WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer cohort consortium

  1. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  2. PanScan, the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium, and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium consists of more than a dozen prospective epidemiologic cohort studies within the NCI Cohort Consortium, whose leaders work together to investigate the etiology and natural history of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium collaborates with three genomic facilities, epidemiologists, population geneticists, and biostatisticians from multiple institutions to study hormone-related gene variants and environmental factors in breast and prostate cancers.

  4. NCI Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies.

  5. NCI Cohort Consortium Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Cohort Consortium membership is international and includes investigators responsible for more than 40 high-quality cohorts who are studying large and diverse populations in more than 15 different countries.

  6. Burden of cancer in a large consortium of prospective cohorts in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Tsilidis, KK; Papadimitriou, N; Capothanassi, D; Bamia, C.; Benetou, V; Jenab, M; Freisling, H; Kee, F.; Nelen, A; O'Doherty, MG; Scott, A.; Soerjomataram, I; Tjønneland, A; May, AM; Ramón Quirós, J

    2016-01-01

    Disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) are an indicator of mortality, morbidity, and disability. We calculated DALYs for cancer in middle-aged and older adults participating in the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) consortium.A total of 90 199 participants from five European cohorts with 10 455 incident cancers and 4399 deaths were included in this study. DALYs were calculated as the sum of the years of life lost because of premature ...

  7. Coordinating centers in cancer epidemiology research: the Asia Cohort Consortium coordinating center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Betsy; Smith, Briana R; Potter, John D

    2011-10-01

    Although it is tacitly recognized that a good coordinating center (CC) is essential to the success of any multisite collaborative project, very little study has been done on what makes a CC successful, why some CCs fail, or how to build a CC that meets the needs of a given project. Moreover, very little published guidance is available, as few CCs outside the clinical trial realm write about their work. The Asia Cohort Consortium (ACC) is a collaborative cancer epidemiology research project that has made strong scientific and organizational progress over the past 3 years by focusing its CC on the following activities: collaboration development; operations management; statistical and data management; and communications infrastructure and tool development. Our hope is that, by sharing our experience building the ACC CC, we can begin a conversation about what it means to run a CC for multi-institutional collaboration in cancer epidemiology, help other collaborative projects solve some of the issues associated with collaborative research, and learn from others. PMID:21803842

  8. Anthropometric Measures, Body Mass Index and Pancreatic Cancer: a Pooled Analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Alan A.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Kooperberg, Charles; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Steplowski, Emily; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gross, Myron D.; Jacobs, Eric J.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Amundadottir, Laufey; Bamlet, William R.; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bingham, Sheila A.; Boeing, Heiner; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Clipp, Sandra; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Kraft, Peter; Lynch, Shannon M.; Manjer, Jonas; Manson, JoAnn E.; McTiernan, Anne; McWilliams, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Michaud, Dominique S.; Palli, Domenico; Rohan, Thomas E.; Slimani, Nadia; Thomas, Gilles; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Patel, Alpa V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pooled data were analyzed from the NCI Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) to study the association between pre-diagnostic anthropometric measures and risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods PanScan applied a nested case-control study design and included 2,170 cases and 2,209 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression for cohort-specific quartiles of body mass index (BMI), weight, height, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), as well as conventional BMI categories: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese (30.0-34.9 kg/m2), and severely obese (≥35.0 kg/m2). Models were adjusted for potential confounders. Results Among all subjects, a positive association between increasing BMI and risk of pancreatic cancer was observed (adjusted OR for the highest vs. lowest BMI quartile = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.12-1.58, Ptrend < 0.001). Among men, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest vs. lowest quartile of BMI was 1.33 (95% CI = 1.04-1.69, Ptrend <0.03). Among women, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest quartile of BMI was 1.34 (95% CI = 1.05-1.70, Ptrend = 0.01). Increased WHR was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer among women (adjusted OR for the highest vs. lowest quartile = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.31-2.69, Ptrend = 0.003) but less so in men. Conclusion The findings provide strong support for a positive association between BMI and pancreatic cancer risk. In addition, centralized fat distribution may increase pancreatic cancer risk, especially in women. PMID:20458087

  9. Post-GWAS gene–environment interplay in breast cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium and a meta-analysis on 79 000 women

    OpenAIRE

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Joshi, Amit D.; Ruth C Travis; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Auer, Paul L.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia; Diver, W Ryan; Brian E Henderson; Haiman, Christopher A.; Fredrick R Schumacher; Le Marchand, Loïc; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the interplay between 39 breast cancer (BC) risk SNPs and established BC risk (body mass index, height, age at menarche, parity, age at menopause, smoking, alcohol and family history of BC) and prognostic factors (TNM stage, tumor grade, tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status) as joint determinants of BC risk. We used a nested case–control design within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC...

  10. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR) in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3). We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS) in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II), European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and Women's Health Study (WHS). Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone) were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians

  12. Interactions between breast cancer susceptibility loci and menopausal hormone therapy in relationship to breast cancer in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Barrdahl, Myrto; Lindström, Sara; Travis, Ruth C; Auer, Paul L; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Eliassen, A Heather; Gapstur, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Gunter, Marc; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Peeters, Petra H M; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Yang, Xiaohong R; Prentice, Ross L; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Canzian, Federico; Kraft, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Current use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has important implications for postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and observed associations might be modified by known breast cancer susceptibility loci. To provide the most comprehensive assessment of interactions of prospectively collected data on MHT and 17 confirmed susceptibility loci with invasive breast cancer risk, a nested case-control design among eight cohorts within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium was used. Based on data from 13,304 cases and 15,622 controls, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Effect modification of current and past use was evaluated on the multiplicative scale. P values <1.5 × 10(-3) were considered statistically significant. The strongest evidence of effect modification was observed for current MHT by 9q31-rs865686. Compared to never users of MHT with the rs865686 GG genotype, the association between current MHT use and breast cancer risk for the TT genotype (OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.43-2.24; P interaction = 1.2 × 10(-4)) was less than expected on the multiplicative scale. There are no biological implications of the sub-multiplicative interaction between MHT and rs865686. Menopausal hormone therapy is unlikely to have a strong interaction with the common genetic variants associated with invasive breast cancer. PMID:26802016

  13. AGRICOH: A Consortium of Agricultural Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia H. Zahm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AGRICOH is a recently formed consortium of agricultural cohort studies involving 22 cohorts from nine countries in five continents: South Africa (1, Canada (3, Costa Rica (2, USA (6, Republic of Korea (1, New Zealand (2, Denmark (1, France (3 and Norway (3. The aim of AGRICOH, initiated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI and coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, is to promote and sustain collaboration and pooling of data to investigate the association between a wide range of agricultural exposures and a wide range of health outcomes, with a particular focus on associations that cannot easily be addressed in individual studies because of rare exposures (e.g., use of infrequently applied chemicals or relatively rare outcomes (e.g., certain types of cancer, neurologic and auto-immune diseases. To facilitate future projects the need for data harmonization of selected variables is required and is underway. Altogether, AGRICOH provides excellent opportunities for studying cancer, respiratory, neurologic, and auto-immune diseases as well as reproductive and allergic disorders, injuries and overall mortality in association with a wide array of exposures, prominent among these the application of pesticides.

  14. IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms predict circulating IGF levels but not breast cancer risk: findings from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpa V Patel

    Full Text Available IGF-1 has been shown to promote proliferation of normal epithelial breast cells, and the IGF pathway has also been linked to mammary carcinogenesis in animal models. We comprehensively examined the association between common genetic variation in the IGF1, IGFBP1, and IGFBP3 genes in relation to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and breast cancer risk within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. This analysis included 6,912 breast cancer cases and 8,891 matched controls (n = 6,410 for circulating IGF-I and 6,275 for circulating IGFBP-3 analyses comprised primarily of Caucasian women drawn from six large cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype patterns were characterized in the regions surrounding IGF1 and the genes coding for two of its binding proteins, IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. In total, thirty haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP were selected to provide high coverage of common haplotypes; the haplotype structure was defined across four haplotype blocks for IGF1 and three for IGFBP1 and IGFBP3. Specific IGF1 SNPs individually accounted for up to 5% change in circulating IGF-I levels and individual IGFBP3 SNPs were associated up to 12% change in circulating IGFBP-3 levels, but no associations were observed between these polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Logistic regression analyses found no associations between breast cancer and any htSNPs or haplotypes in IGF1, IGFBP1, or IGFBP3. No effect modification was observed in analyses stratified by menopausal status, family history of breast cancer, body mass index, or postmenopausal hormone therapy, or for analyses stratified by stage at diagnosis or hormone receptor status. In summary, the impact of genetic variation in IGF1 and IGFBP3 on circulating IGF levels does not appear to substantially influence breast cancer risk substantially among primarily Caucasian postmenopausal women.

