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Sample records for cancer control initiative

  1. Controlling female cancer in Argentina. Divergent initiatives and the road to fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Eraso, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the organisation of cancer control in Argentina, with a special focus on the initiatives, institutions, and models that targeted female or gynaecological cancers. It identifies and examines the main factors in the process of elaborating a national policy to control the disease drawing on a series of actors and instruments such as the state, medical professionals, institutions and services, and the use of technology (notably diagnostic tools) for the detection of the dise...

  2. Controlling female cancer in Argentina. Divergent initiatives and the road to fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraso, Yolanda

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the organisation of cancer control in Argentina, with a special focus on the initiatives, institutions, and models that targeted female or gynaecological cancers. It identifies and examines the main factors in the process of elaborating a national policy to control the disease drawing on a series of actors and instruments such as the state, medical professionals, institutions and services, and the use of technology (notably diagnostic tools) for the detection of the disease. It traces the developments in the organisation highlighting its transformations from a centralising to a decentralised model of service provision. Using the concept of "path-dependence" the article examines the continuities and changes observed in the organisation of female cancer critically signalling the particular time at which a path was taken where "fragmentation" became consolidated within the health system. It also argues that it was within the field of cancer diagnosis that Argentinian doctors first sought to create the foundational structures of cancer organisation. The article contends that the path-dependence analytical approach helps us acknowledge the importance of historical analysis in the identification of factors that led to the lack of service coordination, including the persistent strain between national/provincial states that hampered the development of comprehensive programmes, aspects that have continued to mark efforts in the elaboration of cancer policies to the present day.

  3. Improving cancer control through a community-based cancer awareness initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Rendell, Helen; George, Helen; Power, Emily

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Roadshow on intentions to change health behaviours and use local health services related to cancer. Feedback forms from visitors to three Roadshows collected data on anticipated lifestyle changes and health service use following their visit to the Roadshow. Demographic predictors of intentions were investigated. A total of 6009 individuals completed a feedback form. On average, respondents intended to make between two and three (2.55; SD=1.77) lifestyle changes, and use between none and one (0.59; SD=0.77) local health services following their visit. Multivariable analysis showed that age (p=0.001), ethnicity (p=0.006), and occupation (p=0.043) were significant predictors of anticipated lifestyle changes. Anticipated health service use was higher among men (p=0.001), younger groups (p<0.001), and smokers (p<0.001). Overall effects of ethnicity (p=0.001) and occupation (p<0.001) on anticipated health service use were also observed. Post-hoc analyses indicated stronger effects of the Roadshow among disadvantaged groups. High levels of anticipated health behaviour change and health service use were observed among Roadshow visitors. Disadvantaged groups such as lower socioeconomic groups, ethnic minorities, and smokers showed particularly high levels of intention. A more in-depth evaluation of the Roadshow is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chest pain control with kinesiology taping after lobectomy for lung cancer: initial results of a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Andrea; Grande, Annamaria; Castiglioni, Massimo; Gasperini, Laura; Faini, Agnese; Spampatti, Sebastiano; Nardecchia, Elisa; Terzaghi, Lorena; Dominioni, Lorenzo; Rotolo, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Kinesiology taping (KT) is a rehabilitative technique performed by the cutaneous application of a special elastic tape. We tested the safety and efficacy of KT in reducing postoperative chest pain after lung lobectomy. One-hundred and seventeen consecutive patients, both genders, age 18-85, undergoing lobectomy for lung cancer between January 2013 and July 2015 were initially considered. Lobectomies were performed by the same surgical team, with thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) access. Exclusion criteria (n = 25 patients) were: previous KT exposure, recent trauma, pre-existing chest pain, lack of informed consent, >24-h postoperative intensive care unit treatment. After surgery, the 92 eligible patients were randomized to KT experimental group (n = 46) or placebo control group (n = 46). Standard postoperative analgesia was administered in both groups (paracetamol/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, epidural analgesia including opioids), with supplemental analgesia boluses at patient request. On postoperative day 1 in addition, in experimental group patients a specialized physiotherapist applied KT, with standardized tape length, tension and shape, over three defined skin areas: at the chest access site pain trigger point; over the ipsilateral deltoid/trapezius; lower anterior chest. In control group, usual dressing tape mimicking KT was applied over the same areas, as placebo. Thoracic pain severity score [visual analogue scale (VAS) ranging 0-10] was self-assessed by all patients on postoperative days 1, 2, 5, 8, 9 and 30. The KT group and the control group had similar demographics, lung cancer clinico-pathological features and thoracotomy/VATS ratio. Postoperatively, the two groups also resulted similar in supplemental analgesia, complication rate, mean duration of chest drainage and length of stay. There were no adverse events with KT application. After tape application, KT patients reported overall less thoracic pain than the

  5. Low-fat dietary pattern and cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Ross L; Thomson, Cynthia A; Caan, Bette; Hubbell, F Allan; Anderson, Garnet L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Pettinger, Mary; Lane, Dorothy S; Lessin, Lawrence; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Singh, Baljinder; Khandekar, Janardan; Shikany, James M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Chlebowski, Rowan T

    2007-10-17

    The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Randomized Controlled Trial evaluated the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on chronic disease incidence, with breast cancer and colorectal cancer as primary outcomes. The trial protocol also listed ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer as outcomes that may be favorably affected by the intervention. A total of 48,835 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned during 1993-1998 to a DM intervention (n = 19,541) or comparison (usual diet; n = 29,294) group and followed up for an average of 8.1 years. The intervention goal was to reduce total fat intake to 20% of energy and to increase consumption of vegetables, fruits, and grains. Cancer outcomes were verified by pathology report review. We used weighted log-rank tests to compare incidence of invasive cancers of the ovary and endometrium, total invasive cancer, and invasive cancers at other sites between the groups. All statistical tests were two-sided. Ovarian cancer risk was lower in the intervention than in the comparison group (P = .03). Although the overall ovarian cancer hazard ratio (HR) was not statistically significantly less than 1.0, the hazard ratio decreased with increasing intervention duration (P(trend) = .01). For the first 4 years, the risk for ovarian cancer was similar in the intervention and control groups (0.52 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.45 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.73 to 1.84); over the next 4.1 years, the risk was lower in the intervention group (0.38 cases per 1000 person-years in the intervention group versus 0.64 per 1000 person-years in the comparison group; HR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.38 to 0.96). Risk of cancer of the endometrium did not differ between the groups (P = .18). The estimated risk of total invasive cancer was slightly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.01; P = .10). A low

  6. The Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC trial: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabane Lehana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two unfortunate outcomes for patients treated surgically for rectal cancer are placement of a permanent colostomy and local tumor recurrence. Total mesorectal excision is a new technique for rectal cancer surgery that can lead to improved patient outcomes. We describe a cluster randomized controlled trial that is testing if the above patient outcomes can be improved through a knowledge translation strategy called the Quality Initiative in Rectal Cancer (QIRC strategy. The strategy is designed to optimize the use of total mesorectal excision techniques. Methods and Design Hospitals were randomized to the QIRC strategy (experimental group versus normal practice environment (control group. Participating hospitals, and the respective surgeon group operating in them, are from Ontario, Canada and have an annual procedure volume for major rectal cancer resections of 15 or greater. Patients were eligible if they underwent major rectal surgery for a diagnosis of primary rectal cancer. The surgeon-directed QIRC interventions included a workshop, use of opinion leaders, operative demonstrations, a post-operative questionnaire, and, audit and feedback. For an operative demonstration participating surgeons invited a study team surgeon to assist them with a case of rectal cancer surgery. The intent was to demonstrate total mesorectal excision techniques. Control arm surgeons received no intervention. Sample size calculations were two-sided, considered the clustering of data at the hospital level, and were driven by requirements for the outcome local recurrence. To detect an improvement in local recurrence from 20% to 8% with confidence we required 16 hospitals and 672 patients – 8 hospitals and 336 patients in each arm. Outcomes data are collected via chart review for at least 30 months after surgery. Analyses will use an intention-to-treat principle and will consider the clustering of data. Data collection will be complete by the end of

  7. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Shirley A A; Johnson, Karen C; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Lasser, Norman L; Snetselaar, Linda G; Black, Henry R; Anderson, Garnet L; Assaf, Annlouise R; Bassford, Tamsen; Bowen, Deborah; Brunner, Robert L; Brzyski, Robert G; Caan, Bette; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Gass, Margery; Harrigan, Rosanne C; Hays, Jennifer; Heber, David; Heiss, Gerardo; Hendrix, Susan L; Howard, Barbara V; Hsia, Judith; Hubbell, F Allan; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Kuller, Lewis H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Lane, Dorothy S; Langer, Robert D; Lewis, Cora E; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Ockene, Judith K; Parker, Linda M; Perri, Michael G; Phillips, Lawrence; Prentice, Ross L; Robbins, John; Rossouw, Jacques E; Sarto, Gloria E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Van Horn, Linda; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wallace, Robert B; Whitlock, Evelyn

    2006-02-08

    Observational studies and polyp recurrence trials are not conclusive regarding the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of colorectal cancer, necessitating a primary prevention trial. To evaluate the effects of a low-fat eating pattern on risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, a randomized controlled trial conducted in 48,835 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years recruited between 1993 and 1998 from 40 clinical centers throughout the United States. Participants were randomly assigned to the dietary modification intervention (n = 19,541; 40%) or the comparison group (n = 29,294; 60%). The intensive behavioral modification program aimed to motivate and support reductions in dietary fat, to increase consumption of vegetables and fruits, and to increase grain servings by using group sessions, self-monitoring techniques, and other tailored and targeted strategies. Women in the comparison group continued their usual eating pattern. Invasive colorectal cancer incidence. A total of 480 incident cases of invasive colorectal cancer occurred during a mean follow-up of 8.1 (SD, 1.7) years. Intervention group participants significantly reduced their percentage of energy from fat by 10.7% more than did the comparison group at 1 year, and this difference between groups was mostly maintained (8.1% at year 6). Statistically significant increases in vegetable, fruit, and grain servings were also made. Despite these dietary changes, there was no evidence that the intervention reduced the risk of invasive colorectal cancer during the follow-up period. There were 201 women with invasive colorectal cancer (0.13% per year) in the intervention group and 279 (0.12% per year) in the comparison group (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.90-1.29). Secondary analyses suggested potential interactions with baseline aspirin use and combined estrogen-progestin use status (P = .01 for each). Colorectal

  8. Mel-18 controls the enrichment of tumor-initiating cells in SP fraction in mouse breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Harinarayanan; Nobukiyo, Asako; Inoue, Hiroko; Kanno, Masamoto

    2011-06-01

    Side population (SP) cell analysis has been used to identify and isolate a minor population of cells with stem cell properties in normal tissues and in many cancers including breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that operate in tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in SP fraction remain unclear. The Polycomb group genes, including Bmi1 and Mel-18, have been implicated in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and suggested to be oncogenic and tumor suppressive, respectively, in breast cancer. In this study, we determined the critical role of Mel-18 in the enrichment mechanisms of TICs with the SP phenotype in a mouse breast cancer cell line, MMK3, that was established from a breast cancer developed spontaneously in Mel-18+/- mice. The Mel-18 protein expression level significantly correlates to the percentage of SP fraction in the mouse breast cancer cell line MMK3 series. The comparison between MMK3V3 (V3) cells containing one copy of the Mel-18 gene and MMK3S2 (S2) cells having twice the amount of Mel-18 expression clearly demonstrates the above relationship. Similar results obtained with the percentage of ALDH+ cells in V3 and S2 further confirmed the correlation between protein expression level of Mel-18 and the TICs. More importantly, transplantation of SP and non-SP cells of V3 and S2 cells into the NOD/SCID mice clearly showed that the heterozygous level of Mel-18 leads to the disappearance of enrichment of TICs into SP fraction in vivo. Stem cell pathway focused gene expression profiling of V3 and S2 cells revealed that the genes Abcg2, Aldh1a1 and Dhh were highly down-regulated in V3 compared to S2. These results indicate that the precise Mel-18 expression level controls TIC enrichment mechanisms through the regulation of channel molecule of Abcg2 and functional TIC marker of Aldhlal. In conclusion, our findings revealed the significance of fine-tuning mechanisms for Mel-18 protein expression level in the maintenance of TIC into SP

  9. Low-fat Dietary Pattern and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Chen, Liang; White, Donna L; Tinker, Lesley; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Van Horn, Linda V; Richardson, Peter; Lane, Dorothy; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies suggest that diet may influence pancreatic cancer risk. We investigated the effect of a low-fat dietary intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence. The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (WHI-DM) trial is a randomized controlled trial conducted in 48 835 postmenopausal women age 50 to 79 years in the United States between 1993 and 1998. Women were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 19 541), with the goal of reducing total fat intake and increasing intake of vegetables, fruits, and grains, or to the usual diet comparison group (n = 29 294). The intervention concluded in March 2005. We evaluated the effect of the intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence with the follow-up through 2014 using the log-rank test and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. All statistical tests were two-sided. In intention-to-treat analyses including 46 200 women, 92 vs 165 pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained in the intervention vs the comparison group (P = .23). The multivariable hazard ratio (HR) of pancreatic cancer was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 1.11). Risk was statistically significantly reduced among women with baseline body mass indexes (BMIs) of 25 kg/m2 or higher (HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.96), but not among women with BMIs of less than 25 kg/m2 (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.97 to 2.71, Pinteraction = .01). A low-fat dietary intervention was associated with reduced pancreatic cancer incidence in women who were overweight or obese in the WHI-DM trial. Caution needs to be taken in interpreting the findings based on subgroup analyses. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Leverage of an Existing Cervical Cancer Prevention Service Platform to Initiate Breast Cancer Control Services in Zambia: Experiences and Early Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeya F. Pinder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In 2005, the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia (CCPPZ was implemented and has since provided cervical cancer screen-and-treat services to more than 500,000 women. By leveraging the successes and experiences of the CCPPZ, we intended to build capacity for the early detection and surgical treatment of breast cancer. Methods: Our initiative sought to build capacity for breast cancer care through the (1 formation of a breast cancer advocacy alliance to raise awareness, (2 creation of resource-appropriate breast cancer care training curricula for mid- and high-level providers, and (3 implementation of early detection and treatment capacity within two major health care facilities. Results: Six months after the completion of the initiative, the following outcomes were documented: Breast health education and clinical breast examination (CBE services were successfully integrated into the service platforms of four CCPPZ clinics. Two new breast diagnostic centers were opened, which provided access to breast ultrasound, ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy, and needle aspiration. Breast health education and CBE were provided to 1,955 clients, 167 of whom were evaluated at the two diagnostic centers; 55 of those evaluated underwent core-needle biopsy, of which 17 were diagnosed with invasive cancer. Newly trained surgeons performed six sentinel lymph node mappings, eight sentinel lymph node dissections, and 10 breast conservation surgeries (lumpectomies. Conclusion: This initiative successfully established clinical services in Zambia that are critical for the early detection and surgical management of breast cancer.

  11. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  12. Cancer control in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Bangladesh to be 7.5% in 2005 and 13% in 2030. The two leading causes are in males are lung and oral cancer and in females are breast cancer and cervical cancer. Bangladesh is now in severe shortage of radiation therapy machines, hospital bed, trained oncologists, medical radiation physicists and technologists. Bangladesh having different cancers associated with smoking and smokeless tobacco use, Human papilloma virus infection, Hepatitis B and C infection, Helicobacter Pylori infection, arsenic contaminated groundwater, availability of chemical carcinogens mainly formalin treated fruits, fish and vegetables at open market, tannery waste contaminated with chromium (which is used for poultry feed and fish feed preparation). A World Health Organization study revealed the annual cost of illnesses in Bangladesh attributable to tobacco usage is US$ 500 million and the total annual benefit from the tobacco sector is US$ 305 million as tax revenue. Bangladesh has developed a National Cancer Control Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of delivering a universal, quality-based and timely service. Cancer prevention through tobacco control, health promotion and vaccination program, cancer early detection program for oral cavity, breast and cervix has initiated. Cancer detection and diagnostic facilities will be made available at medical colleges and district- hospitals and establish a referral chain. National capacity development, more cancer research will allow Bangladesh to deal effectively

  13. Novel temperature-controlled RFA probe for treatment of blocked metal biliary stents in patients with pancreaticobiliary cancers: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Manu K; Oppong, Kofi W; Bekkali, Noor L H; Leeds, John S

    2018-05-01

     Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is used to treat blocked biliary stents in patients with pancreaticobiliary (PB) tumors with varying results. We report our experience with a novel temperature-controlled probe for treatment of blocked metal stents.  Patients with histologically proven PB cancers and a blocked biliary stents were treated using ELRATM electrode (Taewoong Medical) under fluoroscopic guidance. Demographics, clinical outcome, stricture diameter improvements, complications and mortality at 30 days were prospectively recorded.  Nine procedures were performed on seven patients (4 male, 3 female); mean age 65.33 (range 56 - 82 years). Mean stricture diameter prior to RFA was 1.13 mm (SD ± 0.54) and 4.42 mm (SD ± 1.54) following RFA ( P  drainage. There were no procedure-related complications. Mean follow-up was 193.55 days (range 31 - 540) and three of nine patients (33 %) died due to terminal cancer. These are the first reported data on use of a temperature-controlled RFA catheter in humans to treat blocked metal biliary stents. The device is safe but further randomized trials are required to establish the efficacy and survival benefits of this probe.

  14. Initial experience of robotic versus laparoscopic colectomy for transverse colon cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de'Angelis, Nicola; Alghamdi, Salah; Renda, Andrea; Azoulay, Daniel; Brunetti, Francesco

    2015-10-09

    Robotic surgery for transverse colon cancer has rarely been described. This study reports our initial experience in robotic resection for transverse colon cancer, by comparing robotic transverse colectomy (RC) to laparoscopic transverse colectomy (LC) in terms of safety, feasibility, short-term outcomes, and the surgeon's psychological stress and physical pain. The study population included the first 22 consecutive patients who underwent RC between March 2013 and December 2014 for histologically confirmed transverse colon adenocarcinoma. These patients were compared with 22 matched patients undergoing LC between December 2010 and February 2013. Patients were matched based on age, gender, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage, and tumor location (ratio 1:1). Mortality, morbidity, operative, and short-term oncologic outcomes were compared between groups. The operating surgeon's stress and pain were assessed before and after surgery on a 0-100-mm visual analog scale. The demographic and preoperative characteristics were comparable between RC and LC patients. No group difference was observed for intraoperative complications, blood loss, postoperative pain, time to flatus, time to regular diet, and hospital stay. RC was associated with longer operative time than LC (260 min vs. 225 min; p = 0.014), but the overall operative and robotic time in the RC group decreased over time reflecting the increasing experience in performing this procedure. No conversion to laparotomy was observed in the RC group, while two LC patients were converted due to uncontrolled bleeding and technically difficult middle colic pedicle dissection. Postoperative complications (Dindo-Clavien grade I or II) occurred in 11.3 % of patients with no group difference. Mortality was nil. All resections were R0, with >12 lymph nodes harvested in 90.9 % of RC and 95.5 % of LC patients. The surgeon's stress was

  15. Targeted Radiation Therapy for Cancer Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-08-2-0174 TITLE: Targeted Radiation Therapy for Cancer Initiative PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dusten Macdonald, MD...for Cancer Initiative 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dusten Macdonald, MD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Cancer Initiative Final Report INTRODUCTION: The full potential of radiation therapy has not been realized due to the inability to locate and

  16. Palliative Radiotherapy in the Presence of Well-Controlled Metastatic Disease after Initial Chemotherapy May Prolong Survival in Patients with Metastatic Esophageal and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingorani, Mohan; Dixit, Sanjay; Johnson, Miriam; Plested, Victoria; Alty, Kevin; Colley, Peter; Beavis, Andrew W; Roy, Rajarshi; Maraveyas, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    We report the outcomes of patients treated with palliative radiotherapy (pRT) to the primary tumour in the context of well-controlled metastatic disease after initial chemotherapy. Clinical records of 132 patients with metastatic esophago-gastric (OG) cancer treated with palliative chemotherapy (pCT) between January 2009 and June 2013 were reviewed. Ninetyseven patients had responding or stable disease after 3 months of chemotherapy, of whom 53 patients received pRT to the primary tumour after initial chemotherapy in the presence of well-controlled metastatic disease (group A, pCT-RT). The remaining 44 patients were treated with pCT alone (group B, pCT). Treatment-related outcomes were assessed in above groups including time to local progression (TTLP), progression-free and overall survival. The median overall survival for patients treated with pRT after initial chemotherapy (group A) was 23.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.70 to 28.89 months) and significantly higher than the 14 months (95% CI, 10.91 to 17.08 months) in patients treated with pCT alone (group B) (p < 0.001). The use of pCT-RT was an independent predictor of OS in multivariate analysis. Local recurrence was observed in 12/53 of patients (23%) in group A compared to 16/44 (36%) in group B. The median TTLP was significantly higher in patients after pCT-RT at 17.3 months (5.23 months to 44.50 months) compared to 8.3 months (range, 4.10 to 25.23 months) in patients treated with pCT alone (p=0.006). The possibility of pRT influencing systemic disease in advanced OG cancer has not been reported, and results from the present study present strong arguments for investigation of this therapeutic strategy in a randomized trial.

  17. Cabozantinib for Initial Treatment of Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA has approved cabozantinib (Cabometyx®) as an initial treatment for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. The approval adds another tyrosine kinase inhibitor to the available options for patients with advanced kidney cancer.

  18. Conceptual and practical challenges for implementing the communities of practice model on a national scale - a Canadian cancer control initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browman George P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer program delivery, like the rest of health care in Canada, faces two ongoing challenges: to coordinate a pan-Canadian approach across complex provincial jurisdictions, and to facilitate the rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Communities of practice, or CoPs, which have been described by Etienne Wenger as a collaborative learning platform, represent a promising solution to these challenges because they rely on bottom-up rather than top-down social structures for integrating knowledge and practice across regions and agencies. The communities of practice model has been realized in the corporate (e.g., Royal Dutch Shell, Xerox, IBM, etc and development (e.g., World Bank sectors, but its application to health care is relatively new. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC is exploring the potential of Wenger's concept in the Canadian health care context. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of Wenger's concept with a focus on its applicability to the health care sector. Discussion Empirical studies and social science theory are used to examine the utility of Wenger's concept. Its value lies in emphasizing learning from peers and through practice in settings where innovation is valued. Yet the communities of practice concept lacks conceptual clarity because Wenger defines it so broadly and sidelines issues of decision making within CoPs. We consider the implications of his broad definition to establishing an informed nomenclature around this specific type of collaborative group. The CoP Project under CPAC and communities of practice in Canadian health care are discussed. Summary The use of communities of practice in Canadian health care has been shown in some instances to facilitate quality improvements, encourage buy in among participants, and generate high levels of satisfaction with clinical leadership and knowledge translation among participating physicians. Despite these individual success

  19. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcote, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  20. Human Cancer Models Initiative | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Cancer Models Initiative (HCMI) is an international consortium that is generating novel human tumor-derived culture models, which are annotated with genomic and clinical data. In an effort to advance cancer research and more fully understand how in vitro findings are related to clinical biology, HCMI-developed models and related data will be available as a community resource for cancer research.

  1. Bold initiative launched in Nicaragua for World Cancer Day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A ground-breaking project to fight Nicaragua's growing cancer crisis is being launched by a partnership of international institutions to mark this year's World Cancer Day (4 February 2007). The new partnership, coordinated by the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT), aims to dramatically reduce cancer deaths in Nicaragua and improve conditions for thousands of people living with cancer by mobilizing experts from across the cancer care community. 'Only a broad alliance can develop the necessary strengths and resources to avoid the cancer disaster that is looming in the developing world,' says Franco Cavalli, President of the International Union Against Cancer (UICC). 'Swiss doctors have been working to develop cancer care in Nicaragua since the 1980s and UICC is pleased to be a partner in this initiative.' Cancer is one of Latin America's three major killers - 25,000 women in the region die of cervical cancer every year. Nicaragua was selected as the first PACT Model Demonstration Site in Latin America after the government gave its full support in implementing an integrated cancer control plan. Many of Nicaragua's cancer victims are from poor communities with little access to screening and treatment facilities. Cancer strikes people in the prime of their lives, causing personal tragedy and negatively impacting the nation's future. Yet many of these cancers can be successfully treated if detected early enough. 'Patients with curable cancers are still dying unnecessarily in Nicaragua because cancer is not addressed comprehensively,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the PACT programme at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 'We have the know-how and cost-effective technologies to defeat cancer. What is needed are more financial and human resources.' Nicaragua, population 7 million, currently has one radiotherapy centre. The donation through PACT by Canada's MDS Nordion this year of a $750,000 Equinox cancer therapy system will help the

  2. African Tobacco Control Research Initiative Scoping Exercise ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Tobacco Control Research Initiative (ATCRI) was established in ... of taxation, advertising bans, smoke-free places and graphic health warnings. ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.

  3. Daughter-Initiated Cancer Screening Appeals to Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, M; Genderson, M W

    2016-12-01

    Youth-initiated health interventions may provide a much needed avenue for intergenerational dissemination of health information among families who bear the greatest burden from unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality. The findings presented in this paper are from a pilot study of the feasibility and impact of female youth-initiated messages (mostly daughters) encouraging adult female relatives (mostly mothers) to obtain cancer screening within low-income African American families living in a Southern US state. Results are compared between an intervention and control group. Intervention group youth (n = 22) were exposed to a 60-min interactive workshop where they were assisted to prepare a factual and emotional appeal to their adult relative to obtain specific screening. The face-to-face workshops were guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Control group girls (n = 18) were only provided with a pamphlet with information about cancer screening and specific steps about how to encourage their relative to obtain screening. Intervention youth (86 %) and adults (82 %) reported that the message was shared while 71 % in the control group reported sharing or receiving the message. Importantly, more women in the intervention group reported that they obtained a screen (e.g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations.

  4. Matched case-control study of quality of life and xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy or standard radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: Initial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbari, Siavash; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Feng, Mary; Lin, Alexander; Tsien, Christina; Elshaikh, Mohamed; Terrel, Jeffrey E.; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare quality of life (QOL) and xerostomia between head-and-neck cancer patients who received standard radiotherapy (RT) and patients matched by factors known to affect QOL who received intensity-modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: This was a prospective, longitudinal study of patients with head-and-neck cancer requiring bilateral neck irradiation who received IMRT at the University of Michigan and patients who received standard RT at affiliated clinics. Each patient received a validated head-and-neck cancer-related QOL questionnaire (HNQOL) consisting of four multi-item domains-Eating, Communication, Pain, and Emotion-and a validated patient-reported xerostomia questionnaire (XQ). In both questionnaires, the answers were scored 0-100, with higher scores denoting worse QOL or xerostomia. The questionnaires were given before therapy and at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the completion of therapy. Each standard RT patient was matched with several IMRT patients according to tumor site, stage, RT status (postoperative or definitive), and age. A linear mixed-effects model was fit to compare outcomes between the two treatment groups and to model trends over time. To account for matching, the differences in scores between the matched sets of patients were fit as a random intercept. Also, matching was taken into account in the model by using the standard error of the within-paired-groups differences. Results: Between 1997 and 2002, 10 patients who had received standard RT and answered the XQ and HNQOL through at least 1 year were included in the study. Each of these patients was matched with a subgroup of 2-5 patients (median, 3) who had received IMRT, had similar patient and tumor characteristics, and answered the same questionnaires. A total of 30 patients were included in the IMRT group. During the initial months after therapy, the XQ and HNQOL summary scores worsened significantly in both groups compared with the pretherapy scores. Starting

  5. Cancer Control: A Look to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith Mackay, MB ChB, FRCP (Edin), FRCP (Lon), an international expert from Hong Kong in tobacco control, with posts as a senior advisor for the World Lung Foundation and the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use, presented "Cancer Control: A Look to the Future".

  6. Cost trend analysis of initial cancer treatment in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Yun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the high cost of initial cancer care, that is, care in the first year after diagnosis, limited information is available for specific categories of cancer-related costs, especially costs for specific services. This study purposed to identify causes of change in cancer treatment costs over time and to perform trend analyses of the percentage of cancer patients who had received a specific treatment type and the mean cost of care for patients who had received that treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis of trends in initial treatment costs focused on cancer-related surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and treatments other than active treatments. For each cancer-specific trend, slopes were calculated for regression models with 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of patients diagnosed in 2007 showed that the National Health Insurance (NHI system paid, on average, $10,780 for initial care of a gastric cancer patient and $10,681 for initial care of a lung cancer patient, which were inflation-adjusted increases of $6,234 and $5,522, respectively, over the 1996 care costs. During the same interval, the mean NHI payment for initial care for the five specific cancers increased significantly (p<0.05. Hospitalization costs comprised the largest portion of payments for all cancers. During 1996-2007, the use of chemotherapy and radiation therapy significantly increased in all cancer types (p<0.05. In 2007, NHI payments for initial care for these five cancers exceeded $12 billion, and gastric and lung cancers accounted for the largest share. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to the growing number of NHI beneficiaries with cancer, treatment costs and the percentage of patients who undergo treatment are growing. Therefore, the NHI must accurately predict the economic burden of new chemotherapy agents and radiation therapies and may need to develop programs for stratifying patients according to their potential benefit

  7. 78 FR 19489 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer Population--Based Prevention Activities SIP13-066, Panel A, initial... Colorectal Cancer Screening, SIP13-065; and Using Small Media to Increase Breast and Cervical Cancer... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease...

  8. Initial operation of NSTX with plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.; Bell, M.; Ferron, J.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Neumeyer, C.; Sabbagh, S.

    2000-01-01

    First plasma, with a maximum current of 300kA, was achieved on NSTX in February 1999. These results were obtained using preprogrammed coil currents. The first controlled plasmas on NSTX were made starting in August 1999 with the full 1MA plasma current achieved in December 1999. The controlled quantities were plasma position (R, Z) and current (Ip). Variations in the plasma shape are achieved by adding preprogrammed currents to those determined by the control parameters. The control system is fully digital, with plasma position and current control, data acquisition, and power supply control all occurring in the same four-processor real time computer. The system uses the PCS (Plasma Control Software) system designed at General Atomics. Modular control algorithms, specific to NSTX, were written and incorporated into the PCS. The application algorithms do the actual control calculations, with the PCS handling data passing. The control system, including planned upgrades, will be described, along with results of the initial controlled plasma operations. Analysis of the performance of the control system will also be presented

  9. Cancer initiation and progression: an unsimplifiable complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frezza Eldo E

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most complex diseases affecting humans and, despite the impressive advances that have been made in molecular and cell biology, how cancer cells progress through carcinogenesis and acquire their metastatic ability is still widely debated. Conclusion There is no doubt that human carcinogenesis is a dynamic process that depends on a large number of variables and is regulated at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Viewing cancer as a system that is dynamically complex in time and space will, however, probably reveal more about its underlying behavioural characteristics. It is encouraging that mathematicians, biologists and clinicians continue to contribute together towards a common quantitative understanding of cancer complexity. This way of thinking may further help to clarify concepts, interpret new and old experimental data, indicate alternative experiments and categorize the acquired knowledge on the basis of the similarities and/or shared behaviours of very different tumours.

  10. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  11. Breast Cancer-Initiating Cells: Insights into Novel Treatment Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, Guido; Binda, Mara; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that breast cancer may arise from mutated mammary stem/progenitor cells which have been termed breast cancer-initiating cells (BCIC). BCIC identified in clinical specimens based on membrane phenotype (CD44 + /CD24 −/low and/or CD133 + expression) or enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 + ), have been demonstrated to have stem/progenitor cell properties, and are tumorigenic when injected in immunocompromized mice at very low concentrations. BCIC have also been isolated and in vitro propagated as non-adherent spheres of undifferentiated cells, and stem cell patterns have been recognized even in cancer cell lines. Recent findings indicate that aberrant regulation of self renewal is central to cancer stem cell biology. Alterations in genes involved in self-renewal pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, sonic hedgehog, PTEN and BMI, proved to play a role in breast cancer progression. Hence, targeting key elements mediating the self renewal of BCIC represents an attractive option, with a solid rationale, clearly identifiable molecular targets, and adequate knowledge of the involved pathways. Possible concerns are related to the poor knowledge of tolerance and efficacy of inhibiting self-renewal mechanisms, because the latter are key pathways for a variety of biological functions and it is unknown whether their interference would kill BCIC or simply temporarily stop them. Thus, efforts to develop BCIC-targeted therapies should not only be focused on interfering on self-renewal, but could seek to identify additional molecular targets, like those involved in regulating EMT-related pathways, in reversing the MDR phenotype, in inducing differentiation and controlling cell survival pathways

  12. LGR4 modulates breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhiying; Yuan, Zengjin; Zeng, Li; Wang, Ying; Lai, Li; Li, Jing; Sun, Peng; Xue, Xiwen; Qi, Junyi; Yang, Zhengfeng; Zheng, Yansen; Fang, Yuanzhang; Li, Dali; Siwko, Stefan; Li, Yi; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mingyao

    2018-05-01

    The fourth member of the leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCR family (LGR4, frequently referred to as GPR48) and its cognate ligands, R-spondins (RSPOs) play crucial roles in the development of multiple organs as well as the survival of adult stem cells by activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts to regulate breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms determining its spatiotemporal regulation are largely unknown. In this study, we identified LGR4 as a master controller of Wnt/β-catenin signaling-mediated breast cancer tumorigenesis, metastasis, and cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance. LGR4 expression in breast tumors correlated with poor prognosis. Either Lgr4 haploinsufficiency or mammary-specific deletion inhibited mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)- PyMT- and MMTV- Wnt1-driven mammary tumorigenesis and metastasis. Moreover, LGR4 down-regulation decreased in vitro migration and in vivo xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis. Furthermore, Lgr4 deletion in MMTV- Wnt1 tumor cells or knockdown in human breast cancer cells decreased the number of functional CSCs by ∼90%. Canonical Wnt signaling was impaired in LGR4-deficient breast cancer cells, and LGR4 knockdown resulted in increased E-cadherin and decreased expression of N-cadherin and snail transcription factor -2 ( SNAI2) (also called SLUG), implicating LGR4 in regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our findings support a crucial role of the Wnt signaling component LGR4 in breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and breast CSCs.-Yue, Z., Yuan, Z., Zeng, L., Wang, Y., Lai, L., Li, J., Sun, P., Xue, X., Qi, J., Yang, Z., Zheng, Y., Fang, Y., Li, D., Siwko, S., Li, Y., Luo, J., Liu, M. LGR4 modulates breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and cancer stem cells.

  13. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    . The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...... countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe....

  14. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. CERN launches new cancer therapy initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The first meeting of a new European network for research in cancer therapy was held at CERN, in February 2002. ENLIGHT, the European Network for Research in Light Ion Therapy aims to coordinate the development of a variety of projects at European facilities for "light ion therapy" - a form of radiation therapy that uses beams of the nuclei of lightweight atoms" (1/2 page).

  16. Pet Ownership and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O; Lander, Eric M; Wertheim, Betsy C; Manson, JoAnn E; Volpe, Stella L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lessin, Lawrence S; Kuller, Lewis H; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2016-09-01

    Pet ownership and cancer are both highly prevalent in the United States. Evidence suggests that associations may exist between this potentially modifiable factor and cancer prevention, though studies are sparse. The present report examined whether pet ownership (dog, cat, or bird) is associated with lower risk for total cancer and site-specific obesity-related cancers. This was a prospective analysis of 123,560 participants (20,981 dog owners; 19,288 cat owners; 1,338 bird owners; and 81,953 non-pet owners) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trials. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HR and 95% confidence intervals for the association between pet ownership and cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant relationships between ownership of a dog, cat, or bird and incidence of cancer overall. When site-specific cancers were examined, no associations were observed after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Pet ownership had no association with overall cancer incidence. This is the first large epidemiologic study to date to explore relationships between pet ownership and cancer risk, as well as associated risks for individual cancer types. This study requires replication in other sizable, diverse cohorts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(9); 1311-6. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Rectal prolapse as initial clinical manifestation of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-W; Hsiao, C-W; Wu, C-C; Jao, S-W

    2008-04-01

    Rectal prolapse as the initial clinical manifestation of colorectal cancer is uncommon. We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon after presenting with complete rectal prolapse. The tumor caused rectosigmoid intussusception and then it prolapsed out through the anus. She underwent rectosigmoidectomy and rectopexy. The postoperative course was uneventful. The relationship between colorectal cancer and rectal prolapse has not been clearly established. This case report describes an unusual presentation of colorectal cancer. It suggests that rectal prolapse can present as the initial symptom of colorectal cancer and may also be a presenting feature of the occult intra-abdominal pathology. The importance of adequate investigation such as colonoscopy should be emphasized in patients who develop a new onset of rectal prolapse.

  18. Reaction Control Engine for Space Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have begun a series of engine tests on a new breed of space propulsion: a Reaction Control Engine developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI). The engine, developed by TRW Space and Electronics of Redondo Beach, California, is an auxiliary propulsion engine designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit. It is used for docking, reentry, attitude control, and fine-pointing while the vehicle is in orbit. The engine uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, a feature that creates a safer environment for ground operators, lowers cost, and increases efficiency with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions. Testing includes 30 hot-firings. This photograph shows the first engine test performed at MSFC that includes SLI technology. Another unique feature of the Reaction Control Engine is that it operates at dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The low-level thrust of 25 pounds of force allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock while the high-level thrust of 1,000 pounds of force is used for reentry, orbit transfer, and coarse positioning. SLI is a NASA-wide research and development program, managed by the MSFC, designed to improve safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for second generation reusable launch vehicles.

  19. Improving the quality of lung cancer care in Ontario: the lung cancer disease pathway initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Ung, Yee C; Assouad, Nathalie; Chyjek, Anna; Sawka, Carol

    2013-07-01

    Before 2008, Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) undertook provincial cancer control quality-improvement initiatives on a programmatic basis. CCO has now added Disease Pathway Management (DPM) to its quality improvement strategy, with the intent of achieving high-quality care, processes, and patient experience across the patient pathway for specific cancers. The three goals of DPM are: to describe and share evidence-based best practice along the cancer continuum for specific cancers; identify quality-improvement priorities for specific cancers and catalyze action; monitor performance against best practice for specific cancers. The objective of this article is to describe the process by which the CCO lung cancer (LC) DPM was initiated and some of its early successes. In 2009, LC DPM began with a draft LC disease pathway map and the establishment of five multidisciplinary working groups, each focused on a phase of the LC patient journey: prevention, screening, and early detection; diagnosis; treatment; palliative care, end-of-life care, and survivorship; and patient experience. The working groups held 25 meetings of 2-hour duration and developed concepts for 17 quality-improvement projects across the patient journey. Eight were selected for detailed discussion at a provincial consensus conference, which provided input on priorities for action. A report on the priorities for action was prepared and widely circulated, and regional roadshows were held in all 14 regions of the province of Ontario. Region-specific data on incidence, stage, treatment compliance, and wait times among other issues relevant to LC, were shared with the regional care providers at these roadshows. Funding was provided by CCO to address opportunities for regional improvement based on the data and the priorities identified. The LC disease pathways were refined through substantial multidisciplinary discussion, and the diagnostic pathway was posted on CCO's Web site in February 2012. The treatment pathways

  20. MYC activation is a hallmark of cancer initiation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Meital; Li, Yulin; Felsher, Dean W

    2014-06-02

    The MYC proto-oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of most types of human tumors. MYC activation alone in many normal cells is restrained from causing tumorigenesis through multiple genetic and epigenetically controlled checkpoint mechanisms, including proliferative arrest, apoptosis, and cellular senescence. When pathologically activated in a permissive epigenetic and/or genetic context, MYC bypasses these mechanisms, enforcing many of the "hallmark" features of cancer, including relentless tumor growth associated with DNA replication and transcription, cellular proliferation and growth, protein synthesis, and altered cellular metabolism. MYC mandates tumor cell fate, by inducing stemness and blocking cellular senescence and differentiation. Additionally, MYC orchestrates changes in the tumor microenvironment, including the activation of angiogenesis and suppression of the host immune response. Provocatively, brief or even partial suppression of MYC back to its physiological levels of activation can result in the restoration of intrinsic checkpoint mechanisms, resulting in acute and sustained tumor regression, associated with tumor cells undergoing proliferative arrest, differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis, as well as remodeling of the tumor microenvironment, recruitment of an immune response, and shutdown of angiogenesis. Hence, tumors appear to be "addicted" to MYC because of both tumor cell-intrinsic, cell-autonomous and host-dependent, immune cell-dependent mechanisms. Both the trajectory and persistence of many human cancers require sustained MYC activation. Multiscale mathematical modeling may be useful to predict when tumors will be addicted to MYC. MYC is a hallmark molecular feature of both the initiation and maintenance of tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. The 2011-2016 Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) initiative: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Colditz, Graham A; Hu, Frank B; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ahima, Rexford S; Brownson, Ross C; Carson, Kenneth R; Chavarro, Jorge E; Chodosh, Lewis A; Gehlert, Sarah; Gill, Jeff; Glanz, Karen; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Herbst, Karen Louise; Hoehner, Christine M; Hovmand, Peter S; Irwin, Melinda L; Jacobs, Linda A; James, Aimee S; Jones, Lee W; Kerr, Jacqueline; Kibel, Adam S; King, Irena B; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Natarajan, Loki; Neuhouser, Marian L; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Proctor, Enola K; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Rosner, Bernard; Sarwer, David B; Schwartz, J Sanford; Sears, Dorothy D; Sesso, Howard D; Stampfer, Meir J; Subramanian, S V; Taveras, Elsie M; Tchou, Julia; Thompson, Beti; Troxel, Andrea B; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Thornquist, Mark D

    2013-04-01

    Recognition of the complex, multidimensional relationship between excess adiposity and cancer control outcomes has motivated the scientific community to seek new research models and paradigms. The National Cancer Institute developed an innovative concept to establish a center grant mechanism in nutrition, energetics, and physical activity, referred to as the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) Initiative. This paper gives an overview of the 2011-2016 TREC Collaborative Network and the 15 research projects being conducted at the centers. Four academic institutions were awarded TREC center grants in 2011: Harvard University, University of California San Diego, University of Pennsylvania, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the Coordination Center. The TREC research portfolio includes three animal studies, three cohort studies, four randomized clinical trials, one cross-sectional study, and two modeling studies. Disciplines represented by TREC investigators include basic science, endocrinology, epidemiology, biostatistics, behavior, medicine, nutrition, physical activity, genetics, engineering, health economics, and computer science. Approximately 41,000 participants will be involved in these studies, including children, healthy adults, and breast and prostate cancer survivors. Outcomes include biomarkers of cancer risk, changes in weight and physical activity, persistent adverse treatment effects (e.g., lymphedema, urinary and sexual function), and breast and prostate cancer mortality. The NIH Science of Team Science group will evaluate the value added by this collaborative science. However, the most important outcome will be whether this transdisciplinary initiative improves the health of Americans at risk of cancer as well as cancer survivors.

  2. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  3. The characteristics and spatial distributions of initially missed and rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Won You

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of initially missed and rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers following 12-core transrectal biopsy. Methods: A total of 45 patients with prostate cancers detected on rebiopsy and 45 patients with prostate cancers initially detected on transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were included in the study. For result analysis, the prostate was divided into six compartments, and the cancer positive rates, estimated tumor burden, and agreement rates between biopsy and surgical specimens, along with clinical data, were evaluated. Results: The largest mean tumor burden was located in the medial apex in both groups. There were significantly more tumors in this location in the rebiopsy group (44.9% than in the control group (30.1%, P=0.015. The overall sensitivity of biopsy was significantly lower in the rebiopsy group (22.5% vs. 43.4%, P<0.001. The agreement rate of cancer positive cores between biopsy and surgical specimens was significantly lower in the medial apex in the rebiopsy group compared with that of the control group (50.0% vs. 65.6%, P=0.035. The cancer positive rates of target biopsy cores and premalignant lesions in the rebiopsy group were 63.1% and 42.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Rebiopsy-detected prostate cancers showed different spatial distribution and lower cancer detection rate of biopsy cores compared with initially diagnosed cancers. To overcome lower cancer detection rate, target biopsy of abnormal sonographic findings, premalignant lesions and medial apex which revealed larger tumor burden would be recommended when performing rebiopsy.

  4. Targeting the eIF4F translation initiation complex: a critical nexus for cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jerry; Graff, Jeremy; Ruggero, Davide; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2015-01-15

    Elevated protein synthesis is an important feature of many cancer cells and often arises as a consequence of increased signaling flux channeled to eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), the key regulator of the mRNA-ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation. In many cellular and preclinical models of cancer, eIF4F deregulation results in changes in translational efficiency of specific mRNA classes. Importantly, many of these mRNAs code for proteins that potently regulate critical cellular processes, such as cell growth and proliferation, enhanced cell survival and cell migration that ultimately impinge on several hallmarks of cancer, including increased angiogenesis, deregulated growth control, enhanced cellular survival, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis. By being positioned as the molecular nexus downstream of key oncogenic signaling pathways (e.g., Ras, PI3K/AKT/TOR, and MYC), eIF4F serves as a direct link between important steps in cancer development and translation initiation. Identification of mRNAs particularly responsive to elevated eIF4F activity that typifies tumorigenesis underscores the critical role of eIF4F in cancer and raises the exciting possibility of developing new-in-class small molecules targeting translation initiation as antineoplastic agents. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Dynamic Testing of Signal Transduction Deregulation During Breast Cancer Initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Std. Z39.18 Victoria Seewaldt, M.D. Dynamic Testing of Signal Transduction Deregulation During Breast Cancer Initiation Duke University Durham...attomole- zeptomole range. Internal dilution curves insure a high-dynamic calibration range. DU -26 8L DU -26 6L DU -29 5R DU -22 9.2 L DU...3: Nanobiosensor technology is translated to test for pathway deregulation in RPFNA cytology obtained from 10 high-risk women with cytological

  6. Quality assurance in the treatment of colorectal cancer: the EURECCA initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugom, A J; Boelens, P G; van den Broek, C B M; Cervantes, A; Van Cutsem, E; Schmoll, H J; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J H

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Europe. Over the past few decades, important advances have been made in screening, staging and treatment of colorectal cancer. However, considerable variation between and within European countries remains, which implies that further improvements are possible. The most important remaining question now is: when are we, health care professionals, delivering the best available care to patients with colon or rectal cancer? Currently, quality assurance is a major issue in colorectal cancer care and quality assurance awareness is developing in almost all disciplines involved in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. Quality assurance has shown to be effective in clinical trials. For example, standardisation and quality control were introduced in the Dutch TME trial and led to marked improvements of local control and survival in rectal cancer patients. Besides, audit structures can also be very effective in monitoring cancer management and national audits showed to further improve outcome in colorectal cancer patients. To reduce the differences between European countries, an international, multidisciplinary, outcome-based quality improvement programme, European Registration of Cancer Care (EURECCA), has been initiated. In the near future, the EURECCA dataset will perform research on subgroups as elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, which are often excluded from trials. For optimal colorectal cancer care, quality assurance in guideline formation and in multidisciplinary team management is also of great importance. The aim of this review was to create greater awareness and to give an overview of quality assurance in the management of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. International Metadata Initiatives: Lessons in Bibliographic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Priscilla

    This paper looks at a subset of metadata schemes, including the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) header, the Encoded Archival Description (EAD), the Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (DCMES), and the Visual Resources Association (VRA) Core Categories for visual resources. It examines why they developed as they did, major point of difference from…

  8. The Haiti Breast Cancer Initiative: Initial Findings and Analysis of Barriers-to-Care Delaying Patient Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Haiti, breast cancer patients present at such advanced stages that even modern therapies offer modest survival benefit. Identifying the personal, sociocultural, and economic barriers-to-care delaying patient presentation is crucial to controlling disease. Methods. Patients presenting to the Hôpital Bon Sauveur in Cange were prospectively accrued. Delay was defined as 12 weeks or longer from initial sign/symptom discovery to presentation, as durations greater than this cutoff correlate with reduced survival. A matched case-control analysis with multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting delay. Results. Of N=123 patients accrued, 90 (73% reported symptom-presentation duration and formed the basis of this study: 52 patients presented within 12 weeks of symptoms, while 38 patients waited longer than 12 weeks. On logistic regression, lower education status (OR = 5.6, P=0.03, failure to initially recognize mass as important (OR = 13.0, P<0.01, and fear of treatment cost (OR = 8.3, P=0.03 were shown to independently predict delayed patient presentation. Conclusion. To reduce stage at presentation, future interventions must educate patients on the recognition of initial breast cancer signs and symptoms and address cost concerns by providing care free of charge and/or advertising that existing care is already free.

  9. Psychosocial Health of Disease-Free Breast Cancer Survivors Compared with Matched Non-cancer Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Lee, Moo Hyun; Kong, Sun-Young; Lee, Eun Sook

    2018-04-05

    The present study investigated the psychosocial health of disease-free breast cancer survivors who receive health examinations compared to matched non-cancer controls in a community setting. We used baseline data from the Health Examinee cohort, which is composed of subjects participating in health. The disease-free breast cancer survivors were defined as those who were ≥2 years from initial diagnosis of breast cancer who had completed treatment. Females without a history of cancer were randomly selected at 1:4 ratio by 5-year age groups, education, and household income as a comparison group. We analyzed results from the Psychosocial Well-being Index-Short Form (PWI-SF) as a psychosocial health measurement. A total of 347 survivors of breast cancer and 1,388 matched controls were included. Total scores on the PWI-SF were lower in breast cancer survivors than matched non-cancer controls (p=0.006), suggesting a lower level of psychosocial stress in breast cancer survivors. In comparison to the control group, prevalence of drinking, smoking and obesity were lower, while exercising for ≥150 min/wk was higher in breast cancer survivors (p psychosocial health status compared to matched non-cancer controls.

  10. Mixed-Initiative Control of Autonomous Unmanned Units Under Uncertainty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thrun, Sebvastian; Gordon, Geoffrey; Burstein, Mark; Diller, David; Fox, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    .... We developed this control model using Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes. The mixed-initiative interactions enabled users to describe constraints at multiple levels of the planning hierarchy...

  11. Does initial 45Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy reduce late complications in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer? A cohort control study using definitive chemoradiotherapy with high-dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Wen; Liang, Ji-An; Hung, Yao-Ching; Yeh, Lian-Shung; Chang, Wei-Chun; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chien, Chun-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Comparing initial 45 Gy of pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and non-IMRT in terms of the late toxicities associated with advanced cervical cancer that has also been treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy and high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDRICB). This retrospective study included 320 stage IB2-IIIB cervical cancer patients treated with CCRT (83 IMRT and 237 non-IMRT). The two groups had similar stage and HDRICB ratings. Following 45 Gy to the pelvis, HDRICB of 24 Gy in four courses was prescribed. Late toxicities, including rectal complications (RC), bladder complications (BC) and non-rectal intestinal injury (NRRII), were scored by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. A logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of the complications. With a median follow-up duration of 33 and 77 months for IMRT and non-IMRT, 33 patients had Grade 2 or higher late RC (7.2% IMRT, 11.4% non-IMRT), whereas that for BC was 40 (9.6% IMRT, 13.5% non-IMRT) and for NRRII was 48 (12.0% IMRT, 16.0% non-IMRT). The cumulative rate for total grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicities was 8.4% and 11.8% (p = 0.33). IMRT did not reduce the OR for all endpoints; however, the ORs for rectum and bladder reference doses to Point A were associated with RC and BC. Locally advanced cervical cancer patients treated with initial 45Gy of pelvic IMRT and HDRICB have similar treatment-related late toxicities as those treated with non-IMRT. Optimization of the brachytherapy scheme is essential to minimize late toxicities

  12. Research Programs & Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH develops international initiatives and collaborates with other NCI divisions, NCI-designated Cancer Centers, and other countries to support cancer control planning, encourage capacity building, and support cancer research and research networks.

