up (waiting control group. Primary outcome measure is the level of fatigue, secondary outcome measures are quality of life, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and physical activity. Data will be collected before randomisation, after intervention, and after a follow-up of 6 months. Discussion Because there are no comparable self-management programs for cancer survivors with fatigue, the development of the curriculum has been complex; therefore, the critical appraisal by the experts was an important step to validate the program and their contributions have been integrated into the curriculum. The experts appreciated the program as filling a gap in outpatient cancer care. If the results of the evaluation prove to be satisfactory, the outpatient care of cancer patients can be broadened and supplemented. Trial Registration Clinical

  20. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  1. A cluster randomized controlled trial to increase breast cancer screening among African American women: the black cosmetologists promoting health program.

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    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F; Kelly, Colleen

    2011-08-01

    African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California, participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of breast cancer education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of breast cancer early detection. Posters and literature about breast cancer early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how breast cancer lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with or prolong the client's salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message, and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women's breast cancer knowledge and adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  2. Enhancing organizational capacity to provide cancer control programs among Latino churches: design and baseline findings of the CRUZA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer D; Torres, Maria Idali; Tom, Laura S; Rustan, Sarah; Leyva, Bryan; Negron, Rosalyn; Linnan, Laura A; Jandorf, Lina; Ospino, Hosffman

    2015-04-09

    Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have been successful in delivering health promotion programs for African Americans, though few studies have been conducted among Latinos. Even fewer have focused on organizational change, which is required to sustain community-based initiatives. We hypothesized that FBOs serving Latinos would be more likely to offer evidence-based strategies (EBS) for cancer control after receiving a capacity enhancement intervention to implement health programs, and designed the CRUZA trial to test this hypothesis. This paper describes the CRUZA design and baseline findings. We identified Catholic parishes in Massachusetts that provided Spanish-language mass (n = 65). A baseline survey assessed organizational characteristics relevant to adoption of health programs, including readiness for adoption, "fit" between innovation and organizational mission, implementation climate, and organizational culture. In the next study phase, parishes that completed the baseline assessment will be recruited to a randomized cluster trial, with the parish as the unit of analysis. Both groups will receive a Program Manual and Toolkit. Capacity Enhancement parishes will also be offered technical support, assistance forming health committees and building inter-institutional partnerships, and skills-based training. Of the 49 parishes surveyed at baseline (75%), one-third (33%) reported having provided at least one health program in the prior year. However, only two program offerings were cancer-specific. Nearly one-fifth (18%) had an active health ministry. There was a high level of organizational readiness to adopt cancer control programs, high congruence between parish missions and CRUZA objectives, moderately conducive implementation climates, and organizational cultures supportive of CRUZA programming. Having an existing health ministry was significantly associated with having offered health programs within the past year. Relationships between health program

  3. Nurse-Led Programs to Facilitate Enrollment to Children's Oncology Group Cancer Control Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Maureen; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Leonard, Marcia; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian; Mowbray, Catriona; Landier, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    The progress made over the past 50 years in disease-directed clinical trials has significantly increased cure rates for children and adolescents with cancer. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) is now conducting more studies that emphasize improving quality of life for young people with cancer. These types of clinical trials are classified as cancer control (CCL) studies by the National Cancer Institute and require different resources and approaches to facilitate adequate accrual and implementation at COG institutions. Several COG institutions that had previously experienced problems with low accruals to CCL trials have successfully implemented local nursing leadership for these types of studies. Successful models of nurses as institutional leaders and "champions" of CCL trials are described. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  4. Improving communication in cancer pain management nursing: a randomized controlled study assessing the efficacy of a communication skills training program.

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    Canivet, Delphine; Delvaux, Nicole; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Brancart, Cyrielle; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Razavi, Darius

    2014-12-01

    Effective communication is needed for optimal cancer pain management. This study assessed the efficacy of a general communication skills training program for oncology nurses on communication about pain management. A total of 115 nurses were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or control group (CG). The assessment included the recording of interviews with a simulated cancer patient at baseline for both groups and after training (TG) or 3 months after baseline (CG). Two psychologists rated the content of interview transcripts to assess cancer pain management communication. Group-by-time effects were measured using a generalized estimating equation. Trained nurses asked the simulated patient more questions about emotions associated with pain (relative rate [RR] = 4.28, p = 0.049) and cognitions associated with pain treatment (RR = 3.23, p management (RR = 0.40, p = 0.006) compared with untrained nurses. The general communication skills training program improved only a few of the communication strategies needed for optimal cancer pain management in nursing. General communication skills training programs should be consolidated using specific modules focusing on communication skills related to cancer pain management.

  5. Effectiveness of education for gastric cancer patients: a controlled prospective trial comparing interactive vs. lecture-based programs.

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    Faller, Hermann; Koch, Gunter F; Reusch, Andrea; Pauli, Paul; Allgayer, Hubert

    2009-07-01

    Although patient education may enhance knowledge, coping with illness, and quality of life among cancer patients, it is uncertain which didactic method is most effective. We compared the impact of an interactive, patient-oriented group program to a lecture-based, information-only program in gastric cancer patients. In this prospective, controlled trial, 121 gastric cancer patients attending inpatient rehabilitation after surgical treatment received either the interactive intervention or lectures providing information. The outcomes were patients' disease-related knowledge, active coping with illness, and quality of life (QoL) at the end of their stay and 6 and 12 months thereafter. Both groups improved their knowledge and QoL during rehabilitation; however, knowledge was significantly higher in the interactive group compared to the lecture group. This difference was maintained at the 6- and 12-months follow-ups. In addition, the interactive group proved superior to the lecture group regarding active coping with illness and QoL at the end of rehabilitation, but not during follow-up. A structured, interactive patient education program proved superior to lecture-based provision of information in regards to short-term and long-term knowledge as well as short-term coping and QoL. In gastric cancer patients, interactive patient education seems preferable over lectures.

  6. Effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on patients with a positive fecal occult blood test result for colorectal cancer screening: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Chuan; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer and screening and the psychological impact of positive screening results. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2 groups using a pretest and posttest measures design. Patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 51) group. Subjects in the experimental group received a health education and telephone counseling program, while the control group received routine care only. Patients were assessed pretest before intervention (first visit to the outpatient) and posttest at 4 weeks after intervention (4 weeks after first visit to the outpatient). Patients in the experimental group had a significantly better level of knowledge about colorectal cancer and the psychological impact of a positive screening result than did the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the health education and telephone counseling program had a significant main effect on colorectal cancer knowledge. A health education and telephone counseling program can improve knowledge about colorectal cancer and about the psychological impact in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results. The health education and telephone counseling program is an easy, simple, and convenient method of improving knowledge, improving attitudes, and alleviating psychological distress in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results, and this program can be expanded to other types of cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Prospective Evaluation of Postural Control and Gait in Pediatric Patients with Cancer After a 4-Week Inpatient Rehabilitation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Carsten; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Krauth, Konstantin A

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a 4-wk inpatient rehabilitation program on postural control and gait in pediatric patients with cancer. Eighty-eight patients with brain tumors (n = 59) and bone/soft tissue sarcomas (n = 29) were evaluated. Postural control was assessed examining the velocity of the center of pressure and single-leg stance time on a pressure distribution platform. Walk ratio, a measure of neuromotor control, was used to evaluate intervention effects on gait. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed improvements in postural control measures, indicated by a decrease in velocity of center of pressure of -0.4 cm/sec (F1,80 = 7.175, P = 0.009, ηp = 0.082) and increase in single-leg stance time (mean [median] = 1.1 [2.6] sec, respectively; F1,80 = 12.617, P = 0.001, ηp = 0.136). Walk ratio increased by 0.2 mm/steps per min (F1,82 = 3.766, P = 0.056, ηp = 0.044). Mean changes in dependent variables did not differ between both patient groups (P > 0.05). The results indicate benefits of an inpatient rehabilitation program comprising standard physical therapy as well as aquatic and hippo therapy on postural control and gait after treatment of pediatric patients with cancer.

  8. The effectiveness of a deep water aquatic exercise program in cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Del Moral-Avila, Rosario; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an 8-week aquatic program on cancer-related fatigue, as well as physical and psychological outcomes in breast cancer survivors. A randomized controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, urban, academic medical center, and a sport university swimming pool. Breast cancer survivors (N=68) were randomly assigned to either an experimental (aquatic exercise group in deep water pool) group or a control (usual care) group. The intervention group attended aquatic exercise sessions 3 times per week for 8 weeks in a heated deep swimming pool. Sessions lasted 60 minutes in duration: 10 minutes of warm-up, 40 minutes of aerobic and endurance exercises, and 10 minutes of cool-down exercises. Patients allocated to the usual care group followed the oncologist's recommendations in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Values for fatigue (Piper Fatigue Scale), mood state (Profile of Mood States), and abdominal (trunk curl static endurance test) and leg (multiple sit-to-stand test) strength were collected at baseline, after the last treatment session, and at a 6-month follow-up. Immediately after discharge, the aquatic exercise group showed a large effect size in total fatigue score (d=.87; 95% confidence interval, .48-1.26), trunk curl endurance (d=.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-3.83), and leg strength (d=1.10; .55-2.76), but negligible effects in vigor, confusion, and disturbance of mood (daquatic exercise group maintained large to small effect sizes in fatigue scores, multiple sit-to-stand test, and trunk curl static endurance (.25>d>.90) and negligible effects for the fatigue-severity dimension and different scales of the Profile of Mood States (daquatic exercise program conducted in deep water was effective for improving cancer-related fatigue and strength in breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Strengths of early physical rehabilitation programs in surgical breast cancer patients: results of a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Iannace, C; Di Libero, L

    2014-06-01

    In the immediate postoperative period surgical breast cancer patients can face many problems including functional limitation of the shoulder, edema, pain and depression. Although those symptoms can alleviate during the stages of the therapeutic route, most of the time concur significantly to the everyday life discomforts decreasing sharply the quality of life. Therefore, is essential to pay attention to the functional problems of breast cancer patients in order to ensure a quick and complete physical and psychosocial recovery. Aim of this study, comparing 2 groups of patients, one that underwent to early physical rehabilitation program (EPRP) and one as a control group, is to evaluate: functional improvements of the glenohumeral joint mobility, antalgic effect of EPRP, improvements and/or worsening of quality of life. Randomized controlled study. Inpatient and outpatient clinic, Breast Unit, "San Giuseppe Moscati" Hospital, Avellino, Italy. Seventy women planned for Madden's modified radical mastectomy or for segmental mastectomy with axillary dissection in the period from March 2010 to February 2011. Patients were randomly assigned to treated and control group. All participants were evaluated before surgery and postoperatively at fifth day, first, sixth and twelfth month. Patients of the treated group, underwent first, to assisted cautious mobilization of hand, wrist and elbow and after drainage removal, to twenty physiotherapy sessions under the guide of a physiotherapist. Within group statistical analysis evidenced that TG regained normal function at 1 year after surgery while CG was unable to do so for flexion, abduction and internal rotation movements. TG manifested general and statistically significative improvements in QoL. Improvements in the grade of pain perceived were observed starting from the first postoperative month. Postoperative early physical rehabilitation programme in surgical breast cancer patients surgically treated significantly improves

  10. Enhanced recovery programs in lung cancer surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shuangjiang Li,1 Kun Zhou,1 Guowei Che,1 Mei Yang,1 Jianhua Su,2 Cheng Shen,1 Pengming Yu2 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, 2Department of Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program is an effective evidence-based multidisciplinary protocol of perioperative care, but its roles in thoracic surgery remain unclear. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of the ERAS programs for lung cancer surgery. Materials and methods: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify the RCTs that implemented an ERAS program encompassing more than four care elements within at least two phases of perioperative care in lung cancer surgery. The heterogeneity levels between studies were estimated by the Cochrane Collaborations. A qualitative review was performed if considerable heterogeneity was revealed. Relative risk (RR and weighted mean difference served as the summarized statistics for the meta-analyses. Additional analyses were also performed to perceive potential bias risks. Results: A total of seven RCTs enrolling 486 patients were included. The meta-analysis indicated that the ERAS group patients had significantly lower morbidity rates (RR=0.64; p<0.001, especially the rates of pulmonary (RR=0.43; p<0.001 and surgical complications (RR=0.46; p=0.010, than those of control group patients. No significant reduction was found in the in-hospital mortality (RR=0.70; p=0.58 or cardiovascular complications (RR=1.46; p=0.25. In the qualitative review, most of the evidence reported significantly shortened length of hospital and intensive care unit stay and decreased hospitalization costs in the ERAS-treated patients. No significant publication bias was detected in the meta-analyses. Conclusion: Our review demonstrates that the implementation of an ERAS program for lung cancer

  11. [Strengths and weaknesses of a cervical cancer detection and control program: a qualitative evaluation in San Luis Potosi, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Tayabas, Luz María; Hernández-Ibarra, Luis Eduardo; Pastor-Durango, María del Pilar

    2012-01-01

    To identify, from the perspective of the health staff, the strengths and weaknesses of the program for the detection and control of cervical cancer through a qualitative assessment implemented in three health centers in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, from August 2008 to November 2009. A qualitative evaluation was performed. Nine providers participated in the study. The providers were selected by purposeful sampling using a voluntary participation criterion. Initially, information on the characteristics and the context in which the program operates was obtained from the health centers. Later, 18 semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine informants to probe their perspective. A directed content analysis was used. The strengths reported by staff were the fact that the program is free of charge, the availability of material resources, and the strategies that helped encourage the recruitment of women and their access to screening. The main weaknesses consisted of limitations in human resources and physical infrastructure, inefficient organization of activities, the staff's poor technical training, limited promotion of activities, and limitations in monitoring women with positive results. This study reveals the need for increased human resources, changes in regulations and reorganization of the program's actions in some health centers to ensure the quality of the service, meet women's needs, and promote coverage in all the program's actions. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Building cancer control capacity: a mixed-method evaluation of the Research to Reality (R2R) Mentorship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Michael; Purcell, E Peyton; Michie, Joan S; Tsakraklides, Sophia P; La Porta, Madeline; Vinson, Cynthia

    2014-02-20

    In 2011, the National Cancer Institute launched the Research to Reality (R2R) Pilot Mentorship Program to enhance mentees' core evidence-based public health (EBPH) competencies. In this article, we describe the program and its evaluation results and the program's ability to improve participants' EBPH competencies and appropriateness of program components. Program evaluation consisted of a pre/post program competency questionnaire and interviews with mentees, mentors, mentees' supervisors, and program staff. Mentees reported the same or higher rating in every competency at end of the program, with average increase of 0.6 points on a 4-point scale; the greatest improvements were seen in policy development/program planning. Mentorship programs are a promising strategy to develop EBPH competencies, provide guidance, and disseminate and adapt evidence-based interventions within real-world context.

  13. Effect of a mentor-based, supportive-expressive program, Be Resilient to Breast Cancer, on survival in metastatic breast cancer: a randomised, controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Qiu, Hong Zhong; Liang, Mu Zi; Liu, Mei Ling; Li, Peng Fei; Chen, Peng; Sun, Zhe; Yu, Yuan Liang; Wang, Shu Ni; Zhang, Zhang; Liao, Kun Lun; Peng, Cai Fen; Huang, Hui; Hu, Guang Yun; Zhu, Yun Fei; Zeng, Zhen; Hu, Qu; Zhao, Jing Jing

    2017-11-07

    Because of medical advances, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is now viewed as a chronic disease, rather than an imminent death sentence. Helping women live with this disease requires more than a medical approach to symptoms. Thus, a mentor-based and supportive-expressive program 'Be Resilient to Breast Cancer' (BRBC) was designed to help Chinese women with MBC enhance their resilience levels, biopsychosocial functions, and potentially extend their life span. A total of 226 women with MBC were randomly assigned, in a 1 : 1 ratio, to an intervention group (IG) that participated in BRBC or to a control group (CG) that received no intervention. Be Resilient to Breast Cancer was conducted for 120 min once a week. Primary outcomes were cancer-specific survival and secondary outcomes were resilience, Allostatic Load Index (ALI), anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL). The Cox proportional-hazards model was used for survival analysis and growth mixture models were performed for secondary outcomes. Be Resilient to Breast Cancer did not significantly prolong 3- or 5-year survival (median survival, 36.7 months in IG and 31.5 months in CG). The hazard ratio for death was 0.736 (95% CI, 0.525-1.133, P=0.076; univariate Cox model) and 0.837 (95% CI, 0.578-1.211, P=0.345; multivariate Cox analysis). The IG improved in anxiety (ES=0.85, Presilience (ES=0.67, Presilience, QoL, ALI, and emotional distress.

  14. The eCALM Trial-eTherapy for cancer appLying mindfulness: online mindfulness-based cancer recovery program for underserved individuals living with cancer in Alberta: protocol development for a randomized wait-list controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernicke Kristin A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stress can exacerbate cancer symptom severity, and after completion of primary cancer treatments, many individuals continue to have significant distress. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR is an 8-week group psychosocial intervention consisting of training in mindfulness meditation and yoga designed to mitigate stress, pain, and chronic illness. Efficacy research shows face-to-face (F2F MBCR programs have positive benefits for cancer patients; however barriers exist that impede participation in F2F groups. While online MBCR groups are available to the public, none have been evaluated. Primary objective: determine whether underserved patients are willing to participate in and complete an online MBCR program. Secondary objectives: determine whether online MBCR will mirror previous efficacy findings from F2F MBCR groups on patient-reported outcomes. Method/design The study includes cancer patients in Alberta, exhibiting moderate distress, who do not have access to F2F MBCR. Participants will be randomized to either online MBCR, or waiting for the next available group. An anticipated sample size of 64 participants will complete measures online pre and post treatment or waiting period. Feasibility will be tracked through monitoring numbers eligible and participating through each stage of the protocol. Discussion 47 have completed/completing the intervention. Data suggest it is possible to conduct a randomized waitlist controlled trial of online MBCR to reach underserved cancer survivors. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01476891

  15. Development and Evaluation of the Curriculum for BOLD (Bronx Oncology Living Daily) Healthy Living: a Diabetes Prevention and Control Program for Underserved Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Beth A; Kahan, Michelle; Martinez, Melissa; Isaac, Kathleen; Rossi, Amerigo; Skyhart, Rebecca; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Moadel-Robblee, Alyson

    2015-09-01

    Underserved minority communities have few resources for addressing comorbidity risk reduction among long-term cancer survivors. To address this community need, we developed and piloted the Bronx Oncology Living Daily (BOLD) Healthy Living program, the first known diabetes prevention and control program to target cancer survivors and co-survivors in Bronx County, NY. The program aimed to facilitate lifestyle change and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through weekly group nutrition education (60-90 min) and exercise (60 min) classes. We examined baseline characteristics of participants using simple descriptive statistics and evaluated program implementation and impact using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. The curriculum, which drew from the social-ecological framework and motivational and cognitive behavioral strategies, consisted of 12 culturally and medically tailored modules with options for implementation as a 12- or 4-week program. Seven programs (four 12 weeks and three 4 weeks in length, respectively) were implemented at five community site locations. Sixty-six cancer survivors and 17 cancer co-survivors (mean age 60.5 ± 10.2 years) enrolled in one of the programs. Most participants were female (95.2 %) minority (55.4 % black, 26.5 % Hispanic/Latino) breast cancer survivors (75.7 %). Median program attendance was 62.5 % and did not significantly differ by program length; however, 67.3 % of participants achieved ≥60 % attendance among the 12-week programs, compared to 41.9 % among the 4-week programs, and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.02). Overall, participants reported significant pre/post improvements in perceived health as good/excellent (66.0 to 75.5 %; p = 0.001) and borderline significant decreases in perceived pain as moderate/severe (45.5 to 38.2 %; p = 0.05). More than 90 % of participants reported that the program helped them to achieve their

  16. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine as an Anticancer Vaccine: Collaborative Efforts to Promote Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie S; Steele, C Brooke; Hayes, Nikki; Bhatt, Achal; Moore, Angela R

    2017-03-01

    Widespread use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the potential to reduce incidence from HPV-associated cancers. However, vaccine uptake among adolescents remains well below the Healthy People 2020 targets. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are well positioned to work with immunization programs to increase vaccine uptake. The CDC chronic disease management information system was queried for objectives and activities associated with HPV vaccine that were reported by NCCCP awardees from 2013 to 2016 as part of program reporting requirements. A content analysis was conducted on the query results to categorize interventions according to strategies outlined in The Guide to Community Preventive Services and the 2014 President's Cancer Panel report. Sixty-two percent of NCCCP awardees had planned or implemented at least one activity since 2013 to address low HPV vaccination coverage in their jurisdictions. Most NCCCP awardees (86%) reported community education activities, while 65% reported activities associated with provider education. Systems-based strategies such as client reminders or provider assessment and feedback were each reported by less than 25% of NCCCP awardees. Many NCCCP awardees report planning or implementing activities to address low HPV vaccination coverage, often in conjunction with state immunization programs. NCCCP awardees can play a role in increasing HPV vaccination coverage through their cancer prevention and control expertise and access to partners in the healthcare community.

  17. Commentary: Building an Evidence Base for Promoting Informed Prostate Cancer Screening Decisions: An Overview of a Cancer Prevention and Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Hébert, James

    2017-01-19

    African American (AA) men have significantly higher mortality rates from prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups. Therefore, there is a critical need to identify strategies for promoting informed PrCA screening decisions among this population. This article details the community-driven, social and behavioral research being implemented by a Statewide Cancer Prevention and Control Program (CPCP) to support the development of person-to-person and technological interventions to improve the dissemination of PrCA information to AA men and their families. This article concludes with four recommendations to advance future research and practice related to the use of interventions for promoting informed PrCA decision-making among AAs. These recommendations include: 1) informing men about controversial screening recommendations; 2) including families in educational interventions about PrCA; 3) using technology as a modality for disseminating PrCA information when appropriate; and 4) aiming to create interventions that can be translated into community and clinical settings.

  18. Cancer-related fatigue management: evaluation of a patient education program with a large-scale randomised controlled trial, the PEPs fatigue study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourmaud, A; Anota, A; Moncharmont, C; Tinquaut, F; Oriol, M; Trillet-Lenoir, V; Bajard, A; Parnalland, S; Rotonda, C; Bonnetain, F; Pérol, D; Chauvin, F

    2017-03-28

    To assess the efficacy of a patient educational program built according to guidelines that aims at reducing cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Randomised controlled trial, multicentre, comparing a patient education program, vs the standard of care. Patients were adult cancer outpatients with any tumour site. The primary outcome was fatigue severity assessed with a visual analogical scale (VAS), between the day of randomisation and week 7. Secondary outcomes were fatigue assessed with other scales, health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression. The time to fatigue severity deterioration was assessed. Analyses were performed in a modified intent-to-treat way, that is, including all patients with at least one baseline and 1 week 7 score. A total of 212 patients were included. Fatigue severity assessment was made on 79 patients in the experimental group and 65 in the control group. Between randomisation and week 7, the fatigue (VAS) improved by 0.96 (2.85) points in the experimental group vs 1.63 (2.63) points in the control group (P=0.15). No differences with the secondary outcomes were highlighted between two groups. No other factors were found to be associated with fatigue severity deterioration. Despite rigorous methodology, this study failed to highlight the program efficacy in fatigue reduction for cancer patients. Other assessment tools should be developed to measure the effect of the program on CRF and behaviour. The implementation of the program should also be explored in order to identify its mechanisms and longer-term impact.

  19. An academic medical center model for community colorectal cancer screening: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention demonstration program experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Dorothy S; Cavanagh, Mary F; Messina, Catherine R; Anderson, Joseph C

    2010-08-01

    During 2005-2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five colorectal cancer (CRC) screening demonstration projects around the United States; only one was based in an academic medical center (AMC) rather than a health department. The Suffolk County Preventive Endoscopy Project (Project SCOPE) was a collaborative effort between Stony Brook University Medical Center (SBUMC) and the Suffolk County Department of Health Services. Project SCOPE's objective was to increase CRC screening among Suffolk County residents at least 50 years old who had inadequate or no insurance coverage for CRC screening. The demonstration application drew on the screening, diagnostic, and treatment resources of the AMC and the indigent populations using its outpatient clinics. Patients at 10 county health centers were a primary target for (previously inaccessible) colonoscopy screening. The project's organizational center was SBUMC's preventive medicine department, which was linked to SBUMC's large gastroenterology practice. The specific staffing, financial, and training issues faced by this project provide insights for others who are similarly interested in community engagement. During 40 months of screening, 800 indigent, culturally diverse patients were recruited, and they underwent colonoscopy. Challenges encountered included unreachable referred patients (425 patients; 28% of referrals) and medical ineligibility (e.g., symptomatic comorbid conditions). Pending legislation providing federal funding for a national program offers other AMCs the opportunity to adopt a model such as that proven feasible during Project SCOPE. The lessons learned may have broader application for fostering collaborative AMC partnerships and for enhancing recruitment and retention of participants through outreach.

  20. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    degradable particle technology, CpG oligonucleotides and heat shock proteins for generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...oligonucleotides and heat shock proteins for generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr. Salem’s laboratory also

  1. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up...... to investigate bicalutamide as a treatment option for local prostate cancer (localized or locally advanced disease). METHODS: The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer program comprises three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of similar design that are being conducted in distinct geographical...... areas (North America; Australia, Europe, Israel, South Africa and Mexico; and Scandinavia). Men with T1b-4N0-1M0 (TNM 1997) prostate cancer have been randomized on a 1:1 basis to receive bicalutamide 150 mg daily or placebo. Recruitment to the program closed in July 1998, and follow-up is ongoing. Study...

  2. Sustainability of an Integrated Adventure-Based Training and Health Education Program to Enhance Quality of Life Among Chinese Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Oi Kwan Joyce; Li, Ho Cheung William; Chiu, Sau Ying; Ho, Ka Yan; Lopez, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is of paramount importance to enhance the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors. The objectives of this study were to examine the sustainability, feasibility, and acceptability of an adventure-based training and health education program in changing the exercise behavior and enhancing the physical activity levels, self-efficacy, and quality of life of childhood cancer survivors. A follow-up study (12 and 18 months) of a previous study was conducted. Participants in the experimental group (n = 33) joined a 4-day integrated adventure-based training and health education program. The control group (n = 36) received the standard medical care. Changes in exercise behavior, levels of physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life were assessed from the time of recruitment, and at 12 and 18 months after starting the intervention. Process evaluation was conducted to determine whether the program was feasible and acceptable to participants. From baseline to 18 months after the intervention, the experimental group reported statistically significant differences in the stages of change in physical activity and higher levels of physical activity, self-efficacy, and quality of life than did the control group. The results of process evaluation revealed that the program was both feasible and acceptable to participants. The program was found to have substantial effects on enhancing the physical activity levels, self-efficacy, and quality of life of childhood cancer survivors over at least 18 months. Healthcare professionals should consider adopting such programs to promote the regular physical activity among childhood cancer survivors.

  3. Effects of a clinician referral and exercise program for men who have completed active treatment for prostate cancer: A multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial (ENGAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Patricia M; Craike, Melinda J; Salmon, Jo; Courneya, Kerry S; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Fraser, Steve F; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Broadbent, Suzanne; Botti, Mari; Kent, Bridie

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a clinician referral and exercise program in improving exercise levels and quality of life for men with prostate cancer. This was a multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial in Melbourne, Australia comprising 15 clinicians: 8 clinicians were randomized to refer eligible participants (n = 54) to a 12-week exercise program comprising 2 supervised gym sessions and 1 home-based session per week, and 7 clinicians were randomized to follow usual care (n = 93). The primary outcome was self-reported physical activity; the secondary outcomes were quality of life, anxiety, and symptoms of depression. A significant intervention effect was observed for vigorous-intensity exercise (effect size: Cohen's d, 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.82; P = .010) but not for combined moderate and vigorous exercise levels (effect size: d, 0.08; 95% CI, -0.28 to 0.45; P = .48). Significant intervention effects were also observed for meeting exercise guidelines (≥150 min/wk; odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.9-7.8; P = .002); positive intervention effects were observed in the intervention group for cognitive functioning (effect size: d, 0.34; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.70; P = .06) and depression symptoms (effect size: d, -0.35; 95% CI, -0.71 to 0.02; P = .06). Eighty percent of participants reported that the clinician's referral influenced their decision to participate in the exercise program. The clinician referral and 12-week exercise program significantly improved vigorous exercise levels and had a positive impact on mental health outcomes for men living with prostate cancer. Further research is needed to determine the sustainability of the exercise program and its generalizability to other cancer populations. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  4. Changes in Pain and Muscle Architecture in Colon Cancer Survivors After a Lumbopelvic Exercise Program: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Lozano-Lozano, Mario; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy of an eight-week lumbopelvic stabilization program (CO-CUIDATE) for colon cancer survivors. A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled clinical trial. A blinded, trained researcher performed the end point assessments for pain (Pressure Pain Threshold and Brief Pain Inventory) and muscle architecture (ultrasound imaging measurements). Forty-six colon cancer survivors who were assigned to the CO-CUIDATE group or usual care group. The CO-CUIDATE program was conducted for eight weeks. A trained researcher who was blinded to patient group performed the assessments. The tests were carried out with multiple observations. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed. The program had an adherence rate of 88.36% and two dropouts (10.5%). The participants reported some minor side effects during the first exercise sessions. The analysis revealed significant differences in the group x time interactions for the lumbar side (dominant: F = 3.1, P  threshold points, pain severity, interference of pain, or the remaining ultrasound imaging measurements. The CO-CUIDATE program is effective for improving the musculoskeletal conditions related to the lumbopelvic area in colon cancer survivors, specifically in relation to pain and the internal oblique thickness.

  5. Evidence-Based Cancer Survivorship Activities for Comprehensive Cancer Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, J Michael; Lakhani, Naheed; Finifrock, DeAnna; Pinkerton, Beth; Johnson, Krystal L; Mallory, Sharon H; Migliore Santiago, Patricia; Stewart, Sherri L

    2015-12-01

    One of six priorities of CDC's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is to address the needs of cancer survivors within the local population served by individually funded states, tribes, and territories. This report examines cancer survivorship activities implemented in five NCCCP grantees, which have initiated evidence-based activities outlined in A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship: Advancing Public Health Strategies (NAP). NCCCP action plans, submitted annually to CDC, from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed in February 2015 to assess implementation of cancer survivorship activities and recommended strategies consistent with the NAP. Four state-level and one tribal grantee with specific activities related to one of each of the four NAP strategies were chosen for inclusion. Brief case reports describing the initiation and impact of implemented activities were developed in collaboration with each grantee program director. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa programs each implemented activities in surveillance and applied research; communication, education, and training; programs, policies, and infrastructure; and access to quality care and services. This report provides examples for incorporating cancer survivorship activities within Comprehensive Cancer Control programs of various sizes, demographic makeup, and resource capacity. New Mexico, South Carolina, Vermont, Washington state, and Fond Du Lac Band developed creative cancer survivorship activities that meet CDC recommendations. NCCCP grantees can follow these examples by implementing evidence-based survivorship interventions that meet the needs of their specific populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A home-based, nurse-led health program for postoperative patients with early-stage cervical cancer: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jue; Huang, Jiliang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yajie

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of a home-based, nurse-led health program on quality of life and family function for postoperative patients with early-stage cervical cancer. 226 cervical cancer patients, from two hospitals between December 2012 and April 2014, were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group received an individual home-based, nurse-led health program (family-care team provision, physiological rehabilitation, emotion-release management, informal social support system, and follow-up monitoring), in addition to conventional nursing education. Patients in the control group only received conventional nursing education. The Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy-Cervix, Female Sexual Function Index, and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale were used for assessment before and after the intervention. After the intervention, significant improvements were found for the quality of life total scores (t=-7.650, p=0.000), sexual function scores (t=-6.465, p=0.000), cohesion scores (t=-8.417, p=0.001) and adaptability scores (t=-10.735, p=0.000) in the intervention group. Moreover, proportions of family types were also improved (χ2 = 17.77, p=0.000). However, for the control group, no significant differences were found except for a decrease in sexual function scores (t = -4.035, p=0.000). Significant differences in change scores between groups were also found for quality of life (F=41.980, p=0.000), Sexual function (F=37.380, p=0.000), cohesion (F=15.268, p=0.000) and adaptability (F=16.998, p=0.000). A home-based, nurse-led health promotion program improves the quality of life, sexual function and family function in postoperative patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of an integrated Yoga Program on Self-reported Depression Scores in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Conventional Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Raghavendra Mohan; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Nagendra, H R; Usharani, M R; Gopinath, K S; Diwakar, Ravi B; Patil, Shekar; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Rao, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy on self-reported symptoms of depression in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. Ninety-eight breast cancer patients with stage II and III disease from a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy (n = 53) over a 24-week period during which they underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both. The study stoppage criteria was progressive disease rendering the patient bedridden or any physical musculoskeletal injury resulting from intervention or less than 60% attendance to yoga intervention. Subjects underwent yoga intervention for 60 min daily with control group undergoing supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and symptom checklist were assessed at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. We used analysis of covariance (intent-to-treat) to study the effects of intervention on depression scores and Pearson correlation analyses to evaluate the bivariate relationships. A total of 69 participants contributed data to the current analysis (yoga, n = 33, and controls, n = 36). There was 29% attrition in this study. The results suggest an overall decrease in self-reported depression with time in both the groups. There was a significant decrease in depression scores in the yoga group as compared to controls following surgery, RT, and CT (P surgery, RT, and CT. The results suggest possible antidepressant effects with yoga intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment.

  8. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflamma- tory drugs (NSAIDs) ibuprofen or aspirin reduces this inflammatory response and, possibly, postpartum breast...involution with systemic ibuprofen or aspirin did not interrupt mammary epithelial cell regression that normally occurs during this period These data... children of immigrant stress, and social desirability bias. Preliminary data suggest that breast cancer survivors, notably racial/ethnic minorities

  9. Effects of a Yoga Program on Mood States, Quality of Life, and Toxicity in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Conventional Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Raghavendra Mohan; Raghuram, Nagaratna; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Kodaganur, Gopinath S; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Shashidhara, H P; Diwakar, Ravi B; Patil, Shekhar; Rao, Nalini

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy counseling on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, toxicity, and quality of life in Stage II and III breast cancer patients on conventional treatment. Ninety-eight Stage II and III breast cancer patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both at a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy counseling (n = 53) over a 24-week period. Intervention consisted of 60-min yoga sessions, daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Assessments included state-trait anxiety inventory, Beck's depression inventory, symptom checklist, common toxicity criteria, and functional living index-cancer. Assessments were done at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. Both groups had similar baseline scores. There were 29 dropouts 12 (yoga) and 17 (controls) following surgery. Sixty-nine participants contributed data to the current analysis (33 in yoga, and 36 in controls). An ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline differences, showed a significant decrease for the yoga intervention as compared to the control group during RT (first result) and CT (second result), in (i) anxiety state by 4.72 and 7.7 points, (ii) depression by 5.74 and 7.25 points, (iii) treatment-related symptoms by 2.34 and 2.97 points, (iv) severity of symptoms by 6.43 and 8.83 points, (v) distress by 7.19 and 13.11 points, and (vi) and improved overall quality of life by 23.9 and 31.2 points as compared to controls. Toxicity was significantly less in the yoga group (P = 0.01) during CT. The results suggest a possible use for yoga as a psychotherapeutic intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment.

  10. Effects of a yoga program on mood states, quality of life, and toxicity in breast cancer patients receiving conventional treatment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy counseling on mood states, treatment-related symptoms, toxicity, and quality of life in Stage II and III breast cancer patients on conventional treatment. Methods: Ninety-eight Stage II and III breast cancer patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT or chemotherapy (CT or both at a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45 and supportive therapy counseling (n = 53 over a 24-week period. Intervention consisted of 60-min yoga sessions, daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy during their hospital visits. Assessments included state-trait anxiety inventory, Beck's depression inventory, symptom checklist, common toxicity criteria, and functional living index-cancer. Assessments were done at baseline, after surgery, before, during, and after RT and six cycles of CT. Results: Both groups had similar baseline scores. There were 29 dropouts 12 (yoga and 17 (controls following surgery. Sixty-nine participants contributed data to the current analysis (33 in yoga, and 36 in controls. An ANCOVA, adjusting for baseline differences, showed a significant decrease for the yoga intervention as compared to the control group during RT ( first result and CT (second result, in (i anxiety state by 4.72 and 7.7 points, (ii depression by 5.74 and 7.25 points, (iii treatment-related symptoms by 2.34 and 2.97 points, (iv severity of symptoms by 6.43 and 8.83 points, (v distress by 7.19 and 13.11 points, and (vi and improved overall quality of life by 23.9 and 31.2 points as compared to controls. Toxicity was significantly less in the yoga group (P = 0.01 during CT. Conclusion: The results suggest a possible use for yoga as a psychotherapeutic intervention in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment.

  11. Effects of a Short-Term Dance Movement Therapy Program on Symptoms and Stress in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy: A Randomized, Controlled, Single-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Fong, Ted C T; Cheung, Irene K M; Yip, Paul S F; Luk, Mai-Yee

    2016-05-01

    Integrated interventions with combined elements of body movement and psychotherapy on treatment-related symptoms in cancer patients are relatively scarce. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of dance movement therapy (DMT) on improving treatment-related symptoms in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 139 Chinese patients with breast cancer awaiting adjuvant radiotherapy were randomized to DMT or control group. The intervention included six 1.5-hour DMT sessions provided twice a week over the course of radiotherapy. Self-report measures on perceived stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbance, and quality of life were completed before and after the three-week program. DMT showed significant effects on buffering the deterioration in perceived stress, pain severity, and pain interference (Cohen d = 0.34-0.36, P  0.05). The short-term DMT program can counter the anticipated worsening of stress and pain in women with breast cancer during radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of a home care nursing program in the symptom management of patients with colorectal and breast cancer receiving oral chemotherapy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Alex; Brearley, Sarah; Saunders, Mark; Craven, Olive; Wardley, Andrew; Farrell, Carole; Swindell, Ric; Todd, Chris; Luker, Karen

    2009-12-20

    To assess the effectiveness of a symptom-focused home care program in patients with cancer who were receiving oral chemotherapy in relation to toxicity levels, anxiety, depression, quality of life, and service utilization. A randomized, controlled trial was carried out with 164 patients with a diagnosis of colorectal (n = 110) and breast (n = 54) cancers who were receiving oral capecitabine. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either a home care program by a nurse or standard care for 18 weeks (ie, six cycles of chemotherapy). Toxicity assessments were carried out weekly for the duration of the patients' participation in the trial, and validated self-report tools assessed anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Significant improvements were observed in the home care group in relation to the symptoms of oral mucositis, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, pain, fatigue (first four cycles), and insomnia (all P < .05). This improvement was most significant during the initial two cycles. Unplanned service utilization, particularly the number of inpatient days (57 v 167 days; P = .02), also was lower in the home care group. A symptom-focused home care program was able to assist patients to manage their treatment adverse effects more effectively than standard care. It is imperative that patients receiving oral chemotherapy are supported with such programs, particularly during initial treatment cycles, to improve their treatment and symptom experiences.

  13. Effect of a multidiscipline mentor-based program, Be Resilient to Breast Cancer (BRBC), on female breast cancer survivors in mainland China-A randomized, controlled, theoretically-derived intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Qiu, Hong Zhong; Liu, Mei Ling; Hu, Guang Yun; Zhu, Yun Fei; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Jing Jing; Quan, Xiao Ming

    2016-08-01

    To reduce the risk of adjustment problems for breast cancer patients in mainland China, we examined the efficacy of a multidiscipline mentor-based program, Be Resilient to Breast Cancer (BRBC), delivered after breast surgery to (a) increase protective factors of social support, hope for the future, etc.; (b) decrease risk factors of Physical and Emotional Distress; and (c) increase outcomes of Resilience, Transcendence and Quality of Life (QOL). A multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted at 6 specialist cancer hospitals. 101 and 103 breast cancer patients were allocated to intervention group (IG) and control group (CG), respectively, and 112 general females (without breast cancer) were allocated to the norm group (NG). Participants completed measures that were related to latent variables derived from the Resilience Model for Breast Cancer (RM-BC) at baseline (T1), 2 months (T2), 6 months (T3), and 12 months (T4) after intervention. At T2, the IG reported significantly lower Depression (ES = 0.65,P = 0.0019) and Illness Uncertainty (ES = 0.57, P = 0.004), better Hope (ES = 0.81, P Resilience (ES = 0.83, P Resilience though not significant (P = 0.085) and better Transcendence (P = 0.0243) than did the NG. The BRBC intervention improves the positive health outcomes and decreases the risk factors of illness-related distress of breast cancer patients during the high-risk cancer treatment.

  14. PREDOMOS study, impact of a social intervention program for socially isolated elderly cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crétel-Durand, Elodie; Nouguerède, Emilie; Le Caer, Hervé; Rousseau, Frédérique; Retornaz, Frédérique; Guillem, Olivier; Couderc, Anne-Laure; Greillier, Laurent; Norguet, Emmanuelle; Cécile, Maud; Boulahssass, Rabia; Le Caer, Francoise; Tournier, Sandrine; Butaud, Chantal; Guillet, Pierre; Nahon, Sophie; Poudens, Laure; Kirscher, Sylvie; Loubière, Sandrine; Diaz, Nadine; Dhorne, Jean; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine

    2017-04-12

    Cancer incidence and social isolation increase along with advanced age, and social isolation potentiates the relative risk of death by cancer. Once spotted, social isolation can be averted with the intervention of a multidisciplinary team. Techniques of automation and remote assistance have already demonstrated their positive impact on falls prevention and quality of life (QoL), though little is known about their impact on socially isolated elderly patients supported for cancer. The primary objective of the PREDOMOS study is to evaluate the impact of establishing a Program of Social intervention associated with techniques of Domotic and Remote assistance (PS-DR) on the improvement of QoL of elderly isolated patients, treated for locally advanced or metastatic cancer. The secondary objectives include treatment failure, tolerance, survival, and autonomy. This trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, open-label, two-parallel group study. The setting is 10 French oncogeriatric centers. Inclusion criteria are patients aged at least 70 years with a social isolation risk and a histological diagnosis of cancer, locally advanced or metastatic disease. The groups are (1) the control group, receiving usual care; (2) the experimental group, receiving usual care associating with monthly social assistance, domotic, and remote assistance. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 allocation ratio. Evaluation times involve inclusion (randomization) and follow-up (12 months). The primary endpoint is QoL at 3 months (via European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C30); secondary endpoints are social isolation, time to treatment failure, toxicity, dose response-intensity, survival, autonomy, and QoL at 6 months. For the sample size, 320 individuals are required to obtain 90% power to detect a 10-point difference (standard deviation 25) in QoL score between the two groups (20% loss to follow-up patients expected). The randomized

  15. Effects of an integrated Yoga Program on Self-reported Depression Scores in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Conventional Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavendra Mohan Rao; Nagarathna Raghuram; H.R. Nagendra; M R Usharani; Gopinath, K. S.; Diwakar, Ravi B; Shekar Patil; Bilimagga, Ramesh S.; Nalini Rao

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of yoga program with supportive therapy on self-reported symptoms of depression in breast cancer patients undergoing conventional treatment. Patients and Methods: Ninety-eight breast cancer patients with stage II and III disease from a cancer center were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 45) and supportive therapy (n = 53) over a 24-week period during which they underwent surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) or both. The stud...

  16. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakitas, Marie; Ahles, Tim A

    2006-01-01

    ... on the Cognitive Effects of Chemotherapy. The scope of the program was to support the trainee's doctoral education with an ultimate career goal of becoming a Clinical Breast Cancer Research Scientist through a mentored research experience. Ms...

  17. Effects and feasibility of a multi-disciplinary orientation program for newly registered cancer patients: design of a randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan, Raymond; Webster, Joan; Bennett, Linda

    2009-01-01

    .... This study investigates the effects of an orientation program on levels of anxiety and self-efficacy amongst newly registered cancer patients who are about to undergo chemotherapy and/or radiation...