  15. CYP19A1 genetic variation in relation to prostate cancer risk and circulating sex hormone concentrations in men from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Ruth C; Schumacher, Fredrick; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Kraft, Peter; Allen, Naomi E; Albanes, Demetrius; Berglund, Goran; Berndt, Sonja I; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Calle, Eugenia E; Chanock, Stephen; Dunning, Alison M; Hayes, Richard; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Gaziano, J Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ma, Jing; Rodriguez, Laudina; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir; Stram, Daniel O; Thun, Michael J; Tjønneland, Anne; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vineis, Paolo; Virtamo, Jarmo; Le Marchand, Loïc; Hunter, David J

    2009-10-01

    Sex hormones, particularly the androgens, are important for the growth of the prostate gland and have been implicated in prostate cancer carcinogenesis, yet the determinants of endogenous steroid hormone levels remain poorly understood. Twin studies suggest a heritable component for circulating concentrations of sex hormones, although epidemiologic evidence linking steroid hormone gene variants to prostate cancer is limited. Here we report on findings from a comprehensive study of genetic variation at the CYP19A1 locus in relation to prostate cancer risk and to circulating steroid hormone concentrations in men by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), a large collaborative prospective study. The BPC3 systematically characterized variation in CYP19A1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNP) that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,166 prostate cancer cases and 9,079 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. CYP19A1 htSNPs, two common missense variants and common haplotypes were not significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer. However, several htSNPs in linkage disequilibrium blocks 3 and 4 were significantly associated with a 5% to 10% difference in estradiol concentrations in men [association per copy of the two-SNP haplotype rs749292-rs727479 (A-A) versus noncarriers; P = 1 x 10(-5)], and with inverse, although less marked changes, in free testosterone concentrations. These results suggest that although germline variation in CYP19A1 characterized by the htSNPs produces measurable differences in sex hormone concentrations in men, they do not substantially influence risk of prostate cancer. PMID:19789370

  16. Family history of cancer and risk of Pancreatic Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Eric J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Fuchs, Charles S; LaCroix, Andrea; McWilliams, Robert R.; Steplowski, Emily; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Agalliu, Ilir; Allen, Naomi E.

    2010-01-01

    A family history of pancreatic cancer has consistently been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, uncertainty remains about the strength of this association. Results from previous studies suggest a family history of select cancers (i.e. ovarian, breast, and colorectal) could also be associated, although not as strongly, with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We examined the association between a family history of five types of cancer (pancreas, prostate, ovarian, br...

  17. Family history of cancer and risk of pancreatic cancer : a pooled analysis from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Eric J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Fuchs, Charles S.; LaCroix, Andrea; McWilliams, Robert R.; Steplowski, Emily; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gross, Myron; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Agalliu, Ilir; Allen, Naomi E.; Amundadottir, Laufey; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Clipp, Sandra; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jenab, Mazda; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Lynch, Shannon M.; Sund, Malin; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Mouw, Tracy; Newton, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Thomas, Gilles; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wolpin, Brian M.; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2010-01-01

    A family history of pancreatic cancer has consistently been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, uncertainty remains about the strength of this association. Results from previous studies suggest a family history of select cancers (i.e., ovarian, breast and colorectal) could

  18. Post-GWAS gene-environment interplay in breast cancer: results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium and a meta-analysis on 79,000 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Joshi, Amit D; Travis, Ruth C; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Auer, Paul L; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia; Diver, W Ryan; Henderson, Brian E; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Le Marchand, Loïc; Berg, Christine D; Chanock, Stephen J; Hoover, Robert N; Rudolph, Anja; Ziegler, Regina G; Giles, Graham G; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Hankinson, Susan E; Lindström, Sara; Willet, Walter; Hunter, David J; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Zhang, Shumin; Dossus, Laure; Cox, David G; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lund, Eiliv; Naccarati, Alessio; Peeters, Petra H; Quirós, J Ramón; Riboli, Elio; Sund, Malin; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Prentice, Ross L; Kraft, Peter; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    We studied the interplay between 39 breast cancer (BC) risk SNPs and established BC risk (body mass index, height, age at menarche, parity, age at menopause, smoking, alcohol and family history of BC) and prognostic factors (TNM stage, tumor grade, tumor size, age at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status and progesterone receptor status) as joint determinants of BC risk. We used a nested case-control design within the National Cancer Institute's Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), with 16 285 BC cases and 19 376 controls. We performed stratified analyses for both the risk and prognostic factors, testing for heterogeneity for the risk factors, and case-case comparisons for differential associations of polymorphisms by subgroups of the prognostic factors. We analyzed multiplicative interactions between the SNPs and the risk factors. Finally, we also performed a meta-analysis of the interaction ORs from BPC3 and the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. After correction for multiple testing, no significant interaction between the SNPs and the established risk factors in the BPC3 study was found. The meta-analysis showed a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 (Pinteraction = 8.84 × 10(-4)) which, although not significant after considering multiple comparison, has a plausible biological explanation. In conclusion, in this study of up to almost 79 000 women we can conclusively exclude any novel major interactions between genome-wide association studies hits and the epidemiologic risk factors taken into consideration, but we propose a suggestive interaction between smoking status and SLC4A7-rs4973768 that if further replicated could help our understanding in the etiology of BC. PMID:24895409

  19. CYP17 genetic variation and risk of breast and prostate cancer from the national Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Stram, Daniel O.; Albanes, Demetrius; Altshuler, David; Berglund, Gran; Buring, Julie; Calle, Eugenia E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Cox, David G.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hirschhorn, Joel; Hoover, Robert; Hunter, David J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Ma, Jing; Le Marchand, Loic; Linseisen, Jakob; Lund, Eiliv; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Riboli, Elio; Stampfer, Meir J.; Thun, Michael J.; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yeager, Meredith; Ziegler, Regina G.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    CYP17 encodes cytochrome p450c17 alpha, which mediates activities essential for the production of sex steroids. Common germ line variation in the CYP17 gene has been related to inconsistent results in breast and prostate cancer, with most studies focusing on the nonsynonymous single nucleotide polym

  20. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  1. Genetic Variation in the Vitamin D Pathway in Relation to Risk of Prostate Cancer-Results from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mondul, Alison M.; Shui, Irene M.; Yu, Kai; Travis, Ruth C.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Campa, Daniele; Schumacher, Frederick R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Berndt, Sonja; Crawford, E. D.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Key, Timothy J.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstroem, Sara; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Navarro, Carmen; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Purdue, Mark; Stampfer, Meir J.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Willett, Walter C.; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies suggest that vitamin D status may be associated with prostate cancer risk although the direction and strength of this association differs between experimental and observational studies. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with 25-hydroxyvit

  2. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  3. Comprehensive Analysis of Hormone and Genetic Variation in 36 Genes Related to Steroid Hormone Metabolism in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, L.; Husing, A.; Setiawan, V. W.; Amiano, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Chanock, S. J.; Cox, D. G.; Diver, R.; Dossus, L.; Feigelson, H. S.; Haiman, C.; Hallmans, G.; Hayes, R. B.; Henderson, B. E.; Hoover, R. N.; Hunter, D. J.; Khaw, K.; Kolonel, L. N.; Kraft, P.; Lund, E.; Le Marchand, L.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Riboli, E.; Stram, D.; Thomas, G.; Thun, M. J.; Tumino, R.; Trichopoulos, D.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Willett, W. C.; Yeager, M.; Ziegler, R.; Hankinson, S. E.; Kaaks, R.

    2011-01-01

    existing hormone assays and data on breast cancer incidence, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) cohorts; significant findings were reanalyzed in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC).Setting and Participants: We analyzed data from a......Context: Sex steroids play a central role in breast cancer development.Objective: This study aimed to relate polymorphic variants in 36 candidate genes in the sex steroid pathway to serum concentrations of sex steroid hormones and SHBG.Design: Data on 700 genetic polymorphisms were combined with...... pooled sample of 3852 pre- and postmenopausal Caucasian women from EPIC and NHS and 454 postmenopausal women from MEC.Main Outcome Measures: Outcome measures were SHBG, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) as well as breast cancer risk...