  13. Impact of initial tumor volume on radiotherapy outcome in patients with T2 glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of initial tumor volume (TV) on radiotherapy (RT) outcome in patients with T2 glottic cancer. Initial TV was calculated for 115 consecutive patients with T2 glottic cancer who had been treated with definitive RT alone at a single institution. The results showed strong correlations of TV with 3-year local tumor control (LTC) and disease-free survival (DFS). For TV ≤ 0.7 cm 3 , 3-year LTC was 83 %; for TV 0.7-3.6 cm 3 this was 70 % and for TV 3.6-17 cm 3 44 %. Analysis of total dose vs. initial TV showed that larger T2 glottic tumors with a TV of around 5 cm 3 (2-2.5 cm in diameter with 10 10 cancer cells) need an extra 6.5 Gy to achieve similar 3-year LTC rates as for small tumors with a TV of 0.5 cm 3 (∝1 cm in diameter with 10 9 cancer cells). Although classification of tumors according to TV cannot replace TNM staging in daily practice, it could represent a valuable numerical supplement for planning the optimal dose fractionation scheme for individual patients. (orig.)

  14. Investigate the Role of Obesity in Ovarian Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    cells and in transformed ovarian cells affected by obesity that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Obesity, Ovarian...5 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations...that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. We also aim to identify secreted factors from adipose tissue that promote ovarian cancer

  15. Possible roles of insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBPs in initiation and progression of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Du, Li-Li; Wang, Yan; Liu, Dong-Bo; Han, Cun-Zhi; Jing, Jie-Xian; Zhao, Xian-Wen; Xu, Xiao-Qin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of serum insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) in the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We determined serum insulin, IGF-1 and IGFBPs levels in 615 colorectal cancer patients and 650 control healthy donors by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the meantime, their body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured. RESULTS: Serum levels of insulin and IGF-1 as well as IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio in pre-operation patients were significantly elevated, but the level of IGFBP-3 was significantly decreased compared with normal controls and post-operation patients (P 0.05) in the levels of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 between the patients with and without hepatic as well as distal abdominal metastases. WHR and BMI of colon cancer patients were positively and significantly correlated with the levels of insulin and IGF-1/IGFBP-3. In contrast, WHR and BMI were negatively correlated with IGFBP-3 level. CONCLUSION: The elevation of insulin, IGF-1 as well as IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio and the reduction of IGFBP-3 may be related to the initiation of colorectal cancer, but they are not related to the progression and outcome of the disease. PMID:24587638

  16. Treatment of initially metastatic small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohutek, F.; Bystricky, B.; Tamasova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the most common cause of death associated with neoplasms. The incidence of LC in 2007 was 71.3/100,000 men and 18.6/100,000 women in Slovakia. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) includes 15 - 18% of all cases. The diagnosis of LC is based on patient's history, physical examination, basic laboratory tests, x-ray imaging and computed tomography (CT) imaging and histology. The material required for histology can be obtained by means of endoscopy or surgery. Ultrasonography (USG) and/or CT of abdomen is commonly performed as a part of staging process, along with CT or MRI of brain. Bone scan is performed in case of suspicion of bone involvement. According to TNM classification, seventh edition, the same classification can be used for SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are available for treatment of initially metastatic SCLC. First-line chemotherapy regimen should be based on combination of cisplatin or carboplatin with etoposide (PE). Alternatively, CAV regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine) can be used. Newer regimens did not provide benefit when compared to standard regimens. If progression occurs later than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, the same regimen may be used in second-line chemotherapy. If progression occurs earlier than 3 months after finishing first-line chemotherapy, topotecan-based regimen is an option for second-line line chemotherapy. Despite promising outcomes of amrubicin-based second-line chemotherapy in Japan, amrubicin is not available in countries of E U. Standard therapy schedules do not include radiotherapy targeted on primary tumor and affected lymph-nodes. According to American and European guidelines, prophylactic cranial irradiation is recommended for patients with extensive disease-SCLC with good performance status after achieving complete or partial response to first-line chemotherapy. (author)

  17. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Lang (Jens); J.G. Verwer (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based onthe adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  18. On global error estimation and control for initial value problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, J.; Verwer, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses global error estimation and control for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. The focus lies on a comparison between a novel approach based on the adjoint method combined with a small sample statistical initialization and the classical approach

  19. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative ... action on tobacco will cause economic harm to governments, businesses, farmers, and poor families. ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  20. Economics of tobacco control research initiative: Operating costs for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economics of tobacco control research initiative: Operating costs for capacity building ... (but misinformed) beliefs about the economic benefits of the tobacco industry ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  1. The cancer cell map initiative: defining the hallmark networks of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogan, Nevan J; Lippman, Scott; Agard, David A; Ashworth, Alan; Ideker, Trey

    2015-05-21

    Progress in DNA sequencing has revealed the startling complexity of cancer genomes, which typically carry thousands of somatic mutations. However, it remains unclear which are the key driver mutations or dependencies in a given cancer and how these influence pathogenesis and response to therapy. Although tumors of similar types and clinical outcomes can have patterns of mutations that are strikingly different, it is becoming apparent that these mutations recurrently hijack the same hallmark molecular pathways and networks. For this reason, it is likely that successful interpretation of cancer genomes will require comprehensive knowledge of the molecular networks under selective pressure in oncogenesis. Here we announce the creation of a new effort, The Cancer Cell Map Initiative (CCMI), aimed at systematically detailing these complex interactions among cancer genes and how they differ between diseased and healthy states. We discuss recent progress that enables creation of these cancer cell maps across a range of tumor types and how they can be used to target networks disrupted in individual patients, significantly accelerating the development of precision medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumor-Initiating Label-Retaining Cancer Cells in Human Gastrointestinal Cancers Undergo Asymmetric Cell Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Hari, Danielle M.; Mullinax, John E.; Ambe, Chenwi M.; Koizumi, Tomotake; Ray, Satyajit; Anderson, Andrew J.; Wiegand, Gordon W.; Garfield, Susan H.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Avital, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Label-retaining cells (LRCs) have been proposed to represent adult tissue stem cells. LRCs are hypothesized to result from either slow cycling or asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, the stem cell nature and whether LRC undergo ACD remain controversial. Here, we demonstrate label-retaining cancer cells (LRCCs) in several gastrointestinal (GI) cancers including fresh surgical specimens. Using a novel method for isolation of live LRCC, we demonstrate that a subpopulation of LRCC is actively dividing and exhibits stem cells and pluripotency gene expression profiles. Using real-time confocal microscopic cinematography, we show live LRCC undergoing asymmetric nonrandom chromosomal cosegregation LRC division. Importantly, LRCCs have greater tumor-initiating capacity than non-LRCCs. Based on our data and that cancers develop in tissues that harbor normal-LRC, we propose that LRCC might represent a novel population of GI stem-like cancer cells. LRCC may provide novel mechanistic insights into the biology of cancer and regenerative medicine and present novel targets for cancer treatment. PMID:22331764

  3. Familial Breast Cancer in Costa Rica: An Initial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ramírez Monge

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem because of its high rates of incidence and associated mortality. By 2000, more than 6.2 million people died from this illness worldwide. Among all types of cancer, breast cancer is one of the most studied. Each year, one million new cases are diagnosed around the world. We can classify breast cancer into two main kinds: sporadic cases and those which are a product of inherited genetic alterations. Approximately 5-10% of breast cancer cases are the result of inherited mutations, or alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Like other countries, Costa Rica possesses high rates of incidence and mortality for breast cancer. According to the "Registro Nacional de Tumores" (National Office of Tumor Records, in 2000 breast cancer had the highest rate of incidence and in 2002 it had the highest rate of mortality in comparison to other types of cancer. For this reason and the generalized lack of knowledge in the field we conducted an epidemiological research on breast cancer patients from Hospital San Juan de Dios, San José, Costa Rica, to find families with a history of breast cancer, and to determine the occurrence of familial cases within the population studied. So far, we have found 23 families, within which we discovered very informative cases that have rendered the identification of a pattern of inheritance. These findings allow us to announce that in Costa Rica there are several cases of inherited breast cancer and that we need more research is needed to improve the prevention, control, and treatment of this disease. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 531-536. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El cáncer es un problema a nivel mundial porque posee altas tasas de incidencia y mortalidad. Para el año 2000 más de 6.2 millones de personas murieron a causa de esta enfermedad. El cáncer de mama es uno de los tipos de cáncer más estudiados en el mundo por las mismas razones. Cada año, se diagnostican más de un mill

  4. CRISPR-mediated control of the bacterial initiation of replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiktor, J.M.; Lesterlin, Christian; Sherratt, David J.; Dekker, C.

    2016-01-01

    Programmable control of the cell cycle has been shown to be a powerful tool in cell-biology studies. Here, we develop a novel system for controlling the bacterial cell cycle, based on binding of CRISPR/dCas9 to the origin-of-replication locus. Initiation of replication of bacterial chromosomes is

  5. P1 plasmid replication: initiator sequestration is inadequate to explain control by initiator-binding sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, S K; Chattoraj, D K

    1988-01-01

    The unit-copy plasmid replicon mini-P1 consists of an origin, a gene for an initiator protein, RepA, and a control locus, incA. Both the origin and the incA locus contain repeat sequences that bind RepA. It has been proposed that the incA repeats control replication by sequestering the rate-limiting RepA initiator protein. Here we show that when the concentration of RepA was increased about fourfold beyond its normal physiological level from an inducible source in trans, the copy number of a ...

  6. Asthma Severity in patients initiating controller monotherapy versus combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diette, Gregory B; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L; Allen-Ramey, Felicia; Hopper, April; Sajjan, Shiva G; Markson, Leona E

    2011-04-01

    Asthma treatment guidelines recommend medications based on the level of asthma control. To evaluate differences in asthma control between patients who initiated asthma controller monotherapy versus combination therapy. Children (5-16 years; n = 488) and adults (17-80 years; n = 530) with asthma and no controller therapy in the prior 6 months were included. Telephone surveys were conducted within 5 days of filling a new asthma controller prescription with either the caregiver of children or the adult patient. Demographics, asthma control before therapy, and asthma-related resource use were assessed for patients initiating monotherapy (filling one asthma controller prescription) and combination therapy (filling more than one controller medication or a fixed-dose combination). Mean pediatric age was 10 years; 53% were male. Mean adult age was 47 years; 25% were male. There were no significant differences in asthma control score between patients receiving monotherapy and combination therapy. Children on combination therapy did not have more nighttime awakening or short-acting β-agonist use but were more likely to have been hospitalized due to asthma attack (p = .05) and have more unscheduled (p = .0374) and scheduled (p = .009) physician visits. Adults on combination therapy were more likely to have been hospitalized due to asthma attack (p asthma (p asthma control scores in the 4 weeks before index medication suggests that asthma severity during a treatment-free period did not differ significantly for patients initiating controller monotherapy versus combination therapy. From these findings, it appears that although physicians may not focus on asthma control when choosing the intensity of initial controller therapy, the intensity of health-care encounters may be an influence.

  7. Ocular metastasis as initial presentation in breast cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two patients presented to their ophthalmologists with vision disturbances. On ocular examination, retinopathic lesions were observed. On subsequent examination, these lesions were diagnosed as metastases of breast cancer. Neither patient had a history of breast cancer. In patients with breast cancer and multiple ...

  8. Red meat and colon cancer : how dietary heme initiates hyperproliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJssennagger, N.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in Western countries. The risk to develop colorectal cancer is associated with the intake of red meat. Red meat contains the porphyrin pigment heme. Heme is an irritant for the colonic wall and it is previously shown that the addition of heme

  9. Methyleugenol hepatocellular cancer initiating effects in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary M; Iatropoulos, Michael J; Jeffrey, Alan M; Duan, Jian-Dong

    2013-03-01

    Methyleugenol (MEG), a constituent of plants used in the human diet, is hepatocarcinogenic in rodents. In an experiment to elucidate its mode of action in rat liver, male F344 rats were administered MEG intragastrically at 3 doses per week for up to 16 weeks in an initiation phase, after which half the rats were fed 500 ppm phenobarbital (PB) in the diet to promote liver neoplasia and the other half were maintained on control diet for 24 weeks. At 8 and 16 week interim terminations, (32)P-nucleotide postlabeling assay revealed 3 adducts in livers of all MEG groups. The hepatocellular replicating fractions, measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry, were doubled or more in all MEG groups. Hepatocellular altered foci, detected by glutathione S-transferase-placental type (π) immunohistochemistry, were present beginning with the high dose group at 8 weeks and extending to all MEG groups at 16 weeks. At the end of maintenance/promotion phase, the incidences, multiplicity and size of foci was similar between control and low dose groups, while those of mid and high dose groups were increased. Hepatocellular adenomas occurred in the mid and high dose groups, attaining higher multiplicity and size with PB. Thus, MEG had rapid initiating activity, reflecting the formation of DNA adducts and possibly cell proliferation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cancer survivorship: a new challenge in comprehensive cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Lori A; Greer, Greta E; Rowland, Julia H; Miller, Andy; Doneski, Donna; Coughlin, Steven S; Stovall, Ellen; Ulman, Doug

    2005-10-01

    Cancer survivors are a growing population in the United States because of earlier cancer diagnosis, the aging of society, and more effective risk reduction and treatment. Concerns about the long-term physical, psychosocial, and economic effects of cancer treatment on cancer survivors and their families are increasingly being recognized and addressed by public, private, and non-profit organizations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how survivorship fits within the framework of comprehensive cancer control. We summarize three national reports on cancer survivorship and highlight how various organizations and programs are striving to address the needs of cancer survivors through public health planning, including the challenges these groups face and the gaps in knowledge and available services. As cancer survivorship issues are being recognized, many organizations have objectives and programs to address concerns of those diagnosed with cancer. However, better coordination and dissemination may decrease overlap and increase the reach of efforts and there is limited evidence for the effectiveness and impact of these efforts.

  11. Quantum control for initiation and detection of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Scharff, R. Jason; Moore, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We employ quantum control methods towards detection and quantum controlled initiation (QCI) of energetic materials. Ultrafast pulse shaping of broadband Infrared (∼750 nm to 850 run) and ultraviolet (266 nm, 400 nm) light is utilized for control. The underlying principals behind optimal control can be utilized to both detect and initiate explosives. In each case, time dependent phase shaped electric fields drive the chemical systems towards a desired state. For optimal dynamic detection of explosives (ODD-Ex) a phase specific broadband infrared pulse is created which increases not only the sensitivity of detection but also the selectivity of an explosive's spectral signatures in a background of interferents. QCI on the other hand, seeks to initiate explosives by employing shaped ultraviolet light. QCI is ideal for use with explosive detonators as it removes the possibility of unintentional initiation from an electrical source while adding an additional safety feature, initiation only with the proper pulse shape. Quantum control experiments require: (1) the ability to phase and amplitude shape the laser pulse and (2) the ability to effectively search for the pulse shape which controls the reaction. In these adaptive experiments we utilize both global and local optimization search routines such as genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and downhill simplex. Pulse shaping the broadband IR light, produced by focusing 800 nm light through a pressurized tube of Argon, is straightforward as commercial pulse shapers are available at and around 800 nm. Pulse shaping in the UV requires a home built shaper. Our system is an acoustic optical modulator (AOM) pulse shaper in which consists of a fused silica AOM crystal placed in the Fourier plane of a 4-f zero dispersion compressor.

  12. Percutaneous MR-guided cryoablation of prostate cancer: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangi, Afshin; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Abdelli, Omar; Buy, Xavier; Mathelin, Michel de; Jacqmin, Didier; Lang, Herve

    2012-01-01

    We report our initial experience and the technical feasibility of transperineal prostate cryoablation under MR guidance. Percutaneous MR-guided cryoablation was performed in 11 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma contraindicated for surgery (mean age: 72 years, mean Gleason score: 6.45, mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA): 6.21 ng/ml, T1-2c/N0/M0, mean: prostate volume 36.44 ml). Free-hand probe positioning was performed under real-time MR imaging. Four to seven cryoprobes were inserted into the prostate, depending on gland volume. The ice ball was monitored using real-time and high-resolution BLADE multi-planar imaging. Patients were followed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the procedure with serum PSA level and post-ablation MRI. Prostate cryoablation was technically feasible in 10/11 patients. The ice ball was clearly and sharply visualised in all cases as a signal-void area. Mean ice-ball volume was 53.3 ml. Mean follow-up was 15 months (range: 1-25). Mean PSA nadir was 0.33 ng/ml (range: 0.02-0.94 ng/ml). Mean hospitalisation was 5 days (range: 3-13). Complications included a urethro-rectal fistula, urinary infection, transient dysuria and scrotal pain. MR-guided prostate cryoablation is feasible and promising, with excellent monitoring of the ice ball. Future perspectives could include the use of MR guidance for focal prostate cancer cryotherapy. (orig.)

  13. Percutaneous MR-guided cryoablation of prostate cancer: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi, Afshin; Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Abdelli, Omar; Buy, Xavier [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Interventional Radiology, Strasbourg (France); Mathelin, Michel de [University of Strasbourg, Lsiit, Strasbourg (France); Jacqmin, Didier; Lang, Herve [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Urology, Strasbourg (France)

    2012-08-15

    We report our initial experience and the technical feasibility of transperineal prostate cryoablation under MR guidance. Percutaneous MR-guided cryoablation was performed in 11 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma contraindicated for surgery (mean age: 72 years, mean Gleason score: 6.45, mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA): 6.21 ng/ml, T1-2c/N0/M0, mean: prostate volume 36.44 ml). Free-hand probe positioning was performed under real-time MR imaging. Four to seven cryoprobes were inserted into the prostate, depending on gland volume. The ice ball was monitored using real-time and high-resolution BLADE multi-planar imaging. Patients were followed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the procedure with serum PSA level and post-ablation MRI. Prostate cryoablation was technically feasible in 10/11 patients. The ice ball was clearly and sharply visualised in all cases as a signal-void area. Mean ice-ball volume was 53.3 ml. Mean follow-up was 15 months (range: 1-25). Mean PSA nadir was 0.33 ng/ml (range: 0.02-0.94 ng/ml). Mean hospitalisation was 5 days (range: 3-13). Complications included a urethro-rectal fistula, urinary infection, transient dysuria and scrotal pain. MR-guided prostate cryoablation is feasible and promising, with excellent monitoring of the ice ball. Future perspectives could include the use of MR guidance for focal prostate cancer cryotherapy. (orig.)

  14. PET/MRI in head and neck cancer: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzek, Ivan; Laniado, Michael [Dresden University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina [Dresden University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Schneider, Matthias [Dresden University Hospital, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Gudziol, Volker [Dresden University Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology, Dresden (Germany); Langner, Jens; Schramm, Georg; Hoff, Joerg van den [Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kotzerke, Joerg [Dresden University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of PET/MRI (positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) with FDG ({sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose) for initial staging of head and neck cancer. The study group comprised 20 patients (16 men, 4 women) aged between 52 and 81 years (median 64 years) with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. The patients underwent a PET scan on a conventional scanner and a subsequent PET/MRI examination on a whole-body hybrid system. FDG was administered intravenously prior to the conventional PET scan (267-395 MBq FDG, 348 MBq on average). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the tumour and of both cerebellar hemispheres were determined for both PET datasets. The numbers of lymph nodes with increased FDG uptake were compared between the two PET datasets. No MRI-induced artefacts where observed in the PET images. The tumour was detected by PET/MRI in 17 of the 20 patients, by PET in 16 and by MRI in 14. The PET/MRI examination yielded significantly higher SUV{sub max} than the conventional PET scanner for both the tumour (p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (p = 0.0009). The number of lymph nodes with increased FDG uptake detected using the PET dataset from the PET/MRI system was significantly higher the number detected by the stand-alone PET system (64 vs. 39, p = 0.001). The current study demonstrated that PET/MRI of the whole head and neck region is feasible with a whole-body PET/MRI system without impairment of PET or MR image quality. (orig.)

  15. Controlling propulsive forces in gait initiation in transfemoral amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keeken, Helco G.; Vrieling, Aline H.; Hof, At L.; Halbertsma, Jan P. K.; Schoppen, Tanneke; Postema, Klaas; Otten, Bert

    During prosthetic gait initiation, transfemoral (TF) amputees control the spatial and temporal parameters that modulate the propulsive forces, the positions of the center of pressure (CoP), and the center of mass (CoM). Whether their sound leg or the prosthetic leg is leading, the TF amputees reach

  16. Management Control System Support of Initiatives for Disruptive Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the management control system (MCS) support of school initiatives to develop the school climate and to re-engage disruptive students. Design/methodology/approach: The paper adopts an approach of critical action research interviews with management and document reviews informed by Habermasian…

  17. Incidence and timing of cancer in HIV-infected individuals following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Napravnik, Sonia; Cole, Stephen R; Achenbach, Chad J; Gopal, Satish; Olshan, Andrew; Dittmer, Dirk P; Kitahata, Mari M; Mugavero, Michael J; Saag, Michael; Moore, Richard D; Mayer, Kenneth; Mathews, W Christopher; Hunt, Peter W; Rodriguez, Benigno; Eron, Joseph J

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but patterns of cancer incidence after combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation remain poorly characterized. We evaluated the incidence and timing of cancer diagnoses among patients initiating ART between 1996 and 2011 in a collaboration of 8 US clinical HIV cohorts. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rates. Cox regression was used to identify demographic and clinical characteristics associated with cancer incidence after ART initiation. At initiation of first combination ART among 11 485 patients, median year was 2004 (interquartile range [IQR], 2000-2007) and median CD4 count was 202 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 61-338). Incidence rates for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and lymphomas were highest in the first 6 months after ART initiation (P cancers combined increased from 416 to 615 cases per 100 000 person-years from 1 to 10 years after ART initiation (average 7% increase per year; 95% confidence interval, 2%-13%). Lower CD4 count at ART initiation was associated with greater risk of KS, lymphoma, and human papillomavirus-related cancer. Calendar year of ART initiation was not associated with cancer incidence. KS and lymphoma rates were highest immediately following ART initiation, particularly among patients with low CD4 cell counts, whereas other cancers increased with time on ART, likely reflecting increased cancer risk with aging. Our results underscore recommendations for earlier HIV diagnosis followed by prompt ART initiation along with ongoing aggressive cancer screening and prevention efforts throughout the course of HIV care.

  18. Choroidal Metastases as the Initial Presentation of Lung Cancer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented with ... nonsmall cell carcinoma of the right lung, which had multiple distant metastases. KEYWORDS: ... metastasis in lung cancer is very low, reported to be ... Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: .... awareness regarding this rare presentation of lung cancer.

  19. Emotional control in Chinese female cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Ho, Samuel M Y

    2004-11-01

    Chinese persons are not known as strong in expressing emotions, especially negative ones. However, being diagnosed with cancer and going through treatment can be an emotionally traumatic experience and cancer patients are supposed to have a stronger need to express these negative feelings. The control of expression of negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depression in Chinese female cancer survivors (n=139) was examined in the present study using the Chinese version of the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale (CECS). The reliability, internal consistency and validity of the Chinese CECS were comparable to the original English scale. Correlation analyses suggested that cancer survivors with higher emotional control tended to have higher stress, anxiety and depression levels and to adopt negative coping with cancer. Regression analysis showed that emotional control would positively predict stress level even after the effect of depressed mood was under control. Further investigations are suggested in order to elucidate the causal relationships and specific cultural factors affecting emotional control in Chinese cancer survivors and, most importantly, its effect on health outcomes. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Breast cancer prevention with Morinda citrifolia (noni at the initiation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: It has been reported that noni has multiple health benefits for over 2000 years. In this study, the cancer preventive effects of Tahitian noni® juice (TNJ at the initiation stage on DMBA-induced mammary tumorigenesis in female SD rats was investigated.Objective: We took advantage of the DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenic model to study the preventive effects of TNJ at the initiation stage of mammary carcinogenesis in female SD rats by using clinical observation, pathological examination, and 32P-postlabeling assay.Methods: One hundred and sixty female SD rats were divided into eight groups with 20 rats in each group. Three doses of TNJ or placebo was given to the animals at the age of 35 days until the end of the experiment. When the animals were 55 days old, 25 mg/kg DMBA was fed to the animals in the DMBA group, placebo, and TNJ groups. The 20 rats were kept at age-matched controls. Palpable tumors were examined twice a week after DMBA administration in each group by an experienced professional. The size of tumor was measured by a graduated caliper. A piece of tumor, vascularization area, and mammary glands in the thoracic and abdomen areas of each rat were dissected respectively and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for light microscope examination. The DMBA-DNA adduct formation in mammary tissues was detected by 32P-postlabeling assay.Results: The tumor latency in TNJ groups was delayed about 60-90 days when compared with positive controls. The number of palpable tumors per group was significantly reduced by 73%, 72% and 80% in 3%, 5%, and 10% TNJ groups respectively when compared with positive controls at the end of 330 days after DMBA administration. The number of palpable tumors in the placebo groups was slightly reduced in the early stage, but much less than that in the TNJ groups. The multiplicity and malignancy of lesions were significantly reduced and the survival rate of animals in the TNJ groups was

  1. Multiple Cutaneous Metastases as Initial Presentation in Advanced Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheer Nambiar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin metastases from advanced colorectal cancer are relatively rare and occur most often when the cancer is advanced, following the spread to other organs. Cutaneous metastases occur in about 3% of advanced colorectal cancers. We present an extremely rare case of a 68-year-old woman with advanced ascending colon adenocarcinoma that presented with multiple rapidly progressing painless cutaneous metastatic lesions with no other distant metastases. Of all the tumors, breast cancer most commonly spreads as cutaneous metastasis is followed by lung, colorectal, renal, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Cutaneous metastases can present in a variety of clinical manifestations, such as a rapidly growing painless dermal or subcutaneous nodule with intact overlying epidermis or as ulcers. In cases where the cutaneous deposit is isolated, as in visceral metastasis, there is a role for radical management such as wide local excision and reconstruction. In our patient, since she had multiple cutaneous metastases she began treatment with palliative systemic combination chemotherapy.

  2. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfen, F.J.; Wong, K.K.; Switick, D.M.; Shukla, J.N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent Generic Flight System (GFS) updates have necessitated revisions in the initial startup and restart control strategies. The design changes that have had the most impact on the control strategies are the addition of the Auxiliary Cooling and Thaw (ACT) system for preheating the lithium filled components, changes in the reactivity worths of the reflectors and safety-rods such that initial cold criticality is achieved with only a small amount of reflector movement following the withdrawal of the safety-rods, and the removal of the scram function from the reflectors. Revised control and operating strategies have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model, ARIES-GFS. The change in the total reactivity worths of the reflectors and safety-rods has eliminated the need for the use of fast and slow reflector drive speeds during the initial on-orbit approach to criticality. The relatively fast removal of the safety-rods results in a near-critical condition so that the use of slow moving (single speed) reflector drives does not add significant time to achieve full power for the initial startup. The use of the ACT system (with its NaK trace-lines for preheating and auxiliary cooling) affects the main Thermoelectric Electro-Magnetic (TEM) pump startup and the time after a shutdown before freezing occurs in the main heat transfer systems

  3. Quality Control Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),

  4. Targeted Cancer Therapy: Vital Oncogenes and a New Molecular Genetic Paradigm for Cancer Initiation Progression and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Rudolph E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis. PMID:27649156

  5. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  6. An immunosurveillance mechanism controls cancer cell ploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Laura; Vitale, Ilio; Martins, Isabelle; Tailler, Maximilien; Pailleret, Claire; Michaud, Mickaël; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Adjemian, Sandy; Kepp, Oliver; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Shen, Shensi; Mariño, Guillermo; Criollo, Alfredo; Boilève, Alice; Job, Bastien; Ladoire, Sylvain; Ghiringhelli, François; Sistigu, Antonella; Yamazaki, Takahiro; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Locher, Clara; Poirier-Colame, Vichnou; Talbot, Monique; Valent, Alexander; Berardinelli, Francesco; Antoccia, Antonio; Ciccosanti, Fabiola; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Fueyo, Antonio; Messina, Nicole L; Li, Ming; Chan, Christopher J; Sigl, Verena; Pourcher, Guillaume; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Lazar, Vladimir; Penninger, Josef M; Madeo, Frank; López-Otín, Carlos; Smyth, Mark J; Zitvogel, Laurence; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-09-28

    Cancer cells accommodate multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations that initially activate intrinsic (cell-autonomous) and extrinsic (immune-mediated) oncosuppressive mechanisms. Only once these barriers to oncogenesis have been overcome can malignant growth proceed unrestrained. Tetraploidization can contribute to oncogenesis because hyperploid cells are genomically unstable. We report that hyperploid cancer cells become immunogenic because of a constitutive endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in the aberrant cell surface exposure of calreticulin. Hyperploid, calreticulin-exposing cancer cells readily proliferated in immunodeficient mice and conserved their increased DNA content. In contrast, hyperploid cells injected into immunocompetent mice generated tumors only after a delay, and such tumors exhibited reduced DNA content, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and calreticulin exposure. Our results unveil an immunosurveillance system that imposes immunoselection against hyperploidy in carcinogen- and oncogene-induced cancers.

  7. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  8. Initiative For Thyroid Cancer Diagnosis: Decision Support System For Anaplast Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ahmed Chandio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high level exposure of biomedical image analysis, Medical image mining has become one of the well-established research area(s of machine learning. AI (Artificial Intelligence techniques have been vastly used to solve the complex classification problems of thyroid cancer. Since the persistence of copycat chromatin properties and unavailability of nuclei measurement techniques, it is really problem for doctors to determine the initial phases of nuclei enlargement and to assess the early changes of chromatin distribution. For example involvement of multiple transparent overlapping of nuclei may become the cause of confusion to infer the growth pattern of nuclei variations. Un-decidable nuclei eccentric properties may become one of the leading causes for misdiagnosis in Anaplast cancers. In-order to mitigate all above stated problems this paper proposes a novel methodology so called “Decision Support System for Anaplast Thyroid Cancer” and it proposes a medical data preparation algorithm AD (Analpast_Cancers which helps to select the appropriate features of Anaplast cancers such as (1 enlargement of nuclei, (2 persistence of irregularity in nuclei and existence of hyper chromatin. Proposed methodology comprises over four major layers, first layer deals with the noise reduction, detection of nuclei edges and object clusters. Second layer selects the features of object of interest such as nuclei enlargement, irregularity and hyper chromatin. Third layer constructs the decision model to extract the hidden patterns of disease associated variables and final layer evaluates the performance evaluation by using confusion matrix, precision and recall measures. The overall classification accuracy is measured about 97.2% with 10-k fold cross validation.

  9. Initial experience of tritium exposure control at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.; Campling, D.C.; Schofield, P.A.; Macheta, P.; Sandland, K.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the safety procedures and controls in place for work with tritium are described, and initial operational experience of handling tritium is discussed. A description is given of work to rectify a water leak in a JET neutral beam heating component, which involved man-access to a confined volume to perform repairs, at tritium levels about 100 DAC (80 MBq/m 3 . HTO). Control measures involving use of purge and extract ventilation, and of personal protection using air-fed pressurized suits are described. Results are given of the internal doses to project staff and of atmospheric discharges of tritium during the repair outage. (P.A.)

  10. CRISPR-mediated control of the bacterial initiation of replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Jakub; Lesterlin, Christian; Sherratt, David J; Dekker, Cees

    2016-05-05

    Programmable control of the cell cycle has been shown to be a powerful tool in cell-biology studies. Here, we develop a novel system for controlling the bacterial cell cycle, based on binding of CRISPR/dCas9 to the origin-of-replication locus. Initiation of replication of bacterial chromosomes is accurately regulated by the DnaA protein, which promotes the unwinding of DNA at oriC We demonstrate that the binding of CRISPR/dCas9 to any position within origin or replication blocks the initiation of replication. Serial-dilution plating, single-cell fluorescence microscopy, and flow-cytometry experiments show that ongoing rounds of chromosome replication are finished upon CRISPR/dCas9 binding, but no new rounds are initiated. Upon arrest, cells stay metabolically active and accumulate cell mass. We find that elevating the temperature from 37 to 42°C releases the CRISR/dCas9 replication inhibition, and we use this feature to recover cells from the arrest. Our simple and robust method of controlling the bacterial cell cycle is a useful asset for synthetic biology and DNA-replication studies in particular. The inactivation of CRISPR/dCas9 binding at elevated temperatures may furthermore be of wide interest for CRISPR/Cas9 applications in genomic engineering. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Participants, Physicians or Programmes: Participants' educational level and initiative in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Barbara; Bracke, Piet

    2018-04-01

    This study is an in-depth examination of at whose initiative (participant, physician or screening programme) individuals participate in cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening across the EU-28. Special attention is paid to (1) the association with educational attainment and (2) the country's cancer screening strategy (organised, pilot/regional or opportunistic) for each type of cancer screened. Data were obtained from Eurobarometer 66.2 'Health in the European Union' (2006). Final samples consisted of 10,186; 5443 and 9851 individuals for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer, respectively. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed. Surprisingly, even in countries with organised screening programmes, participation in screenings for cervical, breast and colorectal cancer was most likely to be initiated by the general practitioner (GP) or the participant. In general, GPs were found to play a crucial role in making referrals to screenings, regardless of the country's screening strategy. The results also revealed differences between educational groups with regard to their incentive to participate in cervical and breast cancer screening and, to a lesser extent, in colorectal cancer screening. People with high education are more likely to participate in cancer screening at their own initiative, while people with less education are more likely to participate at the initiative of a physician or a screening programme. Albeit, the results varied according to type of cancer screening and national screening strategy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Canadian Cancer Risk Management Model: evaluation of cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Wolfson, Michael C; Flanagan, William M; Shin, Janey; Goffin, John; Miller, Anthony B; Asakawa, Keiko; Earle, Craig; Mittmann, Nicole; Fairclough, Lee; Oderkirk, Jillian; Finès, Philippe; Gribble, Stephen; Hoch, Jeffrey; Hicks, Chantal; Omariba, D Walter R; Ng, Edward

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a decision support tool to assess the potential benefits and costs of new healthcare interventions. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC) commissioned the development of a Cancer Risk Management Model (CRMM)--a computer microsimulation model that simulates individual lives one at a time, from birth to death, taking account of Canadian demographic and labor force characteristics, risk factor exposures, and health histories. Information from all the simulated lives is combined to produce aggregate measures of health outcomes for the population or for particular subpopulations. The CRMM can project the population health and economic impacts of cancer control programs in Canada and the impacts of major risk factors, cancer prevention, and screening programs and new cancer treatments on population health and costs to the healthcare system. It estimates both the direct costs of medical care, as well as lost earnings and impacts on tax revenues. The lung and colorectal modules are available through the CPAC Web site (www.cancerview.ca/cancerrriskmanagement) to registered users where structured scenarios can be explored for their projected impacts. Advanced users will be able to specify new scenarios or change existing modules by varying input parameters or by accessing open source code. Model development is now being extended to cervical and breast cancers.

  13. Radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Hachiya, Kae; Okada, Sunaho; Kitahara, Masashi; Matsuyama, Katsuya; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Although the technical developments of radiotherapy have been remarkable, there are currently few reports on the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as initial treatment in this three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy era. Thus, we retrospectively evaluated the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment. Thirty-two patients who underwent radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. The dose per fraction was 2.0–3.5 Gy. Because the treatment schedule was variable, the biological effective dose (BED) was calculated. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates from the completion of radiotherapy were calculated. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year LC rates were 51.5%, 24.5%, 19.6%, 19.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. LC rates were significantly higher for the high BED group (≥75 Gy10) than for the lower BED group (<75 Gy10). All patients who reported pain achieved pain relief. The duration of pain relief was significantly higher for the high BED group than for the lower BED group. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year OS rates were 82.6%, 56.5%, 45.2%, 38.7%, and 23.2%, respectively. There was a trend toward higher OS rates in with higher BED group compared to lower BED group. For patients with unresectable locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone, radiotherapy is effective treatment. The prescribed BED should be more than 75 Gy10, if the dose to the organ at risk is within acceptable levels.

  14. Increased plasma soluble uPAR level is a risk marker of respiratory cancer in initially cancer-free individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne A; Hansen, Tine Willum; Ladelund, Steen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable plasma biomarker associated with inflammation and disease. This study tested the association between suPAR levels and incident respiratory, gastrointestinal or other types of cancer in initially cancer-free individuals...... with respiratory, gastrointestinal and other cancer types, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated suPAR levels were associated with increased risk of incident respiratory cancer and other types of cancer, but not gastrointestinal cancers, independently of established risk factors, CRP and leukocyte numbers. Impact.......RESULTS: suPAR levels ranged from 0.6-22 ng/ml, and median suPAR level was 4.01 ng/ml. 1 ng/ml increase in baseline suPAR was associated with adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.61 (95% CI: 1.23-2.11, P

  15. Cost of Care for the Initial Management of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercow, Alexandra S; Chen, Ling; Chatterjee, Sudeshna; Tergas, Ana I; Hou, June Y; Burke, William M; Ananth, Cande V; Neugut, Alfred I; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2017-12-01

    To examine the cost of care during the first year after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer, estimate the sources of cost, and explore the out-of-pocket costs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women with ovarian cancer diagnosed from 2009 to 2012 who underwent both surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy using the Truven Health MarketScan database. This database is comprised of patients covered by commercial insurance sponsored by more than 100 employers in the United States. Medical expenditures, including physician reimbursement, for a 12-month period beginning on the date of surgery were estimated. All payments were examined, including out-of-pocket costs for patients. Payments were divided into expenditures for inpatient care, outpatient care (including chemotherapy), and outpatient drug costs. The 12-month treatment period was divided into three phases: surgery to 30 days (operative period), 1-6 months (adjuvant therapy), and 6-12 months after surgery. The primary outcome was the overall cost of care within the first year of diagnosis of ovarian cancer; secondary outcomes included assessment of factors associated with cost. A total of 26,548 women with ovarian cancer who underwent surgery were identified. After exclusion of patients with incomplete insurance enrollment or coverage, those who did not undergo chemotherapy, and those with capitated plans, our cohort consisted of 5,031 women. The median total medical expenditures per patient during the first year after the index procedure were $93,632 (interquartile range $62,319-140,140). Inpatient services accounted for $30,708 (interquartile range $20,102-51,107; 37.8%) in expenditures, outpatient services $52,700 (interquartile range $31,210-83,206; 58.3%), and outpatient drug costs $1,814 (interquartile range $603-4,402; 3.8%). The median out-of-pocket expense was $2,988 (interquartile range $1,649-5,088). This included $1,509 (interquartile range $705-2,878) for outpatient services, $589 (interquartile range

  16. Cancer control falls squarely within the province of the psychological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green McDonald, Paige; O'Connell, Mary; Suls, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of cancer as a contemporary public health challenge, this article presents a selective overview of psychological science contributions to cancer control research, practice, and policy. Initial contributions were circumscribed to awareness campaigns and the assessment of emotional responses to diagnosis and treatment. As evidence linking certain behaviors to cancer risk and outcomes accumulated, psychology emerged as a "hub science" in the Nation's cancer control program. Despite substantial accomplishments, new societal trends further challenge our ability to reduce risk, incidence, and deaths from cancer and enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. Evidence generated from psychological research conducted within each cell of Pasteur's quadrant continues to be relevant and necessary for effective 21st-century approaches to cancer prevention and control at the individual, clinical, and population levels. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Cancer Services and Their Initiatives to Improve the Care of Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma V. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians continue to experience significantly poorer outcomes from cancer than non-Indigenous Australians. Despite the importance of culturally appropriate cancer services in improving outcomes, there is a lack of awareness of current programs and initiatives that are aimed at meeting the needs of Indigenous patients. Telephone interviews were used to identify and describe the Indigenous-specific programs and initiatives that are implemented in a subset of the services that participated in a larger national online survey of cancer treatment services. Fourteen services located across Australia participated in the interviews. Participants identified a number of factors that were seen as critical to delivering culturally appropriate treatment and support, including having a trained workforce with effective cross-cultural communication skills, providing best practice care, and improving the knowledge, attitudes, and understanding of cancer by Indigenous people. However, over a third of participants were not sure how their service compared with others, indicating that they were not aware of how other services are doing in this field. There are currently many Indigenous-specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at providing culturally appropriate treatment and supporting Indigenous people affected by cancer across Australia. However, details of these initiatives are not widely known and barriers to information sharing exist. Further research in this area is needed to evaluate programs and initiatives and showcase the effective approaches to Indigenous cancer care.

  18. Delay of Treatment Initiation Does Not Adversely Affect Survival Outcome in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Min Kyoon; Lee, Eunshin; Kim, Jongjin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship between time to treatment and survival outcome in breast cancer have shown inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to analyze the overall impact of delay of treatment initiation on patient survival and to determine whether certain subgroups require more prompt initiation of treatment. This study is a retrospective analysis of stage I-III patients who were treated in a single tertiary institution between 2005 and 2008. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to evaluate the impact of interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation in breast cancer and various subgroups. A total of 1,702 patients were included. Factors associated with longer delay of treatment initiation were diagnosis at another hospital, medical comorbidities, and procedures performed before admission for surgery. An interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation as a continuous variable or with a cutoff value of 15, 30, 45, and 60 days had no impact on disease-free survival (DFS). Subgroup analyses for hormone-responsiveness, triple-negative breast cancer, young age, clinical stage, and type of initial treatment showed no significant association between longer delay of treatment initiation and DFS. Our results show that an interval between diagnosis and treatment initiation of 60 days or shorter does not appear to adversely affect DFS in breast cancer.

  19. Modeling the Aneuploidy Control of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneuploidy has long been recognized to be associated with cancer. A growing body of evidence suggests that tumorigenesis, the formation of new tumors, can be attributed to some extent to errors occurring at the mitotic checkpoint, a major cell cycle control mechanism that acts to prevent chromosome missegregation. However, so far no statistical model has been available quantify the role aneuploidy plays in determining cancer. Methods We develop a statistical model for testing the association between aneuploidy loci and cancer risk in a genome-wide association study. The model incorporates quantitative genetic principles into a mixture-model framework in which various genetic effects, including additive, dominant, imprinting, and their interactions, are estimated by implementing the EM algorithm. Results Under the new model, a series of hypotheses tests are formulated to explain the pattern of the genetic control of cancer through aneuploid loci. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical behavior of the model. Conclusions The model will provide a tool for estimating the effects of genetic loci on aneuploidy abnormality in genome-wide studies of cancer cells.

  20. [Strengthen the cancer surveillance to promote cancer prevention and control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J

    2018-01-23

    Cancer is a major chronic disease threatening the people's health in China. We reviewed the latest advances on cancer surveillance, prevention and control in our country, which may provide important clues for future cancer control. We used data from the National Central Cancer Registry, to describe and analyze the latest cancer statistics in China. We summarized updated informations on cancer control policies, conducting network, as well as programs in the country. We provided important suggestions on the future strategies of cancer prevention and control. The overall cancer burden in China has been increasing during the past decades. In 2014, there were about 3 804 000 new cancer cases and 2 296 000 cancer deaths in China. The age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were 190.63/100 000 and 106.98/100 000, respectively. China has formed a comprehensive network on cancer prevention and control. Nationwide population-based cancer surveillance has been built up. The population coverage of cancer surveillance has been expanded, and the data quality has been improved. As the aging population is increasing and unhealthy life styles persist in our country, there will be an unnegligible cancer burden in China. Based on the comprehensive rationale of cancer control and prevention, National Cancer Center of China will perform its duty for future precise cancer control and prevention, based on cancer surveillance statistics.

  1. Plasma-activated medium (PAM) kills human cancer-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sakakita, Hajime; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Hori, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    Medical non-thermal plasma (NTP) treatments for various types of cancers have been reported. Cells with tumorigenic potential (cancer-initiating cells; CICs) are few in number in many types of tumors. CICs efficiently eliminate anti-cancer chemicals and exhibit high-level aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. We previously examined the effects of direct irradiation via NTP on cancer cells; even though we targeted CICs expressing high levels of ALDH, such treatment affected both non-CICs and CICs. Recent studies have shown that plasma-activated medium (PAM) (culture medium irradiated by NTP) selectively induces apoptotic death of cancer but not normal cells. Therefore, we explored the anti-cancer effects of PAM on CICs among endometrioid carcinoma and gastric cancer cells. PAM reduced the viability of cells expressing both low and high levels of ALDH. Combined PAM/cisplatin appeared to kill cancer cells more efficiently than did PAM or cisplatin alone. In a mouse tumor xenograft model, PAM exerted an anti-cancer effect on CICs. Thus, our results suggest that PAM effectively kills both non-CICs and CICs, as does NTP. Therefore, PAM may be a useful new anti-cancer therapy, targeting various cancer cells including CICs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Bone metastasis pattern in initial metastatic breast cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Z

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhenchong Xiong,1–3,* Guangzheng Deng,1–3,* Xinjian Huang,1–3,* Xing Li,1–3 Xinhua Xie,1–3 Jin Wang,1–3 Zeyu Shuang,1–3 Xi Wang1–3 1Department of Breast Surgery, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Guangzhou, China; 3Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Bone is one of the most common sites of breast cancer metastasis, and population-based studies of patients with bone metastasis in initial metastatic breast cancer (MBC are lacking. Materials and methods: From 2010 to 2013, 245,707 breast cancer patients and 8901 patients diagnosed with initial bone metastasis were identified by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the National Cancer Institute. Multivariate logistic and Cox regression were used to identify predictive factors for the presence of bone metastasis and prognosis factors. Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. Results: Eight thousand nine hundred one patients with initial MBC had bone involvement, accounting for 3.6% of the entire cohort and 62.5% of the patients with initial MBC. Also, 70.5% of patients with bone metastasis were hormone receptor (HR positive (HR+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]−: 57.6%; HR+/HER2+: 12.9%. Patients with initial bone metastasis had a better 5-year survival rate compared to those with initial brain, liver, or lung metastasis. HR+/HER2− and HR+/HER2+ breast cancer had a propensity of bone metastasis in the entire cohort and were correlated with better prognosis in patients with initial bone metastasis. Local surgery had significantly improved overall survival in initial MBC patients with bone metastasis. Conclusion: Our study has provided population-based estimates of epidemiologic characteristics and prognosis in patients with bone metastasis at the time of

  3. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  4. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mayer control problem with probabilistic uncertainty on initial positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigonda, Antonio; Quincampoix, Marc

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we introduce and study an optimal control problem in the Mayer's form in the space of probability measures on Rn endowed with the Wasserstein distance. Our aim is to study optimality conditions when the knowledge of the initial state and velocity is subject to some uncertainty, which are modeled by a probability measure on Rd and by a vector-valued measure on Rd, respectively. We provide a characterization of the value function of such a problem as unique solution of an Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation in the space of measures in a suitable viscosity sense. Some applications to a pursuit-evasion game with uncertainty in the state space is also discussed, proving the existence of a value for the game.

  6. Calculation of depletion with optimal distribution of initial control poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Lobo, P.D. de.

    1978-03-01

    The spatial depletion equations are linearized within the time intervals and their solution is obtained by modal analysis. At the beginning of life an optimal poison distribution that maximizes neutron economy and the corresponding flux is determined. At the start of the subsequent time steps the flux distributions are obtained by pertubation method in relation to the start of the previous time steps. The problem was studied with constant poison distribution in order to evaluate the influence of the poison at the beginning of life. The results obtained by the modal expansion techniques are satisfactory. However, the optimization of the initial distribution of the control poison does not indicate any significant effect on the core life [pt

  7. Colon Cancer Tumorigenesis Initiated by the H1047R Mutant PI3K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Yueh

    Full Text Available The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is critical for multiple important cellular functions, and is one of the most commonly altered pathways in human cancers. We previously developed a mouse model in which colon cancers were initiated by a dominant active PI3K p110-p85 fusion protein. In that model, well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinomas developed within the colon and initiated through a non-canonical mechanism that is not dependent on WNT signaling. To assess the potential relevance of PI3K mutations in human cancers, we sought to determine if one of the common mutations in the human disease could also initiate similar colon cancers. Mice were generated expressing the Pik3caH1047R mutation, the analog of one of three human hotspot mutations in this gene. Mice expressing a constitutively active PI3K, as a result of this mutation, develop invasive adenocarcinomas strikingly similar to invasive adenocarcinomas found in human colon cancers. These tumors form without a polypoid intermediary and also lack nuclear CTNNB1 (β-catenin, indicating a non-canonical mechanism of tumor initiation mediated by the PI3K pathway. These cancers are sensitive to dual PI3K/mTOR inhibition indicating dependence on the PI3K pathway. The tumor tissue remaining after treatment demonstrated reduction in cellular proliferation and inhibition of PI3K signaling.

  8. Breast cancer screening initiation after turning 40 years of age within the PROSPR consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaber, Elisabeth F; Tosteson, Anna N A; Haas, Jennifer S; Onega, Tracy; Sprague, Brian L; Weaver, Donald L; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Doubeni, Chyke A; Quinn, Virginia P; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Zauber, Ann G; Barlow, William E

    2016-11-01

    Although United States clinical guidelines differ, the earliest recommended age for average risk breast cancer screening is 40 years. Little is known about factors influencing screening initiation. We conducted a cohort study within the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium. We identified 3413 women on their 40th birthday in primary care networks at Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth (DH) and Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) during 2011-2013 with no prior breast imaging or breast cancer. Cumulative incidence curves and Cox modeling were used to determine time from the 40th birthday to first breast cancer screening, cohort exit, or 42nd birthday. We calculated hazards ratios and 95 % confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Breast cancer screening cumulative incidence by the 42nd birthday was 62.9 % (BWH) and 39.8 % (DH). Factors associated with screening initiation were: a primary care visit within a year (HR 4.99, 95 % CI 4.23-5.89), an increasing number of primary care visits within a year (p for trend Breast cancer screening uptake after the 40th birthday varies by health system, primary care visits, median household income, and health insurance type, suggesting the need for further exploration. Future research should evaluate screening performance metrics after initiation and consider cumulative benefits and risks associated with breast cancer screening over time.

  9. Gynecologic Cancer Prevention and Control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: Progress, Current Activities, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M.; Larkin, O. Ann; Moore, Angela R.; Hayes, Nikki S.

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  10. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  11. Altered characteristics of cancer stem/initiating cells in a breast cancer cell line treated with persistent 5-FU chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    LÜ, XINQUAN; DENG, QING; LI, HUIXIANG; SUO, ZHENHE

    2011-01-01

    Drug resistance of cancer stem/initiating cells has been considered to be one of the main reasons for tumor relapse. However, knowledge concerning the changes in stem/ initiating cells during chemotherapy is limited. In the present study, the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 was cultured with 5-fluorouracil and serially passaged. Six cell generations were collected. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometric techniques were used to evaluate the protein and mRNA expression of stem/initiati...

