WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer control framework

  1. Cancer Control Framework and Synthesis Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer control science is the conduct of basic and applied research in the behavioral, social, and population sciences to create or enhance interventions that, independently or in combination with biomedical approaches, reduce cancer risk, incidence, morbidity and mortality, and improve quality of life.

  2. An integrated, population-based framework for knowledge management for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Neil A; Craighead, Peter; Esmail, Rosmin

    2010-01-01

    Cancer control organizations commonly refer to the critical role of clinical practice guidelines to support the best possible cancer care. But how can a cancer care program ensure the systematic implementation of those guidelines? The goals of this article are to describe the process of developing a cancer control system driven by knowledge management, to highlight the key elements of this system and to foster discussion on the implementation of such frameworks. In order to promote best cancer practices within an expanded radiation service model for the province of Alberta, we developed an integrated conceptual framework for knowledge management. We identified six key elements of a knowledge management framework for the cancer program: evidence-based provincial guidelines, funding decisions, harmonized care pathways, targeted knowledge transfer projects, performance measurement and feedback to the system. We are establishing a process to characterize the explicit linkages and accountabilities between each of these elements as part of a broader cancer care quality agenda. We will implement the framework to support the start-up of the first of three new radiation treatment services in the province. The basic elements of a guidelines-supported cancer care system are not in doubt; how to unambiguously engage them within an integrated care system remains an area of intense interest. PMID:20523153

  3. Implementation Science in Cancer Prevention and Control: A framework for research and programs in low and middle-income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, Sudha; Sanchez, Michael A; Rimer, Barbara K.; Jonathan M. Samet; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2014-01-01

    Implementation Science is a set of tools, principles and methodologies that can be used to bring scientific evidence into action, improve health care quality and delivery and improve public health. As the burden of cancer increases in low- and middle-income countries, it is important to plan cancer control programs that are both evidence-based and delivered in ways that are feasible, cost-effective, contextually appropriate and sustainable. This review presents a framework for using implement...

  4. Comparison of proposed frameworks for grouping polychlorinated biphenyl congener data applied to a case-control pilot study of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the commercial synthesis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the United States for several decades, they are persistent in the environment with exposure mainly being through diet. The biologic and toxic effects of PCBs and their metabolites are due in part to their ability to interact with several cellular and nuclear receptors, thereby altering signaling pathways and gene transcription. These effects include endocrine modulation and disruption. Therefore, the natural history of cancer in tissues expressing these receptors may be modulated by PCB congeners, which are known to have estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and other hormonal effects. Several frameworks for grouping PCB congeners based on these interactions have been proposed. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control pilot study of 58 prostate cancer cases and 99 controls to evaluate the association between the proposed PCB groupings and the risk of prostate cancer. Serum samples were analyzed for a total of 30 PCBs. In multivariate analyses, the odds of prostate cancer among men with the highest concentrations of moderately chlorinated PCBs or PCBs with phenobarbital-like activities (constitutively active receptor (CAR) agonists) was over two times that among men with the lowest concentrations. Increasing trends in risk across the concentration levels were also observed. These results suggest that a higher burden of PCBs that are CAR agonists may be positively associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and they encourage further research in this area

  5. Framework for control system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control systems being developed for the present generation of accelerators will need to adapt to changing machine and operating state conditions. Such systems must also be capable of evolving over the life of the accelerator operation. In this paper we present a framework for the development of adaptive control systems

  6. The Joint COntrols Project Framework

    CERN Document Server

    González-Berges, M

    2003-01-01

    The Framework is one of the subprojects of the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP), which is collaboration between the four LHC experiments and CERN. By sharing development, this will reduce the overall effort required to build and maintain the experiment control systems. As such, the main aim of the Framework is to deliver a common set of software components, tools and guidelines that can be used by the four LHC experiments to build their control systems. Although commercial components are used wherever possible, further added value is obtained by customisation for HEP-specific applications. The supervisory layer of the Framework is based on the SCADA tool PVSS, which was selected after a detailed evaluation. This is integrated with the front-end layer via both OPC (OLE for Process Control), an industrial standard, and the CERN-developed DIM (Distributed Information Management System) protocol. Several components are already in production and being used by running fixed-target experiments at CERN as well as for th...

  7. Cancer Care and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Schneidman, Miriam; Jeffers, Joanne; Duncan, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, deaths from cancer exceed those caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis, and malaria combined. Seventy percent of deaths due to cancer occur in low-and middle-income countries, which are often poorly prepared to deal with the growing burden of chronic disease. Over a period of 18 months, the cancer care and control...

  8. A Framework for Healthcare Planning and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Erwin W.; Houdenhoven, van Mark; Hulshof, Peter J.H.; Hall, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Rising expenditures spur healthcare organizations to organize their processes more efficiently and effectively. Unfortunately, healthcare planning and control lags behind manufacturing planning and control. We analyze existing planning and control concepts or frameworks for healthcare operations man

  9. Regulatory control, legislation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legislation and regulations, a regulatory authority to authorise and inspect the regulated activities and to enforce the legislation and regulations, sufficient financial and man-power resources are the essential parts of a national infrastructure to implement the Basic Safety Standards. The legal framework consists of legislation (Act passed by Parliament) and the regulations (framed by the government and endorsed by the Parliament). This paper is primarily deals with the the legal framework set up in India for atomic energy activities

  10. COSO internal control integrated framework 2013

    CERN Document Server

    American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

    2013-01-01

    Issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), the 2013 Internal Control – Integrated Framework(Framework) is expected to help organizations design and implement internal control in light of many changes in business and operating environments since the issuance of the original Framework in 1992. The new Framework retains the core definition of internal control and the five components of internal control, and it continues to emphasize the importance of management judgment in designing, implementing, and conducting a system of internal control, and in assessing its effectiveness. It broadens the application of internal control in addressing operations and reporting objectives, and clarifies the requirements for determining what constitutes effective internal control.

  11. Dietary control of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bayoumy, K; Chung, F L; Richie, J; Reddy, B S; Cohen, L; Weisburger, J; Wynder, E L

    1997-11-01

    Many laboratory studies and human epidemiological data suggest that most cancer deaths are attributable to lifestyle, including nutritional factors and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Tobacco consumption is causally related to cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Nutrients and non-nutrient dietary components probably account for cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach. This report is based on literature and our own data pertaining to the role of dietary fat, calories, and fiber in the development of colon and breast cancer. We also discuss the evidence from epidemiological, mechanistic, and preclinical efficacy studies indicating a protective effect of micronutrients, non-nutrients, and certain antioxidants in food against oral and lung cancers. Given the continuing cancer burden and the relatively slow impact of proven cancer treatment strategies in reducing cancer mortality, it is essential to evaluate promising nutrients and non-nutrients in foods as chemopreventive agents in persons at increased risk for cancer. Development of reliable intermediate biomarkers is valuable for clinical chemoprevention intervention trials. The purpose of this report is to provide the reader with plausible approaches to cancer control. PMID:9349690

  12. Adaptive Feedfoward Feedback Control Framework Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Adaptive Feedforward and Feedback Control (AFFC) Framework is proposed to suppress the aircraft's structural vibrations and to increase the resilience of the...

  13. An Access Control Framework for Reflective Middleware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Huang; Lian-Shan Sun

    2008-01-01

    Reflective middleware opens up the implementation details of middleware platform and applications at runtime for improving the adaptability of middleware-based systems. However, such openness brings new challenges to access control of the middleware-based systems.Some users can access the system via reflective entities, which sometimes cannot be protected by access control mechanisms of traditional middleware. To deliver high adaptability securely, reflective middleware should be equipped with proper access control mechanisms for potential access control holes induced by reflection. One reason of integrating these mechanisms in reflective middleware is that one goal of reflective middleware is to equip applications with reflection capabilities as transparent as possible. This paper studies how to design a reflective J2EE middlewarePKUAS with access control in mind. At first, a computation model of reflective system is built to identify all possible access control points induced by reflection. Then a set of access control mechanisms, including the wrapper of MBeans and a hierarchy of Java class loaders, are equipped for controlling the identified access control points. These mechanisms together with J2EE access control mechanism form the access control framework for PKUAS. The paper evaluates the security and the performance overheads of the framework in quality and quantity.

  14. Models for local implementation of comprehensive cancer control: meeting local cancer control needs through community collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Bruce; Lofton, Staci; Knight, Margaret L

    2010-12-01

    The comprehensive cancer control approach is used by state, tribes, tribal organizations, territorial and Pacific Island Jurisdiction cancer coalitions to spur local implementation of cancer plans to reduce the burden of cancer in jurisdictions across the country. There is a rich diversity of models and approaches to the development of relationships and scope of planning for cancer control activities between coalitions and advocates in local communities. The national comprehensive cancer control philosophy provides an operational framework while support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention enables coalitions to act as catalysts to bring local partners together to combat cancer in communities. This manuscript describes multiple characteristics of cancer coalitions and how they are organized. Two models of how coalitions and local partners collaborate are described. A case study method was used to identify how five different state and tribal coalitions use the two models to organize their collaborations with local communities that result in local implementation of cancer plan priorities. Conclusions support the use of multiple organizing models to ensure involvement of diverse interests and sensitivity to local cancer issues that encourages implementation of cancer control activities. PMID:20938731

  15. Cancer Control in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Syed Akram; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is predicted to be an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in the next few decades. The estimated incidence of 12.7 million new cancer cases will rise to 21.4 million by 2030. More than two-thirds of the total expenditure on health is through out-of-pocket payments. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, cancer is the sixth leading cause of death. International Agency for Research on Cancer has estimated cancer-related death rates in Banglade...

  16. Software Framework for Controlling Unsupervised Scientific Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Benjamin; Jahr, Wiebke; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Science outreach and communication are gaining more and more importance for conveying the meaning of today's research to the general public. Public exhibitions of scientific instruments can provide hands-on experience with technical advances and their applications in the life sciences. The software of such devices, however, is oftentimes not appropriate for this purpose. In this study, we describe a software framework and the necessary computer configuration that is well suited for exposing a complex self-built and software-controlled instrument such as a microscope to laymen under limited supervision, e.g. in museums or schools. We identify several aspects that must be met by such software, and we describe a design that can simultaneously be used to control either (i) a fully functional instrument in a robust and fail-safe manner, (ii) an instrument that has low-cost or only partially working hardware attached for illustration purposes or (iii) a completely virtual instrument without hardware attached. We describe how to assess the educational success of such a device, how to monitor its operation and how to facilitate its maintenance. The introduced concepts are illustrated using our software to control eduSPIM, a fluorescent light sheet microscope that we are currently exhibiting in a technical museum. PMID:27570966

  17. The Assemble and Animate Control Framework for Modular Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Moghadam, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the “Assemble and Animate” (ASE) control framework. The objective of ASE is to provide a flexible and extendable control framework, which facilitates rapid development and deployment of modular reconfigurable robots. ASE includes a simple event-driven application framework, a...... planetary contingency, adaptive locomotion, self-reconfiguration, and tangible behavior-based programming....

  18. Cooperative Control Method of Active and Semiactive Control: New Framework for Vibration Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiko Hiramoto

    2014-01-01

    A new control design framework for vibration control, the cooperative control of active and semiactive control, is proposed in the paper. In the cooperative control, a structural system having both of an actuator and a semiactive control device, for example, MR damper and so forth, is defined as the control object. In the proposed control approach, the higher control performance is aimed by the cooperative control between the active control with the actuator and the semiactive control with th...

  19. A strategy for cancer control in Ireland / National Cancer Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health and Children

    2006-01-01

    To address the rapidly rising burden of cancer, this second National Cancer Strategy A Strategy for Cancer Control in Ireland 2006 advocates a comprehensive cancer control policy programme. Cancer control is a whole population, integrated and cohesive approach to cancer that involves prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, and supportive and palliative care. It places a major emphasis on measurement of need and on addressing inequalities and implies that we must focus on ensuring that al...

  20. A Probabilistic Framework for Detection of Skin Cancer by Raman Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur

    2003-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on objective methods for diagnosing skin cancer from Raman spectra. A method for suppressing background noise and dimension reduction in Raman spectra is suggested. A robust Bayesian framework for training a neural network is proposed, including an overfit control and...... outlier framework. Finally a visualization scheme for extracting important features from the trained neural network classifier based on sensitivity analysis is defined. The performance on two types of skin cancer showed that 97.9% of basal cell carcinoma were identified correctly and 85.5% of malignant...... identified important features are shown to originate from molecular structure changes in lipids and proteins. While the theme of this dissertation is skin cancer diagnosis from Raman spectra, the dimension reduction and the neural network classifier can be applied in general to other types of pattern...

  1. Modeling the Aneuploidy Control of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aneuploidy has long been recognized to be associated with cancer. A growing body of evidence suggests that tumorigenesis, the formation of new tumors, can be attributed to some extent to errors occurring at the mitotic checkpoint, a major cell cycle control mechanism that acts to prevent chromosome missegregation. However, so far no statistical model has been available quantify the role aneuploidy plays in determining cancer. Methods We develop a statistical model for testing the association between aneuploidy loci and cancer risk in a genome-wide association study. The model incorporates quantitative genetic principles into a mixture-model framework in which various genetic effects, including additive, dominant, imprinting, and their interactions, are estimated by implementing the EM algorithm. Results Under the new model, a series of hypotheses tests are formulated to explain the pattern of the genetic control of cancer through aneuploid loci. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the statistical behavior of the model. Conclusions The model will provide a tool for estimating the effects of genetic loci on aneuploidy abnormality in genome-wide studies of cancer cells.

  2. Generic Model Predictive Control Framework for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with a model predictive control framework for control design of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, where car-following tasks are under control. The framework is applied to design several autonomous and cooperative controllers and to examine the controller properties at the microscopic level and the resulting traffic flow characteristics at the macroscopic level. The results give new insights into impacts of ADAS on traffic flow characteristics.

  3. Counselling framework for moderate-penetrance cancer-susceptibility mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nadine; Domchek, Susan M; Stadler, Zsofia; Nathanson, Katherine L; Couch, Fergus; Garber, Judy E; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    The use of multigene panels for the assessment of cancer susceptibility is expanding rapidly in clinical practice, particularly in the USA, despite concerns regarding the uncertain clinical validity for some gene variants and the uncertain clinical utility of most multigene panels. So-called 'moderate-penetrance' gene mutations associated with cancer susceptibility are identified in approximately 2-5% of individuals referred for clinical testing; some of these mutations are potentially actionable. Nevertheless, the appropriate management of individuals harbouring such moderate-penetrance genetic variants is unclear. The cancer risks associated with mutations in moderate-penetrance genes are lower and different than those reported for high-penetrance gene mutations (such as mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, and those associated with Lynch syndrome). The extrapolation of guidelines for the management of individuals with high-penetrance variants of cancer-susceptibility genes to the clinical care of patients with moderate-penetrance gene mutations could result in substantial harm. Thus, we provide a framework for clinical decision-making pending the development of a sufficient evidence base to document the clinical utility of the interventions for individuals with inherited moderate-penetrance gene mutations associated with an increased risk of cancer. PMID:27296296

  4. Interaction framework for loosely-coupled controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falsig, Simon

    2011-01-01

    of the TosNet network and protocol are presented, together with the both commercial and custom FPGA-boards that have been employed for the work. The framework also contains a number of gateways that interface a TosNet system to standard PCs through Ethernet, USB, RS232 or PCI Express. For those projects...

  5. Application Framework for Programmable Network Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Cristea, R.M.; Laat, C. de; Meijer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework that enables application developers to create complex and application specific network services. The essence of our approach is to utilize programmable network elements to create a software representation of network elements in the application. We show that the typical pattern

  6. Transaction-Based Building Controls Framework, Volume 1: Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Pratt, Robert G.; Akyol, Bora A.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Foster, Nikolas AF; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Somani, Abhishek; Steckley, Andrew C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2014-04-28

    This document proposes a framework concept to achieve the objectives of raising buildings’ efficiency and energy savings potential benefitting building owners and operators. We call it a transaction-based framework, wherein mutually-beneficial and cost-effective market-based transactions can be enabled between multiple players across different domains. Transaction-based building controls are one part of the transactional energy framework. While these controls realize benefits by enabling automatic, market-based intra-building efficiency optimizations, the transactional energy framework provides similar benefits using the same market -based structure, yet on a larger scale and beyond just buildings, to the society at large.

  7. Integrated framework for safety control design of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.c [Faculty of Energy and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H7K4 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents an integrated framework for safety control analysis and design for nuclear power plants. It shows the use of process object-oriented modeling methodology (POOM) and fault models to integrate safety requirements, identified hazards, and fault propagation scenarios. Safety control design framework is proposed to show the integration between control systems and safety control design. Hierarchical control charts (HCC) are proposed to integrate process, control, and safety models along with the associated fault models in systematic manner. Process and the associated process and control variables that are involved in safety control systems. The proposed safety control design framework will support the control design and operation of nuclear power plants, as well as the integration with cogeneration facilities such as hydrogen production.

  8. Apply for Cancer Control Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences funds a large portfolio of grants and contracts. The portfolio currently includes approximately 800 grants valued at nearly $450 million. Here we provide a listing of funding opportunities that are currently accepting applications. Please visit this page regularly as new funding opportunities are added upon approval by NCI.

  9. Network Control Systems RTAI framework A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Deepika; Shrawankar, Urmila

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement in the automation industry, to perform complex remote operations is required. Advancements in the networking technology has led to the development of different architectures to implement control from a large distance. In various control applications of the modern industry, the agents, such as sensors, actuators, and controllers are basically geographically distributed. For efficient working of a control application, all of the agents have to exchange information through a...

  10. Checkpoint control and cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medema, R.H.; Macůrek, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 21 (2012), s. 2601-2613. ISSN 0950-9232 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1525; GA ČR GPP305/10/P420 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : DNA damage * checkpoint control * anticancer strategies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.357, year: 2012

  11. SMC framework in motion control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif

    2007-01-01

    Design of a motion control system should take into account both the unconstrained motion performed without interaction with environment or another system, and the constrained motion where the system is in contact with environment or has certain functional interactions with another system. In this paper control systems design approach, based on siding mode methods, that allows selection of control for generic tasks as trajectory and/or force tracking as well as for systems that require maintai...

  12. A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.

  13. Spacecraft Attitude Control in Hamiltonian Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give a design scheme for attitude control algorithms of a generic spacecraft. Along with the system model formulated in the Hamilton's canonical form the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipative term. The control action is the...... sum of the gradient of the potential energy and the dissipative force. It is shown that this control law makes the system uniformly asymptotically stable to the desired reference point. Three problems were addressed in the paper: spacecraft stabilization in the inertial frame, libration damping with...

  14. IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CONTROL FRAMEWORKS: COSO AND COBIT

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Diana OPREA

    2014-01-01

    After the corporate scandals from the beginning of the 21st century, there was a general lack of confidence in the quality of the financial reporting. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act came to address this issue, by imposing rules that would prevent such scandals in the future. In order to help companies with the compliance, control frameworks have been issued. The framework of the Committee of Sponsoring Organisations of the Treadway Commission offers guidance in matters of internal controls, whereas t...

  15. Developing a Framework for Semi-Autonomous Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Kai Wei; Seet, Gerald; Sim, Siang Kok

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a framework for semi-autonomous control using the concept of sharing and trading is discussed. This includes the application of this framework in the implementation of a telerobotics system. The purpose of the semi-autonomous control scheme is to facilitate the human and the robot to cope with different aspects of their interactions. By enabling the human to interact with the robot semi-autonomously, the human can decide the most appropriate scheme for perfor...

  16. Adaptive Feedfoward Feedback Control Framework Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel approach is proposed for the suppression of the aircraft's structural vibration to increase the resilience of the flight control law in the presence of the...

  17. A Bayesian framework for speech motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Patri, Jean-François; Diard, Julien; Perrier, Pascal; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable capacity of the speech motor system to adapt to various speech conditions is due to an excess of degrees of freedom, which enables producing similar acoustical properties with different sets of control strategies. To explain how the Central Nervous System selects one of the possible strategies, a common approach, in line with optimal motor control theories, is to model speech motor planning as the solution of an optimality problem based on cost functions. Despite the success of...

  18. Evidence supporting the conceptual framework of cancer chemoprevention in canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Adrian, Julie Ann Luiz; Wright, Brian; Park, Eun-Jung; van Breemen, Richard B; Morris, Kenneth R; Pezzuto, John M

    2016-01-01

    As with human beings, dogs suffer from the consequences of cancer. We investigated the potential of a formulation comprised of resveratrol, ellagic acid, genistein, curcumin and quercetin to modulate biomarkers indicative of disease prevention. Dog biscuits were evaluated for palatability and ability to deliver the chemopreventive agents. The extent of endogenous DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes from dogs given the dietary supplement or placebo showed no change. However, H2O2-inducible DNA damage was significantly decreased after consumption of the supplement. The expression of 11 of 84 genes related to oxidative stress was altered. Hematological parameters remained in the reference range. The concept of chemoprevention for the explicit benefit of the canine is compelling since dogs are an important part of our culture. Our results establish a proof-of-principle and provide a framework for improving the health and well-being of "man's best friend". PMID:27216246

  19. The role of cancer registries in cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Donald Maxwell

    2008-04-01

    Cancer control aims to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of cancer and to improve the quality of life of cancer patients through the systematic implementation of evidence-based interventions in prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care. In the context of a national cancer control program (NCCP), a cancer surveillance program (CSP), built around a population-based cancer registry, is an essential element. Data on the size and evolution of the cancer burden in the population are essential to evaluation of the current situation, to setting objectives for cancer control, and defining priorities. Cancer data are essential in monitoring the progress of the implementation of an NCCP, as well as providing an evaluation of the many individual cancer control activities. In the context of an NCCP, the CSP should provide a focus of epidemiological expertise, not only for providing statistical data on incidence, mortality, stage distribution, treatment patterns, and survival but also for conducting studies into the important causes of cancer in the local situation, and for providing information about the prevalence of exposure to these factors in the population. Cancer surveillance via the population-based registry therefore plays a crucial role in formulating cancer control plans, as well as in monitoring their success. PMID:18463952

  20. Identifying Cancer Biomarkers Via Node Classification within a Mapreduce Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taysir Hassan A. Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Big data are giving new research challenges in the life sciences domain because of their variety, volume, veracity, velocity, and value. Predicting gene biomarkers is one of the vital research issues in bioinformatics field, where microarray gene expression and network based methods can be used. These datasets suffer from the huge data voluminous, causing main memory problems. In this paper, a Random Committee Node Classifier algorithm (RCNC is proposed for identifying cancer biomarkers, which is based on microarray gene expression data and Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI data. Data are enriched from other public databases, such as IntACT1 and UniProt2 and Gene Ontology3 (GO. Cancer Biomarkers are identified when applied to different datasets with an accuracy rate an accuracy rate 99.16%, 99.96% precision, 99.24% recall, 99.16% F1-measure and 99.6 ROC. To speed up the performance, it is run within a MapReduce framework, where RCNC MapReduce algorithm is much faster than RCNC sequential algorithm when having large datasets.

  1. A framework for health care planning and control

    OpenAIRE

    Hans, Erwin W.; Houdenhoven, van, M.; Hulshof, Peter J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rising expenditures spur health care organizations to organize their processes more efficiently and effectively. Unfortunately, health care planning and control lags far behind manufacturing planning and control. Successful manufacturing planning and control concepts can not be directly copied, because of the unique nature of health care delivery. We analyze existing planning and control concepts or frameworks for health care operations management, and find that they do not properly address v...

  2. Distributed Software Development Modelling and Control Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Feng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid progress of internet technology, more and more software projects adopt e-development tofacilitate the software development process in a world-wide context. However, distributed softwaredevelopment activity itself is a complex orchestration. It involves many people working together without thebarrier of time and space difference. Therefore, how to efficiently monitor and control software edevelopmentin a global perspective becomes an important issue for any internet-based softwaredevelopment project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to tackle this crucial issue by means ofcontrolling e-development process, collaborative task progress and communication quality. Meanwhile, wealso present our e-development supporting environment prototype: Caribou, to demonstrate the viability ofour approach.

  3. IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CONTROL FRAMEWORKS: COSO AND COBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Diana OPREA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the corporate scandals from the beginning of the 21st century, there was a general lack of confidence in the quality of the financial reporting. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act came to address this issue, by imposing rules that would prevent such scandals in the future. In order to help companies with the compliance, control frameworks have been issued. The framework of the Committee of Sponsoring Organisations of the Treadway Commission offers guidance in matters of internal controls, whereas the Control Objectives for Information and related Technology focus on IT controls. The present paper intends to critically address the changes in the COSO and COBIT framework, that took place during 2012 and 2013.

  4. Framework Based Guidance Navigation and Control Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's guidance navigation and control flight software development background. The contents include: 1) NASA/Goddard Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) Flight Software (FSW) Development Background; 2) GN&C FSW Development Improvement Concepts; and 3) GN&C FSW Application Framework.

  5. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  6. An Austrian framework for PET quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The European patient protection directive (97/43 EURATOM) requires regular routine quality control (QC) of PET imaging devices. Since no standards were available covering this area and in order to comply with the directive a joint working party of the Austrian societies of nuclear medicine and of medical physics have developed a set of procedures suitable for both dedicated PET scanners and gamma cameras operating in coincidence mode (GCPET). The routine procedures proposed include both manufacturer recommended procedures and tests for specific parameters and calibration procedures. Wherever possible, procedures adapted or derived from NEMA standards publication NU 2-2001 were used to permit direct comparison with specified parameters of image quality. For dedicated PET scanners the most important procedures are the checking of detector sensitivities and the attenuation calibration scan. With full ring scanners the attenuation calibration scan is a blank scan, with partial ring devices a special attenuation calibration phantom has to be used. Test protocols are specific to manufacturer and scanner type. They are usually performed automatically overnight. In addition, some instruments require special calibrations, e.g. gain adjustments or coincidence timing calibration. GCPET procedures include the frequent assessment in coincidence mode of detector uniformity, energy resolution and system sensitivity. Common to both dedicated PET and GCPET are the regular quarterly assessment of tomographic spatial resolution and the calibration of the system for quantitative measurements. As a total performance test for both systems assessment of image quality following NU 2-2001 was included, to be carried out after major system changes or repairs. The suite of QC procedures was tested on several dedicated PET and GCPET systems including all major manufacturers' systems. Due to missing hardware or software not all tests could be performed on all systems. Some of the

  7. Emerging roles for cancer registries in cancer control.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwald, P.; Sondik, E. J.; Young, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Cancer registries are a vital part of the national cancer effort to cut United States cancer mortality rates in half by the year 2000. Registries provide the data to focus programs and monitor progress. Success in meeting the year 2000 goal will require aggressive attention to the opportunities for prevention, early detection, treatment, and applied cancer control research, all of which complement the current emphasis on basic research.

  8. Applying the CobiT Control Framework to Spreadsheet Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Raymond J.

    2008-01-01

    One of the problems reported by researchers and auditors in the field of spreadsheet risks is that of getting and keeping managements attention to the problem. Since 1996, the Information Systems Audit & Control Foundation and the IT Governance Institute have published CobiT which brings mainstream IT control issues into the corporate governance arena. This paper illustrates how spreadsheet risk and control issues can be mapped onto the CobiT framework and thus brought to managers attention i...

  9. Optimal stochastic control in natural resource management: Framework and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    A framework is presented for the application of optimal control methods to natural resource problems. An expression of the optimal control problem appropriate for renewable natural resources is given and its application to Markovian systems is presented in some detail. Three general approaches are outlined for determining optimal control of infinite time horizon systems and three examples from the natural resource literature are used for illustration.

  10. Applying the CobiT Control Framework to Spreadsheet Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Raymond J

    2008-01-01

    One of the problems reported by researchers and auditors in the field of spreadsheet risks is that of getting and keeping managements attention to the problem. Since 1996, the Information Systems Audit & Control Foundation and the IT Governance Institute have published CobiT which brings mainstream IT control issues into the corporate governance arena. This paper illustrates how spreadsheet risk and control issues can be mapped onto the CobiT framework and thus brought to managers attention in a familiar format.

  11. Controlled partial interpenetration in metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alan; Liu, Lujia; Tapperwijn, Stefanus J.; Perl, David; Coudert, François-Xavier; van Cleuvenbergen, Stijn; Verbiest, Thierry; van der Veen, Monique A.; Telfer, Shane G.

    2016-03-01

    Interpenetration, the entwining of multiple lattices, is a common phenomenon in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Typically, in interpenetrated MOFs the sub-lattices are fully occupied. Here we report a family of MOFs in which one sub-lattice is fully occupied and the occupancy level of the other can be controlled during synthesis to produce frameworks with variable levels of partial interpenetration. We also report an ‘autocatenation’ process, a transformation of non-interpenetrated lattices into doubly interpenetrated frameworks via progressively higher degrees of interpenetration that involves no external reagents. Autocatenation maintains crystallinity and can be triggered either thermally or by shear forces. The ligand used to construct these MOFs is chiral, and both racemic and enantiopure partially interpenetrated frameworks can be accessed. X-ray diffraction, nonlinear optical microscopy and theoretical calculations offer insights into the structures and dynamic behaviour of these materials and the growth mechanisms of interpenetrated MOFs.

  12. AFECS. multi-agent framework for experiment control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurjyan, V.; Abbott, D.; Heyes, G.; Jastrzembski, E.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    2008-07-01

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC.

  13. AFECS. Multi-Agent Framework for Experiment Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2008-01-23

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC.

  14. AFECS. multi-agent framework for experiment control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AFECS is a pure Java based software framework for designing and implementing distributed control systems. AFECS creates a control system environment as a collection of software agents behaving as finite state machines. These agents can represent real entities, such as hardware devices, software tasks, or control subsystems. A special control oriented ontology language (COOL), based on RDFS (Resource Definition Framework Schema) is provided for control system description as well as for agent communication. AFECS agents can be distributed over a variety of platforms. Agents communicate with their associated physical components using range of communication protocols, including tcl-DP, cMsg (publish-subscribe communication system developed at Jefferson Lab), SNMP (simple network management protocol), EPICS channel access protocol and JDBC

  15. A framework for plot control in interactive story systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgouros, N.M.; Papakonstantinou, G.; Tsanakas, P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zographou Campus (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a framework for plot control in interactive story systems. In this framework, the user takes the place of the main character of the story, the protagonist. The rest of the cast consists of discrete characters, each playing a specific role in the story. A separate module in this system, the plot manager, controls the behavior of the cast and specifies what the protagonist can do. The story plot is dynamically shaped by the interference between cast members and their social interactions. The system accepts as input a story map which provides the main metaphor for organizing the plot and localizes the interaction of the protagonist with the rest of the cast. We are implementing this framework in PEGASUS, an interactive travel story environment for Greek mythology.

  16. The Total Picture - A Framework for Control of IT Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoson, Mats-Åke; Johansson, Björn; Seigerroth, Ulf

    Evaluation of IT investments is a difficult and complicated issue. This chapter presents a framework for control of IT investments with the aim of providing decision-makers with a clear picture of individual IT investments as well as an aggregated level where all IT investments are combined into a total picture. The framework has been developed using an action-research approach.In a number of workshops intermediate results have been presented, and reactions from practitioners have influenced the development. Participants in the project come from different EU countries all directly concerned with IT investments. The framework, that is being tested by authorities in different EU countries, is considered by participants to have the potential to improve the decision-making processes. The framework can also potentially be used in academic teaching in IT economics. The framework is based on a lifetime perspective in which established investment models can be applied. A main dimension is to consider interrelations between different IT investments through aggregation into a total picture, in order to control total spending on IT in organisations.

  17. A Unified Pseudospectral Framework for Nonlinear Controller and Observer Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Qi; Ross, I. Michael; Kang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2007 American Control Conference Marriott Marquis Hotel at Times Square New York City, USA, July 11-13, 2007 As a result of significant progress in pseudospectral methods for real-time dynamic optimization, it has become apparent in recent years that it is possible to present a unified framework for both controller and observer design. In this paper, we present such an approach for nonlinear systems. The method can be applied to a wide variety of nonlinear systems....

  18. DARC: Next generation decentralized control framework for robot applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    This paper presents DARC, a next generation control framework for robot applications. It is designed to be equally powerful in prototyping research projects and for building serious commercial robots running on low powered embedded hardware, thus closing the gab between research and industry. It ...... incorporates several new techniques such as a decentralized peer-to-peer architecture, transparent network distribution of the control system, and automatic run-time supervision to guarantee robustness....

  19. A Robust Control Design Framework for Substructure Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyong B.

    1994-01-01

    A framework for designing control systems directly from substructure models and uncertainties is proposed. The technique is based on combining a set of substructure robust control problems by an interface stiffness matrix which appears as a constant gain feedback. Variations of uncertainties in the interface stiffness are treated as a parametric uncertainty. It is shown that multivariable robust control can be applied to generate centralized or decentralized controllers that guarantee performance with respect to uncertainties in the interface stiffness, reduced component modes and external disturbances. The technique is particularly suited for large, complex, and weakly coupled flexible structures.

  20. Robust and optimal control a two-port framework approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Mi-Ching

    2014-01-01

    A Two-port Framework for Robust and Optimal Control introduces an alternative approach to robust and optimal controller synthesis procedures for linear, time-invariant systems, based on the two-port system widespread in electrical engineering. The novel use of the two-port system in this context allows straightforward engineering-oriented solution-finding procedures to be developed, requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra. A chain-scattering description provides a unified framework for constructing the stabilizing controller set and for synthesizing H2 optimal and H∞ sub-optimal controllers. Simple yet illustrative examples explain each step. A Two-port Framework for Robust and Optimal Control  features: ·         a hands-on, tutorial-style presentation giving the reader the opportunity to repeat the designs presented and easily to modify them for their own programs; ·         an abundance of examples illustrating the most important steps in robust and optimal design; and ·   �...

  1. Computer security of NPP instrumentation and control systems: regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the regulatory framework on computer security of NPP instrumentation and control systems (I and C) and presents the short overview of IAEA Nuclear Security Series. It considers the key reference manual from these series and draft new guide on NPP I and C computer security. The paper presents requirements for information and computer security of NPP I and C from the standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and, in particular, the standard regulating requirements for NPP I and C computer security program. Regulatory guide of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with requirements for computer security program of nuclear facilities has been analyzed. The research considers challenges of regulatory control in this area and defines tasks to improve regulatory framework on computer security at Ukrainian nuclear facilities.

  2. IEPLC Framework, Automated Communication in a Heterogeneous Control System Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Locci, F

    2014-01-01

    In CERN accelerators control system several components are essential such as: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), PCI Extensions for Instrumentation (PXI), and other micro-controller families. Together with their weaknesses and their strength points they typically present custom communication protocols and it is therefore difficult to federate them into the control system using a single communication strategy. Furthermore this dependency to the physical device interfaces and protocols makes most of the code not reusable and the replacement of old technology a difficult problem. The purpose of IEPLC ([1]) is to mitigate the communication issues given by this heterogeneity; it proposes a framework to define communication interfaces in a hardware independent manner. In addition it automatically generates all the resources needed on master side (typically represented by a FEC: Front-End Computer) and slave side (typically represented by the controller) to implement a common and generic Ethernet communication. Th...

  3. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  4. MADOCA. Accelerator and beamline control framework developed by SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework of the SPring-8 control system called MADOCA was developed by an independent standpoint. It consists of a device interface, a middle-ware and a man-machine interface as usual, but satisfying the following conditions: (1) Users are not required to know how the signal cables are connected, (2) The status of the beam and the apparatuses can be recorded and can be seen anytime, and the operational status of the accelerator can be reproduced, (3) Data acquisition for the apparatus can be easily made, and (4) Control programs can be easily written. (K.Y.)

  5. Analysis Of Cancer Omics Data In A Semantic Web Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Holford, Matt; McCusker, James; Cheung, Kei; Krauthammer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Our work concerns the elucidation of the cancer (epi)genome, transcriptome and proteome to better understand the complex interplay between a cancer cell's molecular state and its response to anti-cancer therapy. To study the problem, we have previously focused on data warehousing technologies and statistical data integration. In this paper, we present recent work on extending our analytical capabilities using Semantic Web technology. A key new component presented here is a SPARQL endpoint to ...

  6. Androgen Control in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekanou, Vasiliki; Castanas, Elias

    2016-10-01

    Research on prostate cancer has extensively advanced in the past decade, through an improved understanding for its genetic basis and risk-stratification. Molecular classification of prostate cancer into distinct subtypes and the recognition of new histologic entities promise the development of tailored-made management strategies of patients. Nowadays, various alternatives are available for clinical management of localized disease ranging from observation alone through radical prostatectomy. In patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, the approval of new drugs for the management of metastatic disease has offered promising results improving the survival of these patients. In this context, androgen receptors (AR) remain at the epicenter of prostate cancer research holding a prominent role in the biology and therapeutic regimens of prostate cancer. As many of castration-resistant tumors retain hormone-responsiveness, AR is a clinical relevant, druggable target. However, AR paradoxically remains neglected as a prostate cancer biomarker. The great advancements in prostate cancer preclinical and clinical research, imply further improvement in clinical and translational data, for patient selection and treatment optimization. For a precision medicine-guided clinical management of prostate cancer, AR evaluation has to be implemented in companion and complementary diagnostics, as discussed here. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2224-2234, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27104784

  7. Access Request Trustworthiness in Weighted Access Control Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lun-wei; LIAO Xiang-ke; WANG Huai-min

    2005-01-01

    Weighted factor is given to access control policies to express the importance of policy and its effect on access control decision. According to this weighted access control framework, a trustworthiness model for access request is also given. In this model, we give the measure of trustworthiness factor to access request, by using some idea of uncertainty reasoning of expert system, present and prove the parallel propagation formula of request trustworthiness factor among multiple policies, and get the final trustworthiness factor to decide whether authorizing. In this model, authorization decision is given according to the calculation of request trustworthiness factor, which is more understandable, more suitable for real requirement and more powerful for security enhancement than traditional methods. Meanwhile the finer access control granularity is another advantage.

  8. Tobacco control: an issue twinned with oral cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Mohan; Lando, Harry A

    2014-10-01

    Oral cancer is a silent crisis in India. Thirty per cent of all cancers are oral cancer, and approximately 17% of all cancers in men and 10.5% of all cancers in women are oral cancer. Approximately 70,000 new cases are reported annually and 46,000 oral cancer-related deaths occur each year in India; furthermore, the number of cases is rapidly increasing. With this crescendo there may be an estimated 100,000 new cases by 2020, which is insurmountable, especially in emerging economies like India. This astronomical increase is a direct result of tobacco usage. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey performed in 2010 (GATS-2010) reported that approximately 274.5 million people in India use tobacco in various forms. Increasing use of smokeless tobacco, especially by women and children, is of major concern. The World Health Organisation has identified tobacco control and oral cancer control measures as a health priority. However, prevention of tobacco use in India is a great challenge owing to low overall literacy rates and to greater prevalence among people in lower socio-economic strata. Addressing this problem requires a multidisciplinary approach. This paper presents a situational analysis of oral cancer in India and the role of tobacco in making it the epicentre of the disease, and focuses on the role of dental care-givers in influencing and promoting tobacco-control programmes and early detection of oral cancer. PMID:25146242

  9. A Novel Extreme Learning Control Framework of Unmanned Surface Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Sun, Jing-Chao; Er, Meng Joo; Liu, Yan-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an extreme learning control (ELC) framework using the single-hidden-layer feedforward network (SLFN) with random hidden nodes for tracking an unmanned surface vehicle suffering from unknown dynamics and external disturbances is proposed. By combining tracking errors with derivatives, an error surface and transformed states are defined to encapsulate unknown dynamics and disturbances into a lumped vector field of transformed states. The lumped nonlinearity is further identified accurately by an extreme-learning-machine-based SLFN approximator which does not require a priori system knowledge nor tuning input weights. Only output weights of the SLFN need to be updated by adaptive projection-based laws derived from the Lyapunov approach. Moreover, an error compensator is incorporated to suppress approximation residuals, and thereby contributing to the robustness and global asymptotic stability of the closed-loop ELC system. Simulation studies and comprehensive comparisons demonstrate that the ELC framework achieves high accuracy in both tracking and approximation. PMID:25955859

  10. Distributed framework for dyanmic telescope and instrument control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy J.; Case, Lynne

    2003-02-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been developed specifically for a single instrument. Such solutions are frequently expensive and are inflexible to support the next instrument development effort. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC) that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. IRC combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms. The IRC framework provides the ability to communicate to components anywhere on a network using the JXTA protocol for dynamic discovery of distributed components. JXTA (see http://www.jxta.org) is a generalized protocol that allows any devices connected by a network to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner. IRC uses JXTA to advertise a devices IML and discover devices of interest on the network. Devices can join or leave the network and thus join or leave the instrument control environment of IRC. Currently, several astronomical instruments are working with the IRC development team to develop custom components for IRC to control their instruments. These instruments include: High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC), a first light instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA); Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), a Principal Investigator instrument for SOFIA; and Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE), a prototype of the SAFIRE instrument, used at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Most recently, we have been

  11. Distributed Framework for Dynamic Telescope and Instrument Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Troy J.; Case, Lynne

    2002-12-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been developed specifically for a single instrument. Such solutions are frequently expensive and are inflexible to support the next instrument development effort. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC) that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. IRC combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms. The IRC framework provides the ability to communicate to components anywhere on a network using the JXTA protocol for dynamic discovery of distributed components. JXTA (see http://www.jxta.org) is a generalized protocol that allows any devices connected by a network to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner. IRC uses JXTA to advertise a device?s IML and discover devices of interest on the network. Devices can join or leave the network and thus join or leave the instrument control environment of IRC. Currently, several astronomical instruments are working with the IRC development team to develop custom components for IRC to control their instruments. These instruments include: High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC), a first light instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA); Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), a principal investigator instrument for SOFIA; and Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE), a prototype of the SAFIRE instrument, used at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Most recently, we have

  12. Molecular imaging in the framework of personalized cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dzevad; Belkić, Karen

    2013-11-01

    With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computerized tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers. PMID:24511645

  13. A Framework for Nonlinear Model Predictive Control in JModelica.org

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Magdalena; Magnusson, Fredrik; Henningsson, Toivo

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) is a control strategy based on repeatedly solving an optimal control problem. In this paper we present a new MPC framework for the JModelica.org platform, developed specifically for use in NMPC schemes. The new framework utilizes the fact that the optimal control problem to be solved does not change between solutions, thus decreasing the computation time needed to solve it. The new framework is compared to the old optimization framework in JModelica.o...