  4. Age at last birth in relation to risk of endometrial cancer: pooled analysis in the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pike, Malcolm C; Karageorgi, Stalo; Deming, Sandra L; Anderson, Kristin; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Cai, Hui; Cerhan, James R; Cozen, Wendy; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer; Freudenheim, Jo L; Goodman, Marc T; Hankinson, Susan E; Lacey, James V; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; Mack, Thomas; Matsuno, Rayna K; McCann, Susan; Moysich, Kirsten B; Olson, Sara H; Rastogi, Radhai; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Risch, Harvey; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Spurdle, Amanda B; Strom, Brian L; Thompson, Pamela J; Ursin, Giske; Webb, Penelope M; Weiss, Noel S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Hannah P; Yu, Herbert; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-08-15

    Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (P(trend) late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years. PMID:22831825

  5. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) - the University of Wisconsin-Madison Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric; Sheth, Kartik; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; National Astronomy Consortium

    2015-01-01

    The UW-Madison Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program in astrophysics (http://www.astro.wisc.edu/undergrads/uw-madison-reu-program/) is partnering with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, the National Society of Black Physicists, and other universities in an entity called the National Astronomy Consortium (NAC; see https://sites.google.com/site/nraonac/). The mission of the NAC is to increase the numbers of students who might otherwise be overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM, or related, careers. This begins with a cohort of students who are part of the regular REU program. In addition to working on original research projects under the mentorship of university astronomers and astrophysics, the cohort students participate in professional development seminars and join other NAC cohort sites in a diversity speaker series. The mentor-student and student-student connections continue beyond the summer, including a fall meeting of the national NAC cohorts. The UW-Madison REU program is supported by the National Science Foundation through Award AST-1004881.

  6. African-Caribbean cancer consortium for the study of viral, genetic and environmental cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odedina Folakemi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a short summary of a meeting of the "African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium", jointly organized by the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica as a satellite meeting at the Caribbean Health Research Council, 52nd Annual Council and Scientific meeting on May 4, 2007.

  7. Consortium analysis of 7 candidate SNPs for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, S.J.; Vierkant, R.A.; Johnatty, S.E.;

    2008-01-01

    The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium selected 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), for which there is evidence from previous studies of an association with variation in ovarian cancer or breast cancer risks. The SNPs selected for analysis were F31I (rs2273535) in AURKA, N372H...... suggestive although no longer statistically significant (ordinal OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). This SNP has also been shown to have an association with decreased risk in breast cancer. There was a suggestion of an association for AURKA, when one study that caused significant study heterogeneity was excluded...... [ordinal OR 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20) p = 0.027; dominant OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01-1.24) p = 0.03]. The other 5 SNPs in BRCA2, CDKN2A, SRD5A2, CASP8 and TGFB1 showed no association with ovarian cancer risk; given the large sample size, these results can also be considered to be informative. These null results...

  8. Diabetes and other comorbidities in breast cancer survival by race/ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H.; Kurian, Allison W.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Lu, Yani; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Bernstein, Leslie; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of comorbidities in survival of breast cancer patients has not been well studied, particularly in non-white populations. Methods We investigated the association of specific comorbidities with mortality in a multiethnic cohort of 8,952 breast cancer cases within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC), which pooled questionnaire and cancer registry data from five California-based studies. In total, 2,187 deaths (1,122 from breast cancer) were observed through December 31, 2010. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality associated with previous cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure (HBP), and myocardial infarction (MI). Results Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality increased among breast cancer cases with a history of diabetes (HR=1.48, 95% CI=1.18, 1.87) or MI (HR=1.94, 95% CI=1.27–2.97). Risk patterns were similar across race/ethnicity (non-Latina White, Latina, African American and Asian American), body size, menopausal status, and stage at diagnosis. In subgroup analyses, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated among cases with diabetes who received neither radiation nor chemotherapy (HR=2.11, 95% CI=1.32–3.36); no increased risk was observed among those who received both treatments (HR=1.13, 95% CI= 0.70–1.84) (P interaction= 0.03). A similar pattern was found for MI by radiation and chemotherapy (P interaction=0.09). Conclusion These results may inform future treatment guidelines for breast cancer patients with a history of diabetes or MI. Impact Given the growing number of breast cancer survivors worldwide, we need to better understand how comorbidities may adversely affect treatment decisions and ultimately outcome. PMID:25425578

  9. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, C. M.; Nagle, C. M.; Whiteman, D C; Ness, R; C. L. Pearce; Pike, M. C.; Rossing, M A; Terry, Kathryn Lynne; Wu, A. H.; Risch, H A; Yu, H.; Doherty, J. A.; Chang-Claude, J; Hein, R.; Nickels, S

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher body-mass index (BMI) increases a woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We ev...

  10. Launching a novel preclinical infrastructure: comparative oncology trials consortium directed therapeutic targeting of TNFalpha to cancer vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa C Paoloni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Under the direction and sponsorship of the National Cancer Institute, we report on the first pre-clinical trial of the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC. The COTC is a novel infrastructure to integrate cancers that naturally develop in pet dogs into the development path of new human drugs. Trials are designed to address questions challenging in conventional preclinical models and early phase human trials. Large animal spontaneous cancer models can be a valuable addition to successful studies of cancer biology and novel therapeutic drug, imaging and device development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Through this established infrastructure, the first trial of the COTC (COTC001 evaluated a targeted AAV-phage vector delivering tumor necrosis factor (RGD-A-TNF to alphaV integrins on tumor endothelium. Trial progress and data was reviewed contemporaneously using a web-enabled electronic reporting system developed for the consortium. Dose-escalation in cohorts of 3 dogs (n = 24 determined an optimal safe dose (5x10(12 transducing units intravenous of RGD-A-TNF. This demonstrated selective targeting of tumor-associated vasculature and sparing of normal tissues assessed via serial biopsy of both tumor and normal tissue. Repetitive dosing in a cohort of 14 dogs, at the defined optimal dose, was well tolerated and led to objective tumor regression in two dogs (14%, stable disease in six (43%, and disease progression in six (43% via Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first study of the COTC has demonstrated the utility and efficiency of the established infrastructure to inform the development of new cancer drugs within large animal naturally occurring cancer models. The preclinical evaluation of RGD-A-TNF within this network provided valuable and necessary data to complete the design of first-in-man studies.

  11. Pleiotropy of cancer susceptibility variants on the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the PAGE consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is higher among individuals with a family history or a prior diagnosis of other cancers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have suggested that some genetic susceptibility variants are associated with multiple complex traits (pleiotropy. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether common risk variants identified in cancer GWAS may also increase the risk of developing NHL as the first primary cancer. METHODS: As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE consortium, 113 cancer risk variants were analyzed in 1,441 NHL cases and 24,183 controls from three studies (BioVU, Multiethnic Cohort Study, Women's Health Initiative for their association with the risk of overall NHL and common subtypes [diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, follicular lymphoma (FL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL] using an additive genetic model adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity. Study-specific results for each variant were meta-analyzed across studies. RESULTS: The analysis of NHL subtype-specific GWAS SNPs and overall NHL suggested a shared genetic susceptibility between FL and DLBCL, particularly involving variants in the major histocompatibility complex region (rs6457327 in 6p21.33: FL OR=1.29, p=0.013; DLBCL OR=1.23, p=0.013; NHL OR=1.22, p=5.9 × E-05. In the pleiotropy analysis, six risk variants for other cancers were associated with NHL risk, including variants for lung (rs401681 in TERT: OR per C allele=0.89, p=3.7 × E-03; rs4975616 in TERT: OR per A allele=0.90, p=0.01; rs3131379 in MSH5: OR per T allele=1.16, p=0.03, prostate (rs7679673 in TET2: OR per C allele=0.89, p=5.7 × E-03; rs10993994 in MSMB: OR per T allele=1.09, p=0.04, and breast (rs3817198 in LSP1: OR per C allele=1.12, p=0.01 cancers, but none of these associations remained significant after multiple test correction. CONCLUSION: This study does not support strong pleiotropic effects of non

  12. Vitamin D as a Resilience Factor, Helpful for Survival of Potentially Fatal Conditions: A Hypothesis Emerging from Recent Findings of the ESTHER Cohort Study and the CHANCES Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Schöttker

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is debate on whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for major chronic diseases and premature death or whether observed associations were just confounded by general health status. Here, we review recent results from the Epidemiologische Studie zu Chancen der Verhütung, Früherkennung und optimierten Therapie chronischer Erkrankungen in der älteren Bevölkerung (ESTHER cohort study and the Consortium on Heatlh and Ageing: Network of Cohorts from Europe and the United States (CHANCES that suggest that vitamin D deficiency may not be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases and cancer but may be a risk factor for fatal instances of these diseases. Furthermore, analyses comprehensively adjusted for the health status showed that the association of vitamin D and mortality was very likely not confounded by general health status. These results suggest that vitamin D could be a marker of resilience to fatality of potentially fatal diseases. Sufficient vitamin D serum concentrations may be needed to regulate the response of the immune system when it is challenged by severe diseases to prevent a fatal course of the disease. If this hypothesis can be verified through basic research studies and adequately designed randomized controlled trials, it could have important public health implications because vitamin D deficiency is very common worldwide, and interventions could be implemented easily.