  12. Pet Ownership and Cancer Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O.; Lander, Eric M.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Volpe, Stella L.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Lessin, Lawrence S.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pet ownership and cancer are both highly prevalent in the U.S. Evidence suggest associations may exist between this potentially modifiable factor and cancer prevention, though studies are sparse. The present report examined whether pet ownership (dog, cat, or bird) is associated with lower risk for total cancer and site-specific obesity-related cancers. Methods A prospective analysis of 123,560 participants (20,981 dog owners; 19,288 cat owners; 1,338 bird owners; and 81,953 non-pet owners) enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) observational study and clinical trials. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between pet ownership and cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. Results There were no significant relationships between ownership of a dog, cat, or bird and incidence of cancer overall. When site-specific cancers were examined, no associations were observed after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusion Pet ownership had no association with overall cancer incidence. Impact This is the first large epidemiological study to date to explore relationships between pet ownership and cancer risk, as well as associated risks for individual cancer types. This study requires replication in other sizable, diverse cohorts. PMID:27365150

  13. Chemo-radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer. Initial experimental study with cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takashi; Iwata, Masahiro; Iida, Yasuhiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji

    2002-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy has long been used for distant metastases of thyroid cancer. Although partially effective in most cases, it can render a complete cure only in a limited number of patients. One way to enhance its efficacy would be to combine it with antineoplastic agents. Here we describe an initial in vitro evaluation with 4 thyroid cancer cell lines. Cells were sparsely seeded in microtiter plates and allowed to grow for 2 days; then they were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (Dox), or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), followed by treatment with I-131 for 48 hr. Cell survival was measured with a commercial kit based on the colorimetry of succinate dehydrogenase activity. Chemotherapeutic drugs exerted similar concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects in all 4 cell lines. The doses necessary to reduce the surviving fraction to half of the control were about 3 μg/ml for CDDP, 0.3 μg/ml for Dox, and 3 μg/ml for 5-FU (when used continuously for 48 hours). On the other hand, sensitivity to I-131 irradiation differed among the lines; same doses (7.4-14.8 MBq/ml) caused the greatest damage in FRO cells, a modest effect in NPA and WRO, and only minimal change in B-CPAP. The combined effect was most demonstrable in wells treated with Dox and radioiodine, whereas the addition of CDDP or 5-FU had marginal or insignificant merit, respectively. In FRO cells, half-lethal doses of the above mentioned CDDP, Dox, and 5-FU, when used together with 14.8 MBq/ml I-131, reduced cell survival to 54.5%, 29.4% and 33.4%, respectively, vs. 60.2% with radioiodine alone. In vitro, clinical concentrations of Dox can accelerate the killing of thyroid cancer cells by radioiodine. These favorable experimental results warrant future studies to evaluate whether this new bidisciplinary approach is clinically relevant and feasible. (author)

  14. Chemo-radionuclide therapy for thyroid cancer. Initial experimental study with cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misaki, Takashi; Iwata, Masahiro; Iida, Yasuhiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-09-01

    Radioiodine therapy has long been used for distant metastases of thyroid cancer. Although partially effective in most cases, it can render a complete cure only in a limited number of patients. One way to enhance its efficacy would be to combine it with antineoplastic agents. Here we describe an initial in vitro evaluation with 4 thyroid cancer cell lines. Cells were sparsely seeded in microtiter plates and allowed to grow for 2 days; then they were exposed to sublethal concentrations of cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (Dox), or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), followed by treatment with I-131 for 48 hr. Cell survival was measured with a commercial kit based on the colorimetry of succinate dehydrogenase activity. Chemotherapeutic drugs exerted similar concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects in all 4 cell lines. The doses necessary to reduce the surviving fraction to half of the control were about 3 {mu}g/ml for CDDP, 0.3 {mu}g/ml for Dox, and 3 {mu}g/ml for 5-FU (when used continuously for 48 hours). On the other hand, sensitivity to I-131 irradiation differed among the lines; same doses (7.4-14.8 MBq/ml) caused the greatest damage in FRO cells, a modest effect in NPA and WRO, and only minimal change in B-CPAP. The combined effect was most demonstrable in wells treated with Dox and radioiodine, whereas the addition of CDDP or 5-FU had marginal or insignificant merit, respectively. In FRO cells, half-lethal doses of the above mentioned CDDP, Dox, and 5-FU, when used together with 14.8 MBq/ml I-131, reduced cell survival to 54.5%, 29.4% and 33.4%, respectively, vs. 60.2% with radioiodine alone. In vitro, clinical concentrations of Dox can accelerate the killing of thyroid cancer cells by radioiodine. These favorable experimental results warrant future studies to evaluate whether this new bidisciplinary approach is clinically relevant and feasible. (author)

  15. Breast cancer risk associated with atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ initially diagnosed on core-needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alana R; McCarthy, Caitlin; Goraya, Shazia; Pederson, Holly J; Sturgis, Charles D; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Calhoun, Benjamin C

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer risk estimates for atypical lesions are based primarily on case-control studies of patients with open biopsies. The authors report the cumulative breast cancer incidence after a core biopsy diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia (ductal or lobular) or lobular carcinoma in situ. A cohort study with central pathology review was conducted on 393 patients who had core biopsy diagnoses of atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ from 1995 through 2010. Follow-up was available for 255 of 264 patients (97%) at a median of 87 months (range, 3-236 months). There were 212 patients (54%) who were not upgraded on excision and had no personal history of breast cancer. Of these, 21 of 212 (9.9%) developed breast cancer, including 15 invasive carcinomas, 4 ductal carcinomas in situ, 1 pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ, and 1 unknown type. The prior core biopsy diagnoses were atypical ductal hyperplasia for 11 patients (52%) and atypical lobular hyperplasia/lobular carcinoma in situ in the remaining 10 patients (48%). The number of atypical foci in the core biopsy was not significantly associated with the subsequent development of breast cancer (P = .42). Of the 15 invasive carcinomas, 11 (73%) were ipsilateral, 11 (73%) were pathologic T1 tumors, 5 (33%) were pathologic N1 tumors, 13 (87%) were estrogen receptor-positive, and 1 (7%) was amplified for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. In patients who had an initial diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ on core biopsy, the 7-year cumulative breast cancer incidence was 9.9%. Most tumors were ipsilateral, stage I, estrogen receptor-positive, invasive carcinomas. The current data support close clinical and radiologic follow-up for more than 5 years in this patient population. Cancer 2018;124:459-65. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. A Primary Care Initiative for Cancer Survivorship: A Case Study of Cancer in Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh M. Shubair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men in rural and northern areas of Canada experience considerable challenges in health care access for chronic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D, and cancer. Obese men (body mass index/BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in rural/remote northern British Columbia (BC experience poorer health outcomes due to cancer risk compared to other men elsewhere in urban Canada. Context: Challenges faced by men who develop cancer as a complication of being obese are paramount in terms of primary care treatment of their cancers. Oftentimes cancer treatment is multi-modal and complex. Models of shared care have been proposed to provide coordinated survivorship care to the growing population of rural male cancer patients suffering from obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS. Methods: Objectives: The main objective of the study was to examine the type of cancer care programs that may have focused on men with cancer in northern British Columbia (BC. A secondary objective is to identify challenges in care experienced by men with cancer during their transition from in-hospital care back to their home communities. Population: We conducted a comprehensive literature review and a qualitative focus group interview with primary care physicians (PCPs, oncologists (n=8, and a convenience sample of male cancer patients (n=6 who have underlying obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MetS. We examined the types of cancer care programs that may have targeted such men. We further identified challenges experienced by male cancer patients while transitioning back to their home communities. Results: The focus group results outlined themes speaking to a comprehensive shared care model that goes beyond surveillance of cancer recurrence in men with obesity. Conclusion: A shared survivorship care plan or model integrates collaboration among specialists in clinical decision making and best practice for treatment of cancer in obese men.

  17. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  18. Patterns of initial treatment failure of esophageal cancer following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, Shinji; Nakajima, Kotaro [Hitachi General Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohara, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Irie, Toshiyuki; Itai, Yuji

    1999-11-01

    Sixty patients with stage I-III esophageal squamous cell cancer treated by definitive radiotherapy (RT) were analyzed for patterns of treatment failure. Patients were treated by external RT alone (n=45) or in combination with intraluminal RT (N=15) when suitable, with prescribed total doses ranging from 59.4 to 104.4 Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and/or 5-fluorouracil was administered to 19 patients. The two-year actuarial survival rate and two year disease-free survival rate were 29.5% and 18.3%, respectively. Two-year failure rates were 66.5%, 36.9%, and 3.8%, for the esophagus, lymph nodes, and other sites, respectively. Two-year esophageal failure rates for patients with T1-2 (n=8), T3 (n=30), and T4 disease (n=22) were 14.3%, 64.7%, and 87.9%, respectively (p<0.05). A multivariate analysis of esophageal failure with descriptive variables of T classification, tumor length, and performance of intraluminal RT revealed that only T classification was an independent factor (p=0.021). Two-year lymph node failure rates were 24.8% and 33.6% for patients with N0 (n=36) and N1 disease (n=24), respectively (p=0.0035). Lymph node failure in N0 patients was found exclusively outside the treatment field. These results suggest that inclusion of potential lymph node metastases in the radiation field could lessen the lymph node failure rate in T1-3N0M0 patients. (author)

  19. Male breast cancer is rare: an initial presentation may be as an abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Ventham, N T; Hussien, M I

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer in men is rare. Breast cancer presenting initially as an abscess has been described only a handful of times in the literature. We present the first described case of invasive adenocarcinoma presenting as an abscess in a man. An 80-year-old diabetic man presented with symptoms typical of a breast abscess. The abscess failed to respond to percutaneous therapy and excision of breast abscess was performed. Histology revealed an invasive carcinoma. He went on to have a mastectomy. Hi...

  20. Anemia and thrombocytopenia as initial symptoms of occult breast cancer with bone marrow metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lulu; Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Mingtai; Ren, Saisai; Liu, Haihui; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Occult breast cancer (OBC) is a rare type of breast cancer without any symptoms in the breast and is often presented with initial symptoms of axillary lymph node metastasis or other metastases. The low incidence rates of OBC make it a great challenge to diagnose and cure. Patient concerns: Our case was a 58-year-old female affected by dizziness and fatigue for nearly a month. Blood tests revealed anemia and thrombocytopenia, and pathological results of a bone marrow biopsy...

  1. Controlled initialization of superconducting π-phaseshifters and possible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, Olaf; Ortlepp, Thomas; Toepfer, Hannes; Kunert, Juergen; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The rapid single-flux quantum electronics (RSFQ) is a superconducting, naturally digital circuit family which is currently close to being commercially applied. RSFQ is outstanding because of its very low switching energy resulting in very low power consumption. This advantage causes, however, a significant influence of thermal noise. For industrial applications, a certain noise immunity is required which is still a challenge, especially for circuits of higher complexity. Integrating phase-shifting elements is a new concept for further improvements concerning stability against the influence of thermal noise. We have already shown that the implementation of phase-shifting elements significantly reduces the influence of thermal noise on circuit behavior by experimentally analyzing the bit-error rate (Mielke et al 2009 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19 621-5). Concepts which are easily implementable in standard niobium technology are especially promising. The π-phaseshifter consists of a superconducting loop which is able to store a single flux quantum. The loop current related to the stored flux creates a well-defined phase shift. To achieve the correct functionality of complex circuits it is essential to store exactly one flux quantum in each π-phaseshifter during the cooling down of the chip. Thus, for studying the feasibility of this new approach, the initialization reliability of the π-phaseshifter needs to be verified. We present an experimental investigation of this reliability to obtain a general assessment for the application of the π-phaseshifter in niobium technology. Furthermore, we compare the configuration shielded by a solid ground plane with a configuration with a ground-plane hole below the π-phaseshifter. Justified by the experimental results we suggest programmable RSFQ circuits based on π-phaseshifters. The characteristics of these devices can be influenced by a controlled initialization of the π-phaseshifter. The fabrication was performed by

  2. Lessons learned implementing a province-wide smoking cessation initiative in Ontario's cancer centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W K; Truscott, R; Cameron, E; Peter, A; Reid, R; Selby, P; Smith, P; Hey, A

    2017-06-01

    A large body of evidence clearly shows that cancer patients experience significant health benefits with smoking cessation. Cancer Care Ontario, the provincial agency responsible for the quality of cancer services in Ontario, has undertaken a province-wide smoking cessation initiative. The strategies used, the results achieved, and the lessons learned are the subject of the present article. Evidence related to the health benefits of smoking cessation in cancer patients was reviewed. A steering committee developed a vision statement for the initiative, created a framework for implementation, and made recommendations for the key elements of the initiative and for smoking cessation best practices. New ambulatory cancer patients are being screened for their smoking status in each of Ontario's 14 regional cancer centres. Current or recent smokers are advised of the benefits of cessation and are directed to smoking cessation resources as appropriate. Performance metrics are captured and used to drive improvement through quarterly performance reviews and provincial rankings of the regional cancer centres. Regional smoking cessation champions, commitment from Cancer Care Ontario senior leadership, a provincial secretariat, and guidance from smoking cessation experts have been important enablers of early success. Data capture has been difficult because of the variety of information systems in use and non-standardized administrative and clinical processes. Numerous challenges remain, including increasing physician engagement; obtaining funding for key program elements, including in-house resources to support smoking cessation; and overcoming financial barriers to access nicotine replacement therapy. Future efforts will focus on standardizing processes to the extent possible, while tailoring the approaches to the populations served and the resources available within the individual regional cancer programs.

  3. Factors controlling the initiation of Snowball Earth events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, A.

    2012-12-01

    During the Neoproterozoic glaciations tropical continents were covered by active glaciers that extended down to sea level. To explain these glaciers, the Snowball Earth hypothesis assumes that oceans were completely sea-ice covered during these glaciation, but there is an ongoing debate whether or not some regions of the tropical oceans remained open. In this talk, I will describe past and ongoing climate modelling activities with the comprehensive coupled climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM that identify and compare factors that control the initiation of Snowball Earth events. I first show that shifting the continents from their present-day location to their Marinoan (635 My BP) low-latitude location increases the planetary albedo, cools the climate, and thereby allows Snowball Earth initiation at higher levels of total solar irradiance and atmospheric CO2. I then present simulations with successively lowered bare sea-ice albedo, disabled sea-ice dynamics, and switched-off ocean heat transport. These simulations show that both lowering the bare sea-ice albedo and disabling sea-ice dynamics increase the critical sea-ice cover in ECHAM5/MPI-OM, but sea-ice dynamics due to strong equatorward sea-ice transport have a much larger influence on the critical CO2. Disabling sea-ice transport allows a state with sea-ice margin at 10 deg latitude by virtue of the Jormungand mechanism. The accumulation of snow on land, in combination with tropical land temperatures below or close to freezing, suggests that tropical land glaciers could easily form in such a state. However, in contrast to aquaplanet simulations without ocean heat transport, there is no sign of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. Ocean heat transport is not responsible for the lack of a Jormungand hysteresis in the coupled simulations. By relating the above findings to previous studies, I will outline promising future avenues of research on the initiation of Snowball Earth events. In particular, an

  4. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sabroe, Svend

    2004-01-01

    are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors...... about occupational, medical and life style conditions. RESULTS: No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure...... to pesticides among colon cancer controls. CONCLUSIONS: Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming....

  5. LGR5 and Nanog identify stem cell signature of pancreas beta cells which initiate pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Abraham; Raanan, Calanit; Schreiber, Letizia; Polin, Nava; Givol, David

    2013-04-05

    Pancreas cancer, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death but its cell of origin is controversial. We compared the localization of stem cells in normal and cancerous pancreas using antibodies to the stem cell markers Nanog and LGR5. Here we show, for the first time, that LGR5 is expressed in normal pancreas, exclusively in the islets of Langerhans and it is co-localized, surprisingly, with Nanog and insulin in clusters of beta cells. In cancerous pancreas Nanog and LGR5 are expressed in the remaining islets and in all ductal cancer cells. We observed insulin staining among the ductal cancer cells, but not in metastases. This indicates that the islet's beta cells, expressing LGR5 and Nanog markers are the initiating cells of pancreas cancer, which migrated from the islets to form the ductal cancerous tissue, probably after mutation and de-differentiation. This discovery may facilitate treatment of this devastating cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial design of a stall-controlled wind turbine rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, T.A. [Inst. for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway)

    1997-08-01

    A model intended for initial design of stall-controlled wind turbine rotors is described. The user specifies relative radial position of an arbitrary number of airfoil sections, referring to a data file containing lift-and drag curves. The data file is on the same format as used in the commercial blade-element code BLADES-/2/, where lift- and drag coefficients are interpolated from tables as function of Reynolds number, relative thickness and angle of attack. The user can set constraints on a selection of the following: Maximum power; Maximum thrust in operation; Maximum root bending moment in operation; Extreme root bending moment, parked rotor; Tip speed; Upper and lower bounds on optimisation variables. The optimisation variables can be selected from: Blade radius; Rotational speed; Chord and twist at an arbitrary number of radial positions. The user can chose linear chord distribution and a hyperbola-like twist distribution to ensure smooth planform and twist, or cubic spline interpolation for one or both. The aerodynamic model is based on classical strip theory with Prandtl tip loss correction, supplemented by empirical data for high induction factors. (EG)

  7. Barriers to overcome for effective cancer control in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Joe B

    2015-08-01

    Cancer control in Africa is complicated due to large differences in cancer incidence between countries caused by differences in exposure to known risk factors. For example, substantial differences are seen when selected cancers in north Africa are compared with those in sub-Saharan Africa. In the future, population growth and demographic shifts are likely to have profound effects on the prevalence of cancer across the continent. Likewise, many factors outside of health care such as language differences, conflict, and poverty can affect cancer control efforts. Although cooperation in cancer control efforts is desirable, differences in cultural and geopolitical factors that characterise African countries and their populations, together with the sheer size of the continent, present unique challenges to effective cancer control. This Series paper discusses factors related to the size, diversity, and conditions within Africa that present barriers to optimal collaboration in cancer control efforts across the continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Leadership in Nigerian health system for cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbimi, R I

    2009-06-01

    Unacceptable health system outcomes are often related to problems with leadership because the ultimate responsibility for assigned work rests on leadership. In this paper, proper leadership at micro and macro-levels can have positive impact on the health and well being of citizens. While this may be readily obvious in other spheres, it has not been addressed adequately in the context of health care systems and its impact on health outcomes. In this paper, I discuss types of work and leadership systems in order to highlight the importance of leadership and leadership training in collaborative training and research for cancer management. The complexity of health systems highlight the expanded role of leadership in terms of capacity and capability to control the environmental risk factors for cancer, deploy adequate resources for the management of cancers, and ensure fruitful and productive post treatment life for citizens. Improved community awareness, better training of health care workers, improved working environment based on better interpersonal relationships between all cadres of health care workers, environmental health and safety initiatives and research on cancer are some of the areas where improved leadership can lead to better health outcomes. Effective leadership requires a set of skills that can be acquired with requisite operating environment, political will and adequate funding in order to generate the expected improvements in outcome.

  9. Cancer control activities in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Keun-Young

    2008-05-01

    South Korea has a population of 47.3 million. The whole population is covered by a mandatory social insurance system (the National Health Insurance Program) that is financed through the contributions paid by the insured and their employers. Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Korea since 1983. About 130 000 people develop cancer annually with 66 000 deaths in 2006. Cancer patients' 5-year survival rates between 1998 and 2002 were 37.8 and 57.0% for men and women, respectively. The five leading primary cancer sites were stomach, lung, liver, colon and rectum, and bladder among males, whereas the most common cancers were stomach, breast, colon and rectum, uterine cervix and lung among females. With the rapidly aging population, reducing cancer burden at the national level has become one of the major political issues in Korea. The government formulated its first 10-year plan for cancer control in 1996. In 2000, the National Cancer Center was created and the Cancer Control Division was set up within the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The Cancer Control Act was legislated in 2003. Korea's major national cancer control programs are anti-smoking campaigns, hepatitis B virus vaccination, cancer registration and networking, promotion of R&D activities for cancer control, education and training for cancer control and prevention, operation of the national cancer information center, operation of the mass screening program for five common cancers, management of cancer patients at home, financial support for cancer patients and designation of regional cancer centers.

  10. Work situation and sickness absence in the initial period after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Lena-Marie; Wennman-Larsen, Agneta; Nilsson, Marie; Olsson, Mariann; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2011-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in women, many of whom are of working age, and the five-year survival rate in Sweden is approaching 90%. Accordingly, aspects of working life and sickness absence are of increasing importance for breast cancer survivors and may have a long-term impact on health and quality of life of these women. The aim was to elucidate the work situation and sickness absence during the initial period after breast cancer surgery and to explore factors associated with sickness absence. This is a cross-sectional questionnaire study 4-6 weeks after breast cancer surgery of women aged 20-63 years, and living in Stockholm. A consecutive sample of 933 women were invited and 756 (81%) accepted to participate. Logistic regression analyses were computed to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios for associations between sick leave and other variables. Most women (86%) were employed (including self-employed) at diagnosis, and 91% of those worked ≥75% of full-time. At time of survey, 56% were on sick leave, the majority for full-time. Low self-rated health, poorer health than before diagnosis, having a strenuous work posture, and younger age were associated with sick leave during the initial period after breast cancer surgery in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The results of this study is not fully consistent compared to previous studies in this field, often performed in later phases after breast cancer surgery or after other cancer diagnoses. Therefore our results indicate that knowledge is needed during all phases of the breast cancer trajectory to determine factors of importance regarding sick leave and their impact throughout the disease trajectory.

  11. Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, T.D.; Hobden, C.; Reeler, A.; Dye, T.D.; Bogale, S.; Tilahun, Y.; Deressa, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed

  12. Initial 10-year Experience of Sperm Cryopreservation Services for Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chiang Chang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Offering sperm cryopreservation to preserve the fertility of male cancer patients is a relatively recent service in Asia. This study analyzed the types of cancer, timing of collection, sperm quality, and utilization for reproductive services by patients during a 10-year period at a medical center in Taiwan. A total of 75 oncology patients elected to freeze sperm for fertility preservation at our medical center during the initial 10 years of the availability of this service. The mean age of the patients was 25.7 years. Storage was discontinued in 13 (17% patients and their survival duration was 13.1 ±11.1 months. The utilization rate of sperm cryo-preservation was 2.8% (75/2642. The types of cancer varied, with leukemia (35%, lymphoma (25%, and testicular cancer (13% comprising the largest groups. A significantly lower sperm count was found in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia, suggesting the need for earlier sperm collection after initiation of cancer treatment. Only three (4% patients utilized their specimens for reproductive purposes. There was no clinical pregnancy during the study period, although one biochemical pregnancy was achieved. The low rates of sperm cryostorage for fertility preservation in cancer patients in this study suggest that there is a need for greater emphasis of this option for male oncology patients whose fertility is likely to be affected by chemotherapeutic treatment.

  13. Historical analysis indicates seepage control on initiation of meandering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekhout, J.P.C.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Makaske, B.

    2013-01-01

    In analytical and numerical models of river meandering, initiation of meandering typically occurs uniformly along the streamwise coordinate in the channel. Based on a historical analysis of the Nierskanaal, here we show how and under which circumstances meandering has initiated in isolated sections

  14. Is sphere assay useful for the identification of cancer initiating cells of the ovary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Serrano, María José; Caballero-Baños, Miguel; Vilella, Ramon; Vidal, Laura; Pahisa, Jaume; Martínez-Roman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the presence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has a role in chemoresistance and relapse. Surface markers such as CD44(+)/CD24(-), CD117(+), and CD133(+) expression have been reported as potential markers for TICs related to ovarian cancer and tumorigenic cell lines. In this study, we have investigated if spheroid forms are TIC specific or whether they can also be produced by somatic stem cells from healthy tissue in vitro. In addition, we also investigated the specificity of surface markers to identify TICs from papillary serous EOC patients. Cells were obtained from fresh tumors from 10 chemotherapy-naive patients with EOC, and cells from ovarian and tubal epithelium were obtained from 5 healthy menopausal women undergoing surgery for benign pathology and cultured in standard and in selective medium. Cells forming nonadherent spheroids were considered TICs, and the adherent cells were considered as non-TIC-like. Percentages of CD24(+), CD44(+), CD117(+), CD133(+), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF-R)(+) cell surface markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. Four of 10 EOC cell tissues were excluded from the study. Tumor cells cultured in selective medium developed spheroid forms after 1 to 7 weeks in 5 of 6 EOC patients. No spheroid forms were observed in cultures of cells from healthy women. Unlike previously published data, low levels of CD24(+), CD44(+), CD117(+), and VEGF-R(+) expression were observed in spheroid cells, whereas expression of CD133(+) was moderate but higher in adherent cells from papillary serous EOC cells in comparison with adherent cells from controls. Papillary serous EOC contains TICs that form spheroids with low expression of CD44(+), CD24(+), CD117(+) and VEGF-R(+). Further research is required to find specific surface markers to identify papillary serous TICs.

  15. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination for Control of Cervical Cancer: A ... Primary HPV prevention may be the key to reducing incidence and burden of cervical cancer ... Other resources included locally-published articles and additional internet ...

  16. Changing organizational culture: using the CEO cancer gold standard policy initiatives to promote health and wellness at a school of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Samuel D; Anderson, Kelsey E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Kellstedt, Debra; Purcell, Ninfa Pena; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-09-03

    Worksite wellness initiatives for health promotion and health education have demonstrated effectiveness in improving employee health and wellness. We examined the effects of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on organizational capacity to meet requirements to become CEO Cancer Gold Standard Accredited. We conducted an online survey to assess perceived organizational values and support for the five CEO Cancer Gold Standard Pillars for cancer prevention: tobacco cessation; physical activity; nutrition; cancer screening and early detection; and accessing information on cancer clinical trials. Baseline and follow-up surveys were sent 6-months apart to faculty, staff, and students at a school of public health to test the impact of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on perceived organizational change. Descriptive analyses were used to characterize percent improvement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to control for participants' university status. The current organizational culture highly supported tobacco cessation at both time points. Significant improvements (p screening, and early detection of cancer' and 'accessing cancer treatment and clinical trials'. Health promotion and education efforts using multiple approaches were effective to improve perceived organizational values and support for cancer prevention and early detection, and increase access to information about cancer clinical trials. Future studies are needed to examine broader impacts of implementing worksite health promotion initiatives.

  17. The Cancer Cell Map Initiative: Defining the Hallmark Networks of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krogan, Nevan J.; Lippman, Scott; Agard, David A.; Ashworth, Alan; Ideker, Trey

    2015-01-01

    Progress in DNA sequencing has revealed the startling complexity of cancer genomes, which typically carry thousands of somatic mutations. However, it remains unclear which are the key driver mutations or dependencies in a given cancer and how these influence pathogenesis and response to therapy. Although tumors of similar types and clinical outcomes can have patterns of mutations that are strikingly different, it is becoming apparent that these mutations recurrently hijack the same hallmark m...

  18. Lycopene Supplementation in the Complementary Management of PSA Failure: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial for Prostate Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Kucuk, Omer; Fowke, Jay H

    2007-01-01

    ...) or whole-food supplement (Lyc-O-Mato(Registered)) in control of biochemical (PSA) failure in 78 African-American prostate cancer survivors treated initially by radical prostatectomy or radiation...

  19. Tight junctions: a barrier to the initiation and progression of breast cancer?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Kieran

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from epithelial cells lining the breast ducts and lobules. Correct adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells is important in determining the normal structure and function of epithelial tissues, and there is accumulating evidence that dysregulated cell-cell adhesion is associated with many cancers. This review will focus on one cell-cell adhesion complex, the tight junction (TJ), and summarize recent evidence that TJs may participate in breast cancer development or progression. We will first outline the protein composition of TJs and discuss the functions of the TJ complex. Secondly we will examine how alterations in these functions might facilitate breast cancer initiation or progression; by focussing on the regulatory influence of TJs on cell polarity, cell fate and cell migration. Finally we will outline how pharmacological targeting of TJ proteins may be useful in limiting breast cancer progression. Overall we hope to illustrate that the relationship between TJ alterations and breast cancer is a complex one; but that this area offers promise in uncovering fundamental mechanisms linked to breast cancer progression.

  20. CDK9-dependent RNA polymerase II pausing controls transcription initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressel, Saskia; Schwalb, Björn; Decker, Tim Michael; Qin, Weihua; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Eick, Dirk; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-10-10

    Gene transcription can be activated by decreasing the duration of RNA polymerase II pausing in the promoter-proximal region, but how this is achieved remains unclear. Here we use a 'multi-omics' approach to demonstrate that the duration of polymerase pausing generally limits the productive frequency of transcription initiation in human cells ('pause-initiation limit'). We further engineer a human cell line to allow for specific and rapid inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase CDK9, which is implicated in polymerase pause release. CDK9 activity decreases the pause duration but also increases the productive initiation frequency. This shows that CDK9 stimulates release of paused polymerase and activates transcription by increasing the number of transcribing polymerases and thus the amount of mRNA synthesized per time. CDK9 activity is also associated with long-range chromatin interactions, suggesting that enhancers can influence the pause-initiation limit to regulate transcription.

  1. Anterior prostate biopsy at initial and repeat evaluation: is it useful to detect significant prostate cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Pepe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Detection rate for anterior prostate cancer (PCa in men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy has been prospectively evaluated. Materials and Methods: From January 2013 to March 2014, 400 patients all of Caucasian origin (median age 63.5 years underwent initial (285 cases and repeat (115 cases prostate biopsy; all the men had negative digital rectal examination and the indications to biopsy were: PSA values > 10 ng/mL, PSA between 4.1-10 or 2.6-4 ng/mL with free/total PSA≤25% and ≤20%, respectively. A median of 22 (initial biopsy and 31 cores (repeat biopsy were transperineally performed including 4 cores of the anterior zone (AZ and 4 cores of the AZ plus 2 cores of the transition zone (TZ, respectively. Results: Median PSA was 7.9 ng/mL; overall, a PCa was found in 180 (45% patients: in 135 (47.4% and 45 (36% of the men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. An exclusive PCa of the anterior zone was found in the 8.9 (initial biopsy vs 13.3% (repeat biopsy of the men: a single microfocus of cancer was found in the 61.2% of the cases; moreover, in 7 out 18 AZ PCa the biopsy histology was predictive of significant cancer in 2 (28.5% and 5 (71.5% men who underwent initial and repeat biopsy, respectively. Conclusions: However AZ biopsies increased detection rate for PCa (10% of the cases, the majority of AZ PCa with histological findings predictive of clinically significant cancer were found at repeat biopsy (about 70% of the cases.

  2. How dysregulated colonic crypt dynamics cause stem cell overpopulation and initiate colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Cavanaugh, Kenneth L; Guetter, Arthur; Runquist, Olaf A

    2008-05-01

    Based on investigation of the earliest colonic tissue alteration in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients, we present the hypothesis that initiation of colorectal cancer by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation is mediated by dysregulation of two cellular mechanisms. One involves differentiation, which normally decreases the proportion (proliferative fraction) of colonic crypt cells that can proliferate; the other is a cell cycle mechanism that simultaneously increases the probability that proliferative cells are in S phase. In normal crypts, stem cells (SC) at the crypt bottom generate rapidly proliferating cells, which undergo differentiation while migrating up the crypt. Our modeling of normal crypts suggests that these transitions are mediated by mechanisms that regulate proliferative fraction and S-phase probability. In FAP crypts, the population of rapidly proliferating cells is shifted upwards, as indicated by the labeling index (LI; i.e., crypt distribution of cells in S phase). Our analysis of FAP indicates that these transitions are delayed because the proliferative fraction and S-phase probability change more slowly as a function of crypt level. This leads to expansion of the proliferative cell population, including a subpopulation that has a low frequency of S-phase cells. We previously reported that crypt SC overpopulation explains the LI shift. Here, we determine that SCs (or cells having high stemness) are proliferative cells with a low probability of being in S phase. Thus, dysregulation of mechanisms that control proliferative fraction and S-phase probability explains how APC mutations induce SC overpopulation at the crypt bottom, shift the rapidly proliferating cell population upwards, and initiate colon tumorigenesis.

  3. The Role of nAChR and Calcium Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaal, Courtney [Department of Tumor Biology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Padmanabhan, Jaya [Department of Molecular Medicine and USF Health Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute, University of South Florida, 4001 E. Fletcher Ave., Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Chellappan, Srikumar, E-mail: Srikumar.Chellappan@moffitt.org [Department of Tumor Biology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Pancreatic cancer shows a strong correlation with smoking and the current therapeutic strategies have been relatively ineffective in improving the survival of patients. Efforts have been made over the past many years to understand the molecular events that drive the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, especially in the context of smoking. It has become clear that components of tobacco smoke not only initiate these cancers, especially pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) through their mutagenic properties, but can also promote the growth and metastasis of these tumors by stimulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Studies in cell culture systems, animal models and human samples have shown that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation enhances these tumor-promoting events by channeling signaling through multiple pathways. In this context, signaling through calcium channels appear to facilitate pancreatic cancer growth by itself or downstream of nAChRs. This review article highlights the role of nAChR downstream signaling events and calcium signaling in the growth, metastasis as well as drug resistance of pancreatic cancer.

  4. The Role of nAChR and Calcium Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation and Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaal, Courtney; Padmanabhan, Jaya; Chellappan, Srikumar

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer shows a strong correlation with smoking and the current therapeutic strategies have been relatively ineffective in improving the survival of patients. Efforts have been made over the past many years to understand the molecular events that drive the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, especially in the context of smoking. It has become clear that components of tobacco smoke not only initiate these cancers, especially pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) through their mutagenic properties, but can also promote the growth and metastasis of these tumors by stimulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Studies in cell culture systems, animal models and human samples have shown that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation enhances these tumor-promoting events by channeling signaling through multiple pathways. In this context, signaling through calcium channels appear to facilitate pancreatic cancer growth by itself or downstream of nAChRs. This review article highlights the role of nAChR downstream signaling events and calcium signaling in the growth, metastasis as well as drug resistance of pancreatic cancer

  5. Cell-autonomous intracellular androgen receptor signaling drives the growth of human prostate cancer initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Griend, Donald J; D'Antonio, Jason; Gurel, Bora; Antony, Lizamma; Demarzo, Angelo M; Isaacs, John T

    2010-01-01

    The lethality of prostate cancer is due to the continuous growth of cancer initiating cells (CICs) which are often stimulated by androgen receptor (AR) signaling. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for such AR-mediated growth stimulation are not fully understood. Such mechanisms may involve cancer cell-dependent induction of tumor stromal cells to produce paracrine growth factors or could involve cancer cell autonomous autocrine and/or intracellular AR signaling pathways. We utilized clinical samples, animal models and a series of AR-positive human prostate cancer cell lines to evaluate AR-mediated growth stimulation of prostate CICs. The present studies document that stromal AR expression is not required for prostate cancer growth, since tumor stroma surrounding AR-positive human prostate cancer metastases (N = 127) are characteristically AR-negative. This lack of a requirement for AR expression in tumor stromal cells is also documented by the fact that human AR-positive prostate cancer cells grow equally well when xenografted in wild-type versus AR-null nude mice. AR-dependent growth stimulation was documented to involve secretion, extracellular binding, and signaling by autocrine growth factors. Orthotopic xenograft animal studies documented that the cellautonomous autocrine growth factors which stimulate prostate CIC growth are not the andromedins secreted by normal prostate stromal cells. Such cell autonomous and extracellular autocrine signaling is necessary but not sufficient for the optimal growth of prostate CICs based upon the response to anti-androgen plus/or minus preconditioned media. AR-induced growth stimulation of human prostate CICs requires AR-dependent intracellular pathways. The identification of such AR-dependent intracellular pathways offers new leads for the development of effective therapies for prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. CD73 Regulates Stemness and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer-Initiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Lupia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Cancer-initiating cells (CICs have been implicated in tumor development and aggressiveness. In ovarian carcinoma (OC, CICs drive tumor formation, dissemination, and recurrence, as well as drug resistance, thus accounting for the high death-to-incidence ratio of this neoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie such a pathogenic role of ovarian CICs (OCICs remain elusive. Here, we have capitalized on primary cells either from OC or from its tissues of origin to obtain the transcriptomic profile associated with OCICs. Among the genes differentially expressed in OCICs, we focused on CD73, which encodes the membrane-associated 5′-ectonucleotidase. The genetic inactivation of CD73 in OC cells revealed that this molecule is causally involved in sphere formation and tumor initiation, thus emerging as a driver of OCIC function. Furthermore, functional inhibition of CD73 via either a chemical compound or a neutralizing antibody reduced sphere formation and tumorigenesis, highlighting the druggability of CD73 in the context of OCIC-directed therapies. The biological function of CD73 in OCICs required its enzymatic activity and involved adenosine signaling. Mechanistically, CD73 promotes the expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes, implying a regulation of OCIC function at the transcriptional level. CD73, therefore, is involved in OCIC biology and may represent a therapeutic target for innovative treatments aimed at OC eradication. : Cavallaro et al. characterized the transcriptome of OCIC-enriched primary cultures and found CD73 as an upregulated gene. CD73 was then shown to regulate the expression of stemness and EMT-associated genes. The expression and function of CD73 in OCICs is required for tumor initiation, and CD73-targeted drugs decrease the rate of tumor take and inhibit cancer growth. Keywords: CD73, ovarian cancer, cancer-initiating cells, cancer stem cells, EMT, adenosine

  7. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, Frank J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Switick, Dennis M.; Shukla, Jaikaran N.

    Startup control strategies for SP-100 are described. Revised control and operating strategies are discussed which have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model Aries-GFS (Generic Flight System).

  8. Developing cancer control plans in Africa: examples from five countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Daniela Cristina; Elzawawy, Ahmed M; Khaled, Hussein M; Ntaganda, Fabien; Asiimwe, Anita; Addai, Beatrice Wiafe; Wiafe, Seth; Adewole, Isaac F

    2013-04-01

    The creation and implementation of national cancer control plans is becoming increasingly necessary for countries in Africa, with the number of new cancer cases per year in the continent expected to reach up to 1·5 million by 2020. Examples from South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Ghana, and Rwanda describe the state of national cancer control plans and their implementation. Whereas in Rwanda the emphasis is on development of basic facilities needed for cancer care, in those countries with more developed economies, such as South Africa and Nigeria, the political will to fund national cancer control plans is limited, even though the plans exist and are otherwise well conceived. Improved awareness of the increasing burden of cancer and increased advocacy are needed to put pressure on governments to develop, fund, and implement national cancer control plans across the continent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Quest for Initiating Cells of Head and Neck Cancer and Their Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chao; Köberle, Beate; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E.

    2010-01-01

    The biology of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and other cancers have been related to cancer stem-like cells (CSC). Specific markers, which vary considerably depending on tumor type or tissue of origin, characterize CSC. CSC are cancer initiating, sustaining and mostly quiescent. Compared to bulk tumors, CSC are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy and may have low immunogenicity. Therapeutic targeting of CSC may improve clinical outcome. HNSCC has two main etiologies: human papillomavirus, a virus infecting epithelial stem cells, and tobacco and alcohol abuse. Here, current knowledge of HNSCC-CSC biology is reviewed and parallels to CSC of other origin are drawn where necessary for a comprehensive picture

  10. Lung cancer tumorigenicity and drug resistance are maintained through ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) tumor initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Xiao, Zhijie; Wong, Sunny Kit-Man; Tin, Vicky Pui-Chi; Ho, Ka-Yan; Wang, Junwen; Sham, Mai-Har; Wong, Maria Pik

    2013-10-01

    Limited improvement in long term survival of lung cancer patients has been achieved by conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. To explore the potentials of tumor initiating cells (TIC)-directed therapy, it is essential to identify the cell targets and understand their maintenance mechanisms. We have analyzed the performance of ALDH/CD44 co-expression as TIC markers and treatment targets of lung cancer using well-validated in vitro and in vivo analyses in multiple established and patient-derived lung cancer cells. The ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset showed the highest enhancement of stem cell phenotypic properties compared to ALDH(hi)CD44(lo), ALDH(lo)CD44(hi), ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) cells and unsorted controls. They showed higher invasion capacities, pluripotency genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors expression, lower intercellular adhesion protein expression and higher G2/M phase cell cycle fraction. In immunosuppressed mice, the ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)xenografts showed the highest tumor induction frequency, serial transplantability, shortest latency, largest volume and highest growth rates. Inhibition of sonic Hedgehog and Notch developmental pathways reduced ALDH+CD44+ compartment. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy resulted in higher AALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset viability and ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) subset apoptosis fraction. ALDH inhibition and CD44 knockdown led to reduced stemness gene expression and sensitization to drug treatment. In accordance, clinical lung cancers containing a higher abundance of ALDH and CD44-coexpressing cells was associated with lower recurrence-free survival. Together, results suggested theALDH(hi)CD44(hi)compartment was the cellular mediator of tumorigenicity and drug resistance. Further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)TIC maintenance would be beneficial for the development of long term lung cancer control.

  11. Male breast cancer is rare: an initial presentation may be as an abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventham, N T; Hussien, M I

    2010-08-06

    Breast cancer in men is rare. Breast cancer presenting initially as an abscess has been described only a handful of times in the literature. We present the first described case of invasive adenocarcinoma presenting as an abscess in a man. An 80-year-old diabetic man presented with symptoms typical of a breast abscess. The abscess failed to respond to percutaneous therapy and excision of breast abscess was performed. Histology revealed an invasive carcinoma. He went on to have a mastectomy. Histology should be obtained from breast abscesses not resolving within 2 months of initial percutaneous therapy. Histology could be obtained by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA), core or vacuum assisted biopsy, or by formal incision and drainage.

  12. Radiation or chemoradiation: initial utility study of selected therapy for local advanced stadium cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitasari, D. A.; Gondhowiardjo, S.; Nuranna, L.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to compare radiation only or chemo radiation treatment of local advanced cervical cancers by examining the initial response of tumors and acute side effects. An initial assessment employed value based medicine (VBM) by obtaining utility values for both types of therapy. The incidences of acute lower gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and hematology side effects in patients undergoing chemoradiation did not differ significantly from those undergoing radiation alone. Utility values for patients who underwent radiation alone were higher compared to those who underwent chemoradiation. It was concluded that the complete response of patients who underwent chemoradiation did not differ significantly from those who underwent radiation alone.

  13. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  14. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  15. A Targetable EGFR-Dependent Tumor-Initiating Program in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Savage

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Therapies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR have variable and unpredictable responses in breast cancer. Screening triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs, we identify a subset responsive to EGFR inhibition by gefitinib, which displays heterogeneous expression of wild-type EGFR. Deep single-cell RNA sequencing of 3,500 cells from an exceptional responder identified subpopulations displaying distinct biological features, where elevated EGFR expression was significantly enriched in a mesenchymal/stem-like cellular cluster. Sorted EGFRhi subpopulations exhibited enhanced stem-like features, including ALDH activity, sphere-forming efficiency, and tumorigenic and metastatic potential. EGFRhi cells gave rise to EGFRhi and EGFRlo cells in primary and metastatic tumors, demonstrating an EGFR-dependent expansion and hierarchical state transition. Similar tumorigenic EGFRhi subpopulations were identified in independent PDXs, where heterogeneous EGFR expression correlated with gefitinib sensitivity. This provides new understanding for an EGFR-dependent hierarchy in TNBC and for patient stratification for therapeutic intervention. : Savage et al. demonstrate that sensitivity to EGFR inhibitor, gefitinib, in triple-negative breast cancer is paradoxically associated with EGFR heterogeneity. Using single-cell RNA sequencing in conjunction with functional assays, they identify TNBC tumors in which EGFR expression identifies cells with tumor-initiating capacity whose proliferative expansion is sensitive to EGFR inhibition. Keywords: breast cancer, tumor heterogeneity, patient-derived xenograft, single-cell RNA sequencing, EGFR inhibition, therapeutic response, tumor-initiating cell, cell hierarchy, BRCA1 mutation

  16. Information Framing Reduces Initial Negative Attitudes in Cancer Patients' Decisions About Hospice Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Ilona; Glare, Paul A; Stabler, Stacy M; Epstein, Andrew S; Wiesenthal, Alison; Leblanc, Thomas W; Higgins, E Tory

    2018-06-01

    Negative attitudes toward hospice care might prevent patients with cancer from discussing and choosing hospice as they approach end of life. When making a decision, people often naturally focus on either expected benefits or the avoidance of harm. Behavioral research has demonstrated that framing information in an incongruent manner with patients' underlying motivational focus reduces their negative attitudes toward a disliked option. Our study tests this communication technique with cancer patients, aiming to reduce negative attitudes toward a potentially beneficial but often-disliked option, that is, hospice care. Patients (n = 42) with active cancer of different types and/or stages completed a paper survey. Participants read a vignette about a patient with advanced cancer and a limited prognosis. In the vignette, the physician's advice to enroll in a hospice program was randomized, creating a congruent message or an incongruent message with patients' underlying motivational focus (e.g., a congruent message for someone most interested in benefits focuses on the benefits of hospice, whereas an incongruent message for this patient focuses on avoiding harm). Patients' attitudes toward hospice were measured before and after receiving the physician's advice. Regression analyses indicated that information framing significantly influenced patients with strong initial negative attitudes. Patients were more likely to reduce intensity of their initial negative attitude about hospice when receiving an incongruent message (b = -0.23; P negative reactions toward hospice care. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of stem cells in tumor initiation, metastasis formation and their use in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaner, C.; Altanerova, V.

    2010-01-01

    This review considers recent advances in the stem cell field focusing on the challenges and opportunities for their use in clinical practice. Various kinds of stem cells and their roles in the human organism are in the review described. Attention is given to the role of mesenchymal stem cells as a potential tool in regenerative medicine. The origin and consequences of existence of tumor-initiating cells known as cancer stem cells is discussed also in context of metastasis formation. It seems that tumor-initiating cells might be responsible for resistance to many conventional cancer therapies, which might explain the limitations of these therapeutic modalities. Furthermore, the review focuses to tumor homing property of adult mesenchymal (stromal) stem cells. The feasibility of mesenchymal stem cells isolation from human adipose tissue, their genetic modifications with suicide genes together with ability to find tumor in the organism make them an attractive vehicle for cancer therapy without systemic toxicity. Published achievements from our laboratory in stem cell-based gene cancer therapy are shortly summarized. Generally, it is believed that the stem cell therapies might be ideal future treatment modality for inherited, degenerative diseases and in curing human malignancies as well. (author)

  18. Initiative for Molecular Profiling and Advanced Cancer Therapy and challenges in the implementation of precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimberidou, Apostolia-Maria

    In the last decade, breakthroughs in technology have improved our understanding of genomic, transcriptional, proteomic, epigenetic aberrations and immune mechanisms in carcinogenesis. Genomics and model systems have enabled the validation of novel therapeutic strategies. Based on these developments, in 2007, we initiated the IMPACT (Initiative for Molecular Profiling and Advanced Cancer Therapy) study, the first personalized medicine program for patients with advanced cancer at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. We demonstrated that in patients referred for Phase I clinical trials, the use of tumor molecular profiling and treatment with matched targeted therapy was associated with encouraging rates of response, progression-free survival and overall survival compared to non-matched therapy. We are currently conducting IMPACT2, a randomized study evaluating molecular profiling and targeted agents in patients with metastatic cancer. Optimization of innovative biomarker-driven clinical trials that include targeted therapy and/or immunotherapeutic approaches for carefully selected patients will accelerate the development of novel drugs and the implementation of precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation promotes colorectal cancer initiation and progression by inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Bozeman, R G; Kaisani, A; Kim, W; Zhang, L; Richardson, J A; Wright, W E; Shay, J W

    2016-06-30

    Proton radiotherapy is becoming more common as protons induce more precise DNA damage at the tumor site with reduced side effects to adjacent normal tissues. However, the long-term biological effects of proton irradiation in cancer initiation compared with conventional photon irradiation are poorly characterized. In this study, using a human familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome susceptible mouse model, we show that whole-body irradiation with protons are more effective in inducing senescence-associated inflammatory responses (SIRs), which are involved in colon cancer initiation and progression. After proton irradiation, a subset of SIR genes (Troy, Sox17, Opg, Faim2, Lpo, Tlr2 and Ptges) and a gene known to be involved in invasiveness (Plat), along with the senescence-associated gene (P19Arf), are markedly increased. Following these changes, loss of Casein kinase Iα and induction of chronic DNA damage and TP53 mutations are increased compared with X-ray irradiation. Proton irradiation also increases the number of colonic polyps, carcinomas and invasive adenocarcinomas. Pretreatment with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid-ethyl amide (CDDO-EA), reduces proton irradiation-associated SIR and tumorigenesis. Thus exposure to proton irradiation elicits significant changes in colorectal cancer initiation and progression that can be mitigated using CDDO-EA.

  20. How doctors communicate the initial diagnosis of cancer matters: cancer disclosure and its relationship with Patients' hope and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidan; Qi, Xiaona; Yao, Ting; Han, Xuanye; Feng, Xujing

    2017-05-01

    The study is to examine the relationships between perceived initial cancer disclosure communication with doctors, levels of hope, and levels of trust in doctors among cancer patients in China. A total number of 192 cancer inpatients in a cancer hospital in China were surveyed. Perceived disclosure strategies, levels of hope, levels of trust in their doctors, as well as the demographic information were obtained from the participants. In addition to age, patients who had higher levels of perceived emotional support from doctors, or higher levels of perceived personalized disclosure from doctors, or higher levels of perceived discussion of multiple treatment plans with doctors were more likely to have higher levels of trust in doctors. In addition to perceived health status, perceived emotional support from doctors significantly predicted participants' levels of hope. That is, patients who had higher higher levels of perceived doctors' emotional support were more likely to have higher levels of hope. Key disclosure person was a marginally significant variable, that is, patients who were mainly disclosed by family members might have higher levels of hope compared with patients who were mainly disclosed by doctors. When communicating with a cancer patient, doctors might not ignore the importance of emotional support during cancer diagnosis communication. Doctors might want to involve family and collaborate with family to find out ways of personalized disclosure. During the communication process, doctors could provide their patients with multiple treatment options and discuss the benefits and side effects of each treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Social relationships, inflammation markers, and breast cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Evan L; Whitsel, Eric A; Kroenke, Candyce H; Yang, Yang C

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has reported associations between social relationships and carcinogenesis. Inflammation is a potential mediator of these associations. To clarify these links for one tumor site, we examined associations between social relationships, circulating inflammation markers, and breast cancer incidence. Among 132,262 participants from the prospective Women's Health Initiative, we used linear and logistic regression to evaluate associations between social relationship characteristics (social support, social strain, social network size) and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC). Cox regression was used to evaluate associations between inflammation markers and breast cancer incidence, as well as associations between social relationship characteristics and breast cancer incidence with and without adjustment for inflammation markers. Larger social networks were associated with lower continuous CRP (beta = -0.22, 95% CI -0.36, -0.08) and WBC (beta = -0.23, 95% CI -0.31, -0.16). Greater social strain was associated with higher continuous CRP (beta = 0.24, 95% CI 0.14, 0.33) and WBC (beta = 0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.14). When WBC was dichotomized at 10,000 cells/uL, high WBC was associated with greater hazards of in situ breast cancer (HR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.17, 2.33) but not invasive breast cancer. Social relationship characteristics were not associated with incidence of invasive or in situ breast cancer. Larger social networks were associated with lower inflammation and greater social strain was associated with higher inflammation. Higher inflammation might be associated with development of in situ breast cancer, but this appeared to be due to factors other than social relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Initial development of the DIII–D snowflake divertor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolemen, E.; Vail, P. J.; Makowski, M. A.; Allen, S. L.; Bray, B. D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Maingi, R.; Nazikian, R.; Petrie, T. W.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous control of two proximate magnetic field nulls in the divertor region is demonstrated on DIII–D to enable plasma operations in an advanced magnetic configuration known as the snowflake divertor (SFD). The SFD is characterized by a second-order poloidal field null, created by merging two first-order nulls of the standard divertor configuration. The snowflake configuration has many magnetic properties, such as high poloidal flux expansion, large plasma-wetted area, and additional strike points, that are advantageous for divertor heat flux management in future fusion reactors. However, the magnetic configuration of the SFD is highly-sensitive to changes in currents within the plasma and external coils and therefore requires complex magnetic control. The first real-time snowflake detection and control system on DIII–D has been implemented in order to stabilize the configuration. The control algorithm calculates the position of the two nulls in real-time by locally-expanding the Grad–Shafranov equation in the divertor region. A linear relation between variations in the poloidal field coil currents and changes in the null locations is then analytically derived. This formulation allows for simultaneous control of multiple coils to achieve a desired SFD configuration. It is shown that the control enabled various snowflake configurations on DIII–D in scenarios such as the double-null advanced tokamak. The SFD resulted in a 2.5×  reduction in the peak heat flux for many energy confinement times (2–3 s) without any adverse effects on core plasma performance.