  14. ARC Control Tower: A flexible generic distributed job management framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, J. K.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.

    2015-12-01

    While current grid middleware implementations are quite advanced in terms of connecting jobs to resources, their client tools are generally quite minimal and features for managing large sets of jobs are left to the user to implement. The ARC Control Tower (aCT) is a very flexible job management framework that can be run on anything from a single users laptop to a multi-server distributed setup. aCT was originally designed to enable ATLAS jobs to be submitted to the ARC CE. However, with the recent redesign of aCT where the ATLAS specific elements are clearly separated from the ARC job management parts, the control tower can now easily be reused as a flexible generic distributed job manager for other communities. This paper will give a detailed explanation how aCT works as a job management framework and go through the steps needed to create a simple job manager using aCT and show that it can easily manage thousands of jobs.

  15. Rethinking the regulatory framework for tobacco control in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick; Crane, Julian

    2005-04-15

    Tobacco is a particularly unusual consumer product in that it is highly addictive, kills over half its long-term users, and is a major cause of premature death and health inequalities in New Zealand. We therefore examined the place of regulatory frameworks in advancing tobacco control, and suggest the formation of a Government Tobacco Authority. Such an authority could enable the Government to specify the design of tobacco products (to maximise harm reduction), to eliminate the marketing for profit of branded products, and to appropriately control the introduction of alternative nicotine delivery devices or less hazardous alternative tobacco products. As the authority could be funded through levies on the tobacco industry, it has the potential advantage of delivering major population health gains while costing the taxpayer nothing. PMID:15843834

  16. Analysis Of Cancer Omics Data In A Semantic Web Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Holford, Matt; Cheung, Kei; Krauthammer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Our work concerns the elucidation of the cancer (epi)genome, transcriptome and proteome to better understand the complex interplay between a cancer cell's molecular state and its response to anti-cancer therapy. To study the problem, we have previously focused on data warehousing technologies and statistical data integration. In this paper, we present recent work on extending our analytical capabilities using Semantic Web technology. A key new component presented here is a SPARQL endpoint to our existing data warehouse. This endpoint allows the merging of observed quantitative data with existing data from semantic knowledge sources such as Gene Ontology (GO). We show how such variegated quantitative and functional data can be integrated and accessed in a universal manner using Semantic Web tools. We also demonstrate how Description Logic (DL) reasoning can be used to infer previously unstated conclusions from existing knowledge bases. As proof of concept, we illustrate the ability of our setup to answer compl...

  17. A practical receding horizon control framework for path planning and control of autonomous vtol vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Chen, W.-H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes an integrated path planning and tracking control framework for autonomous vertical-take-off-and-landing (VTOL) vehicles, particularly quadrotors. The path planning adopts a receding horizon strategy to repeatedly plan a local trajectory that satisfies both the vehicle dynamics and obstacle-free requirement. A tracking controller is then designed to track the planned path. The differential flatness property of the quadrotor is exploited in both path planner and tracking controller designs. The proposed framework is verified by real-time simulations incorporating online optimization.

  18. TP-model transformation-based-control design frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Baranyi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    This book covers new aspects and frameworks of control, design, and optimization based on the TP model transformation and its various extensions. The author outlines the three main steps of polytopic and LMI based control design: 1) development of the qLPV state-space model, 2) generation of the polytopic model; and 3) application of LMI to derive controller and observer. He goes on to describe why literature has extensively studied LMI design, but has not focused much on the second step, in part because the generation and manipulation of the polytopic form was not tractable in many cases. The author then shows how the TP model transformation facilitates this second step and hence reveals new directions, leading to powerful design procedures and the formulation of new questions. The chapters of this book, and the complex dynamical control tasks which they cover, are organized so as to present and analyze the beneficial aspect of the family of approaches (control, design, and optimization). Additionally, the b...

  19. Framework for controlling infection through isolation precautions in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kazumi; Misao, Hanako

    2014-03-01

    In Japan, nurses certified in infection control face organizational and structural challenges to the implementation of the recommended isolation precautions. In this study, we developed a conceptual framework for the problem-solving process of certified nurses in infection control when implementing appropriate isolation-precaution measures. We conducted a qualitative, descriptive study using directed content analysis. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 nurses who had over five years' experience in infection control. Factors assessing the risk of infection in patients were identified, including microorganism characteristics, patient characteristics, and risk of infection to the entire unit. The nurses also assessed the risk of infection in institutions from the following perspectives: organizational culture, infection control system, human resources, environment surrounding the facility, ethical issues, and external factors. Individual characteristics, such as attributes, knowledge, expertise, and job function, were identified as major influencing factors in the problem-solving process. These findings could be useful for newly-certified nurses in infection control and provide recommendations on implementing isolation-precaution measures. PMID:24635895

  20. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM): A novel framework for cancer survivorship

    OpenAIRE

    Tighe Foss; Carroll Peter R; Cooperberg Matthew R; Basch Ethan; Salz Talya; Vickers Andrew J; Eastham James; Rosen Raymond C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM). SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked...

  1. Comprehensive cancer control: progress and accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Phyllis W; Townsend, Julie S; Given, Leslie; Krebill, Hope; Balderrama, Sandra; Vinson, Cynthia

    2010-12-01

    The potential for Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) across the nation has been realized in the last decade with 69 Coalitions developing and implementing CCC plans. Many partners at all levels--national, state, jurisdictional, tribal and communities--have contributed to this success. This article details the contribution of these partners across these various levels, with a selection of the many activities contributing to this success. Consequently the cancer burden, although still of major importance, continues to be addressed in significant ways. Although there are future challenges, CCC coalitions continue to play an important role in addressing the cancer burden. PMID:21069448

  2. Multiscale Model of Colorectal Cancer Using the Cellular Potts Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, James M

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of death in the developed world and forms a canonical example of tumorigenesis. CRC arises from a string of mutations of individual cells in the colorectal crypt, making it particularly suited for multiscale multicellular modeling, where mutations of individual cells can be clearly represented and their effects readily tracked. In this paper, we present a multicellular model of the onset of colorectal cancer, utilizing the cellular Potts model (CPM). We use the model to investigate how, through the modification of their mechanical properties, mutant cells colonize the crypt. Moreover, we study the influence of mutations on the shape of cells in the crypt, suggesting possible cell- and tissue-level indicators for identifying early-stage cancerous crypts. Crucially, we discuss the effect that the motility parameters of the model (key factors in the behavior of the CPM) have on the distribution of cells within a homeostatic crypt, resulting in an optimal parameter regime that accurately reflects biological assumptions. In summary, the key results of this paper are 1) how to couple the CPM with processes occurring on other spatial scales, using the example of the crypt to motivate suitable motility parameters; 2) modeling mutant cells with the CPM; 3) and investigating how mutations influence the shape of cells in the crypt. PMID:26461973

  3. Hybrid Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Controlling Framework Porosity and Functionality by Mixed-Linker Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Thompson, Joshua A.

    2012-05-22

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a subclass of nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that exhibit zeolite-like structural topologies and have interesting molecular recognition properties, such as molecular sieving and gate-opening effects associated with their pore apertures. The synthesis and characterization of hybrid ZIFs with mixed linkers in the framework are described in this work, producing materials with properties distinctly different from the parent frameworks (ZIF-8, ZIF-90, and ZIF-7). NMR spectroscopy is used to assess the relative amounts of the different linkers included in the frameworks, whereas nitrogen physisorption shows the evolution of the effective pore size distribution in materials resulting from the framework hybridization. X-ray diffraction shows these hybrid materials to be crystalline. In the case of ZIF-8-90 hybrids, the cubic space group of the parent frameworks is continuously maintained, whereas in the case of the ZIF-7-8 hybrids there is a transition from a cubic to a rhombohedral space group. Nitrogen physisorption data reveal that the hybrid materials exhibit substantial changes in gate-opening phenomena, either occurring at continuously tunable partial pressures of nitrogen (ZIF-8-90 hybrids) or loss of gate-opening effects to yield more rigid frameworks (ZIF-7-8 hybrids). With this synthetic approach, significant alterations in MOF properties may be realized to suit a desired separation or catalytic process. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. An Individualized Approach to Cancer Screening Decisions in Older Adults: A Multilevel Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Erica S; Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; Edwards, Heather M; Schonberg, Mara A; Saiontz, Nicole; Walter, Louise C

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines for optimal cancer screening in older adults remain unclear, particularly for adults over the age of 75. While cancer screening in older adults may benefit some in good health, it may cause unnecessary burdens in others with limited life expectancy. Thus, a systematic approach to enable individualized cancer screening decisions in older adults is needed. We suggest a framework that guides such decisions through evidence-based approaches from multiple interactions, and that involves the patient, clinician, and healthcare system. An individualized approach considers differences in disease risk rather than the chronological age of the patient. This paper presents a comprehensive framework that depicts the independent and converging levels of influences on individualized cancer screening decisions in older adults. This Individualized Decisions for Screening (IDS) framework recognizes the reality of these interrelationships, including the tensions that arise when behaviors and outcomes are valued differently at the patient, clinician, and healthcare organization levels. Person-centered approaches are essential to advancing multilevel research of individualized cancer screening decisions among older adults. PMID:26941042

  5. A general observatory control software framework design for existing small and mid-size telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; Lu, Xiao-Meng; Jiang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-07-01

    A general framework for observatory control software would help to improve the efficiency of observation and operation of telescopes, and would also be advantageous for remote and joint observations. We describe a general framework for observatory control software, which considers principles of flexibility and inheritance to meet the expectations from observers and technical personnel. This framework includes observation scheduling, device control and data storage. The design is based on a finite state machine that controls the whole process.

  6. Adaptive Fuzzy Consensus Clustering Framework for Clustering Analysis of Cancer Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwen; Chen, Hantao; You, Jane; Liu, Jiming; Wong, Hau-San; Han, Guoqiang; Li, Le

    2015-01-01

    Performing clustering analysis is one of the important research topics in cancer discovery using gene expression profiles, which is crucial in facilitating the successful diagnosis and treatment of cancer. While there are quite a number of research works which perform tumor clustering, few of them considers how to incorporate fuzzy theory together with an optimization process into a consensus clustering framework to improve the performance of clustering analysis. In this paper, we first propose a random double clustering based cluster ensemble framework (RDCCE) to perform tumor clustering based on gene expression data. Specifically, RDCCE generates a set of representative features using a randomly selected clustering algorithm in the ensemble, and then assigns samples to their corresponding clusters based on the grouping results. In addition, we also introduce the random double clustering based fuzzy cluster ensemble framework (RDCFCE), which is designed to improve the performance of RDCCE by integrating the newly proposed fuzzy extension model into the ensemble framework. RDCFCE adopts the normalized cut algorithm as the consensus function to summarize the fuzzy matrices generated by the fuzzy extension models, partition the consensus matrix, and obtain the final result. Finally, adaptive RDCFCE (A-RDCFCE) is proposed to optimize RDCFCE and improve the performance of RDCFCE further by adopting a self-evolutionary process (SEPP) for the parameter set. Experiments on real cancer gene expression profiles indicate that RDCFCE and A-RDCFCE works well on these data sets, and outperform most of the state-of-the-art tumor clustering algorithms. PMID:26357330

  7. Framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qin, Xulei; Halig, Luma; Muller, Susan; Zhang, Hongzheng; Chen, Amy; Pogue, Brian W.; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Fei, Baowei

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an imaging modality that holds strong potential for rapid cancer detection during image-guided surgery. But the data from HSI often needs to be processed appropriately in order to extract the maximum useful information that differentiates cancer from normal tissue. We proposed a framework for hyperspectral image processing and quantification, which includes a set of steps including image preprocessing, glare removal, feature extraction, and ultimately image classification. The framework has been tested on images from mice with head and neck cancer, using spectra from 450- to 900-nm wavelength. The image analysis computed Fourier coefficients, normalized reflectance, mean, and spectral derivatives for improved accuracy. The experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the hyperspectral image processing and quantification framework for cancer detection during animal tumor surgery, in a challenging setting where sensitivity can be low due to a modest number of features present, but potential for fast image classification can be high. This HSI approach may have potential application in tumor margin assessment during image-guided surgery, where speed of assessment may be the dominant factor.

  8. Survivorship care planning in a comprehensive cancer center using an implementation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sofia F; Kircher, Sheetal M; Oden, Megan; Veneruso, Aubri; McKoy, June M; Pearman, Timothy; Penedo, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Cancer survivorship care plans (SCPs) have been recommended to improve clinical care and patient outcomes. Research is needed to establish their efficacy and identify best practices. Starting in 2015, centers accredited by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer must deliver SCPs to patients completing primary cancer treatment with curative intent. We describe how we established routine SCP delivery at the Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center in Chicago, Illinois, using the Quality Implementation Framework. We evaluated local practices, gathered clinician and patient stakeholder input, developed customized SCP templates within the electronic health record (EHR), and implemented 2 complementary delivery models. Clinician interviews (n = 41) and survey responses (n = 12), along with input from patients (n = 68) and a patient advisory board (n = 15), indicated support for SCPs and survivorship services. To promote feasible implementation and leverage existing workflows, we harmonized 2 SCP delivery models: integrated care within clinics where patients received treatment, and referral to a centralized survivorship clinic. We are implementing SCP delivery with prominent disease sites and will extend services to survivors of other cancers in the future. We developed four electronic disease-specific SCP templates for breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers and a fifth, generic template that can be used for other malignancies. The templates reduced free-text clinician entry by auto-populating 20% of the fields from existing EHR data, and using drop-down menus for another 65%. Mean SCP completion time is 12 minutes (range, 10-15; n = 64). We designed our framework to facilitate ongoing evaluation of implementation and quality improvement. Funding/sponsorship Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Coleman Foundation, and the Lynn Sage Cancer Research Foundation. PMID:27258051

  9. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chi; WANG Jian; YU Xiaoqi; YANG Dong

    2008-01-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  10. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  11. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM: a novel framework for cancer survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Foss

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM. SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Results Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate or security. Conclusion SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice.

  12. Evaluating a Web-Based Educational Module on Oral Cancer Examination Based on a Behavioral Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Alvin G; Zimmerman, Lani M; Pullen, Carol H; Allen, Carl M; Lambert, Paul M; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-03-01

    Patients at risk of developing oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) are more likely to see primary care providers (PCPs) than a dentist. Many PCPs do not regularly perform oral cancer examination (OCE). The purpose of this study was to design a web-based educational program based on a behavioral framework to encourage PCPs to conduct OCE. PCPs were solicited to provide feedback on the program and to evaluate their short-term knowledge. The integrated behavioral model was used to design the program. Fifteen PCPs (five in each group: physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) reviewed the program and took a posttest: (1) index of knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer (RiskOC) and (2) index of knowledge of diagnostic procedures for oral cancer (DiagOC). Findings from the process evaluation were mainly positive, with comments on the length of the program comprising the ten negative comments. No significant difference among groups of PCPs (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) was detected for DiagOC (p = 0.43) or RiskOC (p = 0.201). A program on OPC for PCPs should be less than 40 min. Postviewing knowledge outcomes were similar for all PCPs. The web-based program on OPC based on a behavioral framework could have similar short-term knowledge outcomes for all PCPs and may increase the number of PCPs performing OCEs. PMID:25572460

  13. Theoretical review and framework : The roles of controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Rouwelaar, ten, J.A. (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the position of the business unit controller has grown in importance. This study gives a review of the research behind the two roles, which business unit-controllers can fulfill in business life: the support role and the control role. The support role is associated with involvedness of controllers by supporting managerial decision-making in the business unit; the control role focuses on providing reliable and timely financial accounting information for the corporate level...

  14. Metabolic Control Analysis under Uncertainty: Framework Development and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liqing; Birol, İnanç; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2004-01-01

    Information about the enzyme kinetics in a metabolic network will enable understanding of the function of the network and quantitative prediction of the network responses to genetic and environmental perturbations. Despite recent advances in experimental techniques, such information is limited and existing experimental data show extensive variation and they are based on in vitro experiments. In this article, we present a computational framework based on the well-established (log)linear formal...

  15. Re-examining the levers of control-framework: from interactive controls towards "interactive transparency". Case Rautaruukki Oyj.

    OpenAIRE

    Tero, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    HELSINKI SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS (HSE) ABSTRACT Department of Accounting and Finance 3.9.2009 Joanna Tero RE-EXAMINING THE LEVERS OF CONTROL-FRAMEWORK: FROM INTERACTIVE CONTROL TOWARDS “INTERACTIVE TRANSPARENCY” Case Rautaruukki Oyj. Objectives of the study The objective of this study is to critically re-examine Simons’ (1995) levers of control-framework, which has been widely used in previous research, but received only limited attempts of fur...

  16. IT Project Management Control and the Control Objectives for IT and Related Technology (CobiT) Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bernroider, Edward; Ivanov, Milen

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by scarce academic consideration of project management control frameworks, this article explores usage, value and structure of frameworks with a focus on the popular Control Objectives for IT and related Technology (CobiT) construct. We attempt to add to an empirically validated structure of internal control over IT project management by including CobiT's views on the intended domain of content. Results from the empirical survey indicate that the metrics suggested by Cob...

  17. Oxycodone controlled release in cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancofiore, Giuseppe

    2006-09-01

    Oral opioids are the treatment of choice for chronic cancer pain. Morphine is the strong opioid of choice for the treatment of moderate to severe cancer pain according to guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO). This recommendation by the WHO was derived from availability, familiarity to clinicians, established effectiveness, simplicity of administration, and relative inexpensive cost. It was not based on proven therapeutic superiority over other options. Patients who experience inadequate pain relief or intolerable side effects with one opioid may often be successfully treated with another agent or with the same agent administered by a different route. Opioid rotation, or switching to an alternative opioid, helps some patients achieve better pain control with fewer associated adverse effects. Oxycodone is a mu-opioid receptor specific ligand, with clear agonist properties. It is an active potent opioid, which is in part a kappa-receptor agonist. Like morphine and other pure agonists, there is no known ceiling to the analgesic effects of oxycodone. The active metabolites of oxycodone (eg, oxymorphone) could be important in oxycodone-mediated analgesia. The main pharmacokinetic difference between oxycodone and morphine is in oral bioavailability. The bioavailability of oxycodone is >60% and the bioavailability of morphine is 20%. Controlled-release oxycodone is absorbed in a bi-exponential fashion. There is a rapid phase with a mean half-life of 37 min, accounting for 38% of the dose, and a slow phase with a half-life of 6.2 h, which accounts for the residual 62%. Oxycodone elimination is impaired by renal failure because there are both an increased volume of distribution and reduced clearance. A lot of studies prove that the efficacy of controlled-release oxycodone in cancer-pain control is at least the same as morphine, immediate-release oxycodone and hydromorphone. Its toxicity profile seems better than that of morphine. There are actually several

  18. Status of the Use of Large-Scale Corba-Distributed Software Framework for NIF Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is based on a scalable software framework that will be distributed over some 750 Computers throughout the NIF. The framework provides templates and services at multiple levels of abstraction for the construction of software applications that communicate via CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Object-oriented software design patterns are implemented as templates to be extended by application software. Developers extend the framework base classes to model the numerous physical control points. About 140 thousand software objects, each individually addressable through CORBA, will be active at full scale. Most of the objects have persistent state that is initialized at system start-up and stored in a database. Centralized server programs that implement events, alerts, reservations, message logging, data archive, name services, and process management provide additional framework services. A higher-level model-based, distributed shot automation framework also provides a flexible and scalable scripted framework for automatic sequencing of work-flow for control and monitoring of NIF shots. The ICCS software framework has allowed for efficient construction of a software system that supports a large number of distributed control points representing a complex control application. Status of the use of this framework during first experimental shot campaigns and initial commissioning and build-out of the laser facility is described

  19. Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2005–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Neri, MD, MPH; Sherri L. Stewart, PhD; William Angell, MS

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends that every home be tested for radon. Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs develop cancer coalitions that coordinate funding and resources to focus on cancer activities that are recorded in cancer plans. Radon tests, remediation, and radon mitigation techniques are relatively inexpensive, but it is unclear whether coalition...

  20. Framework of Combined Adaptive and Non-adaptive Attitude Control System for a Helicopter Experimental System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Inoue; Ming-Cong Deng

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of a combined adaptive and non-adaptive attitude control system for a helicopter experimental system. The design method is based on a combination of adaptive nonlinear control and non-adaptive nonlinear control. With regard to detailed attitude control system design, two schemes are shown for different application cases.

  1. Legal and planning framework for the control of noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination of the statutory basis for the control of noise emissions is presented. Principal pieces of United Kingdom legislation and some advisory notes have been produced within 6 extensive appendices. The paper briefly examines the controls in other EC countries before discussing the way in which planning controls in the United Kingdom relate to the jurisdiction of the court. (author)

  2. Legal and planning framework for the control of noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination is offered of the statutory basis for the control of noise emissions. Principal pieces of legislation and some advisory notes have been produced within appendices. The paper briefly examines the controls in other EC countries before discussing the way in which planning controls relate to the jurisdiction of the court. (author)

  3. Theoretical review and framework : The roles of controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwelaar, ten J.A. (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, the position of the business unit controller has grown in importance. This study gives a review of the research behind the two roles, which business unit-controllers can fulfill in business life: the support role and the control role. The support role is associated with involved

  4. Optimal control of multiplicative control systems arising from cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, K.; Kim, M.

    1975-01-01

    This study deals with ways of curtailing the rapid growth of cancer cell populations. The performance functional that measures the size of the population at the terminal time as well as the control effort is devised. With use of the discrete maximum principle, the Hamiltonian for this problem is determined and the condition for optimal solutions are developed. The optimal strategy is shown to be a bang-bang control. It is shown that the optimal control for this problem must be on the vertices of an N-dimensional cube contained in the N-dimensional Euclidean space. An algorithm for obtaining a local minimum of the performance function in an orderly fashion is developed. Application of the algorithm to the design of antitumor drug and X-irradiation schedule is discussed.

  5. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Stochastic Control of Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Maroulas, Vasileios [ORNL; Xiong, Professor Jie [The University of Tennessee

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of minimizing the long-run expected average cost of a complex system consisting of subsystems that interact with each other and the environment. We treat the stochastic control problem as a multiobjective optimization problem of the one-stage expected costs of the subsystems, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution is an optimal control policy that minimizes the average cost criterion for the entire system. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those we study here, our results imply that the Pareto control policy may be of value in deriving online an optimal control policy in complex systems.

  6. Control Framework for Dexterous Manipulation Using Dynamic Visual Servoing and Tactile Sensors’ Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Jara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tactile sensors play an important role in robotics manipulation to perform dexterous and complex tasks. This paper presents a novel control framework to perform dexterous manipulation with multi-fingered robotic hands using feedback data from tactile and visual sensors. This control framework permits the definition of new visual controllers which allow the path tracking of the object motion taking into account both the dynamics model of the robot hand and the grasping force of the fingertips under a hybrid control scheme. In addition, the proposed general method employs optimal control to obtain the desired behaviour in the joint space of the fingers based on an indicated cost function which determines how the control effort is distributed over the joints of the robotic hand. Finally, authors show experimental verifications on a real robotic manipulation system for some of the controllers derived from the control framework.

  7. On the variational framework employing optimal control for biochemical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The study presented in the paper shows that the nonlinear kinetic processes (like logistic kinetics) at the level of the biomolecular and biophysical phenomena can be effectively described in terms of the maximum energy dissipation principle and its variational formulation. The variational approach and the logistic dissipative kinetic. (A) The trajectories of extent variable ξ*. d* - calculated Lagrange function (L) corresponding to extent variable trajectory d. (B) The plot of the logarithm of numerically calculated dissipative (thermodynamic) momentum p*. Research highlights: → The variational outline for maximum energy dissipation principle for non-linear biochemical processes is discussed. → The Lagrangians are built as a goal functions, having an energetical sense. → The Hamiltonians, canonical equations and optimal solutions have been obtained. → The maximum energy dissipation principle is interpreted as thermodynamic form of the least action principle. - Abstract: The maximum energy dissipation principle can be successfully applied to describe a range of basic nonlinear models. The application of the general variational framework has been illustrated for basic linear schemes. The study presented in the paper shows how the kinetic processes at this level of the biomolecular and biophysical phenomena can be effectively described in terms of the maximum energy dissipation principle and its variational formulation. On the basis of this approach, a range of Lagrangians was proposed for basic nonlinear dissipative kinetic models. The results of this study show that the framework is in agreement with nonlinear equilibrium thermodynamics.

  8. A framework for the intelligent control of nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intelligent control system architecture is proposed for nuclear rockets, and its various components are briefly described. The objective of the intelligent controller is the satisfaction of performance, robustness, fault-tolerance and reliability design specifications. The proposed hierarchical architecture consists of three levels: hardware, signal processing, and knowledge processing. The functionality of the intelligent controller is implemented utilizing advanced information processing technologies such as artificial neutral networks and fuzzy expert systems. The feasibility of a number of the controller architecture components have been independently validated using computer simulations. Preliminary results are presented demonstrating some of the signal processing capabilities of the intelligent nuclear rocket controller. Further work, currently in progress, is attempting to implement a number of the knowledge processing capabilities of the controller and their interface with the lower levels of the proposed architecture

  9. Fully probabilistic control design in an adaptive critic framework

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herzallah, R.; Kárný, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2011), s. 1128-1135. ISSN 0893-6080 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic control design * Fully probabilistic design * Adaptive control * Adaptive critic Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.182, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-0364820.pdf

  10. Review of State Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans for Genomics Content

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Millikan, DVM, PhD; Tejinder Rakhra-Burris, MA; Erin Shaughnessy Zuiker, MPH; Debra E. Irwin, PhD, MSPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The goals of this study were to determine U.S. states with Comprehensive Cancer Control plans that include genomics in some capacity and to review successes with and barriers to implementation of genomics-related cancer control initiatives. Methods This study was conducted in two phases. Phase one included a content analysis of written state Comprehensive Cancer Control plans (n = 30) for terms related to genomics, or genomic components (n = 18). The second phase involved te...

  11. An RFID-Based Manufacturing Control Framework for Loosely Coupled Distributed Manufacturing System Supporting Mass Customization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruey-Shun; Tsai, Yung-Shun; Tu, Arthur

    In this study we propose a manufacturing control framework based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology and a distributed information system to construct a mass-customization production process in a loosely coupled shop-floor control environment. On the basis of this framework, we developed RFID middleware and an integrated information system for tracking and controlling the manufacturing process flow. A bicycle manufacturer was used to demonstrate the prototype system. The findings of this study were that the proposed framework can improve the visibility and traceability of the manufacturing process as well as enhance process quality control and real-time production pedigree access. Using this framework, an enterprise can easily integrate an RFID-based system into its manufacturing environment to facilitate mass customization and a just-in-time production model.

  12. Performance evaluation framework (PEF) for real-time embedded control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lozoya Gámez, Rafael Camilo; Martí Colom, Pau; Velasco García, Manel; Fuertes Armengol, José Mª

    2012-01-01

    This report presents a performance evaluation framework (PEF) designed to simulate and implement diverse theoretical results on control and resource performance optimization that has recently appeared in the literature

  13. ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System—A real-time plasma control framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS) is a comprehensive control system to conduct fusion experiments. • DCS supports real-time diagnostic integration, adaptable feedback schemes, actuator management and exception handling. • DCS offers workflow management, logging and archiving, self-monitoring and inter-process communication. • DCS is based on a distributed, modular software framework architecture designed for real-time operation. • DCS is composed of re-usable generic but highly customisable components. - Abstract: ASDEX Upgrade is a fusion experiment with a size and complexity to allow extrapolation of technical and physical conditions and requirements to devices like ITER and even beyond. In addressing advanced physics topics it makes extensive use of sophisticated real-time control methods. It comprises real-time diagnostic integration, dynamically adaptable multivariable feedback schemes, actuator management including load distribution schemes and a powerful monitoring and pulse supervision concept based on segment scheduling and exception handling. The Discharge Control System (DCS) supplies all this functionality on base of a modular software framework architecture designed for real-time operation. It provides system-wide services like workflow management, logging and archiving, self-monitoring and inter-process communication on Linux, VxWorks and Solaris operating systems. By default DCS supports distributed computing, and a communication layer allows multi-directional signal transfer and data-driven process synchronisation over shared memory as well as over a number of real-time networks. The entire system is built following the same common design concept combining a rich set of re-usable generic but highly customisable components with a configuration-driven component deployment method. We will give an overview on the architectural concepts as well as on the outstanding capabilities of DCS in the domains of inter

  14. ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System—A real-time plasma control framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, R.; Lüddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Iffeldorf (Germany); Neu, G.; Rapson, C.; Raupp, G.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • The ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS) is a comprehensive control system to conduct fusion experiments. • DCS supports real-time diagnostic integration, adaptable feedback schemes, actuator management and exception handling. • DCS offers workflow management, logging and archiving, self-monitoring and inter-process communication. • DCS is based on a distributed, modular software framework architecture designed for real-time operation. • DCS is composed of re-usable generic but highly customisable components. - Abstract: ASDEX Upgrade is a fusion experiment with a size and complexity to allow extrapolation of technical and physical conditions and requirements to devices like ITER and even beyond. In addressing advanced physics topics it makes extensive use of sophisticated real-time control methods. It comprises real-time diagnostic integration, dynamically adaptable multivariable feedback schemes, actuator management including load distribution schemes and a powerful monitoring and pulse supervision concept based on segment scheduling and exception handling. The Discharge Control System (DCS) supplies all this functionality on base of a modular software framework architecture designed for real-time operation. It provides system-wide services like workflow management, logging and archiving, self-monitoring and inter-process communication on Linux, VxWorks and Solaris operating systems. By default DCS supports distributed computing, and a communication layer allows multi-directional signal transfer and data-driven process synchronisation over shared memory as well as over a number of real-time networks. The entire system is built following the same common design concept combining a rich set of re-usable generic but highly customisable components with a configuration-driven component deployment method. We will give an overview on the architectural concepts as well as on the outstanding capabilities of DCS in the domains of inter

  15. Multi-agent framework based on smart sensors/actuators for machine tools control and monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Desforges, Xavier; Archimède, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the history, the evolutions of the requirements for manufacturing equipments have depended on the changes in the customers' demands. Among the present trends in the requirements for new manufacturing equipments, there are more flexible and more reactive machines. In order to satisfy those requirements, this paper proposes a control and monitoring framework for machine tools based on smart sensor, on smart actuator and on agent concepts. The proposed control and monitoring framework...

  16. A Distributed Control Framework for Integrated Photovoltaic-Battery Based Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golsorkhi, Mohammad; Shafiee, Qobad; Lu, Dylan;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new cooperative control framework for coordination of energy storage units (ESUs), photovoltaic (PV) panels and controllable load units in singlephase low voltage microgrids (MGs). The control objectives are defined and acted upon using a two level structure; primary and sec...

  17. Design and implementation of a standard framework for KSTAR control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We performed a standardized of control system in KSTAR. • EPICS based software framework is developed for the realization of various control systems. • The applicability of the framework is widened from a simple command dispatcher to the real time application. • Our framework supports the implementation of embedded IOC in FPGA board. - Abstract: Standardization of control system is an important issue in KSTAR which is organized with various heterogeneous systems. Diverse control systems in KSTAR have been adopting new application software since 2010. Development of this software was launched for easy implementation of a data acquisition system but it is extended to as a Standard Framework (SFW) of control system in KSTAR. It is composed with a single library, database, template, and descriptor files. The SFW based controller has common factors. It has non-blocking control command method with a thread. The internal sequence handler makes it can be synchronized with KSTAR experiment. It also has a ring buffer pool mechanism for streaming input data handling. Recently, there are two important functional improvements in the framework. Processor embedded FPGA was proposed as a standard hardware platform for specific application. These are also manipulated by the SFW based embedded application. This approach gives single board system an ability of low level distributed control under the EPICS environments. We also developed a real time monitoring system as a real time network inspection tool in 2012 campaign using the SFW

  18. A unifying Lyapunov-based framework for the event-triggered control of nonlinear systems

    OpenAIRE

    Postoyan, Romain; Anta, Adolfo; Nesic, Dragan; Tabuada, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    We present a prescriptive framework for the event-triggered control of nonlinear systems. Rather than closing the loop periodically, as traditionally done in digital control, in event-triggered implementations the loop is closed according to a state-dependent criterion. Event-triggered control is especially well suited for embedded systems and networked control systems since it reduces the amount of resources needed for control such as communication bandwidth. By modeling the event-triggered ...

  19. Coupling DCS and MARTe: two real-time control frameworks in collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapson, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.rapson@ipp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Carvalho, Pedro [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lüddecke, Klaus; Neto, André C. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Seeshaupterstr. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Santos, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Treutterer, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Winter, Axel [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 St.-Paul-Lès-Durance (France); Zehetbauer, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Similarities and differences between DCS and MARTe. • Identifies the state-of-the-art in terms of software frameworks for fusion control. • Interfaces developed for realtime and non-realtime communication between DCS and MARTe. • An algorithm replicated in DCS and MARTe produces identical results and good performance. • The start of collaboration to develop a new framework for ITER PCS. - Abstract: Fusion experiments place high demands on real-time control systems. Within the fusion community two modern framework-based software architectures have emerged as powerful tools for developing algorithms for real-time control of complex systems while maintaining the flexibility required when operating a physics experiment. The two frameworks are known as DCS (Discharge Control System), from ASDEX Upgrade and MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor), originally from JET. Based on the success of DCS and MARTe, ITER has chosen to develop a framework architecture for its Plasma Control System which will adopt major design concepts from both the existing frameworks. This paper describes a coupling of the two existing frameworks, which was undertaken to explore the degree of similarity and compliance between the concepts, and to extend their capabilities. DCS and MARTe operate in parallel with synchronised state machines and a common message logger. Configuration data is exchanged before the real-time phase. During the real-time phase, structured data is exchanged via shared memory and an existing DCS algorithm is replicated within MARTe. The coupling tests the flexibility and identifies the respective strengths of the two frameworks, providing a well-informed basis on which to move forward and design a new ITER real-time framework.

  20. Coupling DCS and MARTe: two real-time control frameworks in collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Similarities and differences between DCS and MARTe. • Identifies the state-of-the-art in terms of software frameworks for fusion control. • Interfaces developed for realtime and non-realtime communication between DCS and MARTe. • An algorithm replicated in DCS and MARTe produces identical results and good performance. • The start of collaboration to develop a new framework for ITER PCS. - Abstract: Fusion experiments place high demands on real-time control systems. Within the fusion community two modern framework-based software architectures have emerged as powerful tools for developing algorithms for real-time control of complex systems while maintaining the flexibility required when operating a physics experiment. The two frameworks are known as DCS (Discharge Control System), from ASDEX Upgrade and MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor), originally from JET. Based on the success of DCS and MARTe, ITER has chosen to develop a framework architecture for its Plasma Control System which will adopt major design concepts from both the existing frameworks. This paper describes a coupling of the two existing frameworks, which was undertaken to explore the degree of similarity and compliance between the concepts, and to extend their capabilities. DCS and MARTe operate in parallel with synchronised state machines and a common message logger. Configuration data is exchanged before the real-time phase. During the real-time phase, structured data is exchanged via shared memory and an existing DCS algorithm is replicated within MARTe. The coupling tests the flexibility and identifies the respective strengths of the two frameworks, providing a well-informed basis on which to move forward and design a new ITER real-time framework

  1. Fully probabilistic control design in an adaptive critic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Randa; Kárný, Miroslav

    2011-12-01

    Optimal stochastic controller pushes the closed-loop behavior as close as possible to the desired one. The fully probabilistic design (FPD) uses probabilistic description of the desired closed loop and minimizes Kullback-Leibler divergence of the closed-loop description to the desired one. Practical exploitation of the fully probabilistic design control theory continues to be hindered by the computational complexities involved in numerically solving the associated stochastic dynamic programming problem; in particular, very hard multivariate integration and an approximate interpolation of the involved multivariate functions. This paper proposes a new fully probabilistic control algorithm that uses the adaptive critic methods to circumvent the need for explicitly evaluating the optimal value function, thereby dramatically reducing computational requirements. This is a main contribution of this paper. PMID:21752597

  2. A Generic Framework for Systematic Design of Process Monitoring and Control System for Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Sin, Gürkan;

    2012-01-01

    A generic framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed in order to obtain the desired end-product properties notably the crystal size distribution (CSD). The design framework contains a generic crystallizer modelling...... a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) system design including implementation of monitoring tools and control strategies in order to produce a desired product with its corresponding target properties. Application of the framework is highlighted through a case study involving the system potassium...... tool-box, a tool for design of operational policies as well as a tool for design of process monitoring and control systems. Through this framework, it is possible for a wide range of crystallization processes to generate the necessary problem-system specific model, the necessary operational policy and...

  3. A framework for selecting suitable control technologies for nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New concepts continue to emerge for controlling systems, subsystems, and components and for monitoring parameters, characteristics, and vital signs in nuclear power plants. The steady stream of new control theories and the evolving state of control software exacerbates the difficulty of selecting the most appropriate control technology for nuclear power plant systems. As plant control room operators increase their reliance on computerized systems, the integration of monitoring, diagnostic, and control functions into a uniform and understandable environment becomes imperative. A systematic framework for comparing and evaluating the overall usefulness of control techniques is needed. This paper describes nine factors that may be used to evaluate alternative control concepts. These factors relate to a control system's potential effectiveness within the context of the overall environment, including both human and machine components. Although not an in-depth study, this paper serves to outline an evaluation framework based on several measures of utility. 32 refs

  4. Review of State Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans for Genomics Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Millikan, DVM, PhD

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The goals of this study were to determine U.S. states with Comprehensive Cancer Control plans that include genomics in some capacity and to review successes with and barriers to implementation of genomics-related cancer control initiatives. Methods This study was conducted in two phases. Phase one included a content analysis of written state Comprehensive Cancer Control plans (n = 30 for terms related to genomics, or “genomic components” (n = 18. The second phase involved telephone interviews with the Comprehensive Cancer Control plan coordinators in states with plans that contained genomic components (n = 16. The interview was designed to gather more detailed information about the genomics-related initiatives within the state’s Comprehensive Cancer Control plan and the successes with and barriers to plan implementation, as defined by each state. Results Eighteen of the 30 Comprehensive Cancer Control plans analyzed contained genomics components. We noted a large variability among these 18 plans in the types of genomics components included. Nine (56% of the 16 states interviewed had begun to implement the genomics components in their plan. Most states emphasized educating health care providers and the public about the role of genomics in cancer control. Many states consider awareness of family history to be an important aspect of their Comprehensive Cancer Control plan. Approximately 67% of states with family history components in their plans had begun to implement these goals. Virtually all states reported they would benefit from additional training in cancer genetics and general public health genomics. Conclusion The number of states incorporating genomics into their Comprehensive Cancer Control plans is increasing. Family history is a public health application of genomics that could be implemented more fully into Comprehensive Cancer Control plans.

  5. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  6. A framework for understanding and targeting residual disease in oncogene-driven solid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivona, Trever G; Doebele, Robert C

    2016-05-01

    Molecular targeted therapy has the potential to dramatically improve survival in patients with cancer. However, complete and durable responses to targeted therapy are rare in individuals with advanced-stage solid cancers. Even the most effective targeted therapies generally do not induce a complete tumor response, resulting in residual disease and tumor progression that limits patient survival. We discuss the emerging need to more fully understand the molecular basis of residual disease as a prelude to designing therapeutic strategies to minimize or eliminate residual disease so that we can move from temporary to chronic control of disease, or a cure, for patients with advanced-stage solid cancers. Ultimately, we propose a shift from the current reactive paradigm of analyzing and treating acquired drug resistance to a pre-emptive paradigm of defining the mechanisms that result in residual disease, to target and limit this disease reservoir. PMID:27149220

  7. Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaram, Varalakshmi

    2010-01-01

    Emissions from marine diesel engines are mainly uncontrolled and affect regional air quality and health of people living near ports. Many emission control strategies are evolving to reduce these emissions and their impacts. This dissertation characterizes the effectiveness of new technologies for reducing NOx and PM2.5 emissions from a range of marine diesel engines. Researchers, regulators and policy makers require these characterizations to develop emission inventories and suitable mitigati...

  8. Robust access control framework for mobile cloud computing network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, F; Rahulamathavan, Y.; Conti, M.; Rajarajan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Unified communications has enabled seamless data sharing between multiple devices running on various platforms. Traditionally, organizations use local servers to store data and employees access the data using desktops with predefined security policies. In the era of unified communications, employees exploit the advantages of smart devices and 4G wireless technology to access the data from anywhere and anytime. Security protocols such as access control designed for traditional setup are not su...

  9. Ownership structure, sharing of control and legal framework. International evidence

    OpenAIRE

    López de Foronda Pérez, Óscar; López Iturriaga, Félix Javier; Santamaría Mariscal, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    Analizamos la relación entre estructura del capital, estructura de la propiedad, y gobierno corporativo para una muestra de 1.216 empresas de 15 países europeos. Nuestros resultados recojen dos conflictos de intereses diferentes y muestran el papel diferencial jugado por los mecanismos de control corporativo dependiendo del ambiente legal e institucional. We analyze the relation between capital structure, ownership structure, and corporate value for a sample of 1,216 firms from 15 Europea...

  10. Legislative and regulatory framework for vector control1

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to shed light on the respective responsibilities and competences of the country’s different institutional levels by examining the statutory texts: international health regulations; European directives; Community decisions; the French Public Health Code, General Code for Local Authorities, Rural Code, Environmental Code, Construction and Housing Code, Insurance Code, département-level health regulations, ministry circulars, and case law. VECTOR CONTROL AGAINST HUMAN HEALTH RIS...

  11. A unifying computational framework for motor control and social interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolpert, Daniel M; Doya, Kenji; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Recent empirical studies have implicated the use of the motor system during action observation, imitation and social interaction. In this paper, we explore the computational parallels between the processes that occur in motor control and in action observation, imitation, social interaction and theory of mind. In particular, we examine the extent to which motor commands acting on the body can be equated with communicative signals acting on other people and suggest that computational solutions ...