  13. Meta-Analysis of Mismatch Repair Polymorphisms within the Cogent Consortium for Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Picelli, S.; Bermejo, J. L.; Chang-Claude, J.; Hoffmeister, M.; Fernandez-Rozadilla, C.; Carracedo, A.; Castells, A.; Castellví-Bel, S.; Naccarati, Alessio; Pardini, Barbara; Vodičková, Ludmila; Müller, H.; Talseth-Palmer, B. A.; Stibbard, G.; Peterlongo, P.; Nici, C.; Veneroni, S.; Li, L.; Casey, G.; Tenesa, A.; Farrington, S.M.; Tomlinson, I.; Moreno, V.; van Wezel, T.; Wijnen, J.; Dunlop, M.; Radice, P.; Scott, R. J.; Vodička, Pavel; Ruiz-Ponte, C.; Brenner, H.; Buch, S.; Völzke, H.; Hampe, J.; Schafmayer, C.; Lindblom, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2013), e72091. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/10/1286; GA ČR GA310/07/1430 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : colerectal cancer * The EPICOLON Consortium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  14. International Cancer Genome Consortium Data Portal--a one-stop shop for cancer genomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junjun; Baran, Joachim; Cros, A; Guberman, Jonathan M; Haider, Syed; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Rivkin, Elena; Wang, Jianxin; Whitty, Brett; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) is a collaborative effort to characterize genomic abnormalities in 50 different cancer types. To make this data available, the ICGC has created the ICGC Data Portal. Powered by the BioMart software, the Data Portal allows each ICGC member institution to manage and maintain its own databases locally, while seamlessly presenting all the data in a single access point for users. The Data Portal currently contains data from 24 cancer projects, including ICGC, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Johns Hopkins University, and the Tumor Sequencing Project. It consists of 3478 genomes and 13 cancer types and subtypes. Available open access data types include simple somatic mutations, copy number alterations, structural rearrangements, gene expression, microRNAs, DNA methylation and exon junctions. Additionally, simple germline variations are available as controlled access data. The Data Portal uses a web-based graphical user interface (GUI) to offer researchers multiple ways to quickly and easily search and analyze the available data. The web interface can assist in constructing complicated queries across multiple data sets. Several application programming interfaces are also available for programmatic access. Here we describe the organization, functionality, and capabilities of the ICGC Data Portal. PMID:21930502

  15. Five polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: results from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Milne, Roger L; Cox, Angela;

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that minor alleles for ERCC4 rs744154, TNF rs361525, CASP10 rs13010627, PGR rs1042838, and BID rs8190315 may influence breast cancer risk, but the evidence is inconclusive due to their small sample size. These polymorphisms were genotyped in more than 30,000 breast...... cancer cases and 30,000 controls, primarily of European descent, from 30 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) as a measure of association. We found that the minor alleles for these polymorphisms were not related to...... invasive breast cancer risk overall in women of European descent: ECCR4 per-allele OR (95% CI) = 0.99 (0.97-1.02), minor allele frequency = 27.5%; TNF 1.00 (0.95-1.06), 5.0%; CASP10 1.02 (0.98-1.07), 6.5%; PGR 1.02 (0.99-1.06), 15.3%; and BID 0.98 (0.86-1.12), 1.7%. However, we observed significant between...

  16. Breast cancer risk and 6q22.33: combined results from Breast Cancer Association Consortium and Consortium of Investigators on Modifiers of BRCA1/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Kirchhoff

    Full Text Available Recently, a locus on chromosome 6q22.33 (rs2180341 was reported to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ population, and this association was also observed in populations of non-AJ European ancestry. In the present study, we performed a large replication analysis of rs2180341 using data from 31,428 invasive breast cancer cases and 34,700 controls collected from 25 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC. In addition, we evaluated whether rs2180341 modifies breast cancer risk in 3,361 BRCA1 and 2,020 BRCA2 carriers from 11 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA. Based on the BCAC data from women of European ancestry, we found evidence for a weak association with breast cancer risk for rs2180341 (per-allele odds ratio (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, p = 0.023. There was evidence for heterogeneity in the ORs among studies (I(2 = 49.3%; p = <0.004. In CIMBA, we observed an inverse association with the minor allele of rs2180341 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele OR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.80-1.00, p = 0.048, indicating a potential protective effect of this allele. These data suggest that that 6q22.33 confers a weak effect on breast cancer risk.

  17. The African cancer advocacy consortium: shaping the path for advocacy in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odedina, Folakemi T; Asante-Shongwe, Kwanele; Kandusi, Emmanuel J; Segal, Richard; Pressey, Shannon; Reams, R Renee; Simons, Virgil H

    2013-07-15

    Although there is significant evidence of a cancer epidemic in Africa, there is limited awareness about cancer in most African countries. By partnering with international organizations and institutions such as the University of Florida and the Prostate Net, the African Organisation for Research and Training in Cancer (AORTIC) is committed to improving cancer advocacy in Africa. This paper presents some of the recent efforts on cancer advocacy in Africa, including the results of a SWOT analysis conducted for the cancer advocacy workshop and the guidelines developed by cancer advocates on best practices for cancer advocacy in Africa. One of the outcomes of these efforts is the African Cancer Advocates Consortium (ACAC) founded by cancer advocates in Africa to, "Make Cancer a Top Priority in Africa". While we have started the work to strengthen cancer advocacy in Africa, we still have a long way to go. Our goal of making cancer a priority in Africa can mainly be achieved by: (1) increasing the manpower for cancer advocacy through education and training; and (2) strengthening the network of cancer advocates across the continent. PMID:23902674

  18. Connecting Genomic Alterations to Cancer Biology with Proteomics: The NCI Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Matthew; Gillette, Michael; Carr, Steven A.; Paulovich, Amanda G.; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Townsend, Reid; Kinsinger, Christopher; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Liebler, Daniel

    2013-10-03

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium is applying the latest generation of proteomic technologies to genomically annotated tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program, a joint initiative of the NCI and the National Human Genome Research Institute. By providing a fully integrated accounting of DNA, RNA, and protein abnormalities in individual tumors, these datasets will illuminate the complex relationship between genomic abnormalities and cancer phenotypes, thus producing biologic insights as well as a wave of novel candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets amenable to verifi cation using targeted mass spectrometry methods.

  19. Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium:an application of Item Response Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Berg, Stéphanie M.; Marleen H. M. de Moor; McGue, Matt; Pettersson, Erik; Terracciano, Antonio; Verweij, Karin J. H.; Amin, Najaf; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hansell, Narelle K.; Huffman, Jennifer; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Luciano, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) ...

  20. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J; Ramus, S J; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Menon, U; Gayther, S A; Anderson, A R; Edlund, C K; Wu, A H; Chen, X; Beesley, J; Webb, P M; Holt, S K; Chen, C; Doherty, J A; Rossing, M A; Whittemore, A S; McGuire, V; DiCioccio, R A; Goodman, M T; Lurie, G; Carney, M E; Wilkens, L R; Ness, R B; Moysich, K B; Edwards, R; Jennison, E; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Hogdall, E; Hogdall, C K; Goode, E L; Sellers, T A; Vierkant, R A; Cunningham, J M; Cunningham, J C; Schildkraut, J M; Berchuck, A; Moorman, P G; Iversen, E S; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Vitonis, A F; Titus-Ernstoff, L; Song, H; Pharoah, P D P; Spurdle, A B; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Brewster, W; Galitovskiy, V; Chenevix-Trench, G

    2009-01-01

    been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P< or =0.10 in a log-additive model: rs2740574 in CYP3A4 (P=0.011), rs1805386 in LIG4 (P=0.007), and rs3218536 in XRCC2 (P=0.......095). Additional genotyping in other OCAC studies was undertaken and only the variant in CYP3A4, rs2740574, continued to show an association in the replication data among homozygous carriers: OR(homozygous(hom))=2.50 (95% CI 0.54-11.57, P=0.24) with 1406 cases and 2827 controls. Overall, in the combined data the...... odds ratio was 2.81 among carriers of two copies of the minor allele (95% CI 1.20-6.56, P=0.017, p(het) across studies=0.42) with 1969 cases and 3491 controls. There was no association among heterozygous carriers. CYP3A4 encodes a key enzyme in oestrogen metabolism and our finding between rs2740574 and...

  1. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Cancer Incidence: The Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboya, Toru; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Sugawara, Yumi; Tomata, Yasutake; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Although experimental studies have shown that gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has a role in tumor progression, epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between GGT and cancer incidence is limited. The present study investigated the association between GGT and cancer incidence and assessed the role of alcohol consumption in this association. Methods We examined a cohort of 15 031 Japanese adults aged 40 to 79 years who attended a health checkup in 1995 and were free of cancer at th...