  3. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lygia Vieira; Conceição, Ana Vaz; Oliveira, João Blasques; Tavares, António; Domingos, Clarinha; Santos, Lucio Lara

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important health problem in Africa. The number of cancer cases in this region could double, ranging between 700 000 and 1 600 000 new cases in 2030. The mortality rate is higher than 80% and is explained, mainly, by a lack of early detection, diagnostics and treatment resources. In Angola, about 7,000 patients die of cancer every year. Data were derived from open-ended interviews conducted in 2010-11 with health authorities, clinicians, nurses and Administration of Hospitals. According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the development of Angola cancer control strategies. Malaria remains the leading cause of illness and death in Angola, and other communicable diseases remain a public health problem. However, 9 000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year.The most common types of cancer are: cancer of the cervix, breast, prostate, esophagus, stomach and head and neck, as well as cancers with infectious origin, such as Kaposi's sarcoma and liver and bladder cancer. The foundation for developing national cancer control strategies includes: oncological data; investment and training; identifying and removing barriers; guidance and protection of the patient. Angolan National Cancer Centre, Sagrada Esperança Clinic and Girassol Clinic are now developing a cancer program. Improving the economic situation of Angola creates conditions for an increase in life expectancy which in itself is associated with an increased risk of oncological diseases. On the other hand, infectious diseases, associated with the risk of malignant tumors, are endemic. Thus, an increase in patients with malignant disease is expected. A plan is therefore necessary to organize the response to this old

  4. Integration of Nuclear- and Extranuclear-Initiated Estrogen Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madak Erdogan, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    Estrogenic hormones exert their effects through binding to Estrogen Receptors (ERs), which work in concert with coregulators and extranuclear signaling pathways to control gene expression in normal as well as cancerous states, including breast tumors. In this thesis, we have used multiple genome-wide analysis tools to elucidate various ways that…

  5. The process of managerial control in quality improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovensky, D J; Fottler, M D

    1994-11-01

    The fundamental intent of strategic management is to position an organization with in its market to exploit organizational competencies and strengths to gain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage may be achieved through such strategies as low cost, high quality, or unique services or products. For health care organizations accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, continually improving both processes and outcomes of organizational performance--quality improvement--in all operational areas of the organization is a mandated strategy. Defining and measuring quality and controlling the quality improvement strategy remain problematic. The article discusses the nature and processes of managerial control, some potential measures of quality, and related information needs.

  6. Roche and IAEA announce joint initiative to train healthcare workers for Africa's fight against cancer. EDUCARE partnership to launch IAEA's VUCCnet training networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Roche and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) announced today the launch of the EDUCARE (EDUcation for Cancer in African REgions) project to provide concerted support to help combat the growing cancer epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The EDUCARE project is to be piloted in Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia, and is linked with the IAEA's wider initiative to build regional training networks in cancer control and a Virtual University for Cancer Control (VUCCnet) in Africa. A core component for the successful fight against cancer in any country is the education and training of health care providers. The VUCCnet will allow for training to be provided in an integrated and sustainable way in Africa by taking advantage of low-cost online learning tools. The IAEA is working in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international partners to develop the VUCCnet across Africa. The EDCUARE project will facilitate a first-of-its-kind exchange of knowledge and skills, both at the healthcare provider and country-wide level. Training will be provided by an on-line training resource centre, known as the Virtual University for Cancer Control (VUCC), the first such platform for health workers across the continent. Maturin Tchoumi, General Manager Roche South Africa said: 'As a leader in oncology, Roche believes that its strengths, expertise and resources can be used to improve the quality of oncology training and education in the poorest countries in the world. There is a real lack of basic education in oncology in Africa. By contributing our skills and competencies on the ground, Roche can make a real and sustainable improvement.' This new public-private partnership reflects a shared concern over the increasing cancer burden in sub-Saharan Africa, a region of the world where cancer rates are growing rapidly. Cancer now accounts for 12.5% of all deaths worldwide, more than HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria combined. By 2020, there are expected to

  7. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  8. Development and external multicenter validation of Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium prostate cancer risk calculator for initial prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Xie, Liping; Xue, Wei; Ye, Zhangqun; Ma, Lulin; Gao, Xu; Ren, Shancheng; Wang, Fubo; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-09-01

    Substantial differences exist in the relationship of prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level between Western and Asian populations. Classic Western risk calculators, European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator, were shown to be not applicable in Asian populations. We aimed to develop and validate a risk calculator for predicting the probability of PCa and high-grade PCa (defined as Gleason Score sum 7 or higher) at initial prostate biopsy in Chinese men. Urology outpatients who underwent initial prostate biopsy according to the inclusion criteria were included. The multivariate logistic regression-based Chinese Prostate Cancer Consortium Risk Calculator (CPCC-RC) was constructed with cases from 2 hospitals in Shanghai. Discriminative ability, calibration and decision curve analysis were externally validated in 3 CPCC member hospitals. Of the 1,835 patients involved, PCa was identified in 338/924 (36.6%) and 294/911 (32.3%) men in the development and validation cohort, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that 5 predictors (age, logPSA, logPV, free PSA ratio, and digital rectal examination) were associated with PCa (Model 1) or high-grade PCa (Model 2), respectively. The area under the curve of Model 1 and Model 2 was 0.801 (95% CI: 0.771-0.831) and 0.826 (95% CI: 0.796-0.857), respectively. Both models illustrated good calibration and substantial improvement in decision curve analyses than any single predictors at all threshold probabilities. Higher predicting accuracy, better calibration, and greater clinical benefit were achieved by CPCC-RC, compared with European Randomized Study for Screening of Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator and Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in predicting PCa. CPCC-RC performed well in discrimination and calibration and decision curve analysis in external validation compared

  9. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  10. Environmental controls on pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus initiation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Lareau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the first direct observational evidence that the condensation level in pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus clouds can be significantly higher than the ambient lifted condensation level. In addition, we show that the environmental thermodynamic profile, day-to-day variations in humidity, and ambient wind shear all exert significant influence over the onset and development of pyroconvective clouds. These findings are established using a scanning Doppler lidar and mobile radiosonde system during two large wildfires in northern California, the Bald Fire and the Rocky Fire. The lidar is used to distinguish liquid water from smoke backscatter during the plume rise, and thus provides a direct detection of plume condensations levels. Plume tops are subsequently determined from both the lidar and nearby radar observations. The radiosonde data, obtained adjacent to the fires, contextualize the lidar and radar observations, and enable estimates of the plume ascent, convective available potential energy, and equilibrium level. A noteworthy finding is that in these cases, the convective condensation level, not the lifted condensation level, provides the best estimate of the pyrocumulus initiation height.

  11. Analysis of Internet Usage Among Cancer Patients in a County Hospital Setting: A Quality Improvement Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Lisa; Lodrigues, William; Dreadin-Pulliam, Julie; Xie, Xian-Jin; Mathur, Sakshi; Rao, Madhu; Harvey, Valorie; Leitch, Ann Marilyn; Rao, Roshni

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the most common diseases that patients research on the Internet. The Commission on Cancer (CoC) recommended that Parkland Memorial Hospital (PMH) improve the oncology services website. PMH is Dallas County’s public health care facility, serving a largely uninsured, minority population. Most research regarding patient Internet use has been conducted in insured, Caucasian populations, raising concerns that the needs of PMH patients may not be extrapolated from available data. The PMH Cancer Committee, therefore, adopted a quality improvement initiative to understand patients’ Internet usage. Objective The objective of the study was to obtain and analyze data regarding patients’ Internet usage in order to make targeted improvements to the oncology services section of the institutional website. Methods A task force developed an 11-question survey to ascertain what proportion of our patients have Internet access and use the Internet to obtain medical information as well as determine the specific information sought. Between April 2011 and August 2011, 300 surveys were administered to newly diagnosed cancer patients. Multivariate analyses were performed. Results Of 300 surveys, 291 were included. Minorities, primarily African-American and Hispanic, represented 78.0% (227/291) of patients. Only 37.1% (108/291) of patients had Internet access, most (256/291, 87.9%) having access at home. Younger patients more commonly had Internet access, with a mean age of 47 versus 58 years for those without (PInternet research was to develop questions for discussion with one’s physician. Patients most frequently sought information regarding cancer treatment options, outcomes, and side effects. Conclusions Less than one-half of PMH oncology patients have Internet access. This is influenced by age, educational level, and ethnicity. Those with access use it to obtain information related to their cancer diagnosis. The most effective way of addressing our

  12. African American women's experiences with the initial discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, N R; Gates, M F; Brown, G

    2001-04-01

    To describe the experiences of African American women living with breast cancer following the primary diagnosis and while undergoing initial treatment. Phenomenologic. 13 African American women (ages 30-66) purposefully selected from two oncology clinics in the mid-South. Phenomenologic interviews (transcribed verbatim) and field notes were analyzed using Colaizzi's method of phenomenologic description and analysis. Experience Trajectory, Femininity, and Spirituality were the three major themes. The Experience Trajectory subthemes were finding the lump, getting the diagnosis, undergoing surgery and adjuvant treatment. The Femininity subthemes were loss of all or part of the breast, loss of hair, and sexual attractiveness to a man. Spirituality was reflected as a reliance on God. Telling the story of their experience trajectory during their breast cancer experience is valuable in assessing African American women's feelings, emotions, and fears of body changes that occur during surgery and treatment. Their spirituality helps them through this experience. Research involving both African American women and their partners would provide greater insight into specific relationship patterns and communication related to sexuality during this experience. Nurses need to listen to the stories of African American women about the initial experience of discovery, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer so they can be more informed advocates for these women. African American women need more information from healthcare providers regarding the whole experience trajectory.

  13. Humans make near-optimal adjustments of control to initial body configuration in vertical squat jumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; Casius, L.J.R.; Kistemaker, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated adjustments of control to initial posture in squat jumping. Eleven male subjects jumped from three initial postures: preferred initial posture (PP), a posture in which the trunk was rotated 18° more backward (BP) and a posture in which it was rotated 15° more forward (FP) than in PP.

  14. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  15. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Research on Moderate Acute Malnutrition in Humanitarian Emergencies...

  16. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiologic Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy, Funding Opportunity...

  17. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  18. 77 FR 19018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in South Africa, Funding Opportunity Announcement...

  19. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and...

  20. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and other Respiratory...

  1. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  2. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  3. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel...

  4. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory...

  5. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Agreement on Occupational Health with the World Health Organization...

  6. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring Cause-Specific School Absenteeism for Estimating Community Wide...

  7. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention...

  8. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research Centers, Funding Opportunity...

  9. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding...

  10. The role of the Federal Relighting Initiative in emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.K.; Purcell, C.W.; Friedman, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI), under the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has developed a comprehensive process to assist federal agencies in meeting the nation's energy mandate. This mandate states that federal facilities must use 20% less energy by the year 2000, based on 1985 consumption levels. Because lighting accounts for about 40% of total federal electricity consumption, the FRI was conceived to help reduce energy use in this important area while improving lighting quality and increasing productivity through relighting. Selected federal rules and regulations provide guidance on the types of energy efficiency techniques required, life-cycle costing methods and lighting levels that should be employed to achieve the federal mandate. Although the central focus of this paper is on the environment, this paper takes the perspective that the energy efficiency gains achieved through the FRI would produce both environmental and economic benefits for the United States. For example, improvements in energy efficiency would reduce electricity demand, and would consequently reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion for power production. These reduced emissions include carbon dioxide, which is associated with the potential for global climate change, and heavy metals, which pose a potential health threat to humans and aquatic ecosystems. Economic benefits of the FRI would include reduced federal expenditures on energy or, possibly, avoiding new power plant construction.This paper begins with a brief overview of the FRI process. Next, current lighting energy use in federal buildings is evaluated and the potential future energy savings achievable through full implementation of the FRI are estimated. The paper then translates these energy savings into avoided emissions of carbon dioxide and heavy metals and into avoided fuel expenditures

  11. Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2)-Induced Inflammation in Initiation, Progression, and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Kapil, E-mail: kmehta@mdanderson.org; Han, Amy [Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-02-25

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is among the deadliest cancers, with a median survival of six months. It is generally believed that infiltrating PC arises through the progression of early grade pancreatic intraepithelial lesions (PanINs). In one model of the disease, the K-ras mutation is an early molecular event during progression of pancreatic cancer; it is followed by the accumulation of additional genetic abnormalities. This model has been supported by animal studies in which activated K-ras and p53 mutations produced metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice. According to this model, oncogenic K-ras induces PanIN formation but fails to promote the invasive stage. However, when these mice are subjected to caerulein treatment, which induces a chronic pancreatitis-like state and inflammatory response, PanINs rapidly progress to invasive carcinoma. These results are consistent with epidemiologic studies showing that patients with chronic pancreatitis have a much higher risk of developing PC. In line with these observations, recent studies have revealed elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory protein tissue transglutaminase (TG2) in early PanINs, and its expression increases even more as the disease progresses. In this review we discuss the implications of increased TG2 expression in initiation, progression, and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer.

  12. Detection of skeletal muscle metastases on initial staging of lung cancer: a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchino, Marialuisa; Valente, Tullio; Somma, Francesco; de Rosa, Ilaria; Bifulco, Marco; Rea, Gaetano

    2014-03-01

    Estimation of skeletal muscle metastases (SMMs) at the time of diagnosis and/or initial staging of lung cancer. Retrospective evaluation of clinical charts and imaging data suggestive of SMMs of patients with histology-proved lung cancer over a 5-year period. SMMs were identified in 46 out of 1,754 patients. Single and multiple (62.9% of cases) SMMs were detected by total body multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). They were associated with poorly differentiated (43%) and advanced adenocarcinomas (52%) without clinically relevant symptoms and/or signs. Psoas and buttock muscles were most frequently involved (33.3%). MDCT findings consisted of well-defined homogeneously hyperdense oval masses (31%), lesions with ring-like enhancement and central hypoattenuation (68%), or large abscess-like necrotic lesions (24%). Sonography revealed well-defined hypoechoic masses (41.6%), ill-defined hypoechoic lesions (33.3%), or anechoic areas with a necrotic centre (25%). Positron emission tomography revealed that all SMMs were metabolically active. SMMs are uncommon but not negligible in lung cancer, with an estimated prevalence of 2.62% in our series. Although histology remains the recommended method, use of high-performance imaging techniques and increased clinical suspicion may improve their early detection. Efforts addressing their effect on the natural history of lung cancer are needed.

  13. Tumor initiating cells and chemoresistance: which is the best strategy to target colon cancer stem cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldino, Emanuela; Tesori, Valentina; Casalbore, Patrizia; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Puglisi, Maria Ausiliatrice

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging body of evidence that chemoresistance and minimal residual disease result from selective resistance of a cell subpopulation from the original tumor that is molecularly and phenotypically distinct. These cells are called "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). In this review, we analyze the potential targeting strategies for eradicating CSCs specifically in order to develop more effective therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer. These include induction of terminal epithelial differentiation of CSCs or targeting some genes expressed only in CSCs and involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Ideal targets could be cell regulators that simultaneously control the stemness and the resistance of CSCs. Another important aspect of cancer biology, which can also be harnessed to create novel broad-spectrum anticancer agents, is the Warburg effect, also known as aerobic glycolysis. Actually, little is yet known with regard to the metabolism of CSCs population, leaving an exciting unstudied avenue in the dawn of the emerging field of metabolomics.

  14. Initial paclitaxel improves outcome compared with CMFP combination chemotherapy as front-line therapy in untreated metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J F; Dewar, J; Toner, G C; Smith, J; Tattersall, M H; Olver, I N; Ackland, S; Kennedy, I; Goldstein, D; Gurney, H; Walpole, E; Levi, J; Stephenson, J; Canetta, R

    1999-08-01

    To determine the place of single-agent paclitaxel compared with nonanthracycline combination chemotherapy as front-line therapy in metastatic breast cancer. Patients with previously untreated metastatic breast cancer were randomized to receive either paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) intravenously (IV) over 3 hours for eight cycles (24 weeks) or standard cyclophosphamide 100 mg/m(2)/d orally on days 1 to 14, methotrexate 40 mg/m(2) IV on days 1 and 8, fluorouracil 600 mg/m(2) IV on days 1 and 8, and prednisone 40 mg/m(2)/d orally on days 1 to 14 (CMFP) for six cycles (24 weeks) with epirubicin recommended as second-line therapy. A total of 209 eligible patients were randomized with a median survival duration of 17.3 months for paclitaxel and 13.9 months for CMFP. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received paclitaxel survived significantly longer than those who received CMFP (P =.025). Paclitaxel produced significantly less severe leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis, documented infections (all P = .07). Initial paclitaxel was associated with significantly less myelosuppression and fewer infections, with longer survival and similar quality of life and control of metastatic breast cancer compared with CMFP.

  15. Initial Efficacy Testing of an Autobiographical Memory Intervention on Advance Care Planning for Patients With Terminal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohard, Cheryl

    2017-11-01

    To test the efficacy of a novel intervention to facilitate advance care planning.
. Exploratory, quasiexperimental pilot study with two independent groups.
. A large hospice located in the southwestern United States. 
. A convenience sample of 50 participants with terminal cancer enrolled in hospice.
. An autobiographical memory (ABM) intervention used the participants' experiences with cancer and end of life for the purpose of directing advance care planning.
. Two domains of advance care planning, decision making and communication, were measured in relation to 11 variables. The ABM intervention was nonthreatening, short in duration, and easily completed with participants as they recalled, without hesitation, specific personal memories of family and friends who had died and their advance care plans. The Mann-Whitney nonparametric test revealed that participants in the experimental group had a higher average rank than those in the control group for communicating the decision about antibiotics, as well as exhibited a trend toward significance for five other advance care planning variables.
. Findings showed that directive ABMs may be effective in influencing the decision making and communication of advance care planning for terminally ill patients with cancer.
. The current level of understanding about using the ABM intervention suggests that nurses can initiate an advance care planning conversation using this approach.

  16. Sonographic findings of thyroid cancer initially assessed as no suspicious malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Youn; Kang, Seok Seon; Ji, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Tae Hee; Park, Hae Lin; Shim, Jeong Yun

    2008-01-01

    To review the retrospective imaging findings of thyroid cancer initially assessed as no suspicious malignancy. Of 338 nodules confirmed to be thyroid cancer, this study included 38 patients with 39 nodules assessed as no suspicious malignancy on initial sonography. (mean age:39 years, 36 females and 2 males). We evaluated sonographic findings by shape, margin, echogenecity, calcification, cystic degeneration and peripheral hypoechoic rim retrospectively. We analyzed whether sonographic findings were different according to the size (standard:1 cm). The most frequent sonographic findings were avoid to round shape 90%, well-defined smooth margin 64%, hypoechogenecity 54%, no calcification 92%, no cystic degeneration 77% and peripheral hypoechoic rim 56%. Suspicious malignancy findings were taller than wide shape 10%, well-defined spiculated margin 36%, markedly hypoechogenecity 10% and microcalcifications 8%. Isoechogenecity, cystic degeneration and peripheral hypoechoic rim were common in 1 cm more than nodules. Well-defined spiculated margin was common in 1 cm less than nodules. In retrospective, 56% showed no suspicious malignancy finding. Although nodules assessed as no suspicious malignancy on initial US had many retrospectively suspicious malignancy findings, still many nodules showed no suspicious malignancy finding. Suspicious findings were ignored due to equivocal finding in small size, isoechogenecity, cystic degeneration or peripheral hypoechoic rim. We need careful observation

  17. The history and use of cancer registry data by public health cancer control programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S; Mariotto, Angela B; Wong, Faye L; Kohler, Betsy A; Weir, Hannah K

    2017-12-15

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. Cancer 2017;123:4969-76. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism as the Initial Clinical Presentation of Gastric Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE is a clinically critical disease, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of which can lead to increased rate of mortality. For prevention of recurrence of PTE, recognition of its risk factors or underlying diseases is of great importance. PTE is common in patients with cancer and has high morbidity and mortality rates. Although cancer is a lethal condition, PTE accelerates death in these patients. In the current study, we reported the case of a 50-year-old male presenting with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and non-massive hemoptysis indicating pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, but after 12 days of treatment, new deep vein thromboses in the left upper and right lower limbs were diagnosed. However, no specific risk factors or laboratory abnormalities were detected. History of weight loss during the recent months encouraged further investigation for ruling out malignancy, which led a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. He did not have any complaints of gastrointestinal disorders.

  19. Monitoring of environmental cancer initiators through hemoglobin adducts by a modified Edman degradation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernqvist, M.M.; Mowrer, J.; Jensen, S.; Ehrenberg, L.

    1986-01-01

    Tissue doses of cancer initiators/mutagens are suitably monitored through hemoglobin adducts formed in vivo, but the use of this method has been hampered by a lack of sufficiently simple and fast procedures. It was previously observed that when the N-terminal amino acid in hemoglobin, valine, is alkylated it is cleaved off by the Edman sequencing reagent, phenyl isothiocyanate, in the neutral-alkaline coupling medium, as opposed to the acidic medium required by normal amino acids. Based on this principle, conditions for a functioning procedure for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) determination of N-terminal alkylvalines in hemoglobin were worked out. Derivatizing the protein in formamide solution with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate, using a 2 H-alkylated protein as internal standard, and applying on-column injection during analysis, permit reproducible determination of hydroxyethylvaline and other adducts down into the dose range where cancer risks may be considered acceptably low

  20. Tumour-initiating cells vs. cancer 'stem' cells and CD133: What's in the name?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuzil, Jiri; Stantic, Marina; Zobalova, Renata; Chladova, Jaromira; Wang, Xiufang; Prochazka, Lubomir; Dong, Lanfeng; Andera, Ladislav; Ralph, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a subset of cells within a tumour have 'stem-like' characteristics. These tumour-initiating cells, distinct from non-malignant stem cells, show low proliferative rates, high self-renewing capacity, propensity to differentiate into actively proliferating tumour cells, resistance to chemotherapy or radiation, and they are often characterised by elevated expression of the stem cell surface marker CD133. Understanding the molecular biology of the CD133 + cancer cells is now essential for developing more effective cancer treatments. These may include drugs targeting organelles, such as mitochondria or lysosomes, using highly efficient and selective inducers of apoptosis. Alternatively, agents or treatment regimens that enhance sensitivity of these therapy-resistant 'tumour stem cells' to the current or emerging anti-tumour drugs would be of interest as well

  1. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengmeng; Zhu, Xingya; Wang, Hao; Wang, Feng; Guan, Wenxian

    2014-01-01

    The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies. Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction. Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI) of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34) relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer. Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  2. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lv

    Full Text Available The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies.Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction.Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34 relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer.Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  3. An initial report of cyberknife radiosurgery treatment in early stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhiyong; Song Yongchun; Li Fengtong; Dong Yang; Wang Jingsheng; Wang Jun; Wang Changli; Wang Ping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the efficacy and toxicity of the cyberknife in the treatment of medically inoperable patients with early stage lung cancer. Methods: From September 2006 to July 2007,17 patients with clinical stage I a-I b lung cancer were treated with cyberknife at Tianjin Cancer Hospital. Of the 11 patients receiving CT guided biopsy, 3 were squamous cell cancer and 8 were adenocarcinoma. Six patients refused intrusive operation and were diagnosed by PET-CT scan. All patients were medically inoperable evaluated by a thoracic surgeon. The PTV=GTV + 3-5 mm, and the median volume of PTV was 36 cm 3 (6-82 cm 3 ). The median total prescription dose was 50 Gy(45-60 Gy) at 3-5 fractions. Results: The median follow-up time was 7 months(3-11 months). All the patients finished the treatment and were alive by the last follow-up. Slight fatigue was the most common complain. Evaluated by CT scan, 13 were complete response and 4 were partial response. No recurrence, progression or distant metastasis occurred. There were 3 patients with grade I granulocytopenia, 3 grade I pneumonitis and 1 grade II pneumonitis. Conclusions: The cyberknife radiosurgery treatment in early stage lung cancer shows a high rate of local control and minimal toxicity. Long time follow-up is necessary to evaluate the survival data and late toxicity. (authors)

  4. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  5. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Alcohol-related Motor Vehicle Injury Research, FOA CE12-006, initial review. In...

  6. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants (T03), PAR-10-288, initial...

  7. 78 FR 25743 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  8. 77 FR 7164 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  9. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research to Prevent Prescription Drug Overdoses, FOA CE12-007, initial review. In...

  10. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants (T03), PAR-10-288, initial...

  11. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  12. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, initial review. In...

  13. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Medicaid Expansion and Reproductive Health Care for Women, FOA DP 13-002, initial...

  14. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grant, PAR 10-288, initial review...

  15. 78 FR 56236 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Member Conflict Review, PA 07-318, initial review. In accordance with Section...

  16. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting... Disease or Treated by Assisted Reproductive Technology, SIP11-048, Panel F,'' initial review In accordance...

  17. Toward a theory of the initiation of cancer by alpha, beta, and x radiation: the twin doublet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.H.; Pagnamenta, A.

    1979-01-01

    Information concerning the basic mechanics of interaction of radiation with matter at both the cellular and the molecular levels may now be sufficient to allow an extension of the cellular model of cancer induction to the level of individual particle tracks, ionizations, and particular bonds in the DNA molecule. The Doublet model appears promising as a candidate for the initial damage to DNA involved in cell killing, mutation, and a single cancer initiation

  18. Using Human Stem Cells to Study the Role of the Stroma in the Initiation of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Edinburgh, UK (Invited Speaker) 2. Risbridger GP (2009) 9th International Congress of Andrology, Barcelona , Spain (Invited Speaker) – “From Human Stem...malignant cancer- initiating cells. Cancer Research 68 9703–9711. (doi:10. 1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3084) Verhagen AP, Aalders TW, Ramaekers FC , Debruyne

  19. Low-dose irradiation for controlling prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among North American men and the second leading cause of death in those aged 65 and over. The American Cancer Society recommends testing those over age 50 who are expected to live at least 10 years, even though the ability of early detection to decrease prostate cancer mortality has not been demonstrated. So controversy exists about the appropriateness of screening because of the considerable economic and social burden of diagnosing and treating prostate cancer, coupled with the projected large increase in the number of new cases as the population ages. This very important public health issue could be addressed at low cost by total-body low-dose irradiation therapy to stimulate the patient's own defences to prevent and control most cancers, including prostate cancer, with no symptomatic side effects. (author)

  20. Tumor-initiating CD49f cells are a hallmark of chemoresistant triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Miragaya, Jorge; González-Suárez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Taxanes are mainstay treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients but resistance often develops. Using TNBC patient-derived orthoxenografts (PDX) we have recently discovered that a CD49f+ chemoresistant population with tumor-initiating ability is present in sensitive tumors and expands in tumors that have acquired resistance. Importantly, sensitivity to taxanes is recovered after long-term drug interruption. The characterization of this chemoresistant CD49f+ cells provides a unique opportunity to identify novel targets for the treatment of chemoresistant TNBC.

  1. Initial conservative treatment for grade 3 Ta-1 superficial bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Kondo, Hideaki; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2006-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the therapeutic outcomes of our series of 7 Ta and 62 T1 bladder cancers with grade 3 (G3) malignancy in 61 men and 8 women having a mean age of 66.2 years. Following transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), 35 and 6 patients received intravesical instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and anthracycline-derivants, respectively, whereas 15 received no adjuvant therapy. Five and 2 patients received systemic and local chemotherapy with irradiation, respectively, and six underwent radical cystectomy for invasive potential. The 5-year non-recurrence, progression-free, and overall (cancer-specific) survival rates were 66, 82%, and 76 (88)%, respectively, after a median follow-up of 52 months. The 5-year non-recurrence rates were 24% in non-adjuvant, 85% in BCG, 0% in anthracycline-derivants, 65% in systemic and local chemoradiation therapy, and 68% in cystectomy. The 5-year progression-free and overall (cancer-specific) survival rates of the patients treated with BCG instillation were 91% and 94 (100)%. There were no significant differences in the 5-year non-recurrence and progression-free rates between 12 patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) and 23 patients without CIS. Complete TUR of all visible tumors and a reliable histopathological diagnosis of appropriate specimens bearing the muscle layer are mandatory for assessment of recurrence. G3 Ta-1 bladder cancers and CIS showed a high risk of recurrence, and required aggressive treatment. Since BCG therapy following TURBT significantly reduced the risk of recurrence and progression, adjuvant BCG therapy is considered to be the most promising initial conservative treatment for G3 Ta-1 bladder cancers. (author)

  2. The History and Use of Cancer Registry Data by Public Health Cancer Control Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mary C.; Babcock, Frances; Hayes, Nikki S.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Wong, Faye L.; Kohler, Betsy A.; Weir, Hannah K.

    2018-01-01

    Because cancer registry data provide a census of cancer cases, registry data can be used to: 1) define and monitor cancer incidence at the local, state, and national levels; 2) investigate patterns of cancer treatment; and 3) evaluate the effectiveness of public health efforts to prevent cancer cases and improve cancer survival. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad overview of the history of cancer surveillance programs in the United States, and illustrate the expanding ways in which cancer surveillance data are being made available and contributing to cancer control programs. The article describes the building of the cancer registry infrastructure and the successful coordination of efforts among the 2 federal agencies that support cancer registry programs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The major US cancer control programs also are described, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program, the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program, and the Colorectal Cancer Control Program. This overview illustrates how cancer registry data can inform public health actions to reduce disparities in cancer outcomes and may be instructional for a variety of cancer control professionals in the United States and in other countries. PMID:29205307

  3. Chemotherapy of gastric cancer - a radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theobaldy, S.; Hofmann-Preiss, K.; Walter, M.

    1987-01-01

    In most cases of metastatic gastric cancer, treatment with cytostatic drugs seems to be justified. Responsiveness to chemotherapy, according to the MAF-schedule (Methotrexat, Adriamycin, 5-Fluorouracil) was reported to be successful in 50% of this cancer type. (orig.) [de

  4. Cancer pain and current theory for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Brian

    2014-05-01

    This article discusses current trends in managing cancer pain, with specific regard to opioid transmission, descending pathway inhabitation, and ways to facilitate the endogenous antinociceptive chemicals in the human body. Various techniques for opioid and nonopioid control of potential pain situations of patients with cancer are discussed. The benefits of using pharmacogenetics to assess the appropriate medications are addressed. Finally, specific treatment of abdominal cancer pain using radiofrequency lesioning is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pretreatment costs of care and time to initial treatment for patients with cancer of unknown primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark S; Weinstein, Laura; Luo, Roger; Marino, Ingrid

    2018-06-01

    Time to treatment and pretreatment costs may be affected by unknown primary tumor site. This retrospective study used electronic medical record data from patients in ten US community oncology practices. Eligible patients were ≥18 years, diagnosed with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or known metastatic solid tumor, and presented between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2014. Patients with CUP (n = 294) had a longer interval than non-CUP patients (n = 92) from presentation to treatment initiation (1.18 vs 0.49 months, p < 0.0001), and had higher pretreatment costs (US$27,882 vs US$20,449, p = 0.0075). When analyzed as monthly cost, the difference between groups in log-cost per month was nonsignificant. Higher pretreatment costs in CUP patients appeared attributable to significantly longer time to initiation of therapy.

  6. Perioperative FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab for initially unresectable advanced colorectal cancer (NAVIGATE-CRC-01).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Shinozaki, Eiji; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Nagayama, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Oya, Masatoshi; Ueno, Masashi; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative chemotherapy combined with surgery for liver metastases is considered an active strategy in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its impact on initially unresectable, previously untreated advanced CRC, regardless of concurrent metastases, remains to be clarified. A Phase II study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of perioperative FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab for initially unresectable advanced CRC. Patients with previously untreated advanced colon or rectal cancer initially diagnosed as unresectable advanced CRC (TNM stage IIIb, IIIc, or IV) but potentially resectable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) were studied. Preoperatively, patients received six cycles of NAC (five cycles of neoadjuvant FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab followed by one cycle of FOLFOX4 alone). The interval between the last dose of bevacizumab and surgery was at least 5 weeks. Six cycles of adjuvant FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab were given after surgery. The completion rate of NAC and feasibility of curative surgery were the primary endpoints. An interim analysis was performed at the end of NAC in the 12th patient to assess the completion rate of NAC. The median follow-up time was 56 months. The characteristics of the patients were as follows: sex, eight males and four females; tumor location, sigmoid colon in three, ascending colon in one, and rectum (above the peritoneal reflection) in eight; stage, III in eight and IV in four (liver or lymph nodes). All patients completed six cycles of NAC. There were no treatment-related severe adverse events or deaths. An objective response to NAC was achieved in nine patients (75%), and no disease progression was observed. Eleven patients underwent curative tumor resection, including metastatic lesions. In December 2012, this Phase II study was terminated because of slow registration. Perioperative FOLFOX4 plus bevacizumab is well tolerated and has a promising response rate leading to curative surgery, which offers a survival

  7. Cancer prevention and control: alarming challenges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-03-01

    China is geographically the third largest country in the world and the most populated low-to-middle-income country. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for some cancers in the USA and European countries have steadily decreased over the last decades, whereas the incidence and mortality of certain cancers in China have been increasing at an alarming speed. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in China have been accompanied by incredible changes in lifestyle and environment combined with an aging population. Mortality caused by lung, colorectal and breast cancers has been steadily increasing, whereas cancer mortality from gastric, esophageal and cervical tumors has tended to decrease. Similar to what has occurred in the United States, unhealthy lifestyles in China, including heavy smoking and poor diet combined with pollution, have contributed to increased cancer risk. China is facing many challenges in cancer treatment and prevention for the general population. The major areas that need to be addressed in the control of cancer in China include cancers associated with environmental pollution, tobacco use, occupational carcinogens, infection, excessive alcohol consumption, dietary deficiencies and obesity. In this perspective, we review the problems in each area and suggest ideas for future directions in cancer research and strategies and actions to reduce the incidence of cancer in China.

  8. Characterisation of mesothelioma-initiating cells and their susceptibility to anti-cancer agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Alizadeh Pasdar

    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma (MM is an aggressive type of tumour causing high mortality. One reason for this paradigm may be the existence of a subpopulation of tumour-initiating cells (TICs that endow MM with drug resistance and recurrence. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise a TIC subpopulation in MM cells, using spheroid cultures, mesospheres, as a model of MM TICs. Mesospheres, typified by the stemness markers CD24, ABCG2 and OCT4, initiated tumours in immunodeficient mice more efficiently than adherent cells. CD24 knock-down cells lost the sphere-forming capacity and featured lower tumorigenicity. Upon serial transplantation, mesospheres were gradually more efficiently tumrigenic with increased level of stem cell markers. We also show that mesospheres feature mitochondrial and metabolic properties similar to those of normal and cancer stem cells. Finally, we show that mesothelioma-initiating cells are highly susceptible to mitochondrially targeted vitamin E succinate. This study documents that mesospheres can be used as a plausible model of mesothelioma-initiating cells and that they can be utilised in the search for efficient agents against MM.

  9. Predictors of Regional Lymph Node Recurrence after Initial Thyroidectomy in Patients with Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirsina Sharifi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Regional lymph node recurrence (RLNR is common in patients with thyroid cancer but clinicopathological predictors are unclear. We aimed to clarify these predictors and identify patients who would benefit from prophylactic lymph node dissection the most. Method. 343 patients with different types of thyroid cancer were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy between 2007 and 2013. Results. The median ± interquartile range of patients’ age was 40 ± 25 years. 245 (71.4% patients were female. Regarding the risk of regional lymph node recurrence, we found that male gender, age ≥45 years, non-PTC (i.e., medullary, follicular, and anaplastic types histopathology, T3 (i.e., tumor size >4 cm in the greatest dimension limited to the thyroid or any tumor with minimal extrathyroid extension, stage IVa, and isolated cervical lymphadenopathy as initial manifestation (ICL are significant risk factors. T3 (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 156.41, 95% CI [55.72–439.1] and ICL (p < 0.001; odds ratio = 77.79, 95% CI [31.55–191.81] were the strongest predictors of regional lymph node recurrence. Conclusion. We found easily achievable risk factors for RLNR in thyroid cancers patients. We suggested that patients with specific clinicopathological features like male gender, age ≥45 years, larger tumor size, and extrathyroidal extension be considered as prophylactic lymphadenectomy candidates.

  10. Small molecules, big players: the National Cancer Institute's Initiative for Chemical Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliday, Nicola; Clemons, Paul A; Ferraiolo, Paul; Koehler, Angela N; Lewis, Timothy A; Li, Xiaohua; Schreiber, Stuart L; Gerhard, Daniela S; Eliasof, Scott

    2006-09-15

    In 2002, the National Cancer Institute created the Initiative for Chemical Genetics (ICG), to enable public research using small molecules to accelerate the discovery of cancer-relevant small-molecule probes. The ICG is a public-access research facility consisting of a tightly integrated team of synthetic and analytical chemists, assay developers, high-throughput screening and automation engineers, computational scientists, and software developers. The ICG seeks to facilitate the cross-fertilization of synthetic chemistry and cancer biology by creating a research environment in which new scientific collaborations are possible. To date, the ICG has interacted with 76 biology laboratories from 39 institutions and more than a dozen organic synthetic chemistry laboratories around the country and in Canada. All chemistry and screening data are deposited into the ChemBank web site (http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/) and are available to the entire research community within a year of generation. ChemBank is both a data repository and a data analysis environment, facilitating the exploration of chemical and biological information across many different assays and small molecules. This report outlines how the ICG functions, how researchers can take advantage of its screening, chemistry and informatic capabilities, and provides a brief summary of some of the many important research findings.

  11. MAPK13 is preferentially expressed in gynecological cancer stem cells and has a role in the tumor-initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Kazuyo [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 (Japan); Hirohashi, Yoshihiko, E-mail: hirohash@sapmed.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 (Japan); Kuroda, Takafumi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 (Japan); Takaya, Akari; Kubo, Terufumi; Kanaseki, Takayuki; Tsukahara, Tomohide [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 (Japan); Hasegawa, Tadashi [Department of Surgical Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 (Japan); Saito, Tsuyoshi [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 (Japan); Sato, Noriyuki [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 (Japan); Torigoe, Toshihiko, E-mail: torigoe@sapmed.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1 West-17, Chuo-Ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are defined as small subpopulation of cancer cells that are endowed with higher tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs are resistant to standard cancer therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and they are thus thought to be responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, elucidation of molecular mechanisms of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure cancer. In this study, we analyzed the gene expression profiles of gynecological CSCs/CICs isolated as aldehyde dehydrogenase high (ALDH{sup high}) cells, and found that MAPK13, PTTG1IP, CAPN1 and UBQLN2 were preferentially expressed in CSCs/CICs. MAPK13 is expressed in uterine, ovary, stomach, colon, liver and kidney cancer tissues at higher levels compared with adjacent normal tissues. MAPK13 gene knockdown using siRNA reduced the ALDH{sup high} population and abrogated the tumor-initiating ability. These results indicate that MAPK13 is expressed in gynecological CSCs/CICs and has roles in the maintenance of CSCs/CICs and tumor-initiating ability, and MAPK13 might be a novel molecular target for treatment-resistant CSCs/CICs.

  12. Elimination of head and neck cancer initiating cells through targeting glucose regulated protein78 signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chih-Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is a highly lethal cancer that contains cellular and functional heterogeneity. Previously, we enriched a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic head and neck cancer initiating cells (HN-CICs from HNSCC. However, the molecular mechanisms by which to govern the characteristics of HN-CICs remain unclear. GRP78, a stress-inducible endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, has been reported to play a crucial role in the maintenance of embryonic stem cells, but the role of GRP78 in CICs has not been elucidated. Results Initially, we recognized GRP78 as a putative candidate on mediating the stemness and tumorigenic properties of HN-CICs by differential systemic analyses. Subsequently, cells with GRP78 anchored at the plasma membrane (memGRP78+ exerted cancer stemness properties of self-renewal, differentiation and radioresistance. Of note, xenotransplantation assay indicated merely 100 memGRP78+ HNSCCs resulted in tumor growth. Moreover, knockdown of GRP78 significantly reduced the self-renewal ability, side population cells and expression of stemness genes, but inversely promoted cell differentiation and apoptosis in HN-CICs. Targeting GRP78 also lessened tumorigenicity of HN-CICs both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, co-expression of GRP78 and Nanog predicted the worse survival prognosis of HNSCC patients by immunohistochemical analyses. Finally, depletion of GRP78 in HN-CICs induced the expression of Bax, Caspase 3, and PTEN. Conclusions In summary, memGRP78 should be a novel surface marker for isolation of HN-CICs, and targeting GRP78 signaling might be a potential therapeutic strategy for HNSCC through eliminating HN-CICs.

  13. Cancer Control in Central and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Conte, Pierfranco

    2016-01-01

    In Central and Western Europe, cancer mortality is declining at slower rates as compared with rates in the rest of the world. More than a generation has now passed since the end of nonmarket economies in Central and Eastern Europe. It is time for this area of the continent to close the gap in cancer incidence and mortality rates between it and Western Europe and other high-income areas of the world.

  14. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential

  15. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J.; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E.; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns

  16. Initial results of the oesophageal and gastric cancer registry from the Comunidad Valenciana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrig, Javier; Mingol, Fernando; Martí, Roberto; Puche, José; Trullenque, Ramón; Barreras, José Antonio; Asencio, Francisco; Aguiló, Javier; Navarro, José Manuel; Alberich, Carmen; Salas, Dolores; Lacueva, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the initial results of the oesophagogastric cancer registry developed for the Sociedad Valenciana de Cirugía and the Health Department of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). Fourteen of the 24 public hospitals belonging to the Comunidad Valenciana participated. All patients with diagnosis of oesophageal or gastric carcinomas operated from January 2013 to December 2014 were evaluated. Demographic, clinical and pathological data were analysed. Four hundred and thirty-four patients (120 oesophageal carcinomas and 314 gastric carcinomas) were included. Only two hospitals operated more than 10 patients with oesophageal cancer per year. Transthoracic oesophaguectomy was the most frequent approach (84.2%) in tumours localized within the oesophagus. A total gastrectomy was performed in 50.9% patients with gastroesophageal junction (GOJ) carcinomas. Postoperative 30-day and 90-day mortality were 8% and 11.6% in oesophageal carcinoma and 5.9 and 8.6% in gastric carcinoma. Before surgery, middle oesophagus carcinomas were treated mostly (76,5%) with chemoradiotherapy. On the contrary, lower oesophagus and GOJ carcinomas were treated preferably with chemotherapy alone (45.5 and 53.4%). Any neoadjuvant treatment was administered to 73.6% of gastric cancer patients. Half patients with oesophageal carcinoma or gastric carcinoma received no adjuvant treatment. This registry revealed that half patients with oesophageal cancer were operated in hospitals with less than 10 cases per year at the Comunidad Valenciana. Also, it detected capacity improvement for some clinical outcomes of oesophageal and gastric carcinomas. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-chung; Ling, Qing-Dong; Yu, Wan-Chun; Hung, Chunh-Ming; Kao, Ta-Chun; Huang, Yi-Wei; Higuchi, Akon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) secreted by the LoVo human colon carcinoma cells in a medium containing anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells were analyzed by subcutaneously xenotransplanting them into mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drug-resistant cells isolated in this study were cancer-initiating cells, known also as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Methods The production of CEA was investigated in LoVo cells that were cultured with 0–10 mM of anticancer drugs, and we evaluated the increase in CEA production by the LoVo cells that were stimulated by anticancer drug treatment. The expression of several CSC markers in LoVo cells treated with anticancer drugs was also evaluated. Following anticancer drug treatment, LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of severe combined immunodeficiency mice in order to evaluate the CSC fraction. Results Production of CEA by LoVo cells was stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells expressed lower levels of CSC markers, and LoVo cells treated with any of the anticancer drugs tested did not generate tumors within 8 weeks from when the cells were injected subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that the drug-resistant LoVo cells have a smaller population of CSCs than the untreated LoVo cells. Conclusion Production of CEA by LoVo cells can be stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. The drug-resistant subpopulation of LoVo colon cancer cells could stimulate the production of CEA, but these cells did not act as CSCs in in vivo tumor generation experiments. PMID:23818760

  18. Oncology for general medical. Course: to the cancer control: Experience of the Comision Honoraria de lucha contra el cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, I; Avas, G; Sica, A; Vernengo, R; Silva, M; Sabini, G.

    2010-01-01

    Uruguay has the highest rates of cancer incidence and mortality, located in the top of the international comparative series. This disease is the second cause of death of Uruguayans, constituting nearly 24% of all deaths. The general practitioner has a fundamental role, participates in almost all stages of the control cancer. It promotes healthy lifestyles. Participates in actions primary prevention (tobacco control and treatment of preneoplastic lesions some infections, sunscreen) and in detecting the disease in stages Initial the treatments are more likely to cure (tumors cervix, breast, colon, prostate). Therefore, the Department of Professional Development since 1996 organizes a course distance (this methodology facilitates the participation of professionals in the hinterland) for general practitioners, called T oward Cancer Control . The course has four meetings face (initial and then monthly until the end of the course) in which then the issues participants studying in their home are introduced, and Other activities include the final evaluation made at the last meeting. Since 1996 to 2007 attended by 213 doctors, of whom 61 were from Montevideo and 152 of the interior. The participant evaluations show that All attendees will meet their expectations, committed themselves to changes in your daily practice. He also managed to change the attitude towards the patient terminal, and in particular the management of opioid analgesia

  19. 78 FR 78964 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns The Cooperative Re-Engagement Controlled Trial (CoRECT), Funding Opportunity...

  20. 78 FR 24751 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:00 p.m.-3:30 p.m., June...

  1. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  2. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response...

  3. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m...

  4. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring and Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13...

  5. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identification, Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious...

  6. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  7. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  8. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  9. Clinical and technical considerations for head and neck cancers treated by IMRT: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.S. Clifford; Low, Daniel A.; Gerber, Russell L.; Perez, Carlos A.; Purdy, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has the potential to deliver dose distributions that decrease normal tissue toxicity while allowing dose escalation to the tumor to improve local control. Methods have been developed to critically assess patient immobilization, treatment planning, dose prescription, and treatment verification in patients with head and neck cancer treated using a commercial IMRT system (Peacock, NOMOS Corp.). This report presents our initial experience with inverse planning optimization and patient setup and immobilization evaluations. Materials and Methods Patients are non-invasively immobilized using a reinforced thermoplastic mask and a custom head support. The treatment planning computed tomography scan is acquired using a dedicated scanner. Targets and normal structures are defined on the treatment planning system. Dose optimization requires the input for each structure of dose limits, spatial margin, and optimization algorithm weight (range from zero to two). The optimization algorithm allows each spatial location to be occupied by only one structure. Applying a spatial margin often causes target and normal structures to overlap, so a structure-by-structure decision is made to determine if the target or the structure occupies overlapping space (target priority). The effect on the dose distribution of modifying the optimization parameters was evaluated for the parotid gland (see Figure 1 for plan identification). Verification of treatment setup and immobilization was conducted by acquiring two portal images each treatment session, one prior to and one after treatment, and comparing the locations of visible bony landmarks on the portal film against positions on a digitally reconstructed radiograph. Both inter- and intra-treatment motion in the cranio-caudal (CC) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions were studied. Results Figure 2 summarizes the compromise made between target coverage and tissue sparing. The plan

  10. Cancer patient and survivor research from the cancer information service research consortium: a preview of three large randomized trials and initial lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alfred C; Diefenbach, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L; Miller, Suzanne M; Fleisher, Linda; Raich, Peter C; Morra, Marion E; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Tran, Zung Vu; Bright, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe 3 large randomized trials from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium. Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 also tests a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the 2-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1: n =208; Project 2: n =340; Project 3: n =792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52%, and 67% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most, or some) was 90%, 85%, and 83% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium interventions, perceived usefulness and benefit was high, and more than 90% reported that they would recommend them to other cancer patients. The authors present 5 initial lessons learned that may help inform future cancer communications research.

  11. NFATc4 Regulates Sox9 Gene Expression in Acinar Cell Plasticity and Pancreatic Cancer Initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hessmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinar transdifferentiation toward a duct-like phenotype constitutes the defining response of acinar cells to external stress signals and is considered to be the initial step in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite the requirement for oncogenic Kras in pancreatic cancer (PDAC development, oncogenic Kras is not sufficient to drive pancreatic carcinogenesis beyond the level of premalignancy. Instead, secondary events, such as inflammation-induced signaling activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGFR or induction of Sox9 expression, are required for tumor formation. Herein, we aimed to dissect the mechanism that links EGFR signaling to Sox9 gene expression during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in pancreatic tissue adaptation and PDAC initiation. We show that the inflammatory transcription factor NFATc4 is highly induced and localizes in the nucleus in response to inflammation-induced EGFR signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that NFATc4 drives acinar-to-ductal conversion and PDAC initiation through direct transcriptional induction of Sox9. Therefore, strategies designed to disrupt NFATc4 induction might be beneficial in the prevention or therapy of PDAC.

  12. Arthrocentesis as initial treatment for temporomandibular joint arthropathy : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, L. M.; Huddleston Slater, J. J. R.; Stegenga, B.

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of arthrocentesis compared to conservative treatment as initial treatment with regard to temporomandibular joint pain and mandibular movement. Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients with arthralgia of the TMJ (classified

  13. A randomised controlled trial of early initiation of oral feeding after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomised controlled trial of early initiation of oral feeding after Caesarean ... The outcome measures were rate of ileus symptoms, post operative presence of ... more rapid recovery and expressed their interest in earlier hospital discharge.

  14. Optimal control of distributed parameter system with incomplete information about the initial condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotarski, W.; Kowalewski, A.