  12. CANCER CONTROL AND POPULATION SCIENCES FAST STATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast Stats links to tables, charts, and graphs of cancer statistics for all major cancer sites by age, sex, race, and geographic area. The statistics include incidence, mortality, prevalence, and the probability of developing or dying from cancer. A large set of statistics is ava...

  13. Endometrial cancer following treatment for breast cancer: a case-control study in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewertz, M.; S.G. Machado; Boice, J. D.; Jensen, O M

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of endometrial cancer subsequent to breast cancer, a case-control study was carried out in Denmark. Between 1943-1977, 115 cases of histologically confirmed endometrial carcinoma developed more than 3 months after the diagnosis of a primary breast cancer in 51,638 women. A total of 235 breast cancer patients with no second primary cancer were matched to the cases on age, calendar year of diagnosis, and survival with an intact uterus. Identification of cases and controls r...

  14. Towards a Flexible Array Control and Operation Framework for CTA

    CERN Document Server

    Birsin, E; Hoffmann, D; Koeppel, H; Lamanna, G; Flour, T Le; Lopatin, A; Lyard, E; Melkumyan, D; Oya, I; Panazol, J-L; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schwanke, U; Walter, R

    2012-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) \\cite{CTA:2010} will be the successor to current Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) like H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS. CTA will improve in sensitivity by about an order of magnitude compared to the current generation of IACTs. The energy range will extend from well below 100 GeV to above 100 TeV. To accomplish these goals, CTA will consist of two arrays, one in each hemisphere, consisting of 50-80 telescopes and composed of three different telescope types with different mirror sizes. It will be the first open observatory for very high energy $\\gamma$-ray astronomy. The Array Control working group of CTA is currently evaluating existing technologies which are best suited for a project like CTA. The considered solutions comprise the ALMA Common Software (ACS), the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) and the Data Distribution Service (DDS) for bulk data transfer. The first applications, like an automatic observation scheduler and the control software for some prototy...

  15. Insights into the experiences of patients with cancer in London: framework analysis of free-text data from the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey 2012/2013 from the two London Integrated Cancer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, Theresa; Lucas, Grace; Sangha, Amrit; Randolph, Anuska; Stapleton, Sarah; Pattison, Natalie; O'Gara, Geraldine; Harris, Katherine; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Dolan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Objective To shed light on experiences of patients with cancer in London National Health Service (NHS) trusts that may not be fully captured in national survey data, to inform improvement action plans by these trusts. Design Framework analysis of free-text data from 2012/2013 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from the 2 London Integrated Cancer Systems. Setting and participants Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated by the NHS across 27 trusts in London. ...

  16. Insights into the experiences of patients with cancer in London: framework analysis of free-text data from the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey 2012/2013 from the two London Integrated Cancer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, Theresa; Lucas, Grace; Sangha, Amrit; Randolph, Anuska; Stapleton, Sarah; Pattison, Natalie; O'Gara, Geraldine; Harris, Katherine; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Dolan, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Objective To shed light on experiences of patients with cancer in London National Health Service (NHS) trusts that may not be fully captured in national survey data, to inform improvement action plans by these trusts. Design Framework analysis of free-text data from 2012/2013 National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from the 2 London Integrated Cancer Systems. Setting and participants Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated by the NHS across 27 trusts in London. Main outcome measure...

  17. Intelligent Control Framework for the Feeding System in the Biomass Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Jin; Zhu Xinglong; Cao Xiaowei; Ding Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent control framework for biomass drying process with flue gases based on FLC (fuzzy logic controller) and CAN (Controller Area Network) bus. In the operation of a biomass drying process, in order to get the biomass with the set-point low moisture content dried by waste high temperature flue gases, it is necessary to intelligent control for the biomass flow rate. Use of an experiment with varied materials at different initial moisture contents enables acquisitio...

  18. Framework and Method for Controlling a Robotic System Using a Distributed Computer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Barajas, Leandro G. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A robotic system for performing an autonomous task includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of compliant robotic joints, actuators, and other integrated system devices that are controllable in response to control data from various control points, and having sensors for measuring feedback data at the control points. The system includes a multi-level distributed control framework (DCF) for controlling the integrated system components over multiple high-speed communication networks. The DCF has a plurality of first controllers each embedded in a respective one of the integrated system components, e.g., the robotic joints, a second controller coordinating the components via the first controllers, and a third controller for transmitting a signal commanding performance of the autonomous task to the second controller. The DCF virtually centralizes all of the control data and the feedback data in a single location to facilitate control of the robot across the multiple communication networks.

  19. CoRoBa, a Multi Mobile Robot Control and Simulation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Colon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes on-going development of a multi robot control framework named CoRoBa. CoRoBa is theoretically founded by reifying Real Time Design Patterns. It uses CORBA as its communication Middleware and consequently benefits from the interoperability of this standard. A multi-robot 3D simulator written in Java3D integrates seamlessly with this framework. Several demonstration applications have been developed to validate the design and implementation options.

  20. Large-Scale Corba-Distributed Software Framework for Nif Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Robert W.; Fong, Kirby W.; Sanchez, Randy J.; Tappero, Joseph D.; Woodruff, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is based on a scalable software framework that is distributed over some 325 computers throughout the NIF facility. The framework provides templates and services at multiple levels of abstraction for the construction of software applications that communicate via CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Various forms of object-oriented software design patterns are implemented as templates to be extended by application software. Developers ...

  1. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Eldridge, Sandra M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.; Michael J. Campbell; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L.; Bond, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of ...

  2. Framework of Lower-Limb Musculoskeletal Modeling for FES Control System Development

    OpenAIRE

    M.K.I Ahmad; B. S. K. K. Ibrahim; D. Hanafi; K. A. A. Rahman; M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the demand of interest in functional electrical stimulation (FES) is increasing due to the applications especially on spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Numerous studies have been done to regain mobility function and for health benefits especially due to FES control development for the paralyzed person. In this paper, the existing general framework modeling methods have been reviewed and the new modeling framework approach has been discussed. In general modeling and simulatio...

  3. Motivational control of sign-tracking behaviour: A theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Learning and motivation are two psychological processes allowing animals to form and express Pavlovian associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). However, most models have attempted to capture the mechanisms of learning while neglecting the role that motivation (or incentive salience) may actively play in the expression of behaviour. There is now a body of neurobehavioural evidence showing that incentive salience represents a major determinant of Pavlovian performance. This article presents a motivational model of sign-tracking behaviour whose aim is to explain a wide range of behavioural effects, including those related to partial reinforcement, physiological changes, competition between CSs, and individual differences in responding to a CS. In this model, associative learning is assumed to determine the ability to produce a Pavlovian conditioned response rather than to control the strength and the quality of that response. The model is in keeping with the incentive salience hypothesis and will therefore be discussed in the context of dopamine's role in the brain. PMID:27016362

  4. Prostate Cancer Disparities throughout the Cancer Control Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Dalton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that 238,590 U.S. men will develop PCa and 29,720 men will die from the disease in 2013. PCa exhibits the most profound racial disparities of all cancers with African American men having a 70% higher incidence rate and more than two times higher mortality rate than Caucasian men. Published research on PCa disparities focuses on singular outcomes such as incidence, mortality or quality of life. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the racial disparities found at each stage of the PCa Care Continuum which includes prevention, detection, treatments, and outcomes and survival. It focuses primarily on disparities among Caucasian (white and African American men.

  5. Unified registration framework for cumulative dose assessment in cervical cancer across external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sharmili; Totman, John J.; Choo, Bok A.

    2016-03-01

    Dose accumulation across External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) and Brachytherapy (BT) treatment fractions in cervical cancer is extremely challenging due to structural dissimilarities and large inter-fractional anatomic deformations between the EBRT and BT images. The brachytherapy applicator and the bladder balloon, present only in the BT images, introduce missing structural correspondences for the underlying registration problem. Complex anatomical deformations caused by the applicator and the balloon, different rectum and bladder filling and tumor shrinkage compound the registration difficulties. Conventional free-form registration methods struggle to handle such topological differences. In this paper, we propose a registration pipeline that first transforms the original images to their distance maps based on segmentations of critical organs and then performs non-linear registration of the distance maps. The resulting dense deformation field is then used to transform the original anatomical image. The registration accuracy is evaluated on 27 image pairs from stage 2B-4A cervical cancer patients. The algorithm reaches a Hausdorff distance of close to 0:5 mm for the uterus, 2:2 mm for the bladder and 1:7 mm for the rectum when applied to (EBRT,BT) pairs, taken at time points more than three months apart. This generalized model-free framework can be used to register any combination of EBRT and BT images as opposed to methods in the literature that are tuned for either only (BT,BT) pair, or only (EBRT,EBRT) pair or only (BT,EBRT) pair. A unified framework for 3D dose accumulation across multiple EBRT and BT fractions is proposed to facilitate adaptive personalized radiation therapy.

  6. A multifunctional metal-organic framework based tumor targeting drug delivery system for cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Dong, Zhi-Yue; Cheng, Hong; Wan, Shuang-Shuang; Chen, Wei-Hai; Zou, Mei-Zhen; Huo, Jia-Wei; Deng, He-Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Drug delivery systems (DDSs) with biocompatibility and precise drug delivery are eagerly needed to overcome the paradox in chemotherapy that high drug doses are required to compensate for the poor biodistribution of drugs with frequent dose-related side effects. In this work, we reported a metal-organic framework (MOF) based tumor targeting DDS developed by a one-pot, and organic solvent-free ``green'' post-synthetic surface modification procedure, starting from the nanoscale MOF MIL-101. Owing to the multifunctional surface coating, premature drug release from this DDS was prevented. Due to the pH responsive benzoic imine bond and the redox responsive disulfide bond at the modified surface, this DDS exhibited tumor acid environment enhanced cellular uptake and intracellular reducing environment triggered drug release. In vitro and in vivo results showed that DOX loaded into this DDS exhibited effective cancer cell inhibition with much reduced side effects.Drug delivery systems (DDSs) with biocompatibility and precise drug delivery are eagerly needed to overcome the paradox in chemotherapy that high drug doses are required to compensate for the poor biodistribution of drugs with frequent dose-related side effects. In this work, we reported a metal-organic framework (MOF) based tumor targeting DDS developed by a one-pot, and organic solvent-free ``green'' post-synthetic surface modification procedure, starting from the nanoscale MOF MIL-101. Owing to the multifunctional surface coating, premature drug release from this DDS was prevented. Due to the pH responsive benzoic imine bond and the redox responsive disulfide bond at the modified surface, this DDS exhibited tumor acid environment enhanced cellular uptake and intracellular reducing environment triggered drug release. In vitro and in vivo results showed that DOX loaded into this DDS exhibited effective cancer cell inhibition with much reduced side effects. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  7. Mitotic Control of Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Venere, Monica; Miller, Tyler E.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are self-renewing, tumorigenic cells at the apex of tumor hierarchies, and postulated to be quiescent in many tumor types. This issue of Cancer Discovery highlights a study that links the presentation of kinetochores within mitosis to an essential requirement for BUB1B/BubR1, broadening our understanding of the cell-cycle machinery in cancer stem cells.

  8. SPARCoC: a new framework for molecular pattern discovery and cancer gene identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Ma

    Full Text Available It is challenging to cluster cancer patients of a certain histopathological type into molecular subtypes of clinical importance and identify gene signatures directly relevant to the subtypes. Current clustering approaches have inherent limitations, which prevent them from gauging the subtle heterogeneity of the molecular subtypes. In this paper we present a new framework: SPARCoC (Sparse-CoClust, which is based on a novel Common-background and Sparse-foreground Decomposition (CSD model and the Maximum Block Improvement (MBI co-clustering technique. SPARCoC has clear advantages compared with widely-used alternative approaches: hierarchical clustering (Hclust and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF. We apply SPARCoC to the study of lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA, an extremely heterogeneous histological type, and a significant challenge for molecular subtyping. For testing and verification, we use high quality gene expression profiling data of lung ADCA patients, and identify prognostic gene signatures which could cluster patients into subgroups that are significantly different in their overall survival (with p-values < 0.05. Our results are only based on gene expression profiling data analysis, without incorporating any other feature selection or clinical information; we are able to replicate our findings with completely independent datasets. SPARCoC is broadly applicable to large-scale genomic data to empower pattern discovery and cancer gene identification.

  9. Comparing, Optimising and Benchmarking Quantum Control Algorithms in a Unifying Programming Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Machnes, S; Glaser, S J; de Fouquieres, P; Gruslys, A; Schirmer, S; Schulte-Herbrueggen, T

    2010-01-01

    For paving the way to novel applications in quantum simulation, computation, and technology, increasingly large quantum systems have to be steered with high precision. It is a typical task amenable to numerical optimal control to turn the time course of pulses, i.e. piecewise constant control amplitudes, iteratively into an optimised shape. Here, we present the first comparative study of optimal control algorithms for a wide range of finite-dimensional applications. We focus on the most commonly used algorithms: GRAPE methods which update all controls concurrently, and KROTOV-type methods which do so sequentially. Guidelines for their use are given and open research questions are pointed out. --- Moreover we introduce a novel unifying algorithmic framework, DYNAMO (Dynamic Optimisation Platform) designed to provide the quantum-technology community with a convenient MATLAB-based toolset for optimal control. In addition, it gives researchers in optimal-control techniques a framework for benchmarking and compari...

  10. oodOPT: A Semantics-Based Concurrency Control Framework for Fully-Replicated Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guangxin; SHI Meilin

    2001-01-01

    Concurrency control has always been one of the most important issues in the design of synchronous groupware systems with fully-replicated architecture. An ideal strategy should be able to support natural and flexible human-to-computer and human-to-human interactions while maintaining the consistency of the system. This paper summarizes previous researches on this topic and points out the deficiencies of the existing results. A novel semantics-based concurrency control framework, oodOPT, is proposed. The main idea of the framework is to resolve conflicts by utilizing semantics of the operations and the accessed data objects. With this approach, complexities in concurrency control are shifted completely from application developers to the framework. Conflicts among operations on objects with different semantics and the strategies resolving these conflicts are analyzed. After describing the algorithm in full detail, the discussion ends up with a comparison with other related work and some considerations for open problems.

  11. Large-Scale CORBA-Distributed Software Framework for NIF Controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) is based on a scalable software framework that is distributed over some 325 computers throughout the NIF facility. The framework provides templates and services at multiple levels of abstraction for the construction of software applications that communicate via CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Various forms of object-oriented software design patterns are implemented as templates to be extended by application software. Developers extend the framework base classes to model the numerous physical control points, thereby sharing the functionality defined by the base classes. About 56,000 software objects each individually addressed through CORBA are to be created in the complete ICCS. Most objects have a persistent state that is initialized at system start-up and stored in a database. Additional framework services are provided by centralized server programs that implement events, alerts, reservations, message logging, database/file persistence, name services, and process management. The ICCS software framework approach allows for efficient construction of a software system that supports a large number of distributed control points representing a complex control application

  12. Local implementation of cancer control activities in rural Appalachia, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Bruce; Mabe, Karen Harrell; Dorgan, Kelly A; Hutson, Sadie P

    2009-01-01

    Underserved communities with high cancer rates often are not involved in implementing state cancer control activities locally. An East Tennessee State University research team formed 2 Appalachian Community Cancer Research Review Work Groups, 1 in northeast Tennessee and 1 in southwest Virginia. During 4 sessions, the research team presented regional cancer data to the work groups. Work group participants explored research from a lay perspective and identified possible reasons for cancer disparities in central Appalachia. The fifth session was a community dissemination activity in which work group participants engaged in cancer education and action by presenting the research to their local communities in unique ways. During a sixth session, both work groups discussed these interventions and further attempted to answer the question, "What makes the experience of cancer unique in Appalachia?" This article describes the key steps of this community-based participatory research process. PMID:19080040

  13. Vulnerability Test Framework for Ethernet based Network of Digital Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an industry digital control system has become the more relied on network technologies, stake holders of the system get more awareness and demand for secure and dependable communication system (CS) performance of their control system. But, due to its complexity and un-interruptible mission, tests of the CS are typically performed at test-beds that physically and functionally replicate real system. This paper suggests practical test framework of vulnerability test for digital control system's CS which uses Ethernet technologies

  14. Financial benchmark tracking problems under a stochastic linear quadratic control framework

    OpenAIRE

    Zamen, Ahmed Murtaza

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we analyse the problem of tracking a financial benchmark via trading a portfolio of a small number of assets on a finite time horizon. The development of general stochastic linear quadratic control (SLQ) theory in recent years allows us to study this investment problem using this approach. We formulate the problem under the SLQ control framework and derive an optimal feedback control solution using stochastic Riccati equations and an accompanying equation. We then apply our the...

  15. Transactive control: a framework for operating power systems characterized by high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Kok, Koen;

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of distributed energy resources connected to power systems raises operational challenges for the network operator, such as introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level, as well as increasing balancing needs at the whole system level......, followed by a literature review and demonstration projects that apply to transactive control. Cases are then presented to illustrate the transactive control framework. At the end, discussions and research directions are presented, for applying transactive control to operating power systems, characterized...

  16. Thrombosis in ovarian cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, R L; Fry, D J; Swindell, R.; McGurk, A; Clamp, A R; Jayson, G C; Hasan, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombotic events are common in cancer patients and have been associated with an adverse prognosis in large registry-based studies. Methods: A retrospective cohort of 417 patients with ovarian cancer treated at a tertiary cancer centre between 2006 and 2009 was studied to identify the incidence and risk factors for thrombotic events and the prognostic impact of thrombosis. Patient outcomes were evaluated against a matched control group without thrombosis. Results: Ninety-nine thro...

  17. A FRAMEWORK OF SETTING UP GOAL CONTROL LIMITS OF TARGET COSTING FOR NON-NORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsin-Hung WU; Fong-Jung YU

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a framework of target costing to extend its original scope when the underlying distribution is non-normal. The new specification limits can be derived by listening to the market price from Taguchi loss function. Later, the new specification limits can be linked through the non-normality-based (C)pk value along with non-normality-based X-R control charts to derive goal control limits. Moreover, an example is provided to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed framework of target costing by relentlessly reducing cost and improving product quality to gain competitiveness in the marketplace.

  18. Promoting cancer control training in resource limited environments: Lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwogu, C; Mahoney, M; George, S; Dy, G; Hartman, H; Animashaun, M; Popoola, A; Michalek, A

    2014-03-01

    In resource limited nations, cancer control is often a lower priority issue creating challenges for the prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Training and education are vital components of efforts to tackle this problem. A 3-day cancer control workshop was conducted at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Nigeria, in 2013. The curriculum included didactic lectures, panel discussions, and interactive sessions on local cancer statistics, preventive strategies, cancer registries, screening and diagnostic options, and treatment approaches with limited resources (chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and palliative care) and several site-specific (breast, lung, cervical, prostate, and colon) topics. Pre-workshop and post-workshop questionnaires were completed by participants. Eighty-six percent of the 50 workshop participants completed at least one questionnaire. Participants were mainly nurses and physicians (89% of responders), and 40% reported >25 years of practice experience. The more common local needs identified were professional education (65%) and increasing public cancer awareness (63%). The greatest interest for future programs was on research collaborations (70%). An immediate impact of the workshop was the commencement of monthly tumor board conferences and a review of the current cancer registry data. Capacity building is critical for the execution of effective cancer control strategies. Conducting collaborative workshops represents a cost-effective means of launching programs and energizing the medical community to pursue ongoing education and research addressing the anticipated cancer epidemic on the African continent. PMID:24243400

  19. Epidemiological study of prostate cancer (EPICAP): a population-based case–control study in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in male in most Western countries, including France. Despite a significant morbidity and mortality to a lesser extent, the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Indeed, the only well-established risk factors to date are age, ethnicity and a family history of prostate cancer. We present, here, the rationale and design of the EPIdemiological study of Prostate CAncer (EPICAP), a population-based case–control study specifically designed to investigate the role of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer. The EPICAP study will particularly focused on the role of circadian disruption, chronic inflammation, hormonal and metabolic factors in the occurrence of prostate cancer. EPICAP is a population-based case–control study conducted in the département of Hérault in France. Eligible cases are all cases of prostate cancers newly diagnosed in 2012-2013 in men less than 75 years old and residing in the département of Hérault at the time of diagnosis. Controls are men of the same age as the cases and living in the département of Hérault, recruited in the general population. The sample will include a total of 1000 incident cases of prostate cancer and 1000 population-based controls over a 3-year period (2012-2014). The cases and controls are face-to-face interviewed using a standardized computed assisted questionnaire. The questions focus primarily on usual socio-demographic characteristics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle, leisure activities, residential and occupational history. Anthropometric measures and biological samples are also collected for cases and controls. The EPICAP study aims to answer key questions in prostate cancer etiology: (1) role of circadian disruption through the study of working hours, chronotype and duration/quality of sleep, (2) role of chronic inflammation and anti-inflammatory drugs, (3) role of hormonal and metabolic factors through a detailed questionnaire

  20. Implementation of MADOCA II control framework into SPring-8 and the extension functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed MADOCA II for the next-generation MADOCA control framework at SPring-8 as reported at the last PASJ meeting. In MADOCA II, new functions such as messaging with a variable length data, and controls on Windows, were implemented to have high flexibility in our control system. In this proceeding, we report the implementation of MADOCA II control framework into SPring-8, which is our next milestone. On April 2014, we succeeded to start operation by replacing all operator workstations with MADOCA II. The replacements of front-end computers (VME etc.) with MADOCA II are now in progress and were partially performed in vacuum system etc. We also report the extension functions in MADOCA II. To have high flexibility in access control at SACLA BL, the messaging scheme was extended to perform message routing via multiple hosts. To handle various data in the messaging with the unified procedure, we developed general-purpose data format using MessagePack. (author)

  1. A framework for advanced methods of control of human-induced vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Paul

    2012-04-01

    The vibration serviceability of civil engineering structures under human dynamic excitation is becoming ever more critical with the design and redevelopment of structures with reduced mass, stiffness and damping. A large number of problems have been reported in floors, footbridges, sports stadia, staircases and other structures. Unfortunately, the range of options available to fix such problems are very limited and are primarily limited to structural modification or the implementation of passive vibration control measures, such as tuned mass dampers. This paper presents the initial development of a new framework for advanced methods of control of humaninduced vibrations in civil engineering structures. This framework includes both existing passive methods of vibration control and more advanced active, semi-active and hybrid control techniques, which may be further developed as practical solutions for these problems. Through the use of this framework, rational decisions as to the most appropriate technologies for particular human vibration problems may be made and pursued further. This framework is also intended to be used in the design of new civil engineering structures, where advanced control technologies may be used both to increase the achievable slenderness and to reduce the amount of construction materials used and hence their embodied energy. This will be an ever more important consideration with the current drive for structures with reduced environmental impact.

  2. Circadian clock manipulation for cancer prevention and control and the relief of cancer symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrushesky, William J M; Grutsch, James; Wood, Patricia; Yang, Xiaoming; Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Kidder, Stephanie; Ferrans, Carol; Quiton, Dinah Faith T; Reynolds, Justin; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Levin, Robert; Lis, Christopher; Braun, Donald

    2009-12-01

    Life has evolved on this planet with regular daily spans of direct solar energy availability alternating with nocturnal spans of dark. Virtually every earth-borne life form has factored this circadian pattern into its biology to ensure the temporal coordination with its resonating environment, a task essential for its individual survival and that of its species. The first whole genome inspections of mutations in human colon and breast cancer have observed specific retained clock gene mutations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within the genes of clock, clock-controlled, and melatonin pathways have been found to confer excess cancer risk or protection from cancer. Experimental studies have shown that specific core clock genes (Per2 and Per1) are tumor suppressors because their genetic absence doubles tumor numbers, and decreasing their expression in cancer cells doubles cancer growth rate, whereas their overexpression decreases cancer growth rate and diminishes tumor numbers. Experimental interference with circadian clock function increases cancer growth rate, and clinical circadian disruption is associated with higher cancer incidence, faster cancer progression, and shorter cancer patient survival. Patients with advanced lung cancer suffering greater circadian activity/sleep cycle disruption suffer greater interference with function, greater anxiety and depression, poorer nighttime sleep, greater daytime fatigue, and poorer quality of life than comparable patients who maintain good circadian integration. We must now determine whether strategies known to help synchronize the circadian clocks of normal individuals can do so in advanced cancer patients and whether doing so allows cancer patients to feel better and/or live longer. Several academic laboratories and at least 2 large pharmaceutical firms are screening for small molecules targeting the circadian clock to stabilize its phase and enhance its amplitude and thereby consolidate and coordinate circadian

  3. A Framework of Environmental Modelling and Information Sharing for Urban Air Pollution Control and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang-jun; FU Er-jiang; WANG Yun-jia; ZHANG Ke-fei; HAN Bao-ping; ARROWSMITH Colin

    2007-01-01

    More effective environmental pollution control and management are needed due to the increasing environmental impacts from a range of human activities and the growing public demands for a better living environment. Urban air pollution is a serious environmental issue that poses adverse impacts on the health of people and the environment in most metropolitan areas. In this paper, we propose a geoinformatics augmented framework of environmental modelling and information sharing for supporting effective urban air pollution control and management. This framework is outlined in terms of its key components and processes including: 1) an integrated, adaptive network of sensors for environmental monitoring; 2) a set of distributed, interoperable databases for data management; 3) a set of intelligent, robust algorithms and models for environmental modelling; 4) a set of flexible, efficient user interfaces for data access and information sharing; and 5) a reliable, high capacity, high performance computing and communication infrastructure for integrating and supporting other framework components and processes.

  4. Evidence-Based Interventions and Screening Recommendations for Colorectal Cancer in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Julie S.; Richardson, Lisa C.; Steele, C. Brooke; White, Dana E

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and third leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The extent to which Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) programs in states, tribal governments and organizations, territories, and Pacific Island jurisdictions address evidence-based recommendations and interventions for colorectal cancer in their CCC plans is largely unknown. Methods We downloaded CCC plans posted on the Cancer Control PLANET Web site for re...

  5. Tobacco smoking as a risk factor of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung: pooled analysis of seven case–control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Yang, Ping; Muscat, Joshua E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Le Marchand, Loic; Cote, Michele L.; Stoddard, Shawn M.; Morgenstern, Hal; Hung, Rayjean J.; Boffetta, Paolo; Asomaning, Kofi; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) was established in 2004, based on the collaboration of research groups leading large molecular epidemiology studies of lung cancer that are ongoing or have been recently completed. This framework offered the opportunity to investigate the role of tobacco smoking in the development of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), a rare form of lung cancer. Methods: Our pooled data comprised seven case–control studies from the United States, w...

  6. Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Control through Continuing Education

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Sol; Rankin, K. Vendrell

    2010-01-01

    A standardized continuing education course was developed to determine if behavior in dental practices could be modified to improve office participation in oral and pharyngeal cancer control through early detection and tobacco-use cessation.

  7. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  8. Fast Data Sharing within a distributed multithreaded control framework for robot teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seesink, Remco; Dierssen, Werner; Kooij, Niek; Schoute, Albert; Poel, Mannes; Schepers, Erik; Verschoor, Thijs

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a data sharing framework for multithreaded, distributed control programs is described that is realized in C++ by means of only a few, powerful classes and templates. Fast data exchange of entire data structures is supported using sockets as communication medium. Access methods are prov

  9. Fast Data Sharing within a distributed multithreaded control framework for robot teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoute, Albert; Seesink, Remco; Dierssen, Werner; Kooij, Niek; Broenink, Jan; Roebbers, Herman; Sunter, Johan; Welch, Peter; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a data sharing framework for multi-threaded, distributed control programs is described that is realized in C++ by means of only a few, powerful classes and templates. Fast data exchange of entire data structures is supported using sockets as communication medium. Access methods are pro

  10. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. Rhodes; G.J. de Bruijn

    2013-01-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that in

  11. Modelling supported driving as an optimal control cycle: Framework and model characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Meng; Daamen, Winnie; Hoogendoorn, Serge P; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Driver assistance systems support drivers in operating vehicles in a safe, comfortable and efficient way, and thus may induce changes in traffic flow characteristics. This paper puts forward a receding horizon control framework to model driver assistance and cooperative systems. The accelerations of automated vehicles are controlled to optimise a cost function, assuming other vehicles driving at stationary conditions over a prediction horizon. The flexibility of the framework is demonstrated with controller design of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and Cooperative ACC (C-ACC) systems. The proposed ACC and C-ACC model characteristics are investigated analytically, with focus on equilibrium solutions and stability properties. The proposed ACC model produces plausible human car-following behaviour and is unconditionally locally stable. By careful tuning of parameters, the ACC model generates similar stability characteristics as human driver models. The proposed C-ACC model results in convective downstream and abso...

  12. A Distributed Model Predictive Control Framework for Road-Following Formation Control of Car-like Vehicles (Extended Version)

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Xiangjun; Altché, Florent; De La Fortelle, Arnaud; Moutarde, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a novel framework for the formation control of multiple autonomous ground vehicles in an on-road environment. Unique challenges of this problem lie in 1) the design of collision avoidance strategies with obstacles and with other vehicles in a highly structured environment, 2) dynamic reconfiguration of the formation to handle different task specifications. In this paper, we design a local MPC-based tracking controller for each individual vehicle to follow a reference trajec...

  13. A System Design Framework for Project Cost Control in the Irish Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The construction industry is a major contributor to the Irish economy. The common denominator of the of the industry’s business is the “construction project”. Construction projects by their very nature are unique being influenced by many variables such as weather, location, design and personnel. This situation demands strong management to fulfil the cost control function. The primary aim of this project has been the illustration of a system design framework for project cost control in the Iri...

  14. Thinking as the Control of Imagination: a Conceptual Framework for Goal-Directed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Castelfranchi, Cristiano

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a conceptual framework which (re)integrates goal-directed control, motivational processes, and executive functions, and suggests a developmentalpathway from situated action to higher level cognition. We first illustrate a basic computational (control-theoretic) model of goal-directed action that makes use of internalmodeling. We then show that by adding the problem of selection among multiple actionalternatives motivation enters the scene, and that the basic mechanisms of ex...

  15. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population. PMID:15822119

  16. A Functional Analysis Framework for Modeling, Estimation and Control in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, HT

    2012-01-01

    A Modern Framework Based on Time-Tested Material A Functional Analysis Framework for Modeling, Estimation and Control in Science and Engineering presents functional analysis as a tool for understanding and treating distributed parameter systems. Drawing on his extensive research and teaching from the past 20 years, the author explains how functional analysis can be the basis of modern partial differential equation (PDE) and delay differential equation (DDE) techniques. Recent Examples of Functional Analysis in Biology, Electromagnetics, Materials, and Mechanics Through numerous application exa

  17. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  18. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Principles and Practices of Cancer Prevention and Control Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program four-week summer course provides specialized instruction in the principles and practice of cancer prevention and control. Participants will gain a broad-based perspective on concepts, issues, and applications related to this field. The course typically covers the following topics: |

  19. Imparting functionality to a metal-organic framework material by controlled nanoparticle encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guang; Li, Shaozhou; Guo, Zhen; Farha, Omar K; Hauser, Brad G; Qi, Xiaoying; Wang, Yi; Wang, Xin; Han, Sanyang; Liu, Xiaogang; DuChene, Joseph S; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Qichun; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Jan; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Wei, Wei D; Yang, Yanhui; Hupp, Joseph T; Huo, Fengwei

    2012-04-01

    Microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that display permanent porosity show great promise for a myriad of purposes. The potential applications of MOFs can be developed further and extended by encapsulating various functional species (for example, nanoparticles) within the frameworks. However, despite increasing numbers of reports of nanoparticle/MOF composites, simultaneously to control the size, composition, dispersed nature, spatial distribution and confinement of the incorporated nanoparticles within MOF matrices remains a significant challenge. Here, we report a controlled encapsulation strategy that enables surfactant-capped nanostructured objects of various sizes, shapes and compositions to be enshrouded by a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8). The incorporated nanoparticles are well dispersed and fully confined within the ZIF-8 crystals. This strategy also allows the controlled incorporation of multiple nanoparticles within each ZIF-8 crystallite. The as-prepared nanoparticle/ZIF-8 composites exhibit active (catalytic, magnetic and optical) properties that derive from the nanoparticles as well as molecular sieving and orientation effects that originate from the framework material. PMID:22437717

  20. CORBA-Based Distributed Software Framework for the NIF Integrated Computer Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8 Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultra-violet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. The NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) which is a scalable, framework-based control system distributed over 800 computers throughout the NIF. The framework provides templates and services at multiple levels of abstraction for the construction of software applications that communicate via CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Object-oriented software design patterns are implemented as templates and extended by application software. Developers extend the framework base classes to model the numerous physical control points and implement specializations of common application behaviors. An estimated 140 thousand software objects, each individually addressable through CORBA, will be active at full scale. Many of these objects have persistent configuration information stored in a database. The configuration data is used to initialize the objects at system start-up. Centralized server programs that implement events, alerts, reservations, data archival, name service, data access, and process management provide common system wide services. At the highest level, a model-driven, distributed shot automation system provides a flexible and scalable framework for automatic sequencing of work-flow for control and monitoring of NIF shots. The shot model, in conjunction with data defining the parameters and goals of an experiment, describes the steps to be performed by each subsystem in order to prepare for and fire a NIF shot. Status and usage of this distributed framework are described

  1. CORBA-based distributed software framework for the NIF integrated computer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8 MJ, 500 TW, ultra-violet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. The NIF is operated by the Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) which is a scalable, framework-based control system distributed over 800 computers throughout the NIF. The framework provides templates and services at multiple levels of abstraction for the construction of software applications that communicate via CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). Object-oriented software design patterns are implemented as templates and extended by application software. Developers extend the framework base classes to model the numerous physical control points and implement specializations of common application behaviors. An estimated 140,000 software objects, each individually addressable through CORBA, will be active at full scale. Many of these objects have persistent configuration information stored in a database. The configuration data is used to initialize the objects at system start-up. Centralized server programs that implement events, alerts, reservations, data archival, name service, data access, and process management provide common system wide services. At the highest level, a model-driven, distributed shot automation system provides a flexible and scalable framework for automatic sequencing of workflow for control and monitoring of NIF shots. The shot model, in conjunction with data defining the parameters and goals of an experiment, describes the steps to be performed by each subsystem in order to prepare for and fire a NIF shot. Status and usage of this distributed framework are described

  2. Breaking and Fixing Origin-Based Access Control in Hybrid Web/Mobile Application Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Martin; Jana, Suman; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid mobile applications (apps) combine the features of Web applications and "native" mobile apps. Like Web applications, they are implemented in portable, platform-independent languages such as HTML and JavaScript. Like native apps, they have direct access to local device resources-file system, location, camera, contacts, etc. Hybrid apps are typically developed using hybrid application frameworks such as PhoneGap. The purpose of the framework is twofold. First, it provides an embedded Web browser (for example, WebView on Android) that executes the app's Web code. Second, it supplies "bridges" that allow Web code to escape the browser and access local resources on the device. We analyze the software stack created by hybrid frameworks and demonstrate that it does not properly compose the access-control policies governing Web code and local code, respectively. Web code is governed by the same origin policy, whereas local code is governed by the access-control policy of the operating system (for example, user-granted permissions in Android). The bridges added by the framework to the browser have the same local access rights as the entire application, but are not correctly protected by the same origin policy. This opens the door to fracking attacks, which allow foreign-origin Web content included into a hybrid app (e.g., ads confined in iframes) to drill through the layers and directly access device resources. Fracking vulnerabilities are generic: they affect all hybrid frameworks, all embedded Web browsers, all bridge mechanisms, and all platforms on which these frameworks are deployed. We study the prevalence of fracking vulnerabilities in free Android apps based on the PhoneGap framework. Each vulnerability exposes sensitive local resources-the ability to read and write contacts list, local files, etc.-to dozens of potentially malicious Web domains. We also analyze the defenses deployed by hybrid frameworks to prevent resource access by foreign-origin Web content

  3. Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... talk about your pain with your health care team How to make your pain control plan work for you Pain control medicines and side effects Medicine tolerance is not addiction Other ways to control pain ...

  4. A modular robust control framework for control of movement elicited by multi-electrode intraspinal microstimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, Amir; Erfanian, Abbas

    2016-08-01

    Objective. An important issue in restoring motor function through intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is the motor control. To provide a physiologically plausible motor control using ISMS, it should be able to control the individual motor unit which is the lowest functional unit of motor control. By focal stimulation only a small group of motor neurons (MNs) within a motor pool can be activated. Different groups of MNs within a motor pool can potentially be activated without involving adjacent motor pools by local stimulation of different parts of a motor pool via microelectrode array implanted into a motor pool. However, since the system has multiple inputs with single output during multi-electrode ISMS, it poses a challenge to movement control. In this paper, we proposed a modular robust control strategy for movement control, whereas multi-electrode array is implanted into each motor activation pool of a muscle. Approach. The controller was based on the combination of proportional-integral-derivative and adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control. The global stability of the controller was guaranteed. Main results. The results of the experiments on rat models showed that the multi-electrode control can provide a more robust control and accurate tracking performance than a single-electrode control. The control output can be pulse amplitude (pulse amplitude modulation, PAM) or pulse width (pulse width modulation, PWM) of the stimulation signal. The results demonstrated that the controller with PAM provided faster convergence rate and better tracking performance than the controller with PWM. Significance. This work represents a promising control approach to the restoring motor functions using ISMS. The proposed controller requires no prior knowledge about the dynamics of the system to be controlled and no offline learning phase. The proposed control design is modular in the sense that each motor pool has an independent controller and each controller is able to control ISMS

  5. Case-control study of fetal microchimerism and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakrishna K Gadi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior pregnancy is known to protect against development of breast cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that pregnancy has the capacity to establish small numbers of immunologically active fetal-derived cells in the mother, a phenomenon known as fetal microchimerism (FMc. We asked whether presence of FMc, routinely acquired during pregnancy, is a protective factor for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracts from peripheral blood specimens were obtained from a population-based case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in women 21 to 45 years old. Specimens were tested with quantitative PCR for presence and concentrations of male DNA presumed to derive from prior pregnancies with a male fetus. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated with consideration of multiple established reproductive and environmental risk factors for breast cancer. FMc results were generated on 99 parous women, 54 with primary invasive breast cancer and 45 general population controls. FMc prevalence was 56% (25/45 and 26% (14/54 in controls and cases, respectively. Women harboring FMc were less likely to have had breast cancer (OR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.83; p = 0.02, adjusting for age, number of children, birth of a son, history of miscarriage, and total DNA tested. In addition, FMc concentrations were higher in controls versus cases (p = 0.01. Median concentrations were 2 (0-78 and 0 (0-374 fetal genomes/10(6 maternal genomes in controls and cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the enigma of why some parous women are not afforded protection from breast cancer by pregnancy might in part be explained by differences in FMc. Mechanistic studies of FMc-derived protection against breast cancer are warranted.

  6. Toward a Common Therapeutic Framework in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Model for Urologic Oncology and Medical Oncology Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    de Vere White, Ralph; Lara, Primo N.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of palliative therapeutic choices in the last few years for patients with advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has resulted in a dilemma currently troubling a few other epithelial malignancies: which systemic agent to choose and at what time? In addition, which specialty specifically directs the delivery of such care – Urology or Medical Oncology – has not been clearly established. Recognizing the lack of consensus, we propose a framework for Urology and Me...

  7. Cancer Pain Control for Advanced Cancer Patients by Using Autonomic Nerve Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwi-joong Kang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report a case series of advanced cancer patients whose cancer pain was relieved by using autonomic nerve pharmacopuncture (ANP treatment. ANP is a subcutaneous injection therapy of mountain ginseng pharmacopuncture (MGP along the acupoints on the spine (Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue; 0.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous processes of vertebrae to enhance the immune system and to balance autonomic nerve function. Methods: Patients with three different types of cancer (gastric cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer with distant metastases with cancer pain were treated with ANP. 1 mL of MGP was injected into the bilateral Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue on the T1-L5 sites (total 12 ─ 20 mL injection of each patient’s dorsum by using the principle of symptom differentiation. During ANP treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS for pain was used to assess their levels of cancer pain; also, the dosage and the frequency of analgesic use were measured. Results: The cancer pain levels of all three patients improved with treatment using ANP. The VAS scores of the three patients decreased as the treatment progressed. The dosage and the frequency of analgesics also gradually decreased during the treatment period. Significantly, no related adverse events were found. Conclusion: ANP has shown benefit in controlling cancer pain for the three different types of cancer investigated in this study and in reducing the dosage and the frequency of analgesics. ANP is expected to be beneficial for reducing cancer pain and, thus, to be a promising new treatment for cancer pain.

  8. Asthma Control in Asthmatic Patients Treated for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsing Hsieh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The balance of the Th1 and Th2 immune response plays an important role inthe regulation of the immune system and in general health. Tumor bearinghosts are supposed to have a balance shifting to the Th2 pathway, while afavorable Th1 anti-tumor pathway is induced in tumor-resected hosts. Theclinical impacts of a tumor-related Th2 environment have not been clearlystudied. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that nonsmallcell lung cancer (NSCLC has an impact on control of asthma, a wellknownTh2-predominant inflammatory disease.Method: Thirty-eight patients with the diagnoses of both asthma and lung cancer wereretrospectively enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according totheir response to lung cancer treatment, the responder group (completeregression, partial regression and stable disease and non-responder group(progression of disease. Asthma control test (ACT scores were analyzedone year before diagnosis, at the time of diagnosis of lung cancer, and at thetime of re-staging after cancer treatment.Results: All the asthmatics with lung cancer had worsening of their symptomsaccording to their ACT scores at the time of diagnosis of lung cancer comparedto scores in the preceding year (21.6

  9. An Ethical Framework for Allocating Scarce Life-Saving Chemotherapy and Supportive Care Drugs for Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unguru, Yoram; Fernandez, Conrad V; Bernhardt, Brooke; Berg, Stacey; Pyke-Grimm, Kim; Woodman, Catherine; Joffe, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Shortages of life-saving chemotherapy and supportive care agents for children with cancer are frequent. These shortages directly affect patients' lives, compromise both standard of care therapies and clinical research, and create substantial ethical challenges. Efforts to prevent drug shortages have yet to gain traction, and existing prioritization frameworks lack concrete guidance clinicians need when faced with difficult prioritization decisions among equally deserving children with cancer. The ethical framework proposed in this Commentary is based upon multidisciplinary expert opinion, further strengthened by an independent panel of peer consultants. The two-step allocation process includes strategies to mitigate existing shortages by minimizing waste and addresses actual prioritization across and within diseases according to a modified utilitarian model that maximizes total benefit while respecting limited constraints on differential treatment of individuals. The framework provides reasoning for explicit decision-making in the face of an actual drug shortage. Moreover, it minimizes bias that might occur when individual clinicians or institutions are forced to make bedside rationing and prioritization decisions and addresses the challenge that individual clinicians face when confronted with bedside decisions regarding allocation. Whenever possible, allocation decisions should be supported by evidence-based recommendations. "Curability," prognosis, and the incremental importance of a particular drug to a given patient's outcome are the critical factors to consider when deciding how to allocate scarce life-saving cancer drugs. PMID:26825103

  10. Science and society: the communications revolution and cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, K

    2005-10-01

    Advances in communications technology, particularly with regards to computer-based media, have opened up exciting possibilities to intervene and influence the trajectory of cancer control, from disease prevention to survivorship, and to reduce the cancer burden. The resulting explosion in cancer information in the mass media and on the Internet, however, also offers challenges in terms of equality in access to information and the ability to act on it, as well as in making sure that it is accurate, readily available and easy to use. PMID:16195753

  11. Simultaneous cancer control and diagnosis with magnetic nanohybrid materials

    OpenAIRE

    Saadat, Reza; Renz, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Coated magnetite nanoparticles were linked to 68Ga complexes used in the positron emission tomography (PET) for a new technical approach to detect cancer tissue with radiopharmaceuticals. By substitution of the Ga isotope with an alpha emitter the same compound could be used for cancer treatment. Furthermore the nanoparticles were connected to pH-sensitive complexes, enabling a pH-controlled assembly/disassembly and therefore the spreading of the particles in the tissue. With this novel metho...