  18. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  19. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  20. [Strengthen the cancer surveillance to promote cancer prevention and control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J

    2018-01-23

    Cancer is a major chronic disease threatening the people's health in China. We reviewed the latest advances on cancer surveillance, prevention and control in our country, which may provide important clues for future cancer control. We used data from the National Central Cancer Registry, to describe and analyze the latest cancer statistics in China. We summarized updated informations on cancer control policies, conducting network, as well as programs in the country. We provided important suggestions on the future strategies of cancer prevention and control. The overall cancer burden in China has been increasing during the past decades. In 2014, there were about 3 804 000 new cancer cases and 2 296 000 cancer deaths in China. The age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were 190.63/100 000 and 106.98/100 000, respectively. China has formed a comprehensive network on cancer prevention and control. Nationwide population-based cancer surveillance has been built up. The population coverage of cancer surveillance has been expanded, and the data quality has been improved. As the aging population is increasing and unhealthy life styles persist in our country, there will be an unnegligible cancer burden in China. Based on the comprehensive rationale of cancer control and prevention, National Cancer Center of China will perform its duty for future precise cancer control and prevention, based on cancer surveillance statistics.

  1. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Banglade...

  2. Can a multimodal mind-body program enhance the treatment effects of physical activity in breast cancer survivors with chronic tumor-associated fatigue? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Günther; Choi, Kyung-Eun; Kennemann, Charlotte; Lüdtke, Rainer; Franken, Ulla; Langhorst, Jost; Paul, Anna; Dobos, Gustav J

    2013-07-01

    Background. Chronic fatigue is one of the most restricting symptoms following primary breast cancer treatment, but clinical studies on symptom management are rare. The objective was to evaluate the impact of a multimodal mind-body program (MMMT), including moderate physical activity as compared with a walking intervention alone, on chronic fatigue symptoms of women with stage I to IIIA breast cancer. Sixty-four women (mean age = 56.7 years) suffering from chronic fatigue after active tumor treatment were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control (n = 32 each) intervention (10 weeks). Fatigue, quality of life (QoL), functional well-being, anxiety, and depression were measured with standard questionnaires at baseline, after 10 weeks, and after 3 months. Compared with baseline, both groups had reduced fatigue scores after treatment without any significant difference between groups (posttreatment, Δ = -0.3, confidence interval = -1.6 to 1.0, P = .678; follow-up, Δ = -0.4, confidence interval = -1.8 to 0.9, P = .510). All patients also improved regarding QoL and general functional well-being. Since both interventions reduced fatigue symptoms and enhanced QoL to a similar extent, we observed no verifiable add-on effect of the MMMT regarding fatigue symptoms. Considering the higher costs with additional expenditure related to MMMT, home-based walking intervention is recommended.

  3. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0178 TITLE: Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David M. Lubaroff, PhD CONTRACTING...Prostate Cancer Research Training Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0178 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David M...Distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The HBCU Summer Research Training Program accepted a total of 8 students from Lincoln

  4. A mobile application of breast cancer e-support program versus routine Care in the treatment of Chinese women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Ebert, Lyn; Liu, Xiangyu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2017-04-26

    Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy suffer from a number of symptoms and report receiving inadequate support from health care professionals. Innovative and easily accessible interventions are lacking. Breast Cancer e-Support is a mobile Application program (App) that provides patients with individually tailored information and a support group of peers and health care professionals. Breast Cancer e-Support aims to promote women's self-efficacy, social support and symptom management, thus improving their quality of life and psychological well-being. A single-blinded, multi-centre, randomised, 6-month, parallel-group superiority design will be used. Based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory and the social exchange theory, Breast Cancer e-Support has four modules: 1) a Learning forum; 2) a Discussion forum; 3) an Ask-the-Expert forum; and 4) a Personal Stories forum. Women with breast cancer (n = 108) who are commencing chemotherapy will be recruited from two university-affiliated hospitals in China. They will be randomly assigned to either control group that receives routine care or intervention group that receives routine care plus access to Breast Cancer e-Support program during their four cycles of chemotherapy. Self-efficacy, social support, symptom distress, quality of life, and anxiety and depression will be measured at baseline, then one week and 12 weeks post-intervention. This is the first study of its kind in China to evaluate the use of a mobile application intervention with a rigorous research design and theoretical framework. This study will contribute to evidence regarding the effectiveness of a theory-based mobile application to support women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The results should provide a better understanding of the role of self-efficacy and social support in reducing symptom distress and of the credibility of using a theoretical framework to develop internet-based interventions. The results will provide evidence

  5. The Early Prostate Cancer program: bicalutamide in nonmetastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Roder, Martin Andreas; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The Early Prostate Cancer program is investigating the addition of bicalutamide 150 mg to standard care for localized or locally advanced, nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The third program analysis, at 7.4 years' median follow-up, has shown that bicalutamide 150 mg does not benefit patients...

  6. Ascorbic acid PEG-2L is superior for early morning colonoscopies in colorectal cancer screening programs: a prospective non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez de Miguel, C; Serradesanferm, A; López-Cerón, M; Carballal, S; Pozo, A; Balaguer, F; Cárdenas, A; Fernández-Esparrach, G; Ginés, A; González-Suárez, B; Moreira, L; Ordás, I; Ricart, E; Sendino, O; Vaquero, E C; Ubré, M; del Manzano, S; Grau, J; Llach, J; Castells, A; Pellisé, M

    2015-02-01

    The quality of colon cleansing and the tolerability of anterograde preparation are essential to the success of colorectal cancer screening. To compare the tolerability and efficacy of low-volume preparations vs the standard regimen in individuals scheduled for an early morning colonoscopy. Participants in a population-based colorectal cancer screening program using the fecal immunochemical test who were scheduled for a colonoscopy from 09:00 a.m. to 10:20 a.m. were prospectively included and assigned to: (1) control group (PEG-ELS 4L): PEG 4L and electrolytes; (2) group AscPEG-2L: a combination of PEG and ascorbic acid 2L; and (3) group PiMg: sodium picosulfate and magnesium citrate 500 mL plus 2L of clear fluids. Tolerability was evaluated with a questionnaire and the quality of bowel preparation with the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale. A total of 292 participants were included: 98 in the PEG-ELS 4L control group, 96 in the AscPEG-2L study group and 98 in the PiMg study group. Low-volume treatments were better tolerated than the standard solution (AscPEG-2L 94.8% and PiMg 93.9% vs PEG-ELS 4L 75.5%; p < 0.0001). The effectiveness of AscPEG-2L was superior to that of PEG-ELS 4L and PiMg (p = 0.011 and p = 0.032, respectively). Patient acceptance was higher for single-dose than for split-dose administration but efficacy was higher with the split dose than with other doses. In early morning colonoscopies, ascPEG-2L appears to be the best option, especially when administered in a split-dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of non-invasive assessment in the Dutch breast cancer screening program versus usual care: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.M.H.; Damen, J.A.A.G.; Pijnappel, R.M.; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Heeten, GJ. den; Adang, E.M.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased recall rates in the Dutch breast cancer screening program call for a new assessment strategy aiming to reduce unnecessary costs and anxiety. Diagnostic work-up (usual care) includes multidisciplinary hospital assessment and is similar for all recalled women, regardless of the

  8. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    . For colorectal cancer, the stage at diagnosis of cases diagnosed in northeast Pennsylvania was compared to data from prior years. A population-based interview study of healthy adults was conducted to document the status of cancer screening and to estimate the prevalence of established cancer risk factors in this community. This study is similar in design to that used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES: This program includes two distinct but related projects. The first project uses existing data to conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania, and the second is a population-based study of cancer risk factors and cancer screening behaviors in this same population. HUMAN SUBJECTS CONSIDERATIONS This program includes two projects: cancer surveillance and a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior. The cancer surveillance project involves only the use of existing aggregate data or de-identified data. As such, the surveillance project is exempt from human subjects considerations. The study of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors includes data from a random sample of adult residents of northeast Pennsylvania who are 18 or more years of age. All races, ethnicities and both sexes are included in proportion to their representation in the population. Subjects are interviewed anonymously by telephone; those who are unable to complete an interview in English are ineligible. This project has been reviewed and approved by the Scranton-Temple Residency Program IRB (IRB00001355), which is the IRB for the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute.

  9. AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers from the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) work to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related tumors,...

  10. Developing effective cancer pain education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Pisu, Maria; Kvale, Elizabeth A; Johns, Shelley A

    2012-08-01

    Pain is prevalent, burdensome, and undertreated in individuals with cancer across the disease trajectory. Providing patients and family caregivers with psychosocial support and education to manage cancer pain is a core component of quality care that can result in significant clinical benefit. In this review, we: (1) outline an approach for developing and assessing the effectiveness of education programs for adults with cancer pain; (2) discuss considerations for tailoring programs to the needs of diverse populations and those with limited health literacy skills; (3) describe the resource needs and costs of developing a program; (4) highlight innovative approaches to cancer pain education. We conclude with recommendations for future research and the next generation of educational interventions.

  11. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    by the RCMI grant 2Gl2RR003062-22. S60 STRESS AND APOPTOTIC PROTEINS EXPRESSION IN ARSENIC TRIOXIDE-TREATED BREAST AND LUNG CANCER CELLS, Alice M...Robert Boissy Analysis 10:30 Vimla Band Breast Cancer 9:00 Arrival at Morrison Virology Building 9:15 Jack Morris- Welcome and outline of today’s...cycle progression through G 1. This interaction has been shown to regulate proliferation in human skin, neuronal (neural) and breast cancer cells

  12. Academic Cancer Center Phase I Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur E; Flaherty, Keith T; Weiner, George J; Chen, Robert; Azad, Nilofer S; Pishvaian, Michael J; Thompson, John A; Taylor, Matthew H; Mahadevan, Daruka; Lockhart, A Craig; Vaishampayan, Ulka N; Berlin, Jordan D; Smith, David C; Sarantopoulos, John; Riese, Matthew; Saleh, Mansoor N; Ahn, Chul; Frenkel, Eugene P

    2017-04-01

    Multiple factors critical to the effectiveness of academic phase I cancer programs were assessed among 16 academic centers in the U.S. Successful cancer centers were defined as having broad phase I and I/II clinical trial portfolios, multiple investigator-initiated studies, and correlative science. The most significant elements were institutional philanthropic support, experienced clinical research managers, robust institutional basic research, institutional administrative efforts to reduce bureaucratic regulatory delays, phase I navigators to inform patients and physicians of new studies, and a large cancer center patient base. New programs may benefit from a separate stand-alone operation, but mature phase I programs work well when many of the activities are transferred to disease-oriented teams. The metrics may be useful as a rubric for new and established academic phase I programs. The Oncologist 2017;22:369-374. © The Authors. The Oncologist published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press 2017.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of physical activity, dietary habit, and distress management with the Leadership and Coaching for Health (LEACH) program for disease-free cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Kim, Young Ae; Lee, Myung Kyung; Sim, Jin Ah; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Sung; Kim, Si-Young; Cho, Chi-Heum; Jung, Kyung Hae; Chun, Mison; Lee, Soon Nam; Park, Kyong Hwa; Park, Sohee

    2017-05-02

    We aimed to evaluate the potential benefits of the Leadership and Coaching for Health (LEACH) program on physical activity (PA), dietary habits, and distress management in cancer survivors. We randomly assigned 248 cancer survivors with an allocation ratio of two-to-one to the LEACH program (LP) group, coached by long-term survivors, or the usual care (UC) group. At baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, we used PA scores, the intake of vegetables and fruits (VF), and the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) as primary outcomes and, for secondary outcomes, the Ten Rules for Highly Effective Health Behavior adhered to and quality of life (QOL), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). For primary outcomes, the two groups did not significantly differ in PA scores or VF intake but differed marginally in PTGI. For secondary outcomes, the LP group showed a significantly greater improvement in the HADS anxiety score, the social functioning score, and the appetite loss and financial difficulties scores of the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales from baseline to 3 months. From baseline to 12 months, the LP group showed a significantly greater decrease in the EORTC QLQ-C30 fatigue score and a significantly greater increase in the number of the Ten Rules for Highly Effective Health Behavior. Our findings indicate that the LEACH program, coached by long-term survivors, can provide effective management of the QOL of cancer survivors but not of their PA or dietary habits. Clinical trial information can be found for the following: NCT01527409 (the date when the trial was registered: February 2012).

  14. Salmonella Control Programs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Hald, Tine; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo

    2003-01-01

    We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds...... and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying animals (animals and products are processed differently depending on Salmonella status) and animal food products according to the determined risk. In 2001, the Danish society saved U.S.$25.5 million by controlling Salmonella. The total annual...... Salmonella control costs in year 2001 were U.S.$14.1 million (U.S.$0.075/kg of pork and U.S.$0.02/kg of broiler or egg). These costs are paid almost exclusively by the industry. The control principles described are applicable to most industrialized countries with modern intensive farming systems....

  15. Comparing Relaxation Programs for Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, women with breast cancer who have had surgery and are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to one of two different stretching and relaxation programs or to a control group that will receive usual care.

  16. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    S.A. (2008). Androgen-independent prostate cancer cells acquire the complete steroidogenic potential of synthesizing testosterone from cholesterol...Prostate  Cancer Metastasis J. Mott  UNMC  MicroRNA in growth regulation and  therapy  E. Rogan UNMC Metabolism  of Dietary and  Environmental Chemicals...nitrocellulose membrane. β‐actin is used for normalization of  samples  • Quantitative  real‐time PCR analysis of alcohol  metabolizing  enzymes:  mRNAs of

  17. Academic Cancer Center Phase I Program Development

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Arthur E; Flaherty, Keith T; Weiner, George J.; Chen, Robert; Azad, Nilofer S.; Pishvaian, Michael J.; Thompson, John A.; Taylor, Matthew H.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Lockhart, A. Craig; Vaishampayan, Ulka N.; Berlin, Jordan D.; Smith, David C.; Sarantopoulos, John; Riese, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Multiple factors critical to the effectiveness of academic phase I cancer programs were assessed among 16 academic centers in the U.S. Successful cancer centers were defined as having broad phase I and I/II clinical trial portfolios, multiple investigator?initiated studies, and correlative science. The most significant elements were institutional philanthropic support, experienced clinical research managers, robust institutional basic research, institutional administrative efforts to...

  18. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Oliveira, João Blasques; Tavares, António; Domingos, Clarinha; Santos, Lucio Lara

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important health problem in Africa. The number of cancer cases in this region could double, ranging between 700 000 and 1 600 000 new cases in 2030. The mortality rate is higher than 80% and is explained, mainly, by a lack of early detection, diagnostics and treatment resources. In Angola, about 7,000 patients die of cancer every year. Data were derived from open-ended interviews conducted in 2010-11 with health authorities, clinicians, nurses and Administration of Hospitals. According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the development of Angola cancer control strategies. Malaria remains the leading cause of illness and death in Angola, and other communicable diseases remain a public health problem. However, 9 000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year.The most common types of cancer are: cancer of the cervix, breast, prostate, esophagus, stomach and head and neck, as well as cancers with infectious origin, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and liver and bladder cancer. The foundation for developing national cancer control strategies includes: oncological data; investment and training; identifying and removing barriers; guidance and protection of the patient. Angolan National Cancer Centre, Sagrada Esperança Clinic and Girassol Clinic are now developing a cancer program. Improving the economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which in itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. On the other hand, infectious diseases, associated with the risk of malignant tumors, are endemic. Thus, an increase in patients with malignant disease is expected. A plan is therefore necessary to organize the response to this old

  19. Effectiveness of a multimodal standard nursing program on health-related quality of life in Chinese mainland female patients with breast cancer: protocol for a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaina; Wang, Duolao; He, Xiaole; Huo, Lanting; An, Jinghua; Li, Minjie; Wang, Wen; Li, Xiaomei

    2016-08-31

    Breast cancer and its treatment-related adverse effects are harmful to physical, psychological, and social functioning, leading to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment in patients. Many programs have been used with this population for HRQoL improvement; however, few studies have considered the physical, psychological, and social health domains comprehensively, and few have constructed multimodal standard nursing interventions based on specific theories. The purpose of this trial is to examine the effect of a health belief model (HBM)-based multimodal standard nursing program (MSNP) on HRQoL in female patients with breast cancer. This is a two-arm single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) in clinical settings. Twelve tertiary hospitals will be randomly selected from the 24 tertiary hospitals in Xi'an, China, and allocated to the intervention arm and control arm using a computer-generated random numbers table. Inpatient female patients with breast cancer from each hospital will receive either MSNP plus routine nursing care immediately after recruitment (intervention arm), or only routine nursing care (control arm). The intervention will be conducted by trained nurses for 12 months. All recruited female patients with breast cancer, participating clinical staff, and trained data collectors from the 12 hospitals will be blind with respect to group allocation. Patients of the control arm will not be offered any information about the MSNP during the study period to prevent bias. The primary outcome is HRQoL measured through the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast version 4.0 at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include pain, fatigue, sleep, breast cancer-related lymphedema, and upper limb function, which are evaluated by a visual analogue scale, the circumference method, and the Constant-Murley Score. This trial will provide important evidence on the effectiveness of multimodal nursing interventions delivered by nurses in clinical

  20. Development of a community cancer education program: the Forsyth County, NC cervical cancer prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielutte, R; Dignan, M B; Wells, H B; Young, L D; Jackson, D S; Sharp, P C

    1989-01-01

    The authors outline the development and implementation of a public health education program for cervical cancer screening among black women in Forsyth County, NC. The educational program includes distributing electronic and printed information media messages, a program of direct education for women, and providing information on current issues in cervical screening to primary-care physicians. Program development was based on social marketing principles, the PRECEDE model, and the communication-behavior change (CBC) model. Since a true experimental design was not feasible, program evaluation is based on several complementary quasi-experimental designs. Analysis of baseline data indicate that the county where the intervention is taking place, and the control county, are similar with respect to both demographic characteristics and the current level of screening activity. Preliminary results indicate that the program has been successful in raising women's level of awareness of cervical cancer and cervical screening.

  1. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. Methods This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls. Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years, type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour, and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment, and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and

  2. The bicalutamide Early Prostate Cancer Program. Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W A.; McLeod, D; Iversen, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for early prostate cancer has yet to be established. A well-tolerated hormonal therapy such as bicalutamide could be a useful treatment option in this setting, either as adjuvant or immediate therapy. A major collaborative clinical trials program was set up to in...

  3. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    www.agep.iastate.edu SROP: http://www.grad.uiowa.edu/students/SROP The Summer Program: A welcoming summer picnic was held on the day of the...s are available for advice a nd assistance throughout the summer and the regular academic year. The faculty members are listed below as well as a

  4. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    specific interest in minimally invasive procedures, new techniques, and outcomes. Dr. Brown initiated many of the laparoscopic and robotic programs at...These include, but are not limited to, the following: Friday and Saturday Night Concert Series – Free musical concerts held each Friday and...Thursday Night Concerts in Coralville – These musical concerts, held in Morrison Park in the adjacent town of Coralville, IA, are also free and

  5. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...... and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction...

  6. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  7. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, L; Andersen, C; Midtgaard, J; Møller, T; Quist, M; Rørth, M

    2009-02-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength and recapture of certain aspects of their former positive body perception. Deterioation of muscle functions caused by chemotherapy was particularly painful to these patients, independent of gender and age. Young physically active patients are heavily dependent on their physical capacity, body satisfaction and self-identity. This should be taken into account when designing programs to rehabilitate and encourage these patients through the often-strenuous antineoplastic treatments.

  8. EDITORIAL CERVICAL CANCER CAN BE CONTROLLED Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    palliative care of invasive cancer(9). But it must also be accepted that even these modest comparisons will mean little to countries where per capita annual expenditure on health is less than five US dollars. This is a realisation that has spurred the search for alternative approaches to cervical cancer screening.

  9. Effectiveness of the Korean National Cancer Screening Program in Reducing Gastric Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jae Kwan; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Song, Seung Hoon; Jung, Kyu Won; Lee, Chan Wha; Choi, Il Ju; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Dukhyoung

    2017-05-01

    It is not clear whether screening for gastric cancer by upper endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series examinations (looking at the upper and middle sections of the gastrointestinal tract by imaging techniques) reduces mortality. Nevertheless, the Korean National Cancer Screening Program for gastric cancer was launched in 1999 to screen individuals 40 years and older for gastric cancer using these techniques. We evaluated the effectiveness of these techniques in gastric cancer detection and compared their effects on mortality in the Korean population. We performed a nested case-control study using data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Program for gastric cancer since 2002. A total of 16,584,283 Korean men and women, aged 40 years and older, comprised the cancer-free cohort. Case subjects (n = 54,418) were defined as individuals newly diagnosed with gastric cancer from January 2004 through December 2009 and who died before December 2012. Cases were matched with controls (subjects who were alive on the date of death of the corresponding case subject, n = 217,672) for year of entry into the study cohort, age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained via conditional logistic regression analysis. Compared with subjects who had never been screened, the overall OR for dying from gastric cancer among ever-screened subjects was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.77-0.81). According to screening modality, the ORs of death from gastric cancer were 0.53 (95% CI, 0.51-0.56) for upper endoscopy and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.95-1.01) for UGI series. As the number of endoscopic screening tests performed per subject increased, the ORs of death from gastric cancer decreased: 0.60 (95% CI, 0.57-0.63), 0.32 (95% CI, 0.28-0.37), and 0.19 (95% CI, 0.14-0.26) for once, twice, and 3 or more times, respectively. Within the Korean National Cancer Screening Program, patients who received an upper endoscopy were less likely to die from gastric

  10. Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0531 TITLE: Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Roswell Park Cancer Institute/Howard University Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0531 Cancer Scholars Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c... PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam Kisailus, PHD; Wendy Huss, PHD ; Richard Hershberger, MBA, PHD; Anna Allen PHD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  11. Cancer control and prevention: nutrition and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate recent developments in nutritional epigenomics and related challenges, opportunities, and implications for cancer control and prevention. Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and understanding the factors that contribute to cancer development may facilitate the development of strategies for cancer prevention and control. Cancer development involves genetic and epigenetic alterations. Genetic marks are permanent, whereas epigenetic marks are dynamic, change with age, and are influenced by the external environment. Thus, epigenetics provides a link between the environment, diet, and cancer development. Proper food selection is imperative for better health and to avoid cancer and other diseases. Nutrients either contribute directly to cancer prevention or support the repair of genomic and epigenomic damage caused by exposure to cancer-causing agents such as toxins, free radicals, radiation, and infectious agents. Nutritional epigenomics provides an opportunity for cancer prevention because selected nutrients have the potential to reverse cancer-associated epigenetic marks in different tumor types. A number of natural foods and their bioactive components have been shown to have methylation-inhibitory and deacetylation-inhibitory properties. Natural foods and bioactive food components have characteristics and functions that are similar to epigenetic inhibitors and therefore have potential in cancer control and prevention.

  12. 76 FR 9585 - Poison Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Poison Control Program AGENCY: Health... professionals. The centers also offer programs to help clinicians better manage poisoning and overdose cases.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Poison Control Program, Director, Elisa Gladstone via e-mail at...

  13. Cancer control-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, I

    2017-01-01

    Disparities in cancer control exist in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many countries do not have cancer registries to record incidence, mortality and prevalence and are reliant on Globocan estimates of their cancer burden. Poorer cancer control within and between countries occurs in those living remotely from urban centres, those in a low socioeconomic group and some ethnic groups who have lifestyle and belief systems which impact on cancer control. High-income countries generally have population screening programmes for cervix, breast and bowel cancer. However, simpler forms of screening for cancer of the cervix like visual inspection with acetic acid have been shown to be feasible in developing nations. The widespread use of vaccines to prevent cancer has been achieved with the Hepatitis B vaccine but the human papilloma virus vaccine to prevent cancer of the cervix is largely only available in high-income countries. Access to and training of oncological surgeons in LMICs is limited, while 70% of patients in these countries cannot access radiotherapy. The World Health Organization has developed a list of essential medicines although access remains poor in LMICs. The United Nations has set targets for the control of non-communicable diseases to improve global cancer control. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    fects XTj XT ~ $e~s~~ Bran es Chemo .. ---- - Bran Mts Hormonal’ Effects Effects Lymphedema F Effects’ anv tlru Piexopathy< CN$PNPS Coriive Peripheral...Saykin Andrew J. Breast cancer chemotherapy-related cognitive dysfunction. Clinical Breast Cancer 2002;3( Supplement 3):S84-$90. 8. Ahles Tim A., Saykin...429-434. 40. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a double-blind randomized

  15. A rehabilitation program for lung cancer patients during postthoracotomy chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman AJ

    2014-03-01

    mean age of 63 years and a mean of five comorbid conditions; the exercise program was initiated within 4 days after hospital discharge. Participants' CRF severity scores were reduced to mild levels, while the mean number of symptoms decreased from 9 postthoracotomy to 6 after the exercise program, with mean levels of severity and interference decreasing to below prethoracotomy levels. Likewise, participants' functional status and QOL after completing the exercise program improved to near or above prethoracotomy levels. Conclusion: The home-based, light-intensity exercise program for NSCLC patients receiving and completing adjuvant chemotherapy postthoracotomy showed promising trends in improving CRF severity, other symptom severity, functional status, and QOL. Further testing via a two-arm randomized controlled trial is being conducted. Keywords: lung cancer, exercise, cancer-related fatigue, symptoms, functional status, quality of life

  16. A study protocol for Truce: a pragmatic controlled trial of a seven-week acceptance and commitment therapy program for young people who have a parent with cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patterson, Pandora; McDonald, Fiona E J; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Hayes, Louise; Tracey, Danielle; Wakefield, Claire E; White, Kate

    2015-01-01

    ... for household duties and care of younger children onto the young people themselves (Romer et al. 2002; Welch et al. 1996; Maynard et al. 2013). Further, if the parent's cancer goes into remission, the young person still has to face the changes that the cancer brought, such as threat of recurrence and the possibility that the parent will no longer be able t...

  17. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    placebo in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Pain, 116(1-2), 109-118. Gralla, R., Casper, E., Kelsen , D., Braun, D., Dukeman, M., Martini, N., et al...etoposide, and cisplatin in extensive stage small cell lung cancer. Clinical Cancer Research, 5, 3419-3424. Kelsen , D., Gralla, R., Stoopler, M., Casper, E

  18. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S.M.; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  19. Chronic Disease Control Research Fellowship Program (Guatemala ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Program will recruit and mentor research fellows to study policy-relevant issues and translate the resulting knowledge into action. The program will focus initially on tobacco control research (smoking prevention, cessation), in recognition that tobacco use is the leading cause of chronic disease. However, as the program ...

  20. A rehabilitation program for lung cancer patients during postthoracotomy chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Amy J; Brintnall, Ruth Ann; von Eye, Alexander; Jones, Lee W; Alderink, Gordon; Patzelt, Lawrence H; Brown, Jean K

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to describe the effects of a 16-week home-based rehabilitative exercise program on cancer-related fatigue (CRF), other symptoms, functional status, and quality of life (QOL) for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after thoracotomy starting within days after hospital discharge and continuing through the initiation and completion of chemotherapy. Five patients with NSCLC completed the Brief Fatigue Inventory (measuring CRF severity) and the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (measuring symptom severity) before and after thoractomy, and at the end of each week of the 16-week exercise program. Additionally, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (measuring physical and mental functional status) and the Quality of Life Index (measuring QOL) were completed before and after thoracotomy, after weeks 3, 6, 12, and 16 (the end of the exercise program). Further, the 6-minute walk test (measuring functional capacity) was administered before thoracotomy, prior to the initiation of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, and at the end of the 16-week exercise program, after completion of chemotherapy. Participants had a mean age of 63 years and a mean of five comorbid conditions; the exercise program was initiated within 4 days after hospital discharge. Participants' CRF severity scores were reduced to mild levels, while the mean number of symptoms decreased from 9 postthoracotomy to 6 after the exercise program, with mean levels of severity and interference decreasing to below prethoracotomy levels. Likewise, participants' functional status and QOL after completing the exercise program improved to near or above prethoracotomy levels. The home-based, light-intensity exercise program for NSCLC patients receiving and completing adjuvant chemotherapy postthoracotomy showed promising trends in improving CRF severity, other symptom severity, functional status, and QOL. Further testing via a two-arm randomized controlled trial is being

  1. [The strategy for establishment of comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H L; Fang, L W; Wang, L H

    2017-01-06

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women. Screening programs for cervical cancer have been implemented in many developed countries. Comprehensive systems for cervical cancer prevention and control have improved over the past 30 years, which has led to a significant decline in the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer. Since 2009, the Chinese government has conducted the Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening Program for Rural Women on a national scale, which has substantially improved cervical cancer prevention and control. However, a comprehensive system for cervical cancer prevention has been not established in China. It is essential to investigate suitable strategies for cervical cancer prevention system in the country by referring to the experiences of developed nations in comparison with the situation in China, with respect to system operations, compatibility with the existing health care system, choice of suitable technologies, and information and evaluation platforms.

  2. Improving Symptom Control, QOL, and Quality of Care for Women with Breast Cancer: Developing a Research Program on Neurological Effects via Doctoral Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bakitas, Marie; Ahles, Tim A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this traineeship is to develop the academic and research skills of an expert advanced practice nurse towards achieving the career goal of becoming a Clinical Breast Cancer Research Scientist...

  3. Biology of Breast Cancer: A Predoctoral Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maihle, Nita

    1998-01-01

    .... To date, 16 trainees have matriculated into this new training program. Two trainees have successfully completed this training program and have left the Mayo Clinic to continue their training/careers in breast cancer research...

  4. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program (PRNCORP) will be the principal organization in the island that promotes cancer prevention, control and screening/post-treatment surveillance clinical trials. It will conduct cancer care delivery research and will provide access to treatment and imaging clinical trials conducted under the reorganization of the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN). It will evaluate disparity issues and outcomes in cancer care delivery and treatments. |

  5. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  6. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  7. A Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using NMR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    mortality. Breast cancer can exist not only in the form of masses, but also in the forms of microcalcifications , asymmetric density, and architectural...treatment of breast cancer calls for early detection of cancerous lesions (e.g., clustered microcalcifications and masses associated with malignant...DAMD17-00-1-0291 TITLE: A Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using NMR Techniques PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Paul C. Wang, Ph.D

  8. Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program Fiscal Year 2012 Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    military lifestyle; and $2M for noninvasive cancer ablation treatment including selective targeting with nanoparticles. An inaugural stakeholders...team science, and partnerships for the development of better prevention, earlier detection, and more effective treatments for cancer. Several program...skin cancers, pediatric cancer research, genetic cancer research, kidney cancer, blood cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, mesothelioma

  9. Environmental Restoration Program Document Control Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, L.M.

    1993-09-01

    This Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Document Control Plan has been developed to comply with the document control system requirements of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), the Hanford Federal Facility and the ER Program. One of the five components, or summary subprojects, of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program is program management and support, which includes both management systems development and information and data management. Efforts within the management systems development area include the creation of a document control plan. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed and established an overall document control system that governs the methods by which all WHC documents are generated, maintained, and disposed of. The ER Program performing organizations within WHC utilize the established WHC document control systems to the maximum extent possible. These systems are discussed in Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 of this plan. In addition, this plan describes the documents that require control within the ER Program and how they will be controlled.

  10. A comparative analysis of breast cancer stage between women enrolled in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program and women not participating in the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Manxia; Austin, Harland; Eheman, Christie R; Myles, Zachary; Miller, Jacqueline; Royalty, Janet; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-05-01

    To determine the proportional distribution of early- and late-stage breast cancers diagnosed in years 2004-2009 among women enrolled in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) and to compare this distribution to that of geographically comparable non-enrolled women diagnosed with breast cancer. Using data from the National Program of Cancer Registries, we compared the demographic characteristics and cancer stage distribution of women enrollees and non-enrollees by use of conditional logistic regression using the odds ratio as a measure of association. NBCCEDP enrollees were slightly younger and more likely to identify as African-American, API and AIAN than were non-enrollees. The proportion of late-stage breast cancer (regional and distant) decreased slightly over the study period. NBCCEDP enrollees generally were diagnosed at a later stage of breast cancer than were those not enrolled in the NBCCEDP. The NBCCEDP has been effective in achieving its goal of enrolling racial and ethnic populations; however, enrollees had a poorer stage distribution of breast cancer than did non-enrollees underscoring the need to expand breast cancer control efforts among low-income, underserved populations.

  11. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom, is making a grant of up to £1 100 000 to IDRC to cover three years of Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) programming between April 2005 and March ...

  12. Traffic control device evaluation program : FY 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report presents findings on three different activities conducted in the Traffic Control Device Evaluation Program during the 2016 fiscal year. The first two activities are evaluations of full-matrix color light-emitting diode changeable message ...

  13. Targeting deregulated epigenetic control in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cancer is a multifaceted disease that involves acquisition of genetic mutations, deletions, and amplifications as well as deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms that fine-tune gene regulation. Key epigenetic mechanisms that include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing are often deregulated in a variety of cancers. Subnuclear localization of key proteins in the interphase nucleus and bookmarking of genes by lineage commitment factors in mitosis-a new dimension to epigenetic control of fundamental biological processes-is also modified in cancer. In this review, we discuss the various aspects of epigenetic control that are operative in a variety of cancers and their potential for risk assessment, early detection, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A study protocol for Truce: a pragmatic controlled trial of a seven-week acceptance and commitment therapy program for young people who have a parent with cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patterson, Pandora; McDonald, Fiona E J; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Hayes, Louise; Tracey, Danielle; Wakefield, Claire E; White, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale and study protocol for a pragmatic controlled effectiveness trial of Truce, a prevention-based selective intervention targeting the significant mental health needs...

  15. The Urban Church and Cancer Control: A Source of Social Influence in Minority Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donna T. Davis; Ana Bustamante; C. Perry Brown; Girma Wolde-Tsadik; Edward W. Savage; Xiaoguang Cheng; Letitia Howland

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the efficacy of a church-based model of social influence in improving access to and participation of underserved minority women in a cervical cancer control program...

  16. Effects of a case management program on patients with oral precancerous lesions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Ying; Chen, Shu-Ching; Peng, Hsi-Ling; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effects of a case management program on knowledge about oral cancer, preventive behavior for oral cancer, and level of uncertainty for patients with oral precancerous lesions. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with two groups, using a pre- and posttest design. The experimental group received a case management program and telephone follow-up sessions; the control group received routine care. Patients were assessed at three time points: first visit to the otolaryngology clinic for biopsy examination (T0), and then at 2 weeks (T1) and 4 weeks (T2) after the biopsy examination. Patients in both groups had significantly higher levels of knowledge about oral cancer, preventive behavior for oral cancer, and lower level of uncertainty at T2 compared to T0. At T2, participants in the experimental group had significantly greater knowledge about oral cancer, more preventive behavior for oral cancer, and less uncertainty compared to those in the control group. The case management program with telephone counseling effectively improved knowledge about oral cancer, preventive behavior for oral cancer, and uncertainty levels in patients with oral precancerous lesions in the four weeks after receiving a biopsy examination. The case management program can be applied with positive results to patients receiving different types of cancer screening, including colorectal, breast, and cervical screening.

  17. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  18. Analysis of esophagogastric cancer patients enrolled in the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program sponsored phase 1 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hideaki; Rubinstein, Larry; Harris, Pamela; Yoshino, Takayuki; Doi, Toshihiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Welch, John; Takebe, Naoko

    2017-05-01

    In phase 1 trials, an important entry criterion is life expectancy predicted to be more than 90 days, which is generally difficult to predict. The Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) prognostic score that is determined by lactate dehydrogenase level, albumin level, and number of metastatic sites of disease was developed to help project patient outcomes. There have been no systematic analyses to evaluate the utility of the RMH prognostic score for esophagogastric cancer patients. All nonpediatric phase 1 oncology trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program that began between 2001 and 2013 were considered in this review. Of 4722 patients with solid tumors, 115 patients were eligible for our analysis; 54 (47 %) with cancer of the esophagus, 14 (12 %) with cancer of the esopagogastric junction, and 47 (41 %) with stomach cancer. Eighty-six patients (75 %) had a good RMH prognostic score (0 or 1) and 29 patients (25 %) had a poor RMH prognostic score (2 or 3). Disease control rates were significantly different between patients with good and poor RMH prognostic scores (49 % vs 17 %; two-sided Fisher's exact test P = 0.004). The median treatment duration and overall survival for good and poor RMH prognostic score patients were significantly different (median treatment duration 2.1 months vs 1.2 months respectively, P = 0.016; median overall survival 10.9 months vs 2.1 months respectively, P cancer patients who might participate in a phase 1 trial.

  19. A multidimensional cancer rehabilitation program for cancer survivors - Effectiveness on health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, E; Hoekstra-Weebers, J; Grol, B; Otter, R; Arendzen, HJ; Postema, K; Sanderman, R; van der Schans, C

    Objective: A multidimensional rehabilitation program for cancer survivors was developed to overcome cancer-related problems and to improve quality of life. The two purposes of the study were to describe the effectiveness of the program and to obtain information about patient preferences for multi or

  20. Stochastic control theory dynamic programming principle

    CERN Document Server

    Nisio, Makiko

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a systematic introduction to the optimal stochastic control theory via the dynamic programming principle, which is a powerful tool to analyze control problems. First we consider completely observable control problems with finite horizons. Using a time discretization we construct a nonlinear semigroup related to the dynamic programming principle (DPP), whose generator provides the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation, and we characterize the value function via the nonlinear semigroup, besides the viscosity solution theory. When we control not only the dynamics of a system but also the terminal time of its evolution, control-stopping problems arise. This problem is treated in the same frameworks, via the nonlinear semigroup. Its results are applicable to the American option price problem. Zero-sum two-player time-homogeneous stochastic differential games and viscosity solutions of the Isaacs equations arising from such games are studied via a nonlinear semigroup related to DPP (the min-ma...

  1. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Program Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B are rare genetic diseases, which lead to the development of medullary thyroid cancer, usually in childhood. Surgery is the only standard treatment.

  2. Preventive care receipt and office visit use among breast and colorectal cancer survivors relative to age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafata, Jennifer Elston; Salloum, Ramzi G; Fishman, Paul A; Ritzwoller, Debra Pearson; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen C; Hornbrook, Mark C

    2015-06-01

    We compare breast and colorectal cancer survivors' annual receipt of preventive care and office visits to that of age- and gender-matched cancer-free controls. Automated data, including tumor registries, were used to identify insured individuals aged 50+ at the time of breast or colorectal cancer diagnosis between 2000 and 2008 as well as cancer-free controls receiving care from four integrated delivery systems. Those with metastatic or un-staged disease, or a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. Annual visits to primary care, oncology, and surgery as well as receipt of mammography, colorectal cancer, Papanicolaou, bone densitometry, and cholesterol screening were observed for 5 years. We used generalized estimating equations that accounted for repeated observations over time per person to test annual service use differences by cancer survivor/cancer-free control status and whether survivor/cancer-free status associations were moderated by patient age breast and 1530 colorectal cancer survivors were identified, representing 12,923 and 5103 patient-years of follow-up, respectively. Compared to cancer-free controls, breast and colorectal cancer survivors were equally or more likely to use all types of office visits and to receive cancer screenings and bone densitometry testing. Both breast and colorectal cancer survivors were less likely than cancer-free controls to receive cholesterol testing, regardless of age, year of diagnosis, or use of primary care. Programs targeting cancer survivors may benefit from addressing a broad range of primary preventive care needs, including recommended cardiovascular disease screening.

  3. Modeling the Aneuploidy Control of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneuploidy has long been recognized to be associated with cancer. A growing body of evidence suggests that tumorigenesis, the formation of new tumors, can be attributed to some extent to errors occurring at the mitotic checkpoint, a major cell cycle control mechanism that acts to prevent chromosome missegregation. However, so far no statistical model has been available quantify the role aneuploidy plays in determining cancer. Methods We develop a statistical model for testing the association between aneuploidy loci and cancer risk in a genome-wide association study. The model incorporates quantitative genetic principles into a mixture-model framework in which various genetic effects, including additive, dominant, imprinting, and their interactions, are estimated by implementing the EM algorithm. Results Under the new model, a series of hypotheses tests are formulated to explain the pattern of the genetic control of cancer through aneuploid loci. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical behavior of the model. Conclusions The model will provide a tool for estimating the effects of genetic loci on aneuploidy abnormality in genome-wide studies of cancer cells.

  4. Developmental milestones across the programmatic life cycle: implementing the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover-Kudon, Rebecca; DeGroff, Amy; Rohan, Elizabeth A; Preissle, Judith; Boehm, Jennifer E

    2013-08-01

    In 2005 through 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 sites to implement a colorectal cancer screening program for uninsured, low-income populations. These 5 sites composed a demonstration project intended to explore the feasibility of establishing a national colorectal cancer screening program through various service delivery models. A longitudinal, multiple case study was conducted to understand and document program implementation processes. Using metaphor as a qualitative analytic technique, evaluators identified stages of maturation across the programmatic life cycle. Analysis rendered a working theory of program development during screening implementation. In early stages, program staff built relationships with CDC and local partners around screening readiness, faced real-world challenges putting program policies into practice, revised initial program designs, and developed new professional skills. Midterm implementation was defined by establishing program cohesiveness and expanding programmatic reach. In later stages of implementation, staff focused on sustainability and formal program closeout, which prompted reflection about personal and programmatic accomplishments. Demonstration sites evolved through common developmental stages during screening implementation. Findings elucidate ways to target technical assistance to more efficiently move programs along their maturation trajectory. In practical terms, the time and cost associated with guiding a program to maturity may be potentially shortened to maximize return on investment for both organizations and clients receiving service benefits. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  5. Rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarand V Khochikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : A total of 356,557 new cases were diagnosed annually worldwide in 2009, it was estimated that 52,810 new patients were to be diagnosed with bladder cancer and there were 10,180 projected deaths from the disease in the USA. Despite being the fourth commonest cancer in men, we do not have an early detection/screening program for bladder cancer. The review was aimed at looking at the evidence for the rationale for an early detection program for bladder cancer. Materials and Methods : A detailed search on bladder cancer epidemiology, diagnosis, pathology, tumor markers, treatment outcomes, screening, morbidity and mortality of bladder cancer was carried out on Pubmed central/Medline. Original articles, review articles, monograms, book chapters on bladder cancer, text books on urological oncology, oncology and urology were reviewed. The latest information for new articles before publication was last accessed in June 2010. Discussion and Conclusions : Bladder cancer is the fourth commonest cancer in men, the annual death rate from this disease is significant and every year there is an increase in its incidence globally. The prognosis of bladder cancer is stage and grade dependent; the lower the stage (T2 or less the better is the survival. Delay in the diagnosis and treatment does alter the overall outcome. Therefore, there is a clear need for early detection of bladder cancer and screening program. Although we do not have an ideal marker for bladder cancer, it is time we maximize the potential of markers such as UroVysion, NMP22 along with cytology to start such a program. May be as a first step the early detection and screening program could be started in high-risk population. It is not worth waiting till we find the best marker as it would be unfair to our patients. The fear of unnecessary tests and treatment in bladder cancer after its detection in screening program is without any substance. The cost-effectiveness of such a program

  6. [Classification and characteristics of interval cancers in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto García, M A; Delgado Sevillano, R; Baldó Sierra, C; González Díaz, E; López Secades, A; Llavona Amor, J A; Vidal Marín, B

    2013-09-01

    To review and classify the interval cancers found in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program (PDPCM). A secondary objective was to determine the histological characteristics, size, and stage of the interval cancers at the time of diagnosis. We included the interval cancers in the PDPCM in the period 2003-2007. Interval cancers were classified according to the breast cancer screening program protocol, with double reading without consensus, without blinding, with arbitration. Mammograms were interpreted by 10 radiologists in the PDPCM. A total of 33.7% of the interval cancers could not be classified; of the interval cancers that could be classified, 40.67% were labeled true interval cancers, 31.4% were labeled false negatives on screening, 23.7% had minimal signs, and 4.23% were considered occult. A total of 70% of the interval cancers were diagnosed in the year of the period between screening examinations and 71.7% were diagnosed after subsequent screening. A total of 76.9% were invasive ductal carcinomas, 61.1% were stage II when detected, and 78.7% were larger than 10mm when detected. The rate of interval cancers and the rate of false negatives in the PDPCM are higher than those recommended in the European guidelines. Interval cancers are diagnosed later than the tumors detected at screening. Studying interval cancers provides significant training for the radiologists in the PDPCM. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a mobile application of Breast Cancer e-Support program for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Ebert, Lyn; Xue, Zhimin; Shen, Qu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy experience a variety of physical and psychosocial symptoms, which have negative effect on women's quality of life and psychological well-being. Although M-health technologies provides innovative and easily accessible option to provide psychosocial support, mobile phone based interventions remain limited for these women in China. To develop a new mobile application to offer information as well as social and emotional support to women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy to promote their self-efficacy and social support, thus improving symptom management strategies. Basing on previous theoretical framework which incorporated Bandura's self-efficacy theory and the social exchange theory, a new mobile application, called Breast Cancer e-Support Program (BCS) was designed, with the content and functionality being validated by the expert panel and women with breast cancer. BCS App program has four modules: 1) Learning forum; 2) Discussion forum; 3) Ask-the-Expert forum; and 4) Personal Stories forum. BCS program can be applied on both android mobile phones and iPhones to reach more women. This is the first of its kind developed in China for women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. A randomized controlled trial is undertaking to test the effectiveness of BCS program.