  2. Sequence variants and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ChunChuang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous molecular epidemiological studies on head and neck cancer have examined various single nucleotide polymorphisms, but there are very few documented associations. In the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE consortium, we evaluated associations between SNPs in the metabolism, cell cycle, and DNA repair pathways and the risk of head and neck cancer. We analyzed individual-level pooled data from 14 European, North American, Central American and Asia case-control studies (5,915 head and neck cancer cases and 10,644 controls participating in the INHANCE consortium. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for SNP effects, adjusting for age, sex, race, and country. We observed an association between head and neck cancer risk and MGMT Leu84Phe heterozygotes (OR=0.79, 95% CI=0.68-0.93, XRCC1 Arg194Trp rare homozygotes (OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.1-4.7, ADH1B Arg48His homozygotes Arg/Arg (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.9-4.0, ADH1C Ile350Val homozygotes Ile/Ile (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.1-1.4, and the GSTM1 null genotype (OR=1.1, 95% CI=1.0-1.2. Among these results, MGMT Leu84Phe, ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1C Ile350Arg, and the GSTM1 null genotype had fairly low false positive report probabilities (<20%. We observed associations between ADH1B Arg48His, ADH1C Ile350Arg, and GSTM1 null genotype and head and neck cancer risk. No functional study currently supports the observed association for MGMT Leu84Phe, and the association with XRCC1 Arg194Trp may be a chance finding.

  3. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project--design, population and data harmonization of a large-scale, international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Bobak, Martin; Borsch-Supan, Axel; Brenner, Hermann; Eriksson, Sture; Grodstein, Fran; Jansen, Eugene; Jenab, Mazda; Juerges, Hendrik; Kampman, Ellen; Kee, Frank; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Park, Yikyung; Tjonneland, Anne; van Duijn, Cornelia; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wolk, Alicja; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2014-12-01

    There is a public health demand to prevent health conditions which lead to increased morbidity and mortality among the rapidly-increasing elderly population. Data for the incidence of such conditions exist in cohort studies worldwide, which, however, differ in various aspects. The Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project aims at harmonizing data from existing major longitudinal studies for the elderly whilst focussing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, cancer, fractures and cognitive impairment in order to estimate their prevalence, incidence and cause-specific mortality, and identify lifestyle, socioeconomic, and genetic determinants and biomarkers for the incidence of and mortality from these conditions. A survey instrument assessing ageing-related conditions of the elderly will be also developed. Fourteen cohort studies participate in CHANCES with 683,228 elderly (and 150,210 deaths), from 23 European and three non-European countries. So far, 287 variables on health conditions and a variety of exposures, including biomarkers and genetic data have been harmonized. Different research hypotheses are investigated with meta-analyses. The results which will be produced can help international organizations, governments and policy-makers to better understand the broader implications and consequences of ageing and thus make informed decisions. PMID:25504016

  4. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and...

  5. Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, S. M.; de Moor, M. H. M.; McGue, Matt;

    2014-01-01

    -analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item...... data were analyzed in > 160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful...

  6. Cohort Profile: The Skin Cancer After Organ Transplant Study

    OpenAIRE

    Madeleine, Margaret M; Johnson, Lisa G.; Daling, Janet R.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Carter, Joseph J.; Berg, Daniel; Nelson, Karen; Davis, Connie L.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2012-01-01

    The Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) study was designed to investigate the link between genus beta human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC). We focused on a population receiving immunosuppressive therapy for extended periods, transplant patients, as they are at extremely high risk for developing SCSC. Two complementary projects were conducted in the Seattle area: (i) a retrospective cohort with interview data from 2004 recipients of renal or cardiac transplants...

  7. Respiratory cancer in Danish bakers: a 10 year cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Tüchsen, F; Nordholm, L.

    1986-01-01

    A national cohort based on the census at 9 November 1970 and the death registration files from 1970 to 1980 was analysed to see if skilled Danish bakers had an excess of respiratory cancer. The group of skilled bakers was divided into occupational subgroups to try to narrow down the possible causes of cancer. Significant excess mortality was found among skilled bakers in retail bakeries, skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants, and independent bakers. To adjust for confounding factors, the S...

  8. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  9. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKay, James D

    2011-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  10. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McKay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷. Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸ located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸ located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸; rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02. These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  11. Population-based utilization of radiation therapy by a Canadian breast cancer cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Mittmann, N; Seung, S.J.; Liu, N.; Porter, J.; Saskin, R.; Hoch, J.S.; Evans, W.K.; Leighl, N.B.; Trudeau, M.; Earle, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    We examined trends in radiation therapy (rt) utilization by a population-based breast cancer cohort in Ontario. The provincial cancer registry provided a breast cancer cohort based on diagnosis dates from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010. Staging information was also available. The cohort was then linked, by encrypted health card number, to linkable administrative datasets, including rt utilization.

  12. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...

  13. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L J; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer was implemented by annual record linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and a nationwide pathology registry. After 11.3 years of follow-up, data of 252 incident epithelial ovarian cancer case...

  14. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer

  15. Cigarette Smoking and Risk of Lung Cancer in Korean Men: The Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Lee, Moo-Song; Shin, Myung-Hee; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Li, Zhong-Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Korea. The aim of this study was to estimate lung cancer risk of cigarette smoking in Korean men by a 10-yr follow-up prospective cohort study using the primary databases. The number of subjects was 14,272 men, who had full information of smoking habits among participants in the Seoul Male Cancer Cohort Study (SMCC). Total 125,053 person-years were calculated by determining the number of days from the start of follow-up, January 1, 1993, un...

  16. Carotenoid intake and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Cadoni, Gabriella; Ferraroni, Monica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Food and nutrition play an important role in head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology; however, the role of carotenoids remains largely undefined. We explored the relation of HNC risk with the intake of carotenoids within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We pooled individual-level data from 10 case-control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Japan. The analysis included 18,207 subjects (4414 with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 1545 with laryngeal cancer, and 12,248 controls), categorized by quintiles of carotenoid intake from natural sources. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, the risk reduction associated with total carotenoid intake was 39 % (95 % CI 29-47 %) for oral/pharyngeal cancer and 39 % (95 % CI 24-50 %) for laryngeal cancer. Intakes of β-carotene equivalents, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were associated with at least 18 % reduction in the rate of oral and pharyngeal cancer (95 % CI 6-29 %) and 17 % reduction in the rate of laryngeal cancer (95 % CI 0-32 %). The overall protective effect of carotenoids on HNC was stronger for subjects reporting greater alcohol consumption (p tobacco consumption versus high carotenoid intake and low alcohol or tobacco consumption ranged from 7 (95 % CI 5-9) to 33 (95 % CI 23-49). A diet rich in carotenoids may protect against HNC. Persons with both low carotenoid intake and high tobacco or alcohol are at substantially higher risk of HNC. PMID:25930054

  17. Sharing perspectives and experiences of doctoral fellows in the first cohort of Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa: 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Adedokun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resolution of public health problems in Africa remains a challenge because of insufficient skilled human resource capacity. The Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa (CARTA was established to enhance capacity in multi-disciplinary health research that will make a positive impact on population health in Africa. Objective: The first cohort of the CARTA program describes their perspectives and experiences during the 4 years of fellowship and puts forward suggestions for future progress and direction of research in Africa. Conclusions: The model of training as shown by the CARTA program is an effective model of research capacity building in African academic institutions. An expansion of the program is therefore warranted to reach out to more African academics in search of advanced research training.

  18. FCGR polymorphisms and cetuximab efficacy in chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer: an international consortium study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geva, Ravit; Vecchione, Loredana; Kalogeras, Konstantinos T;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better clarify the role of germline variants of the FCG2 receptor, FCGR2A-H131R and FCGR3A-V158F, on the therapeutic efficacy of cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A large cohort with sufficient statistical power was assembled. DESIGN: To show a HR advantage of...... patients, respectively. Samples were collected from 1123 mCRC patients from 15 European centres treated with cetuximab alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Fc gamma receptor (FCGR) status was centrally genotyped. Two additional externally genotyped series were included. RESULTS: Incidences of FCGR2A...