  12. A Building Model Framework for a Genetic Algorithm Multi-objective Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Krzysztof; Ionesi, Ana; Jradi, Muhyiddine;

    Model Predictive Control (MPC) of building systems is a promising approach to optimize building energy performance. In contrast to traditional control strategies which are reactive in nature, MPC optimizes the utilization of resources based on the predicted effects. It has been shown that energy...... implemented only in few buildings. The following difficulties hinder the widespread usage of MPC: (1) significant model development time, (2) limited portability of models, (3) model computational demand. In the present study a new model development framework for an MPC system based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA......) optimization is proposed. The framework is intended to allow easy model adaptation for new buildings and fast simulations to meet the strict performance requirements of the GA optimization approach. This is achieved by the introduction of the generic zone model concept and the implementation of the Functional...

  13. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has to be...... deployed in the feedback path. For this situation, and by focusing on a class of source-coding schemes built around entropy coded dithered quantizers, we develop a framework to deal with average data-rate constraints in a tractable manner that combines ideas from both information and control theories. As...... an illustration of the uses of our framework, we apply it to study the interplay between stability and average data-rates in the considered architecture. It is shown that the proposed class of coding schemes can achieve mean square stability at average data-rates that are, at most, 1.254 bits per...

  14. Case-control design as investigative approach to assessing cancer etiology: development and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocic, B; Filipovic, S; Petrovic, B; Nikolic, M

    2012-01-01

    The case-control method evolved out of analyses of series of cases. The analytic form of the case-control study can be found in the 19th century medical literature, but did not appear to be viewed as a special or distinct methodology. The first modern case-control study was the Janet Lane-Claypon's study of breast cancer in 1926, but the design was used only sporadically in medicine until 1950, when 4 published casecontrol studies linked smoking and lung cancer. These 1950s studies synthesized the essential elements of the case-control comparison, produced a conceptual shift within epidemiology, and laid the foundation for the rapid development of the case-control design in the subsequent half century. The powerful consistency of these case-control studies, and the replication of their findings in later prospective studies, promoted the general acceptance of the case-control study as a scientific tool in clinical research. Newer case-control studies have benefited from the advances in design, execution and analysis since 1950s. These advances include more rigorous selection and matching of case and control population, improved interviewing techniques, location of the design within a general framework of epidemiologic strategies for relating exposure to disease, understanding of the measures of effect, and application of increasingly sophisticated statistical procedures to findings. This review traces the development and future perspectives of the case-control design to assessing cancer etiology. With illustrations drawn primarily from the literature on its use and the value of its results to unravelling the etiology of malignant diseases, we tried to explore if the case-control approach firmly ensconced in epidemiology as investigational tool and rivals in importance the more straightforward cohort approach. PMID:23033277

  15. Global health, equity and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health demonstrates the renewed salience of health inequalities within the international health policy agenda. The tobacco pandemic is characterized by an escalating burden of death and disease that is increasingly being borne by developing countries. Efforts to promote global health equity must therefore prioritize reductions in tobacco consumption. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) offers a remarkable opportunit...

  16. Dynamic Programming Principle for Stochastic Recursive Optimal Control Problem under G-framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Mingshang; Ji, Shaolin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastic recursive optimal control problem in which the cost functional is described by the solution of a backward stochastic differential equation driven by G-Brownian motion. Under standard assumptions, we establish the dynamic programming principle and the related fully nonlinear HJB equation in the framework of G-expectation. Finally, we show that the value function is the viscosity solution of the obtained HJB equation.

  17. A stochastic recursive optimal control problem under the G-expectation framework

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Mingshang; Ji, Shaolin; Yang, Shuzhen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study a stochastic recursive optimal control problem in which the objective functional is described by the solution of a backward stochastic differential equation driven by G-Brownian motion. Under standard assumptions, we establish the dynamic programming principle and the related Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation in the framework of G-expectation. Finally, we show that the value function is the viscosity solution of the obtained HJB equation.

  18. A Proposed Legal Framework for Addressing Privacy for Patient Controlled Health Records in Pediatrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Fabienne; Taylor, Patrick; Mandl, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Summary Patient controlled health records (PCHRs) provide widespread and flexible access to integrated medical information. Unique legal challenges arise where the patient is a minor. Variations in laws and statutes concerning minor’s rights to privacy and confidentiality, and institutions’ local interpretations of them, need to be integrated in the principles governing PCHRs. We propose a legal framework to guide the development of access policies for PCHRs to ensure appropriate privacy and confidentiality protection surrounding minors. PMID:17238481

  19. Development of a Framework for the Evaluation of the Environmental Benefits of Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Mounem Mouazen; Martin Palmqvist

    2015-01-01

    Although controlled traffic farming (CTF) is an environmentally friendly soil management system, no quantitative evaluation of environmental benefits is available. This paper aims at establishing a framework for quantitative evaluation of the environmental benefits of CTF, considering a list of environmental benefits, namely, reducing soil compaction, runoff/erosion, energy requirement and greenhouse gas emission (GHG), conserving organic matter, enhancing soil biodiversity and fertiliser us...

  20. Imparting biomolecules to a metal-organic framework material by controlled DNA tetrahedron encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yongmei Jia; Benmei Wei; Ruixue Duan; Ying Zhang; Boya Wang; Abdul Hakeem; Nannan Liu; Xiaowen Ou; Shaofang Xu; Zhifei Chen; Xiaoding Lou; Fan Xia

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the incorporation of biomolecules in Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) attracts many attentions because of controlling the functions, properties and stability of trapped molecules. Although there are few reports on protein/MOFs composites and their applications, none of DNA/MOFs composite is reported, as far as we know. Here, we report a new composite material which is self-assembled from 3D DNA (guest) and pre-synthesized MOFs (host) by electrostatic interactions and hydrophilic inte...

  1. NL(q) Theory: A Neural Control Framework with Global Asymptotic Stability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewalle, Joos; De Moor, Bart L.R.; Suykens, Johan A.K.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper a framework for model-based neural control design is presented, consisting of nonlinear state space models and controllers, parametrized by multilayer feedforward neural networks. The models and closed-loop systems are transformed into so-called NL(q) system form. NL(q) systems represent a large class of nonlinear dynamical systems consisting of q layers with alternating linear and static nonlinear operators that satisfy a sector condition. For such NL(q)s sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability, input/output stability (dissipativity with finite L(2)-gain) and robust stability and performance are presented. The stability criteria are expressed as linear matrix inequalities. In the analysis problem it is shown how stability of a given controller can be checked. In the synthesis problem two methods for neural control design are discussed. In the first method Narendra's dynamic backpropagation for tracking on a set of specific reference inputs is modified with an NL(q) stability constraint in order to ensure, e.g., closed-loop stability. In a second method control design is done without tracking on specific reference inputs, but based on the input/output stability criteria itself, within a standard plant framework as this is done, for example, in H( infinity ) control theory and &mgr; theory. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. PMID:12662859

  2. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extreme physics of targets shocked by NIF's 192-beam laser are observed by a diverse suite of diagnostics including optical backscatter, time-integrated and gated X-ray sensors, and laser velocity interferometry. Diagnostics to diagnose fusion ignition implosion and neutron emissions are being planned. Many diagnostics will be developed by collaborators at other sites, but ad hoc controls could lead to unreliable and costly operations. An instrument-based controls (I-BC) framework for both hardware and software facilitates development and eases integration. Each complex diagnostic typically uses an ensemble of electronic instruments attached to sensors, digitizers, cameras, and other devices. In the I-BC architecture each instrument is interfaced to a low-cost Windows XP processor and Java application. Each instrument is aggregated with others as needed in the supervisory system to form an integrated diagnostic. The Java framework provides data management, control services and operator GUI generation. I-BCs are reusable by replication and reconfiguration for specific diagnostics in XML. Advantages include minimal application code, easy testing, and better reliability. Collaborators save costs by assembling diagnostics with existing I-BCs. This paper discusses target diagnostic instrumentation used on NIF and presents the I-BC architecture and framework

  3. Conference Control Design for a SIP-Web-Service Hybrid Multimedia Conference Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheng Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Session Initiation Protocol (SIP and Web service are the de facto standards for Voice over IP applications and distributed system, respectively. Although they do not be used to define multimedia conferencing directly and completely, many proposals, drafts and papers suggest extensions and solutions to this essential service. However, as the spring up of the Web service standards and technology, some traditional communication systems should be restructured and modified, including the multimedia conference framework based on SIP and Web service. In this study, a hybrid multimedia conference framework is first propose, which consist of low latency services, primitive and composite conference services. Under this framework, a multimedia conference can be organized and controlled conveniently with the property of loosely coupling and extensibility. Then the primary components of a conference control are introduced followed by the detailed design exemplified by some typical scenarios, which is compared to other possible design approaches. Finally, a specification of orchestration implementation which realizes the synthesis of the conference control functions is introduced to illustrate the feasibility of this design.

  4. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  5. A Systematic Computer-Aided Framework for Integrated Design and Control of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted;

    -defined operational conditions whereas controllability is considered to maintain desired operating points of the process at any kind of imposed disturbance under normal operating conditions. In this work, a systematic hierarchical computer-aided framework for integrated process design and control of chemical......-separator-recycle (RSR) system. Next, it will be shown that the RSR system can be replaced by an intensified unit operation, a reactive distillation column (RDC) which optimal design-control solution is also presented. The operation and control of the RSR and RDC at the optimal designs is compared with other candidate......Chemical processes are conventionally designed through a sequential approach. In this sequential approach, first, a steady-state process design is obtained and then, control structure synthesis that, in most of the cases, is based on heuristics is performed. Therefore, process design and process...

  6. A Lean Framework for Production Control in Complex and Constrained Construction Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren Munch; Wandahl, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Production conditions in construction are different than in themanufacturing industry. First of all, construction is rooted in place and conducted as on-site manufacturing. Secondly, every construction project is unique and a one-of-a-kind production, managed by a temporary organization consistin...... in the lean tool Last Planner System of Production Control, a robust construction production control framework has been developed.......Production conditions in construction are different than in themanufacturing industry. First of all, construction is rooted in place and conducted as on-site manufacturing. Secondly, every construction project is unique and a one-of-a-kind production, managed by a temporary organization consisting...... interacting and overlapping activities. This increases uncertainty and make the construction process very difficult to plan and control. Additionally, a lot of unpredictable factors (e.g. climate conditions) affects control, and makes construction even more complex. Production control is an essential part of...

  7. Mammographic density and breast cancer: a comparison of related and unrelated controls in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Linton, Linda; Martin, Lisa J.; Li, Qing; Huszti, Ella; Minkin, Salomon; John, Esther M.; Rommens, Johanna; Paterson, Andrew D.; Boyd, Norman F

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Percent mammographic density (PMD) is a strong and highly heritable risk factor for breast cancer. Studies of the role of PMD in familial breast cancer may require controls, such as the sisters of cases, selected from the same 'risk set' as the cases. The use of sister controls would allow control for factors that have been shown to influence risk of breast cancer such as race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and a family history of breast cancer, but may introduce 'overmatching' ...

  8. Cancer and polluted work places: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjuus, H; Lislerud, A; Lyngdal, P T; Omland, H; Stave, O; Langård, S

    1982-02-01

    The possible association between selected cancers and polluted work places has been studied in a hospital-based, case-control study. By dividing all jobs in the participants working career into "polluted" and "clean", a crude measure for the total industrial exposure a worker experiences throughout his life was established. Among 103 age-matched, case-control pairs the overall estimated relative risk (RR) for exposed subjects (greater than or equal to 10 years in a polluted work place) of developing cancer compared to nonexposed (less than 10 years in a polluted work place) was 1.1. The only subgroup where a significant difference was found between the cases and the controls was the lung cancer subgroup (RR = 4.0, p = 0.02, two-tailed). When the 30 lung cancer cases were compared to an alternative control group consisting of 60 subjects matched for age and smoking habits, an estimated RR of 4.5 was found. A moderate, but not significant association between lung cancer and definite asbestos exposure was also found (RR: 2.3). As most workers are exposed to a variety of industrial agents throughout their working careers, further development of methods for characterizing combined exposures are needed, both for retrospective and prospective purposes. PMID:7068240

  9. On the Connection between the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman and the Fokker-Planck Control Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Annunziato, Mario

    2014-09-01

    In the framework of stochastic processes, the connection between the dynamic programming scheme given by the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and a recently proposed control approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation is discussed. Under appropriate assumptions it is shown that the two strategies are equivalent in the case of expected cost functionals, while the FokkerPlanck formalism allows considering a larger class of objectives. To illustrate the connection between the two control strategies, the cases of an Itō stochastic process and of a piecewise-deterministic process are considered.

  10. Training of control room crews in plant disturbance diagnosis. A methodological framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to outline and describe the background considerations when developing training in diagnostic search for nuclear power station control room crews. The four main factors in these considerations are discussed: human information processing, diagnostic search, crew coordination during the diagnostic search, and finally training and teaching methods. Together, they constitute the cornerstones for the theoretical foundation of the diagnostic search training. The methodological framework in this paper was tested in practical circumstances during October and November 1986, involving control room crews at a Swedish PWR nuclear power station. A report of the findings during this test will be issued later this year

  11. A systematic framework for design of process monitoring and control (PAT) systems for crystallization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist;

    2013-01-01

    necessary supersaturation set-point as well as a PAT system design including implementation of monitoring tools and control strategies in order to produce the desired target product properties notably crystal size distribution (CSD) and shape for a wide range of crystallization processes. Application of the...... framework is highlighted through a case study involving the design of a monitoring and control system for a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystallization process, where also the one-dimensional CSD and two-dimensional CSD modelling features are highlighted....

  12. Cyber-Physical Modeling and Control of Crowd of Pedestrians: A Review and New Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Ke-cai; Stuart, Dan; Yue, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling and control of crowds of pedestrians are briefly surveyed in this paper. Possibilities of applying fractional calculus in the modeling of crowd of pedestrians have been shortly reviewed and discussed from different aspects such as descriptions of motion, interactions of long range and effects of memory. Control of the crowd of pedestrians have also been formulated using the framework of Cyber-Physical Systems and been realized using networked Segways with onboard emergency response personnels to regulate the velocity and flux of the crowd. Platform for verification of the theoretical results are also provided in this paper.

  13. Research on framework for formation control of multiple underwater robots in a dynamic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian-Song; Xu, Hong-Gen; Zhang, Ming-Jun

    2004-12-01

    In this paper a practical framework is proposed to keep formation control of multiple underwater robots in a dynamic environment. The approach is a viable solution to solve formation problem. The approach allows online planning of the formation paths using a Dijkstra’s search algorithm based on the current sensor data. The formation is allowed to be dynamically changed in order to avoid obstacles in the environment. A controller is designed to keep the robots in their planned trajectories. It is shown that the approach is effective and feasible by the simulation of computer.

  14. Intelligent Control Framework for the Feeding System in the Biomass Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent control framework for biomass drying process with flue gases based on FLC (fuzzy logic controller and CAN (Controller Area Network bus. In the operation of a biomass drying process, in order to get the biomass with the set-point low moisture content dried by waste high temperature flue gases, it is necessary to intelligent control for the biomass flow rate. Use of an experiment with varied materials at different initial moisture contents enables acquisition of the biomass flow rates as initial setting values. Set the error between actual straw moisture content and set-point, and rate of change of error as two inputs. the biomass flow rate can be acquired by the fuzzy logic computing as the output. Since the length of dryer is more than twenty meters, the integration by the CAN bus can ensure real-time reliable data acquisition and processing. The control framework for biomass drying process can be applied to a variety of biomass, such as, cotton stalk, corn stalk, rice straw, wheat straw, sugar cane. It has strong potential for practical applications because of its advantages on intelligent providing the set-point low moisture content of biomass feedstock for power generation equipment.

  15. ControlIt! - A Software Framework for Whole-Body Operational Space Control

    OpenAIRE

    Fok, C. -L.; Johnson, G.,; Yamokoski, J. D.; Mok, A.; Sentis, L.

    2015-01-01

    Whole Body Operational Space Control (WBOSC) is a pioneering algorithm in the field of human-centered Whole-Body Control (WBC). It enables floating-base highly-redundant robots to achieve unified motion/force control of one or more operational space objectives while adhering to physical constraints. Limited studies exist on the software architecture and APIs that enable WBOSC to perform and be integrated into a larger system. In this paper we address this by presenting ControlIt!, a new open-...

  16. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control. PMID:24395988

  17. An object oriented framework of EPICS for MicroTCA based control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is a distributed control system platform which has been widely used for large scientific devices control like particle accelerators and fusion plant. EPICS has introduced object oriented (C++) interfaces to most of the core services. But the major part of EPICS, the run-time database, only provides C interfaces, which is hard to involve the EPICS record concerned data and routines in the object oriented architecture of the software. This paper presents an object oriented framework which contains some abstract classes to encapsulate the EPICS record concerned data and routines in C++ classes so that full OOA (Objected Oriented Analysis) and OOD (Object Oriented Design) methodologies can be used for EPICS IOC design. We also present a dynamic device management scheme for the hot swap capability of the MicroTCA based control system. (authors)

  18. A Modular Framework for Modeling Hardware Elements in Distributed Engine Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.

    2015-01-01

    Progress toward the implementation of distributed engine control in an aerospace application may be accelerated through the development of a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) system for testing new control architectures and hardware outside of a physical test cell environment. One component required in an HIL simulation system is a high-fidelity model of the control platform: sensors, actuators, and the control law. The control system developed for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) provides a verifiable baseline for development of a model for simulating a distributed control architecture. This distributed controller model will contain enhanced hardware models, capturing the dynamics of the transducer and the effects of data processing, and a model of the controller network. A multilevel framework is presented that establishes three sets of interfaces in the control platform: communication with the engine (through sensors and actuators), communication between hardware and controller (over a network), and the physical connections within individual pieces of hardware. This introduces modularity at each level of the model, encouraging collaboration in the development and testing of various control schemes or hardware designs. At the hardware level, this modularity is leveraged through the creation of a SimulinkR library containing blocks for constructing smart transducer models complying with the IEEE 1451 specification. These hardware models were incorporated in a distributed version of the baseline C-MAPSS40k controller and simulations were run to compare the performance of the two models. The overall tracking ability differed only due to quantization effects in the feedback measurements in the distributed controller. Additionally, it was also found that the added complexity of the smart transducer models did not prevent real-time operation of the distributed controller model, a requirement of an HIL system.

  19. Source Classification Framework for an optimized European wide Emission Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Ledin, Anna;

    2011-01-01

    of the PS environmental emission. The SCF also provides a well structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further European wide implementation, the SCF has the potential or an optimized ECS in order to obtain good chemical status of European water......European legislation such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD) from 2000 and the Environmental Quality Standards Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive both from 2008 focus on a range of priority substances (PSs) with the aim of obtaining an ecological and chemical healthy...... environment. This should be obtained through reducing releases or phasing out of discharges said chemicals. In order to appropriately design emission control strategies (ECSs) and monitor releases before and after implementation of various measures it is required to identify pollution sources and releases...

  20. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water demand in urban areas is growing parallel to the worldwide urban population, and it is acquiring an increasing part of the total water consumption. Since the delivery of sufficient water volumes in urban areas represents a difficult logistic and economical problem, different metropolitan areas are evaluating the opportunity of constructing relatively small reservoirs within urban areas. Singapore, for example, is developing the so-called 'Four National Taps Strategies', which detects the maximization of water yields from local, urban catchments as one of the most important water sources. However, the peculiar location of these reservoirs can provide a certain advantage from the logistical point of view, but it can pose serious difficulties in their daily management. Urban catchments are indeed characterized by large impervious areas: this results in a change of the hydrological cycle, with decreased infiltration and groundwater recharge, and increased patterns of surface and river discharges, with higher peak flows, volumes and concentration time. Moreover, the high concentrations of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges can cause further water quality problems. In this critical hydrological context, the effective operation of urban water reservoirs must rely on real-time control techniques, which can exploit hydro-meteorological information available in real-time from hydrological and nowcasting models. This work proposes a novel framework for the real-time control of combined water quality and quantity objectives in urban reservoirs. The core of this framework is a non-linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) scheme, which employs the current state of the system, the future discharges furnished by a predictive model and a further model describing the internal dynamics of the controlled sub-system to determine an optimal control sequence over a finite prediction horizon. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its reduced

  1. Risk Control of Offshore Installations. A Framework for the Establishment of Risk Indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeien, Knut

    2001-07-01

    Currently quantitative risk assessments are carried out to analyze the risk level of offshore installations and to evaluate whether or not the risk level is acceptable. By way of the quantitative risk analysis the risk status of a given installation is obtained. However, the risk status is obtained so infrequently that it is inadequate for risk control. It can be compared to economic control having the economic status presented about each fifth year, which is obviously inadequate. It is important to know the risk status because this may provide an early warning about the need for remedial actions. Without frequent information about the risk status, control of risk cannot be claimed. The main objective of this thesis has been the development of a framework for the establishment of risk indicators. These risk indicators provide a status of the risk level through measuring of changes in technical, operational and organizational factors important to risk, and is thus a means to control risk during operation of offshore petroleum installations. The framework consists of a technical methodology using the quantitative risk assessment as a basis, an organizational model, and an organizational quantification methodology. Technical risk indicators are established from the technical methodology covering the risk factors explicitly included in the quantitative risk assessment. Organizational risk indicators measure changes in the organizational risk factors included in the organizational model, but not included in the quantitative risk assessment. The organizational model is an extension to the risk model in the quantitative risk assessment. The organizational quantification methodology calculates the effect of the changes measured by the organizational risk indicators. The organizational model may also be applied as a qualitative tool for root cause analysis of incidents (process leaks). Other results are an intermediate-level expert judgment procedure applicable for

  2. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Conceptual Framework for Creating Virtual Communities of Practice to Translate Cancer Research into Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vinson, Cynthia A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Translating government-funded cancer research into clinical practice can be accomplished via virtual communities of practice that include key players in the process: researchers, health care practitioners, and intermediaries. This study, conducted from November 2012 through January 2013, examined issues that key stakeholders believed should be addressed to create and sustain government-sponsored virtual communities of practice to integrate cancer control research, practice, and p...

  3. Target Diagnostic Instrument-Based Controls Framework for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIF target diagnostics are being developed to observe and measure the extreme physics of targets irradiated by the 192-beam laser. The response time of target materials can be on the order of 100ps--the time it takes light to travel 3 cm--temperatures more than 100 times hotter than the surface of the sun, and pressures that exceed 109 atmospheres. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were developed and fielded to observe and record the results of the first 4-beam experiments at NIF. Hard and soft x-ray spectra were measured, and time-integrated and gated x-ray images of hydrodynamics experiments were recorded. Optical diagnostics recorded backscatter from the target, and VISAR laser velocimetry measurements were taken of laser-shocked target surfaces. Additional diagnostics are being developed and commissioned to observe and diagnose ignition implosions, including various neutron and activation diagnostics. NIF's diagnostics are being developed at LLNL and with collaborators at other sites. To accommodate the growing number of target diagnostics, an Instrument-Based Controls hardware-software framework has been developed to facilitate development and ease integration into the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS). Individual WindowsXP PC controllers for each digitizer, power supply and camera (i.e., instruments) execute controls software unique to each instrument model. Each hardware-software controller manages a single instrument, in contrast to the complexity of combining all the controls software needed for a diagnostic into a single controller. Because of this simplification, controllers can be more easily tested on the actual hardware, evaluating all normal and off-normal conditions. Each target diagnostic is then supported by a number of instruments, each with its own hardware-software instrument-based controller. Advantages of the instrument-based control architecture and framework include reusability, testability, and improved reliability of the deployed

  4. A Model-based Framework for Risk Assessment in Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems. This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions. Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  5. Deciphering the genetic regulatory code using an inverse error control coding framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rintoul, Mark Daniel; May, Elebeoba Eni; Brown, William Michael; Johnston, Anna Marie; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2005-03-01

    We have found that developing a computational framework for reconstructing error control codes for engineered data and ultimately for deciphering genetic regulatory coding sequences is a challenging and uncharted area that will require advances in computational technology for exact solutions. Although exact solutions are desired, computational approaches that yield plausible solutions would be considered sufficient as a proof of concept to the feasibility of reverse engineering error control codes and the possibility of developing a quantitative model for understanding and engineering genetic regulation. Such evidence would help move the idea of reconstructing error control codes for engineered and biological systems from the high risk high payoff realm into the highly probable high payoff domain. Additionally this work will impact biological sensor development and the ability to model and ultimately develop defense mechanisms against bioagents that can be engineered to cause catastrophic damage. Understanding how biological organisms are able to communicate their genetic message efficiently in the presence of noise can improve our current communication protocols, a continuing research interest. Towards this end, project goals include: (1) Develop parameter estimation methods for n for block codes and for n, k, and m for convolutional codes. Use methods to determine error control (EC) code parameters for gene regulatory sequence. (2) Develop an evolutionary computing computational framework for near-optimal solutions to the algebraic code reconstruction problem. Method will be tested on engineered and biological sequences.

  6. A modeling framework for deteriorating control system and predictive maintenance of actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actuators play a central role in industrial automation systems. They are costly, and therefore studying their dependability needs all attention. Usually, an actuator is inserted in a feedback control system, and its mission is to implement a control action delivered by a controller. In this paper, a monotonic actuator deterioration is considered and it is assumed that a relationship exists between the control action and the physical actuator's deterioration. A modeling framework is proposed including a non-decreasing stochastic degradation process driving the inability for an actuator to fully implement its role. The prognosis of the actuator's residual useful lifetime is derived and used to update the controller's setting. The controller reconfiguration completes the maintenance corrective and preventive actions. This new action is suggested as an alternative for maintenance strategy. - Highlights: • A degrading control system model is proposed focusing on actuator deterioration. • It is assumed a relationship between this degradation and its loss of efficiency. • The actuator RUL is quantified as a quantile of its conditional survival function. • RUL prognosis is used to reconfigure the control input law. • This new action is suggested as an alternative for maintenance strategy

  7. Identifying important breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niessen Louis W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but global disparities in breast cancer control persist, due to a lack of a comprehensive breast cancer control strategy in many countries. Objectives To identify and compare the need for breast cancer control strategies in Asia, Latin America and the Middle East/North Africa and to develop a common framework to guide the development of national breast cancer control strategies. Methods Data were derived from open-ended, semi-structured interviews conducted in 2007 with 221 clinicians, policy makers, and patient advocates; stratified across Asia (n = 97, Latin America (n = 46, the Middle East/North Africa (ME/NA (n = 39 and Australia and Canada (n = 39. Respondents were identified using purposive and snowballing sampling. Interpretation of the data utilized interpretive phenomenological analysis where transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed and common themes were identified. Analysis of regional variation was conducted based on the frequency of discussion and the writing of the manuscript followed the RATS guidelines. Results Analysis revealed four major themes that form the foundation for developing national breast cancer control strategies: 1 building capacity; 2 developing evidence; 3 removing barriers; and 4 promoting advocacy - each specified across five sub-ordinate dimensions. The propensity to discuss most dimensions was similar across regions, but managing advocacy was discussed more frequently (p = 0.004 and organized advocacy was discussed less frequently (p Conclusions This unique research identified common themes for the development of breast cancer control strategies, grounded in the experience of local practitioners, policy makers and advocacy leaders across diverse regions. Future research should be aimed at gathering a wider array of experiences, including those of patients.

  8. 76 FR 19257 - National Cancer Control Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8381 Filed 4-5-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... disease. During National Cancer Control Month, we renew our commitment to increasing awareness about... from occasional smoking or secondhand smoke, is particularly harmful. Americans striving to quit...

  9. Controlling wheelchairs by body motions: A learning framework for the adaptive remapping of space

    CERN Document Server

    Gulrez, Tauseef; Fishbach, Alon; Acosta, Santiago; Scharver, Christopher; De Rossi, Danilo; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2011-01-01

    Learning to operate a vehicle is generally accomplished by forming a new cognitive map between the body motions and extrapersonal space. Here, we consider the challenge of remapping movement-to-space representations in survivors of spinal cord injury, for the control of powered wheelchairs. Our goal is to facilitate this remapping by developing interfaces between residual body motions and navigational commands that exploit the degrees of freedom that disabled individuals are most capable to coordinate. We present a new framework for allowing spinal cord injured persons to control powered wheelchairs through signals derived from their residual mobility. The main novelty of this approach lies in substituting the more common joystick controllers of powered wheelchairs with a sensor shirt. This allows the whole upper body of the user to operate as an adaptive joystick. Considerations about learning and risks have lead us to develop a safe testing environment in 3D Virtual Reality. A Personal Augmented Reality Imm...

  10. Serum estrogen levels and prostate cancer risk in the prostate cancer prevention trial: a nested case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Song; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan R.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Tang, Li; Neuhouser, Marian L; Santella, Regina M.; William D Figg; Price, Douglas K.; Parnes, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Finasteride reduces prostate cancer risk by blocking the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. However, whether finasteride affects estrogens levels or change in estrogens affects prostate cancer risk is unknown. Methods These questions were investigated in a case–control study nested within the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) with 1,798 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases and 1,798 matched controls. Results Among men on placebo, no relationship of serum estroge...

  11. TWO OPTIMAL CONTROL PROBLEMS IN CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY WITH DRUG RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Krabs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate two well-known basic optimal control problems forchemotherapeutic cancer treatment modified by introducing a timedependent “resistance factor”. This factor should be responsible for the effect of the drug resistance of tumor cells on the dynamical growth for the tumor. Both optimal control problems have common pointwise but different integral constraints on the control. We show that in both models the usually practised bang-bang control is optimal if the resistance is sufficiently strong. Further, we discuss different optimal strategies in both models for general resistance.

  12. Framework of Lower-Limb Musculoskeletal Modeling for FES Control System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K.I Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of interest in functional electrical stimulation (FES is increasing due to the applications especially on spinal cord injury (SCI patients. Numerous studies have been done to regain mobility function and for health benefits especially due to FES control development for the paralyzed person. In this paper, the existing general framework modeling methods have been reviewed and the new modeling framework approach has been discussed. In general modeling and simulation can greatly facilitate to test and tune various FES control strategies. In fact, the modeling of musculoskeletal properties in people with SCI is significantly challenging for researchers due to the complexity of the system. The complexities are due to the complex structural anatomy, complicated movement and dynamics, as well as indeterminate muscle function. Although there are some models have been developed, the complexities of the system resulting mathematical representation that have a large number of parameters which make the model identification process even more difficult. Therefore, a new approach of modeling has been presented which is comparatively less burdened compared with mathematical representations. Hence this musculoskeletal model can be used for FES control system development.

  13. Command and Control application framework for interoperable heterogeneous ITER Remote Handling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER divertor Remote Handling maintenance concepts are under investigation at a full scale mockup facility, the Divertor Test Platform, located in Tampere, Finland. The key devices to carry out these operations are the (CMM), Cassette Toroidal Mover, Multi Axis Manipulators (MAM) and related tooling. Despite their differences, in essence all of these devices are manipulators with varying specifications. Hence, from the operator's point of view, they perform similar operations, such as following predefined position trajectories and lifting and carrying tools and equipment. This paper explores how to implement a software framework for a Command and Control application, otherwise known as Human Machine Interface (HMI), in such a way that it could be used to control different manipulators. A framework is presented that supports the combining of small, independent modules into a single cohesive HMI. It is then shown that a HMI can be built by combining modules that are common to these manipulators and modules that are specific to a single manipulator. This will not only minimize the programming effort but also reduce the training required of operators. To elaborate on the concept, an example HMI is implemented to control virtual models of CMM and MAM.

  14. Meta-Analysis of a Multi-Ethnic, Breast Cancer Case-Control Targeted Sequencing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ablorh, Akweley

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women, is a heritable disease with nearly one hundred known genetic risk factors. Using next generation sequencing, we explored the contribution of genetics at 12 GWAS-identified loci to breast cancer susceptibility in a multi-ethnic breast cancer case-control study. Methods: The study population consists of 4,611 breast cancer cases and controls (2,316 cases and 2,295 controls) from four mutually exclusive ethnicities: Africa...

  15. [Occupational risks for laryngeal cancer: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Sergio Guerra; Eluf-Neto, José; Travier, Noemie; Wünsch Filho, Victor; Arcuri, Arline Sydneia Abel; Kowalski, Luís Paulo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-06-01

    The most solidly established risk factors for laryngeal cancer are tobacco and alcohol. As for occupational factors, the only established carcinogen is exposure to strong inorganic acid mists. However, asbestos, pesticides, paints, gasoline, diesel engine emissions, dusts, and other factors have been reported in the literature as occupational agents that increase the risk of laryngeal cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to investigate occupational risk factors for laryngeal cancer. Detailed data on smoking, alcohol consumption, and occupational history were collected for 122 laryngeal cancers and 187 controls matched by frequency (according to sex and age). Laryngeal cancer was associated with exposure to respirable free crystalline silica (OR = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.00-3.36), soot (from coal, coke, fuel oil, or wood) (odds ratio - OR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval - 95%CI: 1.03-3.03), fumes (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.14-5.67), and live animals (OR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.02-3.19). PMID:17546338

  16. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  17. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  18. Advanced concept for damage control : A framework to simulate fire propagation and damage control effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, M.P.W.; Keijer, W.; Smit, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Current damage control procedures are developed on the basis of a long-standing experience. However there are reasons to believe that these procedures do not account for major weapon-induced calamities. Fire fighting after substantial blast and fragmentation damage, due to a weaponhit, is quite beyo

  19. Hypertension Control Cascade: A Framework to Improve Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Gregory; Khan, Tamkeen; Gillespie, Cathleen; Sifuentes, Lori; Hasan, Omar; Ritchey, Matthew; Kmetik, Karen; Wynia, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Evidence-based interventions differ for increasing hypertension awareness, treatment, and control and should be targeted for specific patient panels. This study developed a hypertension control cascade to identify patients with a usual source of care represented at each level of the cascade using the 2007-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Overall, 10.7 million adults in the United States were unaware of their condition, 3.8 million were aware but untreated, and 15.8 million were treated but uncontrolled. The results also suggest that failure to attain hypertension control because of lack of awareness or lack of treatment despite awareness occurs mainly among younger individuals and those with no annual healthcare visits, while the elderly and minorities are more likely to remain uncontrolled when aware and treated. Opportunities to leverage population health management functions in electronic health information systems to align the specific patient subgroups facing barriers to hypertension control at each level of the cascade with targeted hypertension management interventions are discussed. PMID:26337797

  20. A Framework to Measure Operator's Workload in Main Control Room of APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the work of operators has been changed a great deal, due to a lack of appropriate guidelines on the role allocation or communication method of operators, the problem of a lopsided workload for each operator has been raised. Thus, it is necessary to enhance the operation capability by developing the guidelines on the role definition and communication of operators in the advanced MCR of NPPs. To resolve this problem, however, a method of measuring the workload according to work execution of operators is necessary, but the applicable method is not available at this time. The objective of this research is to develop an analytical framework to evaluate the workload according to the work execution of power plant operators. A framework to measure the workload of crews in an advanced main control room has been suggested. In this research, we proposed a framework to measure and evaluate the workload of operators in an advanced MCR and the workload was measured through the simulator training experiment of the MCR of an APR1400. On the basis of these observations, it is necessary to reestablish the role and communication method of MCR operators suitable to the new operational environment and changed work and develops the appropriate operating guidelines

  1. Control, Test and Monitoring Software Framework for the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Goringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, D R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Johansen, M; Kluge, E E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Moa, T; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, V J O; Prieur, D P F; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stockton, M C; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system designed to identify high-pT jets, electron/photon and tau candidates and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters. The complete trigger system consists of over 300 customdesignedVME modules of varying complexity. These modules are based around FPGAs or ASICs with many configurable parameters, both to initialize the system with correct calibrations and timings and to allow flexibility in the trigger algorithms. The control, testing and monitoring of these modules requires a comprehensive, but well-designed and modular, software framework, which we will describe in this paper.

  2. Pain Control In Cancer Patients By Opiate Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohagheghi M A

    2003-07-01

    current barriers, WHO stepwise model for cancer pain control and palliative care is recommended. Publishing Standard Treatment Guidelines for different levels of health care system is another recommended approach to optimize cancer pain."n 

  3. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  4. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  5. Estimating and validating disability-adjusted life years at the global level: a methodological framework for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soerjomataram Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs link data on disease occurrence to health outcomes, and they are a useful aid in establishing country-specific agendas regarding cancer control. The variables required to compute DALYs are however multiple and not readily available in many countries. We propose a methodology that derives global DALYs and validate variables and DALYs based on data from various cancer registries. Methods We estimated DALYs for four countries (Norway, Bulgaria, India and Uganda within each category of the human development index (HDI. The following sources (indicators were used: Globocan2008 (incidence and mortality, various cancer registries (proportion cured, proportion treated and duration of disease, treatment guidelines (duration of treatment, specific burden of disease studies (sequelae and disability weights, alongside expert opinion. We obtained country-specific population estimates and identified resource levels using the HDI, DALYs are computed as the sum of years of life lost and years lived with disabilities. Results Using mortality:incidence ratios to estimate country-specific survival, and by applying the human development index we derived country-specific estimates of the proportion cured and the proportion treated. The fit between the estimates and observed data from the cancer registries was relatively good. The final DALY estimates were similar to those computed using observed values in Norway, and in WHO’s earlier global burden of disease study. Marked cross-country differences in the patterns of DALYs by cancer sites were observed. In Norway and Bulgaria, breast, colorectal, prostate and lung cancer were the main contributors to DALYs, representing 54% and 45%, respectively, of the totals. These cancers contributed only 27% and 18%, respectively, of total DALYs in India and Uganda. Conclusions Our approach resulted in a series of variables that can be used to estimate country

  6. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  7. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  8. A Framework for Probabilistic Evaluation of Interval Management Tolerance in the Terminal Radar Control Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercencia-Zapana, Heber; Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Neogi, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Projections of future traffic in the national airspace show that most of the hub airports and their attendant airspace will need to undergo significant redevelopment and redesign in order to accommodate any significant increase in traffic volume. Even though closely spaced parallel approaches increase throughput into a given airport, controller workload in oversubscribed metroplexes is further taxed by these approaches that require stringent monitoring in a saturated environment. The interval management (IM) concept in the TRACON area is designed to shift some of the operational burden from the control tower to the flight deck, placing the flight crew in charge of implementing the required speed changes to maintain a relative spacing interval. The interval management tolerance is a measure of the allowable deviation from the desired spacing interval for the IM aircraft (and its target aircraft). For this complex task, Formal Methods can help to ensure better design and system implementation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic framework to quantify the uncertainty and performance associated with the major components of the IM tolerance. The analytical basis for this framework may be used to formalize both correctness and probabilistic system safety claims in a modular fashion at the algorithmic level in a way compatible with several Formal Methods tools.

  9. Framework for rapid assessment and adoption of new vector control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Moore, Sarah; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Ranson, Hilary; Lindsay, Steve; Lengeler, Christian; Hamon, Nicholas; McLean, Tom; Hemingway, Janet

    2014-04-01

    Evidence-informed health policy making is reliant on systematic access to, and appraisal of, the best available research evidence. This review suggests a strategy to improve the speed at which evidence is gathered on new vector control tools (VCTs) using a framework based on measurements of the vectorial capacity of an insect population to transmit disease. We explore links between indicators of VCT efficacy measurable in small-scale experiments that are relevant to entomological and epidemiological parameters measurable only in large-scale proof-of-concept randomised control trials (RCTs). We hypothesise that once RCTs establish links between entomological and epidemiological indicators then rapid evaluation of new products within the same product category may be conducted through smaller scale experiments without repetition of lengthy and expensive RCTs. PMID:24657042

  10. An integrated software testing framework for FGA-based controllers in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Yeob; Kim, Eun Sub; Yoo, Jun Beom [Div. of Computer Science and Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Jun; Choi, Jong Gyun [MMIS Lab., Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) have received much attention from the nuclear industry as an alternative platform to programmable logic controllers for digital instrumentation and control. The software aspect of FPGA development consists of several steps of synthesis and refinement, and also requires verification activities, such as simulations that are performed individually at each step. This study proposed an integrated software-testing framework for simulating all artifacts of the FPGA software development simultaneously and evaluating whether all artifacts work correctly using common oracle programs. This method also generates a massive number of meaningful simulation scenarios that reflect reactor shutdown logics. The experiment, which was performed on two FPGA software implementations, showed that it can dramatically save both time and costs.