    1982-03-01

    In this paper we consider an optimal control problem for a system described by a linear partial differential equation of the parabolic type with Dirichlet's boundary condition. We impose some constraints on the control. The performance functional has the integral form. The control time T is fixed. The initial condition is not given by a known function but belongs to a certain set (incomplete information about the initial state). The problem formulated in this paper describes the process of optimal heating, of which we do not have exact information about the initial temperature on the heated object. We present an example in which the set of admissible controls and one of initial conditions are given by means of the norm constraints too. The application of the well-known projective gradient method in the Hilbert space allows us to obtain the numerical solution for our optimization problem. (author)

  15. Depressive symptomatology in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan; Jim, Heather S; Fishman, Mayer; Zachariah, Babu; Heysek, Randy; Biagioli, Matthew; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer patients who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) often experience many physical and psychological side effects. ADT may be associated with increased risk for depression, but the relationship between ADT and depression is not fully understood. This study used a longitudinal design to assess depressive symptomatology in patients receiving ADT compared with two groups of matched controls. Participants were men initiating ADT treatment (ADT+ group; n = 61) and their matched controls: prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy (ADT- group; n = 61), and no-cancer controls (CA- group; n = 61). Depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale at ADT initiation and again 6 months later. Differences in depressive symptomatology and rates of clinically significant depressive symptomatology were analyzed between groups at each time point and within groups over time. Between baseline and follow-up, ADT+ participants demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology and increased rates of clinically significant depressive symptomatology (ps depressive symptomatology than both control groups at follow-up (ps depressive symptomatology were higher in the ADT+ group than the ADT- and CA- groups at both time points (baseline: 28%, 5%, 12%; follow-up: 39%, 9%, 11%). Findings support the hypothesis that ADT administration yields increases in depression and suggest that the mechanism behind ADT's association with depression should be explored and that prostate cancer patients treated with ADT should receive particular focus in depression screening and intervention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The cumulative burden of surviving childhood cancer: an initial report from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Nickhill; Liu, Qi; Ness, Kirsten K; Baassiri, Malek; Eissa, Hesham; Yeo, Frederick; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Bass, Johnnie; Bishop, Michael W; Shelton, Kyla; Lu, Lu; Huang, Sujuan; Li, Zhenghong; Caron, Eric; Lanctot, Jennifer; Howell, Carrie; Folse, Timothy; Joshi, Vijaya; Green, Daniel M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Armstrong, Gregory T; Krull, Kevin R; Brinkman, Tara M; Khan, Raja B; Srivastava, Deo K; Hudson, Melissa M; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L

    2017-12-09

    Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015. Age-matched and sex-frequency-matched community controls were used for comparison. 21 treatment exposure variables were included in the analysis, with data abstracted from medical records. 168 CHCs for all participants were graded for severity using a modified Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events. Multiple imputation with predictive mean matching was used for missing occurrences and grades of CHCs in the survivors who were not clinically evaluable. Mean cumulative count was used for descriptive cumulative burden analysis and marked-point-process regression was used for inferential cumulative burden analysis. Of 5522 patients treated for childhood cancer at St Jude Children's Research Hospital who had complete records, survived 10 years or longer, and were 18 years or older at time of study, 3010 (54·5%) were alive, had enrolled, and had had prospective clinical assessment. 2512 (45·5%) of the 5522 patients were not clinically evaluable. The cumulative incidence of CHCs at age 50 years was 99·9% (95% CI 99·9-99·9) for grade 1-5 CHCs and 96·0% (95% CI 95·3-96·8%) for grade 3-5 CHCs. By age 50 years, a survivor had experienced, on average, 17·1 (95% CI 16·2-18·1) CHCs of any grade, of which 4·7 (4·6-4·9) were CHCs of grade 3-5. The cumulative burden in matched community controls of grade 1-5 CHCs was 9·2 (95% CI 7·9-10·6; pgrade 3-5 CHCs was 2·3 (1

  17. Multilevel Opportunities to Address Lung Cancer Stigma across the Cancer Control Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Heidi A; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Studts, Jamie L; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2018-05-22

    The public health imperative to reduce the burden of lung cancer has seen unprecedented progress in recent years. Realizing fully the advances in lung cancer treatment and control requires attention to potential barriers in their momentum and implementation. In this analysis, we present and evaluate the argument that stigma is a highly significant barrier to fulfilling the clinical promise of advanced care and reduced lung cancer burden. This evaluation of lung cancer stigma is based on a multilevel perspective that incorporates the individual, persons in their immediate environment, the healthcare system, and the larger societal structure which shapes perceptions and decisions. We also consider current interventions and interventional needs within and across aspects of the lung cancer continuum, including prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Current evidence suggests that stigma detrimentally impacts psychosocial, communication, and behavioral outcomes over the entire lung cancer control continuum and across multiple levels. Interventional efforts to alleviate stigma in the context of lung cancer show promise, yet more work is needed to evaluate their impact. Understanding and addressing the multi-level role of stigma is a crucial area for future study in order to realize the full benefits offered by lung cancer prevention, control, and treatment. Coordinated, interdisciplinary, and well-conceptualized efforts have the potential to reduce the barrier of stigma in the context of lung cancer and facilitate demonstrable improvements in clinical care and quality of life. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Drug-resistant colon cancer cells produce high carcinoembryonic antigen and might not be cancer-initiating cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HC

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hsin-chung Lee,1,2 Qing-Dong Ling,1,3 Wan-Chun Yu,4 Chunh-Ming Hung,4 Ta-Chun Kao,4 Yi-Wei Huang,4 Akon Higuchi3–51Graduate Institute of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, 2Department of Surgery, Cathay General Hospital, Da'an District, Taipei, 3Cathay Medical Research Institute, Cathay General Hospital, Hsi-Chi City, Taipei, 4Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Reproduction, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Okura, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: We evaluated the higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA secreted by the LoVo human colon carcinoma cells in a medium containing anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells were analyzed by subcutaneously xenotransplanting them into mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the drug-resistant cells isolated in this study were cancer-initiating cells, known also as cancer stem cells (CSCs.Methods: The production of CEA was investigated in LoVo cells that were cultured with 0–10 mM of anticancer drugs, and we evaluated the increase in CEA production by the LoVo cells that were stimulated by anticancer drug treatment. The expression of several CSC markers in LoVo cells treated with anticancer drugs was also evaluated. Following anticancer drug treatment, LoVo cells were injected subcutaneously into the flanks of severe combined immunodeficiency mice in order to evaluate the CSC fraction.Results: Production of CEA by LoVo cells was stimulated by the addition of anticancer drugs. Drug-resistant LoVo cells expressed lower levels of CSC markers, and LoVo cells treated with any of the anticancer drugs tested did not generate tumors within 8 weeks from when the cells were injected subcutaneously into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. These results suggest that the drug-resistant LoVo cells have a smaller population of CSCs than the

  19. Sexual Dysfunction in Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Ebrahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual dysfunction in breast cancer patients is considered as a common and distressing problem. Considering the increasing number of breast cancer survivors living for longer periods of time with the disease and the importance of their quality of life, we conducted the present study to compare the sexual functioning in breast cancer patients with their healthy counterparts.Methods: In this case-control study, breast cancer patients who completed their treatment protocol and were followed up for at least six months were included. The controls were healthy women with normal clinical breast examinations. All subjects filled-in the Persian version of Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire.Results: A total of 165 subjects including 71 breast cancer patients and 94 healthy women were studied. The frequency of sexual dysfunction in cases and controls was 52.6% and 47.4%, respectively (P = 0.09. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding domain scores, except for vaginal lubrication (P = 0.045. Logistic regression analysis indicated that significant determinants of sexual dysfunction in breast cancer group was patients' age (OR = 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3 – 11.5, P = 0.01 and age of the spouse (OR= 9.8, 95% CI: 1.8-51.9, P= 0.007, while in controls, only emotional relationship with the husband was the significant predictive factor (OR = 6.3, 95%CI: 1.9 – 20.5, P = 0.002.Conclusions: Our findings indicated that sexual dysfunction is prevalent in Iranian women regardless of their physical health status. The frequency of vaginal dryness in breast cancer patients was significantly higher than controls. Age of the patient and the spouse (>40 were the only significant predictors of sexual dysfunction among women with breast cancer. Preventive strategies, sexual education and access to effective treatment should be planned in supportive care of breast cancer patients.

  20. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi L. Navarro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, specifically and colorectal cancer (CRC risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017. During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010, 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08. An interaction (p = 0.01 was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans.

  1. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  2. Resource utilization and costs during the initial years of lung cancer screening with computed tomography in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Sonya; Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C; Evans, William K; Leighl, Natasha B; Regier, Dean A; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R; Mayo, John R; McWilliams, Annette; Couture, Christian; English, John C; Goffin, John; Hwang, David M; Puksa, Serge; Roberts, Heidi; Tremblay, Alain; MacEachern, Paul; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Finley, Richard J; Goss, Glenwood D; Nicholas, Garth; Seely, Jean M; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Yee, John; Amjadi, Kayvan; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Ionescu, Diana N; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Martel, Simon; Soghrati, Kamyar; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Peacock, Stuart J

    2014-10-01

    It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer's perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400-$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553-$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254-$52,200; p = 0.061). In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure.

  3. Fatigue during breast cancer radiotherapy: an initial randomized study of cognitive-behavioral therapy plus hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Kangas, Maria; David, Daniel; Hallquist, Michael N; Green, Sheryl; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Schnur, Julie B

    2009-05-01

    The study purpose was to test the effectiveness of a psychological intervention combining cognitive-behavioral therapy and hypnosis (CBTH) to treat radiotherapy-related fatigue. Women (n = 42) scheduled for breast cancer radiotherapy were randomly assigned to receive standard medical care (SMC) (n = 20) or a CBTH intervention (n = 22) in addition to SMC. Participants assigned to receive CBTH met individually with a clinical psychologist. CBTH participants received training in hypnosis and CBT. Participants assigned to the SMC control condition did not meet with a study psychologist. Fatigue was measured on a weekly basis by using the fatigue subscale of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) and daily using visual analogue scales. Multilevel modeling indicated that for weekly FACIT fatigue data, there was a significant effect of the CBTH intervention on the rate of change in fatigue (p < .05), such that on average, CBTH participants' fatigue did not increase over the course of treatment, whereas control group participants' fatigue increased linearly. Daily data corroborated the analyses of weekly data. The results suggest that CBTH is an effective means for controlling and potentially preventing fatigue in breast cancer radiotherapy patients.

  4. Tumor Initiating Cells and Chemoresistance: Which Is the Best Strategy to Target Colon Cancer Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Paldino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging body of evidence that chemoresistance and minimal residual disease result from selective resistance of a cell subpopulation from the original tumor that is molecularly and phenotypically distinct. These cells are called “cancer stem cells” (CSCs. In this review, we analyze the potential targeting strategies for eradicating CSCs specifically in order to develop more effective therapeutic strategies for metastatic colon cancer. These include induction of terminal epithelial differentiation of CSCs or targeting some genes expressed only in CSCs and involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Ideal targets could be cell regulators that simultaneously control the stemness and the resistance of CSCs. Another important aspect of cancer biology, which can also be harnessed to create novel broad-spectrum anticancer agents, is the Warburg effect, also known as aerobic glycolysis. Actually, little is yet known with regard to the metabolism of CSCs population, leaving an exciting unstudied avenue in the dawn of the emerging field of metabolomics.

  5. A Case of Panitumumab-Responsive Metastatic Rectal Cancer Initially Refractory to Cetuximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Kasagi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old man was initially diagnosed with rectal cancer and liver metastasis. He underwent rectal amputation and partial hepatectomy. mFOLFOX6 was begun as first-line chemotherapy, but multiple pulmonary and right femoral lymph node metastases were found 1 year postoperatively. FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab was then started, but the tumors recurred after 2 years and 11 months. The regimen was changed to cetuximab with CPT-11. The lesions partially responded after 3 months, and the patient was free from progression for 1.5 years. Four years and 7 months after the adjuvant chemotherapy was started, the metastatic lesions gradually increased again, and the regimen was changed to panitumumab. After 2 months, the lesions had markedly decreased again and showed a partial response for 6 months. Although the pulmonary lesions became progressive again, the patient has been alive for 5 years and 8 months since the first operation.

  6. Imaging of tumor viability in lung cancer. Initial results using 23Na-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzler, T.; Apfaltrer, P.; Haneder, S.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Fink, C.; Konstandin, S.; Schad, L.; Schmid-Bindert, G.; Manegold, C.; Wenz, F.

    2012-01-01

    23 Na-MRI has been proposed as a potential imaging biomarker for the assessment of tumor viability and the evaluation of therapy response but has not yet been evaluated in patients with lung cancer. We aimed to assess the feasibility of 23 Na-MRI in patients with lung cancer. Three patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung were examined on a clinical 3 Tesla MRI system (Magnetom TimTrio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). Feasibility of 23 Na-MRI images was proven by comparison and fusion of 23 Na-MRI with 1 H-MR, CT and FDG-PET-CT images. 23 Na signal intensities (SI) of tumor and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the spinal canal were measured and the SI ratio in tumor and CSF was calculated. One chemonaive patient was examined before and after the initiation of combination therapy (Carboplatin, Gemcitabin, Cetuximab). All 23 Na-MRI examinations were successfully completed and were of diagnostic quality. Fusion of 23 Na-MRI images with 1 H-MRI, CT and FDG-PET-CT was feasible in all patients and showed differences in solid and necrotic tumor areas. The mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF SI ratio were 13.3 ± 1.8 x 103 and 0.83 ± 0.14, respectively. In necrotic tumors, as suggested by central non-FDG-avid areas, the mean tumor SI and the tumor/CSF ratio were 19.4 x 103 and 1.10, respectively. 23 Na-MRI is feasible in patients with lung cancer and could provide valuable functional molecular information regarding tumor viability, and potentially treatment response. (orig.)

  7. Undesirable financial effects of head and neck cancer radiotherapy during the initial treatment period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Egestad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare cost and reforms are at the forefront of international debates. One of the current discussion themes in oncology is whether and how patients’ life changes due to costs of cancer care. In Norway, the main part of the treatment costs is supported by general taxpayer revenues. Objectives: The objective of this study was to clarify whether head and neck cancer patients (n=67 in northern Norway experienced financial health-related quality of life (HRQOL deterioration due to costs associated with treatment. Design: HRQOL was examined by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30 in the beginning and in the end of radiation treatment in patients treated at the University Hospital in Northern Norway. Changes in financial HRQOL were calculated and compared by paired sample T-tests. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine correlations among gender, marital status, age and treatment with or without additional chemotherapy and changes in the HRQOL domain of financial difficulties. Results: The majority of score results at both time points were in the lower range (mean 15–25, indicating limited financial difficulties. We observed no statistically significant differences by gender, marital status and age. Increasing financial difficulties during treatment were reported by male patients and those younger than 65, that is, patients who were younger than retirement age. The largest effect was seen in singles. However, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: During the initial phase of the disease trajectory, no significant increase in financial difficulties was found. This is in line with the aims of the Norwegian public healthcare model. However, long-term longitudinal studies should be performed, especially with regard to the trends we observed in single, male and younger patients.

  8. Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiawan

    2000-01-01

    It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32 P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32 P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32 P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32 P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32 P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32 P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

  9. Role of Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors in Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Manuscript s • Submitted to the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry (Feb 21, 2012) “The soy isoflavone equol may increase cancer malignancy via upregulation...29] Ko KP, Park SK, Park B et al. Isoflavones from phytoestrogens and gastric cancer risk: a nested case-control study within the Korean...Dietary Soy Isoflavone-Mediated Effects on Breast Cancer Progression. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Columba de la Parra Simental CONTRACTING

  10. Initial experience with FDG-PET/CT in the evaluation of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Cohade, Christian; Mourtzikos, Karen A.; Wahl, Richard L.; Fishman, Elliot K.

    2006-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed FDG-PET/CT images in patients with breast cancer to determine whether PET/CT improved the level of diagnostic confidence as compared with PET and to compare PET/CT and CT findings at the location of suspected malignancies. The study included 75 patients with known breast cancer. The initial PET/CT study for each patient was retrospectively reviewed to determine whether improved diagnostic confidence (IDC) regarding lesion localization and characterization was observed with PET/CT as compared with PET alone. PET/CT and CT findings were compared regarding lesion characterization and staging in 69 of the 75 patients, and in the case of discordant findings, comparison with histological or informative follow-up results was also performed. Fifty of the 75 patients exhibited increased FDG uptake in a total of 95 regions. In the comparison of PET/CT and PET, PET/CT resulted in IDC in 30 (60%) of these 50 patients and in 52 (55%) of the 95 regions. In the comparison between PET/CT and CT in 69 patients, PET/CT demonstrated a significantly better accuracy than CT (P<0.05). PET/CT showed definitely positive findings in 60 regions with malignancies, among which CT exhibited positive findings in 43 (72%). PET/CT and CT accurately staged 59 (86%) and 53 (77%) of the 69 patients, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yumi; Tanaka, Kei; Kobayashi, Yoichi; Shibuya, Hiromi; Nishigaya, Yoshiko; Momomura, Mai; Matsumoto, Hironori; Iwashita, Mitsutoshi

    2015-07-01

    Brain metastasis from uterine cervical cancer is rare, with an incidence of 0.5%, and usually occurs late in the course of the disease. We report a case of uterine cervical cancer with brain metastasis as the initial site of presentation. A 50-year-old woman with headache, vertigo, amnesia and loss of appetite was admitted for persistent vomiting. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed a solitary right frontal cerebral lesion with ring enhancement and uterine cervical tumor. She was diagnosed with uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma with parametrium invasion and no other distant affected organs were detected. The cerebral lesion was surgically removed and pathologically proved to be metastasis of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy, followed by cerebral radiation therapy, but multiple metastases to the liver and lung developed and the patient died 7 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Initial results of CyberKnife treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himei, Kengo; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CyberKnife for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer. Thirty-one patients with recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer were treated with a CyberKnife from July 1999 to March 2002 at Okayama Kyokuto Hospital were retrospectively studied. The accumulated dose was 28-80 Gy (median 60 Gy). The interval between CyberKnife treatment and previous radiotherapy was 0.4-429.5 months (median 16.3 months). Primary lesions were nasopharynx: 7, maxillary sinus: 6, tongue: 5, ethmoid sinus: 3, and others: 1. The pathology was squamous cell carcinoma: 25, adenoid cystic carcinoma: 4, and others: 2. Symptoms were pain: 8, and nasal bleeding: 2. The prescribed dose was 15.0-40.3 Gy (median 32.3 Gy) as for the marginal dose. The response rate (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) and local control rate (CR+PR+no change (NC)) was 74% and 94% respectively. Pain disappeared for 4 cases, relief was obtained for 4 cases and no change for 2 cases and nasal bleeding disappeared for 2 cases for an improvement of symptoms. An adverse effects were observed as mucositis in 5 cases and neck swelling in one case. Prognosis of recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer was estimated as poor. Our early experience shows that CyberKnife is expected to be feasible treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer, and for the reduction adverse effects and maintenance of useful quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)

  13. Percutaneous cryoablation of liver metastases from breast cancer: Initial experience in 17 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Yu, H.; Guo, Z.; Li, B.; Si, T.; Yang, X.; Wang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of percutaneous cryoablation for the treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer. Materials and methods: This study included 39 liver metastases in 17 female breast cancer patients who underwent computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous cryoablation. The mean age of the cohort was 55 years (range 30–66 years). The tumour response was evaluated by CT performed before treatment, 1 month after treatment, and every 3 months thereafter. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) was used to assess the patients' quality of life before, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after cryoablation. The primary endpoints were technique effectiveness, quality of life, and complications. Results: The technical success rate was 92% with no major complication reported. At the 1-month follow-up, the primary technique effectiveness was 87.1% (34 of 39 tumours). At the 3-months follow-up, local tumour progression was observed in six of 39 lesions (15.4%). The 1-year survival from the time of cryoablation was 70.6%. The quality of life symptoms and functioning scales were preserved in patients alive at 3 months after cryoablation. The global quality of life, mean value of “pain” and “fatigue” between 3 months after cryoablation and prior to treatment showed statistically significant differences, but no clinical significance. Conclusions: Cryoablation is a safe and effective ablative therapy, providing a high rate of local tumour control in breast cancer liver metastases

  14. Relation between hypermetabolism, cachexia, and survival in cancer patients: a prospective study in 390 cancer patients before initiation of anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazeille, Clara; Jouinot, Anne; Durand, Jean-Philippe; Neveux, Nathalie; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Huillard, Olivier; Alexandre, Jérôme; Cynober, Luc; Goldwasser, François

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cachexia is a major cause of death in cancer patients. The role of hypermetabolism in cancer cachexia remains unclear. Objective: We studied the relation between resting energy expenditure (REE), the estimated energy balance, clinical and biological markers of cachexia, and survival. Design: REE was measured with the use of indirect calorimetry in cancer patients before the initiation of anticancer therapies. Hypermetabolic, normometabolic, and hypometabolic patients were identified with the use of Boothby's standard. Weight loss, performance status (PS), C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, the nutritional risk index, daily energy intake, energy balance (equal to daily energy intakes minus the REE), and survival were recorded. Results: Of 390 enrolled patients, 49% of subjects were hypermetabolic, 30% of subjects were normometabolic, and 21% of subjects were hypometabolic. Mean daily energy intakes did not differ significantly between the 3 groups. Hypermetabolic patients, compared with normometabolic patients, were more likely to have a negative energy balance [45% compared with 32%, respectively; OR: 1.74 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.91); P = 0.024], weight loss >5% [48% compared with 34%, respectively; OR: 1.83 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.04); P = 0.013], PS ≥2 [40% compared with 29%, respectively; OR: 1.70 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.88); P = 0.038], and CRP concentrations ≥10 mg/L [52% compared with 33%, respectively; OR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.33, 3.66); P = 0.001]. In metastatic patients, compared with normometabolism, hypermetabolism was associated with a reduced median survival [14.6 compared with 21.4 mo, respectively; OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.17); P = 0.044]. Conclusions: Hypermetabolism is correlated with clinical and biological markers of cancer cachexia and is associated with a shorter survival in metastatic cancer patients. The development of therapeutic strategies that aim to blunt hypermetabolism appears warranted. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as

  15. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer.DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively.Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  16. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color...

  17. 78 FR 19269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This document corrects a notice that was published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2013 (78...

  18. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review. The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 9:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m., May 15-16, 2013 (Closed). Place: Georgian Terrace, 659...

  19. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National Center for Construction Safety and Health Research and Translation (U60...

  20. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational Safety and Health Training Project Grants, Program Announcement PAR 10...

  1. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National HIV Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding...

  2. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Project (SIP): Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV...

  3. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of..., Number 181, Page 57391). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 12-15, 2013, is canceled. Notice will...

  4. 77 FR 30015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Characterizing the Short and Long Term Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI...

  5. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict Review, Program Announcement (PA) 07-318, and Centers of Excellence...

  6. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: A notice was published in the Federal Register on February 12, 2013, Volume 78, Number 29, page...

  7. 76 FR 18555 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Virologic Evaluation of the Modes of Influenza Virus Transmission among Humans...

  8. 76 FR 33304 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to Improve Vaccination Coverage of Children in Child Care Centers (CCCs...

  9. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of... Volume 78, Number 191, Page 60877). This SEP, scheduled to convene on November 6, 2013, is canceled...

  10. 77 FR 22326 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Extension of the World Trade Center Health Registry (U50) Request for Applications...

  11. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strengthening the Monitoring and Evaluation of Programs for the Elimination and...

  12. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research Technical Assistance To The Ministry Of Public Health Of Haiti To Support...

  13. 78 FR 1212 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Natural History and Prevention of Viral Hepatitis Among Alaska Natives, Funding...

  14. 76 FR 24031 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to Improve Vaccination Coverage of Children in Child Care Centers (CCCs...

  15. 76 FR 39879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  16. 77 FR 27460 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting Public Health Research in China RFA GH-12-005, and Conducting Public...

  17. 76 FR 59133 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  18. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging Infections Programs, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-1202...

  19. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers for the Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections, Antimicrobial...

  20. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH Cooperative Agreement Research to Aid Recovery from Hurricane Sandy, Request...

  1. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who...

  2. 78 FR 28221 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m. EDT, July 24, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference...

  3. 77 FR 36544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Coordinating Center for Research and Training to Promote the Health of People with...

  4. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research Centers, PAR 10-217. Contact Person For...

  5. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Program to Support New Implementation of State or Territorial Public Health...

  6. 78 FR 57391 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting... aforementioned SEP: Times and Dates: 8:00 a.m.-8:00 p.m., November 12-15, 2013 (Closed). Place: Teleconference...

  7. P27 in cell cycle control and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    2000-01-01

    In order to survive, cells need tight control of cell cycle progression. The control mechanisms are often lost in human cancer cells. The cell cycle is driven forward by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The CDK inhibitors (CKIs) are important regulators of the CDKs. As the name implies, CKIs were...

  8. CD73 Regulates Stemness and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer-Initiating Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, Michela; Angiolini, Francesca; Bertalot, Giovanni; Freddi, Stefano; Sachsenmeier, Kris F; Chisci, Elisa; Kutryb-Zajac, Barbara; Confalonieri, Stefano; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Giovannoni, Roberto; Colombo, Nicoletta; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Cavallaro, Ugo

    2018-04-10

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) have been implicated in tumor development and aggressiveness. In ovarian carcinoma (OC), CICs drive tumor formation, dissemination, and recurrence, as well as drug resistance, thus accounting for the high death-to-incidence ratio of this neoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie such a pathogenic role of ovarian CICs (OCICs) remain elusive. Here, we have capitalized on primary cells either from OC or from its tissues of origin to obtain the transcriptomic profile associated with OCICs. Among the genes differentially expressed in OCICs, we focused on CD73, which encodes the membrane-associated 5'-ectonucleotidase. The genetic inactivation of CD73 in OC cells revealed that this molecule is causally involved in sphere formation and tumor initiation, thus emerging as a driver of OCIC function. Furthermore, functional inhibition of CD73 via either a chemical compound or a neutralizing antibody reduced sphere formation and tumorigenesis, highlighting the druggability of CD73 in the context of OCIC-directed therapies. The biological function of CD73 in OCICs required its enzymatic activity and involved adenosine signaling. Mechanistically, CD73 promotes the expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes, implying a regulation of OCIC function at the transcriptional level. CD73, therefore, is involved in OCIC biology and may represent a therapeutic target for innovative treatments aimed at OC eradication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  10. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi-joong Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.

  11. STATE CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: INITIAL STAGE OF ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers  the initial stage of organization and development of the first State control organ of the independent Belarus – Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of scientific grounds of control theory of economic systems. Scientific and methodologically considered organizational and coordination approaches to the activity of the Control Chamber have promoted to  higher intensity and efficiency of financial and economic control in the initial period of the activity of new control organ and  the activity of all control organs of the Republic has taken systemized and perfectly oriented character. Such approaches have made it possible to stabilize macro-economic situation in the Republic and strengthen its economic security. The Control Chamber through highly-qualified personal, created and practically introduced methodological principles of control activity, international cooperation experience and finally high efficiency of practical control activity has made its historical contribution in formation of fundamentals of  the State Control in Belarus.13th of March 1992 is the day when the Law “About Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus” has been enacted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus and this day is to considered as the Day of State Control foundation in the Republic of Belarus.  

  12. Controlled time of arrival windows for already initiated energy-neutral continuous descent operations

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmau Codina, Ramon; Prats Menéndez, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Continuous descent operations with controlled times of arrival at one or several metering fixes could enable environmentally friendly procedures without compromising terminal airspace capacity. This paper focuses on controlled time of arrival updates once the descent has been already initiated, assessing the feasible time window (and associated fuel consumption) of continuous descent operations requiring neither thrust nor speed-brake usage along the whole descent (i.e. only elevator control ...

  13. Common genetic determinants of breast-cancer risk in East Asian women: a collaborative study of 23 637 breast cancer cases and 25 579 controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Qiuyin; Sung, Hyuna; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Shi, Jiajun; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Long, Jirong; Dennis, Joe; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Chun; Cai, Hui; Park, Sue K.; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik; Dunning, Alison M.; Benitez, Javier; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Tessier, Daniel; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jong-Young; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Wenjin; Ji, Bu-Tian; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tanaka, Hideo; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, In Nee; Wong, Tien Y.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lee, Soo Chin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ren, Zefang; Haiman, Christopher A.; Sueta, Aiko; Kim, Mi Kyung; Khoo, Ui Soon; Iwasaki, Motoki; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Wen, Wanqing; Hall, Per; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Easton, Douglas F.; Kang, Daehee

    2013-01-01

    In a consortium including 23 637 breast cancer patients and 25 579 controls of East Asian ancestry, we investigated 70 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 67 independent breast cancer susceptibility loci recently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted primarily in European-ancestry populations. SNPs in 31 loci showed an association with breast cancer risk at P Asians and provided evidence for associations of breast cancer risk in the East Asian population with nearly half of the genetic risk variants initially reported in GWASs conducted in European descendants. Taken together, these common genetic risk variants explain ∼10% of excess familial risk of breast cancer in Asian populations. PMID:23535825

  14. Skin cancer interventions across the cancer control continuum: Review of technology, environment, and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Dickerman, Barbra A; Okhovat, Jean-Phillip; Geller, Alan C; Dwyer, Laura A; Hartman, Anne M; Perna, Frank M

    2018-06-01

    The National Cancer Institute's Skin Cancer Intervention across the Cancer Control Continuum model was developed to summarize research and identify gaps concerning skin cancer interventions. We conducted a mapping review to characterize whether behavioral interventions addressing skin cancer prevention and control from 2000 to 2015 included (1) technology, (2) environmental manipulations (policy and/or built environment), and (3) a theoretical basis. We included 86 studies with a randomized controlled or quasi-experimental design that targeted behavioral intervention in skin cancer for children and/or adults; seven of these were dissemination or implementation studies. Of the interventions described in the remaining 79 articles, 57 promoted only prevention behaviors (e.g., ultraviolet radiation protection), five promoted only detection (e.g., skin examinations), 10 promoted both prevention and detection, and seven focused on survivorship. Of the 79 non-dissemination studies, two-thirds used some type of technology (n=52; 65.8%). Technology specific to skin cancer was infrequently used: UVR photography was used in 15.2% of studies (n=12), reflectance spectroscopy was used in 12.7% (n=10), and dermatoscopes (n=1) and dosimeters (n=2) were each used in less than 3%. Ten studies (12.7%) targeted the built environment. Fifty-two (65.8%) of the studies included theory-based interventions. The most common theories were Social Cognitive Theory (n=20; 25.3%), Health Belief Model (n=17; 21.5%), and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action (n=12; 15.2%). Results suggest that skin cancer specific technology and environmental manipulations are underutilized in skin cancer behavioral interventions. We discuss implications of these results for researchers developing skin cancer behavioral interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. FOLFOXIRI Plus Bevacizumab as Conversion Therapy for Patients With Initially Unresectable Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Gianluca; Petrelli, Fausto; Ghidini, Michele; Russo, Alessandro; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Barni, Sandro

    2017-07-13

    The combination of fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan plus bevacizumab (FOLFOXIRI-Bev) is an established and effective first-line chemotherapy regimen for metastatic colorectal cancer. However, resection rates of metastases and overall survival with this schedule have never been systematically evaluated in published studies including, but not limited to, the TRIBE (TRIplet plus BEvacizumab) trial. To assess the clinical efficacy of FOLFOXIRI-Bev, including outcomes and rates of surgical conversions. A systematic review was conducted in October 2016 in concordance with the PRISMA guidelines of PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Ovid, and EMBASE using the terms FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab and (colorectal cancer). Clinical trials, retrospective case series, and prospective case series that used FOLFOXIRI-Bev for the treatment of initially unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer in humans were included. Individual case reports and retrospective case series with fewer than 10 patients were excluded. Data were extracted independently by 2 reviewers on a predesigned, standardized form. Ultimately, data were aggregated to obtain the pooled effect size of efficacy, according to the random-effects model and weighted for the number of patients included in each trial. Median overall survival and progression-free survival, overall response rates, and rates of R0 surgical conversions and overall surgical conversions. Eleven FOLFOXIRI-Bev studies published between 2010 and 2016 met the inclusion criteria and were pooled for analysis. The studies included 889 patients, with 877 patients clinically evaluable for overall response rates. The objective response rate to FOLFOXIRI-Bev was 69% (95% CI, 65%-72%; I2 = 25%). The rate of overall surgical conversions was 39.1% (95% CI, 26.9%-52.8%), and the rate of R0 surgical conversions was 28.1% (95% CI, 18.1%-40.8%). Median pooled overall survival was 30

  16. Controlled initiation of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli requires functional Hda protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Johanna Eltz; Skarstad, Kirsten; Crooke, Elliott

    2003-05-01

    Regulatory inactivation of DnaA helps ensure that the Escherichia coli chromosome is replicated only once per cell cycle, through accelerated hydrolysis of active replication initiator ATP-DnaA to inactive ADP-DnaA. Analysis of deltahda strains revealed that the regulatory inactivation of DnaA component Hda is necessary for maintaining controlled initiation but not for cell growth or viability.

  17. Municipal return to work management in cancer survivors undergoing cancer treatment: a protocol on a controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina M; Labriola, Merete; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Momsen, Anne-Mette H; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2015-07-29

    innovative element of this intervention is the timing of the occupational rehabilitation which is much earlier initiated than usual and the active involvement of the workplace. We anticipate that vulnerable cancer survivors will benefit from this approach and reduce the effects of social inequality on workability. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN50753764 . Registered August 21(st), 2014.

  18. I wanted you to know: Breast cancer survivors' control of workplace communication about cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lynne; Kocum, Lucie; Loughlin, Catherine; Bryson, Lindsay; Dimoff, Jennifer K

    2015-10-01

    Of working women diagnosed with cancer, approximately one-third will have breast cancer. Communicating about their cancer plays an important role in their workplace experience. It is challenging but helpful in eliciting needed social support and accommodations. Fully understanding such communication experiences is important in order to facilitate the well-being and success of such women in their workplaces. A qualitative study permits a richer account of the details of these workplace communications, and a deeper understanding of how women manage the complex and multifaceted communication process. This study used thematic analysis of semistructured interviews from 19 women working full time at the time of their breast cancer diagnosis. We found 3 themes that encapsulated unfolding individual experiences, representing a complex interplay of challenges to maintaining a sense of personal control in workplace responses: challenges to control posed by the experience of sharing information in the workplace about the woman's cancer, women's very individual attempts to control how information about their cancer was shared, and the mixed responses of those who were told. The result was unique individual trajectories in which empathic responses tailored to the individual's needs and preferences were most helpful. These findings can provide guidance on managing cancer communication for survivors, and on how to best support and accommodate women workers with breast cancer, facilitating their ability to control how their cancer impacts their work experience. Our website (http://www.iwantedyoutoknow.ca/) provides a video, tip sheet, and other resources for facilitating supportive communication in the workplace. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4H Is under Transcriptional Control of p65/NF-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Giuseppe; Rossi, Annalisa; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Falcone, Cristina; Pisano, Antonio; Vecchio, Eleonora; Pontoriero, Marilena; Scala, Iris; Scialdone, Annarita; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Mimmi, Selena; Palmieri, Camillo; Scala, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    Protein synthesis is mainly regulated at the initiation step, allowing the fast, reversible and spatial control of gene expression. Initiation of protein synthesis requires at least 13 translation initiation factors to assemble the 80S ribosomal initiation complex. Loss of translation control may result in cell malignant transformation. Here, we asked whether translational initiation factors could be regulated by NF-κB transcription factor, a major regulator of genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, and inflammatory response. We show that the p65 subunit of NF-κB activates the transcription of eIF4H gene, which is the regulatory subunit of eIF4A, the most relevant RNA helicase in translation initiation. The p65-dependent transcriptional activation of eIF4H increased the eIF4H protein content augmenting the rate of global protein synthesis. In this context, our results provide novel insights into protein synthesis regulation in response to NF-κB activation signalling, suggesting a transcription-translation coupled mechanism of control. PMID:23776612

  20. A Performance Management Initiative for Local Health Department Vector Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerding, Justin; Kirshy, Micaela; Moran, John W; Bialek, Ron; Lamers, Vanessa; Sarisky, John

    2016-01-01

    Local health department (LHD) vector control programs have experienced reductions in funding and capacity. Acknowledging this situation and its potential effect on the ability to respond to vector-borne diseases, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Public Health Foundation partnered on a performance management initiative for LHD vector control programs. The initiative involved 14 programs that conducted a performance assessment using the Environmental Public Health Performance Standards. The programs, assisted by quality improvement (QI) experts, used the assessment results to prioritize improvement areas that were addressed with QI projects intended to increase effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of services such as responding to mosquito complaints and educating the public about vector-borne disease prevention. This article describes the initiative as a process LHD vector control programs may adapt to meet their performance management needs. This study also reviews aggregate performance assessment results and QI projects, which may reveal common aspects of LHD vector control program performance and priority improvement areas. LHD vector control programs interested in performance assessment and improvement may benefit from engaging in an approach similar to this performance management initiative.

  1. Initial incomplete surgery modifies prognosis in advanced ovarian cancer regardless of subsequent management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Balescu, Irina; Dima, Simona; Herlea, Vlad; David, Leonard; Brasoveanu, Vladislav; Popescu, Irinel

    2015-04-01

    Prognosis in ovarian cancer is determined by completeness of cytoreduction and proper management by specialized oncological gynecologists. Incomplete initial debulking surgery in non-specialized Centers is, however, a reality and there is ongoing discussion about the best subsequent management of such patients. Patients with advanced ovarian cancer (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics--FIGO FIGO stages IIIC-IV) who had biopsy by laparotomy or incomplete cytoreduction followed or not by chemotherapy further referred to our Institution between January 2002 and May 2014 were included. The two groups of incomplete cytoreduction [followed by upfront surgery or followed by chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery (IDS)] were compared and also compared against a cohort of 197 patients with similar characteristics who underwent upfront maximal surgery according to the standard at our Iinstitution during the same period. A total of 99 eligible patients were identified. Sixty-seven of them underwent biopsies by laparotomy and 32 underwent incomplete cytoreduction in other institutions. Twenty-eight patients underwent direct re-operation while 71 patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by IDS. The mean overall survival duration for patients with upfront reoperation was 31 months and 54 months for patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and IDS, considerably lower than the 72 months obtained for the group of 197 patients with maximal up-front complete cytoreduction at our Institution. Primary biopsy or incomplete cytoreduction reduces survival regardless of the subsequent approach. However, if incomplete cytoreduction has occurred, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by IDS is preferable to up-front reoperation. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic mapping of genes controlling cancer stem cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong eWang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing evidence that cancer originates from stem cells holds a great promise to eliminate this disease by designing specific drug therapies for removing cancer stem cells. Translation of this knowledge into predictive tests for the clinic is hampered due to the lack of methods to discriminate cancer stem cells from non-cancer stem cells. Here, we address this issue by describing a conceptual strategy for identifying the genetic origins of cancer stem cells. The strategy incorporates a high-dimensional group of differential equations that characterizes the proliferation, differentiation, and reprogramming of cancer stem cells in a dynamic cellular and molecular system. The deployment of robust mathematical models will help uncover and explain many still unknown aspects of cell behavior, tissue function, and network organization related to the formation and division of cancer stem cells. The statistical method developed allows biologically meaningful hypotheses about the genetic control mechanisms of carcinogenesis and metastasis to be tested in a quantitative manner.

  3. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control.

  4. Descriptive and analytic epidemiology. Bridges to cancer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettlin, C.

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiology serves as a bridge between basic science and cancer control. The two major orientations of epidemiology are descriptive and analytic. The former is useful in assessing the scope and dimensions of the cancer problem and the latter is used to assess environmental and lifestyle sources of cancer risk. A recent development in descriptive epidemiology is the use of functional measures of disease such as lost life expectancy. In analytical epidemiology, there is new or renewed interest in several lifestyle factors including diet and exercise as well as environmental factors such as involuntary tobacco exposure and radon in dwellings. Review of the evidence should consider the strengths and weaknesses of different research procedures. Each method is inconclusive by itself but, the different research designs of epidemiology collectively may represent a hierarchy of proof. Although the roles of many factors remain to be defined, the aggregate epidemiologic data continue to demonstrate the special importance of personal behavior and lifestyle in affecting cancer risk

  5. Serum alpha fetoprotein surge after the initiation of chemotherapy for non-seminomatous testicular cancer has an adverse prognostic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R; Collette, L; Sylvester, R; de Mulder, PHM; Sleijfer, DT; Huinink, WWT; Kaye, SB; van Oosterom, AT; Boven, E; Stoter, G

    It has been recognized that the tumour markers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) may show a transient elevation after the initiation of chemotherapy in non-seminomatous testicular cancer. We investigated the prognostic importance of these so-called marker surges in a

  6. Arterial spin labelling perfusion MRI of breast cancer using FAIR TrueFISP: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchbender, S.; Obenauer, S.; Mohrmann, S.; Martirosian, P.; Buchbender, C.; Miese, F.R.; Wittsack, H.J.; Miekley, M.; Antoch, G.; Lanzman, R.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the feasibility of an unenhanced, flow-sensitive, alternating inversion recovery-balanced steady-state free precession (FAIR TrueFISP) arterial spin labelling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for quantification of breast cancer perfusion. Materials and methods: Eighteen untreated breast tumour patients (mean age 53 ± 17 years, range 30–68 years) and four healthy controls (mean age 51 ± 14 years, range 33–68 years) were enrolled in this study and were imaged using a clinical 1.5 T MRI machine. Perfusion measurements were performed using a coronal single-section ASL FAIR TrueFISP technique in addition to a routine breast MRI examination. T1 relaxation time of normal breast parenchyma was determined in four healthy volunteers using the variable flip angle approach. The definitive diagnosis was obtained at histology after biopsy or surgery and was available for all patients. Results: ASL perfusion was successfully acquired in 13 of 18 tumour patients and in all healthy controls. The mean ASL perfusion of invasive ductal carcinoma tissue was significantly higher (88.2 ± 39.5 ml/100 g/min) compared to ASL perfusion of normal breast parenchyma (24.9 ± 12.7 ml/100 g/min; p < 0.05) and invasive lobular carcinoma (30.5 ± 4.3 ml/100 g/min; p < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the mean ASL perfusion of normal breast parenchyma and invasive lobular carcinoma tissue (p = 0.97). Conclusion: ASL MRI enables quantification of breast cancer perfusion without the use of contrast material. However, its impact on diagnosis and therapy management of breast tumours has to be evaluated in larger patient studies

  7. Electroacupuncture treatment for pancreatic cancer pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Liu, Tang-Yi; Kuai, Le; Zhu, Ji; Wu, Cai-Jun; Liu, Lu-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is often accompanied by severe abdominal or back pain. It's the first study to evaluate the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on pancreatic cancer pain. A randomized controlled trial compared electroacupuncture with control acupuncture using the placebo needle. Sixty patients with pancreatic cancer pain were randomly assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 30) and the placebo control group (n = 30). Patients were treated on Jiaji (Ex-B2) points T8-T12 bilaterally for 30 min once a day for 3 days. Pain intensity was assessed with numerical rated scales (NRS) before the treatment (Baseline), after 3 treatments, and 2 days follow-up. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. After 3 treatment, pain intensity on NRS decreased compared with Baseline (-1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.46 to -1.87) in the electroacupuncture group; there was little change (-0.13, 95% CI 0.08 to -0.35) in control group; the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P electroacupuncture group compared with the control group (P Electroacupuncture was an effective treatment for relieving pancreatic cancer pain. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Parents' knowledge and attitude regarding their child's cancer and effectiveness of initial disease counseling in pediatric oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Nair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine parent's knowledge, attitude and psychosocial response regarding their child's cancer and treatment after initial disease counseling by doctor. Materials and Methods: Structured questionnaire based study of 43 mothers of newly diagnosed pediatric cancer patients undergoing treatment in pediatric oncology division. Mothers received initial counseling regarding their child's cancer and treatment from the doctor. Questionnaire was administered 2-6 months after initial counseling and mothers self-reported their responses. Results: 83% mothers had school level education only and 84% belonged to lower and middle socio-economic status. More than 80% mothers knew the name of their child's cancer, type of treatment received by child and approximate duration of treatment. 93% knew regarding painful procedures and 84% mothers reported knowledge about chemotherapy side effects. Hope of cure and satisfaction with treatment were reported by 90% mothers. 81% mothers reported high levels of anxiety and 66% worried regarding painful procedures. As high as 60% of parents were afraid to send their child outside to play and 40% were afraid to send their child to school. 40% mothers wanted more information regarding child's higher education, married life & fertility. On statistical analysis, mother's age, educational status or family background did not influence their knowledge and attitude. Conclusion: Relevant information about child's cancer and treatment can be imparted effectively even to mothers with school level education. This knowledge helps to instill hopeful attitude, confidence and satisfaction in parents. Anxiety and fear related to cancer persists in mothers even after the initial stress period is over. Pain related to injections and procedures is a major concern in parents. Involvement of counselor in the treating team is desirable to overcome these problems.

  9. Large volume unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer: acute toxicity and initial outcome results with rapid arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report acute toxicity, initial outcome results and planning therapeutic parameters in radiation treatment of advanced lung cancer (stage III with volumetric modulated arcs using RapidArc (RA. Methods Twenty-four consecutive patients were treated with RA. All showed locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with stage IIIA-IIIB and with large volumes (GTV:299 ± 175 cm3, PTV:818 ± 206 cm3. Dose prescription was 66Gy in 33 fractions to mean PTV. Delivery was performed with two partial arcs with a 6 MV photon beam. Results From a dosimetric point of view, RA allowed us to respect most planning objectives on target volumes and organs at risk. In particular: for GTV D1% = 105.6 ± 1.7%, D99% = 96.7 ± 1.8%, D5%-D95% = 6.3 ± 1.4%; contra-lateral lung mean dose resulted in 13.7 ± 3.9Gy, for spinal cord D1% = 39.5 ± 4.0Gy, for heart V45Gy = 9.0 ± 7.0Gy, for esophagus D1% = 67.4 ± 2.2Gy. Delivery time was 133 ± 7s. At three months partial remission > 50% was observed in 56% of patients. Acute toxicities at 3 months showed 91% with grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 esophageal toxicity; 18% presented grade 1 and 9% with grade 2 pneumonia; no grade 3 acute toxicity was observed. The short follow-up does not allow assessment of local control and progression free survival. Conclusions RA proved to be a safe and advantageous treatment modality for NSCLC with large volumes. Long term observation of patients is needed to assess outcome and late toxicity.

  10. Outlines of a general theory of cancer initiation in the cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladik, J.J. [Friedrich Alexander Univ. Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    According to the central dogma of molecular biology information flows in the living cell from DNA through RNA to proteins. Therefore most investigations of cancer initiation try to explain those effects of carcinogen binding to- or radiation hits on DNA which lead to the first steps of the malignant transformations. On the other hand recent detailed theoretical investigations have shown that proteins are good-disordered hopping conductors (their conductivity is in the order of well conducting amorphous glasses). Their conductivity is substantially influenced by binding of chemicals or by effects or radiations causing conformational changes and/or destroying bonds in them which can lead to their inactivation as regulation enzymes. One can easily visualize also how such changes become hereditary. It seems that if we look at the cell as a complicated self-regulatory system, primary changes both at their DNA or regulatory protein molecules caused by external agents can disturb its self-regulation and transform it in this way into another stationary, possibly precancerous state.

  11. Future of external beam irradiation as initial treatment of rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papillon, J.

    1987-06-01

    The authors' protocol consists of a split-course regimen with a short course of cobalt-60 arc rotation (3000 c/Gy in 12 days). After 2 months rest, the second stage treatment depends upon the pressure of residual disease and the tumour site. It consists of either radical surgery (82 cases) or conservative treatment by intracavitary irradiation in the event of a favourable initial response or in the case of poor risk patients (73 cases). In the radiotherapy-surgical group, the subsequent operative specimens were tumour free in 17% of cases and assigned to Dukes' A category in 32% of cases. Of 91 patients with T/sub 2/ or T/sub 3/ tumour involving the lower third of the rectum (followed up for more than 3 years) 72(84%) had no recurrence. Thirty-three of these patients (46%) underwent a colostomy while 39 (54%) has normal anal function. These results demonstrate the major place that a properly planned external beam irradiation can have in the curative management of cancers of the low rectum.

  12. Genetic subclone architecture of tumor clone-initiating cells in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessler, Klara M; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Huebschmann, Daniel; Balasubramanian, Gnana Prakash; Dubash, Taronish D; Dieter, Sebastian M; Siegl, Christine; Herbst, Friederike; Weber, Sarah; Hoffmann, Christopher M; Fronza, Raffaele; Buchhalter, Ivo; Paramasivam, Nagarajan; Eils, Roland; Schmidt, Manfred; von Kalle, Christof; Schneider, Martin; Ulrich, Alexis; Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan; Weichert, Wilko; Brors, Benedikt; Schlesner, Matthias; Ball, Claudia R; Glimm, Hanno

    2017-07-03

    A hierarchically organized cell compartment drives colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. Genetic barcoding allows monitoring of the clonal output of tumorigenic cells without prospective isolation. In this study, we asked whether tumor clone-initiating cells (TcICs) were genetically heterogeneous and whether differences in self-renewal and activation reflected differential kinetics among individual subclones or functional hierarchies within subclones. Monitoring genomic subclone kinetics in three patient tumors and corresponding serial xenografts and spheroids by high-coverage whole-genome sequencing, clustering of genetic aberrations, subclone combinatorics, and mutational signature analysis revealed at least two to four genetic subclones per sample. Long-term growth in serial xenografts and spheroids was driven by multiple genomic subclones with profoundly differing growth dynamics and hence different quantitative contributions over time. Strikingly, genetic barcoding demonstrated stable functional heterogeneity of CRC TcICs during serial xenografting despite near-complete changes in genomic subclone contribution. This demonstrates that functional heterogeneity is, at least frequently, present within genomic subclones and independent of mutational subclone differences. © 2017 Giessler et al.

  13. Resonant Frequency Control For the PIP-II Injector Test RFQ: Control Framework and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L. [Colorado State U.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Bowring, D.; Chase, B. E.; Edelen, J. P.; Nicklaus, D.; Steimel, J.

    2016-12-16

    For the PIP-II Injector Test (PI-Test) at Fermilab, a four-vane radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is designed to accelerate a 30-keV, 1-mA to 10-mA, H- beam to 2.1 MeV under both pulsed and continuous wave (CW) RF operation. The available headroom of the RF amplifiers limits the maximum allowable detuning to 3 kHz, and the detuning is controlled entirely via thermal regulation. Fine control over the detuning, minimal manual intervention, and fast trip recovery is desired. In addition, having active control over both the walls and vanes provides a wider tuning range. For this, we intend to use model predictive control (MPC). To facilitate these objectives, we developed a dedicated control framework that handles higher-level system decisions as well as executes control calculations. It is written in Python in a modular fashion for easy adjustments, readability, and portability. Here we describe the framework and present the first control results for the PI-Test RFQ under pulsed and CW operation.

  14. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  15. Humans make near-optimal adjustments of control to initial body configuration in vertical squat jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbert, Maarten F; Richard Casius, L J; Kistemaker, Dinant A

    2013-05-01

    We investigated adjustments of control to initial posture in squat jumping. Eleven male subjects jumped from three initial postures: preferred initial posture (PP), a posture in which the trunk was rotated 18° more backward (BP) and a posture in which it was rotated 15° more forward (FP) than in PP. Kinematics, ground reaction forces and electromyograms (EMG) were collected. EMG was rectified and smoothed to obtain smoothed rectified EMG (srEMG). Subjects showed adjustments in srEMG histories, most conspicuously a shift in srEMG-onset of rectus femoris (REC): from early in BP to late in FP. Jumps from the subjects' initial postures were simulated with a musculoskeletal model comprising four segments and six Hill-type muscles, which had muscle stimulation (STIM) over time as input. STIM of each muscle changed from initial to maximal at STIM-onset, and STIM-onsets were optimized using jump height as criterion. Optimal simulated jumps from BP, PP and FP were similar to jumps of the subjects. Optimal solutions primarily differed in STIM-onset of REC: from early in BP to late in FP. Because the subjects' adjustments in srEMG-onsets were similar to adjustments of the model's optimal STIM-onsets, it was concluded that the former were near-optimal. With the model we also showed that near-maximum jumps from BP, PP and FP could be achieved when STIM-onset of REC depended on initial hip joint angle and STIM-onsets of the other muscles were posture-independent. A control theory that relies on a mapping from initial posture to STIM-onsets seems a parsimonious alternative to theories relying on internal optimal control models. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy ...