  8. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  9. Opportunity for collaboration: a conceptual model of success in tobacco control and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Frances A; Schmitt, Carol L; Rosas, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Collaborations between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs can leverage scarce resources to address noncommunicable diseases globally, but barriers to cooperation and actual collaboration are substantial. To foster collaboration between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs, the Global Health Partnership conducted research to identify similarities and differences in how the 2 programs viewed program success. Using concept mapping, cancer prevention and tobacco control experts generated statements describing the components of a successful cancer prevention or tobacco control program and 33 participants sorted and rated the final 99 statements. Multidimensional scaling analysis with a 2-dimensional solution was used to identify an 8-cluster conceptual map of program success. We calculated Pearson correlation coefficients for all 99 statements to compare the item-level ratings of both groups and used t tests to compare the mean importance of ratings assigned to each cluster. Eight major clusters of success were identified: 1) advocacy and persuasion, 2) building sustainability, 3) partnerships, 4) readiness and support, 5) program management fundamentals, 6) monitoring and evaluation, 7) utilization of evidence, and 8) implementation. We found no significant difference between the maps created by the 2 groups and only 1 mean difference for the importance ratings for 1 of the clusters: cancer prevention experts rated partnerships as more important to program success than did tobacco control experts. Our findings are consistent with those of research documenting the necessary components of successful programs and the similarities between cancer prevention and tobacco control. Both programs value the same strategies to address a common risk factor: tobacco use. Identifying common ground between these 2 research and practice communities can benefit future collaborations at the local, state, tribal, national, and international levels, and inform the

  10. A case cancer control study of reproductive in breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee B; Chaudhury S; Sengupta S

    1994-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as, parity, age at menarche, age at first child′s birth have been investigated in a hospital based case-control study, for their independent as well as combined influences on the incidence of female breast cancer. The study indicates that except for parity, these factors have no influence on the age at onset of the disease. Parity is positively correlated with age at onset. The patient and the control groups were found to be similar in respect of ...

  11. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  12. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    .... Methyl and ethyl forms of omega-3 lipids failed to induce apoptosis. Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese mushroom, was found to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and decrease EGF receptor phosphorylation...

  13. Divison of Environmental Control Technology program, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, William E.

    1979-06-01

    This report covers Division of Environmental Control Technology projects in progress during FY 1978, within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy. It is the second in a planned series of annual reports. The Division of Environmental Control Technology (ECT) continues to support the Assistant Secretary for Environment (EV) in discharging two primary responsibilities: (1) under the Environmental Engineering (EE) Program, the independent overview and assessment of environmental control aspects of both the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) programs and the Nation's energy policies, and (2) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, the reduction of potential environmental hazards at the radioactively contaminated sites that are presently owned or were formerly used by the Government. This report presents a short summary of objectives, approach, progress and results, future plans, and a reference bibliography for each research, development, or assessment project within the program areas described above.

  14. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr. Salem’s laboratory also collaborates with Dr. Lubaroff on the use of...museums (art, natural history, and sports). In addition, there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application...oligonucleotides and heat shock proteins for generating sustained immunotherapeutic responses against cancer. Dr. Salem’s laboratory also collaborates with

  15. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:

  16. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    The distinguishing feature of the presented refinement approach is that it links formalisms from a top level requirements notation down to programs together in a mathematically coherent development trajectory. The approach uses Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, to specifyrequirements...... for a control task, exemplified by a steam boiler.The same formalism is used to refine requirements to a functional design.Through a suitable transformation this is taken to an event andaction based formalism. Finally components in this design for a distributedarchitecture are transformed to occam-like programs....

  17. Nurse's role in controlling cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfudh, Salma Said

    2011-10-01

    Nurses spend more time with patients than any other member of the healthcare team. They play a critical, active and very important part in controlling cancer patients' pain and alleviating suffering. In controlling cancer pain the nurse needs to understand the psychological state of the cancer patient, cancer pain, cancer pain treatment, deleterious effects of unrelieved cancer pain and patient's socio cultural background. She needs to understand that there are two types of pain, nociceptive and neuropathic pains and that 80% of the cancer patients in pain could have 2 or more than 4 different pains at the same time. Nurses' role in controlling cancer pain include believing the patient, assessing pain, identifying the root of the problem, planning the care, administering medication, evaluating effectiveness, ensuring good pain control and individualizing treatment. It also includes nursing interventions such as giving tender nursing care, preventing pain, educating, advocating, communicating, comforting, supporting, and counseling the patient. The nurse must use both pharmacological and non pharmacological treatments to individualize treatment, know all the drugs that are used for the treatment of Cancer Pain, how these drugs relieve pain and what their side effects are. She must use the WHO guidelines to treat pain and must choose the right drug, right dose, given at the right times, with the right intervals and to the right patient. She must evaluate effectiveness of treatment, give PRN doses for breakthrough pain and recommend for specific changes. The role of the nurse is to anticipate the patient's pain needs, advocate for the patient for what feels appropriate for him within his cultural context and incorporate the patient's belief. The nurse can physically relieve pain by promoting comfort, support painful area, gentleness in handling the patient and use nursing treatments. The nurse can recommend physiotherapy, (TENS)/Acupuncture, Occupational therapy

  18. Strengthening prevention programs to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, L.; Pagliusi, S.; Bray, F.

    2008-01-01

    Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies...... to protect young populations from HPV-associated cancers need to be strengthened, and hence organized implementation of vaccination and better screening programs are being considered. In this context, randomized large-scale policy evaluations will be instrumental in accelerating disease control and improve...... to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries and globally Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  19. Robust Control Design via Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, L. H.; Bhattacharyya, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of synthesizing or designing a feedback controller of fixed dynamic order. The closed loop specifications considered here are given in terms of a target performance vector representing a desired set of closed loop transfer functions connecting various signals. In general these point targets are unattainable with a fixed order controller. By enlarging the target from a fixed point set to an interval set the solvability conditions with a fixed order controller are relaxed and a solution is more easily enabled. Results from the parametric robust control literature can be used to design the interval target family so that the performance deterioration is acceptable, even when plant uncertainty is present. It is shown that it is possible to devise a computationally simple linear programming approach that attempts to meet the desired closed loop specifications.

  20. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  1. Internet-based support programs to alleviate psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients : A literature analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Grietje; Admiraal, Lien M.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schroder, Carolien P.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; Reyners, Anna K. L.

    In this review the effect of internet-based support programs on psychosocial and physical symptoms resulting from cancer diagnosis and treatment is analyzed. Selection of studies was based on the following criteria: (non-)randomized controlled trials, performed in adult cancer patients, comparing

  2. O controle do câncer do colo do útero: desafios para implementação de ações programáticas no Amazonas, Brasil Cervical cancer prevention: challenges facing the implementation of program actions in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Albuquerque Duarte Corrêa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é demonstrar alguns desafios para a implementação de ações programáticas visando ao controle do câncer do colo do útero no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Foram analisados os relatórios do Programa Viva Mulher do Amazonas referentes à coleta e qualidade das lâminas e os dados de mortalidade por esta causa registrados no DATASUS para os períodos 2001 a 2005. Os resultados apresentam que no período não houve o aumento na cobertura da coleta de exames de Papanicolaou, embora tenha havido uma discreta melhora na qualidade das lâminas; as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de colo de útero estão aumentando, e situam-se em patamares acima dos encontrados no país e na região norte. A análise desses resultados sugere a necessidade de haver um esforço, por parte da gestão do Programa no Amazonas, na capacitação de profissionais e dos gerentes dos serviços, visando aumentar a captação das mulheres sob maior risco.The purpose of this study is to present a number of challenges facing the implementation of program actions regarding the control of cervical cancer in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Reports of the Viva Mulher program in Amazonas on Papanicolaou screening tests and the quality of cervical samples and mortality rates from this disease taken from DATASUS were analyzed for the 2001 to 2005 period. The results show no increase in the population covered by the Papanicolaou screening test in this period, although there was a small improvement in the quality of cervical samples. However, mortality rates for cervical cancer are increasing in this reason, and are higher than the rates for Brazil as a whole and for the North region of the country. Analysis of these results suggests the need for local program managers, to make efforts to build the capacity of health-care professionals and service managers, with a view to increasing Papanicolaou screening test coverage for high-risk women.

  3. Cancer Incidence in Egypt: Results of the National Population-Based Cancer Registry Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal S. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP. Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data entry was online. Incidence rates were calculated at a regional and a national level. Future projection up to 2050 was also calculated. Results. Age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 166.6 (both sexes, 175.9 (males, and 157.0 (females. Commonest sites were liver (23.8%, breast (15.4%, and bladder (6.9% (both sexes: liver (33.6% and bladder (10.7% among men, and breast (32.0% and liver (13.5% among women. By 2050, a 3-fold increase in incident cancer relative to 2013 was estimated. Conclusion. These data are the only available cancer rates at national and regional levels of Egypt. The pattern of cancer indicated the increased burden of liver cancer. Breast cancer occupied the second rank. Study of rates of individual sites of cancer might help in giving clues for preventive programs.

  4. Faith Moves Mountains: an Appalachian cervical cancer prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F

    2009-01-01

    To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community.

  5. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  6. Controller design approach based on linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa

    2013-11-01

    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor. © 2013 ISA. Published by ISA. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Midwifery-Based Counseling Support Program on Body Image of Breast Cancer Women Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Rezaei, Maedeh; Yeganeh, Zeinab; Alashti, Masoumeh Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Treatment for breast cancer can give rise to complications with important psychological impact. One change in patients regards body image. The aim of this research was to study the effect of a midwifery-based counseling support program on the body image of breast cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, the study population was constituted by 80 breast cancer patients referred to Tuba Clinic in Sari, north of Iran, randomly assigned to two groups. Inclusion criteria included breast cancer diagnosis, mastectomy experience, age of 30 to 60 years, primary school education or higher, being married, and receiving hormone therapy. The Body Image Scale and Beck Depression Inventory were completed by intervention and control groups prior to the intervention and again afterwards. This program was implemented to the intervention group (two groups each consisting of 20 patients) for six weekly sessions, each lasting 90 minutes. The collected data were analyzed suing SPSS through Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests. Results: The results showed that the average age of participants in the intervention and control groups were 46.8 ± 6.85 and 48.9 ± 5.86, respectively. Body image scores in the intervention and control groups before the support program were respectively 21.82 ± 1.66 and 21.7 ± 1.48, and after the support program they were 7.05± 2.70 and 22.92 ±1.49, respectively. Therefore, the results indicate that the support program was effective in improving body image. Conclusion: This study showed that the support program had a positive effect on the body image of patients. Therefore, it is suggested that it should be used as an effective method for all breast cancer survivors. PMID:28610417

  8. Roswell Park Cancer Institute / Howard University Prostate Cancer Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    tele-mentored Directed Readings ,(2) a core summer research experience internship and (3) post-internship mentored professional activities. Pre ... skills -attainment by responding to a pre -/post-internship program survey. Significant results and key outcomes- Three of the four tele-mentored...Under this new program structure, these students would conduct a two-sequence pre -internship tele-mentored reading course in 15 the fall and

  9. Radiotherapy and local control in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, V; Rosetto, M E; Fares, C; Mantini, G; Salvi, G; Turriziani, A

    1998-01-01

    Recurrence is a stage in the natural history of rectal cancer. Preoperative radiotherapy or postoperative radiochemotherapy lower the rate of recurrence, improving local control. From 1980 to 1997, at the "Divisione di Radioterapia" of the "Università Cattolica del S. Cuore" of Rome 380 patients with rectal cancer of early clinical stage T2-3, candidates for surgery for cure, underwent radiation therapy. 119 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (45-50 Gy); 45 patients underwent "sandwich" radiotherapy (45 Gy:27 Gy before and 28 Gy after surgery), of whom 7 were treated with preoperative radiotherapy alone; 145 patients underwent preoperative concomitant radiochemotherapy according to 3 different protocols, radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with mitomycin C and 5-FU; radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) combined with cisplatin and 5-FU; radiotherapy (45 Gy) combined with 5-FU and folinic acid. 71 patients were treated with preoperative radiotherapy (38 Gy) combined with IORT (10 Gy). Median follow-up was 6 years. Overall local control was 85% at 3 years, 83% at 5 years, 81% at 10 years. The rate of local control at 5 years was: 76% for postoperative radiotherapy, 83% for "sandwich" radiotherapy, 84% for preoperative radiochemotherapy and 93% for preoperative radiotherapy combined with IORT. Local control was shown to be significantly better with preoperative treatment as compared to postoperative treatment (p = 0.02). The incidence of metastases was 35% in the patients with local recurrence and 16% in those with local control. The difference in survival was highly significant in patients with local control as compared to those with local recurrence: at 5 years 87% and 32% respectively. Patients with local control showed a lower incidence of metastasis and a better survival.

  10. National Cancer Institute Patient Navigation Research Program: methods, protocol, and measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Karen M; Battaglia, Tracy A; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Dudley, Donald J; Fiscella, Kevin; Paskett, Electra; Raich, Peter C; Roetzheim, Richard G

    2008-12-15

    Patient, provider, and systems barriers contribute to delays in cancer care, a lower quality of care, and poorer outcomes in vulnerable populations, including low-income, underinsured, and racial/ethnic minority populations. Patient navigation is emerging as an intervention to address this problem, but navigation requires a clear definition and a rigorous testing of its effectiveness. Pilot programs have provided some evidence of benefit, but have been limited by evaluation of single-site interventions and varying definitions of navigation. To overcome these limitations, a 9-site National Cancer Institute Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) was initiated. The PNRP is charged with designing, implementing, and evaluating a generalizable patient navigation program targeting vulnerable populations. Through a formal committee structure, the PNRP has developed a definition of patient navigation and metrics to assess the process and outcomes of patient navigation in diverse settings, compared with concurrent continuous control groups. The PNRP defines patient navigation as support and guidance offered to vulnerable persons with abnormal cancer screening or a cancer diagnosis, with the goal of overcoming barriers to timely, quality care. Primary outcomes of the PNRP are 1) time to diagnostic resolution; 2) time to initiation of cancer treatment; 3) patient satisfaction with care; and 4) cost effectiveness, for breast, cervical, colon/rectum, and/or prostate cancer. The metrics to assess the processes and outcomes of patient navigation have been developed for the NCI-sponsored PNRP. If the metrics are found to be valid and reliable, they may prove useful to other investigators.

  11. Community-based breast cancer intervention program for older African American women in beauty salons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, D A

    1995-01-01

    African American women are at high risk for morbidity and mortality from breast cancer. African American women ages 50 and older have been a difficult group to reach through conventional breast cancer intervention programs. Cultural and health beliefs that differ from mainstream society are reported to be factors contributing to the low rates of breast screening among this group. In addition to these attitudinal factors, older African American women are disproportionately represented among uninsured and under-insured Americans. As a result, cost becomes a barrier to mammography screening for many of these women. This project proposes to increase breast cancer screening awareness and provide a referral or free breast screening, or both, for African American women ages 50 and older. This information will be offered in the culturally familiar setting of local beauty salons. The culturally sensitive educational pamphlets developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and video developed by the NCI-funded project, Cancer Prevention Research Unit, will be used to promote mammography, clinical breast examinations, and breast self-examination. Providers staffing a mobile mammography van provided by Dr. Anitha Mitchell of the Association of Black Women Physicians through a grant from the Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, will perform mammograms for women on site during scheduled intervals. A followup telephone survey will be conducted.

  12. Recruiting Patients into the CDC’s Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Jennifer E.; Rohan, Elizabeth A.; Preissle, Judith; DeGroff, Amy; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 sites as part of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) to provide colorectal cancer screening to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured individuals. Funded sites experienced unexpected challenges in recruiting patients for services. METHODS The authors conducted a longitudinal, qualitative case study of all 5 sites to document program implementation, including recruitment. Data were collected during 3 periods over the 4-year program and included interviews, document review, and observations. After coding and analyzing the data, themes were identified and triangulated across the research team. Patterns were confirmed through member checking, further validating the analytic interpretation. RESULTS During early implementation, patient enrollment was low at 4 of the 5 CRCSDP sites. Evaluators found 3 primary challenges to patient recruitment: overreliance on in-reach to National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program patients, difficulty keeping colorectal cancer screening and the program a priority among staff at partnering primary care clinics responsible for patient recruitment, and a lack of public knowledge about the need for colorectal cancer screening among patients. To address these challenges, site staff expanded partnerships with additional primary care networks for greater reach, enhanced technical support to primary care providers to ensure more consistent patient enrollment, and developed tailored outreach and education. CONCLUSIONS Removing financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening was necessary but not sufficient to reach the priority population. To optimize colorectal cancer screening, public health practitioners must work closely with the health care sector to implement evidence-based, comprehensive strategies across individual, environmental, and systems levels of society. PMID:23868486

  13. Interval cancers in a population-based screening program for colorectal cancer in catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Domènech, X; Vidal, C; Torné, E; Milà, N; Binefa, G; Benito, L; Moreno, V

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480). We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3%) were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%). There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%). When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51-8.88) and at more advanced stages (P = 0.025). Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured.

  14. BREAST CANCER AND IN VITRO FERTILIZATION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Parokonnaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven cases of breast cancer (BC diagnosed during or after in-vitro fertilization (IVF are considered. The study group was observed to have cases of familial BC in 18.2% of the patients and BRCA1 gene mutations in 60%. At the same time 45.5% of cases had local- ly advanced and generalized BC, which suggests that there is a tumor at the initiation of a regular IVF cycle. The authors arrive at the conclusion that it is necessary to include a mammologist's examination, breast ultrasonography, and an oncogeneticist's counseling into the package of compulsory measures during IVF.

  15. Optimal control of multiplicative control systems arising from cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, K.; Kim, M.

    1975-01-01

    This study deals with ways of curtailing the rapid growth of cancer cell populations. The performance functional that measures the size of the population at the terminal time as well as the control effort is devised. With use of the discrete maximum principle, the Hamiltonian for this problem is determined and the condition for optimal solutions are developed. The optimal strategy is shown to be a bang-bang control. It is shown that the optimal control for this problem must be on the vertices of an N-dimensional cube contained in the N-dimensional Euclidean space. An algorithm for obtaining a local minimum of the performance function in an orderly fashion is developed. Application of the algorithm to the design of antitumor drug and X-irradiation schedule is discussed.

  16. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  17. Formalized exercise program for paediatric and young adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Y. Wonders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Survival rates of childhood cancer patients has steadily increased through the years, making it necessary to develop strategies aimed at long term improvements to quality of life. This paper presents a formalized exercise program for paediatric cancer survivors, based on current risk-based exercise recommendations, with the primary goal of helping families return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. Background Children tend to respond better to anti-cancer treatments, including chemotherapy. Research indicates that proper nutrition and regular physical activity will help a paediatric cancer survivor continue to grow and develop properly, however, at present, there is no standard of care with regards to this subject. Aims To create a fun and supportive atmosphere that encourages movement and healthy eating for the participants while increasing participant knowledge regarding proper nutrition and exercise.

  18. Evolution of equine infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradford P

    2004-12-01

    The science of control of infectious diseases in hospitals was born in 1847 when Semmelweis, a physician, ordered his medical students to scrub their hands in chlorinated lime water between patients and demonstrated that this simple procedure resulted ina dramatic decline in patient morbidity and mortality. In the late nineteenth century came huge breakthroughs in the understanding that microorganisms cause many disorders, and methods to eliminate and control these microorganisms were attempted. By 1910, sterile instruments, gowns, masks, and gloves had become standard for surgical procedures in large university human hospitals, and isolation of human and veterinary patients with contagious diseases became standard. With the advent of vaccines, many epidemic viral diseases could be controlled, and antimicrobial drugs allowed many previously devastating bacterial diseases to be treated effectively. Before long, however, bacterial resistance became an important issue and remains so today, particularly for Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in horses. Vaccination has decreased the number of animals susceptible to equine influenza and equine herpesvirus 1, yet these contagious diseases still pose a serious issue in large equine veterinary hospitals. The development of equine isolation facilities and improved methods of barn cleaning; mandatory application of procedures, such as handwashing or use of disinfectant hand wipes, to prevent the spread of infectious diseases; and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and use of restricted antimicrobial drugs were driven by recognition and necessity and have given rise to current equine infection control programs.

  19. PROGRAM OF PALLIATIVE CANCER CARE – OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Slánská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Annually more than 27,000 persons die of cancer in the Czech Republic and the overall incidence of malignancies is still increasing. These data shows the need for affordable and good follow-up care especially for patients without any cancer treatment due to irreversible progression of tumor. Currently the outpatient palliative cancer care gets more into the forefront. Prerequisite for a well working outpatient palliative care is cooperation with general practitioners and home health care agencies. The purpose of the so called program of palliative cancer care is to guide a patient in palliative cancer care and to improve the cooperation among health care providers. Methods: During the period from January 2008 to October 2010 we evaluated in patient without any oncology treatment due to irreversible progression of tumor. Results: In palliative outpatient clinic we treated 446 patients, 119 of them received home care services with average length of 27.8 days. 77 patients died at home, 51 in health facilities and 41 in inpatient hospice care. Conclusion: We present pilot study focusing on outpatient palliative cancer care which shows the real benefit from early indication of palliative cancer care. This type of care allows patients to stay as long as possible at home among their close relatives.

  20. What is the minimum number of patients for quality control of lung cancer management in Norway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Knut; Eide, Geir E; Gulsvik, Amund

    2016-11-01

    There are few data available on the optimal number of lung cancer patients needed to generate and compare estimates of quality between units managing lung cancer. The number of lung cancer patients per management unit varies considerably in Norway, where there are 42 hospitals that treated between 1 and 454 lung cancer patients in 2011. To estimate the differences in quality indicators that are of sufficient importance to change a pulmonary physician's lung cancer management program, and to estimate the size of the patient samples necessary to detect such differences. Twenty-six physicians were asked about the relative differences from a national average of quality indicators that would change their own lung cancer management program. Sample sizes were calculated to give valid estimates of quality of a management unit based on prevalence of quality indicators and minimally important differences (MID). The average MID in quality indicators that would cause a change in management varied from 18% to 24% among 26 chest physicians, depending on the indicator. To generate precise estimates for quality control of lung cancer care in Norway, the number of management units must be reduced. Given the present willingness of chest physicians to change their procedures for management of lung cancer according to the results of quality control indicators, we recommend a maximum of 10 units with a minimum of 200 incident lung cancer patients per year for each management center. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkisson, B P

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the operating procedures for the maintenance accountability, jobs, and inventory control (MAJIC) program for the Maintenance Management Department of the ORNL Instrumentation and Controls Division.

  2. Healthcare utilization among veterans undergoing chemotherapy: the impact of a cancer care coordination/home-telehealth program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumbler, Neale R; Kobb, Rita; Harris, Linda; Richardson, Lisa C; Darkins, Adam; Sberna, Melanie; Dixit, Neha; Ryan, Patricia; Donaldson, Molla; Kreps, Gary L

    2007-01-01

    The 2001 Institute of Medicine report indicted that the US healthcare system fails to provide high-quality care, and offered 6 aims of improvement that would redesign the delivery of care for the 21st century. This study compared the use of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatient and outpatient services of cancer patients enrolled in a Cancer Care Coordination/Home-Telehealth (CCHT) program that involved remote management of symptoms (eg, emotional distress, pain) via home-telehealth technologies to a control group of cancer patients receiving standard VA care. Using a matched case-control design, 2 control patients per case were selected, matched by tumor type and cancer stage. There were 43 Cancer CCHT patients and 82 control group patients. Based on a medical record review of each patient, the total number of cancer-related services (defined as visits that were expected given the patients' cancer diagnosis and treatment protocol) and preventable services (defined as visits needed outside of those expected given the cancer diagnosis and planned treatment) were calculated over a 6-month period. Poisson multivariate regression models were used to estimate the adjusted relative risks (RRs) for the effects of the Cancer CCHT program on the service use outcomes. Cancer CCHT patients had significantly fewer preventable services (clinic visits: RR = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.00-0.24; bed days of care (BDOC) for hospitalization [all-cause]: RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.37-0.67; hospitalizations [chemotherapy related]: RR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.21-0.91; and BDOC for hospitalizations [chemotherapy related]: RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.34-0.71) than the control group. This study offered some preliminary evidence that patients enrolled in a Cancer CCHT program can successfully manage multiple complex symptoms without utilizing inpatient and outpatient services.

  3. 15 CFR 752.11 - Internal Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Control Programs. 752.11... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.11 Internal Control Programs. (a) Scope—(1) Introduction. It is through Internal Control Programs (ICPs) that the SCL holder and the consignee assure that exports and reexports are not...

  4. [Cost-effectiveness analysis on colorectal cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q C; Ye, D; Jiang, X Y; Li, Q L; Yao, K Y; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Chen, K

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening program in different age groups from the view of health economics. Methods: The screening compliance rates, detection rates in different age groups were calculated by using the data from colorectal cancer screening program in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province. The differences in indicator among age groups were analyzed with χ(2) test or trend χ(2) test. The ratios of cost to the number of case were calculated according to cost statistics. Results: The detection rates of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) positivity, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer and early stage cancer increased with age, while the early diagnosis rates were negatively associated with age. After exclusion the younger counterpart, the cost-effectiveness of individuals aged >50 years could be reduced by 15%-30%. Conclusion: From health economic perspective, it is beneficial to start colorectal cancer screening at age of 50 years to improve the efficiency of the screening.

  5. Utilization of Cancer Information System for Breast Cancer Control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: there is a substantial increase in the incidence of breast cancer in Nigeria usually with the late stage presentations and subsequent poor rates of survival attributed mainly to a low level of cancer awareness and ignorance amongst patients. Cancer information system (CIS) is now assuming an emerging role in ...

  6. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmo Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions involving exercise, patting of the 12 meridians, and spontaneous breathing exercises three times a week for a period of 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was measured as the primary outcome, while the Stress Scale, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy–General determined the secondary outcomes. Insomnia, stress, and anxiety levels were examined weekly, while quality of life was examined on the first visit and the last visit. Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stress Scale scores were reduced after conduct of the Qigong program. Conclusion: This study could provide a better understanding of Qigong’s influence on insomnia and stress in cancer patients. However, a larger controlled trial should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  7. Breast and cervical cancer screening among Latinas attending culturally specific educational programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandorf, Lina; Bursac, Zoran; Pulley, Leavonne; Trevino, Michelle; Castillo, Anabella; Erwin, Deborah O

    2008-01-01

    Latinas in the United States have higher morbidity and mortality rates for breast and cervical cancers (compared with non-Latina Whites), often due to lower screening rates. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach could help to improve screening rates by creating a culturally customized educational program for Latino men and women addressing low knowledge, gender roles, and spirituality. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a culturally customized program (Esperanza y Vida [Hope and Life]) in increasing breast and cervical cancer screening among Latinas, and to examine how screening rates related to changes in cancer knowledge, differences in ethnic origins, and geographic location. Participants were recruited to attend either a breast and cervical (intervention) or diabetes (control) education program, within a randomized plan. Sixty-nine programs (44 intervention; 25 control) were conducted in Arkansas (AR; n = 39) and New York City (NYC; n = 30) with a total of 847 Latino men and women. Telephone follow-up data were collected on 49% of the women who consented to being contacted 2 months postintervention. At the 2-month follow-up call, screening rates were significantly higher for the intervention versus the control group for clinical breast examination (CBE; 48% vs. 31%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-4.2), breast self-examination (45% vs. 27%; aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-5.0), and Pap testing (51% vs. 30%; aOR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.1-14.1), but not for mammography (67% vs. 58%; aOR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.1-3.6). The aORs accounted for the significant effects of study site (AR vs. NYC) and marital status. Esperanza y Vida has the potential to reduce health disparities in breast and cervical cancer morbidity and mortality rates through increasing cancer screening and thereby increasing early detection.

  8. Specialized programs to support young women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Martinez-Cannon, Bertha Alejandra; Platas, Alejandra; Ramos-Elias, Pier

    2015-09-01

    Because of the recognized impact of breast cancer and its treatment on a young woman's life, initiatives are being established worldwide. The main aim of this review was to describe existing specialized programs that support young women with breast cancer (YWBC), advances to date, current challenges and future actions. Current programs for YWBC are now educating professionals, patients, and communities on their specific needs. Also, support groups have helped break isolation and connect YWBC together. Research on biology, treatment, adverse effects, risk factors, genetics, and social aspects on YWBC is now being actively conducted. In low- and middle-income countries, the particular issues of young women are, however, still not systematically addressed, because of scarce funding, lack of awareness of YWBC needs, and deficient provider training. Practice guidelines and algorithms should be disseminated and available for their widespread use to allow standard clinical and supportive care for YWBC even in oncologic centers where no specific programs exist. Also, cancer centers should formally commit to financing, at least partially, dedicated services, and existing programs for YWBC, guaranteeing their continuity. Finally, interinstitutional and international collaborations should be encouraged to facilitate adequately powered research, to avoid repetitive efforts, and to promote knowledge sharing and translation.

  9. Patient satisfaction survey of a self-paid physical checkup program for cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jui-Hsuan; Cheung, Bruno M H; Hsia, Shan; Chou, Hung-Huan; Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Liu, Pi-Haw; Jeng, Kee-Ching

    2011-01-01

    Early disease detection is an effective way to control diseases. Government sponsored health screening programs show their health value by increasing numbers of participants each year. Self-paid physical checkup programs may complement these programs. The purpose of this study was to examine participants' satisfaction with a self-paid physical checkup program for cancer screening. This cross-sectional study consisted of two surveys with qualitative and quantitative questionnaires. A random sample of 1000 participants was collected from those who attended the self-paid physical checkup program in two periods. Their needs and expectations with the program with five point scores were analyzed. Data were collected during the period of January to June, 2001 and again in 2011. The response rates were 93.8% and 59%, and the effective rates were 94% and 71.4%, respectively. The results indicated that participants' items needed and items wished to cancel were similar in both surveys. The self-paid physical checkup program met the needs of participants concerning gastrointestinal, colorectal and abdomen examinations. In contrast, dental, eye and physical examinations, and HIV screening were viewed as less interesting by participants, because of the lack of immediate post-checkup cares or they were not at high risk. Self-paid physical checkup programs add value to free cancer screening for health maintenance and help provide good physician-patient relationships, health education and post-checkup cares.

  10. Developing Sustainable Cancer Education Programs: Training Public Health Students to Deliver Cancer 101 in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Y M; Moreno, L; Briant, K J; Vélez, H; Jiménez, J C; Torres, J; Vadaparampil, S T; Muñoz-Antonia, T; Quinn, G P

    2018-02-01

    The use of promotores to educate Hispanic communities about different health topics has been proven successful, albeit with limitations in program sustainability. The goal of this study was to develop a sustainable train-the-trainer model to train graduate public health (PH) students to disseminate cancer education among communities in Puerto Rico (PR). Graduate students (n = 32) from Ponce Health Sciences University's (PHSU) PH program participated in a 2-day Cáncer 101 training, where they learned how to deliver nine cancer modules to the community. Cancer knowledge was assessed before and after the training via 54 items measuring discussed concepts. Participants also assessed the training's effectiveness by completing a training evaluation informed by social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, facilitation, and observational learning. Participants were mainly female (78.1 %), 26.7 ± 3.9 years old, and enrolled in a Masters-level program (81.3 %). Participants reported an average 11.38-point increase in cancer knowledge after attending the training [t(31) = 14.88, p reporting satisfactory comments in the open-ended responses and high scores on measured SCT constructs. The Cáncer 101 training program effectively prepared students to deliver cancer education to local communities. Training graduate PH students to educate communities about health issues is an innovative, and potentially sustainable, way to reach underserved populations.

  11. Developing a Comprehensive Cardio-Oncology Program at a Cancer Institute: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Michael G.; Brown, Allen C.; Shields, Bernadette; Viganego, Federico; Damrongwatanasuk, Rongras; Patel, Aarti A.; Hartlage, Gregory; Roper, Natalee; Jaunese, Julie; Roy, Larry; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a multidisciplinary field focusing on the management and prevention of cardiovascular complications in cancer patients and survivors. While the initial focus of this specialty was on heart failure associated with anthracycline use, novel anticancer agents are increasingly utilized and are associated with many other cardiotoxicities including hypertension, arrhythmias and vascular disease. Since its inception, the field has developed at a rapid pace with the establishment of programs at many major academic institutions and community practices. Given the complexities of this patient population, it is important for providers to possess knowledge of not only cardiovascular disease but also cancer subtypes and their specific therapeutics. Developing a cardio-oncology program at a stand-alone cancer center can present unique opportunities and challenges when compared to those affiliated with other institutions including resource allocation, cardiovascular testing availability and provider education. In this review, we present our experiences establishing the cardio-oncology program at Moffitt Cancer Center and provide guidance to those individuals interested in developing a program at a similar independent cancer institution. PMID:28781723

  12. Developing a Comprehensive Cardio-Oncology Program at a Cancer Institute: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Michael G; Brown, Allen C; Shields, Bernadette; Viganego, Federico; Damrongwatanasuk, Rongras; Patel, Aarti A; Hartlage, Gregory; Roper, Natalee; Jaunese, Julie; Roy, Larry; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-06-14

    Cardio-oncology is a multidisciplinary field focusing on the management and prevention of cardiovascular complications in cancer patients and survivors. While the initial focus of this specialty was on heart failure associated with anthracycline use, novel anticancer agents are increasingly utilized and are associated with many other cardiotoxicities including hypertension, arrhythmias and vascular disease. Since its inception, the field has developed at a rapid pace with the establishment of programs at many major academic institutions and community practices. Given the complexities of this patient population, it is important for providers to possess knowledge of not only cardiovascular disease but also cancer subtypes and their specific therapeutics. Developing a cardio-oncology program at a stand-alone cancer center can present unique opportunities and challenges when compared to those affiliated with other institutions including resource allocation, cardiovascular testing availability and provider education. In this review, we present our experiences establishing the cardio-oncology program at Moffitt Cancer Center and provide guidance to those individuals interested in developing a program at a similar independent cancer institution.

  13. Economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening test as a national cancer screening program in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangjin; Kim, Youn Hee; Hwang, Jin Sub; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Sang Moo; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is rapidly increasing in Korea and professional societies have requested adding prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing to the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), but this started a controversy in Korea and neutral evidence on this issue is required more than ever. The purpose of this study was to provide economic evidence to the decision makers of the NCSP. A cost-utility analysis was performed on the adoption of PSA screening program among men aged 50-74-years in Korea from the healthcare system perspective. Several data sources were used for the cost-utility analysis, including general health screening data, the Korea Central Cancer Registry, national insurance claims data, and cause of mortality from the National Statistical Office. To solicit the utility index of prostate cancer, a face-to-face interview for typical men aged 40 to 69 was conducted using a Time-Trade Off method. As a result, the increase of effectiveness was estimated to be very low, when adopting PSA screening, and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was analyzed as about 94 million KRW. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the incidence rate, screening rate, cancer stage distribution, utility index, and treatment costs but the results were consistent with the base analysis. Under Korean circumstances with a relatively low incidence rate of prostate cancer, PSA screening is not cost-effective. Therefore, we conclude that adopting national prostate cancer screening would not be beneficial until further evidence is provided in the future.

  14. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Chang, Siow-Wee; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  15. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-04

    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  16. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  17. Seniors' Program for Injury Control and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, M C; Stevens, V J; Wingfield, D J

    1993-03-01

    The Seniors' Program for Injury Control and Education (SPICE) examines the effects of exercise and physical fitness on falls and related injuries among older persons. The design is a two-group, randomized trial with 2 years of follow-up. The study is at Northwest Region of Kaiser Permanente (NWKP), a large hospital-based prepaid group practice HMO in Portland, OR. The participants are 1,323 community-living persons 65 years or older who are enrolled in NWKP and are at moderate risk of falling. A multifaceted intervention strategy uses a group approach to falls and injury prevention which includes moderate intensity endurance-building exercise (walking), strength and balance training, home safety improvements, and mental practice. Sessions of 20-25 participants are led by two nurses. Participants set their own realistic goals for exercising to accommodate to differing functional abilities and baseline conditioning. The control group receives usual care from the HMO. Participants report all falls for 2 years after randomization. Outcome measures include health status, physical functioning, falls, and fall-related medical care use and cost. If SPICE is effective, cost-effectiveness analysis will examine the relative efficiency of SPICE versus other successful FICSIT interventions. Thus far, recruitment and intervention compliance goals have been met from a population of frail elderly HMO members.

  18. A distributed implementation of a mode switching control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Michael; Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Ravn, Anders P.

    1995-01-01

    A distributed implementation of a mode switched control program for a robot is described. The design of the control program is given by a set of real-time automatons. One of them plans a schedule for switching between a fixed set of control functions, another dispatches the control functions...

  19. [Effect of PLISSIT model sexual health enhancement program for women with gynecologic cancer and their husbands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, Ju-Hee

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of the Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, Intensive Therapy (PLISSIT) model sexual health enhancement program on, and development in, sexual function, sexual distress, marital intimacy, and subjective happiness of women with gynecologic cancer and their husbands. The comprehensive program (4 session, 90 minutes per session) was developed based on the PLISSIT model. Participants were 43 couples, 21 assigned to the experimental group who attended the 4-week program, and 22 to the control group. Sexual function, sexual distress, marital intimacy, subjective happiness of the women, marital intimacy, subjective happiness of husbands were determined by a questionnaire that was completed by the participants before and after the program. The control group received the intervention post experiment. Chi-square test, t-test, Fisher's exact test were used to test the effectiveness of the program. Post intervention results showed significant differences between the groups for sexual function, sexual distress, and marital intimacy in the women and for subjective happiness in the husbands. Results indicate that the sexual health enhancement program is effective in improving sexual function, lowering sexual distress, increasing marital intimacy, and subjective happiness in women with gynecologic cancer and their husbands.

  20. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Conference Registry Login SCR Training and Testing Cancer Cancer Programs Cancer Programs Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on ...

  1. Tailoring cancer education and support programs for low-income, primarily African American cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Pollack, Lori A; Evans, Mary B; Smith, Judith Lee; Kratt, Polly; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher D; Dignan, Mark; Cheney, Lydia C; Pisu, Maria; Liwo, Amandiy; Hullett, Sandral

    2011-01-01

    to identify the information and stress-management topics of most interest to low-income, predominantly African American cancer survivors. descriptive, cross sectional. outpatient oncology clinic in a public hospital in Birmingham, Alabama. 25 patients with cancer; 12 were men, 22 were African Americans, and 16 had a 12th-grade education or less. patients ranked potential topics to be included in an educational curriculum. quantitative rankings of information and stress-management priorities. learning about cancer, understanding cancer treatments, relieving cancer pain, and keeping well in mind and body were the most highly ranked topics among those offered within the American Cancer Society's I Can Cope curriculum, which also included supportive topics such as mobilizing social support. The preferred stress-management topics were humor therapy, music therapy, meditation, and relaxation; lower-ranked topics included pet therapy and art as therapy. cancer survivors appear most interested in topics specific to their illness and treatment versus supportive topics. Stress management also received high rankings. nurses have a key role in providing patient education and support. Tailoring education programs may better target specific needs and improve the quality of cancer care of underserved patients.

  2. Challenges of Tobacco Control Program in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Mohammadi, Younes; Mahmoodi, Azam

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the status of cigarette marketing in Iran as well as the attitude of smokers toward smoking and the policies and tobacco control programs in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 3480 volunteer smokers in six provinces, using a stratified cluster random sampling method. The study population consisted of smokers who used at least one cigarette per day. The data collection tool was an anonymous self-administered questionnaire including basic information and 20 five-choice questions related to participants' attitude toward smoking habits (Cronbach's alpha; 79.73%.). The majority (66.9%) of participants started smoking at the age of 10 to 19 years and 61.1% used foreign cigarettes. Of 160 marketed brands, 38 (23.8%) were domestic and 122 (76.2%) were foreign, including 63 (39.3%) imported and 59 (36.9%) smuggled brands. Being tempted (25.0%), getting nervous (24.1%), and seeking euphoria (24.1%) were the most common reasons for restarting cigarette smoking after cessation. The majority of participants believed that smoking in public places was a violation of the rights of others and smoking should be avoided in such places. Smoking prevention programs should focus on adolescents as the most vulnerable age group. Raising the retail price of tobacco products through increasing taxes can reduce consumption, particularly among first starters and youth. However, increasing taxes and prices of tobacco products may be effective when simultaneous effective measures are implemented to eliminate all kinds of illicit trade in all forms of tobacco products.

  3. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  4. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer. Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglyce...

  5. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    is conclusive evidence that screening will decrease morality . The methods used to screen for breast cancer include Self Breast Examination, Clinical...Raciathnic Pattern of Cancer in United States. MMWR. 1991;40:754-757. the United States, 1973-1993. Rockville, Md: National Cancer 11. Escobedo LG

  6. Yoga of Awareness program for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James W; Carson, Kimberly M; Porter, Laura S; Keefe, Francis J; Seewaldt, Victoria L

    2009-10-01

    Breast cancer survivors have limited options for the treatment of hot flashes and related symptoms. Further, therapies widely used to prevent recurrence in survivors, such as tamoxifen, tend to induce or exacerbate menopausal symptoms. The aim of this preliminary, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a yoga intervention on menopausal symptoms in a sample of survivors of early-stage breast cancer (stages IA-IIB). Thirty-seven disease-free women experiencing hot flashes were randomized to the 8-week Yoga of Awareness program (gentle yoga poses, meditation, and breathing exercises) or to wait-list control. The primary outcome was daily reports of hot flashes collected at baseline, posttreatment, and 3 months after treatment via an interactive telephone system. Data were analyzed by intention to treat. At posttreatment, women who received the yoga program showed significantly greater improvements relative to the control condition in hot-flash frequency, severity, and total scores and in levels of joint pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, symptom-related bother, and vigor. At 3 months follow-up, patients maintained their treatment gains in hot flashes, joint pain, fatigue, symptom-related bother, and vigor and showed additional significant gains in negative mood, relaxation, and acceptance. This pilot study provides promising support for the beneficial effects of a comprehensive yoga program for hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms in early-stage breast cancer survivors.

  7. A core program of gene expression characterizes cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Franz; Wang, Yunguan; Aronow, Bruce; Weber, Georg F

    2017-11-24

    While aberrant expression or splicing of metastasis genes conveys to cancers the ability to break through tissue barriers and disseminate, the genetic basis for organ preference in metastasis formation has remained incompletely understood. Utilizing the gene expression profiles from 653 GEO datasets, we investigate whether the signatures by diverse cancers in various metastatic sites display common features. We corroborate the meta-analysis in a murine model. Metastases are generally characterized by a core program of gene expression that induces the oxidative metabolism, activates vascularization/tissue remodeling, silences extracellular matrix interactions, and alters ion homeostasis. This program distinguishes metastases from their originating primary tumors as well as from their target host tissues. Site-selectivity is accomplished through specific components that adjust to the target micro-environment. The same functional groups of gene expression programs are activated in the metastases of B16-F10 cells to various target organs. It remains to be investigated whether these genetic signatures precede implantation and thus determine organ preference or are shaped by the target site and are thus a consequence of implantation. Conceivably, chemotherapy of disseminated cancer might be more efficacious if selected to match the genetic makeup of the metastases rather than the organ of origin by the primary tumor.

  8. Health Beliefs and Locus of Control as Predictors of Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OR= 0.35, p < 0.05), internal locus of control (OR = 1.43, p < 0.05) and health risks behaviour (OR= 0.42, p < 0.05) all significantly predicted cervical cancer screening behaviour of women. Keywords: Health beliefs, Health locus of control, cancer ...

  9. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  10. Perceived control, adjustment, and communication problems in laryngeal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, G W; Dineen, M; Kauffman, S M; Raimondi, S C; Simpson, K C

    1993-12-01

    Health locus of control, adjustment to cancer, and communication experiences after a laryngectomy were investigated in 63 laryngeal cancer survivors. Survivors who showed internal control also scored as better adjusted and had fewer communication problems. Scales were intercorrelated (.68 to .92).