  11. Cancer Control Planners’ Perceptions and Use of Evidence-Based Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, Peggy A.; Maria E. Fernandez; Williams, Rebecca; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Escoffery, Cam; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Pfeiffer, Debra; Kegler, Michelle C.; Reese, LeRoy; Mistry, Ritesh; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) surveyed 282 cancer control planners to inform its efforts to increase the use of evidence-based cancer control programs (EBPs; programs that have been scientifically tested and successfully changed behavior). Respondents included planners from organizations in state Comprehensive Cancer Control coalitions as well as other governmental and non-governmental organizations, and community-based coalitions. Respondents provided information...

  12. Metal-Organic Framework Synthesis System Based on Fuzzy Predictive Control via Network Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ho Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to construct metal-organic framework (MOF synthesis heating systems based on fuzzy method for monitoring and automatic control. In this study, the temperature sensing module for measurements sensed values that it through a wireless ZigBee chips and wired DAQ device for real-time data transmission. Because MOF synthesis, often due to different modes of heating or heating instability caused by its nucleation and crystal growth rate, is an important influence, leading to different crystallinity, the use of fuzzy theory to predict the temperature parameter and instant heating MOF synthesis parameters can be adjusted to improve the accuracy of the system. The research system to RS-232 interface module for infrared emission control packets issued and automated control of the furnace through the infrared receiver module. This study is based on a terminal interface window of Visual Basic programming and LabView graphical diagram for control system design. Finally, this research, through a number of experiments to validate the use of fuzzy system development methods and networks, can improve the accuracy of the reaction efficiency MOF sensing and control the heating system.

  13. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors. PMID:23886120

  14. A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shacham Galia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control is an area where the translation of evidence into policy would seem to be straightforward, given the wealth of epidemiological, behavioural and other types of research available. Yet, even here challenges exist. These include information overload, concealment of key (industry-funded evidence, contextualization, assessment of population impact, and the changing nature of the threat. Methods In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel. Results Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized. The proposed framework includes: 1 compilation of a list of potential interventions 2 modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3 streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4 refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans. Conclusions Development of a comprehensive

  15. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... meeting of the aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control..., regarding the early detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  16. Dietary calcium intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Changwoo; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    Background High intake of dietary calcium has been thought to be a protective factor against colorectal cancer. To explore the dose-response relationship in the associations between dietary calcium intake and colorectal cancer risk by cancer location, we conducted a case-control study among Korean population, whose dietary calcium intake levels are relatively low. Methods The colorectal cancer cases and controls were recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea between August 2010 and A...

  17. Information-Quality based LV-Grid-Monitoring Framework and its Application to Power-Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Findrik, Mislav; Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre; Hinterhofer, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    The integration of unpredictable renewable energy sources into the low voltage (LV) power grid results in new challenges when it comes to ensuring power quality in the electrical grid. Addressing this problem requires control of not only the secondary substation but also control of flexible assets......' flexibility information through an API. We define an information quality metric making the monitoring framework able to adapt information access strategies to ensure the information is made available to the controller with the highest possible information quality. To evaluate the monitoring framework, an...... inside the LV grid. In this paper we investigate how the flexibility information of such assets can be accessed by the controller using heterogeneous off-the-shelf communication networks. To achieve this we develop an adaptive monitoring framework, through which the controller can subscribe to the assets...

  18. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: opportunities and issues El Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco: oportunidades y problemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E Warner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, a World Health Organization sponsored global tobacco control treaty, constitutes the first major international tool with the potential to significantly reduce the global pandemic of tobacco-produced disease and death. After providing background on the prevalence of cigarette smoking and smoking attributable mortality, both at present and projected for the future, the paper then describes the FCTC and discusses its development, the barriers it has confronted, and the opportunities it offers for improving global health. Successful implementation of the provisions in the treaty could avoid literally tens of millions of premature tobacco-produced deaths over the next few decades.El Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT, un tratado para el control global del tabaco patrocinado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, constituye la primera herramienta internacional importante con el potencial de reducir significativamente la pandemia mundial de enfermedades y decesos producidos por el tabaco. Este ensayo proporciona antecedentes sobre la prevalencia de consumo de cigarrillos y sobre mortalidad atribuible a dicho consumo, tanto al presente como con proyección a futuro. Después describe el CMCT, su desarrollo, las barreras que ha confrontado y las oportunidades que ofrece para mejorar la salud global. La implementación exitosa de las disposiciones del tratado podría evitar, literalmente, decenas de millones de muertes prematuras producidas por el tabaco en las próximas décadas.

  19. Control Systems Security Center Comparison Study of Industrial Control System Standards against the Control Systems Protection Framework Cyber-Security Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    Cyber security standards, guidelines, and best practices for control systems are critical requirements that have been delineated and formally recognized by industry and government entities. Cyber security standards provide a common language within the industrial control system community, both national and international, to facilitate understanding of security awareness issues but, ultimately, they are intended to strengthen cyber security for control systems. This study and the preliminary findings outlined in this report are an initial attempt by the Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) Standard Awareness Team to better understand how existing and emerging industry standards, guidelines, and best practices address cyber security for industrial control systems. The Standard Awareness Team comprised subject matter experts in control systems and cyber security technologies and standards from several Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories, including Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This study was conducted in two parts: a standard identification effort and a comparison analysis effort. During the standard identification effort, the Standard Awareness Team conducted a comprehensive open-source survey of existing control systems security standards, regulations, and guidelines in several of the critical infrastructure (CI) sectors, including the telecommunication, water, chemical, energy (electric power, petroleum and oil, natural gas), and transportation--rail sectors and sub-sectors. During the comparison analysis effort, the team compared the requirements contained in selected, identified, industry standards with the cyber security requirements in ''Cyber Security Protection Framework'', Version 0.9 (hereafter referred to as the ''Framework''). For each of the seven sector/sub-sectors listed above, one standard was

  20. A framework for the natural-language-perception-based creative control of unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Liao, Xiaoqun; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-09-01

    Mobile robots must often operate in an unstructured environment cluttered with obstacles and with many possible action paths. That is why mobile robotics problems are complex with many unanswered questions. To reach a high degree of autonomous operation, a new level of learning is required. On the one hand, promising learning theories such as the adaptive critic and creative control have been proposed, while on other hand the human brain"s processing ability has amazed and inspired researchers in the area of Unmanned Ground Vehicles but has been difficult to emulate in practice. A new direction in the fuzzy theory tries to develop a theory to deal with the perceptions conveyed by the natural language. This paper tries to combine these two fields and present a framework for autonomous robot navigation. The proposed creative controller like the adaptive critic controller has information stored in a dynamic database (DB), plus a dynamic task control center (TCC) that functions as a command center to decompose tasks into sub-tasks with different dynamic models and multi-criteria functions. The TCC module utilizes computational theory of perceptions to deal with the high levels of task planning. The authors are currently trying to implement the model on a real mobile robot and the preliminary results have been described in this paper.

  1. Cobit-Framework and process control engineering. Application of Cobit-Process documentation ME3; Cobit-Framework und die Netzleittechnik. Anwendung der Cobit-Prozessbeschreibung ME3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosin, Erwin [Tiwag-Netz AG, Thaur (Austria). Prozessrechner und USV

    2009-11-16

    Cobit (Control Objectives for Information and related Technology) is an internationally recognised framework which offers two approaches to facilitating the operativeness of the power system management. One is aimed at the selection of the relevant processes needed for meeting business requirements and the other at identifying possible improvements to control and steering mechanisms in the selected processes. This is documented by the selected Cobit ME3 process (''Ensure Compliance With External Requirements''). The high security level of the power system management must be maintained in this context.

  2. Graph theoretic framework based cooperative control and estimation of multiple UAVs for target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mousumi

    Designing the control technique for nonlinear dynamic systems is a significant challenge. Approaches to designing a nonlinear controller are studied and an extensive study on backstepping based technique is performed in this research with the purpose of tracking a moving target autonomously. Our main motivation is to explore the controller for cooperative and coordinating unmanned vehicles in a target tracking application. To start with, a general theoretical framework for target tracking is studied and a controller in three dimensional environment for a single UAV is designed. This research is primarily focused on finding a generalized method which can be applied to track almost any reference trajectory. The backstepping technique is employed to derive the controller for a simplified UAV kinematic model. This controller can compute three autopilot modes i.e. velocity, ground heading (or course angle), and flight path angle for tracking the unmanned vehicle. Numerical implementation is performed in MATLAB with the assumption of having perfect and full state information of the target to investigate the accuracy of the proposed controller. This controller is then frozen for the multi-vehicle problem. Distributed or decentralized cooperative control is discussed in the context of multi-agent systems. A consensus based cooperative control is studied; such consensus based control problem can be viewed from the algebraic graph theory concepts. The communication structure between the UAVs is represented by the dynamic graph where UAVs are represented by the nodes and the communication links are represented by the edges. The previously designed controller is augmented to account for the group to obtain consensus based on their communication. A theoretical development of the controller for the cooperative group of UAVs is presented and the simulation results for different communication topologies are shown. This research also investigates the cases where the communication

  3. A framework for modelling the behaviour of a process control operator under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes the basis for a framework for modelling effects of stress on the behaviour of a process control plant operator. The qualitative effects of stress on the cognitive processing ability of the operator are discussed. Stress is thought to mainly decrease the reasoning ability of the operator. The operator will experience increased rigidity in problem solving and the narrowing of his attention and perceptual field. At the same time, the operator will be increasingly reluctant in admitting that wrong decisions have been committed. Furthermore, he will revert to skill-based behaviours. The direct consequence of stress on the decision making mechanism of the operator is the selection of inappropriate choice of action. A formal representation of decision errors is proposed and various techniques are suggested for representing various mechanisms for decision error making. The degree of experience possessed by the operator is also an important factor to the operator's tolerance of stress. The framework also allows the experience of the operator to be integrated into the model. Such an operator model can be linked to a plant simulator and the complete behaviour of the plant then be simulated

  4. APPLICATIONS OF EXPERT SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY IN THE ATLAS TDAQ CONTROLS FRAMEWORK

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Lehmann, G; Magnoni, L; Murillo Garcia, R; Sloper, JE

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger-DAQ system is composed of O(10000) of applications running ~1500 computers distributed over a network. To maximize the experiment run efficiency, the Trigger-DAQ control system includes advanced verification, diagnostics and complex dynamic error recovery tools, based on an expert system. The error recovery (ER) system is responsible for analyzing and recovering from a variety of errors, both software and hardware, without stopping the data-gathering operations. The verification framework allows users to develop and configure tests for any component in the system with different levels of complexity. It can be used as a standalone test facility during the general TDAQ initialization procedure, and for diagnosing the problems which may occur at run time. A key role in both recovery and verification frameworks is played by the rule-based expert system, which is also known as a knowledge-based system, to analyze errors and decide on appropriate recovery actions. The system is composed of a dynam...

  5. A simulation framework for modeling tumor control probability in breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Microscopic disease (MSD) left after tumorectomy is a major cause of local recurrence in breast conserving therapy (BCT). However, the effect of microscopic disease and RT dose on tumor control probability (TCP) was seldom studied quantitatively. A simulation framework was therefore constructed to explore the relationship between tumor load, radiation dose and TCP. Materials and methods: First, we modeled total disease load and microscopic spread with a pathology dataset. Then we estimated the remaining disease load after tumorectomy through surgery simulation. The Webb–Nahum TCP model was extended by clonogenic cell fraction to model the risk of local recurrence. The model parameters were estimated by fitting the simulated results to the observations in two clinical trials. Results: Higher histopathology grade has a strong correlation with larger MSD cell quantity. On average 12.5% of the MSD cells remained in the patient’s breast after surgery but varied considerably among patients (0–100%); illustrating the role of radiotherapy. A small clonogenic cell fraction was optimal in our model (one in every 2.7 * 106 cells). The mean radiosensitivity was estimated at 0.067 Gy−1 with standard deviation of 0.022 Gy−1. Conclusion: A relationship between radiation dose and TCP was established in a newly designed simulation framework with detailed disease load, surgery and radiotherapy models

  6. A framework for back-up and restore under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPICS is a system that allows one to design and implement a controls system. At its foundation, i.e., the level closest to the devices being controlled, are autonomous computers, each called an Input/Output Controller or IOC. In EPICS, devices controlled by an IOC are represented by software entities called process variables. All devices are monitored/controlled by reading/writing values from/to their associated process variables. Under this schema, distributing processing over a number of IOCs and representing devices with process variables, there are a variety of ways one can view or group the information in the control system. Two of the more common groupings are by IOC (location) and by devices (function). Simply stated, the authors require a system capable of restoring the state of the machine, in their case the Advanced Photon Source, to a known desired state from somewhere in the past. To that end, they propose a framework which describes a system that periodically records and preserves the values of key process variables so that later on, those values can be written to the machine in an attempt to restore it to that same state. One of the more powerful notions that must be preserved in any system that solves this problem is the independence between the specification of what is monitored and the specification of what is written. In other words, grouping process variables for monitoring must be kept independent of the number of different ways to group process variables (e.g., by IOC, by device, etc.) when they are written

  7. P27 in cell cycle control and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe

    In order to survive, cells need tight control of cell cycle progression. The control mechanisms are often lost in human cancer cells. The cell cycle is driven forward by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The CDK inhibitors (CKIs) are important regulators of the CDKs. As the name implies, CKIs were...... distinct NHL entities however, shortened survival seems to correlate with high expression of p27. For definitive assessment of the role played by p27 in lymphomagenesis, and the prognostic value of p27 in these tumors, further studies of distinct NHL entities are needed. This review addresses the function...

  8. A methodological framework for evaluating the evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Johannesen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In spite of lacking evidence for effects on cancer progression itself, an increasing number of cancer patients use various types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There is disagreement between CAM practitioners, researchers and clinical oncologists, as to how evidence concerning...... effects of CAM can and should be produced, and how the existing evidence should be interpreted. This represents a considerable challenge for oncologists; both in terms of patient needs for an informed dialogue regarding CAM, and because some types of CAM may interact with standard treatments...

  9. Calibration and seasonal adjustment for matched case-control studies of vitamin D and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, Mitchell H; Wu, Jincao; Wang, Molin; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Cook, Nancy R; Eliassen, A Heather; McCullough, Marjorie L; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ziegler, Regina G; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-06-15

    Vitamin D measurements are influenced by seasonal variation and specific assay used. Motivated by multicenter studies of associations of vitamin D with cancer, we formulated an analytic framework for matched case-control data that accounts for seasonal variation and calibrates to a reference assay. Calibration data were obtained from controls sampled within decile strata of the uncalibrated vitamin D values. Seasonal sine-cosine series were fit to control data. Practical findings included the following: (1) failure to adjust for season and calibrate increased variance, bias, and mean square error and (2) analysis of continuous vitamin D requires a variance adjustment for variation in the calibration estimate. An advantage of the continuous linear risk model is that results are independent of the reference date for seasonal adjustment. (3) For categorical risk models, procedures based on categorizing the seasonally adjusted and calibrated vitamin D have near nominal operating characteristics; estimates of log odds ratios are not robust to choice of seasonal reference date, however. Thus, public health recommendations based on categories of vitamin D should also define the time of year to which they refer. This work supports the use of simple methods for calibration and seasonal adjustment and is informing analytic approaches for the multicenter Vitamin D Pooling Project for Breast and Colorectal Cancer. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:27133461

  10. A generic finite state machine framework for the ACNET control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant level of automation and flexibility has been added to the ACNET control system through the development of a Java-based Finite State Machine (FSM) infrastructure. These FSMs are integrated into ACNET and allow users to easily build, test and execute scripts that have full access to ACNET's functionality. In this paper, a description will be given of the FSM design and its ties to the Java-based Data Acquisition Engine (DAE) framework. Each FSM is part of a client-server model with FSM display clients using Remote Method Invocation (RMI) to communicate with DAE servers heavily coupled to ACNET. A web-based monitoring system that allows users to utilize browsers to observe persistent FSMs will also be discussed. Finally, some key implementations such as the crash recovery FSM developed for the Electron Cooling machine protection system will be presented.

  11. Global health, equity and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2010-03-01

    The report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health demonstrates the renewed salience of health inequalities within the international health policy agenda. The tobacco pandemic is characterized by an escalating burden of death and disease that is increasingly being borne by developing countries. Efforts to promote global health equity must therefore prioritize reductions in tobacco consumption. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) offers a remarkable opportunity to address the health inequalities associated with tobacco use, and represents an important innovation within global governance. But the FCTC's failure to adequately address the health impacts of trade liberalization highlights the difficulties of ensuring policy coherence across international health, development and economic policies. Recognition of such limitations is important both to inform the further development of the FCTC and to ensure that appropriate lessons are drawn for future initiatives. PMID:20595357

  12. A systems modelling framework for the design of integrated process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a systems modelling methodology, called multilevel flow modelling, or MFM, which aims at describing complex production plants as designs, i.e. as systems having goals, functions and equipment realizing these functions. The modelling concepts are based on thermodynamics and lead to a system description in terms of multiple levels of interrelated mass or energy flow structures. The paper discusses as a basis for the modelling framework the general properties of artifacts or designs, characterizes the complexity of production systems and defines the MFM concepts which allow a consistent specification of goals and functions of these systems as generated in the process design. A modelling example is given and the application of the models for the design of plant control strategies is outlined. (author)

  13. MPOWER and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation in the South-East Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The 11 member states of WHO′s South-East Asia Region share common factors of high prevalence of tobacco use, practice of several forms of tobacco use, increasing prevalence of tobacco use among the youth and women, link of tobacco use with poverty, and influence of tobacco advertisements in propagating the use of tobacco, especially among young girls and women. The effects of tobacco use are many-fold, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates as well as loss of gross domestic product (GDP to respective countries. The WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia has been actively involved in curbing this menace essentially by way of assisting member states in implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. This paper gives an overview of these activities and discusses the opportunities and challenges in implementing the FCTC and possible practical solutions.

  14. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  15. Hydrogen bonding controlled catalysis of a porous organic framework containing benzimidazole moieties

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    A microporous organic framework (JUC-Z12) was synthesized quantitatively from tetra(4-formylphenyl)methane and 3,3′-diaminobenzidine. JUC-Z12 shows high thermal stability (>400 °C), a large surface area (SBET = 750 m2 g-1), a well-defined uniform micropore distribution (1.09 nm) and high Qst for H2 (-8.1 kJ mol-1), CO2 (-29.5 kJ mol-1), and CH 4 (-22.2 kJ mol-1). It also exhibits selective catalytic activities in the Knoevenagel reaction, which is supposed to be controlled by hydrogen bonding between substrates and JUC-Z12. The JUC-Z12 catalyst can be easily isolated from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reused with high activity. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  16. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism. PMID:25331730

  17. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of the revised clinical screening recommendations for both breast and cervical cancer on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection...

  18. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and... cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations regarding national program goals and...

  19. Comparisons of food intake between breast cancer patients and controls in Korean women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eun-Young; Hong, Yeong-Seon; Jeon, Hae-Myung; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Sung, Chung-Ja

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare food intakes between Korean breast cancer patients and a healthy control group. We compared the intake of nutrients of 117 food items between Korean breast cancer patients (n=97) and age matched healthy controls (n=97). Nutrient intake was estimated using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The mean caloric intake of breast cancer patients and healthy controls was not significantly different. Breast cancer patients consumed significantly less ...

  20. The use of quantitative methods in planning national cancer control programmes*: A WHO Meeting1

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    There is a strong need to allocate in a rational and cost-effective way the available resources for cancer control in countries. Continuation of current priorities in resource allocation can only lead to unnecessarily high incidence, morbidity and mortality from cancer. Two cancer control models for cost-effectiveness, which were developed by WHO to help Member States set priorities in national cancer control programmes, have been tested and found useful. This article discusses cost-effective...

  1. Total antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study. A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Russnes, Kjell M; Möller, Elisabeth; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Carlsen,Monica; Blomhoff, Rune; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Adami, Hans-Olov; Grönberg, Henrik; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Background The total intake of dietary antioxidants may reduce prostate cancer risk but available data are sparse and the possible role of supplements unclear. We investigated the potential association between total and dietary antioxidant intake and prostate cancer in a Swedish population. Methods We used FFQ data from 1499 cases and 1112 controls in the population based case–control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). The ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay was use...

  2. Determinants of fertility control in Taiwan: an application of the Easterlin framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M C

    1984-03-01

    The study purpose was to test and implement empirically with the 1980 Taiwan knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) data the theoretical view embodied in the synthesis framework of fertility determination formulated by Richard A. Easterlin. The analysis involves 3 types of considerations--motivation, attitudes, and access. The motivation for fertility regulation stems from concerns about the excess of potential family size over desired family size. Attitudes toward fertility regulation embrace both approval or disapproval of family planning in general and subjective considerations about appropriateness of specific practices. Access pertains to the costs in time and money resulting from the availability of birth control services and supplies. In general, fertility regulation is a function of the degree of motivation, favorableness of attitudes, and extent of access. According to the Easterlin framework, it is plausible that fertility becomes regulated when an excess family size situation exists and the disadvantages of unwanted children are greater than costs of fertility regulation, including both subjective disadvantages of regulation and the economic costs of control. Other things being equal, the larger this excess the greater is the potential burden of unwanted children and consequently the greater is a couple's motivation to limit its fertility. Multiple regression technique was used to carry out the 3 stages of analysis. The results obtained showed that the use of fertility regulation became almost universal in Taiwan in 1980. About 94% of the female population near the end of their reproductive careers had at some time used a form of deliberate fertility regulation; only the minority or 6% remained under natural fertility regulations. In general, the regulating population tended to have higher levels of natural fertility and lower infant and child mortality conditions than the natural fertility group. Regulators were slightly more aware of fertility

  3. An Automatic Framework for Assessing Breast Cancer Risk Due to Various Hormone Replacement Therapies (HRT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; brandt, sami; Nielsen, Mads

    (1998), S. Petroudi(2006), C. Tromans(2006) etc. All these findings aims at reproducing the radiologist’s categorical rating system or at segmenting the dense tissue to get percentage density score. Since ninety percent of breast cancers arise from the ductal and lobular glands we choose to investigate...

  4. An Automatic Framework for Assessing Breast Cancer Risk Due to Various Hormone Replacement Therapies (HRT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, Sami; Nielsen, Mads

    .M. Boone(1998), S. Petroudi(2006), C. Tromans(2006) etc. All of these aim at reproducing the radiologist’s categorical rating system or at segmenting the dense tissue to get percentage density score. Since ninety percent of breast cancers arise from the ductal and lobular glands we choose to investigate...

  5. Defining feasibility and pilot studies in preparation for randomised controlled trials:development of a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Eldridge, Sandra M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.; Michael J. Campbell; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L.; Bond, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of ...

  6. Android Security Framework: Enabling Generic and Extensible Access Control on Android

    OpenAIRE

    Backes, Michael; Bugiel, Sven; Gerling, Sebastian; von Styp-Rekowsky, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the Android Security Framework (ASF), a generic, extensible security framework for Android that enables the development and integration of a wide spectrum of security models in form of code-based security modules. The design of ASF reflects lessons learned from the literature on established security frameworks (such as Linux Security Modules or the BSD MAC Framework) and intertwines them with the particular requirements and challenges from the design of Android's software stack. ...

  7. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Castelló; Miguel Martín; Amparo Ruiz; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Virginia Lope; Silvia Antolín; Pedro Sánchez; Manuel Ramos; Antonio Antón; Montserrat Muñoz; Begoña Bermejo; Ana De Juan-Ferré; Carlos Jara; José I Chacón

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the W...

  8. A case-control study of asthma and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmasri, Wafic M; Tran, Therese H; Mulla, Zuber D

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found inverse associations between allergy and the development of certain tumors. The authors sought to determine if there was an association between asthma and ovarian cancer. A case-control study was conducted using Florida hospital data (year 2001). Discharge diagnoses were coded using the ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification). Cases were 1,582 women whose principal discharge diagnosis was a malignant neoplasm of the ovary. Two control series were used: 4,744 women whose principal diagnosis was an upper limb bone fracture, and 21,830 women whose principal diagnosis was an acute myocardial infarction. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, Medicaid status, obesity, and smoking were calculated. Cases were 30% less likely than fracture control to be asthmatics (adjusted OR = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.99, p = .04). Similarly, cases when compared to acute myocardial infarction controls were significantly less likely to have asthma (adjusted OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87, p = .005). The results of this statewide exploratory study suggest that individuals with asthma may have a lower risk of developing ovarian cancer than nonasthmatics. PMID:20439229

  9. Breast cancer risk associated with different HRT formulations: a register-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Thai Do; Möhner Sabine; Heinemann Lothar AJ; Dinger Juergen C; Assmann Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous epidemiological studies have inconsistently shown a modestly increased breast cancer risk associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Limited information is available about different formulations – particularly concerning different progestins. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched breast cancer cases. Conditional logistic regression analysis...

  10. Opportunity for Collaboration: A Conceptual Model of Success in Tobacco Control and Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Frances A Stillman; Schmitt, Carol L.; Rosas, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Collaborations between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs can leverage scarce resources to address noncommunicable diseases globally, but barriers to cooperation and actual collaboration are substantial. To foster collaboration between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs, the Global Health Partnership conducted research to identify similarities and differences in how the 2 programs viewed program success. Methods Using concept mapping, cancer prevention and...

  11. Simultaneous cancer control and diagnosis with magnetic nanohybrid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Coated magnetite nanoparticles were linked to 68Ga complexes used in the positron emission tomography (PET) for a new technical approach to detect cancer tissue with radiopharmaceuticals. By substitution of the Ga isotope with an alpha emitter the same compound could be used for cancer treatment. Furthermore the nanoparticles were connected to pH-sensitive complexes, enabling a pH-controlled assembly/disassembly and therefore the spreading of the particles in the tissue. With this novel method of combining detection and treatment simultaneously, the amount of medical exposure could be minimized for the patient. The results demonstrate that magnetite nanoparticles can effectively be functionalized with PET isotopes and pH sensitive complexes in order to use them as a new type of radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:26925360

  12. Guidelines for timely initiation of chemotherapy: a proposed framework for access to medical oncology and haematology cancer clinics and chemotherapy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M; Beattie-Manning, R; Blum, R; Byrne, J; Hornby, C; Kearny, C; Love, N; McGlashan, J; McKiernan, S; Milar, J L; Murray, D; Opat, S; Parente, P; Thomas, J; Tweddle, N; Underhill, C; Whitfield, K; Kirsa, S; Rischin, D

    2016-08-01

    These guidelines, informed by the best available evidence and consensus expert opinion, provide a framework to guide the timely initiation of chemotherapy for treating cancer. They sit at the intersection of patient experience, state-of-the-art disease management and rational efficient service provision for these patients at a system level. Internationally, cancer waiting times are routinely measured and publicly reported. In Australia, there are existing policies and guidelines relating to the timeliness of cancer care for surgery and radiation therapy; however, until now, equivalent guidance for chemotherapy was lacking. Timeliness of care should be informed, where available, by evidence for improved patient outcomes. Independent of this, it should be recognised that shorter waiting periods are likely to reduce patient anxiety. While these guidelines were developed as part of a proposed framework for consideration by the Victorian Department of Health, they are clinically relevant to national and international cancer services. They are intended to be used by clinical and administrative staff within cancer services. Adoption of these guidelines, which are for the timely triage, review and treatment of cancer patients receiving systemic chemotherapy, aims to ensure that patients receive care within a timeframe that will maximise health outcomes, and that access to care is consistent and equitable across cancer services. Local monitoring of performance against this guideline will enable cancer service providers to manage proactively future service demand. PMID:27553996

  13. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

  14. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  15. Unified Desktop for Monitoring & Control Applications - The Open Navigator Framework Applied for Control Centre and EGSE Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, U.

    2007-08-01

    The Open Navigator Framework (ONF) was developed to provide a unified and scalable platform for user interface integration. The main objective for the framework was to raise usability of monitoring and control consoles and to provide a reuse of software components in different application areas. ONF is currently applied for the Columbus onboard crew interface, the commanding application for the Columbus Control Centre, the Columbus user facilities specialized user interfaces, the Mission Execution Crew Assistant (MECA) study and EADS Astrium internal R&D projects. ONF provides a well documented and proven middleware for GUI components (Java plugin interface, simplified concept similar to Eclipse). The overall application configuration is performed within a graphical user interface for layout and component selection. The end-user does not have to work in the underlying XML configuration files. ONF was optimized to provide harmonized user interfaces for monitoring and command consoles. It provides many convenience functions designed together with flight controllers and onboard crew: user defined workspaces, incl. support for multi screens efficient communication mechanism between the components integrated web browsing and documentation search &viewing consistent and integrated menus and shortcuts common logging and application configuration (properties) supervision interface for remote plugin GUI access (web based) A large number of operationally proven ONF components have been developed: Command Stack & History: Release of commands and follow up the command acknowledges System Message Panel: Browse, filter and search system messages/events Unified Synoptic System: Generic synoptic display system Situational Awareness : Show overall subsystem status based on monitoring of key parameters System Model Browser: Browse mission database defintions (measurements, commands, events) Flight Procedure Executor: Execute checklist and logical flow interactive procedures Web

  16. Continuous improvement of the regulatory framework for the control of medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key elements to guide the improvement of the regulatory control is the availability of a self-assessment tool for regulatory performance. Although there is general guidance on self-assessment for regulators and users (IAEA), there is a need for more specific advice on how to address challenges and difficulties faced by regulatory bodies, when regulating radiation protection of patients. Examples of these challenges are the need for regulatory initiatives, in cooperation with health and education authorities, professional bodies and equipment suppliers, and to put in place necessary elements that are beyond responsibility of individual user of radiation, to enable them compliance with safety standards. Purpose: Within the programme of the Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety Regulatory Organizations, a project to develop such a self-assessment tool for the regulatory control of medical exposure has been designed. Method: National experiences in transposing and enforcing the international radiation safety standards, as to how the requirements are included in national regulations are reviewed. Further, difficulties to the implementation of safety requirements are analyzed and a self-assessment approach and possible regulatory solutions a are presented. Results and discussion: In this study the following documents are being produced: 1) transposition of international requirements into national regulations in the six countries of the Forum, 2) difficulties to implement and enforce the requirements, 3) guidance on self-assessment of regulatory framework for medical exposure, 4) suggested contribution to the revision of international radiation safety standards. (author)

  17. A Network Access Control Framework for 6LoWPAN Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaro F. de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power over wireless personal area networks (LoWPAN, in particular wireless sensor networks, represent an emerging technology with high potential to be employed in critical situations like security surveillance, battlefields, smart-grids, and in e-health applications. The support of security services in LoWPAN is considered a challenge. First, this type of networks is usually deployed in unattended environments, making them vulnerable to security attacks. Second, the constraints inherent to LoWPAN, such as scarce resources and limited battery capacity, impose a careful planning on how and where the security services should be deployed. Besides protecting the network from some well-known threats, it is important that security mechanisms be able to withstand attacks that have not been identified before. One way of reaching this goal is to control, at the network access level, which nodes can be attached to the network and to enforce their security compliance. This paper presents a network access security framework that can be used to control the nodes that have access to the network, based on administrative approval, and to enforce security compliance to the authorized nodes.

  18. Holistic Web-based Virtual Micro Controller Framework for Research and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Seiler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Education in the field of embedded system programming became an even more important aspect in the qualification of young engineers during the last decade. This development is accompanied by a rapidly increasing complexity of the software environments used with such devices. Therefore a qualified and solid teaching methodology is necessary, accompanied by industry driven technological innovation with an emphasis on programming. As part of three European projects regarding lifelong-learning a comprehensive blended learning concept for teaching embedded systems and robotics was developed by paper authors. It comprises basic exercises in micro controller programming up to high-level student robotic challenges. These implemented measures are supported by a distance learning environment. The programming of embedded systems and microcontroller technology has to be seen as the precursor for more complex robotic systems in this context, but with a high importance for later successfully working with the technology for further professional utilization with these technologies. Current paper introduces the most novel part; the online accessible Virtual Micro Controller Platform (VMCU and its underlying simulation framework platform. This approach conquers the major existing problems in engineering education: outdated hardware and limited lab times. This paper answers the question about advantages of using virtual hardware in an educational environment.

  19. A framework of call admission control procedures for integrated services mobile wireless networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a general framework for a wide range of call admission control (CAC) algorithms. For several CAC schemes, which are a subset of this general framework, an analytical performance evaluation is presented for a multi-traffic mobile wireless network. These CAC algorithms consider a variety of mechanisms to prioritize traffic in an attempt to support different levels of quality of service (QoS) for different types of calls. These mechanisms include dividing the handoff traffic into more than one class and using guard channels or allowing channel splitting to admit more handoff calls. Other mechanisms aimed at adding priority for handoff calls consider employing queuing of handoff calls or dynamically reducing the number lower priority calls. Furthermore our analysis relaxes the typically used assumptions of equal channel holding time and equal resource usage for voice and data calls. The main contribution of this paper is the development of an analytical model for each of the three CAC algorithms specified in this study. In addition to the call blocking and termination probabilities which are usually cited as the performance metrics, in this work we derive and evaluate other metrics that not have be considered by the previous work such as the average queue length, the average queue residency, and the time-out probability for handoff calls. We also develop a simulation tool to test and verify our results. Finally, we present numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed CAG algorithms and we show that analytical and simulation results are in total agreement. (author)

  20. Compositional control of pore geometry in multivariate metal-organic frameworks: an experimental and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Laura K; Bristow, Jessica K; Stubbs, Naomi E; Tiana, Davide; Mahon, Mary F; Walsh, Aron; Burrows, Andrew D

    2016-03-14

    A new approach is reported for tailoring the pore geometry in five series of multivariate metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) based on the structure [Zn2(bdc)2(dabco)] (bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, dabco = 1,8-diazabicyclooctane), DMOF-1. A doping procedure has been adopted to form series of MOFs containing varying linker ratios. The series under investigation are [Zn2(bdc)(2-x)(bdc-Br)x(dabco)]·nDMF 1 (bdc-Br = 2-bromo-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), [Zn2(bdc)(2-x)(bdc-I)x(dabco)]·nDMF 2 (bdc-I = 2-iodo-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), [Zn2(bdc)(2-x)(bdc-NO2)x(dabco)]·nDMF 3 (bdc-NO2 = 2-nitro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate), [Zn2(bdc)(2-x)(bdc-NH2)x(dabco)]·nDMF 4 (bdc-NH2 = 2-amino-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) and [Zn2(bdc-Br)(2-x)(bdc-I)x(dabco)]·nDMF 5. Series 1-3 demonstrate a functionality-dependent pore geometry transition from the square, open pores of DMOF-1 to rhomboidal, narrow pores with increasing proportion of the 2-substituted bdc linker, with the rhomboidal-pore MOFs also showing a temperature-dependent phase change. In contrast, all members of series 4 and 5 have uniform pore geometries. In series 4 this is a square pore topology, whilst series 5 exhibits the rhomboidal pore form. Computational analyses reveal that the pore size and shape in systems 1 and 2 is altered through non-covalent interactions between the organic linkers within the framework, and that this can be controlled by the ligand functionality and ratio. This approach affords the potential to tailor pore geometry and shape within MOFs through judicious choice of ligand ratios. PMID:26660286

  1. Control of Process Operations and Monitoring of Product Qualities through Generic Model-based Framework in Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin

    A generic and systematic model-based framework for the design of a process monitoring and control system to achieve the desired crystal size distribution (CSD) and crystal shape for a wide range of crystallization processes has been developed. This framework combines a generic multi-dimensional m......A generic and systematic model-based framework for the design of a process monitoring and control system to achieve the desired crystal size distribution (CSD) and crystal shape for a wide range of crystallization processes has been developed. This framework combines a generic multi...... generate the necessary problem-system specific model, the necessary set point using the extended analytical CSD estimator and the response surface method (RSM) and a PAT system design including implementation of monitoring tools and control strategies in order to produce a desired product with its...... twodimensional description; b) the systematic framework is used in a case study to design a monitoring and control (PAT) system for a potassium dichromate and KDP crystallization processes to achieve the desired target CSD respectively; and c) Based on the PAT system design in b), the application of uncertainty...

  2. Change of mammographic density predicts the risk of contralateral breast cancer - a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Maria EC; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Hartman, Mikael; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Humphreys, Keith; Czene, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but it is unknown whether density at first breast cancer diagnosis and changes during follow-up influences risk of non-simultaneous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Methods We collected mammograms for CBC-patients (cases, N = 211) and unilateral breast cancer patients (controls, N = 211), individually matched on age and calendar period of first breast cancer diagnosis, type of adjuvant therapy and length of follow-...

  3. Dietary Screener Questionnaire in the National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement 2010: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) Cancer Control Supplement (CCS) is administered every five years and focuses on knowledge, attitudes, and practices in cancer-related health behaviors, screening, and risk assessment.

  4. Application of the health literacy framework to diet-related cancer prevention conversations of older immigrant women to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, M D; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2012-03-01

    Health literacy, conceptualized as a framework involving basic (functional), interactive and critical skill sets, is a key determinant of health. Application of the health literacy framework (HLF) to immigrant populations has been limited. Our objective was to apply the HLF to discourses about diet-related colon cancer prevention among English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) immigrant women. We also explored whether these discussions could inform the development of culturally appropriate information and potentially increase health literacy. Interviews were conducted with 64 older Spanish-speaking ESL immigrant women. Directed content analysis guided by the HLF was used to identify themes. Diet-related conversations were initiated by 43 (67%) participants. Four themes were identified: general information requests-low functional health literacy (FHL) (n = 23/43), specific nutrition inquiries-high FHL (n = 17/43), actions for healthy eating-low interactive health literacy (IHL) (n = 8/43) and community communication issues-high IHL (n = 3/43). No conversations representing critical health literacy were identified. Five women discussed both FHL and IHL themes. Women's diet-related conversations followed a continuum of increasing information needs supporting the HLF. PMID:21421578

  5. MstApp, a rich client control applications framework at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control systems for PETRA 3 (a dedicated synchrotron machine) and its pre-accelerators extensively use rich clients for the control room and the servers. Most of them are written with the help of a rich client Java framework: MstApp. They totalize 106 different consoles and 158 individual server applications. MstApp takes care of many common control system application aspects beyond communication. MstApp provides a common look and feel: core menu items, a colour scheme for standard states of hardware components and predefined standardized screen sizes/locations. It interfaces our console application manager (CAM) and displays on demand our communication link diagnostics tools. MstApp supplies an accelerator context for each application; it handles printing, logging, re-sizing and unexpected application crashes. Due to our standardized deploy process MstApp applications know their individual developers and can even send them - on button press of the users - E-mails. Further a concept of different operation modes is implemented: view only, operating and expert use. Administration of the corresponding rights is done via web access of a database server. Initialization files on a web server are instantiated as JAVA objects with the help of the Java SE XML-Decoder. Data tables are read with the same mechanism. New MstApp applications can easily be created with in house wizards like the NewProjectWizard or the DeviceServerWizard. MstApp improves the operator experience, application developer productivity and delivered software quality. (authors)

  6. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J. G.; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  7. Cancer clustering around point sources of pollution: assessment by a case-control methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case-control method is proposed to test clustering of cancers near point sources of air pollution. The techniques for applying the method are described and applied to two sources of pollution: a coke oven associated with a steel mill, and a large uranium tailing dump. In neither situation was a significant excess of the cancer of interest found when compared to control cancers, though a slight excess of lung cancer was found near the coke ovens

  8. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  9. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition. PMID:24132542

  10. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  11. Estimating and modelling cure in population-based cancer studies within the framework of flexible parametric survival models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloranta Sandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When the mortality among a cancer patient group returns to the same level as in the general population, that is, the patients no longer experience excess mortality, the patients still alive are considered "statistically cured". Cure models can be used to estimate the cure proportion as well as the survival function of the "uncured". One limitation of parametric cure models is that the functional form of the survival of the "uncured" has to be specified. It can sometimes be hard to find a survival function flexible enough to fit the observed data, for example, when there is high excess hazard within a few months from diagnosis, which is common among older age groups. This has led to the exclusion of older age groups in population-based cancer studies using cure models. Methods Here we have extended the flexible parametric survival model to incorporate cure as a special case to estimate the cure proportion and the survival of the "uncured". Flexible parametric survival models use splines to model the underlying hazard function, and therefore no parametric distribution has to be specified. Results We have compared the fit from standard cure models to our flexible cure model, using data on colon cancer patients in Finland. This new method gives similar results to a standard cure model, when it is reliable, and better fit when the standard cure model gives biased estimates. Conclusions Cure models within the framework of flexible parametric models enables cure modelling when standard models give biased estimates. These flexible cure models enable inclusion of older age groups and can give stage-specific estimates, which is not always possible from parametric cure models.

  12. Strategies for cancer control on an organ-site basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of research information has been generated regarding cancer incidence rates and underlying risk factors. Since incidence:mortality ratios are generally less than 2:1 and often approach equivalence there clearly is a need for particular emphasis on preventive measures and early detection. Whether the latter should be through screening or education for improved awareness will depend on the socioeconomic conditions and the organ site. The location within the body, physiological factors and the cell type, whether essentially glandular or squamous, and the particular risk and protective factors operating in the particular social context will all impact on what measures can be recommended. Here the focus is on primary and secondary prevention of cancers in the various regions of Asia, taking into account similarities and differences in etiology for organs/tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the urinary system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the thyroid and non-Hogkins lymphomas and leukemias. Globocan 2002 data on incidence and mortality and all of the findings reviewed in the Regional Reviews were taken into account in compiling this overview. The chief recommendations are education in the developing world, to overcome the problem of late presentation at hospital (reflected by high mortality/incidence ratios), betel and tobacco control for the oral cavity and pharynx, reduce salt intake and targeting of Helicobacter pylori for the stomach, reduction in food intake, improvement in the diet and more exercise for the colorectum, kidney, prostate, breast, ovary and endometrium, reduction in smoking and exposure to other fumes for the lung, increase in water intake, particularly for the urinary bladder, and avoidance of parasites for the special cases of the urinary bladder and intrahepatic bile ducts. The cancer registry could be a major resource for development of further research capacity, with selection of suitable

  13. A Universal Communication Framework and Navigation Control Software for Mobile Prototyping Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Mitschele-Thiel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In our contribution we would like to describe two new aspects of our low-cost mobile prototyping platform concept: a new hardware communication framework as well as new software features for navigation and control of our mobile platform. The paper is an extension of the ideas proposed in REV2009 [1] and is based on the therein used hardware platform and the monitoring and management software. This platform is based on the Quadrocopter concept – autonomous flying helicopter-style robots – and includes additional off-the-shelf parts. This leads to a universal mobile prototyping platform for communication tasks providing both mobile phone and WiFi access. However, the platform can provide these functions far more quickly than a technician on the ground might be able to. We will show that with our concept we can easily adapt the platform to the individual needs of the user, which leads to a very flexible and semi-autonomous system.