  19. The INHANCE consortium: toward a better understanding of the causes and mechanisms of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, D M; Lee, Y-C A; Hashibe, M; Boffetta, P

    2015-09-01

    The International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium is a collaboration of research groups leading large epidemiology studies to improve the understanding of the causes and mechanisms of head and neck cancer. The consortium includes investigators of 35 studies who have pooled their data on 25 500 patients with head and neck cancer (i.e., cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx) and 37 100 controls. The INHANCE analyses have confirmed that tobacco use and alcohol intake are key risk factors of these diseases and have provided precise estimates of risk and dose response, the benefit of quitting, and the hazard of smoking even a few cigarettes per day. Other risk factors include short height, lean body mass, low education and income, and a family history of head and neck cancer. Risk factors are generally similar for oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx, although the magnitude of risk may vary. Some major strengths of pooling data across studies include more precise estimates of risk and the ability to control for potentially confounding factors and to examine factors that may interact with each other. The INHANCE consortium provides evidence of the scientific productivity and discoveries that can be obtained from data pooling projects. PMID:25809224

  20. Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the association between diet and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. The INHANCE pooled data included 22 case-control studies with 14,520 cases and 22,737 controls. Center-specific quartiles among the controls were used for food groups, and frequencies per week were used for single food items. A dietary pattern score combining high fruit and vegetable intake and low red meat intake was created. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the dietary items on the risk of HNC were estimated with a two-stage random-effects logistic regression model. An inverse association was observed for higher-frequency intake of fruit (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.43-0.62, p (trend) < 0.01) and vegetables (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.90, p (trend) = 0.01). Intake of red meat (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.74, p (trend) = 0.13) and processed meat (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14-1.65, p (trend) < 0.01) was positively associated with HNC risk. Higher dietary pattern scores, reflecting high fruit\\/vegetable and low red meat intake, were associated with reduced HNC risk (per score increment OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97).

  1. Cancer mortality in a cohort of asbestos textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, E; Pelucchi, C; Buffoni, L; Palmas, A; Turbiglio, M; Negri, E; Piolatto, P G; La Vecchia, C

    2005-02-14

    A cohort of 889 men and 1077 women employed for at least 1 month between 1946 and 1984 by a former Italian leading asbestos (mainly textile) company, characterised by extremely heavy exposures often for short durations, was followed up to 1996, for a total of 53,024 person-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from factory personnel records, while vital status and causes of death were ascertained through municipality registers and local health units. We observed 222 cancer deaths compared with 116.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio, SMR=191). The highest ratios were found for pleural (SMR=4105), peritoneal (SMR=1817) and lung (SMR=282) cancers. We observed direct relationships with duration of employment for lung and peritoneal cancer, and with time since first employment for lung cancer and mesothelioma. Pleural cancer risk was independent from duration (SMR=3428 for employment or =10 years). Corresponding SMRs for lung cancer were 139, 251, 233 and 531. Nonsignificantly increased ratios were found for ovarian (SMR=261), laryngeal (SMR=238) and oro-pharyngeal (SMR=226) cancers. This study confirms and further quantifies the central role of latency in pleural mesothelioma and of cumulative exposure in lung cancer. PMID:15702125

  2. SPOP Mutations in Prostate Cancer across Demographically Diverse Patient Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Blattner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recurrent mutations in the Speckle-Type POZ Protein (SPOP gene occur in up to 15% of prostate cancers. However, the frequency and features of cancers with these mutations across different populations is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SPOP mutations across diverse cohorts and validate a series of assays employing high-resolution melting (HRM analysis and Sanger sequencing for mutational analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: 720 prostate cancer samples from six international cohorts spanning Caucasian, African American, and Asian patients, including both prostate-specific antigen-screened and unscreened populations, were screened for their SPOP mutation status. Status of SPOP was correlated to molecular features (ERG rearrangement, PTEN deletion, and CHD1 deletion as well as clinical and pathologic features. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Overall frequency of SPOP mutations was 8.1% (4.6% to 14.4%, SPOP mutation was inversely associated with ERG rearrangement (P < .01, and SPOP mutant (SPOPmut cancers had higher rates of CHD1 deletions (P < .01. There were no significant differences in biochemical recurrence in SPOPmut cancers. Limitations of this study include missing mutational data due to sample quality and lack of power to identify a difference in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: SPOP is mutated in 4.6% to 14.4% of patients with prostate cancer across different ethnic and demographic backgrounds. There was no significant association between SPOP mutations with ethnicity, clinical, or pathologic parameters. Mutual exclusivity of SPOP mutation with ERG rearrangement as well as a high association with CHD1 deletion reinforces SPOP mutation as defining a distinct molecular subclass of prostate cancer.

  3. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  4. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  5. Cancer mortality in a northern Italian cohort of rubber workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, E; Piolatto, G; Pira, E; Decarli, A; Kaldor, J; La Vecchia, C

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the mortality of a cohort of 6629 workers employed from 1906 to 1981 in a rubber tyre factory in northern Italy (978 deaths and over 133,000 man-years at risk) showed that the all cause mortality ratio was slightly lower than expected (0.91). Overall cancer mortality was close to expected (275 v 259.4) but there were significant excess rates for two cancer sites: pleura (9 observed v 0.8 expected, which may be due to the use of fibre containing talc) and bladder (16 observed v 8.8 expected). Death rates were not raised for other sites previously associated with employment in the rubber industry, such as cancers of the lung and brain, leukaemias, or lymphomas. The substantially reduced relative risk of pleural cancer among workers first employed after 1940 (RR = 0.05 compared with before 1940) probably reflected improvements in working conditions over more recent periods. For cancer of the bladder, the relative risk was also lower for workers first engaged after 1940. Thus no appreciable risk for any disease was apparent for workers employed over the past four decades. Analysis for each of the 27 job categories showed a substantial excess for cancer of the pleura in the mechanical maintenance workers (4 observed v 0.17 expected); an excess of cancer of the lung (21 v 13.48) was also present in this job category. PMID:2789965

  6. Lung cancer risk in the French cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French cohort of uranium miners includes 5098 miners, and 125 lung cancer deaths have been observed. The relationship between radon exposure and risk of lung cancer is estimated using relative risk models, which allow investigation of time dependent modifying factors such as the period of exposure, time since exposure and exposure rate. A linear exposure-response relationship is observed. The main modifier is the period of exposure before or after 1956: the excess relative risk after introduction of ventilation in the French mines is eight times higher than before. The decrease in risk with time since exposure and exposure rate disappears when period of exposure is taken into account. Compared to most of the uranium miner studies, this cohort constitutes a population exposed to low levels and low rates of radon for a long duration. The extension of the French cohort leads to an important increase in its statistical power. Exposure rate effect will be further investigated, in the framework of a European collaborative research project aiming at the synthesis of the effects of radon exposure at low dose and low dose rate. (author)

  7. The 4th Bi-annual international African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium conference: building capacity to address cancer health disparities in populations of African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Elizabeth; Campbell, Jasmine; Bowen, Carlene; Delmoor, Ernestine; Jean-Louis, Gilda; Noumbissi, Raphiatou; O'Garro, Yvonne; Richards-Waritay, Oni; Straughter, Stanley; Tolbert, Vera; Wilson, Barbara; Ragin, Camille

    2014-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the 4(th) International Meeting of the African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3), organized and sponsored by Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC), and held on July 21-22, 2012 at the Lincoln University Graduate Center, Lincoln Plaza, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. AC3 investigators gathered in Philadelphia, PA to present the results of our ongoing collaborative research efforts throughout the African Diaspora. The general theme addressed cancer health disparities and presentations represented all cancer types. However, there was particular emphasis on women's cancers, related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. PMID:26422007

  8. Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573 post

  9. 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NIH Pain Consortium will convene the 11th Annual NIH Pain Consortium Symposium on Advances in Pain Research, featuring keynote speakers and expert panel sessions on Innovative Models and Methods. The first keynote address will be delivered by David J. Clark, MD, PhD, Stanford University entitled “Challenges of Translational Pain Research: What Makes a Good Model?” |

  10. Rare Variants in PLD3 Do Not Affect Risk for Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease in a European Consortium Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, Rita; Van den Bossche, Tobi; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Geerts, Nathalie; Laureys, Annelies; Dillen, Lubina; Graff, Caroline; Thonberg, Håkan; Chiang, Huei-Hsin; Pastor, Pau; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Pastor, Maria A; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta; Binetti, Giuliano; Nacmias, Benedetta; Sorbi, Sandro; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Lladó, Albert; Gelpi, Ellen; Almeida, Maria Rosário; Santana, Isabel; Tsolaki, Magda; Koutroumani, Maria; Clarimon, Jordi; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Martins, Madalena; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Matej, Radoslav; Rohan, Zdenek; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter P; Cras, Patrick; van der Zee, Julie; Sleegers, Kristel; Van Broeckhoven, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Rare variants in the phospholipase D3 gene (PLD3) were associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). We identified a missense mutation in PLD3 in whole-genome sequence data of a patient with autopsy confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) and onset age of 50 years. Subsequently, we sequenced PLD3 in a Belgian early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) patient (N = 261) and control (N = 319) cohort, as well as in European EOAD patients (N = 946) and control individuals (N = 1,209) ascertained in different European countries. Overall, we identified 22 rare variants with a minor allele frequency <1%, 20 missense and two splicing mutations. Burden analysis did not provide significant evidence for an enrichment of rare PLD3 variants in EOAD patients in any of the patient/control cohorts. Also, meta-analysis of the PLD3 data, including a published dataset of a German EOAD cohort, was not significant (P = 0.43; OR = 1.53, 95% CI 0.60-3.31). Consequently, our data do not support a role for PLD3 rare variants in the genetic etiology of EOAD in European EOAD patients. Our data corroborate the negative replication data obtained in LOAD studies and therefore a genetic role of PLD3 in AD remains to be demonstrated. PMID:26411346

  11. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including

  12. Air pollution from traffic and risk for lung cancer in three Danish cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Bak, Helle; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Hvidberg, Martin; Schnohr, Peter; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Loft, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    in the Danish Cancer Registry from the members of three prospective cohorts and selected a comparison group of 3,481 persons from the same cohorts in a case-cohort design. Residential addresses from January 1, 1971, were traced in the Central Population Registry. The NOx concentration at each address...