  11. [The new Tuberculosis Control Program of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toru

    2006-07-01

    The 1951 Tuberculosis Control Law of Japan was amended extensively and has been in effect since April, 2005. The revision of the National Tuberculosis Program (NTP) is to respond to the tremendous changes that have occurred during the last 50 years in tuberculosis epidemiology and in the environment in tuberculosis control implementation. In this review, the main points and framework of the revisions were summarized and the perspective of the development of new technical innovations relevant to each area of the revised TB control legislation is discussed. Also, challenges of Japan's NTP in the recent future are discussed, including the controversies over the proposed abolishment of the Tuberculosis Control Law. 1. IMMUNIZATION: In the revision of NTP, the BCG vaccination of elementary school and junior-high school entrants was discontinued. In order to strengthen the early primary vaccination for infants, the new Law has adopted the direct vaccination scheme omitting tuberculin testing prior to immunization. This program is implemented to young babies, i.e., less than six months old, as defined by the decree. It is a heavy responsibility for the municipalities to ensure the high coverage of immunization when the period of legal vaccination is rather strictly limited practically to the fourth to sixth months after birth. The safe direct vaccination is another new challenge where appropriate management of the Koch's phenomenon or similar reactions should be warranted. 2. CHEMOPROPHYLAXIS: Though unfortunately suspended for some legal reason currently, the expansion and improvement of chemoprophylaxis, or treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, to cover anyone with higher risk of clinical development of TB would have a tremendous effect in Japan, especially since 90% of patients who developed TB were infected tens of years ago. The technical innovations in diagnosis of TB infection such as QuantiFERON will be very helpful. Development of new drugs or drug regimens

  12. Performance profile of a FDG-PET cancer screening program for detecting gastric cancer: results from a nationwide Japanese survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Senda, Michio; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Terauchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that gastric cancer is the sixth most common cancer found during the (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) cancer screening program, which is defined as cancer screening of asymptomatic subjects using FDG-PET(/CT) (in combination with other screening tests or not). The aim of this study was to analyze the detection rate and the effectiveness of the FDG-PET cancer screening program at detecting gastric cancer between 2006 and 2009 in Japan. A total of 153,775 asymptomatic subjects (92,255 men, 61,520 women) between 30 and 80 years old underwent the FDG-PET cancer screening program. Of these, we analyzed 790 cases with findings of possible gastric cancer in any screening test. The number of cases who were verified to have gastric cancer was 124. Among these, only 47 cases were detected by FDG-PET, which resulted in a relative sensitivity of 37.9% and a positive predictive value of 33.6%. The relative sensitivity of FDG-PET was much lower than those of gastric endoscopy and the serum pepsinogen test. The FDG-PET screening program in Japan detected some cases of early-stage gastric cancer, but this was not achieved using FDG-PET alone but in combination with gastric endoscopy. Gastric endoscopy should be included in FDG-PET cancer screening programs to screen for gastric cancer.

  13. [A new program-controlled telemetry technology for pacemakers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Huang, Xin-ming; Fang, Zu-xinag

    2002-09-01

    This thesis is about a new technology of program-controlled telemetry for pacemakers. The system utilizes digital logic circuit design, and the program-controlled part uses single chip to control for display and debug. PWM and reflectance telemetry may improve the preciseness and correctness of signal transmission, and reduce the power consumption of pacemakers and prolong the lifetime.

  14. Practices of Family Health Professionals Regarding Chronic Disease Control and Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Kabasakal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic diseases are of the utmost importance, due to their impact on high death rates, excessive increases in health expenses, and sustainability of health services. Further, it is recommended for individuals, and society at large, to decrease exposure to modifiable risk factors, like tobacco use, malnutrition, and lack of physical activity, and to encourage a lifestyle that supports the fight against chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the practices of health professionals in terms of preventing chronic diseases and improving health. Methods: Health professionals from family health centers participated in this survey study. The data collection tool was developed by the researcher, by considering the nationwide health programs applied in Turkey, namely the Tobacco Control Program, Healthy Nutrition and Active Life Program, Turkey Diabetes Prevention and Control Program, and Cancer Control Programs. Results: Those who received training on health promotion had higher rates of involvement in tobacco cessation guidance, directing individuals to smoking cessation centers, giving trainings to cancer patients and others at risk, following up on individuals with a risk of obesity, raising awareness of healthy individuals concerning obesity, and training patients/patient relatives on diabetes. Discussion: The level of training that health professionals offer to patients and their relatives is higher than the level of training given to healthy individuals in all control programs. This inclination is an indicator of a treatment-oriented service approach to health. The capacity of health professionals should be directed more towards preventive medicine and health improving practices.

  15. Prostate Cancer Disparities throughout the Cancer Control Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Dalton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that 238,590 U.S. men will develop PCa and 29,720 men will die from the disease in 2013. PCa exhibits the most profound racial disparities of all cancers with African American men having a 70% higher incidence rate and more than two times higher mortality rate than Caucasian men. Published research on PCa disparities focuses on singular outcomes such as incidence, mortality or quality of life. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the racial disparities found at each stage of the PCa Care Continuum which includes prevention, detection, treatments, and outcomes and survival. It focuses primarily on disparities among Caucasian (white and African American men.

  16. A Framework for Training Transdisciplinary Scholars in Cancer Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S; Gehlert, Sarah; Bowen, Deborah J; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-12-01

    Traditionally, postdoctoral training programs largely have focused efforts within a single discipline or closely related fields. Yet, addressing the complex questions around cancer prevention and control increasingly requires the ability to work and communicate across disciplines in order to gain a perspective that encompasses the multilevel and multifaceted issues involved with this public health issue. To address this complexity, a transdisciplinary training program was implemented to cultivate the professional and scientific development of the postdoctoral fellows in Washington University in St Louis School of Medicine's Division of Public Health Sciences and NCI-funded centers (Community Networks Program Center and Transdisciplinary Research in Energetics in Cancer Center). Fellows are matched with primary mentors and assemble a multidisciplinary mentoring team. Structured programs support the transition of fellows from disciplinary trainees to independent transdisciplinary scholars and provide exposure to multiple disciplines. This article describes the training program, challenges encountered in implementation, solutions to those problems, and the metrics employed to evaluate the program's success. The goal of the program is to train emerging investigators in the conceptual bases, language, and practices that underlie a transdisciplinary perspective on cancer prevention and control research, to create an infrastructure for continued cross-discipline dialogue and collaboration, and to develop disseminable strategies for such training.

  17. Participation and retention in the breast cancer screening program in New Brunswick Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ted McDonald

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available New Brunswick (NB Canada uses its breast cancer screening service program to assess the extent to which eligible NB women are complying with mammography guidelines. While many studies have investigated factors associated with participation in periodic breast cancer screening in Canada and elsewhere, most work has relied on self-reported surveys or smaller scale primary data collection. Using a longitudinal administrative dataset for NB over the period 1996–2011 of 255,789 eligible women aged 45–69, this study examined demographic, socioeconomic and geographic factors associated with initial participation in regular screening at age 50 and ongoing retention in the program. Logistic regression was used to examine correlates of initial screening, while rescreening participation was estimated using survival analysis accounting for rescreening episodes. Initial screening participation was lower for women born outside of NB, many women living farther away from screening centers, women in rural areas, and higher for married women. In contrast, retention was higher for rural women and women recently arrived in NB. For both participation and retention, regional disparities across health zone persisted after controlling for observable personal and locational factors. The analysis highlights important characteristics to be targeted to increase screening but also that how health zones operate their screening programs exerts a very significant effect on the use of screening services by eligible women. This offers lessons for the design and evaluation of any cancer screening program.

  18. Alcohol Control Efforts in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans and Alcohol Use Among Adults in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S. Jane; Kanny, Dafna; Roland, Katherine B.; Grossman, Melissa; Peaker, Brandy; Liu, Yong; Gapstur, Susan M.; White, Mary C.; Plescia, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand how US cancer control plans address alcohol use, an important but frequently overlooked cancer risk factor, and how many US adults are at risk. Methods We reviewed alcohol control efforts in 69 comprehensive cancer control plans in US states, tribes and jurisdictions. Using the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the prevalence of current alcohol use among US adults and the proportion of these drinkers who exceeded guidelines for moderate drinking. Results Most comprehensive cancer control plans acknowledged alcohol use as a cancer risk factor but fewer than half included a goal, objective or strategy to address alcohol use. More than half of US adults reported current alcohol use in 2011, and two of three drinkers exceeded moderate drinking guidelines at least once in the past month. Many states that did not address alcohol use in comprehensive cancer control plans also had a high proportion of adults at risk. Conclusion Alcohol use is a common cancer risk factor in the USA, but alcohol control strategies are not commonly included in comprehensive cancer control plans. Supporting the implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent the excessive use of alcohol is one tool the cancer control community can use to reduce the risk of cancer. PMID:25313255

  19. Skin cancer prevention in outdoor recreation settings: effects of the Hawaii SunSmart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, K; Lew, R A; Song, V; Murakami-Akatsuka, L

    2000-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States, and it is one of the most preventable. Interventions for young children and their parents can help prevent future cases of skin cancer. To determine whether a skin cancer prevention program implemented at outdoor recreation sites improved children's sun-protection behaviors and site sun-protection policies. Randomized trial of 14 outdoor recreation sites on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The trial had three arms: control, education only, and education/environment. The education arm included staff training, on-site activities, take-home booklets, behavior-monitoring boards, and incentives. The education/environment arm included all education components plus provision of sunscreen and promotion of sun-safe environments. Children 6 to 8 years of age and their parents. Reports from parents of children's sun-protection behaviors and the sun-protection policies of recreation sites. The cohort for analysis from baseline to 6 weeks after testing had 383 participants; the cohort from 6 weeks after testing to 3 months of follow-up had 285 participants. Program implementation was high in the education only and the education/environment sites. Compared with control sites, children's sun-protection behaviors and, in particular, the use of sunscreen improved significantly at sites where the two interventions were implemented. In addition, sun-protection policies of recreation sites were markedly higher at intervention arm sites. The education/environment intervention was not superior to education alone. Changes were partly maintained at 3 months of follow-up. A creative, engaging, multicomponent skin cancer prevention program in outdoor recreation settings can lead to modest improvements in children's sun-protection behaviors.

  20. Health Behaviors and Associated Sociodemographic Factors in Cervical Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-Cancer Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Se Ik; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kang, Sokbom; Park, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Myong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    We explored the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors and examined associations between sociodemographic factors and each health behavior. We studied 448 cervical cancer survivors ≥2 years after their initial diagnosis who had completed treatment. The total sample consisted of these survivors, and 4,480 cancer-free controls who were grouped into 5-year age cohorts and matched to the survivors in terms of both education and monthly household income. The prevalence of current smoking, current alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and obesity in cervical cancer survivors (2.68, 23.88, 62.02, and 32.81%, respectively) did not differ significantly from those of matched non-cancer controls. Age (younger), marital status (married), and education (≥college) were associated with lower probabilities of current alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88-0.95; OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23-0.78; OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.25-0.97, respectively). A monthly household income ≥$2,000, being employed, and self-rated health status (less healthy) were associated with physical inactivity (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.37-0.99; OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.36-3.42; OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, respectively). Both age and number of years since diagnosis were associated with obesity (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.08; OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.20-0.72, respectively). The health behaviors of cervical cancer survivors did not differ from those of matched cancer-free controls. As health behaviors are modifiable, identification of cervical cancer survivors who are at risk of an unhealthy lifestyle would allow individual- and population-based intervention programs to more effectively use their limited resources.

  1. Cervical cancer control, priorities and new directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsonego, J; Bosch, F.X.; Coursaget, P.; Cox, JT; Franco, E; Frazer, I; Sankaranarayanan, R; Schiller, J; Singer, A; Wright, TCJr; Kinney, W; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Linder, J

    2004-01-01

    99% of cervical cancer is initiated by HPV infection. The estimated lifetime risk of cervical cancer is nevertheless relatively low (less than 1 in 20 for most community based studies). Although sensitivity and specificity of the available diagnostic techniques are suboptimal, screening for

  2. Programmed death-1 & its ligands: promising targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, Rajeev K; Janik, John E; Abu-Eid, Rasha; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Khleif, Samir N

    2015-01-01

    Novel strategies for cancer treatment involving blockade of immune inhibitors have shown significant progress toward understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor immune evasion. The preclinical findings and clinical responses associated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand pathway blockade seem promising, making these targets highly sought for cancer immunotherapy. In fact, the anti-PD-1 antibodies, pembrolizumab and nivolumab, were recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of unresectable and metastatic melanoma resistant to anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (ipilimumab) and BRAF inhibitor. Here, we discuss strategies of combining PD-1/PD-ligand interaction inhibitors with other immune checkpoint modulators and standard-of-care therapy to break immune tolerance and induce a potent antitumor activity, which is currently a research area of key scientific pursuit.

  3. Design and Success of a 21st Century Cancer Education Program at the University of Louisville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, David W; Kidd, La Creis R

    2016-07-30

    Cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality in the Commonwealth of Kentucky are among the highest in the nation. The University of Louisville was the recipient of a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cancer education program grant in 1975 under the leadership of Dr. Norbert Burzynski. A new and totally redesigned performance-based University of Louisville Cancer Education Program was funded by NCI in 2011 to recruit and motivate outstanding undergraduate and health professional students to pursue further training and careers in cancer research. Here, we describe the strategy, design, methods, implementation, and accomplishments of our twenty-first century performance-based cancer education program. Our program will meet or exceed all of its 5-year performance goals, including the total number students (n = 156) and under-represented minorities (n = 53) who successfully completed the program under the mentorship of cancer research-intensive faculty members of the James Graham Brown Cancer Center (JGBCC). The mentored research program is complemented with professional development and enhancement activities, including cancer research seminars presented by faculty members actively engaged in research centered on the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of cancer, creation of individual career development plans, exploration of cancer research careers, and acquisition of professionalism skills. Student interests towards cancer research significantly increased after completion of the program compared to baseline (P = 0.02). Based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of various components of the curricula, the trainees favor practical, engaging, and interactive activities aligned within professional career goals and objectives. For instance, the trainees prefer two 30-min small group discussions on "Navigating Careers in Cancer Research" with faculty, professional students, and program alumni. Future updates to the program include new activities that

  4. Advocacy resource: engaging the media and promoting your cancer program in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, R Renee; Odedina, Folakemi T; Pressey, Shannon

    2013-07-15

    To address the need for a significant increase in cancer advocacy programs in Africa, the University of Florida (UF), the Prostate Net, and the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) co-hosted the first biennial International Workshop on Cancer Advocacy for African Countries (CAAC) on November 29, 2011, one-day prior to AORTIC's 8th International Cancer Conference in Cairo, Egypt. Over 70 African cancer advocates representing about 12 African countries participated in this workshop.The primary goal of the one-day workshop was to inform, educate and empower African cancer advocates to increase the promotion of their cancer programs. The first half of the workshop consisted of five formal PowerPoint presentations focused on the following topics: (a) Understanding Your Community and Assessing your Community Health Assets and Needs; (b) Developing a successful advocacy model for your cancer program; (c) Developing a Relationship with your Elected Officials to Advocate Cancer-related Policies; (d) Engaging the Media and promoting your cancer program; and (e) Developing advocacy plans for sustainability. In this article we summarize the informational content given in the PowerPoint presentation entitled "Engaging the Media and promoting your cancer program". The content given in this article is useful as a how-to guide for both the beginner and the experienced cancer advocate who wants to establish/promote a cancer awareness program.

  5. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  6. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  7. Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Each day, between 12 to 13 U.S. workers die as a result of a traumatic injury on the job. Investigations conducted through the FACE program allow the identification...

  8. Division of Environmental Control Technology program, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    Environmental engineering programs are reviewed for the following technologies; coal; petroleum and gas; oil shale; solar; geothermal and energy conservation; nuclear energy; and decontamination and decommissioning. Separate abstracts were prepared for each technology. (MHR)

  9. Cancer and Fertility Program Improves Patient Satisfaction With Information Received

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Bridgette; Benedict, Catherine; Carter, Jeanne; Corcoran, Stacie; Dickler, Maura N.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Margolies, Allison; Matasar, Matthew J.; Noy, Ariela; Goldfarb, Shari B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A cancer and fertility program was established at a large cancer center to support clinicians in discussing treatment-related fertility risks and fertility preservation (FP) options with patients and in referring patients to reproductive specialists. The program provides resources, clinician education, and fertility clinical nurse specialist consultation. This study evaluated the program’s impact on patient satisfaction with information received. Patients and Methods Retrospective cross-sectional surveys assessed satisfaction before (cohort 1 [C1]) and after (cohort 2 [C2]) program initiation. Questionnaires were investigator-designed, gender-specific, and anonymous. Results Most C1 (150 males, 271 females) and C2 (120 males, 320 females) respondents were 2 years postdiagnosis; the most frequently reported cancers were testicular, breast, and lymphoma. A significant difference in satisfaction with the amount of information received was seen between C1 and C2. For males, satisfaction with information on fertility risks was high in both cohorts but significantly greater in C2 for information on sperm banking (χ2 = 9.3, P = .01) and finding a sperm bank (χ2 = 13.3, P = .001). For females, satisfaction with information was significantly greater in C2 for information on fertility risks (χ2 = 62.1, P < .001), FP options (χ2 = 71.9, P < .001), help with decision making (χ2 = 80.2, P < .001), and finding a reproductive endocrinologist (χ2 = 60.5, P < .001). Among patients who received and read information materials, 96% of males and 99% of females found them helpful. Among C2 females, fertility clinical nurse specialist consultation was associated with significantly greater satisfaction with information on FP options (χ2 = 11.2, P = .004), help with decision making (χ2 = 10.4, P = .006), and finding a reproductive endocrinologist (χ2 = 22.6, P < .001), with 10% reporting lack of knowledge as a reason for not pursuing FP. Conclusion Improvements in

  10. The Lancet Oncology's Cancer Control in Africa | Michael | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  11. THE LANCET ONCOLOGY'S CANCER CONTROL IN AFRICA O.S. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  12. Regional Cancer Control in South-Eastern Nigeria: A Proposal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an impending cancer epidemic in Africa. In Nigeria, this disease is causing untold devastation, and control measures are desperately needed. Breast, cervical, prostate, and liver cancers are the most common types in Nigerian adults. In children, the predominant malignant diseases are Burkitt's lymphoma, acute ...

  13. Control of breast cancer using health education | Nzarubara | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Todetermine theefficacy of massscreening in the control of primary breast cancer among a selected group of women from Mpigi district, Uganda. Design: Qualitative study by comparing the level of knowledge of risk factors, attitude and practice to breast cancer and the ability to carry out self breast examination ...

  14. Transmission Control Protocol, DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    particular a source or destination of messages from the point of view of the communicatio network. identification An Internet Protocol field. This...15-( RFC- 793 "* •TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL ’-v DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION September 1981 S... INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION 1. INTRODUCTION The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is intended for use as a highly reliable host-to-host

  15. Interval breast cancers: Absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonaro, Luca A., E-mail: luca.carbonaro@gmail.com [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Azzarone, Antonio [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Paskeh, Bijan Babaei [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Brambilla, Giorgio [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Brunelli, Silvia [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Calori, Anna [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Caumo, Francesca [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, ULSS 20, Piazza Lambranzi, Verona 37034 (Italy); Malerba, Paolo [Dipartimento di Radiologia, IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano (Mi) 20089 (Italy); Menicagli, Laura [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Sconfienza, Luca M. [Unità di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Piazza E. Malan 2, San Donato Milanese (Mi) 20097 (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Vadalà, Giuseppe [Servizio di Radiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Circolo di Melegnano, Via Pandina 1, Vizzolo Predabissi (Mi) 20070 (Italy); Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi [Servizio di Medicina Preventiva delle Comunità, ASL Milano 2, Via Friuli 2, Lacchiarella (Mi) 20084 (Italy); Ciatto, Stefano [Screening Program, ULSS 16, Padova (Italy); and others

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Materials and methods: Women aged 49–69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. Results: A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p = 0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25

  16. Interval breast cancers: absolute and proportional incidence and blinded review in a community mammographic screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, Luca A; Azzarone, Antonio; Paskeh, Bijan Babaei; Brambilla, Giorgio; Brunelli, Silvia; Calori, Anna; Caumo, Francesca; Malerba, Paolo; Menicagli, Laura; Sconfienza, Luca M; Vadalà, Giuseppe; Brambilla, Gelma; Fantini, Luigi; Ciatto, Stefano; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of the first years since the beginning of a mammographic population-based screening program. Women aged 49-69 were invited biennially for two-view film-screen mammography and double reading without arbitration was performed. Interval cancers (ICs) from 2001 to 2006 were identified using screening archives, local pathology archives, and hospital discharge records. The proportional incidence of IC was determined considering breast cancers expected without screening. Three offsite radiologists experienced in breast cancer screening blindly evaluated mammograms prior to diagnosis, randomly mixed with negative mammograms (1:2 ratio). Cases unrecalled at review were considered as true ICs, those recalled by only one reviewer as minimal signs, and those recalled by two or three reviewers as missed cancers. T and N stage of the reviewed ICs were evaluated and compared. A total of 86,276 first level mammograms were performed. Mean recall rate was 6.8% at first and 4.6% at repeat screening. We had 476 screen-detected cancers and 145 ICs (10 of them ductal carcinomas in situ). Absolute incidence was 17 per 10,000 screening examinations. Invasive proportional incidence was 19% (44/234) in the first year, 39% (91/234) in the second year, and 29% (135/468) in the two-year interval. Of 145 ICs, 130 (90%) were reviewed mixed with 287 negative controls: 55% (71/130) resulted to be true ICs, 24% (31/130) minimal signs, and 22% (28/130) missed cancers. The rate of ICs diagnosed in the first year interval was 21% (15/71) for true ICs, 46% (13/28) for missed cancers, and 39% (12/31) for minimal signs, with a significant difference of true ICs rate compared to missed cancers rate (p=0.012). A higher rate of T3 and T4 stages was found for missed cancers (18%, 5/28) compared to minimal signs (6%, 2/31) or true ICs (8%, 6/71), while the rate of N2 and N3 stage for both minimal signs (19%, 6/31) or missed cancers (25%, 7/28) was higher than that for true ICs (10

  17. Fortalezas y debilidades del programa para la detección y el control del cáncer cervicouterino: Evaluación cualitativa en San Luis Potosí, México Strengths and weaknesses of a cervical cancer detection and control program: a qualitative evaluation in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Tejada-Tayabas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar, desde la perspectiva del personal de salud, las fortalezas y debilidades del programa para la detección y el control del cáncer cervicouterino mediante una evaluación cualitativa, en tres centros de salud de San Luis Potosí, México, entre agosto de 2008 y noviembre de 2009. Métodos: Se realizó una evaluación cualitativa. En el estudio participaron nueve prestadores de servicios, seleccionados mediante muestreo por conveniencia, bajo el criterio de participación voluntaria. Inicialmente se obtuvo información de los centros de salud para conocer las características y el contexto en que opera el programa; posteriormente, a los nueve informantes se les realizaron 18 entrevistas semiestructuradas para indagar su perspectiva. Se empleó un análisis de contenido dirigido. Resultados: Las fortalezas referidas por el personal son el carácter gratuito del programa, la disponibilidad de recursos materiales, así como algunas estrategias que facilitan la captación de mujeres y su acceso al cribado. Las principales debilidades son las limitaciones de recursos humanos y en la estructura física, la ineficiente organización de actividades, la deficiente capacidad técnica del personal y las limitadas acciones de promoción, así como las dificultades en el seguimiento de las mujeres con resultados positivos. Conclusiones: Este estudio muestra la necesidad de incrementar los recursos humanos, realizar cambios en la normatividad y reorganizar las acciones del programa en algunos centros de salud, para garantizar la calidad del servicio y satisfacer los requerimientos de las mujeres, y así favorecer la cobertura en todas sus acciones.Objective: To identify, from the perspective of the health staff, the strengths and weaknesses of the program for the detection and control of cervical cancer through a qualitative assessment implemented in three health centers in the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico, from August 2008 to November

  18. A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive bias modification to reduce fear of breast cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Corner, Geoffrey W; Slivjak, Elizabeth T; Roberts, Kailey E; Li, Yuelin; Breitbart, William; Lacey, Stephanie; Tuman, Malwina; DuHamel, Katherine N; Blinder, Victoria S; Beard, Courtney

    2017-04-15

    The most common, persistent concern among survivors of breast cancer is the fear that their disease will return, yet to the authors' knowledge, few interventions targeting fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) have been developed to date. The current pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-delivered cognitive bias modification intervention to reduce FCR. The intervention, called Attention and Interpretation Modification for Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence (AIM-FBCR), targeted 2 types of cognitive biases (ie, attention and interpretation biases). A total of 110 survivors of breast cancer were randomized to receive 8 sessions of 1 of 2 versions of AIM-FBCR or a control condition program. Computer-based assessments of cognitive biases and a self-report measure of FCR were administered before the intervention, after the intervention, and 3 months after the intervention. Improvements in health worries (P = .019) and interpretation biases (rates of threat endorsement [Pcancer. Future research should attempt to replicate these findings in a larger-scale trial using a more sophisticated, user-friendly program and additional measures of improvement in more diverse samples. Cancer 2017;123:1424-1433. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do, this booklet includes tips about managing your pain with medicine and other treatments. PDF Kindle ePub This booklet covers: The types and causes of cancer pain How to talk about your pain with your ...

  1. Improving Breast Cancer Control via the Use of Community Health Workers in South Africa: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna M. Wadler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a growing concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMCs. We explore community health worker (CHW programs and describe their potential use in LMCs. We use South Africa as an example of how CHWs could improve access to breast health care because of its middle-income status, existing cancer centers, and history of CHW programs. CHWs could assume three main roles along the cancer control continuum: health education, screening, and patient navigation. By raising awareness about breast cancer through education, women are more likely to undergo screening. Many more women can be screened resulting in earlier-stage disease if CHWs are trained to perform clinical breast exams. As patient navigators, CHWs can guide women through the screening and treatment process. It is suggested that these roles be combined within existing CHW programs to maximize resources and improve breast cancer outcomes in LMCs.

  2. International programs for the detection of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Smith

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of early breast cancer detection is the foundation for programs around the globe to reduce morbidity and mortality related to breast cancer. These programs range from educational programs targeted to women and health professionals to organized or opportunistic screening programs that target specific age groups of women.Modern mammography programs tend to follow the protocols from the randomized clinical trials, but there is variation in key program elements such as the age groups invited to screening, the screening interval, performance indicators, and the uptake rate. Until recently, the emphasis on early breast cancer detection was limited to mammography, but the steady rise in incidence and mortality in low and medium resource countries, where mammography may be unaffordable, has led to a renewal in emphasizing the incremental value of downsizing palpable tumors through physical exams. There is consensus that programs should be designed based on disease burden and available resources, but that even in low resource countries there are opportunities to reduce breast deaths through earlier diagnosis and effective treatment. Screening programs are most effective when they are organized, and program planners should consider WHO criteria and local input data as a basis for tailoring screening programs to the needs of their population.El beneficio de la detección temprana del cáncer de mama es el fundamento para programas alrededor del mundo que buscan reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad relacionada con este padecimiento. Estos programas abarcan desde los de tipo educativo, orientados a mujeres y profesionales de la salud, hasta programas de monitoreo organizados u oportunistas que tienen como objetivo grupos específicos de edad. Los programas modernos de mastografía tienden a seguir protocolos para estudios clínicos aleatorios,pero hay una variación en elementos clave como los grupos de edad invitados a participar, el intervalo

  3. The Advanced Controls Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knee, H.E.; White, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE), is conducting research that will lead to advanced, automated control of new liquid-metal-reactor (LMR) nuclear power plants. Although this program of research (entitled the Advanced Controls Program'') is focused on LMR technology, it will be capable of providing control design, test, and qualification capability for other advanced reactor designs (e.g., the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) and high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) designs), while also benefiting existing nuclear plants. The Program will also have applicability to complex, non-nuclear process control environments (e.g., petrochemical, aerospace, etc.). The Advanced Controls Program will support capabilities throughout the entire plant design life cycle, i.e., from the initial interactive first-principle dynamic model development for the process, systems, components, and instruments through advanced control room qualification. The current program involves five principal areas of research activities: (1) demonstrations of advanced control system designs, (2) development of an advanced controls design environment, (3) development of advanced control strategies, (4) research and development (R D) in human-system integration for advanced control system designs, and (5) testing and validation of advanced control system designs. Discussion of the research in these five areas forms the basis of this paper. Also included is a description of the research directions of the program. 8 refs.

  4. Trends in incidence rates of tobacco-related cancer, selected areas, SEER Program, United States, 1992-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polednak, Anthony P

    2009-01-01

    Recent trends in incidence rates for tobacco-related cancers may vary geographically because of variation in socioeconomic status and in history of comprehensive state tobacco control programs (starting with California in 1989). Recent trends in risk factors are likely to affect cancer incidence rates at the youngest ages Trends in age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers most strongly associated with tobacco (ie, lung, oral cavity-pharynx, and bladder cancers) were analyzed for 1992 through 2004 in 11 areas (the states of Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, Utah, and New Mexico, and the metropolitan areas of Atlanta, Georgia; Detroit, Michigan; Los Angeles County, California; San Francisco-Oakland, California; San Jose-Monterey, California; and Seattle-Puget Sound, Washington) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. The 8 states differed in poverty rate of the population and in history of statewide tobacco control efforts as measured by an initial outcomes index (IOI) for the 1990s and a strength of tobacco control (SoTC) index for 1999 through 2000. Annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rate was calculated for whites and blacks separately and by sex for each SEER area. Among whites, the largest declines for lung cancer were in the 3 SEER areas of California, which were the only areas with significant (negative) APCs for oral cavity-pharynx cancer (but not for bladder cancer). For blacks, significant (negative) APCs for both lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancers were found in 4 of 5 areas with useful data but only 1 of 3 areas for bladder cancer. The strongest correlations of APCs for whites were for lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancers with the IOIs for the early 1990s and with the SoTC (due to the influence of California, which had the highest SoTC). Lung and oral cavity-pharynx cancer incidence rates among whites aged 15 to 54 years declined more in California than in other areas, possibly because of comprehensive state tobacco control

  5. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Gestational Diabetes , Sickle Cell Anemia in the laboratories of Jayduff Vadgama, P.D. and of Steven Taylor, M.D. at Charles Drew University of Medicine...Ethnic differences in food consumption in the U-S:Relevance to cancer prevalence . In: Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, proceedings of the Fourth Annual...life events such as sick- nessanddeah (agaw-Siger 198).ment was found-the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Wes Acculturation Scale (Suinn, Ahuman, & Khoo

  6. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  7. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  8. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  9. From Cancer Screening to Treatment: Service Delivery and Referral in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W.; Hanson, Vivien; Johnson, Gale D.; Royalty, Janet E.; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic services to low-income and underserved women through a network of providers and health care organizations. Although the program serves women 40-64 years old for breast cancer screening and 21-64 years old for cervical cancer screening, the priority populations are women 50-64 years old for breast cancer and women who have never or rarely been screened for cervical cancer. From 1991 through 2011, the NBCCEDP provided screening and diagnostic services to more than 4.3 million women, diagnosing 54,276 breast cancers, 2554 cervical cancers, and 123,563 precancerous cervical lesions. A critical component of providing screening services is to ensure that all women with abnormal screening results receive appropriate and timely diagnostic evaluations. Case management is provided to assist women with overcoming barriers that would delay or prevent follow-up care. Women diagnosed with cancer receive treatment through the states' Breast and Cervical Cancer Treatment Programs (a special waiver for Medicaid) if they are eligible. The NBCCEDP has performance measures that serve as benchmarks to monitor the completeness and timeliness of care. More than 90% of the women receive complete diagnostic care and initiate treatment less than 30 days from the time of their diagnosis. Provision of effective screening and diagnostic services depends on effective program management, networks of providers throughout the community, and the use of evidence-based knowledge, procedures, and technologies. PMID:25099897

  10. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  11. The effect of psycho educational program on stress and depression among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mardani Hamoleh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Cancer is one of the life-threatening diseases that cause the numerous changes in the life style, public interaction and social activities of the patients. Usually cancer patients have some degrees of stress and depression. This study aimed to determine the effects of educational program on stress and depression among cancer patients. Materials & Methods: This study is a semi experimental research. 52 cancer patients referred to Seyedoshohada hospital of Isfahan were selected through purposeful method and then divided into 2 groups randomly, the Cooper stress and Beck depression questionnaires were used in this study. The two groups of patients (control 24 and experimental 28 both appear for the pre test. Then after one month of applying psychological intervention only on experimental group, both the groups appeared for the post test. The data were collected and analyzed with analysis of covariance. P< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The results of covariance showed significant differences between the 2 groups in the Cooper stress inventory (F=10.8, P<0.003 and Beck depression inventory (F=12.87, P< 0.001 and the hypothesis of study was confirmed. Conclusion: Globally, the findings proved that psychological intervention based on stress and depression reduction would be a successful approach in promoting mental health on cancer patients.

  12. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferati...

  13. Piloting a psycho-education program for parents of pediatric cancer patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Azizah; Blunden, Sarah; Mohamad, Norsarwany; Mohd Hussin, Zabidi Azhar; Jamil Osman, Zubaidah

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate a psycho-educational program (PeP) for parents of children with cancer (PoCwC) in Malaysia. Seventy-nine parents were invited to be either in an intervention (n=41) or a control group (n=38). Baseline assessment took place upon agreement of participation. Short-term effects were measured four weeks after the intervention. Control parents received standard care. Intervention parents received, in addition to standard care, 4 x 50 min sessions of information on childhood cancer and coping strategies. Repeated measures of ANOVAs revealed increased knowledge about cancer (p=0.01) in the intervention parents compared with standard care. Intervention parents reported reduced anxiety and increased activities with children after the program; however, differences were not significant. This PeP, the first of its kind in Malaysia, has significantly increased levels of knowledge among parents of seriously ill children which may point towards the potential for these services to increase coping in Malaysian PoCwC.

  14. Comprehensive Cancer Control Partners’ Use of and Attitudes About Evidence-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John M.; Townsend, Julie S.; Fonseka, Jamila; Richardson, Lisa C.; Chovnick, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are encouraged to work with partners (eg, nonprofit organizations) to develop and implement plans to reduce the cancer burden in their jurisdictions using evidence-based practices (EBPs). However, the extent of EBP use among awardees and their partners is not well understood. Methods From March through July 2012, we conducted a web-based survey of program partners referred by NCCCP program directors who were involved in implementation of cancer control plans. Results Approximately 53% of referred partners (n = 83) completed surveys, 91.6% of whom represented organizations. Most partners reported involvement in helping to identify (80.5%), adapt (81.7%), implement (90.4%), and evaluate (81.9%) EBPs. The factors rated most frequently as very important when selecting EBPs were “consistent with our organization’s mission” (89.2%) and “cost-effective” (81.9%). Although most respondents said that their organizations understood the importance of using EBPs (84.3%) and had adequate access to cancer registry data (74.7%), few reported having sufficient financial resources to develop new EBPs (7.9%). The most frequently mentioned benefit of using EBPs was that they are proven to work. Resource limitations and difficulty adapting EBPs for specific populations and settings were challenges. Conclusions Our findings help indicate how NCCCP partners are involved in using EBPs and can guide ongoing efforts to encourage the use of EBPs for cancer control. The challenges of using EBPs that partners identified highlight the need to improve strategies to translate cancer prevention and control research into practice in real-world settings and for diverse populations. PMID:26182148

  15. Comprehensive Cancer Control Partners' Use of and Attitudes About Evidence-Based Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C Brooke; Rose, John M; Townsend, Julie S; Fonseka, Jamila; Richardson, Lisa C; Chovnick, Gary

    2015-07-16

    National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) awardees are encouraged to work with partners (eg, nonprofit organizations) to develop and implement plans to reduce the cancer burden in their jurisdictions using evidence-based practices (EBPs). However, the extent of EBP use among awardees and their partners is not well understood. From March through July 2012, we conducted a web-based survey of program partners referred by NCCCP program directors who were involved in implementation of cancer control plans. Approximately 53% of referred partners (n = 83) completed surveys, 91.6% of whom represented organizations. Most partners reported involvement in helping to identify (80.5%), adapt (81.7%), implement (90.4%), and evaluate (81.9%) EBPs. The factors rated most frequently as very important when selecting EBPs were "consistent with our organization's mission" (89.2%) and "cost-effective" (81.9%). Although most respondents said that their organizations understood the importance of using EBPs (84.3%) and had adequate access to cancer registry data (74.7%), few reported having sufficient financial resources to develop new EBPs (7.9%). The most frequently mentioned benefit of using EBPs was that they are proven to work. Resource limitations and difficulty adapting EBPs for specific populations and settings were challenges. Our findings help indicate how NCCCP partners are involved in using EBPs and can guide ongoing efforts to encourage the use of EBPs for cancer control. The challenges of using EBPs that partners identified highlight the need to improve strategies to translate cancer prevention and control research into practice in real-world settings and for diverse populations.

  16. Second Primary Tumors associated with Breast Cancer: Kuwait Cancer Control Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, Salah; Demian, Gerges Attia; Eissa, Heba El-Sayed; Abuzalouf, Sadeq

    2017-09-01

    To review the clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of patients who presented with two or more primary cancers, one of which was breast cancer (BC) and to develop a follow-up program for the high risk patients. Patients who were diagnosed with BC and one or more non breast cancer (NBC) were retrospectively reviewed. Medical files were retrieved and epidemiological as well as clinical data were analyzed. Sixty-two patients were retrieved. BC was the first primary in 26 patients while it was the second in 36 patients. Two were males and 60 were females. The median age was 48 years and the median follow-up was 11.5 years. The median interval between the 1st and 2nd primary was 6 years. The most commonly associated NBCs were colon and thyroid cancers, each accounts for 24% of cases followed by endometrial cancer, 18%; Hodgkin's disease, 6.5%; renal and ovarian neoplasm and NHL, 5% each. Others included prostate, lung, cervical and gastric cancers, soft tissue sarcoma and osteosarcoma. Thyroid cancer was more common as first cancer while endometrial cancer was more as second cancer. All patients who developed BC following Hodgkin's disease had received chest irradiation. Seven patients developed 3rd primary (4 lung cancers, 2 NHL, and 1 AML). Patients who were diagnosed with BC should be screened for colon and endometrial cancer. Similarly, patients received chest irradiation at young age, and those diagnosed with thyroid or colon cancer should be screened for BC. Protocol of surveillance needs to be defined. Genetic counseling should be offered to individuals who have experienced multiple primary cancers particularly those with family history and young age of onset.

  17. Effectiveness of Teach-Back Self-Management Training Program on Happiness of Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadidarrehsima, Sudabeh; Rahnama, Mozhgan; Afshari, Mahdi; Asadi Bidmeshki, Elahe

    2016-10-01

    Self-management training is one of the ways to empower patients to cope with disease. The aim of this before-and-after quasi-experimental study was to determine effects of a teach-back self-management training method on breast cancer patient happiness. Fifty breast cancer patients who visited the Park-e Neshat Limited Surgery Clinic in Kerman, Iran were randomly divided into intervention and control groups after convenience sampling and checking for inclusion eligibility. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory before and after teach-back training and analyzed using SPSS 23. Findings showed no significant difference between mean happiness scores in the two groups before the intervention. However, after the intervention, the mean happiness score in the intervention group increased from 37.2 to 62.9, while it decreased from 41.4 to 29.8 in the control group. These changes were statistically significant (phistory of cancer education, the observed differences between the groups were statistically significant (pmanagement training program can increase happiness levels in breast cancer patients. Therefore, the use of this method is recommended to improve self-management and increase happiness. Creative Commons Attribution License

  18. Disparities in Cancer Clinical Trials: An Analysis of Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Moniek Felder, Tisha; Pena, Gabriela D.; Chapital, Bridget F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Disparities in enrollment of adults in cancer clinical trials are well documented, but little is known about the attention given to this topic in comprehensive cancer control (CCC) plans. We assessed the extent to which CCC plans address disparities in clinical trials and whether jurisdictions whose plans address disparities also mandate third-party reimbursement for clinical trial participation. Methods We analyzed 57 CCC plans identified from Cancer PLANET (Plan, Link, Act, Net...

  19. Anti-viral treatment and cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Wei-Liang; Fang, Chi-Tai; Chen, Pei-Jer

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contribute to about 10-15 % global burden of human cancers. Conventional chemotherapy or molecular target therapies have been used to treat virus-associated cancers. However, a more proactive approach would be the use of antiviral treatment to suppress or eliminate viral infections to prevent the occurrence of cancer in the first place. Antiviral treatments against chronic HBV and HCV infections have achieved this goal, with significant reduction in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in treated patients. Antiviral treatments for EBV, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) had limited success in treating refractory EBV-associated lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, KSHV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in AIDS patients, and HTLV-1-associated acute, chronic, and smoldering subtypes of adult T-cell lymphoma, respectively. Therapeutic HPV vaccine and RNA-interference-based therapies for treating HPV-associated cervical cancers also showed some encouraging results. Taken together, antiviral therapies have yielded promising results in cancer prevention and treatment. More large-scale studies are necessary to confirm the efficacy of antiviral therapy. Further investigation for more effective and convenient antiviral regimens warrants more attention.

  20. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  1. The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program: a multi-disciplinary investigation of bone metastases from breast cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brockton, Nigel T; Gill, Stephanie J; Laborge, Stephanie L; Paterson, Alexander H G; Cook, Linda S; Vogel, Hans J; Shemanko, Carrie S; Hanley, David A; Magliocco, Anthony M; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2015-01-01

    .... The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program consists of a prospective cohort of incident breast cancer patients and four sub-projects that are investigating priority areas in breast cancer bone metastases...

  2. Impact of patient navigation on timely cancer care: the Patient Navigation Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Karen M; Battaglia, Tracy A; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Darnell, Julie S; Dudley, Donald J; Fiscella, Kevin; Hare, Martha L; LaVerda, Nancy; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Levine, Paul; Murray, David M; Patierno, Steven R; Raich, Peter C; Roetzheim, Richard G; Simon, Melissa; Snyder, Frederick R; Warren-Mears, Victoria; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Winters, Paul; Young, Gregory S; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-06-01

    Patient navigation is a promising intervention to address cancer disparities but requires a multisite controlled trial to assess its effectiveness. The Patient Navigation Research Program compared patient navigation with usual care on time to diagnosis or treatment for participants with breast, cervical, colorectal, or prostate screening abnormalities and/or cancers between 2007 and 2010. Patient navigators developed individualized strategies to address barriers to care, with the focus on preventing delays in care. To assess timeliness of diagnostic resolution, we conducted a meta-analysis of center- and cancer-specific adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) comparing patient navigation vs usual care. To assess initiation of cancer therapy, we calculated a single aHR, pooling data across all centers and cancer types. We conducted a metaregression to evaluate variability across centers. All statistical tests were two-sided. The 10521 participants with abnormal screening tests and 2105 with a cancer or precancer diagnosis were predominantly from racial/ethnic minority groups (73%) and publically insured (40%) or uninsured (31%). There was no benefit during the first 90 days of care, but a benefit of navigation was seen from 91 to 365 days for both diagnostic resolution (aHR = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.84; P < .001)) and treatment initiation (aHR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.86; P < .007). Metaregression revealed that navigation had its greatest benefits within centers with the greatest delays in follow-up under usual care. Patient navigation demonstrated a moderate benefit in improving timely cancer care. These results support adoption of patient navigation in settings that serve populations at risk of being lost to follow-up. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Integrative Reiki for cancer patients: a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisher, Kimberly A; Mackenzie, Elizabeth R; Frankel, Eitan S; Seluzicki, Christina; Casarett, David; Mao, Jun J

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods study sought to evaluate the outcomes of an integrative Reiki volunteer program in an academic medical oncology center setting. We used de-identified program evaluation data to perform both quantitative and qualitative analyses of participants' experiences of Reiki sessions. The quantitative data were collected pre- and postsession using a modified version of the distress thermometer. The pre- and postsession data from the distress assessment were analyzed using a paired Student's : test. The qualitative data were derived from written responses to open-ended questions asked after each Reiki session and were analyzed for key words and recurring themes. Of the 213 pre-post surveys of first-time sessions in the evaluation period, we observed a more than 50% decrease in self-reported distress (from 3.80 to 1.55), anxiety (from 4.05 to 1.44), depression (from 2.54 to 1.10), pain (from 2.58 to 1.21), and fatigue (from 4.80 to 2.30) with P Reiki, we found 176 (82.6%) of participants liked the Reiki session, 176 (82.6%) found the Reiki session helpful, 157 (73.7%) plan to continue using Reiki, and 175 (82.2%) would recommend Reiki to others. Qualitative analyses found that individuals reported that Reiki induced relaxation and enhanced spiritual well-being. An integrative Reiki volunteer program shows promise as a component of supportive care for cancer patients. More research is needed to evaluate and understand the impact that Reiki may have for patients, caregivers, and staff whose lives have been affected by cancer.