  17. The effect of initial density and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate on classical biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yanni; Tang Sanyi

    2008-01-01

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interaction of a parasitoid and its host. The host-parasitoid systems have identified several important and general factors affecting the long-term dynamics of interacting populations. However, much less is known about how the initial densities of host-parasitoid populations affect the biological control as well as the stability of host-parasitoid systems. To do this, the classical Nicholson-Bailey model with host self-regulation and parasitoid intergenerational survival rate is used to uncover the effect of initial densities on the successful biological control. The results indicate that the simplest Nicholson-Bailey model has various coexistence with a wide range of parameters, including boundary attractors where the parasitoid population is absent and interior attractors where host-parasitoid coexists. The final stable states of host-parasitoid populations depend on their initial densities as well as their ratios, and those results are confirmed by basins of attraction of initial densities. The results also indicate that the parasitoid intergenerational survival rate increases the stability of the host-parasitoid systems. Therefore, the present research can help us to further understand the dynamical behavior of host-parasitoid interactions, to improve the classical biological control and to make management decisions

  18. Periodontal Disease and Incident Cancer Risk among Postmenopausal Women: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwizu, Ngozi N; Marshall, James R; Moysich, Kirsten; Genco, Robert J; Hovey, Kathleen M; Mai, Xiaodan; LaMonte, Michael J; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-08-01

    Background: Periodontal pathogens have been isolated from precancerous and cancerous lesions and also shown to promote a procarcinogenic microenvironment. Few studies have examined periodontal disease as a risk factor for total cancer, and none have focused on older women. We examined whether periodontal disease is associated with incident cancer among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Methods: Our prospective cohort study comprised 65,869 women, ages 54 to 86 years. Periodontal disease information was obtained via self-report questionnaires administered between 1999 and 2003, whereas ascertainment of cancer outcomes occurred through September 2013, with a maximum follow-up period of 15 years. Physician-adjudicated incident total cancers were the main outcomes and site-specific cancers were secondary outcomes. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were conducted two-sided. Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.32 years, 7,149 cancers were identified. Periodontal disease history was associated with increased total cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.08-1.20); findings were similar in analyses limited to 34,097 never-smokers (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22). Associations were observed for breast (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), lung (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.51), esophagus (HR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.64-6.53), gallbladder (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.01-2.95), and melanoma skin (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48) cancers. Stomach cancer was borderline (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 0.94-2.67). Conclusions: Periodontal disease increases risk of total cancer among older women, irrespective of smoking, and certain anatomic sites appear to be vulnerable. Impact: Our findings support the need for further understanding of the effect of periodontal disease on cancer outcomes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1255-65. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer

  19. Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Pain Control in Irresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Tavassoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Severepain is a major problem in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy (TS on pain control in these patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer. Methods:Between years 2000 to 2011, 20 patients suffering from unresectable pancreatic cancer underwent TS due to severe pain. They were studied in terms of age, sex, location of pancreas tumor, history of previous surgery, response to treatments for pain control (assessed with VAS scoring system and complications of surgery. Results:M/F = 14/6 with a mean age of 63 years. The most common tumour site was at the pancreas head (in 8 patients. The most cause of unresectability was local expansion to critical adjacent elements (in 10 patients. Surgery was performed successfully in all patients. Post-operative complication included only pleural effusion on the left side which was cured by proper treatment. There were no post-op mortalities.  15 patients had acceptable levels of pain at the end of a six month follow-up period. ConclusionTS provides good pain control, little side effects and minimal invasiveness, the technique is recommended for pain control in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

  20. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Min; Holman, D'Arcy

    2011-12-15

    Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93). For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83) and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74) for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61) and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47) for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94) and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82) for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63) and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79) for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  1. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  2. Lessons from applied ecology: cancer control using an evolutionary double bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Brown, Joel; Vincent, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Because the metastatic cascade is largely governed by the ability of malignant cells to adapt and proliferate at the distant tissue site, we propose that disseminated cancers are analogous in many important ways to the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of exotic species. Although pests can be decimated through the application of chemical toxins, this strategy virtually never achieves robust control as evolution of resistant phenotypes typically permits population recovery to pretreatment levels. In general, biological strategies that introduce predators, parasitoids, or pathogens have achieved more durable control of pest populations even after emergence of resistant phenotypes. From this we propose that long term outcome from any treatment strategy for invasive pests, including cancer, is not limited by evolution of resistance, but rather by the phenotypic cost of that resistance. If a cancerous cell's adaptation to therapy is achieved by upregulating xenobiotic metabolism or a redundant signaling pathway, the required investment in resources is small, and the original malignant phenotype remains essentially intact. As a result, the cancer cells' initial high level of fitness is little changed and unconstrained proliferation will resume once resistance evolves. Robust population control is possible if resistance to therapy requires a substantial and costly phenotypic adaptation that also significantly reduces the organism's fitness in its original niche: an evolutionary double bind.

  3. A Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening: Collaboration between a Primary Care Clinic and Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Beverly B; Fuller, Sharon; Anderson, Melissa L; Mahoney, Christine; Mendy, Peter; Powell, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that mailed fecal testing programs are effective in increasing colorectal cancer screening participation. However, few healthcare organization in the US have Implemented such programs. Stakeholders from one clinic in an integrated healthcare system in Washington State initiated collaboration with researchers with expertise in CRC screening, aiming to increase screening rates at their clinic. Age-eligible individuals who were overdue for CRC screening and had previously completed a fecal test were randomized to receive mailed fecal immunochemical test kits (FIT) at the start of the project (Early) or 6 months later (Late). Outcomes included comparing FIT completion at 6 months by randomization group, and overall CRC screening rates at 12 months. We also assessed implementation facilitators and challenges. Overall 2,421 FIT tests were mailed at a cost of $10,739. At 6 months, FIT completion was significantly higher among the Early compared to the Late group (62% vs.47%, p CRC screening rate was 75.1% at baseline and 78.0% 12 months later. Key constructs associated with successful program implementation included strong stakeholder involvement, use of evidence-based strategies, simplicity, and low cost. Challenges included lack of a plan for maintaining the program. Collaboration between clinic stakeholders and researchers led to a successful project that rapidly increased CRC screening rates. However, institutional normalization of the program would be required to maintain it.

  4. The Chances of Subsequent Cancer Detection in Patients with a PSA > 20 ng/ml and an Initial Negative Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shaida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS–guided prostate biopsy is known to carry a significant false-negative rate, leading some patients to have multiple biopsies. We investigated cancer detection rates in patients with a PSA >20 ng/ml and a negative initial biopsy. We reviewed our database of 2396 TRUS-guided biopsies done between 1997 and 2002 in order to give a follow-up of at least 6 years. PSA, PSA density (PSAD, PSA velocity (PSAV, prostate volume, and DRE findings were analysed in relation to cancer status. Of the patients, 388 (16% had a PSA >20 ng/ml, including 99 (26% with benign biopsies. Of those, 67 were rebiopsied, including 19 (28% with cancer on the first rebiopsy and four (6% on further biopsies. PSAD, DRE, and volume significantly differed between rebiopsied patients with and without cancer (p 20 ng/ml and have an initial negative biopsy have a high chance of malignancy being detected on a second biopsy. However, if a second biopsy is also negative, then the chances of subsequent biopsies showing signs of cancer are very low if the DRE is normal and particularly if the PSAD is >0.35 ng/ml/cm3.

  5. Pain Control In Cancer Patients By Opiate Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi M A

    2003-07-01

    current barriers, WHO stepwise model for cancer pain control and palliative care is recommended. Publishing Standard Treatment Guidelines for different levels of health care system is another recommended approach to optimize cancer pain."n 

  6. Colorectal cancer: genetic abnormalities, tumor progression, tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution and tumor-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Ugo; Pelosi, Elvira; Castelli, Germana

    2018-04-13

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Most colorectal cancer occurrences are sporadic, not related to genetic predisposition or family history; however, 20-30% of patients with colorectal cancer have a family history of colorectal cancer and 5% of these tumors arise in the setting of a Mendelian inheritance syndrome. In many patients, the development of a colorectal cancer is preceded by a benign neoplastic lesion: either an adenomatous polyp or a serrated polyp. Studies carried out in the last years have characterized the main molecular alterations occurring in colorectal cancers, showing that the tumor of each patient displays from two to eight driver mutations. The ensemble of molecular studies, including gene expression studies, has led to two proposed classifications of colorectal cancers, with the identification of four/five non-overlapping groups. The homeostasis of the rapidly renewing intestinal epithelium is ensured by few stem cells present at the level of the base of intestinal crypts. Various experimental evidence suggests that colorectal cancers may derive from the malignant transformation of intestinal stem cells or of intestinal cells that acquire stem cell properties following malignant transformation. Colon cancer stem cells seem to be involved in tumor chemoresistance, radioresistance and relapse.

  7. Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzal, Andri; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in Oman. It is reported that cancer incidence in Oman is the second highest after Saudi Arabia among Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, Oman is predicted to face an almost two-fold increase in cancer incidence in the period 2008-2020. However, cancer research in Oman is still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that medical institutions and infrastructure that play central roles in data collection and analysis are relatively new developments in Oman. We believe the country requires an organized plan and efforts to promote local cancer research. In this paper, we discuss current research progress in cancer diagnosis using machine learning techniques to optimize computer aided cancer detection and classification (CAD). We specifically discuss CAD using two major medical data, i.e., medical imaging and microarray gene expression profiling, because medical imaging like mammography, MRI, and PET have been widely used in Oman for assisting radiologists in early cancer diagnosis and microarray data have been proven to be a reliable source for differential diagnosis. We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide.

  8. Balance control during gait initiation: State-of-the-art and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, Eric; Caderby, Teddy; Delafontaine, Arnaud; Fourcade, Paul; Honeine, Jean-Louis

    2017-11-18

    It is well known that balance control is affected by aging, neurological and orthopedic conditions. Poor balance control during gait and postural maintenance are associated with disability, falls and increased mortality. Gait initiation - the transient period between the quiet standing posture and steady state walking - is a functional task that is classically used in the literature to investigate how the central nervous system (CNS) controls balance during a whole-body movement involving change in the base of support dimensions and center of mass progression. Understanding how the CNS in able-bodied subjects exerts this control during such a challenging task is a pre-requisite to identifying motor disorders in populations with specific impairments of the postural system. It may also provide clinicians with objective measures to assess the efficiency of rehabilitation programs and better target interventions according to individual impairments. The present review thus proposes a state-of-the-art analysis on: (1) the balance control mechanisms in play during gait initiation in able bodied subjects and in the case of some frail populations; and (2) the biomechanical parameters used in the literature to quantify dynamic stability during gait initiation. Balance control mechanisms reviewed in this article included anticipatory postural adjustments, stance leg stiffness, foot placement, lateral ankle strategy, swing foot strike pattern and vertical center of mass braking. Based on this review, the following viewpoints were put forward: (1) dynamic stability during gait initiation may share a principle of homeostatic regulation similar to most physiological variables, where separate mechanisms need to be coordinated to ensure stabilization of vital variables, and consequently; and (2) rehabilitation interventions which focus on separate or isolated components of posture, balance, or gait may limit the effectiveness of current clinical practices.

  9. Bladder cancer discussed on the internet: a systematic analysis of gender differences of initial posters on an online discussion board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippka, Yannick; Patschan, Oliver; Todenhöfer, Tilmann; Schwentner, Christian; Gutzeit, Andreas; Merseburger, Axel S; Horstmann, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate gender differences of initial posters in threads dealing with bladder cancer on an online discussion board. 529 threads opened between 09/2005 and 03/2012 were screened on the largest German speaking bladder cancer online discussion board. 366 threads fulfilled the requirements for this study. Gender, age, number, status of concern and oncological situation of initiating posters as well as their motives and language style were analyzed following a standardized protocol. Threads were initiated in 45% (164/366) by men and in 55% (202/366) by women. Mean age of male initiating posters was 50 years and of female posters 44 years (p posters asked for medical information or therapeutic recommendations regarding diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. However, women significantly more often expressed their wish for emotional support (p = 0.034) and in tendency wanted to share their experiences with others (p = 0.057). Language analysis revealed that women significantly more often used a tentative language style than men (p = 0.003). Even though women are less often affected by bladder cancer, they are more active -especially for their concerned family members - on the evaluated discussion board than men. Whereas both genders equally often ask for medical information, women more often want to share their experiences and look for emotional support.

  10. Prognostic impact of metastatic pattern in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Vallejo, Carlos Teodoro; Romero, Alberto Omar; Machiavelli, Mario Raúl; Pérez, Juan Eduardo; Leone, Julieta; Leone, José Pablo

    2017-02-01

    To analyze the prognostic influence of metastatic pattern (MP) compared with other biologic and clinical factors in stage IV breast cancer at initial diagnosis (BCID) and evaluate factors associated with specific sites of metastases (SSM). We evaluated women with stage IV BCID with known metastatic sites, reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program from 2010 to 2013. MP was categorized as bone-only, visceral, bone and visceral (BV), and other. Univariate and multivariate analyses determined the effects of each variable on overall survival (OS). Logistic regression examined factors associated with SSM. We included 9143 patients. Bone represented 37.5% of patients, visceral 21.9%, BV 28.8%, and other 11.9%. Median OS by MP was as follows: bone 38 months, visceral 21 months, BV 19 months, and other 33 months (P < 0.0001). Univariate analysis showed that higher number of metastatic sites had worse prognosis. In multivariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio 1.9), black race (hazard ratio 1.17), grade 3/4 tumors (hazard ratio 1.6), triple-negative (hazard ratio 2.24), BV MP (hazard ratio 2.07), and unmarried patients (hazard ratio 1.25) had significantly shorter OS. As compared with HR+/HER2- tumors, triple-negative and HR-/HER2+ had higher odds of brain, liver, lung, and other metastases. HR+/HER2+ had higher odds of liver metastases. All three subtypes had lower odds of bone metastases. There were substantial differences in OS according to MP. Tumor subtypes have a clear influence among other factors on SSM. We identified several prognostic factors that could guide therapy selection in treatment naïve patients.

  11. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Lacerda, Lara; Li, Jessica; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2011-01-01

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs). Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS), we found that the IC 50 for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 μM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC 50 around 1 μM for SUM-149 and around 2 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs

  12. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) In Vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Lacerda, Lara; Li, Jessica; Woodward, Wendy A., E-mail: wwoodward@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs). Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS), we found that the IC{sub 50} for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 μM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC{sub 50} around 1 μM for SUM-149 and around 2 μM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs.

  13. Tetrandrine, a Compound Common in Chinese Traditional Medicine, Preferentially Kills Breast Cancer Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Li

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in Stephania tetrandra, a Chinese medicine commonly used as an anti-inflammatory. It has extensive pharmacological activity, including positive ion channel blockade and inhibition of multiple drug resistance proteins. These activities are very similar to that of salinomycin, a known drug targeting breast cancer initiation cells (TICs. Herein, we tested tetrandrine targeting of breast cancer TICs. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line and SUM-159, a non-inflammatory metaplastic breast cancer cell line were used in these studies. In proliferation assays using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTS, we found that the IC50 for inhibition of proliferation is 15.3 ± 4.1 µM for SUM-149 and 24.3 ± 2.1 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine also inhibited mammosphere formation, a surrogate for breast cancer TICs growth in vitro with IC50 around 1 µM for SUM-149 and around 2 µM for SUM-159 cells. Tetrandrine has similar effects on the mammosphere formation from cells isolated from fresh patient sample. Moreover, tetrandrine decreases the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH positive population in SUM-159 by 45% ± 5.45% P = 0.005. In summary, tetrandrine demonstrates significant efficacy against in vitro surrogates for inflammatory and aggressive breast cancer TICs.

  14. Aminopeptidase A initiates tumorigenesis and enhances tumor cell stemness via TWIST1 upregulation in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Hui-Yu; Jiang, Jeng-Kae; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Wang, Hsei-Wei; Li, Ming-Chun; Tsai, Chan-Yen; Jhang, Yau-Yun; Huang, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis accounts for the high mortality rate associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but metastasis regulators are not fully understood. To identify a novel gene involved in tumor metastasis, we used oligonucleotide microarrays, transcriptome distance analyses, and machine learning algorithms to determine links between primary and metastatic colorectal cancers. Aminopeptidase A (APA; also known as ENPEP) was selected as our focus because its relationship with colorectal cancer requires cl...

  15. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, Isabelle; Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Hennewig, Ulrike; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  16. Advances in the diagnosis of hereditary kidney cancer: Initial results of a multigene panel test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Espenschied, Carin R; LaDuca, Holly; Bhagat, Ansh M; Suarez-Sarmiento, Alfredo; O'Rourke, Timothy K; Brierley, Karina L; Hofstatter, Erin W; Shuch, Brian

    2017-11-15

    Panel testing has been recently introduced to evaluate hereditary cancer; however, limited information is available regarding its use in kidney cancer. The authors retrospectively reviewed test results and clinical data from patients who underwent targeted multigene panel testing of up to 19 genes associated with hereditary kidney cancer from 2013 to 2016. The frequency of positive (mutation/variant likely pathogenic), inconclusive (variant of unknown significance), and negative results was evaluated. A logistic regression analysis evaluated predictive factors for a positive test. Patients (n = 1235) had a median age at diagnosis of 46 years, which was significantly younger than the US population of individuals with kidney cancer (P kidney cancer. Panel tests may be particularly useful for patients who lack distinguishing clinical characteristics of known hereditary kidney cancer syndromes. The current results support the use of early age of onset for genetic counseling and/or testing. Cancer 2017;123:4363-71. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. [Clinical analysis of 138 multiple primary cancers diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor initially].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, J M; Xiong, H C; Wu, B; Zhou, X Q; Hu, J

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, strategy of treatment and prognosis of multiple primary cancers(MPC) diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor firstly. Methods: From January, 2000 to December, 2015, the clinical, follow-up and prognostic data of 138 MPC patients diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor firstly were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 138 cases were found in 10 580 cases with malignant tumors, and the incidence was 1.30%. There were 129 cases of duplex primary cancers, 8 cases of triple primary cancers and 1 case of quintuple primary cancers. The repetitive primary cancer was occurred in digestive system (61cases, 44.2%) most frequently, with the next in respiratory system (46 cases, 33.3%). 52.2% (72 cases) suffered second primary cancer in 2 years after first primary cancer diagnosed, and 75.4% (104 cases) in 5 years. The median overall survival in patients with all cancer lesions radically treated was 168 months, better than any other treatment (68 months, P digestive system malignant tumor most frequently occurred in the digestive system and respiratory system. More concern should be attracted in follow-up, especially in the first 5 years. The key to improve patient' prognosis was radical treatment to every primary cancer.

  18. Role of hormones in controlling vascular differentiation and the mechanism of lateral root initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni, Roni

    2013-11-01

    The vascular system in plants is induced and controlled by streams of inductive hormonal signals. Auxin produced in young leaves is the primary controlling signal in vascular differentiation. Its polar and non-polar transport pathways and major controlling mechanisms are clarified. Ethylene produced in differentiating protoxylem vessels is the signal that triggers lateral root initiation, while tumor-induced ethylene is a limiting and controlling factor of crown gall development and its vascular differentiation. Gibberellin produced in mature leaves moves non-polarly and promotes elongation, regulates cambium activity and induces long fibers. Cytokinin from the root cap moves upward to promote cambial activity and stimulate shoot growth and branching, while strigolactone from the root inhibits branching. Furthermore, the role of the hormonal signals in controlling the type of differentiating vascular elements and gradients of conduit size and density, and how they regulate plant adaptation and have shaped wood evolution are elucidated.

  19. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  20. INITIAL EXPERIENCE WITH ADJUVANT INTRAVESICAL THERMOCHEMOTHERAPY FOR NON-MUSCLE INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Pavlenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the benefits of adjuvant intravesical thermochemotherapy (TCT and to evaluate its efficiency in the treatment of moderateand high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (BC.Subjects and methods. In the period 2009 to 2010, the Urology Clinic, Federal Medical Biophysical Center, treated 21 patients with nonmuscle invasive BC, by using a Thermotron RF-8 clinical hyperthermal system. Intravesical TCT with mitomycin C 40 mg for 60–80 min was performed at 42 ± 2 °С as one session weekly for 6 weeks. Control cystoscopy was carried out every 3 months.Results. Of the 21 patients, 19 were found to tolerate the procedure well. No complications were recorded in these patients during the sessions and throughout the course of intravesical TCT. A recurrence was histologically verified in 2 patients at 6-month follow-up. There was no evidence suggesting a recurrence in 12 (57.14 % patients at one-year follow-up. The follow-up of the other patients is now less than 12 months.Conclusion. The proposed method of hyperthermia may be used as an alternative to the existing one of intracavitary hyperthermia to treat high- and moderate-risk BC and in case of inefficiency of other adjuvant therapy options for non-muscle invasive BC.

  1. [Sea urchin embryo, DNA-damaged cell cycle checkpoint and the mechanisms initiating cancer development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellé, Robert; Le Bouffant, Ronan; Morales, Julia; Cosson, Bertrand; Cormier, Patrick; Mulner-Lorillon, Odile

    2007-01-01

    Cell division is an essential process for heredity, maintenance and evolution of the whole living kingdom. Sea urchin early development represents an excellent experimental model for the analysis of cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms since embryonic cells contain a functional DNA-damage checkpoint and since the whole sea urchin genome is sequenced. The DNA-damaged checkpoint is responsible for an arrest in the cell cycle when DNA is damaged or incorrectly replicated, for activation of the DNA repair mechanism, and for commitment to cell death by apoptosis in the case of failure to repair. New insights in cancer biology lead to two fundamental concepts about the very first origin of cancerogenesis. Cancers result from dysfunction of DNA-damaged checkpoints and cancers appear as a result of normal stem cell (NCS) transformation into a cancer stem cell (CSC). The second aspect suggests a new definition of "cancer", since CSC can be detected well before any clinical evidence. Since early development starts from the zygote, which is a primary stem cell, sea urchin early development allows analysis of the early steps of the cancerization process. Although sea urchins do not develop cancers, the model is alternative and complementary to stem cells which are not easy to isolate, do not divide in a short time and do not divide synchronously. In the field of toxicology and incidence on human health, the sea urchin experimental model allows assessment of cancer risk from single or combined molecules long before any epidemiologic evidence is available. Sea urchin embryos were used to test the worldwide used pesticide Roundup that contains glyphosate as the active herbicide agent; it was shown to activate the DNA-damage checkpoint of the first cell cycle of development. The model therefore allows considerable increase in risk evaluation of new products in the field of cancer and offers a tool for the discovery of molecular markers for early diagnostic in cancer biology

  2. Automatic initialization and quality control of large-scale cardiac MRI segmentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albà, Xènia; Lekadir, Karim; Pereañez, Marco; Medrano-Gracia, Pau; Young, Alistair A; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2018-01-01

    Continuous advances in imaging technologies enable ever more comprehensive phenotyping of human anatomy and physiology. Concomitant reduction of imaging costs has resulted in widespread use of imaging in large clinical trials and population imaging studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), in particular, offers one-stop-shop multidimensional biomarkers of cardiovascular physiology and pathology. A wide range of analysis methods offer sophisticated cardiac image assessment and quantification for clinical and research studies. However, most methods have only been evaluated on relatively small databases often not accessible for open and fair benchmarking. Consequently, published performance indices are not directly comparable across studies and their translation and scalability to large clinical trials or population imaging cohorts is uncertain. Most existing techniques still rely on considerable manual intervention for the initialization and quality control of the segmentation process, becoming prohibitive when dealing with thousands of images. The contributions of this paper are three-fold. First, we propose a fully automatic method for initializing cardiac MRI segmentation, by using image features and random forests regression to predict an initial position of the heart and key anatomical landmarks in an MRI volume. In processing a full imaging database, the technique predicts the optimal corrective displacements and positions in relation to the initial rough intersections of the long and short axis images. Second, we introduce for the first time a quality control measure capable of identifying incorrect cardiac segmentations with no visual assessment. The method uses statistical, pattern and fractal descriptors in a random forest classifier to detect failures to be corrected or removed from subsequent statistical analysis. Finally, we validate these new techniques within a full pipeline for cardiac segmentation applicable to large-scale cardiac MRI databases. The

  3. Predicting Recurrence and Progression of Noninvasive Papillary Bladder Cancer at Initial Presentation Based on Quantitative Gene Expression Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhahn, M.; Mitra, A.P.; Williams, Johan

    2010-01-01

    % specificity. Since this is a small retrospective study using medium-throughput profiling, larger confirmatory studies are needed. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling across relevant cancer pathways appears to be a promising approach for Ta bladder tumor outcome prediction at initial diagnosis......Background: Currently, tumor grade is the best predictor of outcome at first presentation of noninvasive papillary (Ta) bladder cancer. However, reliable predictors of Ta tumor recurrence and progression for individual patients, which could optimize treatment and follow-up schedules based...... on specific tumor biology, are yet to be identified. Objective: To identify genes predictive for recurrence and progression in Ta bladder cancer at first presentation using a quantitative, pathway-specific approach. Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective study of patients with Ta G2/3 bladder tumors...

  4. Dietary Regulation of PTEN Signaling and Mammary Tumor Initiating Cells: Implications for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    turmeric [37], resveratrol from grape [38], capsaicin from chili pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes... flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:167–81. [41] Tomar RS, Shiao R. Early life and adult exposure to isoflavones and breast cancer risk. J

  5. Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for the Initial Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Management of Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The SCAN sarcoma workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for the initial evaluation, diagnosis, and management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma and osteosarcoma. The workgroup utilised a consensus approach to create high quality evidence-based clinical practice guidelines suited for our local setting. Various international guidelines from the fields of radiology, pathology, orthopaedic surgery, medical, radiation and paediatric oncology were reviewed, including those developed by von Mehren Metal (J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2014), the National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (2006), the European Sarcoma Network Working Group (2012) and Grimer RJ et al (Sarcoma 2008). Our clinical practice guidelines contextualised to the local patient will streamline care and improve clinical outcomes for patients with extremity soft tissue and osteosarcoma. These guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for the initial evaluation, diagnosis, and management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma and osteosarcoma.

  6. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors.

  7. Nuclear grade and DNA ploidy in stage IV breast cancer with only visceral metastases at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lena, M; Barletta, A; Marzullo, F; Rabinovich, M; Leone, B; Vallejo, C; Machiavelli, M; Romero, A; Perez, J; Lacava, J; Cuevas, M A; Rodriguez, R; Schittulli, F; Paradisco, A

    1996-01-01

    The presence of early metastases to distant sites in breast cancer patients is an infrequent event whose mechanisms are still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biologic and clinical role of DNA ploidy and cell nuclear grade of primary tumors in the metastatic process of a series of stage IV previously untreated breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases. DNA flow cytometry analysis on paraffin-embedded material and cell nuclear grading of primary tumors was performed on a series of 50 breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases at the time of initial diagnosis. Aneuploidy was found in 28/46 (61%) of evaluable cases and was independent of site of involvement, clinical response, time of progression and overall survival of patients. Of the 46 cases evaluable for nuclear grade, 5 (11%), 16 (35%) and 25 (54%) were classified as G1 (well-differentiated) G2 and G3, respectively. Nuclear grade also was unrelated to response to therapy and overall survival, whereas time to progression was significantly longer in G1-2 than G3 tumors with the logrank test (P < 0.03) and multivariate analysis. Our results seem to stress the difficulty to individualize different prognostic subsets from a series of breast cancer patients with only visceral metastases at initial diagnosis according to DNA flow cytometry and nuclear grade.

  8. Initial validation of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC) scale: study of Portuguese end-of-life cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Filomena Moreira Pinto; Santos, Célia Samarina Vilaça de Brito

    2014-10-01

    The Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) is a 29-item instrument designed to evaluate the responses developed by cancer patients during their mental adjustment to diagnosis and treatment. This study aims to validate the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC) translated and adapted to the Portuguese language and culture, in end-of-life cancer patients receiving palliative care. The instrument was administered to 346 Portuguese end-of-life cancer patients, receiving care through outpatient visits or admitted into palliative care units, without cognitive symptoms and with symptoms under control. A cross-sectional validation study using orthogonal rotation through the varimax method followed by convergent and discriminant validity. The analysis of the main components confirms the existence of five factors, demonstrating the validity of the construct, with good internal consistency in the subscales and Cronbach's alpha values between 0.78 and 0.93. Good test-retest reliability was also found, and r values for subscales ranged from 0.62 to 0.99. The instrument proved to be a reliable, valid and sensitive measure in the study of mental adjustment of Portuguese end-of-life patients with cancer receiving palliative care. Nurses can use the Mini-MAC Scale in research and clinical practice in order to evaluate the mental adjustment of Portuguese end-of-life cancer patients receiving palliative care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  10. Controllable irregular melting induced by atomic segregation in bimetallic clusters with fabricating different initial configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guojian; Liu Tie; Wang Qiang; Lue Xiao; Wang Kai; He Jicheng

    2010-01-01

    The melting process of Co, Co-Cu and Co-Ni clusters with different initial configurations is studied in molecular dynamics by a general embedded atom method. An irregular melting, at which energy decreases as the temperature increase near the melting point, is found in the onion-like Co-Cu-Co clusters, but not in the mixed Co-Cu and onion-like Co-Ni-Co clusters. From the analysis of atomic distributions and energy variation, the results indicate the irregular melting is induced by Cu atomic segregation. Furthermore, this melting can be controlled by doping hetero atoms with different surface energies and controlling their distributions.

  11. Accelerating knowledge to action: the pan-Canadian cancer control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, L; Hill, J; Bryant, H; Kitchen-Clarke, L

    2012-04-01

    In 2006, the federal government committed funding of $250 million over 5 years for the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer Corporation to begin implementation of the Canadian Strategy for Cancer Control (CSCC). The Partnership was established as a not-for-profit corporation designed to work actively with a broad range of stakeholders and organizations that had been engaged in the development of the CSCC and with the public more broadly. A policy experiment unto itself, the Partnership was the first disease-based organization funded at the federal level outside of government. It was charged with a mandate to enable transfer of knowledge and to catalyze coordinated and accelerated action across the country to reduce the burden of cancer. Implementation has involved establishing shared goals, objectives, and plans with participating partners. Knowledge management-incorporating pan-Canadian approaches to the identification of content, processes, technology, and culture change-was used to enable that work across the federated health care delivery system. Evaluation of the organization through independent review, the ability to achieve initiative-level targets by 2012, and progress measured using indicators of system performance was used to examine the effectiveness of the strategy and approach overall. Evaluation findings support the conclusions that Canada has made progress in achieving immediate outcomes (achievable in 25 years) impact on cancer. The mechanism of funding the Partnership to develop collaboration among stakeholders in cancer control to achieve coordinated action has been possible and has been enabled through the Partnership's knowledge-to-action mandate. Opportunities are available to further engage and clarify the roles of stakeholders in action, to clearly define outcomes, and to further quantify the economic benefits that have resulted from a coordinated approach. With the ongoing funding commitment to support coordinated action within a federated

  12. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer; Control de la calidad en los programas de pesquisa de cancer cervicouterino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel, E-mail: miguel.sarduy@infomed.sld.cu [Centro de Investigaciones Medico Quirurgicas, La Habana (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  13. Cinnamon Bark, Water Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Paul Crawford, MD Clinical Investigation...Title: “Cinnamon Bark, Water-Soluble Cinnamon Extract, and Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus : A Randomized, Controlled...as initial treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized, controlled trial. IRB #: FWH20110004H Principal Investigator (PI) Rank / Civ

  14. Predictors of initiation and persistence of unhealthy weight control behaviours in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Jess

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unhealthy weight control behaviours (UWCB among adolescents have significant health and weight consequences. The current longitudinal study aimed to identify personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation or persistence of adolescent UWCB, in order to inform development of programs aimed at both preventing and stopping UWCB. Methods A diverse sample included 1106 boys and 1362 girls from 31 middle schools and high schools in the United States who were enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens. Project EAT explored personal, behavioural, and socio-environmental factors associated with dietary intake and body weight in adolescence. Participants completed questionnaires to assess demographics, UWCB (including several methods of food restriction, purging by vomiting or medications, smoking to control weight, or food substitutions and personal and socio-environmental variables at two time points, five years apart, between 1998 and 2004. Logistic regression models examined personal and socio-environmental predictors of initiation and persistence of UWCB among Project EAT participants. Results Results indicate that 15.5% of boys and 19.7% of girls initiated UWCB by Time 2, and 15.9% of boys and 43.3% of girls persisted with these behaviours from Time 1 to Time 2. After controlling for race/ethnicity and weight status changes between assessments, logistic regression models indicated that similar factors and patterns of factors were associated significantly with initiation and persistence of UWCB. For both boys and girls, personal factors had more predictive value than socio-environmental factors (Initiation models: for boys: R2 = 0.35 for personal vs. 0.27 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.46 for personal vs. 0.26 for socio-environmental factors. Persistence models: for boys: R2 = 0.53 for personal vs. 0.33 for socio-environmental factors; for girls, R2 = 0.41 for personal vs. 0.19 for socio

  15. New advances of TMEM88 in cancer initiation and progression, with special emphasis on Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yun-Xuan; Wang, Chang-Hui; Hu, Fu-Yong; Pan, Lin-Xin; Min, Jie; Niu, Kai-Yuan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jun; Xu, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Transmembrane protein 88 (TMEM88), a newly discovered protein localized on the cell membrane. Recent studies showed that TMEM88 was involved in the regulation of several types of cancer. TMEM88 was expressed at significantly higher levels in breast cancer (BC) cell line than in normal breast cell line with co-localized with Dishevelled (DVL) in the cytoplasm of BC cell line. TMEM88 silencing in the ovarian cancer cell line CP70 resulted in significant upregulation of Wnt downstream genes (c-Myc, cyclin-D1) and other Wnt target genes including JUN, PTIX2, CTNNB1 (β-catenin), further supporting that TMEM88 inhibits canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt signaling pathway has been known to play important roles in many diseases, especially in cancer. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become one of the most common tumors harboring mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. As the inhibitor of Wnt signaling, TMEM88 has been considered to act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor. Up-regulated TMEM88 or gene therapy approaches could be an effective therapeutic approach against tumor as TMEM88 inhibits Wnt signaling through direct interaction with DVL. Here, we review the current knowledge on the functional role and potential clinical application of TMEM88 in the control of various cancers. Highlights Wnt signaling displays an important role in several pathogenesis of cancer. Wnt signaling pathway is activated during cancer development. TMEM88 has an impact on cancer by inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. We discuss the importance and new applications of TMEM88 in cancer therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Correlation of consecutive serum thyroglobulin levels during hormone withdrawal and failure of initial radioiodine ablation in thyroid cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yeong Joo; Kim, Hyoung Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ye Young [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, The Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Young [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thyroglobulin (Tg) kinetics during preparation of radioiodine ablation for prediction of initial radioiodine ablation failure in thyroid cancer patients. Thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy who underwent radioiodine ablation with 3–4 weeks of hormone withdrawal between May 2011 and January 2012 were included. Consecutive serum Tg levels 5–10 days before ablation (Tg1) and on the day of ablation (Tg2) were obtained. The difference between Tg1 and Tg2 (ΔTg), daily change rate of Tg (ΔTg/day) and Tg doubling time (Tg-DT) were calculated. Success of initial ablation was determined by the results of the follow-up ultrasonography, diagnostic radioiodine scan and stimulated Tg level after 6 to 20 months. A total of 143 patients were included. Failed ablation was reported in 52 patients. Tg2 higher than 5.6 ng/ml and Tg-DT shorter than 4.2 days were significantly related to a high risk of ablation failure. ΔTg and ΔTg/day did not show significant correlation with ablation failure. Thyroglobulin kinetics on consecutive blood sampling during hormone withdrawal may be helpful in predicting patients with higher risk of treatment failure of initial radioiodine ablation therapy in thyroid cancer patients.

  17. Correlation of consecutive serum thyroglobulin levels during hormone withdrawal and failure of initial radioiodine ablation in thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Sung Hoon; O, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yeong Joo; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Seo, Ye Young; Ryu, Ji Young

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thyroglobulin (Tg) kinetics during preparation of radioiodine ablation for prediction of initial radioiodine ablation failure in thyroid cancer patients. Thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy who underwent radioiodine ablation with 3–4 weeks of hormone withdrawal between May 2011 and January 2012 were included. Consecutive serum Tg levels 5–10 days before ablation (Tg1) and on the day of ablation (Tg2) were obtained. The difference between Tg1 and Tg2 (ΔTg), daily change rate of Tg (ΔTg/day) and Tg doubling time (Tg-DT) were calculated. Success of initial ablation was determined by the results of the follow-up ultrasonography, diagnostic radioiodine scan and stimulated Tg level after 6 to 20 months. A total of 143 patients were included. Failed ablation was reported in 52 patients. Tg2 higher than 5.6 ng/ml and Tg-DT shorter than 4.2 days were significantly related to a high risk of ablation failure. ΔTg and ΔTg/day did not show significant correlation with ablation failure. Thyroglobulin kinetics on consecutive blood sampling during hormone withdrawal may be helpful in predicting patients with higher risk of treatment failure of initial radioiodine ablation therapy in thyroid cancer patients

  18. Identification of controlling factors for the initiation of corrosion of fresh concrete sewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Xiaoyan; Keller, Jurg; Bond, Philip L

    2015-09-01

    The development of concrete corrosion in new sewer pipes undergoes an initiation process before reaching an active corrosion stage. This initiation period is assumed to last several months to years but the key factors affecting the process, and its duration, are not well understood. This study is therefore focused on this initial stage of the corrosion process and the effect of key environmental factors. Such knowledge is important for the effective management of corrosion in new sewers, as every year of life extension of such systems has a very high financial benefit. This long-term (4.5 year) study has been conducted in purpose-built corrosion chambers that closely simulated the sewer environment, but with control of three key environmental factors being hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas phase concentration, relative humidity and air temperature. Fresh concrete coupons, cut from an industry-standard sewer pipe, were exposed to the corrosive conditions in the chambers, both in the gas phase and partially submerged in wastewater. A total of 36 exposure conditions were investigated to determine the controlling factors by regular retrieval of concrete coupons for detailed analysis of surface pH, sulfur compounds (elemental sulfur and sulfate) and concrete mass loss. Corrosion initiation times were thus determined for different exposure conditions. It was found that the corrosion initiation time of both gas-phase and partially-submerged coupons was positively correlated with the gas phase H2S concentration, but only at levels of 10 ppm or below, indicating that sulfide oxidation rate rather than the H2S concentration was the limiting factor during the initiation stage. Relative humidity also played a role for the corrosion initiation of the gas-phase coupons. However, the partially-submerged coupons were not affected by humidity as these coupons were in direct contact with the sewage and hence did have sufficient moisture to enable the microbial processes to proceed. The

  19. Thalidomide for control delayed vomiting in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Z.; Sun, X.; Du, X.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of delayed vomiting, induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Study Design: Randomized, double-blind controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: The Oncology Department of Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu Xuzhou, China, from January 2012 to January 2014. Methodology: A total of 78 cancer patients, who had delayed vomiting observed from 24 hours to 1 week after chemotherapy, were included in the study. Patients were divided in a treatment group (40 patients, 51.28%) and a control group (38 patients, 48.71%). The treatment group received thalidomide at an oral dose of 100 mg per night; 50 mg was added daily up to a dose of 200 mg per night, if the curative effect was suboptimal and the medicine was tolerated. Both the treatment and the control groups received a drip of 10 mg azasetron 30 minutes before chemotherapy. The control group only proportions of antiemetic effects and adverse reactions were compared using the ?2 test. Antiemetic effects and adverse reactions were assessed from Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals(95% CI). Results: The effective control rate of delayed vomiting in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group (?2=5.174, p=0.023). No significant difference was found between the two groups in other adverse effects of chemotherapy. Karnofsky scores or the overall self-evaluation of the patients (p>0.05). Conclusion: Thalidomide can effectively control the delayed vomiting of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and the adverse reactions of the agent can be tolerated.

  20. Complex role for the immune system in initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Kristin S; Francis, Amanda A; Murray, Nicole R

    2014-08-28

    The immune system plays a complex role in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Inflammation can promote the formation of premalignant lesions and accelerate pancreatic cancer development. Conversely, pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive environment, which is thought to promote tumor progression and invasion. Here we review the current literature describing the role of the immune response in the progressive development of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the mechanisms that drive recruitment and activation of immune cells at the tumor site, and our current understanding of the function of the immune cell types at the tumor. Recent clinical and preclinical data are reviewed, detailing the involvement of the immune response in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, including the role of specific cytokines and implications for disease outcome. Acute pancreatitis is characterized by a predominantly innate immune response, while chronic pancreatitis elicits an immune response that involves both innate and adaptive immune cells, and often results in profound systemic immune-suppression. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by marked immune dysfunction driven by immunosuppressive cell types, tumor-promoting immune cells, and defective or absent inflammatory cells. Recent studies reveal that immune cells interact with cancer stem cells and tumor stromal cells, and these interactions have an impact on development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Finally, current PDAC therapies are reviewed and the potential for harnessing the actions of the immune response to assist in targeting pancreatic cancer using immunotherapy is discussed.

  1. The first skin cancer screening day at the Italian parliament: a Euromelanoma initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Mariano; Neri, Luca; Bianchi, Luca; Capizzi, Rodolfo; Carbone, Angelo; Catricalà, Caterina; Chimenti, Sergio; Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Fossati, Barbara; Frascione, Pasquale; Peris, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The effort to decrease incidence/mortality of skin cancer should target not only the general public but also politicians and decision makers, to create a proper health policy. We report the results of the first Skin Cancer Screening Day at the Italian Parliament, organized to draw politicians' attention on skin cancer. A questionnaire was used to collect data on participants' characteristics and suspected skin cancers. We screened 70 members of parliament (61.4% males, median age 54 years). Overall skin cancer suspicion rate was 14.5%. Suspicion rate, detection rate, and positive predictive values for melanoma were respectively 1.6, 1.6, and 100%, and for basal cell carcinoma 6.5, 1.6, and 25%. Highly educated, parliament display sun-seeking behaviors similar to those previously described in the general public. Increasing politicians' attention on skin cancer is vital for sufficient resources to be allocated to prevention strategies. Expert medical groups and politicians should cooperate to create a proper, integrated policy on skin cancer. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. A blended knowledge translation initiative to improve colorectal cancer staging [ISRCTN56824239

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan David P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant gap has been documented between best practice and the actual practice of surgery. Our group identified that colorectal cancer staging in Ontario was suboptimal and subsequently developed a knowledge translation strategy using the principles of social marketing and the influence of expert and local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer. Methods/Design Opinion leaders were identified using the Hiss methodology. Hospitals in Ontario were cluster-randomized to one of two intervention arms. Both groups were exposed to a formal continuing medical education session given by the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer. In the treatment group the local Opinion Leader for colorectal cancer was detailed by the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer and received a toolkit. Forty-two centres agreed to have the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer come and give a formal continuing medical education session that lasted between 50 minutes and 4 hours. No centres refused the intervention. These sessions were generally well attended by most surgeons, pathologists and other health care professionals at each centre. In addition all but one of the local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer met with the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer for the academic detailing session that lasted between 15 and 30 minutes. Discussion We have enacted a unique study that has attempted to induce practice change among surgeons and pathologists using an adapted social marketing model that utilized the influence of both expert and local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer in a large geographic area with diverse practice settings.

  3. Epigenetic Control of Prolyl and Asparaginyl Hydroxylases in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    melanoma, renal carcinoma and breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we show that neither HIF-1a protein levels nor hypoxic response through an HRE ...constitutively expressed gene to control for equivalent DNase digestion between the cell lines examined. HRE -Luciferase assay Cell lines ,85% confluent in 60...mm dishes were transfected with an HRE -luciferase reporter vector [19] (2.5 mg) and Renilla luciferase (1.5 mg) according to Lipofectamine 2000

  4. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallenberg, E.M.; Renz, D.M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Clinic of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Dromain, C. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif cedex (France); Diekmann, F. [St. Joseph-Stift Bremen, Department of Medical Imaging, Bremen (Germany); Engelken, F.; Krohn, M.; Singh, J.M.; Bick, U. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Ingold-Heppner, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Institute of Pathology, Berlin (Germany); Winzer, K.J. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Breast Center, Department of Gynecology, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. (orig.)

  5. Incidence and risk factors for lower limb lymphedema after gynecologic cancer surgery with initiation of periodic complex decongestive physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deura, Imari; Shimada, Muneaki; Hirashita, Keiko; Sugimura, Maki; Sato, Seiya; Sato, Shinya; Oishi, Tetsuro; Itamochi, Hiroaki; Harada, Tasuku; Kigawa, Junzo

    2015-06-01

    Lower limb lymphedema (LLL) is one of the most frequent postoperative complications of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for gynecologic cancer. LLL often impairs quality of life, activities of daily living, sleep, and sex in patients with gynecologic cancer. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for LLL after gynecologic cancer surgery in patients who received assessment and periodic complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). We retrospectively reviewed 126 cases of gynecologic cancer that underwent surgery involving retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy at Tottori University Hospital between 2009 and 2012. All patients received physical examinations to detect LLL and underwent CDP by nurse specialists within several months after surgery. The International Society of Lymphology staging of lymphedema severity was used as the diagnostic criteria. Of 126 patients, 57 (45.2%) had LLL, comprising 45 and 12 patients with stage 1 and stage 2 LLL, respectively. No patient had stage 3 LLL. LLL was present in 37 (29.4%) patients at the initial physical examination. Multivariate analysis revealed that adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy and age ≥ 55 years were independent risk factors for ≥ stage 2 LLL. To minimize the incidence of ≥ stage 2 LLL, gynecologic oncologists should be vigilant for this condition in patients who are ≥ 55 years and in those who undergo adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Patients should be advised to have a physical assessment for LLL and to receive education about CDP immediately after surgery involving retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for gynecologic cancer.

  6. Canonical and Non-Canonical NF-κB Signaling Promotes Breast Cancer Tumor-Initiating Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendellen, Megan F.; Bradford, Jennifer W.; Lawrence, Cortney L.; Clark, Kelly S.; Baldwin, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are a sub-population of cells that exhibit a robust ability to self-renew and contribute to the formation of primary tumors, the relapse of previously treated tumors, and the development of metastases. TICs have been identified in various tumors, including those of the breast, and are particularly enriched in the basal-like and claudin-low subtypes of breast cancer. The signaling pathways that contribute to the function and maintenance of TICs are under intense study. We explored the potential involvement of the NF-κB family of transcription factors in TICs in cell lines that are representative of basal-like and claudin-low breast cancer. NF-κB was found to be activated in breast cancer cells that form tumorspheres efficiently. Moreover, both canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is required for these cells to self-renew in vitro and to form xenograft tumors efficiently in vivo using limiting dilutions of cells. Consistent with this, canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling is activated in TICs isolated from breast cancer cell lines. Experimental results indicate that NF-κB promotes the function of TICs by stimulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and by upregulating the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6. The results suggest the use of NF-κB inhibitors for clinical therapy of certain breast cancers. PMID:23474754

  7. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallenberg, E.M.; Renz, D.M.; Dromain, C.; Diekmann, F.; Engelken, F.; Krohn, M.; Singh, J.M.; Bick, U.; Ingold-Heppner, B.; Winzer, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. (orig.)

  8. Residual pathological stage at radical cystectomy significantly impacts outcomes for initial T2N0 bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Capitanio, Umberto; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Lotan, Yair; Schoenberg, Mark P; Amiel, Gilad E; Lerner, Seth P; Sonpavde, Guru

    2009-08-01

    We hypothesized that in patients with T2N0 stage disease at transurethral bladder tumor resection a lower residual cancer stage (P1N0 or less) at radical cystectomy may correlate with improved outcomes relative to those with residual P2N0 disease. We analyzed 208 patients with T2N0 stage disease at transurethral bladder tumor resection whose tumors were organ confined at radical cystectomy (P2 or lower, pN0). None received perioperative chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier as well as univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed the effect of residual pT stage at radical cystectomy on recurrence and cancer specific mortality rates. Covariates consisted of age, gender, grade, lymphovascular invasion, carcinoma in situ, number of lymph nodes removed and year of surgery. Residual pT stage at radical cystectomy was P0 in 24 (11.5%) patients, Pa in 9 (4.3%), PCIS in 22 (10.6%), P1 in 35 (16.8%) and P2 in 118 (56.7%). Median followup of censored patients was 55.7 months for recurrence and 52.1 months for cancer specific mortality analyses. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rates of patients with P0/Pa/PCIS, P1 and P2 stage disease were 100%, 85% and 75%, respectively. The 5-year cancer specific survival rates for the same cohorts were 100%, 93% and 81%, respectively. On multivariable analysis the effect of residual stage P1 or lower at radical cystectomy achieved independent predictor status for recurrence (adjusted HR 0.20, p = 0.002) and cancer specific mortality (adjusted HR 0.24, p = 0.02). Down staging from initial T2N0 bladder cancer at transurethral bladder tumor resection to lower stage at radical cystectomy significantly reduces recurrence and cancer specific mortality. Further validation of this finding is warranted.

  9. Hypoxia-inducing factors as master regulators of stemness properties and altered metabolism of cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating lines of experimental evidence have revealed that hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α, are key regulators of the adaptation of cancer- and metastasis-initiating cells and their differentiated progenies to oxygen and nutrient deprivation during cancer progression under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Particularly, the sustained stimulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), stem cell factor (SCF) receptor KIT, transforming growth factor-β receptors (TGF-βRs) and Notch and their downstream signalling elements such as phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) may lead to an enhanced activity of HIFs. Moreover, the up-regulation of HIFs in cancer cells may also occur in the hypoxic intratumoral regions formed within primary and secondary neoplasms as well as in leukaemic cells and metastatic prostate and breast cancer cells homing in the hypoxic endosteal niche of bone marrow. The activated HIFs may induce the expression of numerous gene products such as induced pluripotency-associated transcription factors (Oct-3/4, Nanog and Sox-2), glycolysis- and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programme-associated molecules, including CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), snail and twist, microRNAs and angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These gene products in turn can play critical roles for high self-renewal ability, survival, altered energy metabolism, invasion and metastases of cancer cells, angiogenic switch and treatment resistance. Consequently, the targeting of HIF signalling network and altered metabolic pathways represents new promising strategies to eradicate the total mass of cancer cells and improve the efficacy of current therapies against aggressive and metastatic cancers and prevent disease relapse. PMID:23301832

  10. The association between dietary inflammatory index and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabung, Fred K; Steck, Susan E; Ma, Yunsheng; Liese, Angela D; Zhang, Jiajia; Caan, Bette; Hou, Lifang; Johnson, Karen C; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Shivappa, Nitin; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ockene, Judith K; Hebert, James R

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation is a process central to carcinogenesis and in particular to colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, we developed a dietary inflammatory index (DII) from extensive literature review to assess the inflammatory potential of diet. In the current study, we utilized this novel index in the Women's Health Initiative to prospectively evaluate its association with risk of CRC in postmenopausal women. The DII was calculated from baseline food frequency questionnaires administered to 152,536 women aged 50-79 years without CRC at baseline between 1993 and 1998 and followed through 30 September 2010. Incident CRC cases were ascertained through a central physician adjudication process. Multiple covariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for colorectal, colon (proximal/distal locations), and rectal cancer risk, by DII quintiles (Q). During an average 11.3 years of follow-up, a total of 1,920 cases of CRC (1,559 colon and 361 rectal) were identified. Higher DII scores (representing a more pro-inflammatory diet) were associated with an increased incidence of CRC (HRQ5-Q1 1.22; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.43; p trend = 0.02) and colon cancer, specifically proximal colon cancer (HRQ5-Q1 1.35; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.67; p trend = 0.01) but not distal colon cancer (HRQ5-Q1 0.84; 95 % CI 0.61, 1.18; p trend = 0.63) or rectal cancer (HRQ5-Q1 1.20; 95 % CI 0.84, 1.72; p trend = 0.65). Consumption of pro-inflammatory diets is associated with an increased risk of CRC, especially cancers located in the proximal colon. The absence of a significant association for distal colon cancer and rectal cancer may be due to the small number of incident cases for these sites. Interventions that may reduce the inflammatory potential of the diet are warranted to test our findings, thus providing more information for colon cancer prevention.