  14. A Unified Point Process Probabilistic Framework to Assess Heartbeat Dynamics and Autonomic Cardiovascular Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eChen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, time-varying inhomogeneous point process models have been introduced for assessment of instantaneous heartbeat dynamics as well as specific cardiovascular control mechanisms and hemodynamics. Assessment of the model's statistics is established through the Wiener-Volterra theory and a multivariate autoregressive (AR structure. A variety of instantaneous cardiovascular metrics, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, and baroreceptor-cardiac reflex (baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, are derived within a parametric framework and instantaneously updated with adaptive and local maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Inclusion of second order nonlinearities, with subsequent bispectral quantification in the frequency domain, further allows for definition of instantaneous metrics of nonlinearity. We here organize a comprehensive review of the devised methods as applied to experimental recordings from healthy subjects during propofol anesthesia. Collective results reveal interesting dynamic trends across the different pharmacological interventions operated within each anesthesia session, confirming the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory elicited interactions, and pointing at our mathematical approach as a promising monitoring tool for an accurate, noninvasive assessment in clinical practice.

  15. Global Health Governance: Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC, the Doha Declaration, and Democratisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne de Leeuw

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global public health agreements are heralded as a success for the affirmation of the right to health within a complex and contested political landscape. However, the practical implementation of such agreements at the national level is often overlooked. This article outlines two radically different global health agreements: The Doha Declaration on the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS agreement and Public Health; and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. We identify significant challenges in their implementation, particularly for low and middle income countries. Shifts in the policy network constellations around these two agreements have allowed for some positive influence by civil society. Yet industry influence at the national level constrains effective implementation and those affected by these policies have largely been left on the periphery. The broader provisions of these two agreements have been watered down by vested interests and donor conditions. We advocate for both activist and academic actors to play a significant role in highlighting the consequences of these power asymmetries. Deliberative democracy may be the key to addressing these challenges in a way that empowers those presently excluded from effective participation in the policy process.

  16. Planetary micro-rover operations on Mars using a Bayesian framework for inference and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Mark A.; Li, Junquan; Quine, Brendan M.

    2016-03-01

    With the recent progress toward the application of commercially-available hardware to small-scale space missions, it is now becoming feasible for groups of small, efficient robots based on low-power embedded hardware to perform simple tasks on other planets in the place of large-scale, heavy and expensive robots. In this paper, we describe design and programming of the Beaver micro-rover developed for Northern Light, a Canadian initiative to send a small lander and rover to Mars to study the Martian surface and subsurface. For a small, hardware-limited rover to handle an uncertain and mostly unknown environment without constant management by human operators, we use a Bayesian network of discrete random variables as an abstraction of expert knowledge about the rover and its environment, and inference operations for control. A framework for efficient construction and inference into a Bayesian network using only the C language and fixed-point mathematics on embedded hardware has been developed for the Beaver to make intelligent decisions with minimal sensor data. We study the performance of the Beaver as it probabilistically maps a simple outdoor environment with sensor models that include uncertainty. Results indicate that the Beaver and other small and simple robotic platforms can make use of a Bayesian network to make intelligent decisions in uncertain planetary environments.

  17. A Unified Pricing of Variable Annuity Guarantees under the Optimal Stochastic Control Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review pricing of the variable annuity living and death guarantees offered to retail investors in many countries. Investors purchase these products to take advantage of market growth and protect savings. We present pricing of these products via an optimal stochastic control framework and review the existing numerical methods. We also discuss pricing under the complete/incomplete financial market models, stochastic mortality and optimal/sub-optimal policyholder behavior, and in the presence of taxes. For numerical valuation of these contracts in the case of simple risky asset process, we develop a direct integration method based on the Gauss-Hermite quadratures with a one-dimensional cubic spline for calculation of the expected contract value, and a bi-cubic spline interpolation for applying the jump conditions across the contract cashflow event times. This method is easier to implement and faster when compared to the partial differential equation methods if the transition density (or its moments of the risky asset underlying the contract is known in closed form between the event times. We present accurate numerical results for pricing of a Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefit (GMAB guarantee available on the market that can serve as a numerical benchmark for practitioners and researchers developing pricing of variable annuity guarantees to assess the accuracy of their numerical implementation.

  18. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann;

    2013-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil......Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  19. Spatially-Distributed Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Framework to Control Phosphorus from Agricultural Diffuse Pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhe Geng

    Full Text Available Best management practices (BMPs for agricultural diffuse pollution control are implemented at the field or small-watershed scale. However, the benefits of BMP implementation on receiving water quality at multiple spatial is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach that combines risk assessment (i.e., Phosphorus (P index, model simulation techniques (Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN, and a BMP placement tool at various scales to identify the optimal location for implementing multiple BMPs and estimate BMP effectiveness after implementation. A statistically significant decrease in nutrient discharge from watersheds is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs, strategically targeted within watersheds. Specifically, we estimate two types of cost-effectiveness curves (total pollution reduction and proportion of watersheds improved for four allocation approaches. Selection of a ''best approach" depends on the relative importance of the two types of effectiveness, which involves a value judgment based on the random/aggregated degree of BMP distribution among and within sub-watersheds. A statistical optimization framework is developed and evaluated in Chaohe River Watershed located in the northern mountain area of Beijing. Results show that BMP implementation significantly (p >0.001 decrease P loss from the watershed. Remedial strategies where BMPs were targeted to areas of high risk of P loss, deceased P loads compared with strategies where BMPs were randomly located across watersheds. Sensitivity analysis indicated that aggregated BMP placement in particular watershed is the most cost-effective scenario to decrease P loss. The optimization approach outlined in this paper is a spatially hierarchical method for targeting nonpoint source controls across a range of scales from field to farm, to watersheds, to regions. Further, model estimates showed targeting at multiple scales is necessary to optimize program

  20. Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parri Matteo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. A common theme of these processes is a dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton which has now emerged as a major switch control mainly carried out by Rho and Rac GTPase subfamilies, playing an acknowledged role in adaptation of cell motility to the microenvironment. Cells exhibit three distinct modes of migration when invading the 3 D environment. Collective motility leads to movement of cohorts of cells which maintain the adherens junctions and move by photolytic degradation of matrix barriers. Single cell mesenchymal-type movement is characterized by an elongated cellular shape and again requires extracellular proteolysis and integrin engagement. In addition it depends on Rac1-mediated cell polarization and lamellipodia formation. Conversely, in amoeboid movement cells have a rounded morphology, the movement is independent from proteases but requires high Rho GTPase to drive elevated levels of actomyosin contractility. These two modes of cell movement are interconvertible and several moving cells, including tumor cells, show an high degree of plasticity in motility styles shifting ad hoc between mesenchymal or amoeboid movements. This review will focus on the role of Rac and Rho small GTPases in cell motility and in the complex relationship driving the reciprocal control between Rac and Rho granting for the opportunistic motile behaviour of aggressive cancer cells. In addition we analyse the role of these GTPases in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination.

  1. Effect of pamidronate on pain control in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: One of the common complaints in advanced breast cancer is pain. This is due to osseous metastasis. Analgesics, along with chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, are the mainstay of treatment. Multifocal bone disease that is refractory to above routine treatments can benefit from a series of agents like Pamidronate. Design: Prospective comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out from February 1998 to January 2001 in the Department of Radiotherapy / Oncology, Services Hospital, Lahore. Subjects and Methods: Sixty patients suffering from metastatic breast cancer (mainly to bones) initially treated with chemotherapy or hormonal therapy and analgesics were treated with 60-90 mg of injection Pamidronate by 4-hour intravenous infusion once a month for three or more months. The intensity of pain was assessed by the memorial symptom assessment scale and marked on the pain control performa according to frequency of pain, severity of pain or interference in daily activities due to pain at the start and after six months time of inclusion in the study. Difference in frequency of pain, severity or interference in daily routine was measured for each patient individually. Results: Marked pain relief was reported by 60% of patients who were additionally taking Pamidronate as compared to 43.3% patients who were not taking Pamidronate. Reduction in pain and analgesic demand is noted more in chemotherapy group with Pamidronate as compared to hormonal therapy group. Conclusion: Pamidronate can be additionally used in resistant cases for pain control. (author)

  2. Design of an eye-in-hand sensing and servo control framework for harvesting robotics in dense vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, Ruud; Hemming, Jochen; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    A modular software framework design that allows flexible implementation of eye-in-hand sensing and motion control for agricultural robotics in dense vegetation is reported. Harvesting robots in cultivars with dense vegetation require multiple viewpoints and on-line trajectory adjustments in order

  3. Patterns of Control over the Teaching-Studying-Learning Process and Classrooms as Complex Dynamic Environments: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical paper the role of power in classroom interactions is examined in terms of a dominance continuum to advance a theoretical framework justifying the emergence of three ways of distributing power when it comes to dealing with the control over the teaching-studying-learning (TSL) "pattern of teacher domination," "pattern of…

  4. SCTE: An open-source Perl framework for testing equipment control and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaço-Guidolin, Luiz C.; Frigori, Rafael B.; Ruchko, Leonid; Galvão, Ricardo M. O.

    2012-07-01

    SCTE intends to provide a simple, yet powerful, framework for building data acquisition and equipment control systems for experimental Physics, and correlated areas. Via its SCTE::Instrument module, RS-232, USB, and LAN buses are supported, and the intricacies of hardware communication are encapsulated underneath an object oriented abstraction layer. Written in Perl, and using the SCPI protocol, enabled instruments can be easily programmed to perform a wide variety of tasks. While this work presents general aspects of the development of data acquisition systems using the SCTE framework, it is illustrated by particular applications designed for the calibration of several in-house developed devices for power measurement in the tokamak TCABR Alfvén Waves Excitement System. Catalogue identifier: AELZ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELZ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License Version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 811 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 743 709 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Perl version 5.10.0 or higher. Computer: PC. SCPI capable digital oscilloscope, with RS-232, USB, or LAN communication ports, null modem, USB, or Ethernet cables Operating system: GNU/Linux (2.6.28-11), should also work on any Unix-based operational system Classification: 4.14 External routines: Perl modules: Device::SerialPort, Term::ANSIColor, Math::GSL, Net::HTTP. Gnuplot 4.0 or higher Nature of problem: Automation of experiments and data acquisition often requires expensive equipment and in-house development of software applications. Nowadays personal computers and test equipment come with fast and easy-to-use communication ports. Instrument vendors often supply application programs capable of controlling such devices, but are very restricted in terms of

  5. Personal control after a breast cancer diagnosis : stability and adaptive value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, Inge; Sanderman, Robbert; Baas, Peter C.; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study aims to gain more insight in both the changes in personal control due to a breast cancer diagnosis, as well as in the stress-buffering effect of personal control. Methods: Personal control and distress were assessed in breast cancer patients not treated with chemot

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Cancer Care: A Review of Controlled Clinical Studies Published in Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Yang, Guoyan; Li, Xinxue; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jingli; Chang, Jiu; Sun, Xiaoxuan; Zhou, Xiaoyun; Guo, Yu; Xu, Yue; Liu, Jianping; Bensoussan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied for cancer care in China. There have been a large number of controlled clinical studies published in Chinese literature, yet no systematic searching and analysis has been done. This study summarizes the current evidence of controlled clinical studies of TCM for cancer. Methods We searched all the controlled clinical studies of TCM therapies for all kinds of cancers published in Chinese in four main Chinese electronic databa...

  7. Dietary Calcium and Risk for Prostate Cancer: A Case-Control Study Among US Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Christina D.; Whitley, Brian M.; Hoyo, Cathrine; Grant, Delores J.; Schwartz, Gary G; Presti, Joseph C.; Iraggi, Jared D.; Newman, Kathryn A.; Gerber, Leah; Taylor, Loretta A.; McKeever, Madeline G.; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the association between calcium intake and prostate cancer risk. We hypothesized that calcium intake would be positively associated with lower risk for prostate cancer. Methods We used data from a case-control study conducted among veterans between 2007 and 2010 at the Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The study consisted of 108 biopsy-positive prostate cancer cases, 161 biopsy-negative controls, and 237 healthy controls. We also d...

  8. A Complete Review of Controlling the FDR in a Multiple Comparison Problem Framework -- The Benjamini-Hochberg Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Anish

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of the popular Benjamini Hochberg Method and other related useful methods of Multiple Hypothesis testing. This is written with the purpose of serving a short but complete easy to understand review of the main article with proper background. The paper titled 'Controlling the False Discovery Rate-a practical and powerful Approach to multiple Testing' by benjamini et. al.[1] proposes a new framework of controlling the False Discovery Rate in a Multiple Hypothesis testing p...

  9. Competitive forces and the levers of control framework in a manufacturing setting: A tale of a multinational subsidiary

    OpenAIRE

    Zahirul Hoque; Maybelle Chia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to explore how the strategic change following a corporate takeover impacted the nature and extent of use of the firm's management control systems (MCS), in particular its performance measurement system (PMS). Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses Michael Porter's theory of competitive advantage and Robert Simons' levers of control framework to illustrate and interpret changes in the PMS within an Australian multinational subsidiary following it...

  10. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Tovar-Guzmán

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  11. Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Guzmán Víctor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause. RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35; early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00; old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98 and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79. In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70. CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature, in the population of Mexican women. Breastfeeding appears to play an important role in protecting women from BC. Because of changes in women`s lifestyles, lactation is decreasing in Mexico, and young women tend not to breastfeed or to shorten the duration of lactation.

  12. Nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for combined photodynamic & radiation therapy in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Yang, Yu; Zhu, Wenwen; Yi, Xuan; Dong, Ziliang; Xu, Xiaona; Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Kai; Lu, Guang; Jiang, Lixin; Liu, Zhuang

    2016-08-01

    Nanoscale metal organic frameworks (NMOFs) have shown great potential in biomedicine owing to their structural/chemical diversities, high molecular loading capacities, and intrinsic biodegradability. Herein, we report the rational design of a NMOF composed by hafnium (Hf(4+)) and tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP). In such Hf-TCPP NMOFs, while TCPP is a photosensitizer to allow photodynamic therapy (PDT), Hf(4+) with strong X-ray attenuation ability could serve as a radio-sensitizer to enhance radiotherapy (RT). Those NMOFs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating show efficient tumor homing upon intravenous injection, and thus could be used for in vivo combined RT & PDT, achieving a remarkable anti-tumor effect. Importantly, Hf-TCPP NMOFs show efficient clearance from the mouse body, minimizing concerns regarding their possible long-term toxicity. Our work thus presents a new concept of developing multifunctional NMOFs as a biodegradable carrier-free system, in which both metal ions and organic ligands are fully utilized to exert their therapeutic functions. PMID:27155362

  13. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether

  14. Body image in cancer survivors : a systematic review of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2015-01-01

    There is common consensus that cancer and its treatment can impair the body, but combined evidence of the previous literature in cancer survivors is missing. Therefore, we reviewed body image in cancer survivors and focused on case-control studies, in order to draw conclusions as to whether body ima

  15. Indicators Developed to Evaluate the International Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Iran; A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop indicators for evaluating the implementation of The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in Iran. We used the “grounded theory” framework. Totally, 265 policy-makers, stakeholders, and community members were recruited by purposeful sampling in 2008. After analyzing the gathered data, 251 indicators, including 82 indicators as “applied indicators”, were derived from second-level codes for three groups. A suitable evaluation questionnaire can be designed based on the extracted indicators for policy makers, stakeholders, and the community to follow the implementation of the FCTC in Iran.

  16. Conceptual framework for analysing farm-specific economic effects of helminth infections in ruminants and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Mariska; Charlier, Johannes; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vercruysse, Jozef; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Van Meensel, Jef

    2013-05-01

    Helminth infections are considered to be an important constraint on livestock productivity worldwide. The economic impact of these infections or their control strategies has traditionally been assessed by their effect on animal performance indicators or traditional economic calculation methods (e.g. budgeting and cost-benefit analysis). Because the impact of helminth infections has become more subtle and is farm-specific, one needs more refined economic evaluations of actions meant to increase or maintain the health of livestock on individual farms. This paper proposes an interdisciplinary framework that combines the developments in the veterinary control of helminth infections with economic performance measurements to identify farm-specific and profitable anthelmintic management decisions. Our framework positions individual farms' performance against performance benchmarks and is based on the farms' efficiency in transforming input(s) into output(s). We show how this positioning makes it possible to establish a linkage between input and output transformation, helminth infection levels and effects of control strategies. Furthermore, the framework allows for the identification of improvement paths that are not necessarily related to the helminth infection, but which may lead to other management improvements. We discuss the epidemiological information required and which complementary methods (e.g. efficiency analysis and budgeting techniques) can be used to make the framework operational. PMID:23219140

  17. Environmental and occupational cancer in Argentina: a case-control lung cancer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matos Elena

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the risks for lung cancer associated with occupational exposures in a developing country where lung cancer is the first cause of mortality from cancer in men. The study involved 200 men with lung cancer and 397 hospital controls. The OR for current smokers was 8.5, whereas former smokers displayed an OR of 5.3. The fraction attributable to smoking was 85%. Statistically significant high ORs were observed for employment in the alcoholic beverages industry (4.5, 95% CI:1.02-20.2, sawmills and wood mills (4.6, 95% CI:1.1-18.4, chemicals/plastics (1.8, 95% CI:1.04-3.2, and pottery, glass, or mineral manufactures (3.4, 95% CI:1.1-10.6. Other high, but not statistically significant, risks were observed for employment in leather shoe industry and repair (2.1, 95% CI:0.8-5.4, rubber industries (3.4, 95% CI:0.9-12.4, metal workers, including welders (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.4, motor vehicle mechanics (2.0, 95% CI:0.9-4.2, workers in cleaning services (1.9, 95% CI:0.8-4.5, and for workers in agriculture (2.4, 95% CI:0.9-6.0. Although some of the present results may be due to chance, most are consistent with those of previous investigations in other countries.

  18. Forecasting Model of Risk of Cancer in Lung Cancer Pedigree in a Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan LIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Annual lung screening using spiral computed tomography (CT, has a high sensitivity of detecting early lung cancer (LC, but its high rates of false-positive often lead to unnecessary surgery. The aim of this study is to create a forecasting model of high risk individuals to lung cancer. Methods The pathologic diagnoses of LC in Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute were consecutively chosen as the probands. All the members of the first-degree relatives of probands' and their spouses' were enrolled in this study. These pedigrees consisted of 633 probands' pedigrees and 565 spouses' pedigrees. Unless otherwise stated, analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 statistical software package. Results Compared with the control, a family history of carcinoma in first-degree relatives was significantly associated with LC risk (OR=1.71, P<0.001, the sub-group of either one infected individual or more than two infected individuals in first-degree relatives showed significantly statistical differences (P=0.005, P=0.002. In the forecasting model, the risk compared to that in Chinese population was from 0.38 to 63.08 folds. In the population whose risk was more than 10 times to the Chinese population, the accuracy rate of prediction was 88.1%. Conclusion A family history of carcinoma in first-degree relatives was significantly associated with increased LC risk. The more infected individuals exist in first-degree relatives, the more risk was showed. In the forecasting model, smokers especially heavy ones whose risk were more than 10 times to the Chinese population should be receive annual screening. The population are positive at least any two conditions which including male, lung disease history, occupation expose and history of cancer in first-degree relative.

  19. ASPEN: A Framework for Automated Planning and Scheduling of Spacecraft Control and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, David; Fukunaga, Alex S.; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we describe ASPEN (Automated Planning/Scheduling Environment), a modular, reconfigurable application framework which is capable of supporting a wide variety of planning and scheduling applications.

  20. An ongoing case–control study to evaluate the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Massat, Nathalie J; Sasieni, Peter D; Parmar, Dharmishta; Duffy, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death in both males and females in England. A national bowel cancer screening programme was rolled out in England between 2006 and 2010. In the post-randomised controlled trials epoch, assessment of the impact of the programme using observational studies is needed. This study protocol was set up at the request of the UK Policy Research Unit in Cancer Awareness, Screening and Early Diagnosis to evaluate the effect of the cur...

  1. Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer in Tehran Province: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Akram; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Fereidooni, Foroozandeh

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer. Methods This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tehran city of Iran. A total of 71 patients (35 men and 36 women, aged 40...

  2. Association of the California tobacco control program with declines in lung cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Barnoya, J; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The California tobacco control program enacted in 1988 has been associated with declines in smoking and heart disease mortality. Since smoking also causes lung cancer, we investigated whether the program was associated with a decline in lung and other cancer incidence. Methods: Age-adjusted incidence rates of lung and bladder cancer (which are caused by smoking) and prostate and brain cancer (which are not) in the San Francisco-Oakland (SFO) Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (S...

  3. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  4. Reproductive factors related to the risk of colorectal cancer by subsite: a case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, K-Y; Tajima, K.; M. Inoue; Takezaki, T.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, N; Park, S.K.; Kang, D. H.; Kato, T; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that reproductive factors of colorectal cancer, which are probably mediated by endogenous hormones, would differ according to colonic subsite. Information on reproductive factors was obtained from 372 female colorectal cancer cases (113 proximal colon, 126 distal colon, 133 rectum) and 31 061 cancer-free controls at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Japan, between 1988 and 1995. Multiple logistic analysis showed that late age at interview, family history of colorectal...

  5. Efficacy of an educational material on second primary cancer screening practice for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer surivors have limited knowledge about second primary cancer (SPC screening and suboptimal rates of completion of screening practices for SPC. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an educational material on the knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices for SPC among cancer survivors. METHODS: Randomized, controlled trial among 326 cancer survivors from 6 oncology care outpatient clinics in Korea. Patients were randomized to an intervention or an attention control group. The intervention was a photo-novel, culturally tailored to increase knowledge about SPC screening. Knowledge and attitudes regarding SPC screening were assessed two weeks after the intervention, and screening practices were assessed after one year. RESULTS: At two weeks post-intervention, the average knowledge score was significantly higher in the intervention compared to the control group (0.81 vs. 0.75, P<0.01, with no significant difference in their attitude scores (2.64 vs. 2.57, P = 0.18. After 1 year of follow-up, the completion rate of all appropriate cancer screening was 47.2% in both intervention and control groups. CONCLUSION: While the educational material was effective for increasing knowledge of SPC screening, it did not promote cancer screening practice among cancer survivors. More effective interventions are needed to increase SPC screening rates in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00948337.

  6. Controlled clinical trial in the advanced primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a controlled clinical trial in the treatment of advanced primary lung cancer are presented. There were 39 patients who entered the present study that was conducted at the Thoracic Surgery Departament of the A.C. Camargo Hospital of the Antonio Prudente Foundation of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The patients were divided in two groups 1) - Radiotherapy with Cobalt 60 plus Chemotherapy. 2) - Chemotherapy only. The radiotherapy was provided by the split dose technic (6.000 rads in 3 cycles of 2.000 rads each). The chemotherapy consisted of the following drugs (5 FU, Metil hidrazina, Methotrexate, Actinomycin D, Oncovin, Cytoxan) administered in 16 cycles, aiming the synchronous funtional blockade. There was no statistically significant difference in survival of the two groups, ie, the first with 19,3 weeks and the second group with 14,6 weeks. (Author)

  7. A Case-Control Study of Oral Contraceptive Use and Incident Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Strom, Brian L; Palmer, Julie R

    2008-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer, largely on the basis of studies conducted before 1990. In the Case-Control Surveillance Study, a US hospital-based case-control study of medication use and cancer, the authors assessed the relation of OC use to breast cancer risk among 907 case women with incident invasive breast cancer (731 white, 176 black) and 1,711 controls (1,152 white, 559 black) interviewed from 1993 to 2007. They evaluated whether the asso...

  8. Costa Rica’s implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control. PMID:26879509

  9. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison Howard; Gibbons Laurie; Zhou Jia; Pan Sai Yi; Wen Shi Wu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal) and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk fact...

  10. Probiotic Beverage with Soy Isoflavone Consumption for Breast Cancer Prevention: A Case-control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Hirota, Saya; Tomotaki, Ai; Sato, Nobuaki; Hozumi, Yasuo; Anan, Keisei; Nagashima, Takeshi; Tokuda, Yutaka; Masuda, Norikazu; Ohsumi, Shozo; Ohno, Shinji; Takahashi, Masato; Hayashi, Hironori; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Ohashi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate how beverages containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (BLS) and soy isoflavone consumption since adolescence affected the incidence of breast cancer. In a population-based case-control study, three hundred and six cases with breast cancer and 662 controls aged 40 to 55 were matched for age and residential area and included in the analyses. Diet, lifestyle and other breast cancer risk factors were investigated using the self-administered questionnaire an...

  11. Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, C.; Beral, V; Maconochie, N.; P. Fraser; Davies, G.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between risk of prostatic cancer and occupational exposures, especially to radionuclides, in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. DESIGN--Case-control study of men with prostatic cancer and matched controls. Information about sociodemographic factors and exposures to radionuclides and other substances was abstracted and classified for each subject from United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority records without knowledge of who had cancer....

  12. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga E.; Rexha T.; Çeliku S.; Mariani E.

    2013-01-01

    In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal group...

  13. A case–control study of reproductive factors, female hormone use, and risk of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Palmer, Julie R; Strom, Brian L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Findings from several previous studies that have assessed the relation of reproductive factors and female hormone use to the risk of pancreatic cancer are inconclusive. The authors examined the association between reproductive factors and the use of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone therapy to the risk of pancreatic cancer among 284 patients with pancreatic cancer and 1,096 controls using data from the hospital-based Case–Control Surveillance Study. Older age at first pregnancy a...

  14. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  15. Epidemiology of Oral Cavity Cancers in a Country Located in the Esophageal Cancer Belt: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Saedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As one of the most common cancers among head and neck malignancies, cancer of the oral cavity probably has some variations in countries with a high prevalence of esophageal cancer.  Materials and Methods: Patients with oral cavity cancer who were treated at two tertiary referral centers from January 1999 to January 2009 were included in this study. In addition to demographic data, information regarding personal and family history of head and neck cancer, use of dentures, presence of immune deficiency, consumption of alcohol, and incidence of cigarette smoking was collected. Additionally, a history of opium usage was obtained from the participants in this study. Moreover, an appropriately matched control group was selected for comparisons between the risk factors.   Results: A total of 557 patients were entered into this study over a 10-year period, of whom 219 (39.3% were female and the remaining 338 (60.7% were male. The tongue was the most common site of cancer and 9% of the patients had a history of opium abuse, but more than half of the patients did not have any recognized risk factors. The incidence and stage of cancer had a significant relationship with cigarette smoking (P= 0.013.   Conclusion: Tongue cancer in non-smokers is the predominant pattern of oral cavity cancer in Iran.

  16. An open-source and cross-platform framework for Brain Computer Interface-guided robotic arm control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubben, Pieter L; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have focused on several areas, of which motor substitution has received particular interest. Whereas open-source BCI software is available to facilitate cost-effective collaboration between research groups, it mainly focuses on communication and computer control. We developed an open-source and cross-platform framework, which works with cost-effective equipment that allows researchers to enter the field of BCI-based motor substitution without major investments upfront. It is based on the C++ programming language and the Qt framework, and offers a separate class for custom MATLAB/Simulink scripts. It has been tested using a 14-channel wireless electroencephalography (EEG) device and a low-cost robotic arm that offers 5° of freedom. The software contains four modules to control the robotic arm, one of which receives input from the EEG device. Strengths, current limitations, and future developments will be discussed. PMID:23372966

  17. Intensive glucose control and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansdottir, G; Zoungas, S; Chalmers, J;

    2011-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. This study examines the effect of more vs less intensive glucose control on the risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: All 11,140 participants from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease......: Preterax and Diamicron-MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00145925) were studied. Cancer incidence and cancer mortality was compared in groups randomised to intensive or standard glucose control. Information on events during follow-up was obtained from serious adverse event...... death) [corrected].Across all the major organ systems studied, no significant differences in the cancer incidences were observed in the intensive and standard control groups. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATIONS: More intensive glucose control achieved with a regimen that included greater use of gliclazide...

  18. Cancer control in the Asia Pacific region--the next lap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, P B

    1996-02-01

    Cancer control in any part of the world has to be a multi-directional effort addressed in a holistic manner. The general impression that cancer control means only collation of epidemiological data and efforts at primary prevention needs to be redefined because preventive and educative oncology, though an important component of cancer control, can achieve long-term goals only after 20 years or more. Along with such long-term objectives, methodology needs to be developed which takes care of immediate and recent needs in early diagnosis, effective treatment, and appropriate basic research for the ultimate control and cure of cancer. A holistic approach to the cancer control effort will, therefore, need the combined skills of many different specialists. PMID:8979633

  19. A novel conceptual framework for balance training in Parkinson’s disease-study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Conradsson David; Löfgren Niklas; Ståhle Agneta; Hagströmer Maria; Franzén Erika

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There is increasing scientific knowledge about the interaction between physiological (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cognitive and sensory) systems and their influence on balance and walking impairments in Parkinson’s disease. We have developed a new conceptual framework for balance training, emphasising specific components of balance control related to Parkinson’s disease symptoms by using highly challenging, progressive and varying training conditions. The primary aim o...

  20. Medullary thyroid cancer: the role of radiotherapy in local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy for loco-regional medullary thyroid cancer between 1960-1992. The actuarial overall survival at 5, 10 and 20 years was 69%, 52% and 30%, respectively. Patients were classified according to clinical stage (node-positive or -negative), post-operative histological residual disease status (none, microscopic or macroscopic) and dose of radiotherapy received. By univariate analysis, loco-regional recurrence-free survival was significantly longer for node-negative patients (P = 0.03). Patients who received at least 60 Gy over 6 weeks showed a trend towards improved local control (P = 0.23). The only significant variable by multivariate analysis for local recurrence-free-survival was post-operative residual disease status (P = 0.0005). The local control rate at 5 years was 100% for patients with no residual disease, 65% for those with microscopic tumour, and 24% for those with macroscopic residual disease. We conclude that there is a valuable role for radiotherapy in the management of patients with residual microscopic or macroscopic disease following surgery, as well as in those with inoperable disease. (author)

  1. A new numerical framework for simulating the control of weather and climate on the evolution of soil-mantled hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Benoît; Braun, Jean; Demoulin, Alain

    2016-06-01

    We present a new numerical framework for simulating short to long-term hillslope evolution. This modeling framework, to which we have given the name CLICHE (CLImate Control on Hillslope Evolution), aims to better capture the control of climate on soil dynamics. It allows the use of realistic forcing that involves, through a specific time discretization scheme, the variability of both the temperature and precipitation at time scales ranging from the daily rainfall events to the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary, also including seasonal variability. Two simple models of soil temperature and soil water balance permit the link between the climatic inputs and derived quantities that take part in the computation of the soil flux, such as the surface water discharge and the depth of the non-frozen soil layer. Using this framework together with a multi-process parameterization of soil transport, we apply an original method to calculate hillslope effective diffusivity as a function of climate. This allows us to demonstrate the ability of the model to simulate observed rates of hillslope erosion under different climates (cold and temperate) with a single set of parameter values. Numerical experiments furthermore suggest a potential high peak of sediment transport on hillslopes during the glacial-interglacial transitions of the Quaternary. We finally discuss the need to improve the parameterization of the soil production and transport processes in order to explicitly account for other key controlling factors that are also climate-sensitive, such as biological activity.

  2. A Framework for a General Purpose Intelligent Control System for Particle Accelerators. Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vista Control Systems, Inc. has developed a portable system for intelligent accelerator control. The design is general in scope and is thus configurable to a wide range of accelerator facilities and control problems. The control system employs a multi-layer organization in which knowledge-based decision making is used to dynamically configure lower level optimization and control algorithms

  3. UNDERSTANDING, ACCEPTING AND CONTROLLING RISKS - A MULTISTAGE FRAMEWORK FOR RISK COMMUNICATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VLEK, CAJ

    1995-01-01

    The meanings and functions of cc risk communication a (RC, for shea) are specified on the basis of a multistage framework for handling societal risks. After identifying various reasons for RC, essential components of > are briefly discussed : basic risk communicator positions, different levels of ri

  4. Framework for Integrating Science Data Processing Algorithms Into Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, Chris A.; Crichton, Daniel J.; Chang, Albert Y.; Foster, Brian M.; Freeborn, Dana J.; Woollard, David M.; Ramirez, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    A software framework called PCS Task Wrapper is responsible for standardizing the setup, process initiation, execution, and file management tasks surrounding the execution of science data algorithms, which are referred to by NASA as Product Generation Executives (PGEs). PGEs codify a scientific algorithm, some step in the overall scientific process involved in a mission science workflow. The PCS Task Wrapper provides a stable operating environment to the underlying PGE during its execution lifecycle. If the PGE requires a file, or metadata regarding the file, the PCS Task Wrapper is responsible for delivering that information to the PGE in a manner that meets its requirements. If the PGE requires knowledge of upstream or downstream PGEs in a sequence of executions, that information is also made available. Finally, if information regarding disk space, or node information such as CPU availability, etc., is required, the PCS Task Wrapper provides this information to the underlying PGE. After this information is collected, the PGE is executed, and its output Product file and Metadata generation is managed via the PCS Task Wrapper framework. The innovation is responsible for marshalling output Products and Metadata back to a PCS File Management component for use in downstream data processing and pedigree. In support of this, the PCS Task Wrapper leverages the PCS Crawler Framework to ingest (during pipeline processing) the output Product files and Metadata produced by the PGE. The architectural components of the PCS Task Wrapper framework include PGE Task Instance, PGE Config File Builder, Config File Property Adder, Science PGE Config File Writer, and PCS Met file Writer. This innovative framework is really the unifying bridge between the execution of a step in the overall processing pipeline, and the available PCS component services as well as the information that they collectively manage.

  5. Influences of Internal Control Risk Influence When Planning an Audit: An Empirical Study of the Coso Conceptual Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carmona Ibáñez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies whether the audit profession understands and follows the internal control framework developed in the COSO Report about the assessment of control risks. That is to say, the extent to which auditors assess control risks and transmit such assessments on substantive testing work when planning an audit, and take into account the assumptions of COSO which affect the identification of risks, in line with the new audit approach based on business risks. The results of the statistical tests show that, in general, the participants evaluated control risks and adjusted the quantity and extent of substantive procedures in accordance with the threats of internal control when they were presented by following the conceptual framework of the COSO Report.Este trabajo pretende analizar si la profesión de auditoría comprende y sigue el marco conceptual del control interno desarrollado por el Informe COSO en la evaluación de los riesgos de control. Es decir, en qué medida los auditores valoran los riesgos de control y trasladan tales valoraciones sobre el trabajo sustantivo durante la etapa de planificación de una auditoría, teniendo en cuenta las premisas de COSO que inciden en una adecuada identificación de los riesgos, en la línea del nuevo enfoque de auditoría orientado hacia los riesgos de negocio. Los resultados de las pruebas estadísticas muestran que en general se tiende a estimar el riesgo de control y a ajustar la cantidad y extensión de los procedimientos sustantivos considerando las amenazas de control interno, cuando se presentan siguiendo el esquema del marco conceptual del Informe COSO.

  6. Pilot Implementation of Breast Cancer Early Detection Programs in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Raúl; Díaz, Sandra; Sánchez, Oswaldo; Perry, Fernando; Piñeros, Marion; Poveda, César; Salguero, Edgar; Osorio, Dimelza

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is increasing in developing countries, and Colombia has a double burden from cervical and breast cancer. Suitable guidelines for breast cancer early detection are needed, and the Breast Health Global Initiative provides a favorable framework for breast cancer control in low resource nations. The Colombian National Cancer Institute developed evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer early detection in which coordinated early detection in symptomatic women and hospital-based scr...

  7. Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in two large pooled case–control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bracci, Paige M.; Wang, Furong; Hassan, Manal M.; Gupta, Samir; Li, Donghui; Holly, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The association between duration of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has not been well characterized in large population-based studies. We conducted detailed analyses to determine the association between pancreatitis onset and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods Data from two case–control studies of pancreatic cancer (n = 4515) in the San Francisco Bay Area and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center were pooled for analysis (1,663 cases, 2,852 frequency-matched controls). Adjusted odds ratio...

  8. Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in two large pooled case–control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bracci, Paige M.; Wang, Furong; Hassan, Manal M.; Gupta, Samir; Li, Donghui; Holly, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The association between duration of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has not been well characterized in large population-based studies. We conducted detailed analyses to determine the association between pancreatitis onset and pancreatic cancer risk. Data from two case–control studies of pancreatic cancer (n = 4515) in the San Francisco Bay Area and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center were pooled for analysis (1,663 cases, 2,852 frequency-matched controls). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were est...

  9. Controlling misses and false alarms in a machine learning framework for predicting uniformity of printed pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Q.; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    In our previous work1 , we presented a block-based technique to analyze printed page uniformity both visually and metrically. The features learned from the models were then employed in a Support Vector Machine (SVM) framework to classify the pages into one of the two categories of acceptable and unacceptable quality. In this paper, we introduce a set of tools for machine learning in the assessment of printed page uniformity. This work is primarily targeted to the printing industry, specifically the ubiquitous laser, electrophotographic printer. We use features that are well-correlated with the rankings of expert observers to develop a novel machine learning framework that allows one to achieve the minimum "false alarm" rate, subject to a chosen "miss" rate. Surprisingly, most of the research that has been conducted on machine learning does not consider this framework. During the process of developing a new product, test engineers will print hundreds of test pages, which can be scanned and then analyzed by an autonomous algorithm. Among these pages, most may be of acceptable quality. The objective is to find the ones that are not. These will provide critically important information to systems designers, regarding issues that need to be addressed in improving the printer design. A "miss" is defined to be a page that is not of acceptable quality to an expert observer that the prediction algorithm declares to be a "pass". Misses are a serious problem, since they represent problems that will not be seen by the systems designers. On the other hand, "false alarms" correspond to pages that an expert observer would declare to be of acceptable quality, but which are flagged by the prediction algorithm as "fails". In a typical printer testing and development scenario, such pages would be examined by an expert, and found to be of acceptable quality after all. "False alarm" pages result in extra pages to be examined by expert observers, which increases labor cost. But "false

  10. A model framework to estimate impact and cost of genetics-based sterile insect methods for dengue vector control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Alphey

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases impose enormous health and economic burdens and additional methods to control vector populations are clearly needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been successful against agricultural pests, but is not in large-scale use for suppressing or eliminating mosquito populations. Genetic RIDL technology (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal is a proposed modification that involves releasing insects that are homozygous for a repressible dominant lethal genetic construct rather than being sterilized by irradiation, and could potentially overcome some technical difficulties with the conventional SIT technology. Using the arboviral disease dengue as an example, we combine vector population dynamics and epidemiological models to explore the effect of a program of RIDL releases on disease transmission. We use these to derive a preliminary estimate of the potential cost-effectiveness of vector control by applying estimates of the costs of SIT. We predict that this genetic control strategy could eliminate dengue rapidly from a human community, and at lower expense (approximately US$ 2~30 per case averted than the direct and indirect costs of disease (mean US$ 86-190 per case of dengue. The theoretical framework has wider potential use; by appropriately adapting or replacing each component of the framework (entomological, epidemiological, vector control bio-economics and health economics, it could be applied to other vector-borne diseases or vector control strategies and extended to include other health interventions.

  11. COMDES-II: A Component-Based Framework for Generative Development of Distributed Real-Time Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Xu; Sierszecki, Krzysztof; Angelov, Christo K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a generative development methodology and component models of COMDES-II, a component-based software framework for distributed embedded control systems with real-time constraints. The adopted methodology allows for rapid modeling and validation of control software at a higher lev...... generative methodology for COMDES-II from a general perspective, describes the component models in details and demonstrates their application through a DC-Motor control system case study.......The paper presents a generative development methodology and component models of COMDES-II, a component-based software framework for distributed embedded control systems with real-time constraints. The adopted methodology allows for rapid modeling and validation of control software at a higher level...... of abstraction, from which a system implementation in C can be automatically synthesized. To achieve this objective, COMDES-II defines formally various kinds of components to address the critical requirements of the targeted domain, taking into consideration both the architectural and behavioral...

  12. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer.Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglycemic crisis episodes were defined as having poorly controlled diabetes. All adult beneficiaries were followed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013, to determine whether pancreatic cancer was diagnosed. The Cox regression model was applied to compare the adjusted hazards for potential confounders.After controlling for age, sex, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, chronic liver disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, malignancies, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, history of alcohol intoxication, chronic renal insufficiency, biliary tract disease, chronic pancreatitis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and high-dimensional propensity score, the adjusted hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was 2.53 (95% confidence interval 1.96-3.26) in patients with diabetes. In diabetic patients with poor glycemic control, the hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was significantly higher (hazard ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval 1.34-9.78).This cohort study reveals a possible relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with a higher possibility of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27311001

  13. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  14. Control of Apoptosis in Treatment and Biology of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Shrey; Kir, Devika; Banerjee, Sulagna; Saluja, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is estimated to be the 12th most common cancer in the United States in 2014 and yet this malignancy is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Late detection and resistance to therapy are the major causes for its dismal prognosis. Apoptosis is an actively orchestrated cell death mechanism that serves to maintain tissue homoeostasis. Cancer develops from normal cells by accruing significant changes through one or more mechanisms, leading to DNA damage and mutations, which in a normal cell would induce this programmed cell death pathway. As a result, evasion of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. PDAC is notoriously resistant to apoptosis, thereby explaining its aggressive nature and resistance to conventional treatment modalities. The current review is focus on understanding different intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in pancreatic cancer that may affect apoptosis in this disease. PMID:26206252

  15. PanScan, the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium, and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium consists of more than a dozen prospective epidemiologic cohort studies within the NCI Cohort Consortium, whose leaders work together to investigate the etiology and natural history of pancreatic cancer.

  16. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  17. Using Control Frameworks to Map Risks in Web 2.0 Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan J. RUDMAN

    2011-01-01

    Web 2.0 applications are continuously moving into the corporate mainstream. Each new development brings its own threats or new ways to deliver old attacks. The objective of this study is to develop a framework to identify the security issues an organisation is exposed to through Web 2.0 applications, with specific focus on unauthorised access. An extensive literature review was performed to obtain an understanding of the technologies driving Web 2.0 applications. Thereafter, the technologies ...