  4. Exercise program design considerations for head and neck cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Adrian W; Lowe, Derek; Levy, Andrew R; Mepani, Vishal; Rogers, Simon N

    2017-10-20

    The present study aimed to establish exercise preferences, barriers, and perceived benefits among head and neck cancer survivors, as well as their level of interest in participating in an exercise program. Patients treated for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck between 2010 and 2014 were identified from the hospital database and sent a postal questionnaire pack to establish exercise preferences, barriers, perceived benefits, current physical activity levels, and quality of life. A postal reminder was sent to non-responders 4 weeks later. The survey comprised 1021 eligible patients of which 437 (43%) responded [74% male, median (interquartile range) age, 66 (60-73) years]. Of the respondents, 30% said 'Yes' they would be interested in participating in an exercise program and 34% said 'Maybe'. The most common exercise preferences were a frequency of three times per week, moderate-intensity, and 15-29 min per bout. The most popular exercise types were walking (68%), flexibility exercises (35%), water activites/swimming (33%), cycling (31%), and weight machines (19%). Home (55%), outdoors (46%) and health club/gym (33%) were the most common preferred choices for where to regularly exercise. Percieved exercise benefits relating to improved physical attributes were commonly cited, whereas potential social and work-related benefits were less well-acknowledged. The most commonly cited exercise barriers were dry mouth or throat (40%), fatigue (37%), shortness of breath (30%), muscle weakness (28%) difficulty swallowing (25%), and shoulder weakness and pain (24%). The present findings inform the design of exercise programs for head and neck cancer survivors.

  5. Assessing the Development of Multidisciplinary Care: Experience of the National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eliot L; Chawla, Neetu; Morris, Paul T; Castro, Kathleen M; Carrigan, Angela C; Das, Irene Prabhu; Clauser, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP) began in 2007 with a goal of expanding cancer research and delivering quality care in communities. The NCCCP Quality of Care (QoC) Subcommittee was charged with developing and improving the quality of multidisciplinary care. An assessment tool with nine key elements relevant to MDC structure and operations was developed. Fourteen NCCCP sites reported multidisciplinary care assessments for lung, breast, and colorectal cancer in June 2010, June 2011, and June 2012 using an online reporting tool. Each site evaluated their level of maturity (level 1 = no multidisciplinary care, level 5 = highly integrated multidisciplinary care) in nine elements integral to multidisciplinary care. Thematic analysis of open-ended qualitative responses was also conducted. The proportion of sites that reported level 3 or greater on the assessment tool was tabulated at each time point. For all tumor types, sites that reached this level increased in six elements: case planning, clinical trials, integration of care coordination, physician engagement, quality improvement, and treatment team integration. Factors that enabled improvement included increasing organizational support, ensuring appropriate physician participation, increasing patient navigation, increasing participation in national quality initiatives, targeting genetics referrals, engaging primary care providers, and integrating clinical trial staff. Maturation of multidisciplinary care reflected focused work of the NCCCP QoC Subcommittee. Working group efforts in patient navigation, genetics, and physician conditions of participation were evident in improved multidisciplinary care performance for three common malignancies. This work provides a blueprint for health systems that wish to incorporate prospective multidisciplinary care into their cancer programs. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Effect of the LIVESTRONG at the YMCA exercise program on physical activity, fitness, quality of life, and fatigue in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Melinda L; Cartmel, Brenda; Harrigan, Maura; Li, Fangyong; Sanft, Tara; Shockro, Laura; O'Connor, Keelin; Campbell, Nancy; Tolaney, Sara M; Mayer, Erica L; Yung, Rachel; Freedman, Rachel A; Partridge, Ann H; Ligibel, Jennifer A

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been linked to a lower risk of developing and dying of cancer, yet many cancer survivors do not exercise. In the current study, the authors evaluated the impact of the LIVESTRONG at the YMCA exercise program, available at Young Men's Christian Associations (YMCAs) across the United States, on PA, fitness, quality of life, fatigue, body composition, serum biomarkers, and program safety in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale Cancer Center and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and randomized to a 12-week, twice-weekly LIVESTRONG at the YMCA exercise program at YMCAs in Connecticut or Massachusetts or to a control group. Questionnaires, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, 6-minute walk tests (6MWTs), and a fasting blood draw were completed at baseline and at 12 weeks. Intervention effects were evaluated using mixed model repeated measures analysis, with changes at 12 weeks in PA and 6MWT as the primary endpoints. A total of 186 participants were randomized (95 to the exercise group and 91 to the control group). The majority of patients were diagnosed with AJCC stage I to II cancer and 53% had breast cancer. Participants randomized to the LIVESTRONG at the YMCA program experienced increases in PA (71% exercising at ≥ 150 minutes/week vs 26% of controls; Pexercise program has the potential to impact thousands of survivors across the YMCA network and could lead to improvements in disease and psychosocial outcomes in the growing population of cancer survivors. Cancer 2017;123:1249-1258. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Performance of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy testing through the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Park, Sohee; Jung, Kyu Won; Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Il Ju; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports have proposed endoscopy as an alternative strategy to radiography for gastric cancer (GC) screening. The current study presents the first reported population-based data from a large GC screening program that provided endoscopic examinations. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database. We evaluated GC detection rates, sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value of an endoscopic screening program for the average-risk Korean population, aged 40 years and older, who underwent the NCSP from 2002 to 2005. The detection rates of GC by endoscopy in the first and subsequent rounds were 2.71 and 2.14 per 1000 examinations, respectively. Localized cancer accounted for 45.7% of screen-detected GC cases. The sensitivity of endoscopy was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-71.8). The endoscopic screening was less sensitive for the detection of localized GC (65.7%, 95% CI = 61.8-69.5) than for regional or distant GC (73.6%, 95% CI = 67.4-79.8). In the multiple logistic models for localized GC and all combined GC, the odds ratio (OR) of sensitivity for the undifferentiated type was statistically significantly higher than that for the differentiated type, whereas the OR of sensitivity for the mixed type was lower than that for the differentiated type. The sensitivity of the endoscopic test in a population-based screening was slightly higher for the detection of regional or distant GC than for localized GC. Further evaluation of the impact of endoscopic screening should take into account the balance of cost and mortality reduction. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  8. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  9. Association between medical home enrollment and health care utilization and costs among breast cancer patients in a state Medicaid program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Racquel E; Goyal, Ravi K; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Domino, Marisa Elena; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-11-15

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is increasingly being implemented in an effort to improve and coordinate primary care, but its effect on health care utilization among breast cancer patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine health care utilization and expenditures as a function of PCMH enrollment among breast cancer patients in North Carolina's Medicaid program. North Carolina Medicaid claims linked to North Carolina Central Cancer Registry records (2003-2007) were used to examine monthly patterns of health care use and expenditures. Controlling for a selection bias for time-invariant characteristics, fixed effects regression models analyzed associations between PCMH enrollment and utilization of outpatient, inpatient, and emergency department (ED) services and Medicaid expenditures during the 15 months after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Among 758 breast cancer patients, 381 (50%) were enrolled in a PCMH at some time in the 15 months after diagnosis. After controlling for individual fixed effects, PCMH enrollment was significantly associated with greater outpatient service use, but there was no difference in the probability of inpatient hospitalizations or ED visits. Enrollment in a PCMH was associated with increased average expenditures of $429 per month during the first 15 months. Greater outpatient care utilization and increased average expenditures among breast cancer patients enrolled in a PCMH may suggest that these women have improved access to primary and specialty care. Expanding PCMHs may change patterns of service utilization for Medicaid breast cancer patients but may not be associated with lower costs. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  10. Patient-Centered Cancer Care Programs in Italy: Benchmarking Global Patient Education Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truccolo, Ivana; Cipolat Mis, Chiara; Cervo, Silvia; Dal Maso, Luigino; Bongiovanni, Marilena; Bearz, Alessandra; Sartor, Ivana; Baldo, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; Fratino, Lucia; Mascarin, Maurizio; Roncadin, Mario; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta; Muzzatti, Barbara; De Paoli, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    In Italy, educational programs for cancer patients are currently provided by the national government, scientific societies, and patient advocate organizations. Several gaps limit their effectiveness, including the lack of coordinated efforts, poor involvement of patient feedback in the planning of programs, as well as a lack of resources on innovative cancer-related topics. This process is parallel to a strong shift in the attitude of patients towards health in general and taking charge of their own health conditions in particular. The National Cancer Institute in the USA and the Organization of European Cancer Institutes encourage comprehensive cancer centers in providing educational programs conceived to overcome these gaps. The goal of this paper is to identify and describe the key elements necessary to develop a global patient education program and provide recommendations for strategies with practical examples for implementation in the daily activities of cancer institutes. A multidisciplinary committee was established for patient education, including patient representatives as equal partners, to define, implement, verify, and evaluate the fundamental steps for establishing a comprehensive education program. Six essential topics were identified for the program: appropriate communication of cancer epidemiology, clinical trial information, new therapeutic technologies, support in the use of medicines, psycho-oncological interventions, age-personalized approaches, and training programs for healthcare providers. Integration of these topics along with patient feedback is the key to a successful model for educational programs. An integrated educational program can transform a comprehensive cancer center to an institution that provides research and care for and with patients.

  11. Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henry, Kevin A; Paskett, Electra D; Ellison, Gary L; Oh, April; Taplin, Stephen H; Tatalovich, Zaria; Berrigan, David A

    2017-04-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality display strong geographic patterns worldwide and in the United States (1, 2). The environment where individuals live, work, and play is increasingly being recognized as important across the cancer control continuum, including the risk of cancer development, detection, diagnosis, treatment, mortality, and survivorship (3-5). At the same time, emergent technological capacity in geographic information systems (GIS) and mapping, along with increasing sophistication in applied spatial methods, has resulted in a growing research community developing and applying geospatial approaches in health research (5). Through collaborative, transdisciplinary efforts, and continued data collection efforts, there is great potential to apply these emerging geospatial approaches to various aspects of cancer prevention and control to inform etiology and target interventions and implementation of efficacious risk-reducing strategies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 472-5. ©2017 AACRSee all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Pilot Mentorship Program for Tobacco Control Researchers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so by offering expanded capacity-building opportunities for tobacco control researchers through a parallel mentorship program. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) has identified an initial cadre of awardees who possess excellent tobacco control leadership potential. The idea is to enhance the ...

  13. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  14. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  15. Tank waste remediation system heat stress control program report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carls, D.R.

    1995-09-28

    Protecting employees from heat stress within tank farms during the summer months is challenging. Work constraints typically experienced in tank farms complicate the measures taken to protect employees from heat stress. TWRS-Industrial Hygiene (IH) has endeavored to control heat stress injuries by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling the factors which lead or contribute to heat stress in Tank Farms. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program covers such areas as: employee and PIC training, communication of daily heat stress alerts to tank farm personnel, setting work/rest regimens, and the use of engineering and personal protective controls when applicable. The program has increased worker awareness of heat stress and prevention, established provisions for worker rest periods, increased drinking water availability to help ensure worker hydration, and allowed for the increased use of other protective controls to combat heat stress. The TWRS Heat Stress Control Program is the cornerstone for controlling heat stress among tank farm employees. The program has made great strides since it`s inception during the summer of 1994. Some improvements can still be made to enhance the program for the summer of 1996, such as: (1) procurement and use of personal heat stress monitoring equipment to ensure appropriate application of administrative controls, (2) decrease the need for use of containment tents and anti-contamination clothing, and (3) providing a wider variety of engineering and personal protective controls for heat stress prevention

  16. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Laus, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs in hospital institutions regarding structure and process indicators. this is a descriptive, exploratory and quantitative study conducted in 2013. The study population comprised 13 Nosocomial Infection Control Programs of health services in a Brazilian city of the state of São Paulo. Public domain instruments available in the Manual of Evaluation Indicators of Nosocomial Infection Control Practices were used. The indicators with the highest average compliance were "Evaluation of the Structure of the Nosocomial Infection Control Programs" (75%) and "Evaluation of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Nosocomial Infection" (82%) and those with the lowest mean compliance scores were "Evaluation of Operational Guidelines" (58.97%) and "Evaluation of Activities of Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infection" (60.29%). The use of indicators identified that, despite having produced knowledge about prevention and control of nosocomial infections, there is still a large gap between the practice and the recommendations.

  17. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Howard K.; Judge, Christine M.; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K.; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of M...

  18. Programs for control of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Inoue, Inácio Teruo; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Casella, Antônio Marcelo Barbante; Bittencourt, Laura Helena França de Barros; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2011-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis can cause miscarriage and neurological and/or eye damage to the fetus. Since Austria and France established the prenatal screening, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis has declined from 50% to 35% and 84% to 44%, respectively. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, have educational practices to reduce the risk of infection in seronegative pregnant women. In Brazil, prenatal screening is carried out in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Minas Gerais and the cities of Curitiba and Porto Alegre. In Londrina, state of Parana, the "Health Surveillance Program for Toxoplasmosis Acquired during Pregnancy and Congenital Toxoplasmosis" was established, which is based on serological screening, advising on prevention measures and quarterly serological monitoring in pregnant women that are initially seronegative, in addition to the monitoring of pregnant women and children with acute infection and case notification. In the first four years of implementation, the program evaluation showed a 63% reduction in the number of pregnant women and 42% in the number of children referred to reference services, resulting in the opening of vacancies for the care of patients with other diseases. As for medications, there was a 62% reduction in consumption of folic acid and 67% of sulfadiazine. Moreover, the definition of the protocols resulted in the standardization of care and safety for the decision-making by physicians. Therefore, as there are several protocols individualized in various departments and regions, the establishment of an ideal, consensual conduct with technical support, will result in implementing measures that will certainly save public resources, with the decrease in congenital toxoplasmosis.

  19. Evaluation of Breast Cancer Cases Diagnosed In the Breast Cancer Screening Program In the Near East University Hospital of North Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdiyeva, Muhabbet Koralp; Besim, Hasan; Arslan, Kalbim; Özkayalar, Hanife; Yılmaz, Güliz; Mocan, Gamze Kuzey; Bulakbaşı, Nail

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study is about determination and eveluation of the breast cancer cases which were diagnosed during the early diagnosis and screening programs covering a three years of digital mammography images at the Near East University Hospital. Materials and Methods This study covers 2136 women patients who applied to the early diagnosis and screening program of the Near East University Hospital between July 2010 and July 2013. The mamographic images were re evaluated retrospectively according to ACR’s (The American College of Radiology) BİRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System). The mamographic results as required were correlated with breast ultrasound (US) and compared with the pathologic results of materials obtained by surgery or biopsy. The results were analyzed statistically in comparison with the literature data. Results The women who were screened aged between 34–73 years with a median of 53.5 (SD = 27.5). Suspected malignancy were evaluated in 54 patients, which 42 of them were diagnosed BIRADS 4 and 12 patients BIRADS 5 and 21 patients were correleted breast cancer based on histopathologic examination. 17 patients had the breast-conserving surgery and 4 patients were treated with mastectomy. Conclusion Breast cancers that are detected at early stages by breast cancer screening tests are more likely to be smaller and still confined to the breast resulting in more simple operations and more succesfull treatment. Promoting the breast cancer screening and registration programs in our country will help to control the desease at our region. PMID:28331685

  20. A Formal Verification Methodology for DDD Mode Pacemaker Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Shuja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pacemakers are safety-critical devices whose faulty behaviors can cause harm or even death. Often these faulty behaviors are caused due to bugs in programs used for digital control of pacemakers. We present a formal verification methodology that can be used to check the correctness of object code programs that implement the safety-critical control functions of DDD mode pacemakers. Our methodology is based on the theory of Well-Founded Equivalence Bisimulation (WEB refinement, where both formal specifications and implementation are treated as transition systems. We develop a simple and general formal specification for DDD mode pacemakers. We also develop correctness proof obligations that can be applied to validate object code programs used for pacemaker control. Using our methodology, we were able to verify a control program with millions of transitions against the simple specification with only 10 transitions. Our method also found several bugs during the verification process.

  1. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Volume A-00-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirk, James

    2000-01-01

    ... at the Waterways Experiment Station. It is principally intended to be a forum whereby information pertaining to and resulting from the Corps of Engineers' nationwide Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP...

  2. Adipocyte lipid synthesis coupled to neuronal control of thermogenic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: These results demonstrate that downregulation of fatty acid synthesis via FASN depletion in white adipocytes of mature mice can stimulate neuronal signaling to control thermogenic programming in iWAT.

  3. Derivation of sequential, real-time, process-control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Schneider, Fred B.; Budhiraja, Navin

    1991-01-01

    The use of weakest-precondition predicate transformers in the derivation of sequential, process-control software is discussed. Only one extension to Dijkstra's calculus for deriving ordinary sequential programs was found to be necessary: function-valued auxiliary variables. These auxiliary variables are needed for reasoning about states of a physical process that exists during program transitions.

  4. Food and Nutrition Services Quality Control Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt-Fraim, Teresa S.

    A program was conducted to improve the quality of food service through the training of 44 food and nutrition service employees in a 200-bed hospital. A 12-week quality control program was implemented to address four key areas: food temperatures, food accuracy, food quality, and dietary personnel. Learning strategies, emphasizing critical thinking…

  5. P27 in cell cycle control and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    2000-01-01

    In order to survive, cells need tight control of cell cycle progression. The control mechanisms are often lost in human cancer cells. The cell cycle is driven forward by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The CDK inhibitors (CKIs) are important regulators of the CDKs. As the name implies, CKIs were...

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of cervical cancer screening programs: the case of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Murillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify critical screening program factors for reducing cervical cancer mortality in Colombia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Coverage, quality, and screening follow-up were evaluated in four Colombian states with different mortality rates. A case-control study (invasive cancer and healthy controls evaluating screening history was performed. RESULTS: 3-year cytology coverage was 72.7%, false negative rate 49%, positive cytology follow-up 64.2%. There was no association between screening history and invasive cancer in two states having high cytology coverage but high false negative rates. Two states revealed association between deficient screening history and invasive cancer as well as lower positive-cytology follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced number of visits between screening and treatment is more relevant when low access to health care is present. Improved quality is a priority if access to screening is available. Suitable interventions for specific scenarios and proper appraisal of new technologies are compulsory to improve cervical cancer screening. Comprehensive process-failure audits among invasive cancer cases could improve program evaluation since mortality is a late outcome.OBJETIVO: Identificar factores críticos para reducir la mortalidad por cáncer cervical en Colombia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluó cobertura, calidad y seguimiento del tamizaje en cuatro departamentos con tasas de mortalidad diferenciales. Un estudio de casos (cáncer invasor y controles (sanos evaluó historia de tamizaje. RESULTADOS: Cobertura 72,7%; falsos negativos 49%; acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento de HSIL 64,2%. La historia de tamizaje no se asoció con cáncer invasor en dos departamentos con elevada cobertura pero elevada proporción de falsos negativos. Dos departamentos con asociación entre historia de tamizaje deficiente y cáncer invasor tuvieron cobertura aceptable pero bajo acceso a diagnóstico-tratamiento. No hubo relación entre mortalidad

  7. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs; Simulacion de la reduccion de mortalidad por cancer de mama en programas de cribado mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, L. I.; Forastero, C.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  8. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  9. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  10. [Cancer nursing care education programs: the effectiveness of different teaching methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yun-Ju; Kao, Yu-Hsiu

    2012-10-01

    In-service education affects the quality of cancer care directly. Using classroom teaching to deliver in-service education is often ineffective due to participants' large workload and shift requirements. This study evaluated the learning effectiveness of different teaching methods in the dimensions of knowledge, attitude, and learning satisfaction. This study used a quasi-experimental study design. Participants were cancer ward nurses working at one medical center in northern Taiwan. Participants were divided into an experimental group and control group. The experimental group took an e-learning course and the control group took a standard classroom course using the same basic course material. Researchers evaluated the learning efficacy of each group using a questionnaire based on the quality of cancer nursing care learning effectiveness scale. All participants answered the questionnaire once before and once after completing the course. (1) Post-test "knowledge" scores for both groups were significantly higher than pre-test scores for both groups. Post-test "attitude" scores were significantly higher for the control group, while the experimental group reported no significant change. (2) after a covariance analysis of the pre-test scores for both groups, the post-test score for the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group in the knowledge dimension. Post-test scores did not differ significantly from pre-test scores for either group in the attitude dimension. (3) Post-test satisfaction scores between the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to teaching methods. The e-learning method, however, was demonstrated as more flexible than the classroom teaching method. Study results demonstrate the importance of employing a variety of teaching methods to instruct clinical nursing staff. We suggest that both classroom teaching and e-learning instruction methods be used to enhance the quality of cancer nursing care education programs. We

  11. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    tiny calcium deposits that 82 indicate changes within the breast possibly point- 83 ing to cancer . Microcalcifications especially are 84 usually...NUMBER A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0291 5c. PROGRAM...assistant were further trained in molecular imaging of breast cancer through seminars and workshops, and are currently conducting two research projects

  12. The Effect of Smoking and Opium on Bladder Cancer in Yazd Province: A Case - Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bladder cancer is regarded as the most common urinary malignancy in the world. As other cancers, its incidence has increased in recent years. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between smoking and opium and bladder cancer in residents of Yazd province. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 200 patients with bladder cancer and 200 matched healthy individuals in Yazd province. Research data was gathered through interview and administration of a researcher-made questionnaire.  Furthermore, chi-square and regression tests were carried out with SPSS software (version 18. Results: The mean and standard deviation of age in case and control groups were reported to be 61.54 ± 13.61 and 61.45 ± 13.3 respectively. Education level, type of oil consumed, weekly frequency of smoking and fried foods, white meat, red meat consumption involve the predictive factors for bladder cancer; as consumption of hydrogenated fats, animal fats, fried foods more than 4 times per week and red meat had (OR=1.31;95% CL,0.63-2.71, (OR= 6.32;95% CL,2.03-19.8, (OR=2.86;95% CL,1.2-6.8 and (OR=51.18;95% CL,14.78-177.03 times greater risk for bladder cancer respectively and also low education level. White meat intake had a protective effect. Moreover, in line with increasing number of cigarettes per day, the risk of bladder cancer increased. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that smoking and opium are risk factors of bladder cancer. Thus, appropriate training and intervention program need to be taken into account in order to prevent the cancer.

  13. Aberrant Splicing in Cancer: Mediators of Malignant Progression through an Imperfect Splice Program Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; Brígido, Paula Cristina; Moraes, Alberto Silva; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Although the efforts to understand the genetic basis of cancer allowed advances in diagnosis and therapy, little is known about other molecular bases. Splicing is a key event in gene expression, controlling the excision of introns decoded inside genes and being responsible for 80% of the proteome amplification through events of alternative splicing. Growing data from the last decade point to deregulation of splicing events as crucial in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Several alterations in splicing events were observed in cancer, caused by either missexpression of or detrimental mutations in some splicing factors, and appear to be critical in carcinogenesis and key events during tumor progression. Notwithstanding, it is difficult to determine whether it is a cause or consequence of cancer and/or tumorigenesis. Most reviews focus on the generated isoforms of deregulated splicing pattern, while others mainly summarize deregulated splicing factors observed in cancer. In this review, events associated with carcinogenesis and tumor progression mainly, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which is also implicated in alternative splicing regulation, will be progressively discussed in the light of a new perspective, suggesting that splicing deregulation mediates cell reprogramming in tumor progression by an imperfect shift of the splice program. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi-joong Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.

  15. Quality control program: the radiology technician approach

    OpenAIRE

    Helga Alexandra Soares Macedo; Vitor Manuel Costa Pereira Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Pretendeu-se averiguar que importância os técnicos de radiologia atribuem à implementação de um programa de controle de qualidade em radiologia, e conhecer a importância da existência de critérios de proteção. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e transversal. Os dados foram recolhidos por meio de um questionário (quatro partes), tendo sido garantido o anonimato e a confidencialidade dos dados. Participaram neste estudo 48 técnicos de radiologia que exercem funções em instituiçõe...

  16. Cancer Prevention Interdisciplinary Education Program at Purdue University: Overview and Preliminary Results

    OpenAIRE

    Teegarden, D; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Adedokun, Omolola A.; Childress, Amy; Parker, Loran C.; Burgess, Wilella D; Nagel, Julie; Knapp,Deborah W.; Lelievre, Sophie A.; Agnew, Christopher; Shields, Cleveland G.; Leary, James F.; Adams, Robin; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a broad field that crosses many disciplines; therefore, educational efforts to enhance cancer prevention research focused on interdisciplinary approaches to the field are greatly needed. In order to hasten progress in cancer prevention research, the Cancer Prevention Internship Program (CPIP) at Purdue University was designed to develop and test an interdisciplinary curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students. The hypothesis was that course curriculum specific to i...

  17. The first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Howard K; Judge, Christine M; Robbins, Harriet; Celebucki, Carolyn Cobb; Walker, Deborah K; Connolly, Gregory N

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive overview of the first decade of the Massachusetts Tobacco Control Program (MTCP). Born after Massachusetts passed a 1992 ballot initiative raising cigarette excise taxes to fund the program, MTCP greatly reduced statewide cigarette consumption before being reduced to a skeletal state by funding cuts. The article describes the program's components and goals, details outcomes, presents a summary of policy accomplishments, and reviews the present status of MTCP in the current climate of national and state fiscal crises. The first decade of the MTCP offers many lessons learned for the future of tobacco control.

  18. Physical ExeRcise Following Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PERFECT) study: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vulpen, Jonna K; Siersema, Peter D; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Groenendijk, Richard P R; van der Peet, Donald L; Hazebroek, Eric J; Rosman, Camiel; Schippers, Carlo C G; Steenhagen, Elles; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2017-08-18

    Following esophagectomy, esophageal cancer patients experience a clinically relevant deterioration of health-related quality of life, both on the short- and long-term. With the currently growing number of esophageal cancer survivors, the burden of disease- and treatment-related complaints and symptoms becomes more relevant. This emphasizes the need for interventions aimed at improving quality of life. Beneficial effects of post-operative physical exercise have been reported in several cancer types, but so far comparable evidence in esophageal cancer patients is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of physical exercise on health-related quality of life in esophageal cancer patients following surgery. The Physical ExeRcise Following Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PERFECT) study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial including 150 esophageal cancer patients after surgery with curative intent. Patients are randomly allocated to an exercise group or usual care group. The exercise group participates in a 12-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise program, supervised by a physiotherapist near the patient's home-address. In addition, participants in the exercise group are requested to be physically active for at least 30 min per day, every day of the week. Participants allocated to the usual care group are asked to maintain their habitual physical activity pattern. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Secondary outcomes include esophageal cancer specific quality of life, fatigue, anxiety and depression, sleep quality, work-related factors, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), muscle strength, physical activity, malnutrition risk, anthropometry, blood markers, recurrence of disease and survival. All questionnaire outcomes, diaries and accelerometers are assessed at baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks post-baseline) and 24 weeks post-baseline. Physical fitness, anthropometry and blood markers are assessed

  19. Barriers to breast cancer control for African-American women: the interdependence of culture and psychosocial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, Jeffrey J; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Copeland, Valerie A

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluates the cultural context of the behaviors and beliefs of African-American women to determine the success or failure of breast cancer prevention and control interventions. Cultural and psychologic reactions, such as fear, distrust, fatalism, and other "historic rooted" factors, are major determinants to participation in these interventions by African-American women. Psychosocial and cultural issues were delineated through a literature review in the areas of cancer prevention, breast cancer control, and African-American women. Assessments were conducted to document key successful models and activities that increased the participation of African-American women in breast cancer prevention and control interventions. Current community-based intervention strategies and activities were assessed. Effective breast cancer prevention and control programs must address and develop cultural competent models that promote behavioral change in this population of women. Studying the relationship between culture and psychosocial issues is integral to our understanding of how African-American women participate and respond to cancer prevention and control interventions. Cultural competent models that reduce and eliminate cancer disparities in this population must be developed. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11016

  20. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  1. Population-based cancer survival in the United States: Data, quality control, and statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemani, Claudia; Harewood, Rhea; Johnson, Christopher J; Carreira, Helena; Spika, Devon; Bonaventure, Audrey; Ward, Kevin; Weir, Hannah K; Coleman, Michel P

    2017-12-15

    Robust comparisons of population-based cancer survival estimates require tight adherence to the study protocol, standardized quality control, appropriate life tables of background mortality, and centralized analysis. The CONCORD program established worldwide surveillance of population-based cancer survival in 2015, analyzing individual data on 26 million patients (including 10 million US patients) diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common malignancies. In this Cancer supplement, we analyzed data from 37 state cancer registries that participated in the second cycle of the CONCORD program (CONCORD-2), covering approximately 80% of the US population. Data quality checks were performed in 3 consecutive phases: protocol adherence, exclusions, and editorial checks. One-, 3-, and 5-year age-standardized net survival was estimated using the Pohar Perme estimator and state- and race-specific life tables of all-cause mortality for each year. The cohort approach was adopted for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003, and the complete approach for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. Articles in this supplement report population coverage, data quality indicators, and age-standardized 5-year net survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Examples of tables, bar charts, and funnel plots are provided in this article. Population-based cancer survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of services in providing equitable health care. The high quality of US cancer registry data, 80% population coverage, and use of an unbiased net survival estimator ensure that the survival trends reported in this supplement are robustly comparable by race and state. The results can be used by policymakers to identify and address inequities in cancer survival in each state and for the United States nationally. Cancer 2017;123:4982-93. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U

  2. A Review of Economic Evaluations of Tobacco Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. Kahende

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, an estimated 443,000 people die of smoking-related diseases in the United States. Cigarette smoking results in more than $193 billion in medical costs and productivity losses annually.In an effort to reduce this burden, many states, the federal government, and several national organizations fund tobacco control programs and policies. For this report we reviewed existing literature on economic evaluations of tobacco control interventions. We found that smoking cessation therapies, including nicotine replacement therapy (NRT and self-help are most commonly studied. There are far fewer studies on other important interventions, such as price and tax increases, media campaigns, smoke free air laws and workplace smoking interventions, quitlines, youth access enforcement, school-based programs, and community-based programs. Although there are obvious gaps in the literature, the existing studies show in almost every case that tobacco control programs and policies are either cost-saving or highly cost-effective.

  3. Impact of a brief exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Tina L; Peeters, Gmme Geeske; Croci, Ilaria; Bell, Katherine R; Burton, Nicola W; Chambers, Suzanne K; Bolam, Kate A

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that exercise is beneficial for prostate cancer survivors. The challenge for health professionals is to create effective strategies to encourage survivors to exercise in the community. Many community exercise programs are brief in duration (e.g. exercise sessions); whilst evidence for the efficacy of exercise within the literature are derived from exercise programs ≥8 weeks in duration, it is unknown if health benefits can be obtained from a shorter program. This study examined the effect of a four-session individualized and supervised exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors. Fifty-one prostate cancer survivors (mean age 69±7 years) were prescribed 1 h, individualized, supervised exercise sessions once weekly for 4 weeks. Participants were encouraged to increase their physical activity levels outside of the exercise sessions. Objective measures of muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and flexibility; and self-reported general, disease-specific and psychosocial health were assessed at baseline and following the intervention. Improvements were observed in muscle strength (leg press 17.6 percent; P exercise capacity (400-m walk 9.3 percent; P exercise program. A four-session exercise program significantly improved the muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and positive well-being of prostate cancer survivors. This short-duration exercise program is safe and feasible for prostate cancer survivors and a randomized controlled trial is now required to determine whether a similar individualized exercise regimen improves physical health and mental well-being over the short, medium and long term. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. A case study of the South Puget Intertribal Planning Agency's comprehensive cancer control planning and community mobilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Carrie; Simmons, John; Bowen, Deborah; Guthrie, Teresa

    2008-04-01

    The high rates of cancer among American Indians and Alaska Natives are of growing concern. In response to high cancer rates, national, state, and tribal organizations have worked to assess knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and screening practices related to cancer in American Indian and Alaska Native communities and to increase awareness and use of cancer screening. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one such effort. NCCCP's comprehensive cancer control (CCC) planning process provides a new approach to planning and implementing cancer control programs. The CCC process and components for American Indians and Alaska Natives are not yet fully understood because this is a fairly new approach for these communities. Therefore, the purpose of our case study was to describe the CCC process and its outcomes and successes as applied to these communities and to identify key components and lessons learned from the South Puget Intertribal Planning Agency's (SPIPA's) CCC planning and community mobilization process. We used interviews, document reviews, and observations to collect data on SPIPA's CCC planning and community mobilization process. We identified the key components of SPIPA's CCC as funding and hiring key staff, partnering with outside organizations, developing a project management plan and a core planning team, creating community cancer orientations, conducting community cancer surveys, developing a community advisory committee, ongoing training and engaging of the community advisory committee, and supporting the leadership of the communities involved. The CCC planning process is a practicable model, even for groups with little experience or few resources. The principles identified in this case study can be applied to the cancer control planning process for other tribes.

  5. Environmental control program creates nature habitat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharitz, K.N.

    1996-09-01

    Environmental control efforts at a chemical company`s Santa Rosa plant in Milton, Fla., have turned the grounds surrounding the plant into a refuge for wildlife, a home for nature lovers and a laboratory for the University of Florida. The Santa Rosa facility, situated on 2,200 acres of forest lands, produces acrylic fiber. The plant opened in 1958 and its initial wastewater treatment system consisted of a primary treatment lagoon and direct discharge into Escambia Bay, which borders the property. Additional lagoons were added in 1966 and 1977. In 1958, both primary treated domestic and industrial wastewater were discharged into the Bay. As the area`s population grew, the Pensacola Bay system became overloaded, and undesirable levels of carbonaceous, nitrogenous, oxygen-demanding compounds were detected in the Bay. To reduce these materials from the plant`s discharge, wastewaters were characterized and treatment and disposal systems designed and piloted. Strong and weak wastewater streams, each with its own treatment and disposal method, were isolated in 1975. With the new systems in place, discharge quality for five-day biochemical demand, total suspended solids, total nitrogen, cyanide and orthophosphate achieved the average monthly permitted limitations in pounds per day.

  6. [Life style and metabolic control in DiabetIMSS program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Suárez, María Eugenia; Cruz-Toledo, Jairo Enoc; Ortiz-Aguirre, Alma Rosa; Lagunes-Espinosa, Alma Luisa; Jiménez-Luna, Jorge; Rodríguez-Moctezuma, José Raymundo

    2014-01-01

    To compare the lifestyle and metabolic control of diabetes patients included and not included in the DiabetIMSS program. Subjects with diabetes in the DiabetIMSS program and the general clinic were divided into three groups: group 1 first attended the program, group 2 were enrolled during the study, and group 3 had not been included the program. Demographic and clinical aspects were measured and the IMEVID instrument was applied. We included 539 type-2 diabetes patients, predominantly females (73.3%), mainly of primary school level, and more frequently on double-drug therapy. There were clinical differences between the three groups for program leavers in terms of weight, waist, blood pressure, fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, and IMEVID qualification, all p DiabetIMSS program.

  7. Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathahillah Fathahillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.

  8. Evaluation of the Navy Plaque Control Program, at Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    I 0 Individual clinicians who practice plaque control with their patients receive great reward and sense of accomplishment when dental caries is...Navy Dental Corps (43). The program requirements included plaque control instruction given through individual or small group sessions. The sessions... plaque removal techniques; demonstration of sulcular methods of tooth cleansing with the toothbrush ; and instruction in the use of plaque disclosing

  9. Programming Real-Time Motion Control Robot Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medina-Santiago

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This item presents the real-time programming of a prototype robot to control its movement from one moment to another without showing response delays. Contributing to this is the communication protocol developed in our laboratories and feasibility of being implemented in the future with wireless control via radio frequency, and to present the progress to date have been obtained.

  10. A novel measure of dietary change in a prostate cancer dietary program incorporating mindfulness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, James F; Olendzki, Barbara C; Merriam, Philip A; Liu, Qin; Qiao, Yongxia; Ma, Yunsheng

    2012-11-01

    Diet may represent a modifiable prostate cancer risk factor, but a vegetable-based prostate-healthy diet is a major change for most men. We used a ratio of animal to vegetable proteins (A:V) to evaluate whether a comprehensive dietary change was self-sustaining following completion of 11 weekly dietary and cooking classes that integrated mindfulness training. Thirty-six men with recurring prostate cancer were randomized to the intervention or wait-list control. Assessments were at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Of 17 men randomized to the intervention, 14 completed the requirements. Nineteen were randomized to control and 17 completed requirements. Compared with controls, a significant postintervention (3 months) decrease in A:V in the intervention group (P=0.01) was self-maintained 3 months postintervention (P=0.049). At each assessment, A:V was correlated with lycopene, fiber, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol, four dietary components linked to clinically relevant outcomes in prostate cancer. Change in A:V was also significantly correlated with changes in fiber, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol intake. Participants reported regular mindfulness training practice, and there was a significant correlation between mindfulness training practice and changes in both initiation and maintenance of the change in A:V. These pilot results provide encouraging evidence for the feasibility of a dietary program that includes mindfulness training in supporting dietary change for men with recurrent prostate cancer and invite further study to explore the possible role of mindfulness training as a means of supporting both initiation of dietary changes and maintenance of those changes over time. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM) study: a randomized Controlled Trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, K.I.; van Dijk, E.M.; Veening, M.A.; Bierings, M.B.; Merks, J.H.M.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Sinnema, G.; Takken, T.; Huisman, J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle

  12. Program-specific cost-effectiveness analysis: breast cancer screening policies for a safety-net program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Tancredi, Daniel J; Yang, Zhuo; Ritley, Dominique; Jiang, Yun; Slee, Christina; Popova, Svetlana; Rylett, Phillip; Knutson, Kirsten; Smalley, Sherie

    2013-01-01

    Every Woman Counts (EWC), a California breast cancer screening program, faced challenging budget cutbacks and policy choices. A microsimulation model evaluated costs, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of EWC program mammography policy options on coverage for digital mammography (which has a higher cost than film mammography but recent legislation allowed reimbursement at the lower film rate); screening eligibility age; and screening frequency. Model inputs were based on analyses of program claims data linked to California Cancer Registry data, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, and the Medi-Cal literature. Outcomes included number of procedures, cancers, cancer deaths, costs, and incremental cost per life-year. Projected model outcomes matched program data closely. With restrictions on the number of clients screened, strategies starting screening at age 40 years were dominated (not cost-effective). This finding was highly robust in sensitivity analyses. Compared with no screening, biennial film mammography for women aged 50 to 64 years was projected to reduce 15-year breast cancer mortality by nearly 7.8% at $18,999 per additional life-year, annual film mammography was $106,428 per additional life-year, and digital mammography $180,333 per additional life-year. This more effective, more expensive strategy was projected to reduce breast cancer mortality by 8.6%. Under equal mammography reimbursement, biennial digital mammography beginning at age 50 years was projected to decrease 15-year breast cancer mortality by 8.6% at an incremental cost per additional life-year of $17,050. For the EWC program, biennial screening mammography starting at age 50 years was the most cost-effective strategy. The impact of digital mammography on life expectancy was small. Program-specific cost-effectiveness analysis can be completed in a policy-relevant time frame to assist policymakers faced with difficult program choices. Copyright © 2013, International Society for

  13. Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control Algorithms and Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Huaguang; Luo, Yanhong; Wang, Ding

    2013-01-01

    There are many methods of stable controller design for nonlinear systems. In seeking to go beyond the minimum requirement of stability, Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Control approaches the challenging topic of optimal control for nonlinear systems using the tools of  adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The range of systems treated is extensive; affine, switched, singularly perturbed and time-delay nonlinear systems are discussed as are the uses of neural networks and techniques of value and policy iteration. The text features three main aspects of ADP in which the methods proposed for stabilization and for tracking and games benefit from the incorporation of optimal control methods: • infinite-horizon control for which the difficulty of solving partial differential Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations directly is overcome, and  proof provided that the iterative value function updating sequence converges to the infimum of all the value functions obtained by admissible control law sequences; • finite-...

  14. Radiation protection program for early detection of breast cancer in a mammography facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariana, Villagomez Casimiro, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx; Cesar, Ruiz Trejo, E-mail: marjim10-66@ciencias.unam.mx, E-mail: cesar@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, CP 04510 (Mexico); Ruby, Espejo Fonseca [Instituto de Enfermedades de la Mama FUCAM-AC, CP 04980 (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    Mammography is the best tool for early detection of Breast Cancer. In this diagnostic radiology modality it is necessary to establish the criteria to ensure the proper use and operation of the equipment used to obtain mammographic images in order to contribute to the safe use of ionizing radiation. The aim of the work was to implement at FUCAM-AC the radiation protection program which must be established for patients and radiation workers according to Mexican standards [1–4]. To achieve this goal, radiation protection and quality control manuals were elaborated [5]. Furthermore, a quality control program (QCP) in the mammography systems (analog/digital), darkroom included, has been implemented. Daily sensitometry, non-variability of the image quality, visualizing artifacts, revision of the equipment mechanical stability, compression force and analysis of repetition studies are some of the QCP routine tests that must be performed by radiological technicians of this institution as a set of actions to ensure the protection of patients. Image quality and patients dose assessment were performed on 4 analog equipment installed in 2 mobile units. In relation to dose assessment, all equipment passed the acceptance criteria (<3 mGy per projection). The image quality test showed that most images (70%)– presented artifacts. A brief summary of the results of quality control tests applied to the equipment and film processor are presented. To maintain an adequate level of quality and safety at FUCAM-AC is necessary that the proposed radiation protection program in this work is applied.

  15. The role of the psychosocial oncology CNS in a rural cancer outreach program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A C

    1993-09-01

    The high cancer mortality rates in rural areas of Virginia are discussed, and cancer risk factors particular to the rural population are delineated. Rural health beliefs and their relationship to delay in seeking cancer care in rural areas are examined. A rural cancer outreach program and the role of the oncology clinical nurse specialist (CNS) in the program are described in terms of Psychosocial Oncology CNS subroles, i.e., clinician, consultant-liaison, networker/linker, coach, educator, change agent, researcher, and supervisor/supervisee. Effectiveness of the role in the program is analyzed. An innovative urban-rural nurse oncology program is delineated, and recommendations for research in rural nursing cancer care and actions for fostering CNS role development are suggested.

  16. [Costa Rica: control program of sexually transmitted diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, O; Blum, E; Freer, E

    1979-02-01

    Programming activities for the control of venereal diseases implies certain difficulties in Latin American countries owing to the lack of basic information and resources. It is perhaps for this reason that such programs have so far failed to achieve an adequate epidemiological impact. In late 1975, a new program was set up in Costa Rica with the following objectives: 1) reducing the incidence of venereal diseases; 2) detecting cases at an early stage in order to begin treatment; 3) developing a far-reaching hygiene education program; 4) establishing appropriate epidemiological surveillance machinery, including border-area programs; 5) integrating control activities with the general health services; 6) training personnel; and 7) carrying out research. Among the activities planned for the attainment of the aforementioned objectives was the detection of cases by means of voluntary presentation; surveillance of contacts; serological testing of pregnant women, blood donors, and applicants for health care identity cards, and other types of examination. Outpatient treatment was planned for all cases detected. Where epidemiological surveillance was concerned, it was proposed that improvements be made in morbidity report procedures, data analysis, and border-area programs. Plans were also made for integrating control activities into the basic health services and for reviewing the existing legislation with a view to expediting the implementation of the program. Steps taken to that end included the establishment of a more effective coordination of such activities with the Costa Rican Social Security Institute, an entity which attends the health needs of 80% of the population; a follow-up program for cases detected in the hospitals included in the program, and preparation of a flow diagram to be used for that purpose by such institutions. Other aspects considered were the distribution of treatment manuals, and information on epidemiological interview methods and laboratory

  17. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ≥ 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  18. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenir I. Palmero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9% reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8% had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ³ 20% and 214 (23.7% had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%. The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65. These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3% indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers.