  11. TGF-β in pancreatic cancer initiation and progression: two sides of the same coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Tao, Guo-Qing; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Bing; Sun, Jian; Tian, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is highly lethal malignant tumor with characterised rapid progression, invasiveness and resistance to radiochemotherapy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a dual role in both pro-tumorigenic and tumor suppressive of pancreatic cancer, depending on tumor stage and microenvironment. TGF-β signaling components alteration are common in pancreatic cancer, and its leading role in tumor formation and metastases has received increased attention. Many therapies have investigated to target TGF-β signaling in the preclinical and clinical setting. In this review, we highlight the dual roles of TGF-β and touch upon the perspectives on therapeutic target of TGF-β signaling in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Initial Evaluation of an Electronic Symptom Diary for Adolescents with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Baggott, C; Gibson, F; Coll, B; Kletter, R; Zeltzer, P; Miaskowski, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients’ symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile applic...

  13. 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer: Evidence-based recommendations in initial staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caresia Aroztegui, Ana Paula; García Vicente, Ana María; Alvarez Ruiz, Soledad; Delgado Bolton, Roberto Carlos; Orcajo Rincon, Javier; Garcia Garzon, Jose Ramon; de Arcocha Torres, Maria; Garcia-Velloso, Maria Jose

    2017-10-01

    Current guidelines do not systematically recommend 18F-FDG PET/CT for breast cancer staging; and the recommendations and level of evidence supporting its use in different groups of patients vary among guidelines. This review summarizes the evidence about the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer staging and the therapeutic and prognostic impact accumulated in the last decade. Other related aspects, such as the association of metabolic information with biology and prognosis are considered and evidence-based recommendations for the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer staging are offered. We systematically searched MEDLINE for articles reporting studies with at least 30 patients related to clinical questions following the Problem/Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome framework. We critically reviewed the selected articles and elaborated evidence tables structuring the summarized information into methodology, results, and limitations. The level of evidence and the grades of recommendation for the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in different contexts are summarized. Level III evidence supports the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer; the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the 18F-FDG PET/CT findings is sufficient for a weak recommendation in this population. In patients with locally advanced breast cancer, level II evidence supports the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging; the diagnostic and therapeutic impact of the 18F-FDG PET/CT findings is sufficient for a strong recommendation in this population. In patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer, the metabolic information from baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT is associated with tumor biology and has prognostic implications, supported by level II evidence. In conclusion, 18F-FDG PET/CT is not recommended for staging all patients with early breast cancer, although evidence of improved regional and systemic staging supports its use in locally advanced

  14. Thrust initiation and its control on tectonic wedge geometry: An insight from physical and numerical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Saha, Puspendu; Sarkar, Shamik; Lithgow-Bertelloni, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    We performed a series of sandbox experiments to investigate the initiation of thrust ramping in tectonic wedges on a mechanically continuous basal decollement. The experiments show that the decollement slope (β) is the key factor in controlling the location of thrust initiation with respect to the backstop (i.e. tectonic suture line). For β = 0, the ramping begins right at the backstop, followed by sequential thrusting in the frontal direction, leading to a typical mono-vergent wedge. In contrast, the ramp initiates away from the backstop as β > 0. Under this boundary condition an event of sequential back thrusting takes place prior to the onset of frontal thrust progression. These two-coupled processes eventually give rise to a bi-vergent geometry of the thrust wedge. Using the Drucker-Prager failure criterion in finite element (FE) models, we show the location of stress intensification to render a mechanical basis for the thrust initiation away from the backstop if β > 0. Our physical and FE model results explain why the Main Central Thrust (MCT) is located far away from the Indo-Tibetan plate contact (ITSZ) in the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belts.

  15. McCormick to Aid Frederick National Laboratory in Developing RAS Cancer Genetics Initiative | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank McCormick, Ph.D., director of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, San Francisco, and associate dean of the UCSF School of Medicine, has signed a consulting agreement with SAIC-Frederick Inc. to w

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  17. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography versus MRI: Initial results in the detection of breast cancer and assessment of tumour size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallenberg, E M; Dromain, C; Diekmann, F; Engelken, F; Krohn, M; Singh, J M; Ingold-Heppner, B; Winzer, K J; Bick, U; Renz, D M

    2014-01-01

    To compare mammography (MG), contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection and size estimation of histologically proven breast cancers using postoperative histology as the gold standard. After ethical approval, 80 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent MG, CESM, and MRI examinations. CESM was reviewed by an independent experienced radiologist, and the maximum dimension of suspicious lesions was measured. For MG and MRI, routine clinical reports of breast specialists, with judgment based on the BI-RADS lexicon, were used. Results of each imaging technique were correlated to define the index cancer. Fifty-nine cases could be compared to postoperative histology for size estimation. Breast cancer was visible in 66/80 MG, 80/80 CESM, and 77/79 MRI examinations. Average lesion largest dimension was 27.31 mm (SD 22.18) in MG, 31.62 mm (SD 24.41) in CESM, and 27.72 mm (SD 21.51) in MRI versus 32.51 mm (SD 29.03) in postoperative histology. No significant difference was found between lesion size measurement on MRI and CESM compared with histopathology. Our initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI in breast cancer detection than MG and a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. • Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is slowly being introduced into clinical practice. • Access to breast MRI is limited by availability and lack of reimbursement. • Initial results show a better sensitivity of CESM and MRI than conventional mammography. • CESM showed a good correlation with postoperative histology in size assessment. • Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography offers promise, seemingly providing information comparable to MRI.

  18. [The cancer registry is fundamental for the treatment, prevention and control of childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    During the last 10 years cancer in the Mexican pediatric population is growing. It is the second leading cause of death (children 1 to 14 years of age). The first step in controlling these diseases by registering the cases. Cancer Registry (CR) is fundamental for gaining knowledge that can be used for planning medical treatment and future research into causal factors and for the prevention. A CR is an information system designed to collect and encode data concerning individuals with cancer, and then to disseminate the compiled epidemiological results to various groups of stakeholders. Data are obtained from a hospital or group of hospitals, with special emphasis being placed on the quality of the data (completeness, validity and timeliness data). It is necessary a group of highly trained individuals called registrars, who are experts in the collection, encoding, and dissemination of internal reports to researchers and medical personnel. There are two main types of registries: those that are hospital based and those that are population based. The categories of data that should be collected are demographic data of the patient; descriptors of the cancer; details of the treatment administered; and details of the outcome of the treatment. It must be emphasized that all data conceming patients with cancer should be held in the strictest confidence.

  19. Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Optimal Control Considering Selling Price and Salesman Initiative Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertini, Elis; Anggriani, Nursanti; Mianna, Winda; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2018-03-01

    Retailers usually offer several types of similar products. A larger number of available stock products in display space will lead consumer to buy more, as well as giving a negative impression on other types of less available products. However, the amount of display space is limited so capacity of carrying the products is limited. Competition among products to increase demand rate is influenced by stock levels available in display space, price and salesmen’s initiative in promoting the products. The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) to replenish the stock of the product is dependent on the on-hand inventory. Salesman’s initiative also affects maximum profit obtained by the seller. In this paper, Potryagin’s Maximal Principle is used to determine the state of the inventory levels response to control prices of products. Sensitivity analysis of capacity allocation display space is also presented numerically.

  20. Initial Case Reports of Cancer in Naked Mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Ward, J M; Walsh, T F; Chinnadurai, S K; Kerns, K; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-05-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs;Heterocephalus glaber) are highly adapted, eusocial rodents renowned for their extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Because cancer has not been formally described in this species, NMRs have been increasingly utilized as an animal model in aging and cancer research. We previously reported the occurrence of several age-related diseases, including putative pre-neoplastic lesions, in zoo-housed NMR colonies. Here, we report for the first time 2 cases of cancer in zoo-housed NMRs. In Case No. 1, we observed a subcutaneous mass in the axillary region of a 22-year-old male NMR, with histologic, immunohistochemical (pancytokeratin positive, rare p63 immunolabeling, and smooth muscle actin negative), and ultrastructural characteristics of an adenocarcinoma possibly of mammary or salivary origin. In Case No. 2, we observed a densely cellular, poorly demarcated gastric mass of polygonal cells arranged in nests with positive immunolabeling for synaptophysin and chromogranin indicative of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an approximately 20-year-old male NMR. We also include a brief discussion of other proliferative growths and pre-cancerous lesions diagnosed in 1 zoo colony. Although these case reports do not alter the longstanding observation of cancer resistance, they do raise questions about the scope of cancer resistance and the interpretation of biomedical studies in this model. These reports also highlight the benefit of long-term disease investigations in zoo-housed populations to better understand naturally occurring disease processes in species used as models in biomedical research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. National Cancer Institute's leadership role in promoting State and Community Tobacco Control research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginexi, Elizabeth M; Vollinger, Robert E

    2016-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been at the vanguard of funding tobacco control research for decades with major efforts such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) in 1988 and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) in 1991, followed by the Tobacco Research Initiative for State and Community Interventions in 1999. Most recently, in 2011, the NCI launched the State and Community Tobacco Control (SCTC) Research Initiative to address gaps in secondhand smoke policies, tax and pricing policies, mass media countermeasures, community and social norms and tobacco marketing. The initiative supported large scale research projects and time-sensitive ancillary pilot studies in response to expressed needs of state and community partners. This special issue of Tobacco Control showcases exciting findings from the SCTC. In this introductory article, we provide a brief account of NCI's historical commitment to promoting research to inform tobacco control policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Guidelines for time-to-event end point definitions in breast cancer trials: results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials)†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgou-Bourgade, S; Cameron, D; Poortmans, P; Asselain, B; Azria, D; Cardoso, F; A'Hern, R; Bliss, J; Bogaerts, J; Bonnefoi, H; Brain, E; Cardoso, M J; Chibaudel, B; Coleman, R; Cufer, T; Dal Lago, L; Dalenc, F; De Azambuja, E; Debled, M; Delaloge, S; Filleron, T; Gligorov, J; Gutowski, M; Jacot, W; Kirkove, C; MacGrogan, G; Michiels, S; Negreiros, I; Offersen, B V; Penault Llorca, F; Pruneri, G; Roche, H; Russell, N S; Schmitt, F; Servent, V; Thürlimann, B; Untch, M; van der Hage, J A; van Tienhoven, G; Wildiers, H; Yarnold, J; Bonnetain, F; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S; Bellera, C; Dabakuyo-Yonli, T S

    2015-05-01

    Using surrogate end points for overall survival, such as disease-free survival, is increasingly common in randomized controlled trials. However, the definitions of several of these time-to-event (TTE) end points are imprecisely which limits interpretation and cross-trial comparisons. The estimation of treatment effects may be directly affected by the definitions of end points. The DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials) aims to provide recommendations for definitions of TTE end points. We report guidelines for randomized cancer clinical trials (RCTs) in breast cancer. A literature review was carried out to identify TTE end points (primary or secondary) reported in publications of randomized trials or guidelines. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts proposed recommendations for the definitions of these end points based on a validated consensus method that formalize the degree of agreement among experts. Recommended guidelines for the definitions of TTE end points commonly used in RCTs for breast cancer are provided for non-metastatic and metastatic settings. The use of standardized definitions should facilitate comparisons of trial results and improve the quality of trial design and reporting. These guidelines could be of particular interest to those involved in the design, conducting, reporting, or assessment of RCT. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A targetable HB-EGF-CITED4 axis controls oncogenesis in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, C-H; Chou, Y-T; Kuo, M-H; Tsai, H-P; Chang, J-L; Wu, C-W

    2017-05-25

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) signaling contributes to neoplastic initiation and progression in lung. Mutated EGFR has become as an important therapeutic target in lung cancer, whereas targeted treatment is not available for wild-type EGFR or its ligands. In this study, we found that heparin-binding (HB)-EGF, a member of the EGF family, was highly expressed in a subset of lung cancer, proliferation of which was dependent on HB-EGF signaling. Silencing of HB-EGF with RNA interference inhibited cell cycle progression in lung cancer cells. We observed that, upon HB-EGF induction, CITED4 was induced through a signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, regulating cell proliferation. CITED4 interacted with MYC and potentiated MYC-mediated transactivation of the CCND1 promoter, leading to cell cycle progression. Correlation analysis revealed that HB-EGF and CITED4 were significantly positively associated in primary lung tumors, and expression of HB-EGF predicted a poor survival outcome in patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that pharmacological inhibition of HB-EGF with CRM197 significantly attenuated tumor cell growth. Thus, CITED4 functions as a molecular switch in HB-EGF-induced growth control, and HB-EGF provides a novel therapeutic target for lung cancer intervention.

  4. CONTROL OF APERTURE CLOSURE INITIATION DURING TRUNK-ASSISTED REACH-TO-GRASP MOVEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K.; Van Gemmert, Arend W. A.; Hossain, Abul B.M.I.; Shimansky, Yury P.; Stelmach, George E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated how the involvement and direction of trunk movement during reach-to-grasp movements affect the coordination between the transport and grasping components. Seated young adults made prehensile movements in which the involvement of the trunk was varied; the trunk was not involved, moved forward (flexion), or moved backward (extension) in the sagittal plane during the reach to the object. Each of the trunk movements was combined with an extension or flexion motion of the arm during the reach. Regarding the relation between the trunk and arm motion for arm transport, the onset of wrist motion relative to that of the trunk was delayed to a greater extent for the trunk extension than for the trunk flexion. The variability of the time period from the peak of wrist velocity to the peak of trunk velocity was also significantly greater for trunk extension compared to trunk flexion. These findings indicate that trunk flexion was better integrated into the control of wrist transport than trunk extension. In terms of the temporal relationship between wrist transport and grip aperture, the relation between the time of peak wrist velocity and the time of peak grip aperture did not change or became less steady across conditions. Therefore, the stability of temporal coordination between wrist transport and grip aperture was maintained despite the variation of the pattern of intersegmental coordination between the arm and the trunk during arm transport. The transport-aperture coordination was further assessed in terms of the control law according to which the initiation of aperture closure during the reach occurs when the hand crosses a hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation that is a function of peak aperture, wrist velocity and acceleration, trunk velocity and acceleration, and trunk-to-target distance at the time of aperture closure initiation. The participants increased the hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation in

  5. Control of aperture closure initiation during trunk-assisted reach-to-grasp movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Miya K; Van Gemmert, Arend W A; Hossain, Abul B M I; Shimansky, Yury P; Stelmach, George E

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated how the involvement and direction of trunk movement during reach-to-grasp movements affect the coordination between the transport and grasping components. Seated young adults made prehensile movements in which the involvement of the trunk was varied; the trunk was not involved, moved forward (flexion), or moved backward (extension) in the sagittal plane during the reach to the object. Each of the trunk movements was combined with an extension or flexion motion of the arm during the reach. Regarding the relationship between the trunk and arm motion for arm transport, the onset of wrist motion relative to that of the trunk was delayed to a greater extent for the trunk extension than for the trunk flexion. The variability of the time period from the peak of wrist velocity to the peak of trunk velocity was also significantly greater for trunk extension compared to trunk flexion. These findings indicate that trunk flexion was better integrated into the control of wrist transport than trunk extension. In terms of the temporal relationship between wrist transport and grip aperture, the relationship between the time of peak wrist velocity and the time of peak grip aperture did not change or become less steady across conditions. Therefore, the stability of temporal coordination between wrist transport and grip aperture was maintained despite the variation of the pattern of intersegmental coordination between the arm and the trunk during arm transport. The transport-aperture coordination was further assessed in terms of the control law according to which the initiation of aperture closure during the reach occurs when the hand crosses a hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp initiation, which is a function of peak aperture, wrist velocity and acceleration, trunk velocity and acceleration, and trunk-to-target distance at the time of aperture closure initiation. The participants increased the hand-to-target distance threshold for grasp

  6. Parent perspectives on information about late effects of childhood cancer treatment and their role in initial treatment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenzang, Katie A; Dauti, Angela; Mack, Jennifer W

    2018-06-01

    Though most childhood cancer survivors experience late effects of treatment, we know little about parent preferences for late effects information during therapy, or how parents weigh late effects when making treatment decisions. Our objective was to explore how parents of children with cancer consider late effects in initial treatment decision making and during active cancer treatment. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 parents of children with cancer who were actively receiving treatment at Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and qualitatively analyzed using thematic analysis. Ten of 12 parents reported that they had to decide between two or more treatment options for their child's cancer. Of those, 50% (5/10) considered late effects to be an important factor in their decision making. Most parents wanted early and detailed information about their child's risk of late effects to make treatment decisions and to feel prepared for the future. However, a few parents felt too overwhelmed to focus on late effects at diagnosis. While many recalled extensive late effects information in informed consent discussions, some parents felt these issues were minimally addressed. Parents desire detailed information about late effects to make informed treatment decisions and prepare for the future. Despite the role of late effects in treatment decision making, some parents feel that late effects are either inadequately addressed or too overwhelming to process at diagnosis. Parents may benefit from early assessment of their information needs and a return to these issues over time. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Psycho-oncology and primary prevention in cancer control plans: an absent voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff; Holland, Jimmie; Hyde, Melissa K; Watson, Maggie

    2015-07-27

    One third of cancer deaths are attributable to modifiable lifestyle, behaviour and psychosocial risk factors. Psycho-oncology can contribute significantly to prevention initiatives such as those described in national cancer control plans (NCCPs), to reduce or eliminate these risk factors. However, the extent to which psycho-oncology expertise has informed prevention objectives in plans is unclear. Accordingly, 35 English language NCCPs were located via existing databases and were searched using Adobe text searches ('psycho', 'social', 'behav' and 'intervention') to identify (a) representations of psycho-oncology, its dimensions (psychological, social and behavioural) and roles (e.g. psychologist); and (b) behaviour/lifestyle change interventions. A third of NCCPs included the term psycho- or psychosocial-oncology; approximately half referred to a psycho-oncology dimension regarding prevention and early detection and half included actions/objectives relating to health professionals and provision of psychosocial care. The majority of cancer plans included prevention outcomes and focussed primarily on smoking cessation and alcohol reduction. Interventions commonly proposed were education, regulation and service provision; however, many were aspirational statements of intent rather than specific interventions. Psycho-oncology was represented in NCCPs but was limited in reference to prevention with few behavioural interventions utilised. Psycho-oncology input is needed to prescribe evidence-based interventions in cancer plans that not only educate, regulate and provide resources but also motivate, empower and create a supportive normative environment for behaviour change. In this manuscript, and throughout this Special Issue on Cancer Prevention, important principles, ideas and evidence within psycho-oncology are outlined which, if properly implemented, can help reduce the global cancer burden. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley

  8. Initial experience with computed tomographic colonography applied for noncolorectal cancerous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tamaki; Kawada, Shuichi; Hirata, Satoru; Ikeda, Shu; Sato, Yuuki; Imai, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to asses retrospectively the performance of computed tomography colonography (CTC) for noncolorectal cancerous conditions. A total of 44 patients with non-colorectal cancerous conditions underwent CTC. We researched the indications for CTC or present illness and evaluated the CTC imaging findings. We assessed whether diagnosis by CTC reduced conventional colonoscopic examinations. A total of 47 examinations were performed in 44 patients. The indications for CTC or a present illness were as follows: 15 patients with impossible or incomplete colonoscopy, 7 with diverticular disease, 6 with malignancy (noncolorectal cancer), 6 with Crohn's disease, 4 suspected to have a submucosal tumor on colonoscopy, 2 with ischemic colitis, and 4 with various other diseases. Colonic findings were diagnosed on CTC in 36 examinations, and extracolonic findings were identified in 35 of 44 patients. In all, 17 patients had undergone colonoscopy previously, 9 (52.9%) of whom did not require further colonoscopy by CTC. Five patients underwent colonoscopy after CTC. The indications for CTC were varied for patients with noncolorectal cancerous conditions. CTC examinations could be performed safely. Unlike colonoscopy or CT without preparation, CTC revealed colonic and extracolonic findings and may reduce the indication of colonoscopy in patients with noncolorectal cancerous conditions. (author)

  9. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Homero Jose de Farias e; Abdala, Nitamar; Goldman, Suzan Menasce; Szejnfeld, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Objective: to report an experiment involving the introduction of a protocol utilizing commercially available three-dimensional 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (3D 1H MRSI) method in patients diagnosed with prostatic tumors under suspicion of neoplasm. Materials and methods: forty-one patients in the age range between 51 and 80 years (mean, 67 years) were prospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with one or more biopsies negative for cancer and high specific-prostatic antigen levels (group A), and patients with cancer confirmed by biopsy (group B). The determination of the target area (group A) or the known cancer extent (group B) was based on magnetic resonance imaging and MRSI studies. Results: the specificity of MRSI in the diagnosis of prostate cancer was lower than the specificity reported in the literature (about 47%). On the other hand, for tumor staging, it corresponded to the specificity reported in the literature. Conclusion: the introduction and standardization of 3D 1H MRSI has allowed the obtention of a presumable diagnosis of prostate cancer, by a combined analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and metabolic data from 3D 1H MRSI. (author)

  10. Initial study on in vivo conductivity mapping of breast cancer using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaewook; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Joonsung; Nam, Yoonho; Kim, Min-Oh; Choi, Narae; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    To develop and apply a method to measure in vivo electrical conductivity values using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects with breast cancer. A recently developed technique named MREPT (MR electrical properties tomography) together with a novel coil combination process was used to quantify the conductivity values. The overall technique was validated using a phantom study. In addition, 90 subjects were imaged (50 subjects with previously biopsy-confirmed breast tumor and 40 normal subjects), which was approved by our institutional review board (IRB). A routine clinical protocol, specifically a T2 -weighted FSE (fast spin echo) imaging data, was used for reconstruction of conductivity. By employing the coil combination, the relative error in the conductivity map was reduced from ~70% to 10%. The average conductivity values in breast cancers regions (0.89 ± 0.33S/m) was higher compared to parenchymal tissue (0.43 S/m, P conductivity compared to benign cases (0.56 S/m, n = 5) (P conductivity compared to in situ cancers (0.57 S/m) (P conductivity mapping of breast cancers is feasible using a noninvasive in vivo MREPT technique combined with a coil combination process. The method may provide a tool in the MR diagnosis of breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Branched chain amino acid suppressed insulin-initiated proliferation of human cancer cells through induction of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubetu, Gizachew Yismaw; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Ishikawa, Daichi; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Yamada, Shinichiro; Morine, Yuji; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Saito, Yu; Arakawa, Yusuke; Imura, Satoru; Arimochi, Hideki; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2014-09-01

    Branched chain amino acid (BCAA) dietary supplementation inhibits activation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) axis in diabetic animal models. However, the in vitro effect of BCAA on human cancer cell lines under hyper-insulinemic conditions remains unclear. Colon (HCT-116) and hepatic (HepG2) tumor cells were treated with varying concentrations of BCAA with or without fluorouracil (5-FU). The effect of BCAA on insulin-initiated proliferation was determined. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. BCAA supplementation had no significant effect on cell proliferation and did not show significant synergistic or antagonistic effects with 5-FU. However, BCAA significantly decreased insulin-initiated proliferation of human colon and hepatic cancer cell lines in vitro. BCAA supplementation caused a marked decrease in activated IGF-IR expression and significantly enhanced both mRNA and protein expression of LC3-II and BECN1 (BECLIN-1). BCAA could be a useful chemopreventive modality for cancer in hyperinsulinemic conditions. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. DNA Amplification by Breakage/Fusion/Bridge Cycles Initiated by Spontaneous Telomere Loss in a Human Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony W.l. Lo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of genomic instability is an important step in generatingthe multiple genetic changes required for cancer. One consequence of genomic instability is the overexpression of oncogenes due to gene amplification. One mechanism for gene amplification is the breakagelfusionlbridge (B/F/Bcyclethatinvolvesthe repeated fusion and breakage of chromosomes following the loss of a telomere. B/F/B cycles have been associated with low-copy gene amplification in human cancer cells, and have been proposed to be an initiating event in high-copy gene amplification. We have found that spontaneous telomere loss on a marker chromosome 16 in a human tumor cell line results in sister chromatid fusion and prolonged periods of chromosome instability. The high rate of anaphase bridges involving chromosome 16 demonstrates that this instability results from B/F/B cycles. The amplification of subtelomeric DNA on the marker chromosome provides conclusive evidence that B/F/B cycles initiated by spontaneous telomere loss are a mechanism for gene amplification in human cancer cells.

  13. Cancer preceding Wegener's granulomatosis: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Sorensen, Inge J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with WG have an increased risk of malignancies prior to and/or around the time of the vasculitis diagnosis, as suggested by previous studies. METHODS: A total of 293 WG patients were included in the study. Ten gender- and age-matched controls were selected.......4; 95% CI 1.1, 38) based on two patients, who developed testis cancer >10 years before WG. The overall prevalence of malignancies diagnosed time...... interval (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.4, 12). CONCLUSIONS: We did not find clear evidence of an increased prevalence of preceding cancer in our WG cohort, indicating that shared risk factors are of minor importance for the excess of malignancies that occur in WG patients after the vasculitis diagnosis. Furthermore...

  14. Central and peripheral nervous systems: master controllers in cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Liu, Dan; Yang, Zhengyan; Guo, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Central and sympathetic nervous systems govern functional activities of many organs. Solid tumors like organs are also innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers. Neurotransmitters released from sympathetic nerve fibers can modulate biological behaviors of tumor cells. Multiple physiologic processes of tumor development may be dominated by central and sympathetic nervous systems as well. Recent studies suggest that dysfunction of central and sympathetic nervous systems and disorder of the hormone network induced by psychological stress may influence malignant progression of cancer by inhibiting the functions of immune system, regulating metabolic reprogramming of tumor cells, and inducing interactions between tumor and stromal cells. Over-release of inflammatory cytokines by tumors may aggravate emotional disorder, triggering the vicious cycles in tumor microenvironment and host macroenvironment. It is reasonable to hypothesize that cancer progression may be controlled by central and sympathetic nervous systems. In this review, we will focus on the recent information about the impacts of central and sympathetic nervous systems on tumor invasion and metastasis.

  15. Initial Results of Using Daily CT Localization to Correct Portal Error in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattanzi, Joseph; McNeely, Shawn; Barnes, Scott; Das, Indra; Schultheiss, Timothy E; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of daily CT simulation in prostate cancer to correct errors in portal placement and organ motion. Improved localization with this technique should allow the reduction of target margins and facilitate dose escalation in high risk patients while minimizing the risk of normal tissue morbidity. Methods and Materials : Five patients underwent standard CT simulation with the alpha cradle cast, IV contrast, and urethrogram. All were initially treated to 46 Gy in a four field conformal technique which included the prostate, seminal vesicles and pelvic lymph nodes (GTV 1 ). The prostate or prostate and seminal vesicles (GTV 2 ) then received 56 Gy with a 1.0 cm margin to the PTV. At 50 Gy a second CT simulation was performed with IV contrast, urethrogram and the alpha cradle secured to a rigid sliding board. The prostate was contoured, a new isocenter generated, and surface markers placed. Prostate only treatment portals for the final conedown (GTV 3 ) were created with 0.25 cm isodose margins to the PTV. The final six fractions in 2 patients with favorable disease and eight fractions in 3 patients with unfavorable disease were delivered using the daily CT technique. On each treatment day the patient was placed in his cast on the sliding board and a CT scan performed. The daily isocenter was calculated in the A/P and lateral dimension and compared to the 50 Gy CT simulation isocenter. Couch and surface marker shifts were calculated to produce perfect portal alignment. To maintain positioning, the patient was transferred to a gurney while on the sliding board in his cast, transported to the treatment room and then transferred to the treatment couch. The patient was then treated to the corrected isocenter. Portal films and real time images were obtained for each portal. Results: Utilizing CT-CT image registration (fusion) of the daily and 50 Gy baseline CT scans the isocenter changes were quantified to reflect the contribution of positional

  16. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a..., and the Director, CDC, regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The... National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program; presentations on outcomes of Care Coordination...

  17. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC) In accordance with section 10(a... detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national.... Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised...

  18. Photoirradiation system with depth optical dosimetry control in initial oxygen saturation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintanar, L.; Stolik, S.; Rosa, J. de la; Moreno, E.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy is a technique in which a photosensitizing substance is applied that is activated by light and it generates reactive oxygen species which cause selective cell destruction. The efficiency of the therapy is affected by the parameters dose. In this work it is shown a photo-irradiation system for superficial Photodynamic Therapy, using as a light source a light emitting diode with an automatic control of optical power based on a model of the distribution of light in depth that was tested in tissue phantoms. It also has a reflective pulse oximeter for the measurement of the initial oxygen saturation. (Author)

  19. Changes in Initial Treatment for Prostate Cancer Among Medicare Beneficiaries, 1999–2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinan, Michaela A.; Robinson, Timothy J.; Zagar, Timothy M.; Scales, Charles D.; Curtis, Lesley H.; Reed, Shelby D.; Lee, W. Robert; Schulman, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the absence of evidence from large clinical trials, optimal therapy for localized prostate cancer remains unclear; however, treatment patterns continue to change. We examined changes in the management of patients with prostate cancer in the Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective claims-based analysis of the use of radiation therapy, surgery, and androgen deprivation therapy in the 12 months after diagnosis of prostate cancer in a nationally representative 5% sample of Medicare claims. Patients were Medicare beneficiaries 67 years or older with incident prostate cancer diagnosed between 1999 and 2007. Results: There were 20,918 incident cases of prostate cancer between 1999 and 2007. The proportion of patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy decreased from 55% to 36%, and the proportion of patients receiving no active therapy increased from 16% to 23%. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the most common method of radiation therapy, accounting for 77% of external beam radiotherapy by 2007. Minimally invasive radical prostatectomy began to replace open surgical approaches, being used in 49% of radical prostatectomies by 2007. Conclusions: Between 2002 and 2007, the use of androgen deprivation therapy decreased, open surgical approaches were largely replaced by minimally invasive radical prostatectomy, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy replaced three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy as the predominant method of radiation therapy in the Medicare population. The aging of the population and the increasing use of newer, higher-cost technologies in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer may have important implications for nationwide health care costs.

  20. Initiating Childhood Cancer Treatment in Rural Rwanda: A Partnership-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulac, Sara; Mark Munyaneza, Richard B; Chai, Jeanne; Bigirimana, Jean Bosco; Nyishime, Merab; Tapela, Neo; Chaffee, Sara; Lehmann, Leslie; Shulman, Lawrence N

    2016-05-01

    More than 85% of pediatric cancer cases and 95% of deaths occur in resource-poor countries that use less than 5% of the world's health resources. In the developed world, approximately 81% of children with cancer can be cured. Models applicable in the most resource-poor settings are needed to address global inequities in pediatric cancer treatment. Between 2006 and 2011, a cohort of children received cancer therapy using a new approach in rural Rwanda. Children were managed by a team of a Rwandan generalist doctor, Rwandan nurse case manager, Rwanda-based US-trained pediatrician, and US-based pediatric oncologist. Biopsies and staging studies were obtained in-country. Pathologic diagnoses were made at US or European laboratories. Rwanda-based clinicians and the pediatric oncologist jointly generated treatment plans by telephone and email. Treatment was provided to 24 patients. Diagnoses included lymphomas (n = 10), sarcomas (n = 9), leukemias (n = 2), and other malignancies (n = 3). Standard chemotherapy regimens included CHOP, ABVD, VA, COP/COMP, and actino-VAC. Thirteen patients were in remission at the completion of data collection. Two succumbed to treatment complications and nine had progressive disease. There were no patients who abandoned treatment. The mean overall survival was 31 months and mean disease-free survival was 18 months. These data suggest that chemotherapy can be administered with curative intent to a subset of cancer patients in this setting. This approach provides a platform for pediatric cancer care models, relying on local physicians collaborating with remote specialist consultants to deliver subspecialty care in resource-poor settings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Role of heterozygous APC mutation in niche succession and initiation of colorectal cancer--a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roschen Sasikumar

    Full Text Available Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene are found in most colorectal cancers. They cause constitutive activation of proliferative pathways when both alleles of the gene are mutated. However studies on individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP have shown that a single mutated APC allele can also create changes in the precancerous colon crypt, like increased number of stem cells, increased crypt fission, greater variability of DNA methylation patterns, and higher somatic mutation rates. In this paper, using a computational model of colon crypt dynamics, we evolve and investigate a hypothesis on the effect of heterozygous APC mutation that explains these different observations. Based on previous reports and the results from the computational model we propose the hypothesis that heterozygous APC mutation has the effect of increasing the chances for a stem cell to divide symmetrically, producing two stem cell daughters. We incorporate this hypothesis into the model and perform simulation experiments to investigate the consequences of the hypothesis. Simulations show that this hypothesis links together the changes in FAP crypts observed in previous studies. The simulations also show that an APC(+/- stem cell gets selective advantages for dominating the crypt and progressing to cancer. This explains why most colon cancers are initiated by APC mutation. The results could have implications for preventing or retarding the onset of colon cancer in people with inherited or acquired mutation of one APC allele. Experimental validation of the hypothesis as well as investigation into the molecular mechanisms of this effect may therefore be worth undertaking.

  2. [Conversion Therapy of Initially Unresectable Rectal Cancer with Perforation via FOLFOX4 Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chizu; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Nitta, Hiroshi; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Omoto, Hideyuki; Kamata, Shigeyuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of perforated rectal cancer that became curatively resectable after FOLFOX4 chemotherapy. An 81- year-old woman was transferred to our hospital with a diagnosis of bowel perforation. She underwent emergency transverse colostomy, peritoneal lavage, and the insertion of indwelling drainage tubes, because the perforated rectal cancer was considered unresectable. After recuperation, she received chemotherapy consisting of FOLFOX4 and bevacizumab. Owing to a good response to the treatment after 4 months, rectal resection was achieved curatively. Wound dehiscence occurred as a postoperative complication. The patient chose not to receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Currently, she has been alive for more than 1 year 3 months after resection without recurrence.

  3. Single Jejunum Metastasis from Breast Cancer Arising Twelve Years after the Initial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic involvement of gastrointestinal tract from breast cancer is a rare event. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman presenting with bowel obstruction, related to metastasis of a primary breast cancer she had 12 years earlier (a triple-negative invasive ductal carcinoma treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Bowel obstruction was caused by a 20-centimeter tumor in the jejunum, involving also the transverse colon. The patient underwent en bloc resection of tumor with jejunum and transverse bowel segment and received adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Twenty months later, she was alive without disease recurrence.

  4. The link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease phenotypes and histological subtypes of lung cancer: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,* Mengshuang Xie,* Shuang Dou, Liwei Cui, Chunyan Zheng, Wei Xiao Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD is considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer. COPD and lung cancer are both very heterogeneous diseases, and the study herein investigates the link between COPD phenotypes and specific histological subtypes of lung cancer.Methods: This case–control study comprised 2,283 patients with newly diagnosed pathological lung cancer and 2,323 non-lung cancer controls. All participants underwent pulmonary function tests. The diagnosis of COPD was based on Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Subtypes of the two diseases were categorized according to 2015 World Health Organization classification of lung cancer and computer quantification of airway collapse on maximum expiratory flow volume. ORs were estimated using logistic regression analysis.Results: The prevalence of COPD was higher (32.8% in lung cancer patients compared to controls (16.0%. After adjustment for age, sex, body-mass index, and smoking status, the presence of COPD significantly increased the risk of lung cancer (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.48–3.34 and all common histological subtypes (ORs 2.04–5.26. Both emphysema-predominant and non-emphysema-predominant phenotypes of COPD significantly increased the risk of lung cancer (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.85–6.88; OR 2.82, 95% CI 2.40–3.31. Higher risk of squamous-cell carcinoma and small-cell lung cancer was observed in patients with the emphysema-predominant than the non-emphysema-predominant phenotype (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03–2.89; OR 3.74, 95% CI 1.64–8.53. Conclusion: COPD was an independent risk factor for lung cancer and all common histological subtypes. Both emphysema-predominant and non-emphysema-predominant phenotypes of COPD significantly increased the risk of lung cancer

  5. Duration of Adulthood Overweight, Obesity, and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative: A Longitudinal Study from the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Arnold

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High body mass index (BMI has become the leading risk factor of disease burden in high-income countries. While recent studies have suggested that the risk of cancer related to obesity is mediated by time, insights into the dose-response relationship and the cumulative impact of overweight and obesity during the life course on cancer risk remain scarce. To our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the impact of adulthood overweight and obesity duration on the risk of cancer in a large cohort of postmenopausal women.Participants from the observational study of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI with BMI information from at least three occasions during follow-up, free of cancer at baseline, and with complete covariate information were included (n = 73,913. Trajectories of BMI across ages were estimated using a quadratic growth model; overweight duration (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, obesity duration (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, and weighted cumulative overweight and obese years, which take into account the degree of overweight and obesity over time (a measure similar to pack-years of cigarette smoking, were calculated using predicted BMIs. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to determine the cancer risk associated with overweight and obesity duration. In secondary analyses, the influence of important effect modifiers and confounders, such as smoking status, postmenopausal hormone use, and ethnicity, was assessed. A longer duration of overweight was significantly associated with the incidence of all obesity-related cancers (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-y increment: 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.09. For postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer, every 10-y increase in adulthood overweight duration was associated with a 5% and 17% increase in risk, respectively. On adjusting for intensity of overweight, these figures rose to 8% and 37%, respectively. Risks of postmenopausal breast and endometrial cancer related to overweight duration were much more pronounced in women

  6. Implementing a screening tool for identifying patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: a statewide initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon Traxler, L; Martin, Monique L; Kerber, Alice S; Bellcross, Cecelia A; Crane, Barbara E; Green, Victoria; Matthews, Roland; Paris, Nancy M; Gabram, Sheryl G A

    2014-10-01

    The Georgia Breast Cancer Genomic Health Consortium is a partnership created with funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to the Georgia Department of Public Health to reduce cancer disparities among high-risk minority women. The project addresses young women at increased risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome through outreach efforts. The consortium provides education and collects surveillance data using the breast cancer genetics referral screening tool (B-RST) available at www.BreastCancerGeneScreen.org . The HBOC educational protocol was presented to 73 staff in 6 public health centers. Staff used the tool during the collection of medical history. Further family history assessments and testing for mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes were facilitated if appropriate. Data was collected from November 2012 through December 2013, including 2,159 screened women. The majority of patients identified as black/African American and were 18-49 years old. Also, 6.0 % (n = 130) had positive screens, and 60.9 % (n = 67) of the 110 patients who agreed to be contacted provided a detailed family history. A total of 47 patients (42.7 %) met National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines when family history was clarified. Fourteen (12.7 %) underwent genetic testing; 1 patient was positive for a BRCA2 mutation, and 1 patient was found to carry a variant of uncertain significance. The introduction of genomics practice within public health departments has provided access to comprehensive cancer care for uninsured individuals. The successful implementation of the B-RST into public health centers demonstrates the opportunity for integration of HBOC screening into primary care practices.

  7. Radiosensitivity of cancer-initiating cells and normal stem cells (or what the Heisenberg uncertainly principle has to do with biology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Wendy Ann; Bristow, Robert Glen

    2009-04-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that parallels between normal stem cell biology and cancer biology may provide new targets for cancer therapy. Prospective identification and isolation of cancer-initiating cells from solid tumors has promoted the descriptive and functional identification of these cells allowing for characterization of their response to contemporary cancer therapies, including chemotherapy and radiation. In clinical radiation therapy, the failure to clinically eradicate all tumor cells (eg, a lack of response, partial response, or nonpermanent complete response by imaging) is considered a treatment failure. As such, biologists have explored the characteristics of the small population of clonogenic cancer cells that can survive and are capable of repopulating the tumor after subcurative therapy. Herein, we discuss the convergence of these clonogenic studies with contemporary radiosensitivity studies that use cell surface markers to identify cancer-initiating cells. Implications for and uncertainties regarding incorporation of these concepts into the practice of modern radiation oncology are discussed.

  8. Predicting Recurrence and Progression of Noninvasive Papillary Bladder Cancer at Initial Presentation Based on Quantitative Gene Expression Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkhahn, M.; Mitra, A.P.; Williams, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Currently, tumor grade is the best predictor of outcome at first presentation of noninvasive papillary (Ta) bladder cancer. However, reliable predictors of Ta tumor recurrence and progression for individual patients, which could optimize treatment and follow-up schedules based...... on specific tumor biology, are yet to be identified. Objective: To identify genes predictive for recurrence and progression in Ta bladder cancer at first presentation using a quantitative, pathway-specific approach. Design, setting, and participants: Retrospective study of patients with Ta G2/3 bladder tumors...... at initial presentation with three distinct clinical outcomes: absence of recurrence (n = 16), recurrence without progression (n = 16), and progression to carcinoma in situ or invasive disease (n = 16). Measurements: Expressions of 24 genes that feature in relevant pathways that are deregulated in bladder...

  9. Polarization control of spontaneous emission for rapid quantum-state initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, C. S.; Rangan, C.

    2017-04-01

    We propose an efficient method to selectively enhance the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum system by changing the polarization of an incident control field, and exploiting the polarization dependence of the system's spontaneous emission rate. This differs from the usual Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission rates as it can be selectively turned on and off. Using a three-level Λ system in a quantum dot placed in between two silver nanoparticles and a linearly polarized, monochromatic driving field, we present a protocol for rapid quantum state initialization, while maintaining long coherence times for control operations. This process increases the overall amount of time that a quantum system can be effectively utilized for quantum operations, and presents a key advance in quantum computing.

  10. Control and initial operation of the Fermilab BO low β insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, D.A.; Johnson, R.P.; Willeke, F.

    1985-06-01

    The operation of the Fermilab BO low β insertion involves the coordinated control of the 4 strings of quadrupoles of the insertion itself along with several magnetic correction elements (20 dipoles for the closed orbit, 2 quad circuits for betatron tunes, 1 skew quad circuit for coupling, and 2 sextupole circuits for chromaticity). When the beam is stored at high energy, these elements must correct the errors induced by the strong superconducting quadrupoles of the insertion as the optics are smoothly changed from the fixed target configuration to the low β state. The techniques and control programs for these manipulations and initial tests using a single coasting beam are described. 6 refs., 4 figs

  11. Identification and Targeting of Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    University) "Effectors of the DNA damage and radiotherapy response in cancer" 9:20 pm - 9:30 pm Discussion TUESDAY 7:30 am - 8:30 am Breakfast 9:00...M. Morris , Hideki Onagi, Timothy M. Altamore, Allan B. Gamble, Christopher J. Easton Prohormone-substrate peptide sequence recognition by

  12. Working Alliance and Vocational Outcomes for Cancer Survivors: An Initial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the sex differences in the perception of working alliance and the perceptions of optimism regarding future employment and job satisfaction with adult cancer survivors receiving vocational rehabilitation services. No significant differences were found between males and females in terms of the three components of the working…

  13. The initial development of the 'Cancer Caregiving Tasks, Consequences and Needs Questionnaire' (CaTCoN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Grønvold, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    To develop a questionnaire for cancer patients' informal caregivers, measuring the caregiving tasks and consequences, and the caregivers' needs with a main focus on the interaction with the health care professionals. Such an instrument is needed to evaluate the efforts directed towards caregivers...

  14. Exercise recommendations for childhood cancer survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies: an institutional clinical practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Meeske, Kathleen A; Menteer, Jondavid; Freyer, David R

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have received treatment with anthracyclines are at risk for developing cardiomyopathy in dose-dependent fashion. Historically, restrictions on certain types of physical activity that were intended to preserve cardiac function have been recommended, based on a mixture of evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. In the LIFE Cancer Survivorship & Transition Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, the authors reevaluated their recommendations for exercise in survivors who were exposed to anthracyclines, with or without irradiation in proximity to the myocardium. The primary goal was to develop consistent, specific, practical, safe, and (where possible) evidence-based recommendations for at-risk survivors in the program. To accomplish this, the authors referred to current exercise guidelines for childhood cancer survivors, consulted recent literature for relevant populations, and obtained input from the program's pediatric cardiology consultant. The resulting risk-based exercise recommendations are designed to complement current published guidelines, maximize safe exercise, and help childhood cancer survivors return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. This article describes a single institution's experience in modifying exercise recommendations for at-risk childhood survivors and includes the methods, findings, and current institutional practice recommendations along with sample education materials.

  15. Uterine cervical cancer. Usefulness of MR imaging after the initial radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Mori, Hiromu; Matsumoto, Akira; Yoshida, Shintaro; Wakisaka, Masaki; Komatsu, Eiji; Tashiro, Makoto; Hori, Yuko.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing residual or recurrent tumors of cervical cancer after radiation therapy, we investigated the time difference between MRI and gynecologic findings in the diagnosis of residual or recurrent tumor in 12 patients with invasive cervical cancer. We defined a positive finding for residual or recurrent tumor as an uterine cervical mass isointense to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and when a positive biopsy specimen was obtained. Two patients were diagnosed as having a residual or recurrent tumor by MRI. Positivity was demonstrated four and seven months later, respectively. MRI was more useful in the earlier diagnosis of residual or recurrent tumor of cervical cancer after radiation therapy than uterine biopsy. There was one patient whose differentiation from residual tumor or radiation-induced necrosis or inflammation on MRI was difficult. MRI and gynecologic check-up at a regular interval after radiation therapy was needed to distinguish them. One patient was diagnosed as having a recurrent tumor by gynecologic finding three months earlier than by MRI. Follow-up MRI examinations at a regular interval in addition to gynecologic examination is necessary for the early detection of recurrent cervical cancer after radiation therapy. (author)

  16. Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Robert U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been substantial increase in use of androgen deprivation therapy as adjuvant management of prostate cancer. However, this leads to a range of musculoskeletal toxicities including reduced bone mass and increased skeletal fractures compounded with rapid metabolic alterations, including increased body fat, reduced lean mass, insulin resistance and negative lipoprotein profile, increased incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, greater distress and reduced quality of life. Numerous research studies have demonstrated certain exercise prescriptions to be effective at preventing or even reversing these treatment toxicities. However, all interventions to date have been of rehabilitative intent being implemented after a minimum of 3 months since initiation of androgen deprivation, by which time considerable physical and psychological health problems have manifested. The pressing question is whether it is more efficacious to commence exercise therapy at the same time as initiating androgen deprivation, so treatment induced adverse effects can be immediately attenuated or indeed prevented. Methods/design We are proposing a multi-site randomized controlled trial with partial crossover to examine the effects of timing of exercise implementation (immediate or delayed on preserving long-term skeletal health, reversing short- and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and supporting mental health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. 124 men who are about to initiate androgen deprivation for prostate cancer will be randomized to immediate or delayed groups. Immediate will commence a 6-month exercise program within 7–10 days of their first dose. Delayed will receive usual care for 6 months and then commence the exercise program for 6 months (partial cross-over. Immediate will be free to adopt the lifestyle of their choosing following the initial 6-month intervention. Measurements for primary and

  17. Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, Robert U; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Cormie, Prue; Chambers, Suzanne K; Gardiner, Robert A; Shum, David HK; Joseph, David; Galvão, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    There has been substantial increase in use of androgen deprivation therapy as adjuvant management of prostate cancer. However, this leads to a range of musculoskeletal toxicities including reduced bone mass and increased skeletal fractures compounded with rapid metabolic alterations, including increased body fat, reduced lean mass, insulin resistance and negative lipoprotein profile, increased incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, greater distress and reduced quality of life. Numerous research studies have demonstrated certain exercise prescriptions to be effective at preventing or even reversing these treatment toxicities. However, all interventions to date have been of rehabilitative intent being implemented after a minimum of 3 months since initiation of androgen deprivation, by which time considerable physical and psychological health problems have manifested. The pressing question is whether it is more efficacious to commence exercise therapy at the same time as initiating androgen deprivation, so treatment induced adverse effects can be immediately attenuated or indeed prevented. We are proposing a multi-site randomized controlled trial with partial crossover to examine the effects of timing of exercise implementation (immediate or delayed) on preserving long-term skeletal health, reversing short- and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and supporting mental health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. 124 men who are about to initiate androgen deprivation for prostate cancer will be randomized to immediate or delayed groups. Immediate will commence a 6-month exercise program within 7–10 days of their first dose. Delayed will receive usual care for 6 months and then commence the exercise program for 6 months (partial cross-over). Immediate will be free to adopt the lifestyle of their choosing following the initial 6-month intervention. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6

  18. Perspectives on Strengthening Cancer Research and Control in Latin America Through Partnerships and Diplomacy: Experience of the National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Frech

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Pan American Health Organization, noncommunicable diseases, including cancer, are the leading causes of preventable and premature death in the Americas. Governments and health care systems in Latin America face numerous challenges as a result of increasing morbidity and mortality from cancer. Multiple international organizations have recognized the need for collaborative action on and technical support for cancer research and control in Latin America. The Center for Global Health at the US National Cancer Institute (NCI-CGH is one entity among many that are working in the region and has sought to develop a strategy for working in Latin America that draws on and expands the collaborative potential of engaged, skilled, and diverse partners. NCI-CGH has worked toward developing and implementing initiatives in collaboration with global partners that share the common objectives of building a global cancer research community and translating research results into evidence-informed policy and practice. Both objectives are complementary and synergistic and are additionally supported by an overarching strategic framework that is focused on partnerships and science diplomacy. This work highlights the overall strategy for NCI-CGH engagement in Latin America through partnerships and diplomacy, and highlights selected collaborative efforts that are aimed at improving cancer outcomes in the region.

  19. Low-cost autonomous orbit control about Mars: Initial simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S. D.; Early, L. W.; Potterveld, C. W.; Königsmann, H. J.