  13. COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The COnsortium of METabolomics Studies (COMETS) is an extramural-intramural partnership that promotes collaboration among prospective cohort studies that follow participants for a range of outcomes and perform metabolomic profiling of individuals.

  14. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  15. Testing a Multigene Signature of Prostate Cancer Death in the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; DEMICHELIS, Francesca; Fall, Katja; Stark, Jennifer R.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Eisenstein, Anna; Holmberg, Lars; Huang, Wei; Kantoff, Philip W.; Kim, Robert; Perner, Sven; Stampfer, Meir J

    2008-01-01

    While prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, most men die with and not from their disease, underscoring the urgency to distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancer. We tested the prognostic value of a previously identified multigene signature of prostate cancer progression to predict cancer-specific death. The Örebro Watchful Waiting Cohort included 172 men with localized prostate cancer of whom 40 died of prostate cancer. We quantified protein expression of the m...

  16. Polymorphism in the GALNT1 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women: the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Catherine M; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Goode, Ellen L; Vierkant, Robert A; Fridley, Brooke L; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Webb, Penelope M; Chanock, Stephen; Cramer, Daniel W; Moysich, Kirsten; Edwards, Robert P; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Hannah; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Hein, Rebecca; Green, Adele C; Lissowska, Jolanta; Carney, Michael E; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Ness, Roberta B; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H; Van Den Berg, David J; Stram, Daniel O; Terry, Kathryn L; Whiteman, David C; Whittemore, Alice S; DiCioccio, Richard A; McGuire, Valerie; Doherty, Jennifer A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Krüger Kjaer, Susanne; Blaakaer, Jan; Quaye, Lydia; Ramus, Susan J; Jacobs, Ian; Song, Honglin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Iversen, Edwin S; Marks, Jeffrey R; Pike, Malcolm C; Gayther, Simon A; Cunningham, Julie M; Goodman, Marc T; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Berchuck, Andrew; Sellers, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a well-described hallmark of cancer. In a previous ovarian cancer case control study that examined polymorphisms in 26 glycosylation-associated genes, we found strong statistical evidence (P = 0.00017) that women who inherited two copies of a single-nucleotide polymorphism...... forming the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. The fixed effects estimate per rs17647532 allele was null (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.07). When a recessive model was fit, the results were unchanged. Test for heterogeneity of the odds ratios revealed consistency across the 14...

  17. Polymorphisms in stromal genes and susceptibility to serous epithelial ovarian cancer: a report from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Wang, Qinggang; Schildkraut, Joellen M;

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in stromal tissue components can inhibit or promote epithelial tumorigenesis. Decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) show reduced stromal expression in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (sEOC). We hypothesized that common variants in these genes associate with risk. Associations with sEOC among...... Caucasians were estimated with odds ratios (OR) among 397 cases and 920 controls in two U.S.-based studies (discovery set), 436 cases and 1,098 controls in Australia (replication set 1) and a consortium of 15 studies comprising 1,668 cases and 4,249 controls (replication set 2). The discovery set and...... replication set 1 (833 cases and 2,013 controls) showed statistically homogeneous (P(heterogeneity)≥0.48) decreased risks of sEOC at four variants: DCN rs3138165, rs13312816 and rs516115, and LUM rs17018765 (OR = 0.6 to 0.9; P(trend) = 0.001 to 0.03). Results from replication set 2 were statistically...

  18. Risk of cancer after blood transfusion from donors with subclinical cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Reilly, Marie;

    2007-01-01

    transmission from blood donors to recipients through blood transfusion. METHODS: We did a register-based retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence among patients who received blood from donors deemed to have a subclinical cancer at the time of donation. These precancerous donors were diagnosed with a...... cancer within 5 years of the donation. Data from all computerised blood bank registers in Sweden and Denmark gathered between 1968 and 2002 were merged into a common database. Demographic and medical data, including mortality and cancer incidence, were ascertained through linkages with nationwide, and......BACKGROUND: Although mechanisms for detection of short-term complications after blood transfusions are well developed, complications with delayed onset, notably transmission of chronic diseases such as cancer, have been difficult to assess. Our aim was to investigate the possible risk of cancer...

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study for Incident Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Heart Disease in Prospective Cohort Studies: The CHARGE Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, L. Adrienne; Trompet, Stella; Chasman, Daniel I.; Lumley, Thomas; Völker, Uwe; Buckley, Brendan M.; Ding, Jingzhong; Jensen, Majken K.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Girman, Cynthia J.; Ford, Ian; Dörr, Marcus; Salomaa, Veikko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Franceschini, Nora; Carty, Cara L.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Demissie, Serkalem; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Heckbert, Susan R.; Ferrières, Jean; Ducimetière, Pierre; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wang, Ying A.; Siscovick, David S.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Wiklund, Per-Gunnar; Taylor, Kent D.; Evans, Alun; Kee, Frank; Rotter, Jerome I.; Karvanen, Juha; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Heiss, Gerardo; Kraft, Peter; Launer, Lenore J.; Hofman, Albert; Markus, Marcello R. P.; Rose, Lynda M.; Silander, Kaisa; Wagner, Peter; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Lohman, Kurt; Stott, David J.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Harris, Tamara B.; Levy, Daniel; Liu, Yongmei; Rimm, Eric B.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Völzke, Henry; Ridker, Paul M.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Franco, Oscar H.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Psaty, Bruce M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data are limited on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Moreover, it is not known whether genetic variants identified to date also associate with risk of CHD in a prospective setting. Methods We performed a two-stage GWAS analysis of incident myocardial infarction (MI) and CHD in a total of 64,297 individuals (including 3898 MI cases, 5465 CHD cases). SNPs that passed an arbitrary threshold of 5×10−6 in Stage I were taken to Stage II for further discovery. Furthermore, in an analysis of prognosis, we studied whether known SNPs from former GWAS were associated with total mortality in individuals who experienced MI during follow-up. Results In Stage I 15 loci passed the threshold of 5×10−6; 8 loci for MI and 8 loci for CHD, for which one locus overlapped and none were reported in previous GWAS meta-analyses. We took 60 SNPs representing these 15 loci to Stage II of discovery. Four SNPs near QKI showed nominally significant association with MI (p-value<8.8×10−3) and three exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold when Stage I and Stage II results were combined (top SNP rs6941513: p = 6.2×10−9). Despite excellent power, the 9p21 locus SNP (rs1333049) was only modestly associated with MI (HR = 1.09, p-value = 0.02) and marginally with CHD (HR = 1.06, p-value = 0.08). Among an inception cohort of those who experienced MI during follow-up, the risk allele of rs1333049 was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent mortality (HR = 0.90, p-value = 3.2×10−3). Conclusions QKI represents a novel locus that may serve as a predictor of incident CHD in prospective studies. The association of the 9p21 locus both with increased risk of first myocardial infarction and longer survival after MI highlights the importance of study design in investigating genetic determinants of complex disorders. PMID:26950853

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study for Incident Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Heart Disease in Prospective Cohort Studies: The CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Dehghan

    Full Text Available Data are limited on genome-wide association studies (GWAS for incident coronary heart disease (CHD. Moreover, it is not known whether genetic variants identified to date also associate with risk of CHD in a prospective setting.We performed a two-stage GWAS analysis of incident myocardial infarction (MI and CHD in a total of 64,297 individuals (including 3898 MI cases, 5465 CHD cases. SNPs that passed an arbitrary threshold of 5×10-6 in Stage I were taken to Stage II for further discovery. Furthermore, in an analysis of prognosis, we studied whether known SNPs from former GWAS were associated with total mortality in individuals who experienced MI during follow-up.In Stage I 15 loci passed the threshold of 5×10-6; 8 loci for MI and 8 loci for CHD, for which one locus overlapped and none were reported in previous GWAS meta-analyses. We took 60 SNPs representing these 15 loci to Stage II of discovery. Four SNPs near QKI showed nominally significant association with MI (p-value<8.8×10-3 and three exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold when Stage I and Stage II results were combined (top SNP rs6941513: p = 6.2×10-9. Despite excellent power, the 9p21 locus SNP (rs1333049 was only modestly associated with MI (HR = 1.09, p-value = 0.02 and marginally with CHD (HR = 1.06, p-value = 0.08. Among an inception cohort of those who experienced MI during follow-up, the risk allele of rs1333049 was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent mortality (HR = 0.90, p-value = 3.2×10-3.QKI represents a novel locus that may serve as a predictor of incident CHD in prospective studies. The association of the 9p21 locus both with increased risk of first myocardial infarction and longer survival after MI highlights the importance of study design in investigating genetic determinants of complex disorders.