  19. The need for supplemental breast cancer screening modalities: a perspective of population-based breast cancer screening programs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses possible supplemental breast cancer screening modalities for younger women with dense breasts from a perspective of population-based breast cancer screening program in Japan. Supplemental breast cancer screening modalities have been proposed to increase the sensitivity and detection rates of early stage breast cancer in women with dense breasts; however, there are no global guidelines that recommend the use of supplemental breast cancer screening modalities in such women. Also, no criterion standard exists for breast density assessment. Based on the current situation of breast imaging in Japan, the possible supplemental breast cancer screening modalities are ultrasonography, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging. An appropriate population-based breast cancer screening program based on the balance between cost and benefit should be a high priority. Further research based on evidence-based medicine is encouraged. It is very important that the ethnicity, workforce, workflow, and resources for breast cancer screening in each country should be considered when considering supplemental breast cancer screening modalities for women with dense breasts.

  20. Harnessing the apoptotic programs in cancer stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hua; Scadden, David T

    2015-09-01

    Elimination of malignant cells is an unmet challenge for most human cancer types even with therapies targeting specific driver mutations. Therefore, a multi-pronged strategy to alter cancer cell biology on multiple levels is increasingly recognized as essential for cancer cure. One such aspect of cancer cell biology is the relative apoptosis resistance of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we provide an overview of the mechanisms affecting the apoptotic process in tumor cells emphasizing the differences in the tumor-initiating or stem-like cells of cancer. Further, we summarize efforts to exploit these differences to design therapies targeting that important cancer cell population. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Applied Research of Enterprise Cost Control Based on Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper researches the enterprise cost control through the linear programming model, and analyzes the restriction factors of the labor of enterprise production, raw materials, processing equipment, sales price, and other factors affecting the enterprise income, so as to obtain an enterprise cost control model based on the linear programming. This model can calculate rational production mode in the case of limited resources, and acquire optimal enterprise income. The production guiding program and scheduling arrangement of the enterprise can be obtained through calculation results, so as to provide scientific and effective guidance for the enterprise production. This paper adds the sensitivity analysis in the linear programming model, so as to learn about the stability of the enterprise cost control model based on linear programming through the sensitivity analysis, and verify the rationality of the model, and indicate the direction for the enterprise cost control. The calculation results of the model can provide a certain reference for the enterprise planning in the market economy environment, which have strong reference and practical significance in terms of the enterprise cost control.

  2. Admission criteria to the Danish Brain Cancer Program are moderately associated with magnetic resonance imaging findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Mie Kiszka; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Danish Brain Cancer Program by examining the criteria for admission to the program and the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in 359 patients referred to the program at the Odense University Hospital during one year...

  3. Time to establish multidisciplinary childhood cancer survivorship programs in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Ghim, Thad T.

    2010-01-01

    Improved treatment strategies and better supportive care have resulted in increased survival rates for childhood cancers. However, most of the survivors may have complex, long-term health issues. In 2004, Childhood Cancer Survivorship Study of the United States confirmed that both survivors and the medical community need to be educated about the late effects of childhood cancer treatment. Korea, with an estimated number of childhood cancer survivors of 20,000 to 25,000, faces similar challeng...

  4. Enhancing a cancer prevention and control curriculum through interactive group discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, L P; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B M; Kent, E E; Lai, G Y; Lin, S W; Luhn, P; Faupel-Badger, J M

    2012-06-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This 4-week postgraduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g., epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, cancer prevention fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking among the course participants and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current cancer prevention fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87 and 8/10, respectively) reported a high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in a greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated that they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses.

  5. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S.M.; Hamilton, J.G.; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G.Y.; Lin, S.W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, Cancer Prevention Fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking amongst the course participants, and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current Cancer Prevention Fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87, and 8/10, respectively), reported high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses. PMID:22661264

  6. Establishing a Program for Individuals at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadiz, Fernando; Kuerer, Henry M.; Puga, Julio; Camacho, Jamile; Cunill, Eduardo; Arun, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Our need to create a program for individuals at high risk for breast cancer development led us to research the available data on such programs. In this paper, we summarize our findings and our thinking process as we developed our own program. Breast cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. Even though there are known risk factors for breast cancer development, approximately 60% of patients with breast cancer have no known risk factor, although this situation will probably change with further research, especially in genetics. For patients with risk factors based on personal or family history, different models are available for assessing and quantifying risk. Assignment of risk levels permits tailored screening and risk reduction strategies. Potential benefits of specialized programs for women with high breast cancer risk include more cost -effective interventions as a result of patient stratification on the basis of risk; generation of valuable data to advance science; and differentiation of breast programs from other breast cancer units, which can result in increased revenue that can be directed to further improvements in patient care. Guidelines for care of patients at high risk for breast cancer are available from various groups. However, running a high-risk breast program involves much more than applying a guideline. Each high-risk program needs to be designed by its institution with consideration of local resources and country legislation, especially related to genetic issues. Development of a successful high-risk program includes identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; developing a promotion plan; choosing a risk assessment tool; defining “high risk”; and planning screening and risk reduction strategies for the specific population served by the program. The information in this article may be useful for other institutions considering creation of programs for patients with high breast cancer risk. PMID:23833688

  7. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

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    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  8. The Breast Cancer to Bone (B2B) Metastases Research Program: a multi-disciplinary investigation of bone metastases from breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockton, Nigel T; Gill, Stephanie J; Laborge, Stephanie L; Paterson, Alexander H G; Cook, Linda S; Vogel, Hans J; Shemanko, Carrie S; Hanley, David A; Magliocco, Anthony M; Friedenreich, Christine M

    2015-07-10

    potential of metabolomic profiles for risk assessment and early detection and the signalling pathways controlling the metastatic tumour microenvironment. There is substantial synergy between the four projects and it is hoped that this integrated program of research will advance our understanding of key aspects of bone metastases from breast cancer to improve the prevention, prediction, detection, and treatment of these lesions.

  9. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons

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    Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts – external and political-organizational dimensions – simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  10. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luisa Gonçalves Dutra; Natal, Sonia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts - external and political-organizational dimensions - simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  11. Blocking protein quality control to counter hereditary cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmeyer, Caroline; Nielsen, Sofie V.; Clausen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    imbalance, which makes them more dependent on protein quality control (PQC) mechanisms than normal cells. Accordingly, blocking PQC, e.g. by proteasome inhibitors, may cause a lethal proteotoxic crisis in cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unaffected. Evidence, however, suggests that the PQC system...

  12. Cervical cancer control and prevention in Malawi: need for policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents finding on a qualitative study which carried out to determine the suitability of the national sexual and reproductive health and rights [SRHR] in mitigating challenges in cervical cancer control and prevention. Methods: a desk review of the Malawi National Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights ...

  13. Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Pain Control in Irresectable Pancreatic Cancer

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    Alireza Tavassoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Severepain is a major problem in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy (TS on pain control in these patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods:Between years 2000 to 2011, 20 patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent TS due to severe pain. They were studied in terms of age, sex, location of pancreas tumor, history of previous surgery, response to treatments for pain control (assessed with VAS scoring system and complications of surgery. Results:M/F = 14/6 with a mean age of 63 years. The most common tumour site was at the pancreas head (in 8 patients. The most cause of unresectability was local expansion to critical adjacent elements (in 10 patients. Surgery was performed successfully in all patients. Post-operative complication included only pleural effusion on the left side which was cured by proper treatment. There were no post-op mortalities.  15 patients had acceptable levels of pain at the end of a six month follow-up period. ConclusionTS provides good pain control, little side effects and minimal invasiveness, the technique is recommended for pain control in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  14. Evaluation of an integrated communication skills training program for nurses in cancer care in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-E; Mok, Esther; Wong, Thomas; Xue, Lan; Xu, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Nurses have considerable needs for communication skills training in cancer care because of the general lack of education and training on oncology-specific communication skills in Mainland China. To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated communication skills training program, in which an intensive learning session was combined with practice in the clinical unit to create a supportive ward atmosphere where nurses could practice skills in the workplace and obtain support of head nurses. To implement the communication skills training for 129 nurses, a quasi-experimental research design with a nonequivalent control group was used. Measures, including basic communication skills, self-efficacy in oncology-specific communication skills, communication outcome expectancies, and self-perceived support for communication, were administered at pretraining evaluation, formative evaluation (1 month after training), and summative evaluation (6 months after training) in the training group. Formative evaluation was not administered in the control group. There was continued significant improvement in the overall basic communication skills, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy beliefs, and perceived support in the training group. No significant improvement was found in the control group over the same period. Nurses' communication skills could be developed and consolidated under the integrated communication skills training model. Development of effective interventions to change nurses' negative outcome expectancies in communication with cancer patients is needed in further study.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Programming and Quadratic Programming Algorithms for Control Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc; Acosta, Diana M.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation (NextGen) transport aircraft configurations being investigated as part of the NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project have more control surfaces, or control effectors, than existing transport aircraft configurations. Conventional flight control is achieved through two symmetric elevators, two antisymmetric ailerons, and a rudder. The five effectors, reduced to three command variables, produce moments along the three main axes of the aircraft and enable the pilot to control the attitude and flight path of the aircraft. The NextGen aircraft will have additional redundant control effectors to control the three moments, creating a situation where the aircraft is over-actuated and where a simple relationship does not exist anymore between the required effector deflections and the desired moments. NextGen flight controllers will incorporate control allocation algorithms to determine the optimal effector commands and attain the desired moments, taking into account the effector limits. Approaches to solving the problem using linear programming and quadratic programming algorithms have been proposed and tested. It is of great interest to understand their relative advantages and disadvantages and how design parameters may affect their properties. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the effector commands with respect to the desired moments and show on some examples that the solutions provided using the l2 norm of quadratic programming are less sensitive than those using the l1 norm of linear programming.

  16. Pioneering Quality Assessment in European Cancer Centers: A Data Analysis of the Organization for European Cancer Institutes Accreditation and Designation Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saghatchian, Mahasti; Thonon, Frederique; Boomsma, Femke; Hummel, Henk; Koot, Bert; Harrison, Chris; Rajan, Abinaya; de Valeriola, Dominique; Otter, Renee; Pontes, Jose Laranja; Lombardo, Claudio; McGrath, Eoin; Ringborg, Ulrik; Tursz, Thomas; van Harten, Willem H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In order to improve the quality of care in Cancer Centers (CC) and designate Comprehensive Cancer Centers (CCCs), the Organization for European Cancer Institutes (OECI) launched an Accreditation and Designation (A&D) program. The program facilitates the collection of defined data and the

  17. Long-Term Impact of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program on Cancer Incidence and Mortality-Model-Based Exploration of the Serrated Pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuter, Marjolein J. E.; Demirel, Erhan; Lew, Jie-Bin; Berkhof, Johannes; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Canfell, Karen; Dekker, Evelien; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Coupé, Veerle M. H.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to predict the long-term colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and colonoscopy demand of the recently implemented Dutch colorectal cancer screening program. The Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal Cancer model was set up to simulate the Dutch screening program consisting of

  18. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns of psychological symptoms between trajectories. This naturalistic study focused on 241 cancer patients receiving psychological care at psycho-oncology institutions. Data were collected before the initiation of psychological care, and 3 and 9 months thereafter. Latent class growth analysis was applied to identify personal control trajectories. Three personal control trajectories were identified: enduring improvement (41%), temporary improvement (50%), and deterioration (9%). Education and baseline physical symptoms distinguished these trajectories. In the whole group, improvements in personal control were associated with improvements in psychological symptoms. Patients at distinct trajectories reported different levels of psychological symptoms, but did not differ in their courses of psychological symptoms. Patients in the enduring and temporary control improvement groups experienced significant psychological symptoms reductions over time, whereas patients in the control deterioration group maintained high psychological symptoms. Improvements in personal control seem to depend on initial control level: those who start with the highest control levels show subsequent improvements, whereas those with the lowest control levels show subsequent deterioration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Coping with Cancer: A Web-based Educational Program for Early and Middle Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Conner-Von, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Educating patients is a primary responsibility of all nurses, however due to time constraints and staff shortages, pediatric oncology nurses are often unable to adequately prepare patients for cancer treatment. Instead, patients frequently rely on the Internet as a source of information about cancer, some of which can be outdated and inaccurate. Adolescents regard the Internet to be a valuable source of health information as it is easily accessible, less threatening and confidential. Considering the need for accurate, readily available information for adolescents with cancer, the purpose of this study was to develop and validate an innovative, interactive web-based educational program to prepare early and middle adolescents for cancer treatment. Entitled Coping with Cancer, this program was developed by the investigator after conducting in-depth interviews of adolescent cancer survivors and their parents. Based on the Transactional Model of Coping, the program focuses on enhancing the adolescent’s knowledge of cancer, cancer treatment, and healthy coping strategies. Coping with Cancer can be an effective resource for pediatric oncology nurses in providing ongoing education for adolescents with cancer. PMID:19448133

  20. Reproductive Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case Control Study

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    Meshram II

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is second most important cancer among Indian women. Although risk factors are not much prevalent as in western countries, incidence rate is increasing in India. The study was undertaken to study various risk factors associated with breast cancer. Methods: A hospital based group matched case control study was undertaken to identify risk factors. The study consisted of 105 hospitalized cases confirmed on histopathology and 210 group matched controls selected from urban field practice area, Sadar, without any malignancy. Bivariate analyses included odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI for odds ratio. Results: Earlier age at menarche ≤ 12 years of age, late age at first full term delivery, nulliparity, Lack of breast-feeding were found to be significantly associated with the risk of breast cancer in both pre menopausal & post menopausal women while age at menopause at or after 50 years was significantly associated with the risk in post menopausal women. Conclusions: Study suggests that the changes in menstrual and reproductive patterns among women i.e. early age at menarche and late age at first childbirth and some environmental factors in Central India may have contributed to the increase in breast cancer risk, particularly among younger women.

  1. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19).

  2. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  3. The voice of experience: results from Cancer Control New Zealand's first national cancer care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Inga; Britton, Emma; Sarfati, Diana; Naylor, Wayne; Borman, Barry; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Simpson, Andrew; Tamblyn, Craig; Atkinson, Chris

    2010-11-05

    The 2009 Cancer Care Survey aimed to gather information from patients about their experiences receiving outpatient cancer care. In mid-2009, Cancer Control New Zealand sent an NRC+Picker postal survey to a stratified sample of 3251 eligible adults, who had received outpatient cancer care between October 2008 and March 2009. Eight cancer treatment facilities across New Zealand provided patient lists from which potential respondents were selected. The final response rate to the survey was 68%. Most of the patients surveyed responded very positively to questions related to specialist care coordination (91% positive response; 95%CI: 90-93), the level of privacy (87% positive response; 95%CI: 85-89), and the dignity and respect provided by healthcare professionals (86% positive response; 95%CI: 85-88). However, patients tended to be much less positive about the level of information they received on the effects of cancer treatment on their day-to-day life (responses ranging between 30% and 40% positive) and the level of emotional support provided (36% positive response; 95%CI: 33-39). Responses from different cancer services tended to follow similar patterns, although for twelve questions there was at least a 20% difference in response between services. Overall, patients rated their outpatient cancer care experiences as positive, but important gaps exist in the provision of information, emotional support, and treating patients within the context of their living situation. Cancer patient experience surveys can achieve high response rates and generate useful information on patient perceptions of their care. This data can be used to inform quality improvement efforts at both national and cancer treatment service levels.

  4. A nationwide telepathology consultation and quality control program in China: implementation and result analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Je; Jiao, Yahui; Lu, Chaohui; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhou, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Telepathology may play an important role in pathology consultation and quality control for cancer diagnosis in China, as the country has the largest population of cancer patients worldwide. In 2011, the Pathology Quality Control Center of China and Ministry of Health developed and implemented a nationwide telepathology consultation and quality control program for cancer diagnosis in China. We here report the results of the two-year implementation and experiences. the program built an Internet based telepathology platform to connect participating hospitals and expert consultants. The hardware and software used for the platform were validated in previous validation studies in China. The program had three regional centers consisting of Peking Union Medical College, Huasi Medical College of Sichuan and 2nd affiliated hospital of Zhejiang University. It also had 20 provincial consultation centers based in the provincial referral hospitals. 80 provincial or national pathologists served as expert consultants for the program, providing telepathology consultation for cancer diagnosis for more than 60 participating hospitals. from 2011 to July 2013, 16,247 pathology cases were submitted to the platform for consultation. Among them, 84% were due to diagnostic difficulty and 16% were due to request by patients. The preliminary diagnosis provided by submitting pathologists were in agreement with expert opinion in 59.8% of cases but was in disagreement with expert opinion in 24.2% of cases. 16.0% of cases were not provided with preliminary diagnosis. The distribution of pathology cases by system or organ were: digestive system, 17.3%; gynecologic system, 16.7%; head and neck, 15.7%; bone and soft tissue, 10.4%; lung and mediastinum, 8.6%; breast, 7.6%; urinary system, 7.5%; hematopathology, 6.4%; skin, 5.2%; neuropathology, 2.5% and cytopathology, 1.3%. Expert consultants also provided assessment of quality of slide preparation and staining, online lectures and guidance for

  5. Risk factors and clinical outcomes of gastric cancer identified by screening endoscopy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Lim, Hyun; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho; Choi, Son Yeong; Choe, Jae Won; Kim, Min-Ju

    2014-02-01

    A customized screening program for gastric cancer would optimize the benefits of screening endoscopy. This study investigated the risk factors for gastric cancer detected during screening and factors affecting clinical outcomes. From April 2000 to December 2010, subjects who underwent screening endoscopy at Asan Medical Center were included. To investigate risk factors, age- and sex-matched control group was selected. The clinical outcomes of gastric cancer identified during screening (screening group) were compared with age, sex, and date of diagnosis-matched subjects who were diagnosed with gastric cancer in the outpatient clinic (outpatient group). Of 109 530 subjects, 327 were diagnosed with gastric cancer. The median age of the screening group was 63.6 years (interquartile range 56-71 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.4:1. When comparing with the control group, Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 2.933, P gastric cancer (OR 2.254, P = 0.007), and drinking (OR 3.312, P gastric cancer (OR 0.445, P = 0.012) in multivariate analysis. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (hazard ratio [HR] 0.987, P = 0.005), cancer antigen 19-9 (HR 21.713, P screening group than in the outpatient group (P gastric cancer by screening endoscopy while asymptomatic enhances patient outcomes, especially in high-risk groups. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Pain Control In Cancer Patients By Opiate Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi M A

    2003-07-01

    current barriers, WHO stepwise model for cancer pain control and palliative care is recommended. Publishing Standard Treatment Guidelines for different levels of health care system is another recommended approach to optimize cancer pain."n 

  7. New frontiers in translational control of the cancer genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Morgan L.; Ruggero, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The past several years have seen dramatic leaps in our understanding of how gene expression is rewired at the translation level during tumorigenesis to support the transformed phenotype. This work has been driven by an explosion in technological advances and is revealing previously unimagined regulatory mechanisms that dictate functional expression of the cancer genome. In this Review we discuss emerging trends and exciting new discoveries that reveal how this translational circuitry contributes to specific aspects of tumorigenesis and cancer cell function, with a particular focus on recent insights into the role of translational control in the adaptive response to oncogenic stress conditions. PMID:27112207

  8. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors: a Lebanese case- control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeissi, Loulou Hassan; Yassine, Ibrahim Adnan; Jabbour, Michel Elias; Moussa, Mohamad Ahmad; Dhaini, Hassan Rida

    2013-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the second most incident malignancy among Lebanese men. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential risk factors associated with this observed high incidence. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002-2008. Controls were conveniently selected from the same settings. Data were collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. Exposure data were collected using a structured face-to-face interview questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine N-acetyltransferase1 (NAT1) genotype by PCR-RFLP. Analyses revolved around univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression, along with checks for effect modification. The odds of having bladder cancer among smokers was 1.02 times significantly higher in cases vs. controls. The odds of exposure to occupational diesel or fuel combustion fumes were 4.1 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. The odds of prostate-related morbidity were 5.6 times significantly higher in cases vs controls. Cases and controls showed different clustering patterns of NAT1 alleles. No significant differences between cases and controls were found for consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, or artificial sweeteners. This is the first case-control study investigating bladder cancer risk factors in the Lebanese context. Results confirmed established risk factors in the literature, particularly smoking and occupational exposure to diesel. The herein observed associations should be used to develop appropriate prevention policies and intervention strategies, in order to control this alarming disease in Lebanon.

  9. Abortion and breast cancer: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if certain aspects of a woman's experience of abortion might be associated with the risk of breast cancer. The case-control study was conducted in Kragujevac (Serbia) during the period 2004-2005. The case group (191 women) consisted of patients with newly diagnosed first primary breast cancer, which was histologically confirmed. The control group (191 women), individually matched by age (± 2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence (rural/urban) to the respective cases, was selected from female patients admitted for other diseases. The analysis was restricted to parous women (168 cases and 171 controls). Breast cancer risk was reduced among women who had a history of any abortion (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88). The protective effect was found for both induced abortion (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) and spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.98). It seems that these associations did not depend on the number of abortions, age at first abortion, or gestational age at first aborted pregnancy. Our study suggests that even short pregnancies ending in abortion add to the protection against breast cancer.

  10. Practical use of cancer control promoters in municipalities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yako-Suketomo, Hiroko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Imai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Control Act in Japan became effective in 2006. In Ibaraki, Toyama, and Hyogo prefectures, the Cancer Control Promoter (CCP) plan was created to strengthen partnerships for cancer prevention. This study aimed to examine the curre nt status of CCP utilization and analyze relationships with intersectoral collaboration, both within the government and with outside partners. In 2008, we mailed questionnaires to 100 administrators responsible for disease prevention and health promotion in municipal governments of the three prefectures. Ninety-one administrators responded (response rate, 91.0%). We analyzed responses to questions regarding whether or not the municipalities had used CCPs. Items assessing intersectoral collaboration examined municipality characteristics and relationships with outside partners and sectors specializing in areas other than community health. Among 90 administrators with valid data, 33 municipalities (36.7%) used CCPs while 57 (63.3%) did not. The Fisher's exact test revealed that intersectoral collaboration for using CCPs was associated with communication with all of the municipal government sectors not related to health. The present study indicated that CCPs were not consistently used in municipalities. However, we found that intersectoral collaborations, especially within the local government, may be related to the practical use of CCPs. This, in turn, may result in effective cancer control and prevention, as well as improvement in community health.

  11. Approximate Dynamic Programming in Tracking Control of a Robotic Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the implementation of an approximate dynamic programming algorithm in the discrete tracking control system of the three-degrees of freedom Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator. The controlled system is included in an articulated robots group which uses rotary joints to access their work space. The main part of the control system is a dual heuristic dynamic programming algorithm that consists of two structures designed in the form of neural networks: an actor and a critic. The actor generates the suboptimal control law while the critic approximates the difference of the value function from Bellman's equation with respect to the state. The residual elements of the control system are the PD controller, the supervisory term and an additional control signal. The structure of the supervisory term derives from the stability analysis performed using the Lyapunov stability theorem. The control system works online, the neural networks' weights-adaptation procedure is performed in every iteration step, and the neural networks' preliminary learning process is not required. The performance of the control system was verified by a series of computer simulations and experiments performed using the Scorbot-ER 4pc robotic manipulator.

  12. Risk factors of breast cancer in Dezful city of Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Jafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women and features increasing trends of incidence rates. Worldwide, yearly about 1.67 million of new cases and 522,000 of deaths from breast cancer are registered. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of breast cancer in women and to identify high risk groups. Methods: In a case-control study, 170 women with breast cancer who were registered in cancer registration system from 2011 to 2015 at Dezful City, Iran, were compared with 170 healthy women with confirmation of mammography. After age matching of groups, the needed information about risk factors and demographic information including information, educational level, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, and age at menopause, breastfeeding, stress, abortion, alcohol use and smoking, hormone therapy and physical activity was collected by a questionnaire. The analysis of collected data was performed by using odds ratio and logistic regression model and SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. The statistical significance was set at a two-sided p-value of %5. Results: The results of this study showed that, women with the family history [OR: 6.78 (95% CI: 2.15-21.41] and women with the stress history [OR: 4.86 (95% CI: 2.46-9.59] had higher risk of breast canser, while women with the history of having physical activity at least once a week [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.65] and women with the history breast feeding for 3 to 4 years [OR: 0.36 (95% CI: 0.16-0.81] had lower risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: It is recommended that the mentioned risk factors and protective factors be considered in first and second level (screening of preventive programs.

  13. Validation of a proposal for evaluating hospital infection control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2011-02-01

    To validate the construct and discriminant properties of a hospital infection prevention and control program. The program consisted of four indicators: technical-operational structure; operational prevention and control guidelines; epidemiological surveillance system; and prevention and control activities. These indicators, with previously validated content, were applied to 50 healthcare institutions in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2009. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the hospitals and indicator scores, and Cronbach's α coefficient was used to evaluate the internal consistency. The discriminant validity was analyzed by comparing indicator scores between groups of hospitals: with versus without quality certification. The construct validity analysis was based on exploratory factor analysis with a tetrachoric correlation matrix. The indicators for the technical-operational structure and epidemiological surveillance presented almost 100% conformity in the whole sample. The indicators for the operational prevention and control guidelines and the prevention and control activities presented internal consistency ranging from 0.67 to 0.80. The discriminant validity of these indicators indicated higher and statistically significant mean conformity scores among the group of institutions with healthcare certification or accreditation processes. In the construct validation, two dimensions were identified for the operational prevention and control guidelines: recommendations for preventing hospital infection and recommendations for standardizing prophylaxis procedures, with good correlation between the analysis units that formed the guidelines. The same was found for the prevention and control activities: interfaces with treatment units and support units were identified. Validation of the measurement properties of the hospital infection prevention and control program indicators made it possible to develop a tool for evaluating these programs

  14. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Villaescusa, J I [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Avda Campanar, 21 46009 Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G [Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain); Salas, M D [Public Health General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain); Cuevas, M D [Assistential Service General Direction, Conselleria de Sanitat de Valencia, C/Micer Masco, 31 46021 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-02-07

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10{sup -6}, 6 x 10{sup -4}] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10{sup -3}. The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs.

  15. Identifying risk factors for brain metastasis in breast cancer patients: Implication for a vigorous surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Chow

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Chinese breast cancer patients with brain metastasis were more likely to have high-grade tumors and negative estrogen receptor status. A more vigorous surveillance program for the central nervous system should be considered for this group of patients.

  16. Screening Doses for Induction of Cancers Calculated with the Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program (IREP)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kocher, David C; Apostoaei, Julian A

    2007-01-01

    .... Screening doses for 32 cancer types were calculated with the Interactive RadioEpidemiological Program, which is used by the Department of Veterans Affairs in adjudicating claims for compensation...

  17. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented Southwestern minorIties, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  18. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented southwester minorities, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  19. University of New Mexico Undergraduate Breast Cancer Training Program: Pathway to Research Careers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2005-01-01

    We have established a three-phase training program to motivate talented undergraduate students, especially students from under-represented Southwestern minorities, to pursue careers in breast cancer research...

  20. Recommendations for cervical cancer screening programs in developing countries: the need for equity and technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cervical cancer screening programs (CCSP have not been very efficient in the developing countries. This explains the need to foster changes on policies, standards, quality control mechanisms, evaluation and integration of new screening alternatives considered as low and high cost, as well as to regulate colposcopy practices and the foundation of HPV laboratories. Cervical cancer (CC is a disease most frequently found in poverty-stricken communities and reflecting a problem of equity at both levels gender and regional, and this, is not only due to social and economic development inequalities, but to the infrastructure and human resources necessary for primary care. For this reason, the CCSP program must be restructured, a to primarily address unprivileged rural and urban areas; b to foster actions aimed at ensuring extensive coverage as well as a similar quality of that coverage in every region; c to use screening strategies in keeping with the availability of health care services. In countries with a great regional heterogeneity, a variety of screening procedures must be regulated and standardized, including a combination of assisted visual inspection, cervical cytology and HPV detection; d regional community intervention must be set up to assess the effectiveness of using HPV detection as an strategy in addition to cervical cytology (pap smear; e the practice of colposcopy must be regulated to prevent the use of it in healthy women at a population level, thus preventing unnecessary diagnosis and treatment which not only are expensive but also causes unnecessary anxiety to women at risk; f the operation of those clinical laboratories using HPV as a detection strategy must likewise be accredited and regulated and g the CCSP program for assuring health care quality should meet the expectations of its beneficiaries, and increase the knowledge in cervical cancer related matters. Finally, though a variety of clinical tests on prophylactic and

  1. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  2. Evaluation of the TSL® Program for Parents of Children with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kwonho; Kim, Jae Yop

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of the "Thank you-Sorry-Love" (TSL®) program on posttraumatic growth (PTG) and cortisol level in parents of children with cancer. Methods: A total of 15 mothers of children with cancer were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 7) with the TSL intervention or a control…

  3. External quality control program: Experience in the department of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To share experiences and lessons learned from 2002 National External Quality Assessment Schemes for Leukocyte Immunophenotyping (UK NEQAS) and College of American Pathologists (CAP) proficiency testing (PT) panels received and tested as part of External Quality Control Program Setting: Department ...

  4. Slim Chance: A Weight Control Program for the Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotatori, Anthony J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A school-based diet program for learning disabled children stresses modifying eating behavior by learning alternative ways of interacting with the environment. Techniques stress the importance of self regulation, strategies for self monitoring, the establishment of realistic weight goals, use of stimulus control procedures, increased physical…

  5. Evaluation of resources for an interactive infection control instructional program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Kandis V

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate educational resources used in developing and implementing an interactive infection control instructional program for first year (n=26) and second year (n=26) dental hygiene students in a baccalaureate program. An educator's toolkit was used to develop online and interactive learning modalities for teaching infection control content. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate responses on a post instruction opinion survey on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Following the instructional program, most students reported on an opinion survey that they understood infection control principles (92% first year, 100% second year), felt prepared to work safely in clinic (96% first year, 100% second year) and liked working at their own pace (88% first year, 100% second year). First year students valued the online learning components and were less favorable toward supplemental textbook readings and the limited time to complete all 10 modules. Most second year students valued the interactive workshop but did not take the time to complete the online videos and did not watch all of them. Seventy-nine percent of second year students (n=20) preferred the interactive workshop method over traditional lecture instruction completed during their first year. This paper describes 1 institution's process of developing and implementing an infection control instructional program utilizing an educator's toolkit.

  6. Effects of an endurance and resistance exercise program on persistent cancer-related fatigue after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, F; Schwartz, S; Wesel, N; Voigt, A; Thiel, E

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a relevant problem of cancer patients during and after treatment. Several studies have shown that exercise can improve quality of life and functional status of cancer patients undergoing chemo- or radiotherapy. However, there is a lack of information about the effects of this intervention on persistent cancer-related fatigue. Therefore, we assessed the effects of an exercise program on cancer-related fatigue after treatment. A consecutive series of 32 cancer patients with mild to severe persistent fatigue [scores on the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) > 25] participated in a 3-week exercise program consisting of endurance (30 min walking on a treadmill) and resistance/coordination exercises for the major muscle groups. Fatigue, mood, and anxiety were assessed with questionnaires and physical performance with a stress test before and after the program. At the end of the program, we observed a significant increase of physical performance (workload at the anaerobic threshold pre 61 +/- 26 W, post 78 +/- 31 W, P fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: pre 45.7 +/- 13.4, post 52.6 +/- 12.4, P fatigue or reduction of anxiety was observed. A 3-week exercise program leads to a substantial improvement of physical performance and reduction of mental and physical fatigue in cancer patients after treatment. However, this intervention does not affect depression, anxiety, or cognitive fatigue.

  7. Lung cancer screening: fourteen year experience of the Pamplona early detection program (P-IELCAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Berto, Juan; de-Torres, Juan P; Campo, Arantzazu; Alcaide, Ana B; Bastarrika, Gorka; Pueyo, Jesús C; Villanueva, Alberto; Echeveste, José I; Lozano, Maria D; García-Velloso, María J; Seijo, Luis M; García, Javier; Torre, Wenceslao; Pajares, Maria J; Pío, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M; Zulueta, Javier J

    2015-04-01

    European experience regarding lung cancer screening using low-dose chest CT (LDCT) is available. However, there is limited data on the Spanish experience in this matter. Our aim is to present the results from the longest ongoing screening program in Spain. The Pamplona International Early Lung Cancer Detection Program (P-IELCAP) is actively screening participants for lung cancer using LDCT since year 2000 following the IELCAP protocol, including spirometric assessments. Men and women, ≥40 years of age, current or former smokers with a tobacco history of ≥10 pack-years are included. Results are compared to those from other European trials. A total of 2989 participants were screened until March 2014 (73% male). A median of 2 (IQR 1-3) annual screening rounds were performed. Sixty lung cancers were detected in 53 participants (73% in StageI). Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent. The lung cancer prevalence and incidence proportion was 1.0% and 1.4%, respectively, with an annual detection rate of 0.41. The estimated 10-year survival rate among individuals with lung cancer was 70%. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema are important lung cancer predictors. The experience in Spain's longest lung cancer screening program is comparable to what has been described in the rest of Europe, and confirms the feasibility and efficacy of lung cancer screening using LDCT. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  9. Control Systems Security Test Center - FY 2004 Program Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Polk; Alen M. Snyder

    2005-04-01

    In May 2004, the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) was established at Idaho National Laboratory to execute assessment activities to reduce the vulnerability of the nation’s critical infrastructure control systems to terrorist attack. The CSSC implements a program to accomplish the five goals presented in the US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security. This report summarizes the first year funding of startup activities and program achievements that took place in FY 2004 and early FY 2005. This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center of the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs federal departments to identify and prioritize the critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the National Cyber Security Division to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems.

  10. Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Prostate Cancer Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Smothers July 17 H - Aspirin & NSAIDS Dr. Halushka July 20 C – Herbals & Cancer Dr. Wargovich July 21 N – Neuroimaging Dr. George...synthetic (e.g., aspirin ) to reduce the risk of developing cancer Examples of chemoprevention: Prostate Cancer • SELECT Trial –Bad news: no evidence...What can I do with my degree? Academic Research Teaching Industry Research Patent Law Consulting Entrepreneur Medical Writing Public Policy Choosing

  11. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M

    2006-01-01

    African Americans (AA) are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa) for reasons including, biologic tumor differences, genetic predisposition, differential exposures, lack of access to prostate specific antigen (PSA...

  12. Cancer prevention interdisciplinary education program at Purdue University: overview and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Adedokun, Omolola; Childress, Amy; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella; Nagel, Julie; Knapp, Deborah W; Lelievre, Sophie; Agnew, Christopher R; Shields, Cleveland; Leary, James; Adams, Robin; Jensen, Jakob D

    2011-12-01

    Cancer prevention is a broad field that crosses many disciplines; therefore, educational efforts to enhance cancer prevention research focused on interdisciplinary approaches to the field are greatly needed. In order to hasten progress in cancer prevention research, the Cancer Prevention Internship Program (CPIP) at Purdue University was designed to develop and test an interdisciplinary curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students. The hypothesis was that course curriculum specific to introducing interdisciplinary concepts in cancer prevention would increase student interest in and ability to pursue advanced educational opportunities (e.g., graduate school, medical school). Preliminary results from the evaluation of the first year which included ten undergraduate and five graduate students suggested that participation in CPIP is a positive professional development experience, leading to a significant increase in understanding of interdisciplinary research in cancer prevention. In its first year, the CPIP project has created a successful model for interdisciplinary education in cancer prevention research.

  13. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbulaiteye Sam M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC. Cervical cancer (CC, increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times, anal cancer (15-30 times, and lung cancer (4 times are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs. Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR, is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore

  14. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Bhatia, Kishor; Adebamowo, Clement; Sasco, Annie J

    2011-10-17

    The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC). Cervical cancer (CC), increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times), anal cancer (15-30 times), and lung cancer (4 times) are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs). Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore merits for

  15. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The eruption of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in young homosexual men in 1981 in the West heralded the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemic, which remains one of the biggest challenges to global public health and science ever. Because KS and NHL were increased >10,000 and 50-600 times, respectively, with HIV, they were designated AIDS defining cancers (ADC). Cervical cancer (CC), increased 5-10 times was also designated as an ADC. A few other cancers are elevated with HIV, including Hodgkin lymphoma (10 times), anal cancer (15-30 times), and lung cancer (4 times) are designated as non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs). Since 1996 when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) became widely available in the West, dramatic decreases in HIV mortality have been observed and substantial decrease in the incidence of ADCs. Coincidentally, the burden of NADCs has increased as people with HIV age with chronic HIV infection. The impact of HIV infection on cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, where two thirds of the epidemic is concentrated, remains poorly understood. The few studies conducted indicate that risks for ADCs are also increased, but quantitatively less so than in the West. The risks for many cancers with established viral associations, including liver and nasopharynx, which are found in Africa, do not appear to be increased. These data are limited because of competing mortality, and cancer is under diagnosed, pathological confirmation is rare, and cancer registration not widely practiced. The expansion of access to life-extending cART in sub-Saharan Africa, through programs such as the Global Fund for AIDS, Malaria, and Tuberculosis and the US President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), is leading to dramatic lengthening of life of HIV patients, which will likely influence the spectrum and burden of cancer in patients with HIV. In this paper, we review current literature and explore merits for

  16. The Yo me cuido® Program: Addressing Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention Among Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna L; Ramos, Roberto; Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Escobar, Myriam; Palencia, Jeannette; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is less likely to be diagnosed at the earliest stage in Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic) women compared to non-Hispanic White women, even after accounting for differences in age, socioeconomic status, and method of detection. Moffitt Cancer Center created a comprehensive health education program called Yo me cuido (®) (YMC) to address and reduce breast cancer disparities among Spanish- and English-speaking Hispanic women by providing breast cancer and healthy lifestyles awareness and education, and promoting breast cancer screenings, reminders, and referrals for women 40 years and older. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the innovative approaches and methods to cancer prevention and early detection of the YMC program, and to promote it as an effective tool for improving outcomes in community health education, outreach, and engagement activities with Hispanic populations. Key components of the program include educational workshops, mammogram referrals, and a multimedia campaign. The YMC program is unique because of its approaches in reaching the Hispanic population, such as delivering the program with compassionate services to empower participants to live a healthier lifestyle. Additionally, direct follow-up for mammography screenings is provided by program staff. From 2011 to 2013, YMC has educated 2,226 women and 165 men through 93 workshops. About 684 (52 %) women ages 40 and older have had a screening mammogram within their first year of participating in the program. The YMC program is an innovative cancer education and outreach program that has demonstrated a positive impact on the lives of the Hispanic community in the Tampa Bay region.

  17. Sand Fly Surveillance and Control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as Part of a Leishmaniasis Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Vol. 38, no. 2 Journal of Vector Ecology 411 Scientific Note Sand fly surveillance and control on Camp Ramadi, Iraq, as part of a leishmaniasis ...following the 2003 invasion experienced serious risk of infection by several vector-borne pathogens, specifically cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis ...as part of a leishmaniasis control program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  18. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  19. Case-control study of gastric cancer screening in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, P; Oliver, W E; Parkin, D M; Alvarez, N; Vivas, J

    1994-06-01

    A screening programme for early gastric cancer was introduced in the state of Tachira, Venezuela, in 1980. Screening was performed by photofluorography, using two mobile units. The efficacy of this programme in reducing mortality from stomach cancer was evaluated by means of a case-control study. Cases were 241 individuals who died from stomach cancer in the period 1985-89. Ten live controls per case were drawn from the electoral rolls, matched by sex, age and residence. Exposure to the screening examination of cases and controls was assessed through individual linkage with the programme's centralised database. After the exclusion of examinations occurring within the 6 months preceding the case's diagnosis, the odds ratio (OR) of dying from stomach cancer for those screened was 1.26 (CI 0.83-1.91) and the OR in females was lower than in males: 0.77 (CI 0.33-1.78) and 1.52 (CI 0.94-2.47) respectively. Odds ratios associated with years since last test and number of tests did not differ significantly from 1. These results show the inefficacy of the programme in reducing mortality from gastric cancer in the area. In an attempt to determine whether this result was due to selection bias, an analysis restricted to subjects who had been screened at least once was performed. When examinations occurring after an index date at various intervals before the case's diagnosis were excluded, the screening test appeared to protect from death, although confidence intervals of the odds ratios are large, for example OR = 0.47 (CI 0.24-0.98) when excluding tests within 1 month.

  20. Bivalent Epigenetic Control of Oncofetal Gene Expression in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Sayyed K; Frietze, Seth E; Gordon, Jonathan A; Heath, Jessica L; Messier, Terri; Hong, Deli; Boyd, Joseph R; Kang, Mingu; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2017-12-01

    Multiple mechanisms of epigenetic control that include DNA methylation, histone modification, noncoding RNAs, and mitotic gene bookmarking play pivotal roles in stringent gene regulation during lineage commitment and maintenance. Experimental evidence indicates that bivalent chromatin domains, i.e., genome regions that are marked by both H3K4me3 (activating) and H3K27me3 (repressive) histone modifications, are a key property of pluripotent stem cells. Bivalency of developmental genes during the G 1 phase of the pluripotent stem cell cycle contributes to cell fate decisions. Recently, some cancer types have been shown to exhibit partial recapitulation of bivalent chromatin modifications that are lost along with pluripotency, suggesting a mechanism by which cancer cells reacquire properties that are characteristic of undifferentiated, multipotent cells. This bivalent epigenetic control of oncofetal gene expression in cancer cells may offer novel insights into the onset and progression of cancer and may provide specific and selective options for diagnosis as well as for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Experimental control of a fluidic pinball using genetic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaudo, Cedric; Zhong, Peng; Noack, Bernd R.; Martinuzzi, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    The wake stabilization of a triangular cluster of three rotating cylinders was investigated in the present study. Experiments were performed at Reynolds number Re 6000, and compared with URANS-2D simulations at same flow conditions. 2D2C PIV measurements and constant temperature anemometry were used to characterize the flow without and with actuation. Open-loop actuation was first considered for the identification of particular control strategies. Machine learning control was also implemented for the experimental study. Linear genetic programming has been used for the optimization of open-loop parameters and closed-loop controllers. Considering a cost function J based on the fluctuations of the velocity measured by the hot-wire sensor, significant performances were achieved using the machine learning approach. The present work is supported by the senior author's (R. J. Martinuzzi) NSERC discovery Grant. C. Raibaudo acknowledges the financial support of the University of Calgary Eyes-High PDF program.

  2. Family History as a Risk for Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    A Safaee; Moghimi Dehkordi, B; Fatemi, SR; Maserat, E; Ghafarnejad, F; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    Background Although, family history of cancer is an important risk factor for upper gastrointestinal cancers development, but limited information is available on the upper gastrointestinal cancers associated with family history in Iran. The purpose of this study was to define upper gastrointestinal cancers risk associated with family history of cancer. Methods This study was conducted as a case control study. A total number of 1,010 cases of upper gastrointestinal cancer and 1,010 healthy con...

  3. Australia's national bowel cancer screening program: does it work for indigenous Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Aliki; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2010-06-25

    Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population.This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating the already widening disparities in cancer outcomes that exist among

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Sten G; Vidaurre, Tatiana; Abugattas, Julio E; Manrique, Javier E; Sarria, Gustavo; Jeronimo, José; Seinfeld, Janice N; Lauer, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Cecilia R; Venegas, Diego; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant for the Peruvian context. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) according to WHO-CHOICE guidelines, from a healthcare perspective. Different screening, early detection, palliative, and treatment interventions were evaluated using mathematical modeling. Effectiveness estimates were based on observational studies, modeling, and on information from Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN). Resource utilizations and unit costs were based on estimates from INEN and observational studies. Cost-effectiveness estimates are in 2012 United States dollars (US$) per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The current breast cancer program in Peru ($8,426 per DALY averted) could be improved through implementing triennial or biennial screening strategies. These strategies seem the most cost-effective in Peru, particularly when mobile mammography is applied (from $4,125 per DALY averted), or when both CBE screening and mammography screening are combined (from $4,239 per DALY averted). Triennially, these interventions costs between $63 million and $72 million per year. Late stage treatment, trastuzumab therapy and annual screening strategies are the least cost-effective. Our analysis suggests that breast cancer control in Peru should be oriented towards early detection through combining fixed and mobile mammography screening (age 45-69) triennially. However, a phased introduction of triennial CBE screening (age 40-69) with upfront FNA in non-urban settings, and both CBE (age 40-49) and fixed mammography screening (age 50-69) in urban settings, seems a more feasible option and is also cost-effective. The implementation of this intervention is only meaningful if

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  6. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of breast cancer control interventions in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, S.G.; Vidaurre, T.; Abugattas, J.E.; Manrique, J.E.; Sarria, G.; Jeronimo, J.; Seinfeld, J.N.; Lauer, J.A.; Sepulveda, C.R.; Venegas, D.; Baltussen, R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Peru, a country with constrained health resources, breast cancer control is characterized by late stage treatment and poor survival. To support breast cancer control in Peru, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of different breast cancer control interventions relevant

  8. The adaptive role of perceived control before and after cancer diagnosis : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, A.V.; Wardle, J.; Steptoe, A.; Henselmans, I.; Ormel, J.; Sanderman, R.