    1999-11-01

    Interest in studying the possibility of extraterrestrial life has led to the re-emergence of the Red Planet as a major target of planetary exploration. Currently proposed missions in the post-2000 period are routinely calling for rendezvous with ascent craft, long-term orbiting of, and sample-return from Mars. Such missions would benefit greatly from autonomous orbit control as a means to reduce operations costs and enable contact with Mars ground stations out of view of the Earth. This paper present results from initial simulations of autonomously controlled orbits around Mars, and points out possible uses of the technology and areas of routine Mars operations where such cost-conscious and robust autonomy could prove most effective. These simulations have validated the approach and control philosophies used in the development of this autonomous orbit controller. Future work will refine the controller, accounting for systematic and random errors in the navigation of the spacecraft from the sensor suite, and will produce prototype flight code for inclusion on future missions. A modified version of Microcosm's commercially available High Precision Orbit Propagator (HPOP) was used in the preparation of these results due to its high accuracy and speed of operation. Control laws were developed to allow an autonomously controlled spacecraft to continuously control to a pre-defined orbit about Mars with near-optimal propellant usage. The control laws were implemented as an adjunct to HPOP. The GSFC-produced 50 × 50 field model of the Martian gravitational potential was used in all simulations. The Martian atmospheric drag was modeled using an exponentially decaying atmosphere based on data from the Mars-GRAM NASA Ames model. It is hoped that the simple atmosphere model that was implemented can be significantly improved in the future so as to approach the fidelity of the Mars-GRAM model in its predictions of atmospheric density at orbital altitudes. Such additional work

  20. Clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Irfan; Sefvan, Omer; Luqman, Uzair; Ibrahim, Waseem; Mehmood, Sana; Alamgir, Wajiha

    2010-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. Early diagnosis ensures better prognosis. Late diagnosis is however common around the world and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality related to oral cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. This retrospective study was carried out on 334 oral cancer patients who presented to the outdoor departments of Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2008 to December 2009. The records that were reviewed included history and clinical examination findings. OPG and CT scans of the head and neck region, chest X-rays, abdominal ultrasounds and liver function tests. Size of the primary tumour, the size, number and laterality of the involved cervical lymph nodes and the presence/absence of distant metastases were documented and statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Out of the 334 patients, 203 (60.8%) were males and 131 (39.2%) females. The age range was from 21 to 88 years. Buccal mucosa was the most commonly involved site (32%). The primary tumour was 4 Cm or more in size, (T3/T4) 71.25% of the cases. Cervical lymph nodes were involved in 211 patients (63.2%) and distant metastases were present in 39 patients (11.7%). Overall, clinical stage IV was the most common (57.18%) followed by stage III (24.55%), stage II (13.77%) and stage I (4.49%). Oral cancers are diagnosed late (Stage III and IV) in Pakistan and need immediate public and professional attention.

  1. Clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of initial diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Sefvan, O.; Luqman, Z.; Ibrahim, W.; Mehmood, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common oral cancer. Early diagnosis ensures better prognosis. Late diagnosis is however common around the world and contributes to the high morbidity and mortality related to oral cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical stage of oral cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on 334 oral cancer patients who presented to the outdoor departments of Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from July 2008 to December 2009. The records that were reviewed included history and clinical examination findings, OPG and CT scans of the head and neck region, chest X-rays, abdominal ultrasounds and liver function tests. Size of the primary tumour, the size, number and laterality of the involved cervical lymph nodes and the presence/absence of distant metastases were documented and statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Results: Out of the 334 patients, 203 (60.8%) were males and 131 (39.2%) females. The age range was from 21 to 88 years. Buccal mucosa was the most commonly involved site (32 %). The primary tumour was 4 Cm or more in size, (T3/T4) 71.25% of the cases. Cervical lymph nodes were involved in 211 patients (63.2%) and distant metastases were present in 39 patients (11.7%). Overall, clinical stage IV was the most common (57.18%) followed by stage III(24.55%), stage II (13.77%) and stage I (4.49%). Conclusion: Oral cancers are diagnosed late (Stage III and IV) in Pakistan and need immediate public and professional attention. (author)

  2. Delineating an Epigenetic Continuum for Initiation, Transformation and Progression to Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K. [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Raju, Usha [Department of Pathology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Worsham, Maria J., E-mail: mworsha1@hfhs.org [Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, 1 Ford Place, 1D, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2011-03-29

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is a hallmark of human cancers and is an early event in carcinogenesis. We examined whether promoter hypermethylation contributes to the pathogenesis of benign breast lesions along a progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. The exploratory study cohort comprised 17 breast cancer patients with multiple benign and/or in situ lesions concurrently present with invasive carcinoma within a tumor biopsy. DNA from tumor tissue, normal breast epithelium when present, benign lesions (fibroadenoma, hyperplasia, papilloma, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia or atypical ductal hyperplasia), and in situ lesions of lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma were interrogated for promoter methylation status in 22 tumor suppressor genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Methylation specific PCR was performed to confirm hypermethylation detected by MS-MLPA. Promoter methylation was detected in 11/22 tumor suppressor genes in 16/17 cases. Hypermethylation of RASSF1 was most frequent, present in 14/17 cases, followed by APC in 12/17, and GSTP1 in 9/17 cases with establishment of an epigenetic monocloncal progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. Hypermethylated promoter regions in normal breast epithelium, benign, and premalignant lesions within the same tumor biopsy implicate RASSF1, APC, GSTP1, TIMP3, CDKN2B, CDKN2A, ESR1, CDH13, RARB, CASP8, and TP73 as early events. DNA hypermethylation underlies the pathogenesis of step-wise transformation along a monoclonal continuum from normal to preneoplasia to invasive breast cancer.

  3. Delineating an Epigenetic Continuum for Initiation, Transformation and Progression to Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kang Mei; Stephen, Josena K.; Raju, Usha; Worsham, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter CpG islands is a hallmark of human cancers and is an early event in carcinogenesis. We examined whether promoter hypermethylation contributes to the pathogenesis of benign breast lesions along a progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. The exploratory study cohort comprised 17 breast cancer patients with multiple benign and/or in situ lesions concurrently present with invasive carcinoma within a tumor biopsy. DNA from tumor tissue, normal breast epithelium when present, benign lesions (fibroadenoma, hyperplasia, papilloma, sclerosing adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia or atypical ductal hyperplasia), and in situ lesions of lobular carcinoma and ductal carcinoma were interrogated for promoter methylation status in 22 tumor suppressor genes using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (MS-MLPA). Methylation specific PCR was performed to confirm hypermethylation detected by MS-MLPA. Promoter methylation was detected in 11/22 tumor suppressor genes in 16/17 cases. Hypermethylation of RASSF1 was most frequent, present in 14/17 cases, followed by APC in 12/17, and GSTP1 in 9/17 cases with establishment of an epigenetic monocloncal progression continuum to invasive breast cancer. Hypermethylated promoter regions in normal breast epithelium, benign, and premalignant lesions within the same tumor biopsy implicate RASSF1, APC, GSTP1, TIMP3, CDKN2B, CDKN2A, ESR1, CDH13, RARB, CASP8, and TP73 as early events. DNA hypermethylation underlies the pathogenesis of step-wise transformation along a monoclonal continuum from normal to preneoplasia to invasive breast cancer

  4. Use of Bone Scan During Initial Prostate Cancer Workup, Downstream Procedures, and Associated Medicare Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Salloum, Ramzi G. [Department of Health Services Policy and Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with a high likelihood of having metastatic disease (high-risk prostate cancer), bone scan is the standard, guideline-recommended test to look for bony metastasis. We quantified the use of bone scans and downstream procedures, along with associated costs, in patients with high-risk prostate cancer, and their use in low- and intermediate-risk patients for whom these tests are not recommended. Methods and Materials: Patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database diagnosed with prostate cancer from 2004 to 2007 were included. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical T stage were used to define D'Amico risk categories. We report use of bone scans from the date of diagnosis to the earlier of treatment or 6 months. In patients who underwent bone scans, we report use of bone-specific x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and bone biopsy within 3 months after bone scan. Costs were estimated using 2012 Medicare reimbursement rates. Results: In all, 31% and 48% of patients with apparent low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer underwent a bone scan; of these patients, 21% underwent subsequent x-rays, 7% CT, and 3% MRI scans. Bone biopsies were uncommon. Overall, <1% of low- and intermediate-risk patients were found to have metastatic disease. The annual estimated Medicare cost for bone scans and downstream procedures was $11,300,000 for low- and intermediate-risk patients. For patients with apparent high-risk disease, only 62% received a bone scan, of whom 14% were found to have metastasis. Conclusions: There is overuse of bone scans in patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers, which is unlikely to yield clinically actionable information and results in a potential Medicare waste. However, there is underuse of bone scans in high-risk patients for whom metastasis is likely.

  5. Preoperative radium therapy and radical hysterectomy in the treatment of cervical cancer stage IB, IIA, and initial IIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salum, Resalla; Lopes, Edison R.; Souza, Maria A.H. de

    1995-01-01

    Patients with IB, IIa and in initial IIb cervical cancer were randomized for combined therapy, consisting of one or two radium insertion followed by Wertheim Meigs operation performed 40 days later. We look for the early and late complications of the treatment, residual cancer after radiotherapy and survival without recurrence. The project begin in 1965 and ended in 1986. All the operations were done by one of the investigators and 116 patients were analysed. The age ranged from 21 to 75 years with an average of 4.18 years. During the operations 31 (26.72%) patients needed 1.500 cc or greater amount of blood transfusion and we have 3 iliac veins lesions. Managing the ureters, we do our best to leave the posterior fascia as intact as possible. Post operative complications ranged from minor (fever, localised pelvic infections, temporary popliteal nerve paralysis) to evisceration (3 patients) deep venous thrombosis (3 patients) and two early urinary fistulas. Late complications were seen in patients submitted to sequential teletherapy irradiation. One uretrovaginal fistula occurred 10 month after treatment, another one, 7 years later and the third one 24 years later. One patient develop hydronefrosis and enterocolite after 7.000 rads of teletherapy and another one rectovaginal fistula 13 years after initial therapy. The shortening of the vagina making impossible the intercourse was seen in 7 patients. By the histological examination, the cervix was sterilized in 73.3 % of the patients. Residual cancer was found according the original size of the tumour and the stage of the disease. Studying different combinations between the existence of residual cervical cancer with positive or negative limphnodes and making a correlation with survival, we found the critical points is to have positive cervix and [positive lymphonodes. The five years survival (life table methodology) for stage 1 lesion was 96%; stage II, 67%. At ten years survival was slighted different. With positive

  6. Effect of providing cancer patients with the audiotaped initial consultation on satisfaction, recall, and quality of life: a randomized, double-blind study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, L. M.; Visser, M. R.; Lammes, F. B.; van der Velden, J.; Kuenen, B. C.; de Haes, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: By means of a randomized double-blind study, the effect of providing taped initial consultations on cancer patients' satisfaction, recall, and quality of life was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive cancer patients referred to either the gynecology or medical oncology outpatient

  7. Evaluating the experiences and support needs of people living with chronic cancer: development and initial validation of the Chronic Cancer Experiences Questionnaire (CCEQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Clare; Pini, Simon; Kenyon, Lucille; Daffu-O'Reilly, Amrit; Velikova, Galina

    2016-08-10

    Many advanced cancers are managed as chronic diseases, yet there are currently no international guidelines for the support of patients living with chronic cancer. It is important to understand whether care and service arrangements meet the needs of this rapidly growing patient group. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire to capture patients' experiences of living with chronic cancer and their views of clinical and support services. The research was carried out between 1 July 2010 and 21 February 2013. A conceptual framework and initial item bank were derived from prior interviews with 56 patients with chronic cancer. Items were reviewed by 4 oncologists and 1 clinical nurse specialist and during 2 focus groups with 9 patients. Pilot questionnaires were completed by 416 patients across 5 cancer units. Item selection and scale reliability was explored using descriptive data, exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency analyses, multitrait scaling analyses and known-groups comparisons. The final Chronic Cancer Experiences Questionnaire (CCEQ) includes 75 items. 62 items contribute to 14 subscales with internal consistency between α 0·68-0·88 and minimal scaling errors. Known-groups comparisons confirmed subscale utility in distinguishing between patient groups. Subscales were labelled: managing appointments, coordination of care, general practitioner involvement, clinical trials, information and questions, making treatment decisions, symptom non-reporting, key worker, limitations, sustaining normality, financial advice, worries and anxieties, sharing feelings with others, and accessing support. 13 items assessing symptom experiences were retained as single items. The CCEQ has the potential to be used as a clinical instrument to assess patient experiences of chronic cancer or to screen for patient needs. It may also be used as an outcome measure for evaluating programmes and models of care and may identify areas for service development that

  8. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition.

  9. Project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems, retrieval control system software configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIECK, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP) provides the instructions for change control of the W-211 Project, Retrieval Control System (RCS) software after initial approval/release but prior to the transfer of custody to the waste tank operations contractor. This plan applies to the W-211 system software developed by the project, consisting of the computer human-machine interface (HMI) and programmable logic controller (PLC) software source and executable code, for production use by the waste tank operations contractor. The plan encompasses that portion of the W-211 RCS software represented on project-specific AUTOCAD drawings that are released as part of the C1 definitive design package (these drawings are identified on the drawing list associated with each C-1 package), and the associated software code. Implementation of the plan is required for formal acceptance testing and production release. The software configuration management plan does not apply to reports and data generated by the software except where specifically identified. Control of information produced by the software once it has been transferred for operation is the responsibility of the receiving organization

  10. Prognostic factors of a good response to initial therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vaisman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic approaches in pediatric populations are based on adult data because there is a lack of appropriate data for children. Consequently, there are many controversies regarding the proper treatment of pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed before 20 years of age and to determine the factors associated with the response to the initial therapy. METHODS: Sixty-five patients, treated in two tertiary-care referral centers in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 2005 were evaluated. Information about clinical presentation and the response to initial treatment was analyzed and patients had their risk stratified in Tumor-Node- Metastasis; Age-Metastasis-Extracapsular-Size; distant Metastasis-Age-Completeness of primary tumor resection-local Invasion-Size and American-Thyroid-Association classification RESULTS: Patients ages ranged from 4 to 20 years (median 14. The mean follow-up was 12,6 years. Lymph node metastasis was found in 61.5% and indicated a poor response to initial therapy, with a significant impact on time for achieving disease free status (p = 0.014 for response to initial therapy and p<0,0001 for disease-free status in follow-up. Distant metastasis was a predictor of a poor response to initial therapy in these patients (p = 0.014. The risk stratification systems we analyzed were useful for high-risk patients because they had a high sensitivity and negative predictive value in determining the response to initial therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Metastases, both lymph nodal and distant, are important predictors of the persistence of disease after initial therapy in children and adolescents with differentiated thyroid cancer.

  11. A systematic review of studies evaluating diffusion and dissemination of selected cancer control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peter; Robinson, Paula; Ciliska, Donna; Armour, Tanya; Brouwers, Melissa; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Sussman, Jonathan; Raina, Parminder

    2005-09-01

    With this review, the authors sought to determine what strategies have been evaluated (including the outcomes assessed) to disseminate cancer control interventions that promote the uptake of behavior change. Five topic areas along the cancer care continuum (smoking cessation, healthy diet, mammography, cervical cancer screening, and control of cancer pain) were selected to be representative. A systematic review was conducted of primary studies evaluating dissemination of a cancer control intervention. Thirty-one studies were identified that evaluated dissemination strategies in the 5 topic areas. No strong evidence currently exists to recommend any one dissemination strategy as effective in promoting the uptake of cancer control interventions. The authors conclude that there is a strong need for more research into dissemination of cancer control interventions. Future research should consider methodological issues such as the most appropriate study design and outcomes to be evaluated. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Anticipatory Postural Control of Stability during Gait Initiation Over Obstacles of Different Height and Distance Made Under Reaction-Time and Self-Initiated Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiou, Eric; Artico, Romain; Teyssedre, Claudine A; Labaune, Ombeline; Fourcade, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS) controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, 14 participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance and one obstacle-free (control) condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure) and self-initiated (low-pressure) movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off) center-of-mass position and velocity (or "initial center-of-mass set") on the stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral (ML) center-of-pressure shift, the initial ML center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase, of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that ML APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior (AP) component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the ML component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward center-of-mass velocity at foot

  13. ANTICIPATORY POSTURAL CONTROL OF STABILITY DURING GAIT INITIATION OVER OBSTACLES OF DIFFERENT HEIGHT AND DISTANCE MADE UNDER REACTION-TIME AND SELF-INITIATED INSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Yiou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant literature on obstacle crossing in humans, the question of how the central nervous system (CNS controls postural stability during gait initiation with the goal to clear an obstacle remains unclear. Stabilizing features of gait initiation include anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs and lateral swing foot placement. To answer the above question, fourteen participants initiated gait as fast as possible in three conditions of obstacle height, three conditions of obstacle distance, and one obstacle-free (control condition. Each of these conditions was performed with two levels of temporal pressure: reaction-time (high-pressure and self-initiated (low-pressure movements. A mechanical model of the body falling laterally under the influence of gravity and submitted to an elastic restoring force is proposed to assess the effect of initial (foot-off center-of-mass position and velocity (or initial center-of-mass set on stability at foot-contact. Results showed that the anticipatory peak of mediolateral center-of-pressure shif, the initial mediolateral center-of-mass velocity and the duration of the swing phase of gait initiation increased with obstacle height, but not with obstacle distance. These results suggest that mediolateral APAs are scaled with swing duration in order to maintain an equivalent stability across experimental conditions. This statement is strengthened by the results obtained with the mechanical model, which showed how stability would be degraded if there was no adaptation of the initial center-of-mass set to swing duration. The anteroposterior component of APAs varied also according to obstacle height and distance, but in an opposite way to the mediolateral component. Indeed, results showed that the anticipatory peak of backward center-of-pressure shift and the initial forward center-of-mass set decreased with obstacle height, probably in order to limit the risk to trip over the obstacle, while the forward

  14. Hybrid clone cells derived from human breast epithelial cells and human breast cancer cells exhibit properties of cancer stem/initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauck, Daria; Keil, Silvia; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2017-08-02

    The biological phenomenon of cell fusion has been associated with cancer progression since it was determined that normal cell × tumor cell fusion-derived hybrid cells could exhibit novel properties, such as enhanced metastatogenic capacity or increased drug resistance, and even as a mechanism that could give rise to cancer stem/initiating cells (CS/ICs). CS/ICs have been proposed as cancer cells that exhibit stem cell properties, including the ability to (re)initiate tumor growth. Five M13HS hybrid clone cells, which originated from spontaneous cell fusion events between M13SV1-EGFP-Neo human breast epithelial cells and HS578T-Hyg human breast cancer cells, and their parental cells were analyzed for expression of stemness and EMT-related marker proteins by Western blot analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The frequency of ALDH1-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry using AldeRed fluorescent dye. Concurrently, the cells' colony forming capabilities as well as the cells' abilities to form mammospheres were investigated. The migratory activity of the cells was analyzed using a 3D collagen matrix migration assay. M13HS hybrid clone cells co-expressed SOX9, SLUG, CK8 and CK14, which were differently expressed in parental cells. A variation in the ALDH1-positive putative stem cell population was observed among the five hybrids ranging from 1.44% (M13HS-7) to 13.68% (M13HS-2). In comparison to the parental cells, all five hybrid clone cells possessed increased but also unique colony formation and mammosphere formation capabilities. M13HS-4 hybrid clone cells exhibited the highest colony formation capacity and second highest mammosphere formation capacity of all hybrids, whereby the mean diameter of the mammospheres was comparable to the parental cells. In contrast, the largest mammospheres originated from the M13HS-2 hybrid clone cells, whereas these cells' mammosphere formation capacity was comparable to the parental breast cancer cells. All M13HS

  15. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  16. Initial evaluation of an electronic symptom diary for adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Christina; Gibson, Faith; Coll, Beatriz; Kletter, Richard; Zeltzer, Paul; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-12-11

    The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients' symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile application, the reasons for any missing recorded data, patients' adherence rates to daily symptom queries, and patients' perceptions of the usefulness and acceptability of symptom data collection via mobile phones. Our team developed an electronic symptom diary based on interviews conducted with AYAs with cancer and their clinicians. This diary included daily severity ratings of pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and sleep. The occurrence of other selected physical sequelae was assessed daily. Additionally, patients selected descriptors of their mood. A 3-week trial of the eDiary was conducted with 10 AYA cancer patients. Mobile phones with service plans were loaned to patients who were instructed to report their symptoms daily. Patients completed a brief questionnaire and were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of the eDiary and any technical difficulties encountered. Overall adherence to daily symptom reports exceeded 90%. Young people experienced few technical difficulties and reported benefit from daily symptom reports. Symptom occurrence rates were high and considerable inter- and intra-patient variability was noted in symptom and mood reports. We demonstrated the utility of an eDiary that may contribute insight into patients' symptom patterns to promote effective symptom management.

  17. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  18. Intervening factors for the initiation of treatment of patients with stomach and colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaína Dalla Valle

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the time between symptoms, the request for care and the beginning of treatment in patients with stomach and colorectal cancer as well as the factors that interfere in these processes. Method: correlational descriptive study, including 101 patients diagnosed with stomach or colorectal cancer, treated in a hospital specialized in oncology. Results: the 101 patients investigated there was predominance of males, mean age of 61.7 years. The search for medical care occurred within 30 days after the onset of symptoms, in most cases. The mean total time between the onset of symptoms and the beginning of treatment ranged from 15 to 16 months, and the mean time between the search for medical care and the diagnosis was 4.78 months. The family history of cancer (p=0.008 and the implementation of preventive follow-up (p<0.001 were associated with shorter periods between the search for care and the beginning of treatment. Nausea, vomiting, hematochezia, weight loss and pain were associated with faster demand for care. Conclusion: the longer interval between the search for medical care and the diagnosis was possibly due to the non-association between the presented symptoms and the disease.

  19. Changes of initiation, promotion and metastatic enzyme system in human breast cancer with the proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Y. H.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, K. S.; Mo, J. Y.

    2010-04-01

    Proton irradiations in the cells were significantly decreased cell viability but increased the QR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability was 92.3%, 88.4%, 81.8%, 72.4%, 68.9% at doses of 0.5, 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, respectively. At doses of 2, 8, 16, and 32 Gy, QR activity was increased 1.27-, 1.31-, 1.45- and 2.08-fold. However, negligible GST activity in the cells was detected and the activity was not changed by proton irradiation. Proton irradiation also increased GSH contents by 1.18- and 1.21-fold at doses of 0.5 and 2 Gy. In contrast, the ODC activity, a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis and tumor promotion, was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated anti-metastatic effects of proton beam irradiation in breast cancer cells. Invasion and wound healing assay showed that metastatic activities in breast cancer cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner by proton beam irradiation. In zymography of MMP-9, the activity was slightly diminished. These results suggest that breast cancer chemopreventive potential was increased with proton irradiation by increasing the QR activity and the GSH levels and by inhibiting the ODC activity.

  20. Random start ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation appears unlikely to delay initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Joseph M; Sinha, Nikita; Wald, Kaitlyn; Harris, Eve; Quinn, Molly; Imbar, Tal; Mok-Lin, Evelyn; Chien, A Jo; Rosen, Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Is random start ovarian stimulation associated with delays in initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer? Among women who complete fertility preservation (FP) consultation, random start ovarian stimulation is unlikely to delay time to initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy start. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is now a widely accepted treatment modality for operable breast cancer and random start ovarian stimulation is an increasingly-utilized modality for FP. While conventional ovarian stimulation does not appear to delay starting adjuvant chemotherapy, the relationship between random start ovarian stimulation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy start is not well-understood. Cross-sectional study of all women seen between from January 2011 to April 2017 for FP consultation prior to starting neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. A chart-review was performed. Study inclusion criteria were female sex; age 18-45; non-metastatic breast cancer diagnosis; underwent FP consultation; underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Referrals for FP evaluation came from a regional referral base of oncology clinics. Various time-points related to cancer diagnosis, FP or chemotherapy were obtained from medical record review. We compared time-points between those who underwent ovarian stimulation for FP versus those who did not using T-tests and linear modeling. A total of 89 women who had FP consultation prior to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were identified. Sixty-seven percent underwent ovarian stimulation prior to cancer treatment and 33% did not. Women who underwent ovarian stimulation were similar in parity and clinical cancer stage to those who did not. Overall, the average time from cancer diagnosis to chemotherapy start was similar between the group that did undergo ovarian stimulation and those who did not (38.1 ± 11.3 versus 39.4 ± 18.5 days, P = 0.672). Those that underwent ovarian stimulation were referred 9.4 ± 6.8 days after diagnosis versus 17.9 ± 15.3 days for those

  1. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  2. Commentary on "identification of 23 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci using the iCOGS custom genotyping array." COGS-Cancer Research UK GWAS-ELLIPSE (part of GAME-ON) Initiative; Australian Prostate Cancer Bioresource; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators/British Association

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olumi, Aria F; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in males in developed countries. To identify common prostate cancer susceptibility alleles, we genotyped 211,155 SNPs on a custom Illumina array (iCOGS) in blood DNA from 25,074 prostate cancer cases and 24,272 controls from the internationa...

  3. The impact of locoregional control and the survival of patient with cancer tried with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The cost of the treatment of the fault of locoregional control of a neoplasia is bigger 5 at 10 that the initial treatment, when this it is successful. In the last 10 years every time it is spoken more of the treatment of the locoregional cancer. The surgery and the radiotherapy (intermediate dose 4500 to 5000 cGy) they are used to remove the primary tumor, the ganglion and the extensions of locoregional micro metastases. The chemotherapy is used to supplement the locoregional control and to give systemic treatment of distal micro metastases, it is spoken of the advantages of using the surgery, the chemotherapy and the radiotherapy and the kindness of each one inside this investigation

  4. Current status of patient-controlled analgesia in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, C; Bruera, E

    1997-03-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a relatively new technique in which patients are able to self-administer small doses of opioid analgesics when needed. Many different devices are available for opioid infusion, including a syringe pump, disposable plastic cylinder, and battery-operated computer-driven pump. These devices allow patients to choose an intermittent (demand) bolus, continuous infusion, or both modes of administration. Parameters, such as route, drug concentration dose, frequency, and maximum daily or hourly dose, are programmed by the physician. The patient decides whether or not to take a dose. Devices can be used to deliver the drug into a running intravenous infusion, the epidural space, or subcutaneously. Controlled trials indicate that PCA is probably superior to regular opioid administration in postoperative pain. Reported advantages include greater patient satisfaction, decreased sedation and anxiety, and reduced nursing time and hospitalization. Preliminary experience suggests that PCA is also useful and safe for cancer pain, but further research is greatly needed.

  5. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  6. Immunohistochemistry of colorectal cancer biomarker phosphorylation requires controlled tissue fixation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey P Theiss

    Full Text Available Phosphorylated signaling molecules are biomarkers of cancer pathophysiology and resistance to therapy, but because phosphoprotein analytes are often labile, poorly controlled clinical laboratory practices could prevent translation of research findings in this area from the bench to the bedside. We therefore compared multiple biomarker and phosphoprotein immunohistochemistry (IHC results in 23 clinical colorectal carcinoma samples after either a novel, rapid tissue fixation protocol or a standard tissue fixation protocol employed by clinical laboratories, and we also investigated the effect of a defined post-operative "cold" ischemia period on these IHC results. We found that a one-hour cold ischemia interval, allowed by ASCO/CAP guidelines for certain cancer biomarker assays, is highly deleterious to certain phosphoprotein analytes, specifically the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR, but shorter ischemic intervals (less than 17 minutes facilitate preservation of phosphoproteins. Second, we found that a rapid 4-hour, two temperature, formalin fixation yielded superior staining in several cases with select markers (pEGFR, pBAD, pAKT compared to a standard overnight room temperature fixation protocol, despite taking less time. These findings indicate that the future research and clinical utilities of phosphoprotein IHC for assessing colorectal carcinoma pathophysiology absolutely depend upon attention to preanalytical factors and rigorously controlled tissue fixation protocols.

  7. Initial results of local grid control using wind farms with grid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes initial results with simulation of local grid control using wind farms with grid support. The focus is on simulation of the behaviour of the wind farms when they are isolated from the main grid and establish a local grid together with a few other grid components. The isolated subsystems used in the work presented in this report do not intend to simulate a specific subsystem, but they are extremely simplified single bus bar systems using only a few more components than the wind farm. This approach has been applied to make it easier to understand the dynamics of the subsystem. The main observation is that the fast dynamics of the wind turbines seem to be able to contribute significantly to the grid control, which can be useful where the wind farm is isolated with a subsystem from the main grid with surplus of generation. Thus, the fast down regulation of the wind farm using automatic frequency control can keep the subsystem in operation and thereby improve the reliability of the grid. (LN)

  8. Aging effect on step adjustments and stability control in visually perturbed gait initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruopeng; Cui, Chuyi; Shea, John B

    2017-10-01

    Gait adaptability is essential for fall avoidance during locomotion. It requires the ability to rapidly inhibit original motor planning, select and execute alternative motor commands, while also maintaining the stability of locomotion. This study investigated the aging effect on gait adaptability and dynamic stability control during a visually perturbed gait initiation task. A novel approach was used such that the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation were used to trigger the unpredictable relocation of a foot-size stepping target. Participants (10 young adults and 10 older adults) completed visually perturbed gait initiation in three adjustment timing conditions (early, intermediate, late; all extracted from the stereotypical APA pattern) and two adjustment direction conditions (medial, lateral). Stepping accuracy, foot rotation at landing, and Margin of Dynamic Stability (MDS) were analyzed and compared across test conditions and groups using a linear mixed model. Stepping accuracy decreased as a function of adjustment timing as well as stepping direction, with older subjects exhibited a significantly greater undershoot in foot placement to late lateral stepping. Late adjustment also elicited a reaching-like movement (i.e. foot rotation prior to landing in order to step on the target), regardless of stepping direction. MDS measures in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior direction revealed both young and older adults exhibited reduced stability in the adjustment step and subsequent steps. However, young adults returned to stable gait faster than older adults. These findings could be useful for future study of screening deficits in gait adaptability and preventing falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. BMI-1 targeting interferes with patient-derived tumor-initiating cell survival and tumor growth in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Shamila; Davis, Stephani; Flaherty, Kathleen; Huselid, Eric; Patrizii, Michele; Jones, Daniel; Cao, Liangxian; Sydorenko, Nadiya; Moon, Young-Choon; Zhong, Hua; Medina, Daniel J.; Kerrigan, John; Stein, Mark N.; Kim, Isaac Y.; Davis, Thomas W.; DiPaola, Robert S.; Bertino, Joseph R.; Sabaawy, Hatem E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Current prostate cancer (PCa) management calls for identifying novel and more effective therapies. Self-renewing tumor-initiating cells (TICs) hold intrinsic therapy-resistance and account for tumor relapse and progression. As BMI-1 regulates stem cell self-renewal, impairing BMI-1 function for TICs-tailored therapies appears to be a promising approach. Experimental design We have previously developed a combined immunophenotypic and time-of-adherence assay to identify CD49bhiCD29hiCD44hi cells as human prostate TICs. We utilized this assay with patient derived prostate cancer cells and xenograft models to characterize the effects of pharmacological inhibitors of BMI-1. Results We demonstrate that in cell lines and patient-derived TICs, BMI-1 expression is upregulated and associated with stem cell-like traits. From a screened library, we identified a number of post-transcriptional small molecules that target BMI-1 in prostate TICs. Pharmacological inhibition of BMI-1 in patient-derived cells significantly decreased colony formation in vitro and attenuated tumor initiation in vivo, thereby functionally diminishing the frequency of TICs, particularly in cells resistant to proliferation- and androgen receptor (AR)-directed therapies, without toxic effects on normal tissues. Conclusions Our data offer a paradigm for targeting TICs and support the development of BMI-1-targeting therapy for a more effective PCa treatment. PMID:27307599

  10. Targeting tumor-initiating cells: Eliminating anabolic cancer stem cells with inhibitors of protein synthesis or by mimicking caloric restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rebecca; Harrison, Hannah; Smith, Duncan L.; Townsend, Paul A.; Jackson, Thomas; Ozsvari, Bela; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Pestell, Richard G.; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2015-01-01

    We have used an unbiased proteomic profiling strategy to identify new potential therapeutic targets in tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a.k.a., cancer stem cells (CSCs). Towards this end, the proteomes of mammospheres from two breast cancer cell lines were directly compared to attached monolayer cells. This allowed us to identify proteins that were highly over-expressed in CSCs and/or progenitor cells. We focused on ribosomal proteins and protein folding chaperones, since they were markedly over-expressed in mammospheres. Overall, we identified >80 molecules specifically associated with protein synthesis that were commonly upregulated in mammospheres. Most of these proteins were also transcriptionally upregulated in human breast cancer cells in vivo, providing evidence for their potential clinical relevance. As such, increased mRNA translation could provide a novel mechanism for enhancing the proliferative clonal expansion of TICs. The proteomic findings were functionally validated using known inhibitors of protein synthesis, via three independent approaches. For example, puromycin (which mimics the structure of tRNAs and competitively inhibits protein synthesis) preferentially targeted CSCs in both mammospheres and monolayer cultures, and was ~10-fold more potent for eradicating TICs, than “bulk” cancer cells. In addition, rapamycin, which inhibits mTOR and hence protein synthesis, was very effective at reducing mammosphere formation, at nanomolar concentrations. Finally, mammosphere formation was also markedly inhibited by methionine restriction, which mimics the positive effects of caloric restriction in cultured cells. Remarkably, mammosphere formation was >18-fold more sensitive to methionine restriction and replacement, as directly compared to monolayer cell proliferation. Methionine is absolutely required for protein synthesis, since every protein sequence starts with a methionine residue. Thus, the proliferation and survival of CSCs is very sensitive to

  11. Strategies to initiate and control the nucleation behavior of bimetallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gopi; de Graaf, Sytze; Ten Brink, Gert H; Persson, Per O Å; Kooi, Bart J; Palasantzas, George

    2017-06-22

    In this work we report strategies to nucleate bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) made by gas phase synthesis of elements showing difficulty in homogeneous nucleation. It is shown that the nucleation assisted problem of bimetallic NP synthesis can be solved via the following pathways: (i) selecting an element which can itself nucleate and act as a nucleation center for the synthesis of bimetallic NPs; (ii) introducing H 2 or CH 4 as an impurity/trace gas to initiate nucleation during the synthesis of bimetallic NPs. The latter can solve the problem if none of the elements in a bimetallic NP can initiate nucleation. We illustrate the abovementioned strategies for the case of Mg based bimetallic NPs, which are interesting as hydrogen storage materials and exhibit both nucleation and oxidation issues even under ultra-high vacuum conditions. In particular, it is shown that adding H 2 in small proportions favors the formation of a solid solution/alloy structure even in the case of immiscible Mg and Ti, where normally phase separation occurs during synthesis. In addition, we illustrate the possibility of improving the nucleation rate, and controlling the structure and size distribution of bimetallic NPs using H 2 /CH 4 as a reactive/nucleating gas. This is shown to be associated with the dimer bond energies of the various formed species and the vapor pressures of the metals, which are key factors for NP nucleation.

  12. GP-initiated preconception counselling in a randomised controlled trial does not induce anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven A Knuistingh

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preconception counselling (PCC can reduce adverse pregnancy outcome by addressing risk factors prior to pregnancy. This study explores whether anxiety is induced in women either by the offer of PCC or by participation with GP-initiated PCC. Methods Randomised trial of usual care versus GP-initiated PCC for women aged 18–40, in 54 GP practices in the Netherlands. Women completed the six-item Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI before PCC (STAI-1 and after (STAI-2. After pregnancy women completed a STAI focusing on the first trimester of pregnancy (STAI-3. Results The mean STAI-1-score (n = 466 was 36.4 (95% CI 35.4 – 37.3. Following PCC there was an average decrease of 3.6 points in anxiety-levels (95% CI, 2.4 – 4.8. Mean scores of the STAI-3 were 38.5 (95% CI 37.7 – 39.3 in the control group (n = 1090 and 38.7 (95% CI 37.9 – 39.5 in the intervention group (n = 1186. Conclusion PCC from one's own GP reduced anxiety after participation, without leading to an increase in anxiety among the intervention group during pregnancy. We therefore conclude that GPs can offer PCC to the general population without fear of causing anxiety. Trial Registration: ISRCTN53942912

  13. Models of Disease Vector Control: When Can Aggressive Initial Intervention Lower Long-Term Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Bismark; Grijalva, Mario J; Just, Winfried

    2018-04-01

    Insecticide spraying of housing units is an important control measure for vector-borne infections such as Chagas disease. As vectors may invade both from other infested houses and sylvatic areas and as the effectiveness of insecticide wears off over time, the dynamics of (re)infestations can be approximated by [Formula: see text]-type models with a reservoir, where housing units are treated as hosts, and insecticide spraying corresponds to removal of hosts. Here, we investigate three ODE-based models of this type. We describe a dual-rate effect where an initially very high spraying rate can push the system into a region of the state space with low endemic levels of infestation that can be maintained in the long run at relatively moderate cost, while in the absence of an aggressive initial intervention the same average cost would only allow a much less significant reduction in long-term infestation levels. We determine some sufficient and some necessary conditions under which this effect occurs and show that it is robust in models that incorporate some heterogeneity in the relevant properties of housing units.

  14. Hydroperoxide Traces in Common Cyclic Ethers as Initiators for Controlled RAFT Polymerizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Steffen; Abetz, Volker

    2018-04-01

    Herein, a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization is introduced for reactive monomers like N-acryloylpyrrolidine or N,N-dimethylacrylamide working without a conventional radical initiator. As a very straightforward proof of principle, the method takes advantage of the usually inconvenient radical-generating hydroperoxide contaminations in cyclic ethers like tetrahydrofuran or 1,4-dioxane, which are very common solvents in polymer sciences. The polymerizations are surprisingly well controlled and the polymers can be extended with a second block, indicating their high livingness. "Solvent-initiated" RAFT polymerizations hence prove to be a feasible access to tailored materials with minimal experimental effort and standard laboratory equipment, only requiring the following ingredients: hydroperoxide-contaminated solvent, monomer, and RAFT agent. In other respects, however, the potential coinitiating ability of the used solvent is to be considered when investigating the kinetics of RAFT polymerizations or aiming for the synthesis of high-livingness polymers, e.g., multiblock copolymers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Acidosis and Formaldehyde Secretion as a Possible Pathway of Cancer Pain and Options for Improved Cancer Pain Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ba X; Shaw, D Graeme; Han, Bo; Fang, Josephine Y; Nimni, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of cancer pain in patients with cancer is high. The majority of efforts are spent on research in cancer treatment, but only a small fraction focuses on cancer pain. Pain in cancer patients, viewed predominantly as a secondary issue, is considered to be due to the destruction of tissues, compression of the nerves, inflammation, and secretion of biological mediators from the necrotic tumor mass. As a result, opioid drugs have remained as the primary pharmacological therapy for cancer pain for the past hundred years. This report reviews evidence that cancer pain may be produced by the metabolic effects of two byproducts of cancer-high acidity in the cancer microenvironment and the secretion of formaldehyde and its metabolites. We propose the research and development of therapeutic approaches for preemptive, short- and long-term management of cancer pain using available drugs or nutraceutical agents that can suppress or neutralize lactic acid production in combination with formaldehyde scavengers. We believe this approach may not only improve cancer pain control but may also enhance the quality of life for patients.

  16. 31P MRSI and 1H MRS at 7 T: initial results in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, Dennis W J; van de Bank, Bart L; Raaijmakers, Alexander; Korteweg, Mies A; Possanzini, Cecilia; Boer, Vincent O; van de Berg, Cornelius A T; van de Bosch, Maurice A A J; Luijten, Peter R

    2011-12-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of the noninvasive determination of important biomarkers of human (breast) tumor metabolism using high-field (7-T) MRI and MRS. (31) P MRSI at this field strength was used to provide a direct method for the in vivo detection and quantification of endogenous biomarkers. These encompass phospholipid metabolism, phosphate energy metabolism and intracellular pH. A double-tuned, dual-element transceiver was designed with focused radiofrequency fields for unilateral breast imaging and spectroscopy tuned for optimized sensitivity at 7 T. T(1) -weighted three-dimensional MRI and (1) H MRS were applied for the localization and quantification of total choline compounds. (31) P MRSI was obtained within 20 min per subject and mapped in three dimensions over the breast with pixel volumes of 10 mL. The feasibility of monitoring in vivo metabolism was demonstrated in two patients with breast cancer during neoadjuvant chemotherapy, validated by ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR and compared with data from an age-matched healthy volunteer. Concentrations of total choline down to 0.4 mM could be detected in the human breast in vivo. Levels of adenosine and other nucleoside triphosphates, inorganic phosphate, phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine and their glycerol diesters detected in glandular tissue, as well as in tumor, were mapped over the entire breast. Altered levels of these compounds were observed in patients compared with an age-matched healthy volunteer; modulation of these levels occurred in breast tumors during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive MRI and MRS study in patients with breast cancer, which reveals detailed information on the morphology and phospholipid metabolism from volumes as small as 10 mL. This endogenous metabolic information may provide a new method for the noninvasive assessment of prognostic and predictive biomarkers in breast cancer treatment. Copyright

  17. External validation of a PCA-3-based nomogram for predicting prostate cancer and high-grade cancer on initial prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Daniel J; Elshafei, Ahmed; Nyame, Yaw A; Kara, Onder; Malkoc, Ercan; Gao, Tianming; Jones, J Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to externally validate a previously developed PCA3-based nomogram for the prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) and high-grade (intermediate and/or high-grade) prostate cancer (HGPCa) at the time of initial prostate biopsy. A retrospective review was performed on a cohort of 336 men from a large urban academic medical center. All men had serum PSA PCa, PSA at diagnosis, PCA3, total prostate volume (TPV), and abnormal finding on digital rectal exam (DRE). These variables were used to test the accuracy (concordance index) and calibration of a previously published PCA3 nomogram. Biopsy confirms PCa and HGPCa in 51.0% and 30.4% of validation patients, respectively. This differed from the original cohort in that it had significantly more PCa and HGPCA (51% vs. 44%, P = 0.019; and 30.4% vs. 19.1%, P PCa detection the concordance index was 75% and 77% for overall PCa and HGPCa, respectively. Calibration for overall PCa was good. This represents the first external validation of a PCA3-based prostate cancer predictive nomogram in a North American population. Prostate 76:1019-1023, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Initial experiences of simultaneous laparoscopic resection of colorectal cancer and liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, L. T.; Busch, O. R. C.; Bemelman, W. A.; van Gulik, T. M.; Tanis, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Simultaneous resection of primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and synchronous liver metastases (SLMs) is subject of debate with respect to morbidity in comparison to staged resection. The aim of this study was to evaluate our initial experience with this approach. Methods. Five patients

  19. Tumour-initiating cells vs. cancer "stem" cells and CD133: What's in the name?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neužil, Jiří; Stantic, M.; Zobalová, Renata; Chladová, Jaromíra; Wang, X. F.; Procházka, L.; Dong, L.; Anděra, Ladislav; Ralph, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 4 (2007), s. 855-859 ISSN 0006-291X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : tumour-initiating cells * CD133 * resistance to treatment Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.749, year: 2007

  20. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  1. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis: stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. METHODS: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with

  2. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis : stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Objective: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Methods: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with

  3. Cancer in Angola, resources and strategy for its control | Lopes | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According Angola epidemiological data, results of interviews and international published advocacy for cancer control we develop a potential strategy for its control. The objectives are to identify existing resources for cancer control and describe the needs thereto, in order to establish an oncological program to guide the ...

  4. The Effects of Initial Self-Control Exertion and Subsequent Glucose Consumption on Search Accuracy by Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller, Holly C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous reports have suggested that canine self-control is sensitive to fatigue and that an initial act of behavioral inhibition (sit-stay 10 min relative to a control condition (cage 10 min can deplete self-control, increase risk-taking, and reduce subsequent persistence on a puzzle task. Glucose, but not a calorie-free placebo drink has been shown to replenish this depletion. The current study sought to complement and extend these findings by examining whether initial exertion of self-control would also affect canine working memory as measured by search accuracy on a subsequently administered invisible displacement rotation task. The results evidenced that initial self-control exertion (relative to the control condition resulted in poorer search accuracy. The consumption of glucose did not have a replenishing effect. If anything, glucose was associated with poorer search accuracy.

  5. Preliminary results on the role of PET/CT in initial staging, restaging, and management of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamitsi, J. [Department of PET/CT, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece): Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: j.malamitsi@yahoo.gr; Valotassiou, B. [Department of PET/CT, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Iliadis, K. [Thoracic Surgical Department, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Kosmidis, P. [2nd Medical Oncology Department, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Laspas, F. [Department of PET/CT, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Vasilaki, M. [Oncologist, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Pipini, E. [Thoracic Medicine Clinic, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Petounis, A. [1st Internal Medicine and Oncology Department, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Gogou, L. [Department of PET/CT, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Pagou, M. [Department of PET/CT, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Dalianis, K. [Department of PET/CT, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Efthimiadou, R. [Department of PET/CT, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece); Andreou, J. [Department of PET/CT, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Athens, Hygeia, Athens (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    Aim: To determine true-positive and true-negative rates of PET/CT studies in the staging of lung cancer as compared with conventional imaging (CT and bone scan and occasionally MRI) and the impact of PET/CT on the treatment strategy in patients with lung cancer. Materials and method: Twenty patients (21 studies) with known or suspected lung cancer (14 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), three patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), three patients with solitary pulmonary nodule underwent initial staging (seven studies) or restaging (14 studies) with combined FDG PET and CT scans on a PET/CT tomograph. PET/CT images were evaluated separately by two nuclear medicine physicians and two radiologists specialized on PET, CT, and MRI. Histology results and a more than 6 months follow-up served as the reference standards. Results: Accurate diagnosis was achieved on 16 studies. Site-by-site analysis gave the following results: 16 true-positive sites (seven on histology, nine on >6 months follow-up), six true-negative sites (two on histology, four on >6 months follow-up). On PET/CT, six patients were correctly down-staged, three patients were correctly upstaged and seven patients were diagnosed correctly as being on the same stage (2/7 with increase of extent of disease, 5/7 with the same extent of disease). One patient was falsely upstaged and three patients were falsely down-staged. On the basis of PET/CT results, change of management was induced in six patients, while in 14 patients there was no change induced. In five cases PET/CT was partially accurate: on site-by-site analysis, four sites proved true positive (on histology), one site false positive (on histology), and four sites false negative (one on histology, three on >6 months follow-up). Conclusion: In our early experience, PET/CT contributed significantly to correct staging and management of patients with lung cancer.

  6. Preliminary results on the role of PET/CT in initial staging, restaging, and management of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamitsi, J.; Valotassiou, B.; Iliadis, K.; Kosmidis, P.; Laspas, F.; Vasilaki, M.; Pipini, E.; Petounis, A.; Gogou, L.; Pagou, M.; Dalianis, K.; Efthimiadou, R.; Andreou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine true-positive and true-negative rates of PET/CT studies in the staging of lung cancer as compared with conventional imaging (CT and bone scan and occasionally MRI) and the impact of PET/CT on the treatment strategy in patients with lung cancer. Materials and method: Twenty patients (21 studies) with known or suspected lung cancer (14 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), three patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), three patients with solitary pulmonary nodule underwent initial staging (seven studies) or restaging (14 studies) with combined FDG PET and CT scans on a PET/CT tomograph. PET/CT images were evaluated separately by two nuclear medicine physicians and two radiologists specialized on PET, CT, and MRI. Histology results and a more than 6 months follow-up served as the reference standards. Results: Accurate diagnosis was achieved on 16 studies. Site-by-site analysis gave the following results: 16 true-positive sites (seven on histology, nine on >6 months follow-up), six true-negative sites (two on histology, four on >6 months follow-up). On PET/CT, six patients were correctly down-staged, three patients were correctly upstaged and seven patients were diagnosed correctly as being on the same stage (2/7 with increase of extent of disease, 5/7 with the same extent of disease). One patient was falsely upstaged and three patients were falsely down-staged. On the basis of PET/CT results, change of management was induced in six patients, while in 14 patients there was no change induced. In five cases PET/CT was partially accurate: on site-by-site analysis, four sites proved true positive (on histology), one site false positive (on histology), and four sites false negative (one on histology, three on >6 months follow-up). Conclusion: In our early experience, PET/CT contributed significantly to correct staging and management of patients with lung cancer

  7. Radiographer-led plan selection for bladder cancer radiotherapy: initiating a training programme and maintaining competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, H A; Hafeez, S; Taylor, H; Lalondrelle, S; McDonald, F; Hansen, V N; Huddart, R

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of plan of the day selection for patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) for bladder cancer requires efficient and confident decision-making. This article describes the development of a training programme and maintenance of competency. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired on patients receiving RT for bladder cancer were assessed to establish baseline competency and training needs. A training programme was implemented, and observers were asked to select planning target volumes (PTVs) on two groups of 20 patients' images. After clinical implementation, the PTVs chosen were reviewed offline, and an audit performed after 3 years. A mean of 73% (range, 53-93%) concordance rate was achieved prior to training. Subsequent to training, the mean score decreased to 66% (Round 1), then increased to 76% (Round 2). Six radiographers and two clinicians successfully completed the training programme. An independent observer reviewed the images offline after clinical implementation, and a 91% (126/139) concordance rate was achieved. During the audit, 125 CBCT images from 13 patients were reviewed by a single observer and concordance was 92%. Radiographer-led selection of plan of the day was implemented successfully with the use of a training programme and continual assessment. Quality has been maintained over a period of 3 years. The training programme was successful in achieving and maintaining competency for a plan of the day technique.

  8. Experiencing Health Advocacy During Cervical Cancer Awareness Week: A National Initiative for Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Glenn; Finlayson, Sarah; Luna, Vilma; Miller, Dianne; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada requires that residents demonstrate competence in health advocacy (HA). We sought to develop and implement a national educational module for obstetrics and gynaecology residents to address the role of HA. This pilot program was centred on cervical cancer prevention, which lends itself to applying the principles of advocacy. An educational module was developed and disseminated to all obstetrics and gynaecology residency programs in Canada. The module describes options for HA involving cervical dysplasia screening, such as an outreach clinic or a forum for public/student education, which were to be implemented during Cervical Cancer Awareness Week. The measures of success were the number of programs implementing the curriculum, number of residents who participated, diversity of projects implemented, individuals (patients or learners) reached by the program, and the overall experience of the trainees. Three programs implemented the curriculum in 2011, one in 2012, and seven in 2013. After three years, the module has involved seven of 16 medical schools, over 100 residents, and thousands of women either directly or indirectly. Additionally, attributes of HA experienced by the residents were identified: teamwork, leadership, increased systems knowledge, increased social capital within the community, creativity, innovation, and adaptability. We have demonstrated that an educational module can be implemented nationally, helping our residents fulfill their HA requirements. Other specialties could use this module in building HA into their own programs.

  9. Cancer and risk of cerebral venous thrombosis: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, S. M.; Hiltunen, S.; Lindgren, E.; Jood, K.; Zuurbier, S. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Putaala, J.; Cannegieter, S. C.; Tatlisumak, T.; Coutinho, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cancer is an established risk factor for leg vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Controlled studies assessing the risk of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in patients with cancer have not been performed. Objective: To assess whether cancer is a risk factor for CVT. Patients/Methods:

  10. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Tovar-Guzmán

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  11. Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE study: An integrative population-based case-control study of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombi Antonio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is its primary cause, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung tissue that lead to lung cancer and impact survival have remained obscure. A new framework of research is needed to address the challenges offered by this complex disease. Methods/Design We designed a large population-based case-control study that combines a traditional molecular epidemiology design with a more integrative approach to investigate the dynamic process that begins with smoking initiation, proceeds through dependency/smoking persistence, continues with lung cancer development and ends with progression to dissemina