  18. Perceptions of Cancer Controllability and Cancer Risk Knowledge: The Moderating Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Acculturation

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÍREZ, A. SUSANA; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Oh, April; Vengoechea, Bryan Leyva; Moser, Richard P; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2013-01-01

    Literature suggests racial/ethnic minorities, particularly those who are less-acculturated, have stronger fatalistic attitudes toward cancer than do non-Latino Whites. Knowledge of cancer prevention is also lower among racial/ethnic minorities. Moreover, low knowledge about cancer risk factors is often associated with fatalistic beliefs. Our study examined fatalism and cancer knowledge by race/ethnicity and explored whether race/ethnicity moderate the association of fatalism with knowledge of...

  19. A framework for usable end-user privacy control in social software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Najafian Razavi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that many users struggle to properly manage selective sharing of the diverse information artefacts they deposit in social software tools. Most tools define privacy based on the ‘network of friends’ model, in which all ‘friends’ are created equal and all relationships are reciprocal. This model fails to support the privacy expectations that non-technical users bring from their real-life experiences, such as enabling different degrees of intimacy within one’s network and providing flexible, natural means of managing the volatile social relationships that social software systems confront. Furthermore, the model suffers from lack of empirical grounding and systematic evaluation. This paper presents a framework for building privacy management mechanisms for social software systems that is intuitive and easy to use for the average, non-technical user population of these systems. The framework is based on a grounded theory study of users’ information sharing behaviour in a social software tool. Results inform the design of OpnTag, a social software prototype that facilitates personal and social information management and sharing. Preliminary empirical data suggest that our proposed privacy framework is flexible enough to meet users’ varying information sharing needs in different contexts while maintaining adequate support for usability.

  20. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon; Lee, Woongryol; Lee, Taegu; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Wallander, Anders [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Kim, Young-Kuk, E-mail: ykim@cnu.ac.kr [Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation.

  1. Evaluating performance of MARTe as a real-time framework for feed-back control system at tokamak device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •We measured the performance of MARTe by measuring response time and jitter. •We compared the performance of application with and without MARTe. •We compared the performance of MARTe application on different O/Ss. -- Abstract: The Korea Super conducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is performing the task of “Demonstration and Evaluation of ITER CODAC Technologies at KSTAR” whose objective is the evaluation of real-time technologies for decision making on real-time operating systems (RTOS), real-time frameworks and 10 GbE networks. In this task, the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) has been evaluated as a real-time framework for real-time feedback control system. The performance of MARTe has been verified by measuring response time and jitter in a path of feedback control from an analog input of a monitoring system to an analog output of an actuator system. In addition, the evaluation has been performed in terms of applicability of MARTe and its performance depending on types of operating system and tuning of CPU affinity and priority. This paper describes the overview of MARTe as a real-time framework, the results of evaluation performance and its implementation

  2. Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, C; Beral, V; Maconochie, N; Fraser, P; Davies, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between risk of prostatic cancer and occupational exposures, especially to radionuclides, in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. DESIGN--Case-control study of men with prostatic cancer and matched controls. Information about sociodemographic factors and exposures to radionuclides and other substances was abstracted and classified for each subject from United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority records without knowledge of who had cancer. SUBJECTS--136 men with prostatic cancer diagnosed between 1946 and 1986 and 404 matched controls, all employees of United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Documented or possible contamination with specific radionuclides. RESULTS--Risk of prostatic cancer was significantly increased in men who were internally contaminated with or who worked in environments potentially contaminated by tritium, chromium-51, iron-59, cobalt-60, or zinc-65. Internal contamination with at least one of the five radionuclides was detected in 14 men with prostatic cancer (10%) and 12 controls (3%) (relative risk 5.32 (95% confidence interval 1.87 to 17.24). Altogether 28 men with prostatic cancer (21%) and 46 controls (11%) worked in environments potentially contaminated by at least one of the five radionuclides (relative risk 2.36 (1.26 to 4.43)); about two thirds worked at heavy water reactors (19 men with prostatic cancer and 32 controls (relative risk 2.13 (1.00 to 4.52)). Relative risk of prostatic cancer increased with increasing duration of work in places potentially contaminated by these radionuclides and with increasing level of probable contamination. Prostatic cancer was not associated with exposure to plutonium, uranium, cadmium, boron, beryllium, or organic or inorganic chemicals. CONCLUSIONS--Risk of prostatic cancer risk was increased in United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority workers who were occupationally exposed to tritium, 51Cr, 59Fe, 60Co, or 65Zn. Exposure to

  3. Src controls castration recurrence of CWR22 prostate cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrence of prostate cancer (CaP) after androgen-deprivation therapy continues to have the greatest impact on patient survival. Castration-recurrent (CR)-CaP is likely driven by the activation of androgen receptor (AR) through multiple mechanisms including induction of AR coregulators, AR mutants or splice variants, and AR posttranslational modification such as phosphorylation by Src-family and Ack1 tyrosine kinases. Here, we address whether Src is required for the CR growth of human CWR22 CaP xenografts. The shRNA-mediated Src knockdown or treatment with the Src inhibitors, dasatinib or KXO1, reduced CaP recurrence over controls and increased time-to-recurrence following castration. Moreover, CR-CaP [Src-shRNA] tumors that recurred had similar Src protein and activation levels as those of parental cells, strengthening the notion that Src activity is required for progression to CR-CaP. In contrast, the ability of dasatinib or KXO1 to inhibit Src kinase activity in vitro did not correlate with their ability to inhibit serum-driven in vitro proliferation of CR and androgen-dependent stable cell lines derived from CWR22 tumors (CWR22Rv1 and CWR22PC, respectively), suggesting that the in vitro proliferation of these CaP lines is Src independent. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that Src is a potent and specific therapeutic target for CR-CaP progression

  4. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it. PMID:21699022

  5. A one health framework for the evaluation of rabies control programmes: a case study from Colombo City, Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Häsler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One Health addresses complex challenges to promote the health of all species and the environment by integrating relevant sciences at systems level. Its application to zoonotic diseases is recommended, but few coherent frameworks exist that combine approaches from multiple disciplines. Rabies requires an interdisciplinary approach for effective and efficient management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A framework is proposed to assess the value of rabies interventions holistically. The economic assessment compares additional monetary and non-monetary costs and benefits of an intervention taking into account epidemiological, animal welfare, societal impact and cost data. It is complemented by an ethical assessment. The framework is applied to Colombo City, Sri Lanka, where modified dog rabies intervention measures were implemented in 2007. The two options included for analysis were the control measures in place until 2006 ("baseline scenario" and the new comprehensive intervention measures ("intervention" for a four-year duration. Differences in control cost; monetary human health costs after exposure; Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs lost due to human rabies deaths and the psychological burden following a bite; negative impact on animal welfare; epidemiological indicators; social acceptance of dogs; and ethical considerations were estimated using a mixed method approach including primary and secondary data. Over the four years analysed, the intervention cost US $1.03 million more than the baseline scenario in 2011 prices (adjusted for inflation and caused a reduction in dog rabies cases; 738 DALYs averted; an increase in acceptability among non-dog owners; a perception of positive changes in society including a decrease in the number of roaming dogs; and a net reduction in the impact on animal welfare from intermediate-high to low-intermediate. CONCLUSIONS: The findings illustrate the multiple outcomes relevant to stakeholders

  6. Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Thakur; Bhupender Gupta; Anmol Gupta; Raman Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    In Himachal Pradesh, cancer cervix is a major public health problem since it ranks as the number one female cancer. A case-control study of 226 newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed cases of cancer cervix and equal number of matched controls was conducted at Regional Cancer Center, Himachal Pradesh during the period from July 2008 to October 2009 with the objective to study the common factors associated with cancer cervix. Univariate analysis identified 10 risk factors associated sig...

  7. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Zhenggang Zhu; Jun Zhang; Min Yan; Bingya Liu; Jianian Zhang; Jun Ji; Zhiwei Wang; Lei Liu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for m...

  8. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories: A Danish case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, dia...

  9. Cancer Control Programs in East Asia: Evidence From the International Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Malcolm A

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world, including the countries of North-East and South-East Asia. Assessment of burden through cancer registration, determination of risk and protective factors, early detection and screening, clinical practice, interventions for example in vaccination, tobacco cessation efforts and palliative care all should be included in comprehensive cancer control programs. The degree to which this is possible naturally depends on the reso...

  10. Written emotional disclosure for women with ovarian cancer and their partners: randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Arden-Close, Emily; Gidron, Yori; Bayne, Louise; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2013-01-01

    Objective: written emotional disclosure for 15–20?min a day over 3 to 4?days improves physical and psychological health and may benefit cancer patients. However, no studies have tested the effectiveness of guided writing in cancer patients and their partners. A randomised controlled trial tested whether writing about the patient's diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer using the Guided Disclosure Protocol (GDP) is effective in reducing perceived stress and improving quality of life (QoL) i...

  11. Liposuction and Controlled Compression Therapy in the Treatment of Arm Lymphedema following Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brorson, Håkan

    1998-01-01

    Liposuction and controlled compression therapy in the treatment of arm lymphedema following breast cancer About one-third of all women treated for breast cancer develop arm lymphedema. The cancer itself is a worry, but the swollen and heavy arm is an additional handicap for the patients, both physical and psychosocial. Previous surgical and conservative treatments have not always given satisfactory and permanent results, conceivably because lymphedema causes hypertrophy of the subcutan...

  12. Cancer Prevention and Control in American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines differences among American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives with regard to incidence and mortality rates for various types of cancer, particularly lung, cervix, breast, biliary, gastric, colorectal, prostate, and primary hepatic cancer. Discusses the influence of genetic and environmental factors, smoking, and inadequate medical…

  13. Breast cancer prevention and control programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlui, Maznah; Ramli, Sofea; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:22126511

  14. Nested case-control study on the risk factors of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jian Cai; Xi-Yong Liu; Xi-Yuan Ma; Kai-Yan Yao; Shu Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer andrectal cancer.METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted ina cohort of 64 693 subjects who participated in a colorectalcancer screening program from 1989 to 1998 in Jiashancounty, Zhejiang, China. 196 cases of colorectal cancer weredetected from 1990 to 1998 as the case group and 980non-colorectal cancer subjects, matched with factors of age,gender, resident location, were randomly selected from the64 693 cohort as controls. By using univariate analysis andmutivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the oddsratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) werecalculated between colorectal cancer and personal habits,dietary factors, as well as intestinal related symptoms.RESULTS: The mutivariate analysis results showed that aftermatched with age, sex and resident location, mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were closelyassociated with colon cancer and rectal cancer, OR values forthe mucous blood stool history were 3.508 (95 %CI: 1.370-8.985) and 2.139 (95 %CI: 1.040-4.402) respectively; for themixed drinking water sources, 2.387 (95 %CI: 1.243-4.587)and 1.951 (95 %CI: 1.086-3.506) respectively. All reachedthe significant level with a P-value less than 0.05.CONCLUSION: The study suggested that mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were therisk factors of colon cancer and rectal cancer. There was noany significant association between dietary habits and theincidence of colorectal cancer.

  15. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  16. Optimal control on bladder cancer growth model with BCG immunotherapy and chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, C.; Trisilowati

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, an optimal control model of the growth of bladder cancer with BCG (Basil Calmate Guerin) immunotherapy and chemotherapy is discussed. The purpose of this optimal control is to determine the number of BCG vaccine and drug should be given during treatment such that the growth of bladder cancer cells can be suppressed. Optimal control is obtained by applying Pontryagin principle. Furthermore, the optimal control problem is solved numerically using Forward-Backward Sweep method. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the vaccine and drug in controlling the growth of cancer cells. Hence, it can reduce the number of cancer cells that is not infected with BCG as well as minimize the cost of the treatment.

  17. The power reinforcement framework revisited: mobile technology and management control in home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.

    2016-01-01

    -making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert......Whereas digital technologies are often depicted as being capable of disrupting long-standing power structures and facilitating new governance mechanisms, the power reinforcement framework suggests that information and communications technologies tend to strengthen existing power arrangements within...

  18. A matched case control study of risk indicators of breast cancer in assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, N; Mahanta, L B; Nath, D C; Sarma, J D

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide especially in a developing country like India. It also occupies the highest place with relative proportion 17.5% in the Hospital Based Cancer Registry in progress in the Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Research Institute. Dr. B. Borooah Cancer Research Institute is the Regional Cancer Care Center for entire North East region of India. With this background a matched case control study of 100 cases of breast cancer and 100 controls was carried out to investigate the role of different Socio economic, Female Reproductive and Life style related factors and to understand the etiology of breast cancer in Assam. Controls are matched to the cases by age at diagnosis (±5 years), family income and place of residence with matching ratio 1:1. Data were collected using questionnaire and then conditional logistic regression analysis is used to estimate the odd ratios for several factors. Study revealed that breast cancer occurrence has statistical association with the factors chewing habits (p=0.003), number of children (p=0.080), age at marriage (p=0.014), age at first child birth (p=0.007), age at menarche (p=0.010). PMID:26007270

  19. Constrained control framework for a stand-alone hybrid (Stirling engine)/supercapacitor power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A complete state feedback controller for the voltage conditioning stage of a hybrid power plant is proposed. • The controller explicitly handles the state and controller constraints. • The developed control methodology can be applied to various power electronics architectures. - Abstract: In this paper, a complete control architecture is proposed for the voltage conditioning stage of a hybrid power generation system composed of a Stirling engine coupled with a supercapacitor. Such a solar energy-based generation system aims at providing electricity to off-grid regions. The novelty of the proposed architecture is that it completely handles constraints on all the state variables of the electric stage while providing near to optimal performances in terms of settling time. The derivation of the control law enables a deep understanding of the main issues involved in the success of the closed-loop control. Moreover, the resulting feedback laws are real-time compatible and are given in a complete explicit form

  20. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  1. Intensive glucose control and risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansdottir, G.; Zoungas, S.; Chalmers, J.; Kengne, A. P.; Knol, M. J.; Leufkens, H. G. M.; Patel, A.; Woodward, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; De Bruin, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. This study examines the effect of more vs less intensive glucose control on the risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. All 11,140 participants from the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron-MR C

  2. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  3. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  4. A Research Framework for Demonstrating Benefits of Advanced Control Room Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Blanc, Katya [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thomas, Kenneth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Control Room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. A full-scale modernization might, for example, entail replacement of all analog panels with digital workstations. Such modernizations have been undertaken successfully in upgrades in Europe and Asia, but the U.S. has yet to undertake a control room upgrade of this magnitude. Instead, nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Previous research under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program has helped establish a systematic process for control room upgrades that support the transition to a hybrid control. While the guidance developed to date helps streamline the process of modernization and reduce costs and uncertainty associated with introducing digital control technologies into an existing control room, these upgrades do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The aim of the control room benefits research presented here is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report serves as an outline for planned research on the benefits of greater modernization in the main control rooms of nuclear power plants.

  5. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) Crystals with Controllable Size and Morphology

    KAUST Repository

    Lestari, Gabriella

    2012-05-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) is a new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with zeolite-like properties such as permanent porosity, uniform pore size, and exceptional thermal and chemical stability. Until recently, ZIF materials have been mostly synthesized by solvothermal method. In this thesis, further analysis to tune the size and morphology of ZIF-8 is done upon our group’s recent success in preparing ZIF-8 crystals in pure aqueous solutions. Compositional parameters (molar ratio of 2-methylimidazole/Zn2+, type of zinc salt reagents, reagent concentrations, addition of surfactants) as well as process parameters (temperature and time) were systematically investigated. Upon characterizations of as-synthesized samples by X-ray powder diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, N2 adsorption, and field-emission scanning electron microscope, the results show that the particle size and morphology of ZIF-8 crystals are extremely sensitive to the compotional parameters of reagent concentration and addition of surfactants. The particle size and morphology of hydrothermally synthesized ZIF-8 crystals can be finely tuned; with the size ranging from 90 nm to 4 μm and the shape from truncated cubic to rhombic dodecahedron.

  6. Towards Controlling the Glycoform: A Model Framework Linking Extracellular Metabolites to Antibody Glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Jedrzejewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycoproteins represent the largest group of the growing number of biologically-derived medicines. The associated glycan structures and their distribution are known to have a large impact on pharmacokinetics. A modelling framework was developed to provide a link from the extracellular environment and its effect on intracellular metabolites to the distribution of glycans on the constant region of an antibody product. The main focus of this work is the mechanistic in silico reconstruction of the nucleotide sugar donor (NSD metabolic network by means of 34 species mass balances and the saturation kinetics rates of the 60 metabolic reactions involved. NSDs are the co-substrates of the glycosylation process in the Golgi apparatus and their simulated dynamic intracellular concentration profiles were linked to an existing model describing the distribution of N-linked glycan structures of the antibody constant region. The modelling framework also describes the growth dynamics of the cell population by means of modified Monod kinetics. Simulation results match well to experimental data from a murine hybridoma cell line. The result is a modelling platform which is able to describe the product glycoform based on extracellular conditions. It represents a first step towards the in silico prediction of the glycoform of a biotherapeutic and provides a platform for the optimisation of bioprocess conditions with respect to product quality.

  7. A Data Capsule Framework For Web Services: Providing Flexible Data Access Control To Users

    CERN Document Server

    Kannan, Jayanthkumar; Chun, Byung-Gon

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of a secure data capsule, which refers to an encapsulation of sensitive user information (such as a credit card number) along with code that implements an interface suitable for the use of such information (such as charging for purchases) by a service (such as an online merchant). In our capsule framework, users provide their data in the form of such capsules to web services rather than raw data. Capsules can be deployed in a variety of ways, either on a trusted third party or the user's own computer or at the service itself, through the use of a variety of hardware or software modules, such as a virtual machine monitor or trusted platform module: the only requirement is that the deployment mechanism must ensure that the user's data is only accessed via the interface sanctioned by the user. The framework further allows an user to specify policies regarding which services or machines may host her capsule, what parties are allowed to access the interface, and with what parameter...

  8. Case-control study of cancer deaths in high background radiation areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a case-control study of deaths from liver, stomach and lung cancers in the high background radiation areas (HBRA) in Yangjiang County and neighboring control areas (CA). The purpose of this study was to explore the probable relationship between the cancer deaths and the environmental mutation-related factors in the two areas, so that the role of elevated natural radiation in cancer mortality could be properly ascertained. The studied numbers of cases of liver, stomach and lung cancers were 64, 28 and 17 in HBRA, and 75, 36 and 13 in CA, respectively. The proportion of the number of cases to that of the controls was 1:1 for liver cancer and 1:2 for cancers of stomach and lung. The factors studied included pesticide, smoking, alcohol consumption, medical X-ray exposure, diet, and the socioeconomic status, such as occupation, education, economic income, living space etc. The data for this study were collected through interviewing. The data collected were analysed by methods of matched and unmatched studies. The results expressed by odds ratio (OR) show that there is no significant between most factors studied and cancer deaths, although the associations of desths from stomach cancer with drinking water of nonwell source and of lung cancer with alcohol consumption in HBRA, and the associations of liver cancer deaths with occupations involving poisonous and noxious substances, pesticide and alcohol, and of lung cancer with pesticide and lower family income in CA can be found. This study has provided some clues for explaining the difference in cancer mortalities between HBRA and CA

  9. An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Maria; Oostinga, Miriam S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Although human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a frequently discussed area in current research, especially on the way that human traffickers control their victims, a recurrent problem is the lack of empirical basis. The present study examines control methods (or conditions) used against 137 victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation. A multidimensional scaling analysis (smallest space analysis (SSA-I)) of 23 control methods (and conditions) derived from a content analysis of ...

  10. Strategies for morbidity control of axillary dissection for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnema, Jorien

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer accounts for one third of all cancers in females in the Netherlands I and the incidence has been increasing world-wide in the past decades 2.. For the majority of patients, surgery forms the primary treatment of choice 3. Dissection of the axillary lymph nodes has been part of the surgical treatment since the introduction of radical mastectomy at the end of the nineteenth century 4 and has remained an important element in the management of breast cancer up until the ...

  11. What are cancer registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinov-Mikov Marica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Population-based cancer registries attempt to collect, process, analyze, store and interpret data on persons with cancer in a certain population (most frequently a geographical area. Hospital-based cancer registries register all cases in a given hospital, usually without knowledge of the background population; the emphasis is to serve the needs of the hospital administration, the hospital cancer program, and, above all, the individual patient. History of Cancer Registries Registration of persons suffering from cancer is a slow process. Around the year 1900, England and Germany demanded improvement of statistical investigation on spread of cancer in population in order to undertake etiological researches. The oldest example of a modern cancer registry is that in Hamburg. Today there are more than 200 population-based cancer registries, but they cover only 5% of the world population, mainly in developed countries of the world. Cancer registry of Vojvodina Cancer registry of Vojvodina was established in 1966; it is a member of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC and it is still the only cancer registry from our country whose data are cited in scientific monographs of IARC. The main purpose of cancer registries is to produce statistics on the occurrence of cancer in a defined populatin and to provide a framework for assessing and controlling the impact of cancer on the community. Cancer registries are essential parts of any rational program of cancer control. Their data can be used in a wide variety of areas of cancer control, ranging from etiological research in epidemiology, through primary and secondary prevention to health-care planning and patient care, so benefiting both the individual and society.

  12. An empirical framework of control methods of victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, Maria; Oostinga, Miriam S.D.

    2015-01-01

    Although human trafficking for sexual exploitation is a frequently discussed area in current research, especially on the way that human traffickers control their victims, a recurrent problem is the lack of empirical basis. The present study examines control methods (or conditions) used against 137 v

  13. Transaction-based building controls framework, Volume 2: Platform descriptive model and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hernandez, George [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Transaction-based Building Controls (TBC) offer a control systems platform that provides an agent execution environment that meets the growing requirements for security, resource utilization, and reliability. This report outlines the requirements for a platform to meet these needs and describes an illustrative/exemplary implementation.

  14. A New Framework For Helicopter Vibration Suppression; Time-Periodic System Identification and Controller Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Fatma Demet

    In forward flight, helicopter rotor blades function within a highly complex aerodynamic environment that includes both near-blade and far-blade aerodynamic phenomena. These aerodynamic phenomena cause fluctuating aerodynamic loads on the rotor blades. These loads when coupled with the dynamic characteristics and elastic motion of the blade create excessive amount of vibration. These vibrations degrade helicopter performance, passenger comfort and contributes to high cost maintenance problems. In an effort to suppress helicopter vibration, recent studies have developed active control strategies using active pitch links, flaps, twist actuation and higher harmonic control of the swash plate. In active helicopter vibration control, designing a controller in a computationally efficient way requires accurate reduced-order models of complex helicopter aeroelasticity. In previous studies, controllers were designed using aeroelastic models that were obtained by coupling independently reduced aerodynamic and structural dynamic models. Unfortunately, these controllers could not satisfy stability and performance criteria when implemented in high-fidelity computer simulations or real-time experiments. In this thesis, we present a novel approach that provides accurate time-periodic reduced-order models and time-periodic H2 and H infinity controllers that satisfy the stability and performance criteria. Computational efficiency and the necessity of using the approach were validated by implementing an actively controlled flap strategy. In this proposed approach, the reduced-order models were directly identified from high-fidelity coupled aeroelastic analysis by using the time-periodic subspace identification method. Time-periodic H2 and Hinfinity controllers that update the control actuation at every time step were designed. The control synthesis problem was solved using Linear Matrix Inequality and periodic Riccati Equation based formulations, for which an in-house periodic

  15. Controlling the adsorption enthalpy of CO(2) in zeolites by framework topology and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajciar, Lukáš; Čejka, Jiří; Zukal, Arnošt; Otero Areán, Carlos; Turnes Palomino, Gemma; Nachtigall, Petr

    2012-10-01

    Zeolites are often investigated as potential adsorbents for CO(2) adsorption and separation. Depending on the zeolite topology and composition (Si/Al ratio and extra-framework cations), the CO(2) adsorption heats at low coverages vary from -20 to -60 kJ mol(-1), and with increasing surface coverage adsorption heats either stay approximately constant or they quickly drop down. Experimental adsorption heats obtained for purely siliceous porous solids and for ion-exchanged zeolites of the structural type MFI, FER, FAU, LTA, TUN, IMF, and -SVR are discussed in light of results of periodic density functional theory calculations corrected for the description of dispersion interactions. Key factors influencing the stability of CO(2) adsorption complexes are identified and discussed at the molecular level. A general model for CO(2) adsorption in zeolites and related materials is proposed and data reported in literature are evaluated with regard to the proposed model. PMID:22887989

  16. Normative framework for radiological protection in medicine: limitations of quality assurance and quality control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normative framework of radioprotection in medical exposure represents a set of international and national norms that embody different types of standards varying in legal nature and binding force. These norms seek to provide human health protection through the minimisation of nuclear risks associated with this kind of energy. Their development represents gradual adoption of the preventive approach to radiological risk taking, keeping in mind the uncertainties about the effects of exposure at low doses. The normative concepts and recommendations are contingent on scientific findings and empirical observations on the effects of ionising radiation, and societal perception of nuclear risks as well. Within the EU, the national laws, regulations, and medical practice standards applied by the 'operators on the floor', could vary significantly in Member States, due to: (1) the constant changing of modern health care law, and its high susceptibility to societal demands and market realities, (2) variability of health care law among Member State, and the related normative framework, (3) the central role of Member States in the organisation of health care. Besides, differences in national systems of medical radioprotection are determined by: 1) peculiarities of legislative and regulatory mechanisms (e.g., the use of soft law tools, public/administrative law instruments within the private sphere, delegated regulation, participation of private actors in regulation); 2) patterns of regulatory setting focused on both 'performance' and 'procedure' standards, and representing the mix of performance-based, technology-based and other regulatory approaches; 3) decentralisation of standard-setting of medical practices at the local level. In this respect, the questions still remain open whether: 1) the same (high) level of health protection could be guaranteed for the EU citizens undergoing medical exposure; 2) law can stimulate self-organisation within health care environment and

  17. Spatial Analysis of Childhood Cancer: A Case/Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Diana Gómez-Barroso; Ibon Tamayo; Javier García-Pérez; Antonio Morales; Elena Pardo Romaguera; Gonzalo López-Abente

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. Objective The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of t...

  18. Evolution and Controllability of Cancer Networks: A Boolean Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihari, Sriganesh; Raman, Venkatesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Ragan, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Cancer forms a robust system capable of maintaining stable functioning (cell sustenance and proliferation) despite perturbations. Cancer progresses as stages over time typically with increasing aggressiveness and worsening prognosis. Characterizing these stages and identifying the genes driving transitions between them is critical to understand cancer progression and to develop effective anti-cancer therapies. In this work, we propose a novel model for the `cancer system' as a Boolean state space in which a Boolean network, built from protein-interaction and gene-expression data from different stages of cancer, transits between Boolean satisfiability states by "editing" interactions and "flipping" genes. Edits reflect rewiring of the PPI network while flipping of genes reflect activation or silencing of genes between stages. We formulate a minimization problem min flip to identify these genes driving the transitions. The application of our model (called BoolSpace) on three case studies-pancreatic and breast tumours in human and post spinal-cord injury (SCI) in rats-reveals valuable insights into the phenomenon of cancer progression: (i) interactions involved in core cell-cycle and DNA-damage repair pathways are significantly rewired in tumours, indicating significant impact to key genome-stabilizing mechanisms; (ii) several of the genes flipped are serine/threonine kinases which act as biological switches, reflecting cellular switching mechanisms between stages; and (iii) different sets of genes are flipped during the initial and final stages indicating a pattern to tumour progression. Based on these results, we hypothesize that robustness of cancer partly stems from "passing of the baton" between genes at different stages-genes from different biological processes and/or cellular components are involved in different stages of tumour progression thereby allowing tumour cells to evade targeted therapy, and therefore an effective therapy should target a "cover set" of

  19. Pancreatic cancer control: is vitamin D the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sarah; Naseem, Imrana

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by late detection, resistance to therapy, poor prognosis, and an exceptionally high mortality rate. Epidemiology ascribes a chemopreventive role to vitamin D in several cancers including pancreatic cancer. Vitamin D therapy has been ascribed a role previously in tumor inhibition and differentiation in addition to reduction of inflammation and angiogenesis. However, the role of vitamin D in pancreatic cancer prevention or therapy remains elusive to date. Studies have shown a negative correlation between the risk of pancreatic cancer and serum vitamin D levels. It is believed that vitamin D binding to certain conserved sequences called vitamin D response elements in the DNA can alter the expression of genes involved in tumorigenesis. Recent research has elucidated the role of zinc in carcinogenesis, which in turn is found to be affected by vitamin D supplementation. In the light of numerous new-found roles for vitamin D, we review and evaluate the potential actions of the sunshine vitamin with respect to pancreatic cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:25946657

  20. General Palliative Care Guidance for Control of Pain in Patients with Cancer (PDF 56 KB)

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health; Social Services and Public Safety

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a practical clinical guideline for the control of pain in patients with cancer. Its target group is hospital staff, primary care team members and nursing home staff. It attempts to apply the clinical principles outlined in the document 'Control of Pain in Patients with Cancer' published by "Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network" (SIGN). This document has been adapted with the permission of SIGN. Rigour of Development A full evidence based reference lis...

  1. Processed meat consumption and risk of cancer: a multisite case–control study in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, E; Boffetta, P.; Ronco, A L; Deneo-Pellegrini, H; Correa, P; Acosta, G.; Mendilaharsu, M.; Luaces, M E; Silva, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The role of processed meat in the aetiology of several cancers was explored in detail. Methods: In the time period 1996–2004, a multisite case–control study was conducted in Montevideo, Uruguay. The study included 6 060 participants (3 528 cases and 2 532 controls) corresponding to cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, larynx, lung, female breast, prostate, urinary bladder, and kidney (renal cell carcinoma only). Results: The highest odds ratios ...

  2. Randomised controlled trial of effects of coordinating care for terminally ill cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Addington-Hall, J M; MacDonald, L D; Anderson, H R; Chamberlain, J.; Freeling, P.; Bland, J. M.; Raftery, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To measure effects on terminally ill cancer patients and their families of coordinating the services available within the NHS and from local authorities and the voluntary sector. DESIGN--Randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Inner London health district. PATIENTS--Cancer patients were routinely notified from 1987 to 1990. 554 patients expected to survive less than one year entered the trial and were randomly allocated to a coordination or a control group. INTERVENTION--All patient...

  3. Occupation, smoking, opium, and bladder cancer: A case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Tayeb Ghadimi; Bahman Gheitasi; Sayran Nili; Mohammad Karimi; Ebrahim Ghaderi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate occupational risk factors associated with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: In this case–control study, control group included patients who referred to a specialized clinic in the same city and hospitals where patients had been registered. Data were entered into SPSS software. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated for occupational variables and other characteristics. Then, using logistic regression, the association between cancer and drugs was...

  4. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoul Hossain Madani; Madhurima Dikshit; Debanshu Bhaduri; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Teamur Aghamolaei

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and...

  5. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A.; P.M Durgawale; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  6. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) μg/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42–3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53–33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  7. Urinary strontium and the risk of breast cancer: A case-control study in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Li-Juan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Tang, Lu-Ying [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510630 (China); He, Jian-Rong [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Guangzhou Women and Children' s Medical Center, Guangzhou 510623 (China); Su, Yi; Cen, Yu-Ling; Yu, Dan-Dan [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Wu, Bang-Hua [The Guangdong Prevention and Treatment Center for Occupational Diseases, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Lin, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen, Wei-Qing [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Song, Er-Wei, E-mail: songerwei02@yahoo.com.cn [The Second Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 Yanjiang West, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Ren, Ze-Fang, E-mail: renzef@mail.sysu.edu.cn [The School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, 74 Zhongshan 2nd Rd, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Strontium has been widely used in industries like electronic and pharmacy. It has a carcinogenic potential, however, and no study has been conducted to evaluate its effects on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between strontium and breast cancer risk in a case-control study including 240 incident invasive breast cancer patients and 246 age-matched controls. We measured the urinary concentrations of strontium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and conducted face-to-face interviews to obtain information on potential breast cancer risk factors. Multivariable analysis was used to estimate the association. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) {mu}g/g] of strontium were 155.59 (99.05, 230.70) in the breast cancer patients and 119.62 (81.97, 163.76) in the controls. Women in the highest tertile of strontium showed 124% increased risk of breast cancer, when compared with those in the lowest tertile after adjustment for the potential risk factors [OR (95% CI): 2.24 (1.42-3.81)]. This association was particularly strong for HER2 positive breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 10.92 (3.53-33.77)], and only occurred among premenopausal women. These results suggest a potential role of strontium in the development of breast cancer and urge further studies on the environmental contamination and the physiological and pathological mechanisms of strontium.

  8. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs. PMID:27007947

  9. Modeling and Controlling Chaos in Breast Cancer: Toward Finding a Practical Cure—A first step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahzadeh, Somayeh; Sanayei, Ali

    2010-09-01

    The main aim of this work is finding a practical method which is based on a mathematical model to cure the breast cancer. This model with certain values of parameters could exhibit a chaotic behavior. Consequently, we achieve this goal by controlling chaos and find the best adjustable control parameter in order to control the malignancy.

  10. Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Future Risk of Anogenital Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreimer, Aimee R.; Brennan, Paul; Kuhs, Krystle A. Lang; Waterboer, Tim; Clifford, Gary; Franceschi, Silvia; Michel, Angelika; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Riboli, Elio; Castellsague, Xavier; Hildesheim, Allan; Fortner, Renee Turzanski; Kaaks, Rudolf; Palli, Domenico; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Panico, Salvatore; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vineis, Paolo; Larranaga, Nerea; Pala, Valeria; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tumino, Rosario; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Ramon Quiros, J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pawlita, Michael; Johansson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The c

  11. Does family history of cancer modify the effects of lifestyle risk factors on esophageal cancer? A population-based case-control study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Zhang, Z.F.; Kampman, E.; Zhou, J.Y.; Han, R.Q.; Yang, J.; Zhang, X.F.; Gu, X.P.; Liu, A.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    A population-based case-control study on esophageal cancer has been conducted since 2003 in Jiangsu Province, China. The aim of this analysis is to provide further evidence on the relationship between family history of cancer in first-degree relatives (FH-FDRs) and the risk of esophageal cancer, and

  12. The Development of a Generic Framework for the Forensic Analysis of SCADA and Process Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Jill; Sitnikova, Elena

    There is continuing interest in researching generic security architectures and strategies for managing SCADA and process control systems. Documentation from various countries on IT security does now begin to recommendations for security controls for (federal) information systems which include connected process control systems. Little or no work exists in the public domain which takes a big picture approach to the issue of developing a generic or generalisable approach to SCADA and process control system forensics. The discussion raised in this paper is that before one can develop solutions to the problem of SCADA forensics, a good understanding of the forensic computing process, and the range of technical and procedural issues subsumed with in this process, need to be understood, and also agreed, by governments, industry and academia.

  13. Design of High-Fidelity Testing Framework for Secure Electric Grid Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A solution methodology and implementation components are presented that can uncover unwanted, unintentional or unanticipated effects on electric grids from changes to actual electric grid control software. A new design is presented to leapfrog over the limitations of current modeling and testing techniques for cyber technologies in electric grids. We design a fully virtualized approach in which actual, unmodified operational software under test is enabled to interact with simulated surrogates of electric grids. It enables the software to influence the (simulated) grid operation and vice versa in a controlled, high fidelity environment. Challenges in achieving such capability include achieving low-overhead time control mechanisms in hypervisor schedulers, network capture and time-stamping, translation of network packets emanating from grid software into discrete events of virtual grid models, translation back from virtual sensors/actuators into data packets to control software, and transplanting the entire system onto an accurately and efficiently maintained virtual-time plane.

  14. A Graphical Representation Framework for Enhanced Visualization of Construction Control Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Benjamin James

    2002-01-01

    Graphical representation for construction control information--processes such as scheduling, budgeting and RFIs--follows no formalized method. Many graphics neglect relevant information necessary to highlight trends in or relationships between processes. The principles of data graphics offer visual capabilities beyond those currently employed by the construction industry to display appropriate information in a manner that enhances comprehension of control processes. This paper describes a ...

  15. One Bit Is Enough : a Framework for Deploying Explicit Feedback Congestion Control Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Vasic, Nedeljko; Kuntimaddi, Srinidhi; Kostic, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Since the bandwidth-delay products of Internet links keep increasing, issues with TCP's convergence time, throughput, and amount of queuing in these environments are becoming more pressing. As we move toward the next-generation Internet, it is important to start experimenting with congestion control protocols for high BDP networks as soon as possible. Load-factor based congestion control approach holds great promise as it requires moderate changes in routers (only to monitor and inser...

  16. Technical modifications and current legal framework for a controllable electricity production via biogas plants in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, G.; Sonnleitner, M.; Zoerner, W. [Centre of excellence for renewable energy research, Ingolstadt Univ. of Applied Sciences, Ingolstadt (Germany)], e-mail: georg.haering@haw-ingolstadt.de; Hanby, V. [Inst. of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    With the expansion of renewable but fluctuating power generation from wind and solar energy, the demand placed on the security and reliability of supply is increasing. To ensure grid stability in the future, potential in the fields of load management and new storage technologies has to be developed. A higher efficiency can be achieved for the storage of biogas-generated electricity in comparison to pumped-storage hydroelectricity, compressed-air energy storage or in the form of hydrogen. Therefore, its controllable power production has a great technical and economic potential. The controllable electricity production via biogas plants depends on various factors. Besides the stability of the biological process, cost is the main issue. To achieve an economic optimum, efficient control strategies and system configurations are to be chosen. The latter are currently not fully known, thus, further research is necessary. In this context, the Centre of Excellence for Renewable Energy Research at Ingolstadt Univ. of Applied Sciences and the biogas plant manufacturer UTS Biogastechnik GmbH, Hallbergmoos, Germany, are working on the research project 'BioStrom - Controllable Electricity Production via Biogas Plants', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. For a controllable electricity production via biogas plants, technical modifications are necessary concerning the biogas storage, the CHP-units, the heat supply for internal and external heat demands, the controls regarding the gas and electricity production and the monitoring systems.

  17. "Manejar la Situacion": Partner Notification, Partner Management, and Conceptual Frameworks for HIV/STI Control Among MSM in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Salazar, Ximena

    2015-12-01

    Previous analyses of partner notification (PN) have addressed individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues influencing PN outcomes but have paid less attention to the conceptual framework of PN itself. We conducted 18 individual interviews and 8 group discussions, in a two-stage qualitative research process, to explore the meanings and contexts of PN for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in Lima, Peru. Participants described PN as the open disclosure of private, potentially stigmatizing information that could strengthen or disrupt a partnership, structured by the tension between concealment and revelation. In addition to informing partners of an STI diagnosis, the act of PN was believed to reveal other potentially stigmatizing information related to sexual identity and practices such as homosexuality, promiscuity, and HIV co-infection. In this context, the potential development of visible, biological STI symptoms represented a risk for disruption of the boundary between secrecy and disclosure that could result in involuntary disclosure of STI status. To address the conflict between concealment and disclosure, participants cited efforts to "manejar la situacion" (manage the situation) by controlling the biological risks of STI exposure without openly disclosing STI status. We use this concept of "managing the situation" as a practical and theoretical framework for comprehensive Partner Management for HIV/STI control systems among MSM in Latin America. PMID:25821149

  18. From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luk Joossens

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is needed. This review describes from a public health perspective the possible scope and key considerations of protocols that should be included in the convention. The key international areas that should be considered in tobacco control are: prices, smuggling; tax-free tobacco products; advertising and sponsorship; the Internet; testing methods; package design and labelling; agriculture; and information sharing.

  19. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  20. Framework for data intercommunication and control of ATLAS High Level Trigger algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Ospanov, Rustem; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is equipped with a sophisticated trigger system capable of reducing the 40 MHz LHC collision rate to the 70 kHz rate at the Level 1 hardware trigger and to the average 400 Hz rate at the High Level Trigger (HLT) during the Run 1 data taking in 2010-2012. In the HLT, the Steering Framework manages a few hundred of trigger algorithms: it evaluates every collision event and makes an accept/reject decision using as few resources as possible. Communication among algorithms is facilitated by a data navigation structure, implemented as a directed acyclic graph structure, that allows HLT algorithms fast discovery of detector regions containing interesting physics objects, as well as selecting an optimal way to build and traverse the event graph structure. For ATLAS running after the 2013-2014 shutdown (Run 2), more detailed trigger information is given to physics analysis users thus improving capabilities of trigger aware analyses. To reduce size of event data stored for physics analys...

  1. Preparation of Nanofibrous Metal-Organic Framework Filters for Efficient Air Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Shuai; Feng, Xiao; Li, Haiwei; Zhou, Junwen; Wang, Bo

    2016-05-11

    Environmental challenges especially air pollution (particulate matter (PM) and toxic gases) pose serious threats to public health globally. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials with high porosity, tunable pore size, and rich functionalities, holding the promise for poisonous pollutants capture. Here, nanocrystals of four unique MOF structures are processed into nanofibrous filters (noted as MOFilter) with high MOF loadings (up to 60 wt %). The MOFilters show high PM removal efficiencies up to 88.33 ± 1.52% and 89.67 ± 1.33% for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, in the hazy environment, and the performance remains largely unchanged over 48 h of continuous filtration. For the first time, the interactions between such porous crystalline material and particulate pollutants were explored. These thin MOFilters can further selectively capture and retain SO2 when exposed to a stream of SO2/N2 mixture, and their hierarchical nanostructures can easily permeate fresh air at high gas flow rate with the pressure drop <20 Pa. PMID:27090776

  2. Tuning porosity via control of interpenetration in a zinc isonicotinate metal organic framework

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyamapada Nandi; Ramanathan Vaidhyanathan

    2014-09-01

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous solids formed by linking metal centres or metal clusters by suitable organic ligands capable of generating porosity in the microporous and mesoporous regimes. They have been investigated extensively for their gas storage applications in the last two decades. Interpenetration is nature’s way of avoiding excessive free-space within the large porous networks by growing identical but independent networks within a parent network to decrease the solvent accessible voids and increase stability. A major challenge in MOF synthesis involves minimizing or completely eliminating the extent. In this paper, we report a zinc isonicotinate (or pyridyl-4-carboxylate, 4-PyC) MOF, 1, prepared by tuning the synthesis conditions to minimize interpenetration. The three-fold interpenetration presented in this material is unusual and has been compared to the other zinc isonicotinates to identify the differences contributing to the improved porosity. In addition, the thermal decomposition of 1 in an oxygen-deficient medium has been shown to yield significantly porous carbon embedded with ZnO nanoparticles.