    Cancer is generally considered a low-control situation. Stability of perceptions of control before and after cancer was examined, as well as the adaptive value of maintenance versus relinquishment of control in the psychological adjustment to cancer. This study, conducted in the northern

  9. Effectiveness of endoscopic gastric cancer screening in a rural area of Linzhou, China: results from a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiong; Yu, Liang; Hao, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jin-Wu; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Guo, Lan-Wei; Quan, Pei-Liang; Zhao, Nan; Zhang, Ya-Wei; Sun, Xi-Bin

    2016-09-01

    In China, a large burden of gastric cancer has remained, and endoscopic screening was expected to reduce gastric cancer mortality. Therefore, a population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the screening effect. The gastric cancer screening program was initiated in Linzhou in the year 2005, and endoscopic examination with indicative biopsy, for residents aged 40-69 years, was used to detect early cancer and precancerous lesion. In this study, cases were defined as individuals who had died of gastric cancer, which were selected from Linzhou Cancer Registry database. Controls were residents (six per case), who had not died of gastric cancer, from the same area as the case, and matched by gender and age (±2 years). The exposure status, whether cases and controls ever attended the screening or not, was acquired by inspecting the well-documented screening records. Conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A total of 313 cases and 1876 controls were included in our analysis. Compared with subjects who never participated in screening, the overall OR for individuals who ever participated in screening was 0.72(95% CI: 0.54-0.97). The OR for lag time 4 years or longer was 0.68(95% CI: 0.47-0.98) and the OR for those who were aged 50-59 years were 0.56 (0.37-0.85). The results suggest a 28% reduction in risk of gastric cancer mortality by endoscopic screening, which may have significant implications for gastric cancer screening in rural areas of China. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors.

  11. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, J.; Le, Q. H.; Duong, B. H.; Sun, P.; Pham, H. T.; Ta, V. T.; Kotsopoulos, J.; Narod, S. A.; Ginsburg, O.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK), Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and path...

  12. Association between Alcohol Consumption, Folate Intake, and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Winta Yellow; Bamlet, William R.; Ann L Oberg; Anderson, Kristin E.; Olson, Janet E.; Rashmi Sinha; Petersen, Gloria M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Jansen, Rick J.

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls in a largely white population (>96%). Our findings sho...

  13. Case-control Studies on the Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Screening: Insights from the UK Age Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Daniëlle; Broeders, Mireille J M; Verbeek, André L M; Duffy, Stephen W; Moss, Sue M

    2015-07-01

    Ongoing breast cancer screening programs can only be evaluated using observational study designs. Most studies have observed a reduction in breast cancer mortality, but design differences appear to have resulted in different estimates. Direct comparison of case-control and trial analyses gives more insight into this variation. Here, we performed case-control analyses within the randomized UK Age Trial. The Age Trial assessed the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality in women ages 40-49 years. In our approach, case subjects were defined as breast cancer deaths between trial entry (1991-1997) and 2004. Women were ages 39-41 years at entry. For every case subject, five control subjects were selected. All case subjects were included in analyses of screening invitation (356 case subjects, 1,780 controls), whereas analyses of attendance were restricted to women invited to screening (105 case subjects, 525 age-matched controls). Odds ratios (OR) were estimated with conditional logistic regression. We used and compared two methods to correct for self-selection bias. Screening invitation resulted in a breast cancer mortality reduction of 17% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -36%, +6%), similar to trial results. Different exposure definitions and self-selection adjustments influenced the observed breast cancer mortality reduction. Depending on the method, "ever screened" appeared to be associated with a small reduction (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.40, 1.89) or no reduction (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 2.14) using the two methods of correction. Recent attendance resulted in an adjusted mortality reduction of 36% (95% CI: -69%, +31%) or 45% (95% CI: -71%, +5%). Observational studies, and particularly case-control studies, are an important monitoring tool for breast cancer screening programs. The focus should be on diminishing bias in observational studies and gaining a better understanding of the influence of study design on estimates of mortality reduction.

  14. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer: a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, M; Risch, H A; Bosetti, C; Anderson, K E; Petersen, G M; Bamlet, W R; Cotterchio, M; Cleary, S P; Ibiebele, T I; La Vecchia, C; Skinner, H G; Strayer, L; Bracci, P M; Maisonneuve, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Zaton Ski, W; Lu, L; Yu, H; Janik-Koncewicz, K; Polesel, J; Serraino, D; Neale, R E

    2015-08-01

    The potential role of vitamin D in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer is unclear, with recent studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We used data from nine case-control studies from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) to examine associations between pancreatic cancer risk and dietary vitamin D intake. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and ORs were then pooled using a random-effects model. From a subset of four studies, we also calculated pooled estimates of association for supplementary and total vitamin D intake. Risk of pancreatic cancer increased with dietary intake of vitamin D [per 100 international units (IU)/day: OR = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.19, P = 7.4 × 10(-6), P-heterogeneity = 0.52; ≥230 versus vitamin A intake. Increased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed with higher levels of dietary vitamin D intake. Additional studies are required to determine whether or not our finding has a causal basis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program Commission on Cancer National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers National Cancer Database National Accreditation Program for Rectal Cancer Oncology Medical Home Accreditation Program Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Accreditation Program Cancer Programs Staff Information Children's ...

  16. Simplified programming and control of automated radiosynthesizers through unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, Shane B; Quinn, Kevin M; Lazari, Mark; Moore, Melissa D; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-07-15

    Many automated radiosynthesizers for producing positron emission tomography (PET) probes provide a means for the operator to create custom synthesis programs. The programming interfaces are typically designed with the engineer rather than the radiochemist in mind, requiring lengthy programs to be created from sequences of low-level, non-intuitive hardware operations. In some cases, the user is even responsible for adding steps to update the graphical representation of the system. In light of these unnecessarily complex approaches, we have created software to perform radiochemistry on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer with the goal of being intuitive and easy to use. Radiochemists were consulted, and a wide range of radiosyntheses were analyzed to determine a comprehensive set of basic chemistry unit operations. Based around these operations, we created a software control system with a client-server architecture. In an attempt to maximize flexibility, the client software was designed to run on a variety of portable multi-touch devices. The software was used to create programs for the synthesis of several 18F-labeled probes on the ELIXYS radiosynthesizer, with [18F]FDG detailed here. To gauge the user-friendliness of the software, program lengths were compared to those from other systems. A small sample group with no prior radiosynthesizer experience was tasked with creating and running a simple protocol. The software was successfully used to synthesize several 18F-labeled PET probes, including [18F]FDG, with synthesis times and yields comparable to literature reports. The resulting programs were significantly shorter and easier to debug than programs from other systems. The sample group of naive users created and ran a simple protocol within a couple of hours, revealing a very short learning curve. The client-server architecture provided reliability, enabling continuity of the synthesis run even if the computer running the client software failed. The architecture enabled

  17. Optimal traffic control in highway transportation networks using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yanning

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a framework for the optimal control of boundary flows on transportation networks. The state of the system is modeled by a first order scalar conservation law (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards PDE). Based on an equivalent formulation of the Hamilton-Jacobi PDE, the problem of controlling the state of the system on a network link in a finite horizon can be posed as a Linear Program. Assuming all intersections in the network are controllable, we show that the optimization approach can be extended to an arbitrary transportation network, preserving linear constraints. Unlike previously investigated transportation network control schemes, this framework leverages the intrinsic properties of the Halmilton-Jacobi equation, and does not require any discretization or boolean variables on the link. Hence this framework is very computational efficient and provides the globally optimal solution. The feasibility of this framework is illustrated by an on-ramp metering control example.

  18. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  19. Community-Academic Partnership to Implement a Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Education Program in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; González, Daisy; Vélez, Camille; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Feldman-Soler, Alana; Ayala-Escobar, Kelly; Ayala-Marín, Alelí M; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Calo, William A; Pattatucci-Aragón, Angela; Rivera-Díaz, Marinilda; Fernández, María E

    2017-12-01

    To describe how a community-academic partnership between Taller Salud Inc., a community-based organization, and the Puerto Rico Community Cancer Control Outreach Program of the University of Puerto Rico was crucial in the adaptation and implementation of Cultivando La Salud (CLS), an evidencebased educational outreach program designed to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women living in Puerto Rico. This collaboration facilitated the review and adaptation of the CLS intervention to improve cultural appropriateness, relevance, and acceptability for Puerto Rican women. A total of 25 interviewers and 12 Lay Health Workers (LHWs) were recruited and trained to deliver the program. The interviewers recruited women who were non-adherent to recommended screening guidelines for both breast and cervical cancer. LHWs then provided one-on-one education using the adapted CLS materials. A total of 444 women were recruited and 48% of them were educated through this collaborative effort. Our main accomplishment was establishing the academic-community partnership to implement the CLS program. Nevertheless, in order to promote better collaborations with our community partners, it is important to carefully delineate and establish clear roles and shared responsibilities for each partner for the successful execution of research activities, taking into consideration the community's needs.

  20. Cyber Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Noyes

    2012-03-01

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These trainings vary from web-based cyber security trainings for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/ Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  1. Gastric Cancer Screening Uptake Trends in Korea: Results for the National Cancer Screening Program From 2002 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of

  2. Open versus Controlled-Access Data | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCG employs stringent human subjects’ protection and data access policies to protect the privacy and confidentiality of the research participants. Depending on the risk of patient identification, OCG programs data are available to the scientific community in two tiers: open or controlled access. Both types of data can be accessed through its corresponding OCG program-specific data matrix or portal. Open-access Data

  3. Incorporating person centred care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer management program: An experiential account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallath Nandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates a definite positive impact on treatment outcomes when an integrative approach that focuses on symptom control and quality of life is provided along with the standard therapeutic regimens. However implementation or practice of this approach is not seen widely due to the culture of medical training and practice. This article presents the initial development of a program for incorporating integrative care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer care program at a tertiary centre. The key purpose of the program being to develop, facilitate, and establish comprehensive and holistic processes including palliative care principles, that would positively enhance the quantity and quality of life of the person with disease, as well as create an environment that reflects and sustains this approach. The vision, objectives, goals, strategies, activities and results within the 7 months of implementation are documented. The new learnings gained during the process have also been noted in the hope that the model described may be used to conceptualize similar care giving facilities in other centres.

  4. Variation in average costs among federally sponsored state-organized cancer detection programs: economies of scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansley, Edward C; Duñet, Diane O; May, Daniel S; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; McKenna, Matthew T

    2002-01-01

    Societal cost-effectiveness analysis and its variants help decision makers achieve an efficient allocation of resources across the set of all possible health interventions. Sometimes, however, decision makers are focused instead on the efficient allocation of resources within a particular intervention program that has already been implemented. This is especially true when the intervention is being delivered at several different sites. An analysis of average cost across program sites may help program officials to maximize the health benefits that can be achieved with limited resources. In this article, the authors present such an analysis, with special attention paid to the possible existence and implications of economies of scale. Focusing on federally sponsored, state-organized cancer detection programs, the authors modeled 19 state programs as productive processes and examined their average costs over a 2- to 5-year period of operation. They considered 3 alternative definitions of output: women served, screens performed, and conditions detected. Average federal costs and average total costs were estimated for each grant period. Multivariate regression analysis was used to help explain the variation in average costs. The average cost estimates were distributed in a skewed pattern with the majority of observations falling close to the median and substantially below the mean. For all measures considered, average cost decreased as output expanded. This inverse relationship between average cost and output level persisted even after controlling for the effects of other predictors, suggesting the possible existence of economies of scale. The potential existence of economies of scale calls into question the assumption of a constant average cost frequently made in economic analyses of proposed public health programs. It also implies that a) differences in output level should be taken into account when comparing operating efficiency across program sites; b) conclusions

  5. Empowerment Program for People With Prediabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Hung, Shu-Ling; Chen, Shu-Lin

    2017-04-01

    Practicing a health-promoting lifestyle is believed to be effective for delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes. However, although empowerment interventions have proven effective for encouraging the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle in people with diabetes, these interventions are rarely promoted to people with prediabetes. The aims of this study were to develop an empowerment program for people with prediabetes and to examine its efficacy in terms of the adoption of a health-promoting lifestyle and improvements in blood sugar, body mass index, and self-efficacy. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between May and December 2013. A convenience sample of people with a fasting blood sugar level of 100-125 mg/dl during the previous 3 months was recruited from the health examination center of a hospital in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Participants were assigned to either the experimental group or the control group using block randomization with a block size of 8. The experimental group (n = 38) participated in a 4-month empowerment program (the ABC empowerment program), which encouraged participants to practice a health-promoting lifestyle in three phases: awareness raising, behavior building, and results checking. The control group (n = 40) received routine clinical care. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, independent t test, paired t test, and generalized estimated equations. After controlling for the differences at baseline and considering the interaction between group and time from baseline to 1 week and 3 months after completing the intervention, the generalized estimating equation showed significantly larger improvements in a health-promoting lifestyle, blood sugar, and self-efficacy in the experimental group than in the control group (p empowerment program was shown to have short-term, positive effects on behavioral, physical, and psychosocial outcomes in a Taiwan population with prediabetes. The results of this study provide a useful

  6. Functional Integration of mRNA Translational Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. MacNicol

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulated mRNA translation plays a key role in control of cell cycle progression in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in the self-renewal and survival of stem cells and cancer stem cells. While targeting mRNA translation presents an attractive strategy for control of aberrant cell cycle progression, mRNA translation is an underdeveloped therapeutic target. Regulated mRNAs are typically controlled through interaction with multiple RNA binding proteins (RBPs but the mechanisms by which the functions of distinct RBPs bound to a common target mRNA are coordinated are poorly understood. The challenge now is to gain insight into these mechanisms of coordination and to identify the molecular mediators that integrate multiple, often conflicting, inputs. A first step includes the identification of altered mRNA ribonucleoprotein complex components that assemble on mRNAs bound by multiple, distinct RBPs compared to those recruited by individual RBPs. This review builds upon our knowledge of combinatorial control of mRNA translation during the maturation of oocytes from Xenopus laevis, to address molecular strategies that may mediate RBP diplomacy and conflict resolution for coordinated control of mRNA translational output. Continued study of regulated ribonucleoprotein complex dynamics promises valuable new insights into mRNA translational control and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of disease.

  7. Tumour control probability in cancer stem cells hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Andrew; Kohandel, Mohammad; Hill, Richard; Sivaloganathan, Sivabal

    2014-01-01

    The tumour control probability (TCP) is a formalism derived to compare various treatment regimens of radiation therapy, defined as the probability that given a prescribed dose of radiation, a tumour has been eradicated or controlled. In the traditional view of cancer, all cells share the ability to divide without limit and thus have the potential to generate a malignant tumour. However, an emerging notion is that only a sub-population of cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the tumour. A key implication of the CSC hypothesis is that these cells must be eradicated to achieve cures, thus we define TCPS as the probability of eradicating CSCs for a given dose of radiation. A cell surface protein expression profile, such as CD44high/CD24low for breast cancer or CD133 for glioma, is often used as a biomarker to monitor CSCs enrichment. However, it is increasingly recognized that not all cells bearing this expression profile are necessarily CSCs, and in particular early generations of progenitor cells may share the same phenotype. Thus, due to the lack of a perfect biomarker for CSCs, we also define a novel measurable TCPCD+, that is the probability of eliminating or controlling biomarker positive cells. Based on these definitions, we use stochastic methods and numerical simulations parameterized for the case of gliomas, to compare the theoretical TCPS and the measurable TCPCD+. We also use the measurable TCP to compare the effect of various radiation protocols.

  8. Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening After CARES: A Community Program for Immigrant and Marginalized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Sheila F; Lofters, Aisha K; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Meaney, Christopher A; Ahmad, Farah; Moravac, M Catherine; Nguyen, Cam Tu Janet; Arisz, Angela M

    2017-05-01

    Marginalized populations such as immigrants and refugees are less likely to receive cancer screening. Cancer Awareness: Ready for Education and Screening (CARES), a multifaceted community-based program in Toronto, Canada, aimed to improve breast and cervical screening among marginalized women. This matched cohort study assessed the impact of CARES on cervical and mammography screening among under-screened/never screened (UNS) attendees. Provincial administrative data collected from 1998 to 2014 and provided in 2015 were used to match CARES participants who were age eligible for screening to three controls matched for age, geography, and pre-education screening status. Dates of post-education Pap and mammography screening up to June 30, 2014 were determined. Analysis in 2016 compared screening uptake and time to screening for UNS participants and controls. From May 15, 2012 to October 31, 2013, a total of 1,993 women attended 145 educational sessions provided in 20 languages. Thirty-five percent (118/331) and 48% (99/206) of CARES participants who were age eligible for Pap and mammography, respectively, were UNS on the education date. Subsequently, 26% and 36% had Pap and mammography, respectively, versus 9% and 14% of UNS controls. ORs for screening within 8 months of follow-up among UNS CARES participants versus their matched controls were 5.1 (95% CI=2.4, 10.9) for Pap and 4.2 (95%=CI 2.3, 7.8) for mammography. Hazard ratios for Pap and mammography were 3.6 (95% CI=2.1, 6.1) and 3.2 (95% CI=2.0, 5.3), respectively. CARES' multifaceted intervention was successful in increasing Pap and mammography screening in this multiethnic under-screened population. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sun Protection is Fun! A Skin Cancer Prevention Program for Preschools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Mary K.; Herrmann, Nancy B.; Parcel, Guy S.; Chamberlin, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Sun Protection is Fun! skin cancer prevention program for preschool children that features intervention methods grounded in social cognitive theory and emphasizes symbolic modeling, vicarious learning, enactive mastery experiences, and persuasion. Program components include a curriculum and teacher's guide, videos, newsletters,…

  10. A learner-control instructional multimedia program is as effective as a program-control version in undergraduate orthodontic teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearn, David

    2007-01-01

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in a dental school in Belgium. Undergraduate dental students were randomly assigned to a learner-control, multimedia learning-environment, courseware package (module) or the same module but structured in a program-control form. The learning objectives of learner- and program-control versions of the appliances module were identical. Both groups received the same materials covering the principles of orthodontic appliances that are normally provided at this stage of the undergraduate orthodontic curriculum. Both modules have didactic, interactive and simple animation components. Students were evaluated by means of a 15-item multiple-choice test covering knowledge, understanding and application. They were carried out at baseline and 15 min after finishing studying the modules. The tests were assessed by calculating the total score of the correct answers. Of 39 undergraduate dental students invited to take part, 30 students participated, 15 in each group. There was no significant difference in prior knowledge in the groups at baseline. Although both groups significantly improved their scores after studying the course, no significant difference was found between both groups in relation to answers to questions about knowledge, understanding and application. In this study, the learner-control instructional multimedia program was found to be as effective as the program-control version when teaching principles of the orthodontic appliances to undergraduate students. Future work should focus on how to improve the value of computer-assisted learning (CAL), and comparative evaluations are still needed of how different CAL approaches compare with or complement one another.

  11. A computer program for the algebraic determination of control coefficients in Metabolic Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S; Fell, D A

    1993-06-01

    A computer program (MetaCon) is described for the evaluation of flux control, concentration control and branch-point distribution control coefficients of a metabolic pathway. Requiring only the reaction scheme as input, the program produces algebraic expressions for the control coefficients in terms of elasticity coefficients, metabolite concentrations and pathway fluxes. Any of these variables can be substituted by numeric or simple algebraic expressions; the expressions will then be automatically rearranged in terms of the remaining unknown variables. When all variables have been substituted, numeric values will be obtained for the control coefficients. The program is a computerized implementation of the matrix method for the determination of control coefficients. The features of MetaCon are compared with those of other programs available to workers in Metabolic Control Analysis. Potential benefits of, and methods of using, MetaCon are discussed. The mathematical background and validity of the matrix method rules are discussed, and the algorithm used by MetaCon is described. The matrix method is shown to be a specific case of a previously described general formalism for calculating control coefficients.

  12. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoxu; Zheng, Rongshou; He, Yutong; Sun, Xibin; Wang, Ning; Chen, Tianhui; Chen, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs). Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11-3.70), obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22-2.57), diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48-5.92) and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02-3.10) were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.84) was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  13. Control system design and analysis using the INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    The INteractive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a user friendly efficient environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems. Since its inception, INCA has found extensive use in the design, development, and analysis of control systems for spacecraft, instruments, robotics, and pointing systems. Moreover, the results of the analytic tools imbedded in INCA have been flight proven with at least three currently orbiting spacecraft. This paper describes the INCA program and illustrates, using a flight proven example, how the package can perform complex design analyses with relative ease.

  14. Development of Foot Massage Program on Nausea and Vomiting for Cancer Patients: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Guru Prapti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to develop a foot massage program to support care activity in reducing nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Two phases, a literature review and the development of a foot massage program were conducted. The literature review was to analyze state of the art massage techniques by reviewing problems, related theories and supporting evidence. Method: Eight published studies in the English language were reviewed. A massage can be performed for different durations, from 10 minutes up to 60 minutes for three to six weeks and can be applied on various body areas. We found that the soft stroke/effleurage seems to be the best method and is most suitable for patients with cancer. It is also evident that foot massaging can be applied as a modality to reduce nausea and vomiting for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Result: We developed a foot massage program specifically for patients with cancer. The foot massage program comprised of three sessions, including 1 education session, 2 preparation session, and 3 foot massage session. In the education session, patients obtain brief information about the definition of a foot massage, the benefits and contraindication of foot massaging. During the preparation phase, foot soaking and warming up are performed. Subsequently, the foot massage is applied and should last for 30 minutes. Further research is recommended to test the effectiveness of the proposed foot massage program for nausea and vomiting in cancer patients across countries including Indonesia. Key Words: Foot massage program, chemotherapy, nausea and vomiting

  15. Health economics evaluation of a gastric cancer early detection and treatment program in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Li-Ping; Fang, Xue; Zhou, Bao-Sen

    2014-01-01

    To use health economics methodology to assess the screening program on gastric cancer in Zhuanghe, China, so as to provide the basis for health decision on expanding the program of early detection and treatment. The expense of an early detection and treatment program for gastric cancer in patients found by screening, and also costs of traditional treatment in a hospital of Zhuanghe were assessed. Three major techniques of medical economics, namely cost-effective analysis (CEA), cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-utility analysis (CUA), were used to assess the screening program. RESULTS from CEA showed that investing every 25, 235 Yuan on screening program in Zhuanghe area, one gastric cancer patient could be saved. Data from CUA showed that it was cost 1, 370 Yuan per QALY saved. RESULTS from CBA showed that: the total cost was 1,945,206 Yuan with a benefit as 8,669,709 Yuan and an CBR of 4.46. The early detection and treatment program of gastric cancer appears economic and society-beneficial. We suggest that it should be carry out in more high risk areas for gastric cancer.

  16. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients - a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arving, Cecilia; Thormodsen, Inger; Brekke, Guri; Mella, Olav; Berntsen, Sveinung; Nordin, Karin

    2013-01-07

    Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereby present the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individual stress-management intervention with a stepped-care approach in several cancer diagnoses. Patients (≥ 18 years) with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer or testicle cancer and scheduled for adjuvant/curative oncology treatment, will consecutively be included in the study. In this prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, patients will be randomized to control, treatment as usual, or an individual stress-management intervention in two steps. The first step is a low-intensity stress-management intervention, given to all patients randomized to intervention. Patients who continue to report stress symptoms after the first step will thereafter be given more intensive treatment at the second step of the programme. In the intervention patients will also be motivated to be physically active. Avoidance and intrusion are the primary outcomes. According to the power analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for two years. Other outcomes are physical activity level, sleep duration and quality recorded objectively, and anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living, and patient satisfaction assessed using valid and standardized psychometric tested questionnaires. Utilization of hospital services will be derived from the computerized patient administration systems used by the hospital. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated through a cost-utility analysis. This RCT

  17. Effects of yoga on symptom management in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosakote Vadiraja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy on distressful symptoms in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44 or brief supportive therapy (n = 44 prior to their radiotherapy treatment. Intervention consisted of yoga sessions lasting 60 min daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy once in 10 days during the course of their adjuvant radiotherapy. Assessments included Rotterdam Symptom Check List and European Organization for Research in the Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life (EORTC QoL C30 symptom scale. Assessments were done at baseline and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy treatment. Results: A GLM repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant decrease in psychological distress (P = 0.01, fatigue (P = 0.007, insomnia (P = 0.001, and appetite loss (P = 0.002 over time in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was significant improvement in the activity level (P = 0.02 in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between physical and psychological distress and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, and constipation. There was a significant negative correlation between the activity level and fatigue, nausea and vomiting, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, and appetite loss. Conclusion: The results suggest beneficial effects with yoga intervention in managing cancer- and treatment-related symptoms in breast cancer patients.

  18. Quality of reporting randomized controlled trials in cancer nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jia-Wen; Sward, Katherine A; Beck, Susan L; Staggers, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide high-level evidence for evidence-based practice (EBP). The quality of RCTs has a substantial influence on providing reliable knowledge for EBP. Little is known about the quality of RCT reporting in cancer nursing. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reporting in published cancer nursing RCTs from 1984 to 2010. A total of 227 RCTs in cancer nursing published in English-language journals and indexed in PubMed or Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were reviewed using the Jadad scale, key methodologic index (KMI), and the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist to assess the quality of reporting methodological aspects of research and the overall quality of reporting RCTs. Adherence to reporting metrics was relatively low, based on the Jadad score (M = 1.94 out of 5, SD = 1.01), KMI scores (M = 0.84 out of 3, SD = .87), and adherence to CONSORT checklist items (M =16.92 out of 37, SD = 4.03). Only 11 of 37 items in the CONSORT checklist were reported in 80% or more of the studies reviewed. The quality of reporting showed some improvement over time. Adherence to reporting metrics for cancer nursing RCTs was suboptimal, and further efforts are needed to improve both methodology reporting and overall reporting. Journals are encouraged to adopt the CONSORT checklist to influence the quality of RCT reports.

  19. Leadership in Nigerian health system for cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbimi, R I

    2009-06-01

    Unacceptable health system outcomes are often related to problems with leadership because the ultimate responsibility for assigned work rests on leadership. In this paper, proper leadership at micro and macro-levels can have positive impact on the health and well being of citizens. While this may be readily obvious in other spheres, it has not been addressed adequately in the context of health care systems and its impact on health outcomes. In this paper, I discuss types of work and leadership systems in order to highlight the importance of leadership and leadership training in collaborative training and research for cancer management. The complexity of health systems highlight the expanded role of leadership in terms of capacity and capability to control the environmental risk factors for cancer, deploy adequate resources for the management of cancers, and ensure fruitful and productive post treatment life for citizens. Improved community awareness, better training of health care workers, improved working environment based on better interpersonal relationships between all cadres of health care workers, environmental health and safety initiatives and research on cancer are some of the areas where improved leadership can lead to better health outcomes. Effective leadership requires a set of skills that can be acquired with requisite operating environment, political will and adequate funding in order to generate the expected improvements in outcome.

  20. Technique for histological control of surgical margins in lip cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Satoru; Hata, Hiroo; Homma, Erina; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    To preserve oral function and achieve acceptable cosmetic results, intraoperative control of surgical margins with frozen section evaluation may help to determine surgical technique in lip cancer. However, frozen section analysis is usually limited to suspicious areas and has not been systematically performed among surgeons. The accuracy of such analysis for detecting histological surgical margins is highly dependent on the methods used to obtain and analyze the margins. Improving the pathodiagnostic reliability of conventional intraoperative frozen section evaluation is the most important goal of surgical management in our method. We describe the successful use of the "double-blade method" in lip cancer treatment. The technique we describe has the advantage of histologically confirming clear margins in lip cancer. This method appears to be time-saving and easy to apply with existing surgical systems. In addition, this method may be used as an alternative to complete evaluation of lateral surgical margins that is important in planning a suitable surgical reconstruction procedure in lip cancer at many institutions where Mohs micrographic surgery is difficult to perform. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  1. CDC Grand Rounds: Family History and Genomics as Tools for Cancer Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan L; Thomas, Cheryll C; Massetti, Greta M; Duquette, Debra; Avner, Lindsay; Iskander, John; Khoury, Muin J; Richardson, Lisa C

    2016-11-25

    Although many efforts in cancer prevention and control have routinely focused on behavioral risk factors, such as tobacco use, or on the early detection of cancer, such as colorectal cancer screening, advances in genetic testing have created new opportunities for cancer prevention through evaluation of family history and identification of cancer-causing inherited mutations. Through the collection and evaluation of a family cancer history by a trained health care provider, patients and families at increased risk for a hereditary cancer syndrome can be identified, referred for genetic counseling and testing, and make informed decisions about options for cancer risk reduction (1). Although hereditary cancers make up a small proportion of all cancers, the number of affected persons can be large, and the level of risk among affected persons is high. Two hereditary cancer syndromes for which public health professionals have worked to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome.

  2. Choices: An Interactive Decision Support Program for Breast Cancer Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierce, Penny Fay

    1998-01-01

    This project is developing a computer-assisted prototype of an individualized decision support system, called Choices, to assist women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in making stressful treatment...

  3. Healthcare Professionals' Attitudes to Rehabilitation Programming for Male Cancer Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and interpret the attitudes and conduct of hospital healthcare professionals (HCPs) in association with male cancer survivors and their municipal rehabilitation participation. Design: Ethnographic fieldwork was conducted, consisting of participant...

  4. [Attendance rate in the Polish Cervical Cancer Screening Program in the years 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaczyński, Marek; Karowicz-Bilinska, Agata; Rokita, Wojciech; Molińska-Glura, Marta; Januszek-Michalecka, Lucyna; Seroczyński, Przemysław; Uchlik, Joanna; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa

    2010-09-01

    In Poland in 2007, according to the National Cancer Registry 3431 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and 1907 died. To change the unfavorable epidemiologic situation, in 2005 the Ministry of Health (MH), the National Health Fund (NHF) and the Polish Gynecological Society following WHO/IARC guidelines developed a National Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program. Its implementation and roll-out started in 2006. The target population are women aged 25 to 59 insured in the National Health Fund. A Pap test is done with a three-year interval, free of charge. The system is based on personal invitations sent by regular post. Invitation to screening is supported by a social educational campaign "Choose Life" run under one slogan and logo across the whole country The NHF data base enables identification of women to screen. Pap smears are collected by gynecologists and since 2008 also by midwives trained and certified by the Program National Coordinating Center Pap test results are reported in the Bethesda 2001 system. The Screening Program has its system of quality assurance and control and is supported by a specially designed computer data base called SIMP (System of Information Monitoring in Prophylaxis) with online access to all records. In addition to organized, population-based screening there is also opportunistic screening in Poland practiced either by private gynecological practices or by some units that cooperate with the National Health Fund, but do Pap tests as an element of comprehensive gynecological examination. Those smears are not registered in the SIMP. Our aim was analysis of attendance rate in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program in the years 2007-2009. We also investigated correlation between screening coverage and invitation sending schedule, as well as between coverage and screening accessibility determined by the number of gynaecological practices where Pap smears are collected. Attendance rate in the Screening Program was evaluated

  5. Dedicated Programming Language for Small Distributed Control Divices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz; Borch, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Small control computers are more and more used in modern households. These computers are for instance in washing machines, heating systems, secure systems, televisions and stereos. In the future all these computers will communicate with each other to implement the intelligent house. This can only....... This paper describes a new, flexible and simple language for programming distributed control tasks. The compiler for this language generates a target code that is very easy to interpret. A interpreter, that can be easy ported to different hardwares, is described. The new language is simple and easy to learn...

  6. Effectiveness of a psycho-oncology training program for oncology nurses: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yosuke; Okuyama, Toru; Uchida, Megumi; Umezawa, Shino; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Katsuki, Fujika; Nakano, Yumi; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiko; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2016-06-01

    Oncology nurses are expected to play an important role in psychosocial care for cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether a novel training program aimed at enhancing oncology nurses' ability to assess and manage common psychological problems in cancer patients would improve participants' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and attitudes regarding care of patients with common psychological problems (trial register: UMIN000008559). Oncology nurses were assigned randomly to either the intervention group (N = 50) or the waiting list control group (N = 46). The intervention group received a 16-h program, the content of which focused on four psychological issues: normal reactions, clinically significant distress, suicidal thoughts, and delirium. Each session included a role-play exercise, group work, and didactic lecture regarding assessment and management of each problem. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported confidence, knowledge, and attitudes toward the common psychological problems between pre-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were job-related stress and burnout. Intervention acceptability to participants was also assessed. In the intervention group, confidence and knowledge but not attitudes were significantly improved relative to the control group. No significant intervention effects were found for job- related stress and burnout. A high percentage (98%) of participants considered the program useful in clinical practice. This psycho-oncology training program improved oncology nurses' confidence and knowledge regarding care for patients with psychological problems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Recurrence after surgery due to cervical cancer - An evaluation of the follow-up program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective During the last 20 years the follow-up program after surgical treatment for cervical cancer has remained unchanged. Surprisingly, little is communicated in relation to the follow-up program even though it has a huge impact on the life of the women and their relatives for five years...... consequences, but there is a need for a foundation prior to an adjustment of the follow-up program. Methods Design: retrospective study of a cohort of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer. Material: From the patient register at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics......, Aarhus University Hospital we identified 567 patients from 1996 to 2011 matching the diagnosis cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the Danish Pathology Data Bank the following information is collected: - Stage of disease - Histology - Surgical procedure - Number of follow-up visit...

  8. [Colorectal cancer screening programs in the population at average risk in the European Union and Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Polbach, Sandra; García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Trilla, Antoni; Castells, Antoni

    2010-02-01

    There is broad international consensus on the need for colorectal cancer screening in men and women aged 50 years old or older with no personal or familial history of adenoma or colorectal cancer. The main problem is the disagreement among the various screening guidelines on the best screening method. The European Union (2003) extended the recommendation of implanting colorectal cancer screening using the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in the population aged between 50 and 74 years. Seventy percent of the member states are introducing a program but there is wide heterogeneity. In Spain, 2-yearly FOBT is recommended in the target population aged 50 to 69 years. Currently, three autonomous communities have developed pilot programs and are extending the program to the entire population. Many other communities have announced they will commence programs shortly. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Microenvironment -Programmed Metastatic Prostate Cancer Stem Cells (mPCSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    mPCSCs)” PI : Dean Tang 1. INTRODUCTION: The main goal of this IDEA project is to help elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying...metastatic prostate cancer stem cells 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Dr. Tang, the PI of this grant, together with most lab members, moved from the M.D...repressing CD44. Nat Med 17, 211-215 (2011). 5. Qin, J. et al. The PSA -/lo prostate cancer cell population harbors self-renewing long-term tumor

  11. Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Prostate Cancer Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    30am) Dr. Kristin Hardy How to make a poster (12:00-1:00pm) Dr. Mackenzie Zippay, PhD July 13 (N) Dementia Dr. Mark Kindy, PhD July...knowledge Oral Cancer Examination Source: Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals [Poster]. Bethesda, MD: National Oral Health... palliatively for 2-3 weeks Why Do We Fractionate Radiation Dose? Cannot treat tumor in isolation without treating some surrounding normal tissue

  12. The Quality Control Program for Industrial Hygiene Laboratories in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Dong; Chung, Eun Kyo; Kim, Kiwoong

    2017-09-01

    In 1992, the quality control program was introduced in Republic of Korea to improve the reliability of the work environment monitoring, which was introduced in the 1980s. The commission entrusted by the Ministry of Employment and Labor, the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute has conducted the program for industrial hygiene laboratories including designated monitoring institutions and spontaneously participating agencies. The number of institutions that participated in the program has increased from 30 to 161. The initial conformance ratio in the participants was 43% (organic solvents) and 52% (metals). Thereafter, the conformance ratio increased rapidly and it has remained in a stable state at more than 89% since 1996. As subject materials, 13 kinds of organic solvents and 7 kinds of metals were used. To improve the capability of measurement and analysis of private institutions, educational courses were conducted annually. An assessment at the actual sites of participants was additionally introduced into the program in 2013. Thus, the program turned into a system that administrates the overall process of participants. For the future, the scope of target materials will be extended through additional items. Thus, the reliability of the results of the work environment monitoring is expected to increase accordingly.

  13. Effectiveness of Core Stability Exercises and Recovery Myofascial Release Massage on Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Cantarero-Villanueva; Carolina Fernández-Lao; Rosario del Moral-Avila; César Fernández-de-las-Peñas; María Belén Feriche-Fernández-Castanys; Manuel Arroyo-Morales

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the effects of an 8-week multimodal program focused on core stability exercises and recovery massage with DVD support for a 6-month period in physical and psychological outcomes in breast cancer survivors. A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Seventy-eight (n = 78) breast cancer survivors were assigned to experimental (core stability exercises plus massage-myofascial release) and control (usual health care) groups. The interven...

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview of Cancer Programs Cancer Programs News American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Advocacy Efforts Cancer Liaison ... Validation Programs Accredited Education Institutes CME Accreditation CME Joint Providership Program Verification of Knowledge and Skills Resources ...

  15. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  16. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  17. Simultaneous cancer control and diagnosis with magnetic nanohybrid materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saadat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coated magnetite nanoparticles were linked to 68Ga complexes used in the positron emission tomography (PET for a new technical approach to detect cancer tissue with radiopharmaceuticals. By substitution of the Ga isotope with an alpha emitter the same compound could be used for cancer treatment. Furthermore the nanoparticles were connected to pH-sensitive complexes, enabling a pH-controlled assembly/disassembly and therefore the spreading of the particles in the tissue. With this novel method of combining detection and treatment simultaneously, the amount of medical exposure could be minimized for the patient. The results demonstrate that magnetite nanoparticles can effectively be functionalized with PET isotopes and pH sensitive complexes in order to use them as a new type of radiopharmaceuticals.

  18. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM-based education onknowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93 and control (n=87 groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS, and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05 in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05. The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations.

  19. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... Health and Human Services, and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early...

  20. Photoacoustic spectral analysis to sense programmed erythrocyte cell death (eryptosis) for monitoring cancer response to treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhel, Muhannad N.; Kibria, Fayruz; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    Many types of cancer therapies target the tumor microenvironment, causing biochemical and morphological changes in tissues. In therapies using ultrasound activated microbubbles, vascular collapse is typically reported. Red blood cells (RBCs) that leak out of the vasculature become exposed to the ceramide that is released from damaged endothelial cells. Ceramide can induce programmed cell death in RBCs (eryptosis), and is characterized by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and scrambling. Since the effect of eryptotic cells on generated photoacoustics (PA) signals has not been reported, we investigated the potential PA may have for cancer treatment monitoring by using PA spectral analysis to sense eryptosis. To induce eryptosis, C2-ceramide was added to RBC suspensions and that were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. A control and ceramide-induced sample was imaged in a vessel phantom using a high frequency PA system (VevoLAZR, 10 - 45 MHz bandwidth) irradiated with multiple wavelengths ranging from 680 to 900 nm. PA spectral parameters were measured and linked to changes in RBCs as it underwent eryptosis. These samples were examined using optical microscopy, a blood gas analyzer and an integrating sphere setup to measure optical properties (wavelengths 600 - 900 nm). The results of the experiment demonstrate how PA spectral analysis can be used to identify eryptosis at a depth of more than 1 cm into the phantom using ultrasound derived the y-intercept and mid bandfit (MBF) parameters at optical wavelengths of 800 - 900 nm. These parameters were correlated to the morphological and biochemical changes that eryptotic RBCs display. The results establish the potential of PA in cancer treatment monitoring through sensing treatment induced eryptosis.

  1. EMT is the dominant program in human colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tollenaar Rob AEM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon cancer has been classically described by clinicopathologic features that permit the prediction of outcome only after surgical resection and staging. Methods We performed an unsupervised analysis of microarray data from 326 colon cancers to identify the first principal component (PC1 of the most variable set of genes. PC1 deciphered two primary, intrinsic molecular subtypes of colon cancer that predicted disease progression and recurrence. Results Here we report that the most dominant pattern of intrinsic gene expression in colon cancer (PC1 was tightly correlated (Pearson R = 0.92, P -135 with the EMT signature-- both in gene identity and directionality. In a global micro-RNA screen, we further identified the most anti-correlated microRNA with PC1 as MiR200, known to regulate EMT. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the biology underpinning the native, molecular classification of human colon cancer--previously thought to be highly heterogeneous-- was clarified through the lens of comprehensive transcriptome analysis.

  2. Carboy Security Testing and Training Programs for Industrial Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, Daniel [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Service providers rely on industrial control systems (ICS) to manage the flow of water at dams, open breakers on power grids, control ventilation and cooling in nuclear power plants, and more. In today's interconnected environment, this can present a serious cyber security challenge. To combat this growing challenge, government, private industry, and academia are working together to reduce cyber risks. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a key contributor to the Department of Energy National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), both of which focus on improving the overall security posture of ICS in the national critical infrastructure. In support of the NSTB, INL hosts a dedicated SCADA testing facility which consists of multiple control systems supplied by leading national and international manufacturers. Within the test bed, INL researchers systematically examine control system components and work to identify vulnerabilities. In support of the CSSP, INL develops and conducts training courses which are designed to increase awareness and defensive capabilities for IT/Control System professionals. These training vary from web-based cyber security training for control systems engineers to more advanced hands-on training that culminates with a Red Team/Blue Team exercise that is conducted within an actual control systems environment. INL also provides staffing and operational support to the DHS Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) Security Operations Center which responds to and analyzes control systems cyber incidents across the 18 US critical infrastructure sectors.

  3. Findings from the Community Health Intervention Program in South Carolina: Implications for Reducing Cancer-Related Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, James Lyndon; Friedman, Daniela B.; Brandt, Heather M.; Adams, Swann Arp; Xirasagar, Sudha; Ureda, John R.; Mayo, Rachel M.; Comer, Kimberly; Evans, Miriam; Fedrick, Delores; Talley, Jacqueline; Broderick, Madeline; Hebert, James R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (SC-CPCRN) implemented the Community Health Intervention Program (CHIP) mini-grants initiative to address cancer-related health disparities and reduce the cancer burden among high-risk populations across the state. The mini-grants project implemented evidence-based health interventions tailored to the specific needs of each community. OBJECTIVE To support the SC-CPCRN’s goals of moving toward greater dissemination and implementation of evidence-based programs in the community to improve public health, prevent disease, and reduce the cancer burden. METHODS Three community-based organizations were awarded $10,000 each to implement one of the National Cancer Institute’s evidence-based interventions. Each group had 12 months to complete their project. SC-CPCRN investigators and staff provided guidance, oversight, and technical assistance for each project. Grantees provided regular updates and reports to their SC-CPCRN liaisons to capture vital evaluation information. RESULTS The intended CHIP mini-grant target population reach was projected to be up to 880 participants combined. Actual combined reach of the three projects reported upon completion totaled 1,072 individuals. The majority of CHIP participants were African-American females. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 81 years. Evaluation results showed an increase in physical activity, dietary improvements, and screening participation. CONCLUSIONS The success of the initiative was the result of a strong community-university partnership built on trust. Active two-way communication and an honest open dialogue created an atmosphere for collaboration. Communities were highly motivated. All team members shared a common goal of reducing cancer-related health disparities and building greater public health capacity across the state. PMID:23645547

  4. Feasibility of Mind-Body Movement Programs for Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Kristine K; Kue, Jennifer; Lyons, Felisha; Overcash, Janine

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate mind-body movement exercise (MBME) classes (yoga, tai chi, and Qigong) for cancer survivors. 
. A single-group, repeated-measures design.
. The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital in Columbus.
. 33 adult cancer survivors, with any cancer diagnosis, participating in MBME classes.
. The researchers sought to examine feasibility of multiple data collection time points and data collection measures; acceptability; and changes to physical, emotional, and biometric measures over time, as a result of participation in MBME classes.
. Quality of life, sleep, depressive symptomatology, fatigue, stress, upper body strength, gait and balance, body mass index, heart rate, and blood pressure.
. The current study was feasible because survivors were willing to participate and completed most of the questionnaires. Participants found these classes to be beneficial not only for exercise, but also for social support and social connectedness. Poor sleep quality was consistently reported by participants. MBME classes should be recommended to survivors and are beneficial for oncology practices to offer.
. Conducting MBME research with cancer survivors is feasible, and participants find the MBME acceptable and a way of addressing health and managing cancer-related symptoms.
. Nurses should help patients and caregivers identify locations and times when MBME class participation is possible, assess MBME class participation during each clinic visit to promote continued involvement and to understand if positive effects are occurring, and continue to provide support for MBME classes throughout the survivorship experience.