  3. The Role of Locus of Control and Attributional Style in Coping Strategies and Quality of Life among Iranian Breast Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad Goli; Carl Eduard Scheidt; Ali Gholamrezaei; Mahboubeh Farzanegan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The influence of various psychological factors and coping mechanisms on quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients has been well established. We evaluated locus of control and attributional styles, and their association with coping styles and quality of life (QOL) among Iranian cancer patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with breast cancer and patients with colorectal cancer in stage I to III. Patients were assessed for demographic and disease char...

  4. Context moderates illness-induced lifestyle disruptions across life domains: a test of the illness intrusiveness theoretical framework in six common cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Bezjak, Andrea; Mah, Kenneth; Loblaw, D Andrew; Gotowiec, Andrew P

    2006-03-01

    The illness intrusiveness theoretical framework maintains that illness-induced lifestyle disruptions compromise quality of life in chronic life-threatening conditions and that this effect is moderated by social, psychological, and contextual factors. Considerable evidence indicates that lifestyle disruptions compromise quality of life in cancer and other diseases and that the effects differ across life domains. The hypothesis that contextual factors (e.g. age, education, income, stressful life events) moderate these effects has not been tested extensively. We investigated whether age, income, education, and/or recent stressful life events modify the experience of illness intrusiveness across three central life domains (Relationships and Personal Development, Intimacy, and Instrumental life) in six common cancers. A sample of 656 cancer outpatients with one of six common cancers (breast, prostate, lymphoma, lung, head and neck, and gastrointestinal, all n's>100) completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale while awaiting follow-up appointments with an oncologist. Results indicated statistically significant (all p'scancer. The psychosocial impact of chronic life-threatening disease differs across life domains and depends on the context in which it is experienced. PMID:15996006

  5. Metabolomics Analyses of Cancer Cells in Controlled Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Avizonis, Daina; St-Pierre, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex and heterogeneous milieu in which cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to fuel their growth. Cancer cell lines grown in vitro using traditional culture methods represent key experimental models to gain a mechanistic understanding of tumor biology. This protocol describes the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to assess metabolic changes in cancer cells grown under varied levels of oxygen and nutrients that may better mimic the tumor microenvironment. Intracellular metabolite changes, metabolite uptake and release, as well as stable isotope ((13)C) tracer analyses are done in a single experimental setup to provide an integrated understanding of metabolic adaptation. Overall, this chapter describes some essential tools and methods to perform comprehensive metabolomics analyses. PMID:27581029

  6. Risk of esophagus cancer in diabetes mellitus: a population-based case-control study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Kao-Chi; Chen Yu-Lung; Lai Shih-Wei; Tsai Pang-Yao; Sung Fung-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with the cancer risk. This study investigated relationship between DM and esophageal cancer using Taiwan’s insurance data. Methods We identified 549 patients with esophageal cancer newly diagnosed in 2000-2009 and randomly selected 2196 controls without any cancer, frequency matched by sex, age and diagnosis year of cases. Logistic regression model estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of esophageal cancer ...

  7. Controlling micro- and nano-environment of tumor and stem cells for novel research and therapy of brain cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher Lloyd

    The use of modern technologies in cancer research has engendered a great deal of excitement. Many of these advanced approaches involve in-depth mathematical analyses of the inner working of cells, via genomic and proteomic analyses. However these techniques may not be ideal for the study of complex cell phenotypes and behaviors. This dissertation explores cancer and potential therapies through phenotypic analysis of cell behaviors, an alternative approach. We employ this experimental framework to study brain cancer (glioma), a particularly formidable example of this diverse ailment. Through the application of micro- and nanotechnology, we carefully control the surrounding environments of cells to understand their responses to various cues and to manipulate their behaviors. Subsequently we obtain clinically relevant information that allows better understanding of glioma, and enhancement of potential therapies. We first aim to address brain tumor dispersal, through analysis of cell migration. Utilizing nanometer-scale topographic models of the extracellular matrix, we study the migratory response of glioma cells to various stimuli in vitro. Second, we implement knowledge gained from these investigations to define characteristics of tumor progression in patients, and to develop treatments inhibiting cell migration. Next we use microfluidic and nanotopographic models to study the behaviors of stem cells in vitro. Here we attempt to improve their abilities to deliver therapeutic proteins to cancer, an innovative treatment approach. We analyze the multi-step process by which adipose-derived stem cells naturally home to tumor sites, and identify numerous environmental perturbations to enhance this behavior. Finally, we attempt to demonstrate that these cell culture-based manipulations can enhance the localization of adipose stem cells to glioma in vivo using animal models. Throughout this work we utilize environmental cues to analyze and induce particular behaviors in

  8. Controller recovery from equipment failures in air traffic control: A framework for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air Traffic Control (ATC) involves a complex interaction of human operators (primarily air traffic controllers), equipment and procedures. On the rare occasions when equipment malfunctions, controllers play a crucial role in the recovery process of the ATC system for continued safe operation. Research on human performance in other safety critical industries using human reliability assessment techniques has shown that the context in which recovery from failures takes place has a significant influence on the outcome of the process. This paper investigates the importance of context in which air traffic controller recovery from equipment failures takes place, defining it in terms of 20 Recovery Influencing Factors (RIFs). The RIFs are used to develop a novel approach for the quantitative assessment of the recovery context based on a metric referred to as the Recovery Context Indicator (RCI). The method is validated by a series of simulation exercises conducted at a specific ATC Centre. The proposed method is useful to assess recovery enhancement approaches within ATC centres

  9. Exploring Enterprise Systems and Management Control in the Information Society: Developing a Conceptual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikhardsson, Pall M.; Rohde, Carsten; Rom, Anders

    organization as they support and standardize business processes, integrate data, can integrate external business partners into business processes and influence management activities such as planning and control. The main objective of this paper is to add to the limited body of knowledge of the relationship...

  10. Framework for the systematic assessment of a material control and accounting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, R.S.; Sacks, I.J.

    1981-04-22

    Procedures are described for the systematic assessment of a Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) system, in terms of compliance to the proposed MC and A Upgrade Rule. The applicability of these assessment procedures to specific Rule provisions is discussed. Special attention is given to the statistical performance of individual subsystems, and their vulnerability to compromise by insider collusion.

  11. The role of expectancy and proactive control in stress regulation: A neurocognitive framework for regulation expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raedt, Rudi; Hooley, Jill M

    2016-04-01

    When confronted with stressful or emotionally arousing situations, regulatory abilities should allow us to adaptively cope. However, depressed individuals often have a low sense of perceived control and are characterized by a negative expectation bias regarding their ability to deal with future stressful events. Low expectancy concerning the ability to deal with future stressful events may result in less initiation of proactive control, a crucial mechanism of cognitive control reflecting sustained and anticipatory maintenance of goal-relevant information in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to optimize cognitive performance. In this theoretical review we integrate a diverse body of literature. We argue that the expectancy of an individual's regulatory abilities prior to the presentation of an arousing event or stressful task will be related to anticipation and proactive up- or downregulation of specific neurocircuits before the actual encounter with the stressful event occurs, in a manner that can be either adaptive or maladaptive. Moreover, we discuss the important role of self-esteem as well as the ability to accept the situation when coping is not possible. Our approach has implications for a broad range of disorders and conditions in which stress regulation plays a role, and can be used to guide the use of recently developed clinical interventions, as well as to fine-tune interventions to facilitate proactive control. PMID:27064551

  12. Framework for the systematic assessment of a material control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures are described for the systematic assessment of a Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) system, in terms of compliance to the proposed MC and A Upgrade Rule. The applicability of these assessment procedures to specific Rule provisions is discussed. Special attention is given to the statistical performance of individual subsystems, and their vulnerability to compromise by insider collusion

  13. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  14. The potential value of sibling controls compared with population controls for association studies of lifestyle-related risk factors: an example from the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Roger L.; John, Esther M.; Julia A. Knight; Dite, Gillian S; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G.; Apicella, Carmel; West, Dee W.; Andrulis, Irene L; Whittemore, Alice S; Hopper, John L

    2011-01-01

    Background A previous Australian population-based breast cancer case-control study found indirect evidence that control participation, although high, was not random. We hypothesized that unaffected sisters may provide a more appropriate comparison group than unrelated population controls.

  15. An investigation of stochastic cooling in the framework of control theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis provides a description of unbunched beam stochastic cooling in the framework of system theory. The main interest in the investigation is concentrated on the beam stability in an active cooling system. A stochastic cooling system must be considered as a closed-loop, similar to the feedback systems used to damp collective instabilities. These systems, which are able to act upon themselves, are potentially unstable and therefore their stability must be carefully analysed. Assuming a linear transverse cooling interaction, the self-consistent solution for the beam motion is derived by means of a mode analysis of the collective beam motion. Furthermore the calculation treats the pick-up and kicker of the cooling system as localized objects which impose a discrete time structure on the dynamics of the beam particles. This solution then yields a criterion for the stability of each collective mode. The expressions which have been obtained also allow for overlapping frequency bands in the beam spectrum and thus are valid over the entire frequency range. Having established the boundaries of stability in this way, the Fokker-Planck equation is used to describe the cooling process. The drift and diffusion coefficients are derived in the frequency domain taking into account the localization of pick-up and kicker and the sampled nature of the cooling interaction. The Fokker-Planck equation provides a purely statistical description, which does not include collective effects and thus a stable beam must be assumed. Hence the predictions about the cooling process following from the Fokker-Planck equation only make physical sense within the boundaries of beam stability. Finally it is verified that the parameters of the cooling system which give the best cooling results are compatible with the stability of the beam. (orig.)

  16. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  17. Quality control of breast cancer screening in Yokohama city for women in their 40 s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biennial screening mammography for breast cancer detection has been carried out in Yokohama City for women aged 50 years and older since October 2001. In three and a half years 49,795 eligible women have been screened, 123 have been diagnosed as having cancer, and the cancer detection rate has been 0.25%. Since 73% of the diagnosed cancers were classified as stage 0 and I, this screening system is considered to have contributed to improving the prognosis of the examines. With regard to quality control, although the rate of women requiring a detailed re-examination has been reduced significantly from 19.1% to 6.9%, the positive predictive value of less than 4% is still insufficient. It is therefore considered that there are some problems with detailed re-examinations. Since screening mammography for breast cancer was extended to women aged 40-49 years in Yokohama City in July 2005, the rate of cancer not detected by mammography was examined in age cohorts of five years among 138 women who were clinically diagnosed as having breast cancer. Because 12.2% of women aged 44 years and younger had no findings on mammography, and cancer was detected in 87.5% of these women by ultrasonography (US), it is recommended that US should be added to mammography for breast cancer examination at this age. (author)

  18. Lung cancer and environmental radon exposure: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer accounts for approximately 100,000 deaths annually and nearly 30% of these are due to factors other than smoking. The prognosis for lung cancer is very poor and control of this disease depends on the identification and manipulation of etiologic agents. Radon is a demonstrated pulmonary carcinogen among uranium miners and is a ubiquitous environmental agent. This study addresses two principal issues: (a) the assessment of the potential health effects due to radon exposure from radioactive waste disposal in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, and (b) the broader scientific question of the existence of an association between lung cancer and environmental radon exposure. Indoor radon concentrations were taken in the homes of 50 lung cancer cases and 48 ASHD controls as an index of cumulative exposure. The distribution of concentrations was similar among case and control homes. The range of exposures was within background expectations as were lung cancer rates in the area. There was, furthermore, no geographic clustering of cases near the tailings site. Although an association between lung cancer and environmental radon exposure cannot be ruled out, the evidence suggests that radon exposure due to the disposal of tailings did not have a significant impact on the health of the residents living in the area and that indoor radon is not an important lung cancer risk factor at concentrations less than about 4pCi/I

  19. Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, C.; Maconochie, N.; Fraser, P.; Davies, G. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (United Kingdom)); Beral, V. (Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1993-11-27

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between risk of prostatic cancer and occupational exposures, especially to radionuclides, in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Risk of prostatic cancer was significantly increased in men who were internally contaminated with or who worked in environments potentially contaminated by tritium, chromium-51, iron-59, cobalt-60, or zinc-65. Internal contamination with at least one of the five radionuclides was detected in 14 men with prostatic cancer (10%) and 12 controls (3%) (relative risk 5.32 (95% confidence interval 1.87 to 17.24). Altogether 28 men with prostatic cancer (21%) and 46 controls (11%) worked in environments potentially contaminated by at least one of the five radionuclides (relative risk 2.36 (1.26 to 4.43)); about two thirds worked at heavy water reactors (19 men with prostatic cancer and 32 controls (relative risk 2.13 (1.00 to 4.52)). Relative risk of prostatic cancer increased with increasing duration of work in places potentially contaminated by these radionuclides and with increasing level of probable contamination. Prostatic cancer was not associated with exposure to plutonium, uranium, cadmium, boron, beryllium, or organic or inorganic chemicals. (Author).

  20. A novel conceptual framework for balance training in Parkinson’s disease-study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conradsson David

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing scientific knowledge about the interaction between physiological (musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, cognitive and sensory systems and their influence on balance and walking impairments in Parkinson’s disease. We have developed a new conceptual framework for balance training, emphasising specific components of balance control related to Parkinson’s disease symptoms by using highly challenging, progressive and varying training conditions. The primary aim of this proposed randomised controlled trial will be to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of a 10-week balance training regime in elderly with Parkinson’s disease. Methods/Design Eighty participants with mild to moderate idiopathic Parkinson’s disease will be recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group receiving balance training or a control group whose participants will continue to receive their usual care. The intervention will consist of a 10-week group training regime (1-hour training, three times per week, which will be led by two physiotherapists to ensure training progression and safety. The conceptual framework will be applied by addressing specific balance components (sensory integration, anticipatory postural adjustments, motor agility, stability limits through varying training conditions and structured progression. Assessment will be conducted through a multi-dimensional battery of outcomes, prior to and immediately after the 10-week intervention, and at 9 and 15 months’ follow-up after entering the study. Primary outcome measures will be balance performance (assessed using the Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test, change in gait velocity (m/s between single and dual task walking, and fear of falling (evaluated using the Fall Efficacy Scale International. Discussion This study has the potential to provide new insight and knowledge of the effects of specific, varied and challenging balance training on a wide

  1. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer inci...

  2. Red meat-derived heterocyclic amines increase risk of colon cancer: a population-based case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Helmus, Drew S.; Thompson, Cheryl L.; Zelenskiy, Svetlana; Tucker, Thomas C.; Li LI

    2013-01-01

    Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is one pathway believed to drive the association of colon cancer with meat consumption. Limited data exist on the associations of individual HCAs and PAHs in red or white meat with colon cancer. Analyzing data from a validated meat preparation questionnaire completed by 1,062 incident colon cancer cases and 1,645 population controls from an ongoing case-control study, risks of colon cancer were estim...

  3. Atorvastatin correlates with decreased risk of esophageal cancer: a population-based case–control study from Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of statins and esophageal cancer in Taiwan.Methods: We designed a case–control study using database from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program. In all, 549 patients (cases) aged 20 years or older diagnosed recently with esophageal cancer, from 2000 to 2009, and 2,196 subjects (controls) without esophageal cancer participated in this study. The association between esophageal cancer and the use of statins an...

  4. Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Paddock Lisa E; Chandran Urmila; King Melony; Bandera Elisa V; Rodriguez-Rodriguez Lorna; Olson Sara H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (C...

  5. Designing a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method: a case study from central Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene McNaughton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Wolbachia strategy aims to manipulate mosquito populations to make them incapable of transmitting dengue viruses between people. To test its efficacy, this strategy requires field trials. Public consultation and engagement are recognized as critical to the future success of these programs, but questions remain regarding how to proceed. This paper reports on a case study where social research was used to design a community engagement framework for a new dengue control method, at a potential release site in central Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The approach described here, draws on an anthropological methodology and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to design an engagement framework tailored to the concerns, expectations, and socio-political setting of a potential trial release site for Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The process, research activities, key findings and how these were responded to are described. Safety of the method to humans and the environment was the most common and significant concern, followed by efficacy and impact on local lives. Residents expected to be fully informed and engaged about the science, the project, its safety, the release and who would be responsible should something go wrong. They desired a level of engagement that included regular updates and authorization from government and at least one member of every household at the release site. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results demonstrate that social research can provide important and reliable insights into public concerns and expectations at a potential release site, as well as guidance on how these might be addressed. Findings support the argument that using research to develop more targeted, engagement frameworks can lead to more sensitive, thorough, culturally comprehensible and therefore ethical consultation processes. This approach has now been used successfully to seek public input and eventually support for

  6. An Integration Framework Tool for ATCA Chassis in the ATLAS Detector Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert Graham

    2015-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is scheduled to undergo a major upgrade in 2022. The ATLAS collaboration will do major modifications to the detector to account for the increased luminosity. More specifically, a large proportion of the current front-end electronics, on the Tile Calorimeter sub-detector, will be upgraded and relocated to the backend. A Demonstrator program has been established as a proof of principle. A new system will be required to house, manage and connect this new hardware. The proposed solution will be an Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) which will not only house but also allow advanced management features and control at a hardware level by integrating the ATCA chassis into the Detector Control System.

  7. The strategies to control prostate cancer by chemoprevention approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the United States with growing worldwide incidence. Despite intensive investment in improving early detection, PCA often escapes timely detection and mortality remains high; this malignancy being the second highest cancer-associated mortality in American men. Collectively, health care costs of PCA results in an immense financial burden that is only expected to grow. Additionally, even in cases of successful treatment, PCA is associated with long-term and pervasive effects on patients. A proactive alternative to treat PCA is to prevent its occurrence and progression prior to symptomatic malignancy. This may serve to address the issue of burgeoning healthcare costs and increasing number of sufferers. One potential regimen in service of this alternative is PCA chemoprevention. Here, chemical compounds with cancer preventive efficacy are identified on the basis of their potential in a host of categories: their historical medicinal use, correlation with reduced risk in population studies, non-toxicity, their unique chemical properties, or their role in biological systems. PCA chemopreventive agents are drawn from multiple broad classes of chemicals, themselves further subdivided based on source or potential effect, with most derived from natural products. Many such compounds have shown efficacy, varying from inhibiting deregulated PCA cell signaling, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, metastasis, tumor growth and angiogenesis and inducing apoptosis. Overall, these chemopreventive agents show great promise in PCA pre-clinical models, though additional work remains to be done in effectively translating these findings into clinical use

  8. Eat for health: a nutrition and cancer control supermarket intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Luise; Tenney, Janet; Portnoy, Barry; Kessler, Larry; Rodgers, Anne Brown; Patterson, Blossom; Mathews, Odonna; Katz, Eileen; Blair, Joan E.; Evans, Shirley King; Tuckermanty, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The growing evidence linking dietary patterns to the incidence and prevention of chronic disease has prompted a number of prominent health and scientific agencies to publish dietary guidelines for the public. Some dietary guidelines address specific diseases, such as cancer or heart disease; others focus on overall health promotion. This situation has created a demand for nutrition education and information programs for the public.

  9. Cancer Control and Prevention by Nutrition and Epigenetic Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epigenetics involves alterations in gene expression without changing the nucleotide sequence. Because some epigenetic changes can be reversed chemically, epigenetics has tremendous implications for disease intervention and treatment. Recent Advances: After epigenetic components in cancer were characterized, genes and pathways are being characterized in other diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and neurological disorders. Observational, experimental, and clinical studies in diffe...

  10. The strategies to control prostate cancer by chemoprevention approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Harold [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the United States with growing worldwide incidence. Despite intensive investment in improving early detection, PCA often escapes timely detection and mortality remains high; this malignancy being the second highest cancer-associated mortality in American men. Collectively, health care costs of PCA results in an immense financial burden that is only expected to grow. Additionally, even in cases of successful treatment, PCA is associated with long-term and pervasive effects on patients. A proactive alternative to treat PCA is to prevent its occurrence and progression prior to symptomatic malignancy. This may serve to address the issue of burgeoning healthcare costs and increasing number of sufferers. One potential regimen in service of this alternative is PCA chemoprevention. Here, chemical compounds with cancer preventive efficacy are identified on the basis of their potential in a host of categories: their historical medicinal use, correlation with reduced risk in population studies, non-toxicity, their unique chemical properties, or their role in biological systems. PCA chemopreventive agents are drawn from multiple broad classes of chemicals, themselves further subdivided based on source or potential effect, with most derived from natural products. Many such compounds have shown efficacy, varying from inhibiting deregulated PCA cell signaling, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, metastasis, tumor growth and angiogenesis and inducing apoptosis. Overall, these chemopreventive agents show great promise in PCA pre-clinical models, though additional work remains to be done in effectively translating these findings into clinical use.

  11. A Computational Framework for Control of Machining System Capability : From Formulation to Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Archenti, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge and information about the static and dynamic behaviour of machine tools, cutting processes and their interaction is essential for machining system design, simulation, control and robust operation in safe conditions. The very complex system of a machine tool, fixture and cutting tools during the machining of a part is almost impossible to model analytically with sufficient accuracy. In combination with increasing demands for precision and efficiency in machining call fo...

  12. A mathematical modelling framework for elucidating the role of feedback control in translation termination

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Eric; Krishnan, J.; Betney, Russell; Stansfield, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Translation is the final stage of gene expression where messenger RNA is used as a template for protein polymerisation from appropriate amino acids. Release of the completed protein requires a release factor protein acting at the termination/stop codon to liberate it. In this paper we focus on a complex feedback control mechanism involved in the translation and synthesis of release factor proteins, which has been observed in different systems. These release factor proteins are involved in the...

  13. A Framework for Coupling Visual Control and Active Structure from Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Spica, Riccardo; Robuffo Giordano, Paolo; Chaumette, François

    2015-01-01

    International audience In most sensor-based robotic applications, the robot state can only be partially retrieved from onboard sensors and the use of estimation strategies is necessary for recovering online an approximation of any 'missing information' required to accurately control the robot action. With the exception of some trivial cases, however, the relationship between the sensor readings and the robot state is often nonlinear. As a consequence, and regardless of the particular estim...

  14. On designing a framework for distributed real-time embedded control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Orlic, B.; Broenink, J. F.; Swevers, J.; Lauwerys, C.

    2003-01-01

    Closed loop control systems are in essence parallel and distributed. But when implementing this parallelism in software, lot of obstacles concerning multithreading communication and synchronization issues arise. Using multithreading in safe and structured way is possible if the program is built such that it can be checked using some formal mathematical algebra (e.g. CSP). Fortunately, several formal checking tools and libraries implementing CSP based constructs are available for most widely u...

  15. A biomimetic framework for coordinating and controlling whole body movements in humanoid robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasso, Pietro; Rea, Francesco; Mohan, Vishwanathan

    2013-01-01

    An integrated model for the coordination of whole body movements of a humanoid robot with a compliant ankle similar to the human case is described. It includes a synergy formation part, which takes into account the motor redundancy of the body model, and an intermittent controller, which stabilizes in a robust way postural sway movements, thus combining the hip strategy with ankle strategy. PMID:24110934

  16. Development of a framework to estimate human error for diagnosis tasks in advanced control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, In Seok; Seong, Proong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In the emergency situation of nuclear power plants (NPPs), a diagnosis of the occurring events is crucial for managing or controlling the plant to a safe and stable condition. If the operators fail to diagnose the occurring events or relevant situations, their responses can eventually inappropriate or inadequate Accordingly, huge researches have been performed to identify the cause of diagnosis error and estimate the probability of diagnosis error. D.I Gertman et al. asserted that 'the cognitive failures stem from erroneous decision-making, poor understanding of rules and procedures, and inadequate problem solving and this failures may be due to quality of data and people's capacity for processing information'. Also many researchers have asserted that human-system interface (HSI), procedure, training and available time are critical factors to cause diagnosis error. In nuclear power plants, a diagnosis of the event is critical for safe condition of the system. As advanced main control room is being adopted in nuclear power plants, the operators may obtain the plant data via computer-based HSI and procedure. Also many researchers have asserted that HSI, procedure, training and available time are critical factors to cause diagnosis error. In this regards, using simulation data, diagnosis errors and its causes were identified. From this study, some useful insights to reduce diagnosis errors of operators in advanced main control room were provided.

  17. A TCP/IP framework for ethernet-based measurement, control and experiment data distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaya, R. O.; Minny, J.

    2010-11-01

    A complete modular but scalable TCP/IP based scientific instrument control and data distribution system has been designed and realized. The system features an IEEE 802.3 compliant 10 Mbps Medium Access Controller (MAC) and Physical Layer Device that is suitable for the full-duplex monitoring and control of various physically widespread measurement transducers in the presence of a local network infrastructure. The cumbersomeness of exchanging and synchronizing data between the various transducer units using physical storage media led to the choice of TCP/IP as a logical alternative. The system and methods developed are scalable for broader usage over the Internet. The system comprises a PIC18f2620 and ENC28j60 based hardware and a software component written in C, Java/Javascript and Visual Basic.NET programming languages for event-level monitoring and browser user-interfaces respectively. The system exchanges data with the host network through IPv4 packets requested and received on a HTTP page. It also responds to ICMP echo, UDP and ARP requests through a user selectable integrated DHCP and static IPv4 address allocation scheme. The round-trip time, throughput and polling frequency are estimated and reported. A typical application to temperature monitoring and logging is also presented.

  18. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel Ruthann A; Aschengrau Ann; Zota Ami R; Brody Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  19. A Flexible Spatial Framework for Modeling Spread of Pathogens in Animals with Biosurveillance and Disease Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiago X. LaBute

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biosurveillance activities focus on acquiring and analyzing epidemiological and biological data to interpret unfolding events and predict outcomes in infectious disease outbreaks. We describe a mathematical modeling framework based on geographically aligned data sources and with appropriate flexibility that partitions the modeling of disease spread into two distinct but coupled levels. A top-level stochastic simulation is defined on a network with nodes representing user-configurable geospatial “patches”. Intra-patch disease spread is treated with differential equations that assume uniform mixing within the patch. We use U.S. county-level aggregated data on animal populations and parameters from the literature to simulate epidemic spread of two strikingly different animal diseases agents: foot-and-mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Results demonstrate the capability of this framework to leverage low-fidelity data while producing meaningful output to inform biosurveillance and disease control measures. For example, we show that the possible magnitude of an outbreak is sensitive to the starting location of the outbreak, highlighting the strong geographic dependence of livestock and poultry infectious disease epidemics and the usefulness of effective biosurveillance policy. The ability to compare different diseases and host populations across the geographic landscape is important for decision support applications and for assessing the impact of surveillance, detection, and mitigation protocols.

  20. Conformational diversity of flexible ligand in metal-organic frameworks controlled by size-matching mixed ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xiu-Ni; Qin, Lan; Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Yu, Lei; Xie, Yi-Xin; Han, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of N-auxiliary flexible exo-bidentate ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) and carboxylates ligands naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H2ndc) or 4,4‧-(hydroxymethylene)dibenzoic acid (H2hmdb), in the presence of cadmium(II) salts have given rise to two novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands (FL-MOFs), namely, [Cd2(2,6-ndc)2(bpp)(DMF)]·2DMF (1) and [Cd3(hmdb)3(bpp)]·2DMF·2EtOH (2) (DMF=N,N-Dimethylformamide). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that compound 1 exhibits a three-dimensional self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster second building unit. Compound 2 displays an infinite three-dimensional 'Lucky Clover' shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster and V-shaped organic linkers. The flexible bpp ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which are successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process.

  1. Common ataxia telangiectasia mutated haplotypes and risk of breast cancer: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is a tumor suppressor gene with functions in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Based on family studies, women heterozygous for mutations in the ATM gene are reported to have a fourfold to fivefold increased risk of breast cancer compared with noncarriers of the mutations, although not all studies have confirmed this association. Haplotype analysis has been suggested as an efficient method for investigating the role of common variation in the ATM gene and breast cancer. Five biallelic haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms are estimated to capture 99% of the haplotype diversity in Caucasian populations. We conducted a nested case–control study of breast cancer within the Nurses' Health Study cohort to address the role of common ATM haplotypes and breast cancer. Cases and controls were genotyped for five haplotype tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms. Haplotypes were predicted for 1309 cases and 1761 controls for which genotype information was available. Six unique haplotypes were predicted in this study, five of which occur at a frequency of 5% or greater. The overall distribution of haplotypes was not significantly different between cases and controls (χ2 = 3.43, five degrees of freedom, P = 0.63). There was no evidence that common haplotypes of ATM are associated with breast cancer risk. Extensive single nucleotide polymorphism detection using the entire genomic sequence of ATM will be necessary to rule out less common variation in ATM and sporadic breast cancer risk

  2. Control-rod parametrical studies in the framework of the PRE-RACINE and RACINE programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control-rod experimental program is presented. This program, established in the frame of PRE-RACINE and RACINE common DEBENE, Italian and French experiments at MASURCA facility, is still under progress at the moment. The results, limited to single central rod worth are already available. For these experiments, a parametrical approach has been used. The effects of rod worth, varied separatly by rod side, boron enrichment and core size, on experiment to calculation relative discrepancy (E-C)/C can be drawn out

  3. A Generic Framework for Systematic Design of Process Monitoring and Control System for Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Sin, Gürkan;

    Crystallization processes have a wide range of application as a solid-liquid separation technique in the chemical, the pharmaceutical and the food industries, due to the fact that high quality crystalline products can be produced. The main specifications of the crystal product are usually given in...... desired target CSD. The generated operational policies provide the supersaturation set point and by maintaining the operation at this point, the targeted CSD is achieved. The resulting problem-system specific models and the operational policies become ready for use in model-based design and control/analysis...

  4. Layer-component-based communication stack framework for wireless residential control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, Rune Sonnich; Hjorth, Theis

    2010-01-01

    nodes such as bridges, controllers, sensor/actuators - as well as secure communication between them. A special messaging system facilitates inter-component communication, and a Virtual Port Service protocol enables resource addressing. The end-devices in the heterogeneous network are made accessible on...... a common IP infrastructure, regardless of individual wireless technology. Legacy home automation devices are also supported. A prototype has been implemented on multiple resource-constrained hardware platforms, to demonstrate that the solution is both feasible for low-cost devices and portable. It...

  5. Layer-component-based communication stack framework for wireless residential control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, R.; Hjorth, Theis S.

    2011-01-01

    nodes such as bridges, controllers, sensor/actuators – as well as secure communication between them. A special messaging system facilitates inter-component communication, and a Virtual Port Service protocol enables resource addressing. The end-devices in the heterogeneous network are made accessible on...... a common IP infrastructure, regardless of individual wireless technology. Legacy home automation devices are also supported. A prototype has been implemented on multiple resource-constrained hardware platforms, to demonstrate that the solution is both feasible for low-cost devices and portable. It...

  6. A Domain-specific Framework for Automated Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    elaborate safety mechanisms in order to keep the risk at the same low level that has been established for European railways until today. The challenge is further increased by the demand for shorter time-to-market periods and higher competition among suppliers of the railway domain; both factors resulting in...... a demand for a higher degree of automation for the development verification, validation and test phases of projects, without impairing the thoroughness of safety-related quality measures and certification activities. Motivated by these considerations, this presentation describes an approach for...... automated construction and verification of railway control systems....

  7. A Pre-Clinical Framework for Neural Control of a Therapeutic Upper-Limb Exoskeleton

    OpenAIRE

    Blank, Amy; O’Malley, Marcia K.; Francisco, Gerard E.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize a novel approach to robotic rehabilitation that capitalizes on the benefits of patient intent and real-time assessment of impairment. Specifically, an upper-limb, physical human-robot interface (the MAHI EXO-II robotic exoskeleton) is augmented with a non-invasive brain-machine interface (BMI) to include the patient in the control loop, thereby making the therapy ‘active’ and engaging patients across a broad spectrum of impairment severity in the rehabilitation tas...

  8. Circulating C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Risks of Colon and Rectal Cancer : A Nested Case-Control Study Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jenab, Mazda; Boeing, Heiner; Jansen, Eugene; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Rinaldi, Sabina; Riboli, Elio; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Morois, Sophie; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; van Duijnhoven, Fraenzel J. B.; Leufkens, Anke M.; Peeters, Petra H.; Rodriguez, Laudina; Bonet, Catalina; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Dorronsoro, Miren; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Palmqvist, Richard; Hallmans, Goran; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi E.; Spencer, Elizabeth; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Pischon, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using

  9. Modelling lymphatic filariasis transmission and control: modelling frameworks, lessons learned and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, Wilma A; Stone, Chris; de Vlas, Sake J

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical modelling provides a useful tool for policy making and planning in lymphatic filariasis control programmes, by providing trend forecasts based on sound scientific knowledge and principles. This is now especially true, in view of the ambitious target to eliminate lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem globally by the year 2020 and the short remaining timeline to achieve this. To meet this target, elimination programmes need to be accelerated, requiring further optimization of strategies and tailoring to local circumstances. Insights from epidemiological transmission models provide a useful basis. Two general models of lymphatic filariasis transmission and control are nowadays in use to support decision-making, namely a population-based deterministic model (EPIFIL) and an individual-based stochastic model (LYMFASIM). Model predictions confirm that lymphatic filariasis transmission can be interrupted by annual mass drug administration (MDA), but this may need to be continued much longer than the initially suggested 4-6 years in areas with high transmission intensity or poor treatment coverage. However, the models have not been validated against longitudinal data describing the impact of MDA programmes. Some critical issues remain to be incorporated in one or both of the models to make predictions on elimination more realistic, including the possible occurrence of systematic noncompliance, the risk of emerging parasite resistance to anthelmintic drugs, and spatial heterogeneities. Rapid advances are needed to maximize the utility of models in decision-making for the ongoing ambitious lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes. PMID:25765197

  10. Nanoparticle Cookies Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks: Controlled Synthesis and Application in Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhai; Chen, Minqi; Xie, Yanyu; Fan, Yanan; Wang, Dawei; Jiang, Ji-Jun; Li, Yongguang; Grützmacher, Hansjörg; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-05-01

    The capacity of anode materials plays a critical role in the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Using the nanocrystals of oxygen-free metal-organic framework ZIF-67 as precursor, a one-step calcination approach toward the controlled synthesis of CoO nanoparticle cookies with excellent anodic performances is developed in this work. The CoO nanoparticle cookies feature highly porous structure composed of small CoO nanoparticles (≈12 nm in diameter) and nitrogen-rich graphitic carbon matrix (≈18 at% in nitrogen content). Benefiting from such unique structure, the CoO nanoparticle cookies are capable of delivering superior specific capacity and cycling stability (1383 mA h g(-1) after 200 runs at 100 mA g(-1) ) over those of CoO and graphite. PMID:26948965

  11. Computation of eigenvalue sensitivity to base flow modifications in a discrete framework: Application to open-loop control

    CERN Document Server

    Mettot, Clément; Sipp, Denis

    2014-01-01

    A fully discrete formalism is introduced to perform stability analysis of a turbulent compressible flow whom dynamics is modeled with the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The discrete equations are linearized using finite differences and the Jacobian is computed using repeated evaluation of the residuals. Stability of the flow is assessed solving an eigenvalue problem. The sensitivity gradients which indicate regions of the flow where a passive control device could stabilize the unstable eigenvalues are defined within this fully discrete framework. Second order finite differences are applied to the discrete residual to compute the gradients. In particular, the sensitivity gradients are shown to be linked to the Hessian of the RANS equations. The introduced formalism and linearization method are generic: the code used to evaluate the residual of the RANS equations can be used in a black box manner, and the complex linearization of the Hessian is avoided. The method is tested on a two dimension...

  12. 75 FR 57472 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC): Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the...

  13. A Possible Association between Melanoma and Prostate Cancer. Results from a Case-Control-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Goldenberg

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma and prostate cancer are the fifth and first most common cancers in men within the United States, respectively. The association between the two cancers lies in the mutual androgen-dependence. However, the relationship between prostate cancer history and melanoma development remains to be further elucidated. We aim to determine the odds of history of prostate cancer among men with melanoma as compared to time-frame, clinic, and provider-matched controls without melanoma within a single academic surgical center. We present a case-control study comparing men treated for melanoma and non-melanoma cancer by a single provider between 2010 and 2014 within an academic dermatologic surgical center. Overall, there were nine cases of prostate cancer among the melanoma group and two cases amongst the controls—a statistically significant difference in both uni- and multivariable analyses (p = 0.057 [95% CI 1, 23.5], p = 0.042 [95% CI 1.1, 129], respectively. Body mass index, alcohol use, and skin type II were significant risk factors for melanoma (p = 0.011 [95% CI 1, 1.3], 0.005 [95% CI 1.4, 7], 0.025 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3], respectively. There were more immunosuppressed controls (p = 0.002; however, the melanoma patients had a significantly longer duration of immunosuppression (11.6 vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.03, 0.5]. Melanoma screenings for men should include questions on prostate cancer history. Prostate cancer patients may benefit from more frequent and comprehensive melanoma screening.

  14. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  15. Control of cancer growth using single input autonomous fuzzy Nano-particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Razmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a single input fuzzy controller is applied on autonomous drug-encapsulated nanoparticles (ADENPs to restrict the cancer growth. The proposed ADENPs, swarmly release the drug in local cancerous tissue and effectively decreases the destruction of normal tissue. The amount of released drug is defined considering to feed backed values of tumor growth rate and the used drug. Some significant characteristics of Nano particles compared to Nano-robots is their ability to recognize the cancerous tissue from the normal one and their simple structure. Nano particles became an attractive topic in Nano science and many efforts have been done to manufacture these particles. Simulation results show that the proposed controlling method not only decreases the cancerous tissue effectively but also reduces the side effects of drug impressively.

  16. Curcumin: a Polyphenol with Molecular Targets for Cancer Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Naqvi, Syeda Tahira Qousain; Muhammad, Syed Aun

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, is a polyphenol from Curcuma longa (turmeric plant), is a polyphenol that belongs to the ginger family which has long been used in Ayurveda medicines to treat various diseases such as asthma, anorexia, coughing, hepatic diseases, diabetes, heart diseases, wound healing and Alzheimer's. Various studies have shown that curcumin has anti-infectious, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, thrombosuppressive, cardio protective, anti-arthritic, chemo preventive and anti-carcinogenic activities. It may suppress both initiation and progression stages of cancer. Anticancer activity of curcumin is due to negative regulation of inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors, protein kinases, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oncogenes. This review focuses on the different targets of curcumin to treat cancer. PMID:27356682

  17. Stress/strain Modelling of Casting Processes in the Framework of the Control-Volume Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper; Andersen, Søren

    1998-01-01

    Realistic computer simulations of casting processes call for the solution of both thermal, fluid-flow and stress/strain related problems. The multitude of the influencing parameters, and their non-linear, transient and temperature dependent nature, make the calculations complex. Therefore the need...... domain, which is highly convenient. The basis of the method is the control volume finite difference approach on structured meshes. The basic assumptions of the method are shortly reviewed and discussed. As for other methods which aim at application oriented analysis of casting deformations and stresses......, the present model is based on the mainly decoupled representation of the thermal, mechanical and microstructural processes. Examples of industrial applications, such as predicting residual deformations in castings and stress levels in die casting dies, are presented...

  18. Palliative care -- an essential component of cancer control

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, N.

    1998-01-01

    Unlike in other nations, in Canada palliative care has its origins in university hospitals. It has subsequently developed in a few Canadian schools as an academic discipline closely linked with oncology programs. Although this model is successful, other faculties of medicine and cancer centres have been slow to emulate it. Today, the situation is rapidly changing, and both palliative care and oncology professionals are re-examining the manifest need for collaborative efforts in patient care, ...

  19. Molecular characterization of the stomach microbiota in patients with gastric cancer and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicksved, J.; Lindberg, M.; Rosenquist, M.; Enroth, H.; Jansson, J.K.; Engstrand, L.

    2009-01-15

    Persistent infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, can initiate an inflammatory cascade that progresses into atrophic gastritis, a condition associated with reduced capacity for secretion of gastric acid and an increased risk in developing gastric cancer. The role of H. pylori as an initiator of inflammation is evident but the mechanism for development into gastric cancer has not yet been proven. A reduced capacity for gastric acid secretion allows survival and proliferation of other microbes that normally are killed by the acidic environment. It has been postulated that some of these species may be involved in the development of gastric cancer, however their identities are poorly defined. In this study, the gastric microbiota from ten patients with gastric cancer was characterized and compared with five dyspeptic controls using the molecular profiling approach, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in combination with 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. T-RFLP analysis revealed a complex bacterial community in the cancer patients that was not significantly different from the controls. Sequencing of 140 clones revealed 102 phylotypes, with representatives from five bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria). The data revealed a relatively low abundance of H. pylori and showed that the gastric cancer microbiota was instead dominated by different species of the genera Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Prevotella. The respective role of these species in development of gastric cancer remains to be determined.

  20. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors in men: a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Antonio Varo; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Díaz-Molina, Carmen; Requena Tapia, Maria José; Abdel-Rahman, Amira Gamal; Navajas, Rafael Fernández-Crehuet

    2006-12-01

    The rising incidence of urinary bladder cancer is alarming and potential relationships with different risk factors have been postulated. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible relationship between different environmental risk factors and urinary bladder cancer. All men with urinary bladder cancer who were admitted to the Department of Urology of Reina Sofia University Hospital of Cordoba, Spain over 1 year were included in our study. Men were administered an interview questionnaire, which included data on history of known urinary bladder cancer risk factors. Comparisons between men with urinary bladder cancer (cases) and those with nonmalignant urological disease (controls) were made. The study included 74 cases and 89 controls. The variables associated with malignant lesions on univariate analysis were age, smoking and drinking alcohol. Meanwhile, fish, poultry and beef consumption were proved to be protective factors. The risk factors identified by the logistic regression analysis were age, smoking and fluid intake. The independent protective factors on the multivariate analysis were fish and poultry consumptions. Smoking was found to be the principal independent risk factors for urinary bladder cancer. Our results call for further investigation of urinary bladder cancer risk factors; future studies should preferably be performed on large prospective cohorts, to increase their validity. PMID:17106329