  5. Mindfulness based stress reduction study design of a longitudinal randomized controlled complementary intervention in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Lena B; Holmberg, Stig B; Andersson, Bengt A; Odén, Anders; Bergh, Ingrid

    2013-10-02

    The stress of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatment can produce a variety of psychosocial sequelae including impaired immune responses. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a structured complementary program that incorporates meditation, yoga and mind-body exercises. Despite promising empirical evidence for the efficacy of MBSR, there is a need for randomized controlled trials (RCT). There is also a need for RCTs investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions on mood disorder and immune response in women with breast cancer. Therefore, the overall aim is to determine the efficacy of a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on well-being and immune response in women with breast cancer. In this RCT, patients diagnosed with breast cancer, will consecutively be recruited to participate. Participants will be randomized into one of three groups: MBSR Intervention I (weekly group sessions + self-instructing program), MBSR Intervention II (self-instructing program), and Controls (non-MBSR). Data will be collected before start of intervention, and 3, 6, and 12 months and thereafter yearly up to 5 years. This study may contribute to evidence-based knowledge concerning the efficacy of MBSR to support patient empowerment to regain health in breast cancer disease. The present study may contribute to evidence-based knowledge concerning the efficacy of mindfulness training to support patient empowerment to regain health in a breast cancer disease. If MBSR is effective for symptom relief and quality of life, the method will have significant clinical relevance that may generate standard of care for patients with breast cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01591915.

  6. Cardiac Rehabilitation Program in Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Stage 0-III Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  7. Diet and pancreatic cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norell, S E; Ahlbom, A; Erwald, R; Jacobson, G; Lindberg-Navier, I; Olin, R; Törnberg, B; Wiechel, K L

    1986-12-01

    In a population-based case-control study carried out in Sweden in 1982-1984, the authors examined the association of pancreatic cancer with several dietary factors, coffee, alcohol, and tobacco. Analyses were based on 99 cases, 138 population controls, and 163 hospital controls. The cases were persons aged 40-79 years diagnosed with cancer of the exocrine pancreas at three surgical departments in Stockholm and Uppsala. The risk increased with higher consumption frequency of fried and grilled meat in the comparison with each series of controls (e.g., relative risk (RR) = 1.7 (90% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-2.7) for weekly intake and RR = 13.4 (90% CI = 2.4-74.7) for almost daily intake, in the comparison with population controls). Furthermore, associations were found with other fried or grilled foods, but not with meat other than fried or grilled. The risk also increased with the intake of margarine (e.g., RR = 9.7 (90% CI = 3.1-30.2) for 15+ g of margarine on a slice of bread, in the comparison with population controls). In contrast, no excess risk was associated with high intake of butter. A low risk was associated with frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables, particularly carrots (RR = 0.3 (90% CI = 0.2-0.7)) and citrus fruits (RR = 0.5 (90% CI = 0.3-0.9)) for almost daily intake. No consistent associations were found with coffee, artificial sweeteners or alcohol consumption, but a threefold increase in risk was associated with smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day.

  8. Union for International Cancer Control International Session: healthcare economics: the significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases political declaration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Kawahara, Norie; Masui, Tohru; Takeyama, Kunihiko; Nogimori, Masafumi; Roh, Jae Kyung

    2013-06-01

    The Japan National Committee for the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and UICC-Asia Regional Office (ARO) organized an international session as part of the official program of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Cancer Association to discuss the topic "Healthcare Economics: The Significance of the UN Summit non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Political Declaration in Asia." The presenters and participants discussed the growing cost of cancer in the Asian region and the challenges that are faced by the countries of Asia, all of which face budgetary and other systemic constraints in tackling and controlling cancer in the region. The session benefited from the participation of various stakeholders, including cancer researchers and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. They discussed the significance of the UN Political Declaration on the prevention and control of NCDs (2011) as a means of boosting awareness of cancer in the Asian region and also addressed the ways in which stakeholders can cooperate to improve cancer control and treatment. Other issues that were covered included challenges relating to pharmaceutical trials in Asia and how to link knowledge and research outcomes. The session concluded with the recognition that with the onset of a super-aged society in most countries in Asia and an increasing focus on quality of life rather than quantity of life, it is more important than ever for all stakeholders to continue to share information and promote policy dialogue on cancer control and treatment. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. Adaptive dynamic programming with applications in optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding; Yang, Xiong; Li, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the most recent developments in adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). The text begins with a thorough background review of ADP making sure that readers are sufficiently familiar with the fundamentals. In the core of the book, the authors address first discrete- and then continuous-time systems. Coverage of discrete-time systems starts with a more general form of value iteration to demonstrate its convergence, optimality, and stability with complete and thorough theoretical analysis. A more realistic form of value iteration is studied where value function approximations are assumed to have finite errors. Adaptive Dynamic Programming also details another avenue of the ADP approach: policy iteration. Both basic and generalized forms of policy-iteration-based ADP are studied with complete and thorough theoretical analysis in terms of convergence, optimality, stability, and error bounds. Among continuous-time systems, the control of affine and nonaffine nonlinear systems is studied using the ADP app...

  10. Tumour control probability in cancer stem cells hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Dhawan

    Full Text Available The tumour control probability (TCP is a formalism derived to compare various treatment regimens of radiation therapy, defined as the probability that given a prescribed dose of radiation, a tumour has been eradicated or controlled. In the traditional view of cancer, all cells share the ability to divide without limit and thus have the potential to generate a malignant tumour. However, an emerging notion is that only a sub-population of cells, the so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs, are responsible for the initiation and maintenance of the tumour. A key implication of the CSC hypothesis is that these cells must be eradicated to achieve cures, thus we define TCPS as the probability of eradicating CSCs for a given dose of radiation. A cell surface protein expression profile, such as CD44high/CD24low for breast cancer or CD133 for glioma, is often used as a biomarker to monitor CSCs enrichment. However, it is increasingly recognized that not all cells bearing this expression profile are necessarily CSCs, and in particular early generations of progenitor cells may share the same phenotype. Thus, due to the lack of a perfect biomarker for CSCs, we also define a novel measurable TCPCD+, that is the probability of eliminating or controlling biomarker positive cells. Based on these definitions, we use stochastic methods and numerical simulations parameterized for the case of gliomas, to compare the theoretical TCPS and the measurable TCPCD+. We also use the measurable TCP to compare the effect of various radiation protocols.

  11. A nursing workforce program to advance knowledge and skills for nurses implementing cancer clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborski, Cindy; Neimanis, Debbie; Paquette, Anne D; Hernandez, Lise; Klaes, Kathleen; Rudnicki, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Clinical nursing research is an emerging subspecialty that enhances nursing expertise. In an effort to provide a basic educational curriculum on cancer research and clinical trials, a major academic cancer center launched a novel program titled Clinical Research Nursing Grand Rounds that allowed nurses to receive continuing education units. The purpose of the current article is to describe the development and content of the education model, challenges encountered, and implications for oncology nursing education, practice, and research.

  12. Innovative fertility preservation strategies and programs for young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson RH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca H Johnson Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Mary Bridge Hospital, MultiCare Health System, Tacoma, WA, USA Abstract: Preservation of fertility is a key issue for young adults newly diagnosed with cancer. Up to 90% of cancer patients under the age of 45 are at risk for fertility impairment following cancer therapy. Cancer patients who are not offered fertility preservation (FP and those who become infertile following therapy may experience long-term psychosocial distress. This review summarizes the numerous effective strategies for preserving fertility, including sperm banking, electroejaculation, and testicular sperm extraction in males and cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes in females. This paper also highlights novel methods currently in development, such as gonadal tissue cryopreservation and in vitro maturation of gametes. In women, anti-Mullerian hormone is emerging as an accurate marker of ovarian reserve, and the use of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs to protect fertility is increasingly well validated. Although national guidelines mandate FP counseling and referral prior to the start of cancer therapy for patients with reproductive potential, only a minority of young cancer patients in the USA currently take steps to preserve fertility prior to the start of therapy. Some cancer centers across the USA are developing institutional strategies to support FP, resulting in increased utilization of fertility services by newly diagnosed cancer patients. Keywords: young adult, cancer, fertility preservation, program, oocyte, sperm

  13. Patient outcomes from lung cancer and diabetes mellitus: a matched case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, Nina J; Amin, Shailja B; Buras, Matthew R; Kosiorek, Heidi E; Verona, Patricia M; Cook, Curtiss B

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This case–control study examined the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on survival in lung cancer patients and lung cancer on glycemic control in DM. Materials & methods: Patients with a new lung cancer diagnosis and DM (n = 124) were matched to 124 lung cancer patients without DM. Laboratory results and DM and cancer therapies were obtained from electronic records. Results: Five-year overall survival for lung cancer patients with and without DM was 20 versus 29% (p = .12). Glycemic contr...

  14. Effectiveness of gastric cancer screening programs in South Korea: organized vs opportunistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Jin; Heo, Chae; Kim, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Jae Yeol; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2013-02-07

    To investigate the outcome and effectiveness of two screening programs, National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opportunistic screening (OS), for the detection of gastric cancer. A total of 45  654 subjects underwent upper endoscopy as part of the NCSP or OS at the Chung-Ang University Healthcare System in Korea between January 2007 and December 2010. The study population was comprised of subjects over the age of 40 years. More specifically, subjects who took part in the NCSP were Medicaid recipients and beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Corporation. Still photographs from the endoscopies diagnosed as gastric cancer were reviewed by two experienced endoscopists. The mean age of the screened subjects was 55 years for men and 54 years for women. A total of 126 cases (0.28%) of gastric cancer were detected from both screening programs; 100 cases (0.3%) from NCSP and in 26 cases (0.2%) from OS. The proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) detected in NCSP was higher than that in OS (74.0% vs 53.8%, P = 0.046). Among the 34  416 screenees in NCSP, 6585 (19.1%) underwent upper endoscopy every other year as scheduled. Among the 11  238 screenees in OS, 3050 (27.1%) underwent upper endoscopy at least once every two years during the study period. The detection rate of gastric cancer was found to be significantly higher during irregular follow-up than during regular follow-up in both screening programs (0.3% vs 0.2%, P = 0.036). A higher incidence of EGC than advanced gastric cancer was observed during regular follow-up compared with irregular follow-up. Compliance to the screening program is more important than the type of screening system used.

  15. Feasibility of a pancreatic cancer surveillance program from a psychological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinck, Femme; Nagtegaal, Tanja; Kluijt, Irma; Aalfs, Cora; Smets, Ellen; Poley, Jan-Werner; Wagner, Anja; van Hooft, Jeanin; Fockens, Paul; Bruno, Marco; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2011-12-01

    : The success of any surveillance program depends not solely on its technological aspects but also on the commitment of participants to adhere to follow-up investigations, which is influenced by the psychological impact of surveillance. This study investigates the psychological impact of participating in a pancreatic cancer surveillance program. : High-risk individuals participating in an endoscopic ultrasonography-magnetic resonance imaging-based pancreatic cancer surveillance program received a questionnaire assessing experiences with endoscopic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, reasons to participate, psychological distress, and benefits and barriers of surveillance. High-risk individuals were individuals with a strong family history of pancreatic cancer or carriers of pancreatic cancer-prone gene mutations. : Sixty-nine participants (85%) completed the questionnaire. Surveillance was reported as "very to extremely uncomfortable" by 15% for magnetic resonance imaging and 14% for endoscopic ultrasonography. Most reported reason to participate was that pancreatic cancer might be detected in a curable stage. Abnormalities were detected in 27 respondents, resulting in surgical resection in one individual and a shorter follow-up interval in five individuals. Surveillance outcomes did not influence cancer worries. Overall, 29% was "often" or "almost always" concerned about developing cancer. Six respondents (9%) had clinical levels of depression and/or anxiety. According to 88% of respondents, advantages of surveillance outweighed disadvantages. : Although endoscopic ultrasonography is more invasive than magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopic ultrasonography was not perceived as more burdensome. Despite one third of respondents worrying frequently about cancer, this was not related to the surveillance outcomes. Anxiety and depression levels were comparable with the general population norms. Advantages of participation outweighed disadvantages according

  16. Balancing the benefits and detriments among women targeted by the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofvind, Solveig; Román, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Falk, Ragnhild S

    2016-12-01

    To compute a ratio between the estimated numbers of lives saved from breast cancer death and the number of women diagnosed with a breast cancer that never would have been diagnosed during the woman's lifetime had she not attended screening (epidemiologic over-diagnosis) in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program invites women aged 50-69 to biennial mammographic screening. Results from published studies using individual level data from the programme for estimating breast cancer mortality and epidemiologic over-diagnosis comprised the basis for the ratio. The mortality reduction varied from 36.8% to 43% among screened women, while estimates on epidemiologic over-diagnosis ranged from 7% to 19.6%. We computed the average estimates for both values. The benefit-detriment ratio, number of lives saved, and number of women over-diagnosed were computed for different scenarios of reduction in breast cancer mortality and epidemiologic over-diagnosis. For every 10,000 biennially screened women, followed until age 79, we estimated that 53-61 (average 57) women were saved from breast cancer death, and 45-126 (average 82) were over-diagnosed. The benefit-detriment ratio using average estimates was 1:1.4, indicating that the programme saved about one life per 1-2 women with epidemiologic over-diagnosis. The benefit-detriment ratio estimates of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, expressed as lives saved from breast cancer death and epidemiologic over-diagnosis, should be interpreted with care due to substantial uncertainties in the estimates, and the differences in the scale of values of the events compared. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Cost of the Cervical Cancer Screening Program at the Mexican Social Security Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Granados-García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate the annual cost of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS. Materials and methods. This cost analysis examined regional coverage rates reported by IMSS. We estimated the number of cytology, colposcopy, biopsy and pathology evaluations, as well as the diagnostic test and treatment costs for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade II and III (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer. Diagnostic test costs were estimated using a micro-costing technique. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. The cost to perform 2.7 million cytology tests was nearly 38 million dollars, which represents 26.1% of the total program cost (145.4 million. False negatives account for nearly 43% of the program costs. Conclusion. The low sensitivity of the cytology test generates high rates of false negatives, which results in high institutional costs from the treatment of undetected cervical cancer cases.

  18. Summer Undergraduate Training Program in Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Pharmacy), Prof. Jo Davisson Steve Kaverman (Purdue University School of Pharmacy), Prof. David J. Riese Jack Laney (Florida State University Chemistry...breast-cancer cells with the gene for the mutant and observed growth arrest of the cells. Kyle Hodges. This summer I worked in the V. Jo Davisson lab

  19. Evaluation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Program At A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and practices on risk factors for cervical cancer and Pap smear and to design an intervention to improve Pap smear uptake. Methods: A cross-sectional population based descriptive study was undertaken at a rural community of South Africa targeting women 30 years and over. The assessment was performed by means of a ...

  20. A Diagnostic Program for Patients Suspected of Having Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigt, Jos A.; Uil, Steven M.; Oostdijk, Ad H.; Boers, James E.; van den Berg, Jan-Willem K.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In 297 patients suspected of having lung cancer, invasive diagnostic procedures followed positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) on the same day. For patients with a diagnosis of malignancy (215/297), investigations were finalized on 1 day in 85%, and bronchoscopy was performed in

  1. Building the evaluation capacity of California's local tobacco control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Jeanette; Cassady, Diana; Kipke, Robin; Kwon, Nicole; Satterlund, Travis

    2011-11-01

    Successful evaluation capacity building requires a dynamic balance between responding to local agency needs and ensuring that local staff have appropriate skills to conduct rigorous evaluations. In 2004, the California Tobacco Control Program established the Tobacco Control Evaluation Center (TCEC), based at a public research university, to provide evaluation technical assistance to approximately 100 local agencies implementing tobacco control programs. TCEC has been responsive to local needs, for instance, by answering 512 technical assistance requests in the first 5 years of operation and by tailoring training according to needs assessment results. About 50% of the technical assistance requests were for new data collection instruments (n = 255). TCEC has sought proactively to improve local evaluation skills, most recently in a data analysis and report writing skill building campaign that included a webinar, newsletter, and seven regional training meetings. Preliminary analysis suggests a 20% improvement in scores for the local final evaluation reports as a result of this campaign. It is concluded that evaluation technical assistance can be provided effectively by a university as long as the local context is kept in mind, and a balance of responsive and proactive technical assistance is provided.

  2. Controlled Optimal Design Program for the Logit Dose Response Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiao Hu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of dose-response is an integral component of the drug development process. Parallel dose-response studies are conducted, customarily, in preclinical and phase 1, 2 clinical trials for this purpose. Practical constraints on dose range, dose levels and dose proportions are intrinsic issues in the design of dose response studies because of drug toxicity, efficacy, FDA regulations, protocol requirements, clinical trial logistics, and marketing issues. We provide a free on-line software package called Controlled Optimal Design 2.0 for generating controlled optimal designs that can incorporate prior information and multiple objectives, and meet multiple practical constraints at the same time. Researchers can either run the web-based design program or download its stand-alone version to construct the desired multiple-objective controlled Bayesian optimal designs. Because researchers often adopt ad-hoc design schemes such as the equal allocation rules without knowing how efficient such designs would be for the design problem, the program also evaluates the efficiency of user-supplied designs.

  3. Effect of happiness educational program on the level of stress, anxiety and depression of the cancer patients' nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Zahra; Mardany, Zahra; Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Nurses face a great amount of stress that can threaten their health and reduce their motivation. Nurses' present working conditions lead to an increase in emotional pressures and depression. Conducting a study on this seems to be necessary, with regard to nurses' stressful working conditions, in order to take steps toward achieving different and non-meditational treatments to treat their stress, anxiety, and depression and, consequently, promote nurses' and patients' health. This is a randomized clinical trial conducted on 52 nurses working in cancer patients wards, who were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Happiness educational program was administered for six sessions once a week in the study group and a communication training sessions with the patients in the control group, and DASS-42 questionnaire was completed before, immediately after, and 1 month after intervention by the subjects in both study and control groups. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, independent t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) through SPSS 18. Mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression showed no significant difference before and after intervention. Meanwhile, independent t-test showed that mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression were significantly lower in the study group compared to the control group immediately after and 1 month after intervention (P stress in the cancer patients' wards. Psychiatric nurses can reduce depression, anxiety, and stress of nurses working in other hospitals also through application of this program.

  4. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition.

  5. Efficacy and safety of human papillomavirus vaccine for primary prevention of cervical cancer: A review of evidence from phase III trials and national programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Basu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in the national immunization programs in most of the medium and high income countries following endorsement from national and international advisory bodies. HPV vaccine is unique and its introduction is challenging in many ways - it is the first vaccine developed to prevent any cancer, the vaccine is gender specific, it targets adolescent females who are difficult to reach by any health intervention programs. It is not unusual for such a vaccine to face scepticism and reservations not only from lay public but also from professionals in spite of the clinical trial results convincingly and consistently proving their efficacy and safety. Over the last few years millions of doses of the HPV vaccine have been administered round the world and the efficacy and safety data have started coming from the real life programs. A comprehensive cervical cancer control program involving HPV vaccination of the adolescent girls and screening of the adult women has been proved to be the most cost-effective approach to reduce the burden of cervical cancer. The present article discusses the justification of HPV vaccination in the backdrop of natural history of cervical cancer, the mechanism of action of the vaccines, efficacy and safety data from phase III randomized controlled trials as well as from the national immunization programs of various countries.

  6. Follow-up of abnormal or inadequate test results in the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Bettina Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Denmark has a higher incidence of cervical cancer than other Nordic countries, although all Danish women (aged 23–65) are screened regularly to identify possible cervical dysplasia or asymptomatic invasive cancer. Annually 40 000 women receives an abnormal or inadequate test result and a follow......-up recommendation. However problems with delayed follow-up may threaten the effectiveness of the Danish Cervical Cancer Screening Program, as 20% of women are delayed and dysplasia potentially can progress into cancer. Delayed follow-up is found in situations where women either consciously or unconsciously postpone...... will be of great importance to the future organisation of cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes in Denmark, but will also have international interest because of their similar challenges....

  7. Can patient navigation improve receipt of recommended breast cancer care? Evidence from the National Patient Navigation Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Naomi Y; Darnell, Julie S; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Freund, Karen M; Wells, Kristin J; Shapiro, Charles L; Dudley, Donald J; Patierno, Steven R; Fiscella, Kevin; Raich, Peter; Battaglia, Tracy A

    2014-09-01

    Poor and underserved women face barriers in receiving timely and appropriate breast cancer care. Patient navigators help individuals overcome these barriers, but little is known about whether patient navigation improves quality of care. The purpose of this study is to examine whether navigated women with breast cancer are more likely to receive recommended standard breast cancer care. Women with breast cancer who participated in the national Patient Navigation Research Program were examined to determine whether the care they received included the following: initiation of antiestrogen therapy in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer; initiation of postlumpectomy radiation therapy; and initiation of chemotherapy in women younger than age 70 years with triple-negative tumors more than 1 cm. This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter quasi-experimental study funded by the National Cancer Institute to evaluate patient navigation. Multiple logistic regression was performed to compare differences in receipt of care between navigated and non-navigated participants. Among participants eligible for antiestrogen therapy, navigated participants (n = 380) had a statistically significant higher likelihood of receiving antiestrogen therapy compared with non-navigated controls (n = 381; odds ratio [OR], 1.73; P = .004) in a multivariable analysis. Among the participants eligible for radiation therapy after lumpectomy, navigated participants (n = 255) were no more likely to receive radiation (OR, 1.42; P = .22) than control participants (n = 297). We demonstrate that navigated participants were more likely than non-navigated participants to receive antiestrogen therapy. Future studies are required to determine the full impact patient navigation may have on ensuring that vulnerable populations receive quality care. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. Individual and setting level predictors of the implementation of a skin cancer prevention program: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownson Ross C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To achieve widespread cancer control, a better understanding is needed of the factors that contribute to successful implementation of effective skin cancer prevention interventions. This study assessed the relative contributions of individual- and setting-level characteristics to implementation of a widely disseminated skin cancer prevention program. Methods A multilevel analysis was conducted using data from the Pool Cool Diffusion Trial from 2004 and replicated with data from 2005. Implementation of Pool Cool by lifeguards was measured using a composite score (implementation variable, range 0 to 10 that assessed whether the lifeguard performed different components of the intervention. Predictors included lifeguard background characteristics, lifeguard sun protection-related attitudes and behaviors, pool characteristics, and enhanced (i.e., more technical assistance, tailored materials, and incentives are provided versus basic treatment group. Results The mean value of the implementation variable was 4 in both years (2004 and 2005; SD = 2 in 2004 and SD = 3 in 2005 indicating a moderate implementation for most lifeguards. Several individual-level (lifeguard characteristics and setting-level (pool characteristics and treatment group factors were found to be significantly associated with implementation of Pool Cool by lifeguards. All three lifeguard-level domains (lifeguard background characteristics, lifeguard sun protection-related attitudes and behaviors and six pool-level predictors (number of weekly pool visitors, intervention intensity, geographic latitude, pool location, sun safety and/or skin cancer prevention programs, and sun safety programs and policies were included in the final model. The most important predictors of implementation were the number of weekly pool visitors (inverse association and enhanced treatment group (positive association. That is, pools with fewer weekly visitors and pools in the enhanced

  9. CR mammography: Design and implementation of a quality control program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Ramirez, A.; Brandan, M. E.; Villasenor-Navarro, Y.; Galvan, H. A.; Ruiz-Trejo, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Departamento de Radiodiagnostico, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, DF 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Despite the recent acquisition of significant quantities of computed radiography CR equipment for mammography, Mexican regulations do not specify the performance requirements for digital systems such as those of CR type. The design of a quality control program QCP specific for CR mammography systems was thus considered relevant. International protocols were taken as reference to define tests, procedures and acceptance criteria. The designed QCP was applied in three CR mammography facilities. Important deficiencies in spatial resolution, noise, image receptor homogeneity, artifacts and breast thickness compensation were detected.

  10. Structural mode significance using INCA. [Interactive Controls Analysis computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.; Thorpe, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural finite element models are often too large to be used in the design and analysis of control systems. Model reduction techniques must be applied to reduce the structural model to manageable size. In the past, engineers either performed the model order reduction by hand or used distinct computer programs to retrieve the data, to perform the significance analysis and to reduce the order of the model. To expedite this process, the latest version of INCA has been expanded to include an interactive graphical structural mode significance and model order reduction capability.

  11. Feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Midtgaard, Julie; Rorth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Cancer patients frequently experience considerable loss of physical capacity and general wellbeing when diagnosed and treated for their disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, physical capacity, and health benefits of a multidimensional exercise program for cancer patients...... during advanced stages of disease who are undergoing adjuvant or high-dose chemotherapy. The supervised program included high- and low-intensity activities (physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training). A total of 23 patients between 18 and 65 years of age (median 40 years...

  12. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program Data Validation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eheman, Christie R.; Leadbetter, Steven; Benard, Vicki B.; Ryerson, A. Blythe; Royalty, Janet E.; Blackman, Donald; Pollack, Lori A.; Adams, Paula Willey; Babcock, Fran

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate the quality of national data generated by the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP); to assess variables collected through the program that are appropriate to use for program management, evaluation, and data analysis; and to identify potential data-quality issues. Methods Information was abstracted randomly from 5603 medical records selected from 6 NBCCEDP-funded state programs, and 76 categorical variables and 11 text-based breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnostic variables were collected. Concordance was estimated between abstracted data and the data collected by the NBCCEDP. Overall and outcome-specific concordance was calculated for each of the key variables. Four screening performance measures also were estimated by comparing the program data with the abstracted data. Results Basic measures of program outcomes, such as the percentage of women with cancer or with abnormal screening tests, had a high concordance rate. Variables with poor or inconsistent concordance included reported breast symptoms, receipt of fine-needle aspiration, and receipt of colposcopy with biopsy. Conclusions The overall conclusion from this comprehensive validation project of the NBCCEDP is that, with few exceptions, the data collected from individual program sites and reported to the CDC are valid and consistent with sociodemographic and clinical data within medical records. PMID:25099903

  13. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-05-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to the basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this article is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. "Joven & Fuerte": Program for Young Women with Breast Cancer in Mexico - Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Castro-Sánchez, Andrea; Platas, Alejandra; Miaja, Melina; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro; Barragan-Carrillo, Regina; Fonseca, Alan; Vega, Yoatzin; Martinez-Cannon, B Alejandra; Aguilar, Dione; Bargalló-Rocha, Enrique; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Peña-Curiel, Omar; Matus-Santoso, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high rates of breast cancer among young Mexican women, their special needs and concerns have not been systematically addressed. To fulfill these unsatisfied demands, we have developed "Joven & Fuerte: Program for Young Women with Breast Cancer in Mexico," the first program dedicated to the care of young breast cancer patients in Latin America, which is taking place at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico and the two medical facilities of the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey. The program was created to optimize the complex clinical and psychosocial care of these patients, enhance education regarding their special needs, and promote targeted research, as well as to replicate this program model in other healthcare centers across Mexico and Latin America. From November 2013 to February 2017, the implementation of the "Joven & Fuerte" program has delivered specialized care to 265 patients, through the systematic identification of their particular needs and the provision of fertility, genetic, and psychological supportive services. Patients and families have engaged in pedagogic activities and workshops and have created a motivated and empowered community. The program developed and adapted the first educational resources in Spanish dedicated for young Mexican patients, as well as material for healthcare providers. As for research, a prospective cohort of young breast cancer patients was established to characterize clinicopathological features and psychosocial effects at baseline and during follow-up, as a guide for the development of specific cultural interventions addressing this vulnerable group. Eventually, it is intended that the program's organization and structure can reach national and international interactions and serve as a platform for other countries.

  15. Construction: a model program for infection control compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Francine; Buttner, Clark; Kressel, Amy B

    2007-06-01

    In the 21st century, one of the most challenging tasks for the infection control practitioner (ICP) is establishing collegiality and trust with contractors, architects, maintenance and engineering personnel. We describe how an urban teaching hospital's infection control program cooperated with contractors during a large demolition, construction, and renovation project in order to protect its large population of immunosuppressed patients. Most contractors are not accustomed to taking special precautions during demolition. Because of a previous Aspergillus outbreak in our heart transplant population, we already had an established infection control (IC) training program for contractors. We expanded and codified it in response to a major hospital renovation. The IC, in-house Design and Construction, and outside contractors meet before the initiation of all major renovation projects to anticipate IC concerns and proactively plan for infection control interventions. Now, all contractors and maintenance staff are required to receive IC training at the time of their employment. A hospital identification badge with attached sticker that indicates the IC training date is required. Infection Control Risk Assessments (ICRA) are initiated by project managers and completed jointly with IC. The ICPs make rounds on all projects at least weekly and large projects are visited daily. We established a team comprised of ICP, project manager, construction manager, and area nurse manager to monitor and make recommendations for improvement continually during the project. Staff are educated about construction so they can help monitor airflow and cleanliness. Our contractors are more compliant with our IC specifications since they now understand why we insist on them. Through the years of major construction, the workers have jumped on the bandwagon. It is not unusual for construction or maintenance staff to contact IC for advice. There were four years of extensive construction without any

  16. Long-term Diet and Biomarker Changes after a Short-term Intervention among Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors: The ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Ogden Gaffney, Ann; Aycinena, A Corina; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel; Karmally, Wahida; Richardson, John M; Shi, Zaixing; Lim, Emerson; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Santella, Regina M; Blaner, William S; Clugston, Robin D; Cremers, Serge; Pollak, Susan; Sirosh, Iryna; Crew, Katherine D; Maurer, Matthew; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-11-01

    Among Hispanic breast cancer survivors, we examined the long-term effects of a short-term culturally based dietary intervention on increasing fruits/vegetables (F/V), decreasing fat, and changing biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. Spanish-speaking women (n = 70) with a history of stage 0-III breast cancer who completed treatment were randomized to ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (n = 34), a culturally based 9-session program (24 hours over 12 weeks, including nutrition education, cooking classes, and food-shopping field trips), or a control group (n = 36, written dietary recommendations for breast cancer survivors). Diet recalls, fasting blood, and anthropometric measures were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We report changes between groups at 12 months in dietary intake and biomarkers using 2-sample Wilcoxon t tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. At 12 months, the intervention group compared with the control group reported higher increases in mean daily F/V servings (total: +2.0 vs. -0.4; P Salud! program was effective at increasing long-term F/V intake in Hispanic breast cancer survivors and changed biomarkers associated with breast cancer recurrence risk. It is possible for short-term behavioral interventions to have long-term effects on behaviors and biomarkers in minority cancer patient populations. Results can inform future study designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1491-502. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Exercise and nutrition routine improving cancer health (ENRICH: The protocol for a randomized efficacy trial of a nutrition and physical activity program for adult cancer survivors and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyes Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Exercise and Nutrition Routine Improving Cancer Health (ENRICH study is investigating a novel lifestyle intervention aimed at improving the health behaviors of adult cancer survivors and their carers. The main purpose of the study is to determine the efficacy of lifestyle education and skill development delivered via group-based sessions on the physical activity and dietary behaviors of participants. This article describes the intervention development, study design, and participant recruitment. Methods/Design ENRICH is a randomized controlled trial, conducted in Australia, with two arms: an intervention group participating in six, two-hour face-to-face sessions held over eight weeks, and a wait-list control group. Intervention sessions are co-facilitated by an exercise physiologist and dietician. Content includes healthy eating education, and a home-based walking (utilizing a pedometer and resistance training program (utilizing elastic tubing resistance devices. The program was developed with reference to social cognitive theory and chronic disease self-management models. The study population consists of cancer survivors (post active-treatment and their carers recruited through community-based advertising and referral from health professionals. The primary outcome is seven-days of sealed pedometry. Secondary outcomes include: self-reported physical activity levels, dietary intake, sedentary behavior, waist circumference, body mass index, quality of life, and perceived social support. The outcomes will be measured at baseline (one week prior to attending the program, eight-weeks (at completion of intervention sessions, and 20-weeks. The intervention group will also be invited to complete 12-month follow-up data collection. Process evaluation data will be obtained from participants by questionnaire and attendance records. Discussion No trials are yet available that have evaluated the efficacy of group-based lifestyle

  18. Cancer-related information needs and cancer's impact on control over life influence health-related quality of life among adolescents and young adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Tao, Li; Bellizzi, Keith M; Lynch, Charles F; Parsons, Helen M; Kent, Erin E; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2015-09-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between 15 and 39 years of age often report need for greater amounts of cancer-related information and perceive that cancer has had a negative impact on control over their life. We examined whether unmet information need and perceived control over life are associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We examined data from 484 AYA cancer survivors recruited from population-based cancer registries in 2007-2008. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months after diagnosis. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated associations of unmet cancer-related information needs and impact of cancer on control over life on HRQOL (SF-12). Two-thirds of AYAs reported an intermediate or high level of unmet information need, and half (47%) reported a negative impact of cancer on control. Greater unmet information need was associated with lower overall mental and physical HRQOL and lower levels of all HRQOL subscales except vitality. A negative impact on control over life was associated with lower overall mental HRQOL as well as lower HRQOL across all subscales except general health perceptions (all p 0.1). Adolescent and young adult patients with cancer have high levels of unmet cancer-related information needs and perceived negative impact of cancer on control over life; both were independently associated with lower HRQOL. Addressing unmet information needs among AYA cancer survivors and finding ways to increase their sense of control may help improve HRQOL in this understudied population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Prostate Cancer Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The role of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in African Americans and Caucasians with early stage prostate cancer Ms. Claudia Thompson SC State...discussion) 10:00 – 10:25 am Dr. Ed Krug Animal Use in Research (lecture & discussion) Dr. Alison Smith 10:25 to 10:50 am June 4 Data Management...case study Dr. Ed Krug, PhD discussion) June 18 MANDATORY: Animal Use in Research (lecture Dr. Alison Smith, PhD & discussion) Research

  20. Epigenetic Programming of Breast Cancer and Nutrition Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, is an agonist for the estrogen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:14138–43. [29...W, Yang CS. Tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits DNA methyltransferase and reactivates methylation-silenced genes in cancer cell...receptor pathway gene expression in the developing mouse mammary gland. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1998;152: 200–10. [37] Vorderstrasse BA, Fenton SE

  1. FCCC Institutional Breast Cancer Training Program (FCCC-IBCTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Y, Ke Y (2004) Carcinogenesis 25:2201- 6. 15. Granja F, Morari J, Morari EC, Correa LA, Assumpcao LV, Ward LS. (2004) Cancer Lett 210:151-7. 16...LeukLymphoma 45:957-64. 4. Xi YG, Ding KY, Su XL, Chen DF, You WC, Shen Y, Ke Y (2004) Carcinogenesis 25:2201-6. 5. Granja F, Morari J, Morari EC, Correa LA

  2. Georgetown University and Hampton University Prostate Cancer Undergraduate Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    difficult to treat (e.g. not just one disease, as illustrated by the different genetic changes in the two cancer cell lines that are investigated...variation observed in the incidence of PCa and mortality rates in AA men are suggested to be multifactorial, with varying effects of genetic ... predisposition , diet, and other environmental factors. One approach that can help improve characterization of PCa tumors is to identify the molecular

  3. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  4. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  5. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  6. The Effects of Program Control, Learner Control, and Learner Control with Advisement Lesson Control Strategies on Anxiety and Learning from Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorough, Randall P.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three computer-assisted instruction (CAI) locus of instructional control strategies--learner control, learner control with advisement, and program control--on posttest performance and anxiety. The instructional content was a lesson addressing the effects of alcohol on the body. To examine the…

  7. The National Cancer Screening Program for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea: is it cost-effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Moon Hae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan; Cho, Eun

    2013-01-01

    This goal of this research was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea from a government expenditure perspective. In 2002-2003 (baseline), a total of 8,724,860 women aged 40 years or over were invited to attend breast cancer screening by the NCSP. Those who attended were identified using the NCSP database, and women were divided into two groups, women who attended screening at baseline (screened group) and those who did not (non-screened group). Breast cancer diagnosis in both groups at baseline, and during 5-year follow-up was identified using the Korean Central Cancer Registry. The effectiveness of the NCSP for breast cancer was estimated by comparing 5-year survival and life years saved (LYS) between the screened and the unscreened groups, measured using mortality data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and the National Health Statistical Office. Direct screening costs, indirect screening costs, and productivity costs were considered in different combinations in the model. When all three of these costs were considered together, the incremental cost to save one life year of a breast cancer patient was 42,305,000 Korean Won (KW) (1 USD=1,088 KW) for the screened group compared to the non-screened group. In sensitivity analyses, reducing the false-positive rate of the screening program by half was the most cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER=30,110,852 KW/LYS) strategy. When the upper age limit for screening was set at 70 years, it became more cost-effective (ICER=39,641,823 KW/LYS) than when no upper age limit was set. The NCSP for breast cancer in Korea seems to be accepted as cost-effective as ICER estimates were around the Gross Domestic Product. However, cost-effectiveness could be further improved by increasing the sensitivity of breast cancer screening and by setting appropriate age limits.

  8. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judith M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating

  9. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.M. Otten; M.J.M. Broeders (Mireille); G.J. den Heeten (Gerard); R. Holland (Roland); J. Fracheboud (Jacques); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.L.M. Verbeek (Andre)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in

  10. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Johannes D. M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Holland, Roland; Fracheboud, Jacques; de Koning, Harry J.; Verbeek, André L. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in Nijmegen, the

  11. 78 FR 22794 - World Trade Center Health Program; Certification of Breast Cancer in WTC Responders and Survivors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... disruption, as a 9/11 exposure, could be associated with breast cancer.\\3\\ For that reason, the Administrator... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 88 World Trade Center Health Program; Certification of Breast Cancer in WTC... Federal Register adding certain types of cancer to the List of World Trade Center (WTC)-Related Health...

  12. Surgical leadership and standardization of multidisciplinary breast cancer care: the evolution of the National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenhaver, Jessica; Winchester, David P

    2014-07-01

    Evidence has shown that multidisciplinary specialist team evaluation and management for cancer results in better patient outcomes. For breast cancer, breast centers are where this evaluation and management occurs. The National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers has helped standardize multidisciplinary breast cancer care by defining services and standards required of accredited breast centers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A rehabilitation program for patients with gastroesophageal cancer--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, Martin Robert; Bhargava, Ravi

    2010-05-01

    Gastroesophageal carcinoma has a 5-year survival rate of 20%. Esophagogastrectomy is a significant life-altering operation which interferes with a patient's ability to eat food as a normal social interaction. Dumping syndrome, delayed gastric emptying, and reflux are encountered after surgery. In addition, loss of appetite and body weight occurs. Fatigue is universally encountered. We conducted this study to evaluate whether a structured cancer nutrition and rehabilitation program has an effect on the symptoms and quality of life of patients with gastroesophageal cancer. Fifty-three patients with histologically documented gastroesophageal carcinoma were evaluated before and after an 8-week multidisciplinary program consisting of physicians, oncology nurse, dietitian, physical and occupational therapists, social worker, and psychologist. Twenty-two patients completed all the following questionnaires pre- and post-program: The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), and the Distress Thermometer. There were 42 male and 11 female patients. The median age was 63 years (22-80 years). Thirty patients had gastric cancer and 23 had esophageal cancer. On the ESAS, appetite, strength, shortness of breath, and constipation all improved (p = 0.01). The PG-SGA score decreased significantly (p = 0.05). Fatigue and general activity as measured on the BFI improved significantly. The 6-min walk increased from 384 to 435 m (p = 0.01). The Cancer Nutrition and Rehabilitation program offers a multidimensional, holistic treatment approach emphasizing the patient as an individual. Participation in a cancer rehabilitation program ameliorates symptoms, improves nutrition, decreases global distress, and increases physical activities.

  14. Developing a Web-Based Weight Management Program for Childhood Cancer Survivors: Rationale and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Meagher, Susan; Scheurer, Michael; Folta, Sara; Finnan, Emily; Criss, Kerry; Economos, Christina; Dreyer, ZoAnn; Kelly, Michael

    2016-11-18

    Due to advances in the field of oncology, survival rates for children with cancer have improved significantly. However, these childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases and for developing these conditions at an earlier age. In this paper, we describe the rationale, conceptual framework, development process, novel components, and delivery plan of a behavioral intervention program for preventing unhealthy weight gain in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A Web-based program, the Healthy Eating and Active Living (HEAL) program, was designed by a multidisciplinary team of researchers who first identified behaviors that are appropriate targets for weight management in childhood ALL survivors and subsequently developed the intervention components, following core behavioral change strategies grounded in social cognitive and self-determination theories. The Web-based HEAL curriculum has 12 weekly self-guided sessions to increase parents' awareness of the potential impact of cancer treatment on weight and lifestyle habits and the importance of weight management in survivors' long-term health. It empowers parents with knowledge and skills on parenting, nutrition, and physical activity to help them facilitate healthy eating and active living soon after the child completes intensive cancer treatment. Based on social cognitive theory, the program is designed to increase behavioral skills (goal-setting, self-monitoring, and problem-solving) and self-efficacy and to provide positive reinforcement to sustain behavioral change. Lifestyle interventions are a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Intervention programs need to meet survivors' targeted behavioral needs, address specific barriers, and capture a sensitive window for behavioral change. In addition, they should be convenient, cost-effective and scalable. Future studies are needed

  15. Effects of an exercise and hypocaloric healthy eating intervention on indices of psychological health status, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation and immune function after early-stage breast cancer: a randomised controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saxton, John M; Scott, Emma J; Daley, Amanda J; Woodroofe, M; Mutrie, Nanette; Crank, Helen; Powers, Hilary J; Coleman, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    .... A total of 85 women treated for breast cancer 3 to 18 months previously were randomly allocated to a 6-month exercise and hypocaloric healthy eating program plus usual care or usual care alone (control group...

  16. PLC and DTAM Software Programs for Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    2000-05-11

    This document describe the software programs for the Programmable Logic Controller and the Datable Access Module for Pumping Instrumentation and Control skid ''P''. The Appendices contains copies of the printouts of these software programs.

  17. Breast and cervical cancers diagnosed and stage at diagnosis among women served through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline W; Royalty, Janet; Henley, Jane; White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C

    2015-05-01

    To assess cancers diagnosed and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis among low-income, under-insured, or uninsured women who received services through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP). Using the NBCCEDP database, we examined the number and percent of women diagnosed during 2009-2011 with in situ breast cancer, invasive breast cancer, and invasive cervical cancer by demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race and ethnicity, test indication (screening or diagnostic), symptoms (for breast cancer), and screening history (for cervical cancer). We examined these characteristics by stage at diagnosis, a new variable included in the database obtained by linking with state-based central cancer registries. There were 11,569 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, 1,988 with in situ breast cancer, and 583 with invasive cervical cancer through the NBCCEDP. Women who reported breast symptoms or who had diagnostic mammography were more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer, and at a later stage, than those who did not have symptoms or who had screening mammography. Women who had been rarely or never screened for cervical cancer were more likely to be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and at a later stage, than women who received regular screenings. Women served through the NBCCEDP who have not had prior screening or who have symptoms were more often diagnosed with late-stage disease.

  18. Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy Program for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, A.L. (ed.); Dorn, R.V. III.

    1990-08-01

    This report discusses monthly progress in the Power Boron Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program for Cancer Treatment. Highlights of the PBF/BNCT Program during August 1990 include progress within the areas of: Gross Boron Analysis in Tissue, Blood, and Urine, boron microscopic (subcellular) analytical development, noninvasive boron quantitative determination, analytical radiation transport and interaction modeling for BNCT, large animal model studies, neutron sou