  1. Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Susan; Lim, Lynette; Vilainerun, Duangkae; Banks, Emily; Sripaiboonkij, Nintita; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Bain, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence may be increasing in Thailand but very little research has assessed core breast cancer risk factors in this country. We used baseline questionnaire data from a national cohort study of Thai Open University students in an exploratory case-control study of breast cancer. The study included 43 female cases and 860 age-matched controls selected from the remaining 47,271 female cohort participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional l...

  2. DISTRESS AND PTSD IN PATIENTS WITH CANCER: COHORT STUDY CASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjic, Nurka; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ramic, Enisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: embarrassed emotional experience may affect the ability to oncology patient effectively cope with cancer, symptoms and treatment. Distress extends a long period, from common, normal feelings of vulnerability, sadness and fears to problems of PTSD, depression, anxiety, panic, social isolation and the perception of spiritual crisis. The aim of the research is to determine the level of distress and PTSD in cancer patients. Patients and Methods: In a prospective, cohort study cases from 2011- 2014 were included patients with cancer who are treated under the supervision of his chosen family medicine doctor. Including a factor for the participation of patients in the study is that from the moment of diagnosis of malignant disease passed 14 days-6 months n=39 patients. To achieve the set goals of the research was used instruments of 3 questionnaires: Questionnaire on the clinical characteristics of patients with malignant disease, demographic and individual characteristics; questionnaire distress oncology patient–hospital scales of depression and anxiety, HADS scale (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - HADS) and a rapid test for self-assessment of the symptoms of PTSD. Results: Age of patients was 54.63 ± 11:46 years, and the age of the respondents when they were diagnosed with cancer 54.34 ± 11.26 years. The prevalence of distress was a high 76% 82x higher than expected), and PTSD 55%. Predictors of burnout syndrome in cancer patients are all important determinants of malignant disease: the time elapsed since the diagnosis of the disease which determines the clinical status of malignant disease (β=0.280; P=0.001; 95% CI, 0742-2259), discovered metastases (β=0.304; P=0.001; 95% CI -2621 to 0978) and treatments (β=0.160; P=0.031, 95% CI 0050 to 1.060). Conclusion: The problem of distress in cancer patients is widespread and has a high prevalence of 76% in our environment, while still absent intervention and treatment. PMID:27047260

  3. Associations of NINJ2 sequence variants with incident ischemic stroke in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C Bis

    Full Text Available Stroke, the leading neurologic cause of death and disability, has a substantial genetic component. We previously conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS in four prospective studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE consortium and demonstrated that sequence variants near the NINJ2 gene are associated with incident ischemic stroke. Here, we sought to fine-map functional variants in the region and evaluate the contribution of rare variants to ischemic stroke risk.We sequenced 196 kb around NINJ2 on chromosome 12p13 among 3,986 European ancestry participants, including 475 ischemic stroke cases, from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, and Framingham Heart Study. Meta-analyses of single-variant tests for 425 common variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] ≥ 1% confirmed the original GWAS results and identified an independent intronic variant, rs34166160 (MAF = 0.012, most significantly associated with incident ischemic stroke (HR = 1.80, p = 0.0003. Aggregating 278 putatively-functional variants with MAF≤ 1% using count statistics, we observed a nominally statistically significant association, with the burden of rare NINJ2 variants contributing to decreased ischemic stroke incidence (HR = 0.81; p = 0.026.Common and rare variants in the NINJ2 region were nominally associated with incident ischemic stroke among a subset of CHARGE participants. Allelic heterogeneity at this locus, caused by multiple rare, low frequency, and common variants with disparate effects on risk, may explain the difficulties in replicating the original GWAS results. Additional studies that take into account the complex allelic architecture at this locus are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and medication: Cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Tim R A; Wintjens, Dion S J; Jeuring, Steven F G; Wassink, Maartje H H; Romberg-Camps, Marielle J L; Oostenbrug, Liekele E; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Hameeteman, Wim H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Masclee, Ad A; Jonkers, Daisy M; Pierik, Marie J

    2016-09-15

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed since the mid-1990s (e.g., use of thiopurines/anti-TNFα agents, improved surveillance programs), possibly affecting cancer risk. To establish current cancer risk in IBD, updates are warranted from cohorts covering this time span, and detailed enough to study associations with phenotype and medication. We studied intestinal-, extra-intestinal- and overall cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort. In total, 1,157 Crohn's disease (CD) and 1,644 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed between 1991 and 2011, and followed until 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CD and UC separately, as well as for gender-, phenotype-, disease duration-, diagnosis era- and medication groups. We found an increased risk for colorectal cancer in CD patients with colon involvement (SIR 2.97; 95% CI 1.08-6.46), but not in the total CD or UC population. In addition, CD patients were at increased risk for hematologic- (2.41; 1.04-4.76), overall skin- (1.55; 1.06-2.19), skin squamous cell- (SCC; 3.83; 1.83-7.04) and overall cancer (1.28; 1.01-1.60), whereas UC patients had no increased risk for extra-intestinal- and overall cancer. Finally, in a medication analysis on CD and UC together, long-term immunosuppression exposure (>12 months) was associated with an increased risk for hematologic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, SCC and overall cancer, and this increase was mainly attributed to thiopurines. IBD patients with long-term immunosuppression exposure can be considered as having a higher cancer risk, and our data support the advice in recent IBD guidelines to consider skin cancer screening in these patients. PMID:27170593

  5. Tobacco smoking as a risk factor of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung: pooled analysis of seven case–control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Yang, Ping; Muscat, Joshua E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Le Marchand, Loic; Cote, Michele L.; Stoddard, Shawn M.; Morgenstern, Hal; Hung, Rayjean J.; Boffetta, Paolo; Asomaning, Kofi; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) was established in 2004, based on the collaboration of research groups leading large molecular epidemiology studies of lung cancer that are ongoing or have been recently completed. This framework offered the opportunity to investigate the role of tobacco smoking in the development of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), a rare form of lung cancer. Methods: Our pooled data comprised seven case–control studies from the United States, w...

  6. Long working hours and cancer risk : a multi-cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkila, K.; Nyberg, S. T.; Madsen, I. E.; Vroome, E. de; Alfredsson, L; Bjorner, J B; Borritz, M; Burr, H; Erbel, R; Ferrie, J E; Fransson, E; Geuskens, G. A.; Hooftman, W. E.; Houtman, I L; Jöckel, K H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. METHODS: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. R...

  7. Polymorphism in the GALNT1 gene and epithelial ovarian cancer in non-Hispanic white women: the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phelan, Catherine M; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Goode, Ellen L; Vierkant, Robert A; Fridley, Brooke L; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiao Qing; Webb, Penelope M; Chanock, Stephen; Moysich, Kirsten; Edwards, Robert; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Hannah; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Hein, Rebecca; Green, Adele C; Lissowska, Jolanta; Carney, Michael E; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R; Ness, Roberta B; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Wu, Anna H; Van Den Berg, David J; Stram, Daniel O; Terry, Kathryn L; Whiteman, David C; Whittemore, Alice S; DiCioccio, Richard A; McGuire, Valerie; Doherty, Jennifer A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hogdall, Claus; Hogdall, Estrid; Krüger Kjaer, Susanne; Blaakaer, Jan; Quaye, Lydia; Ramus, Susan J; Jacobs, Ian; Song, Honglin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Iversen, Edwin S; Marks, Jeffrey R; Pike, Malcolm C; Gayther, Simon A; Cunningham, Julie M; Goodman, Marc T; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Berchuck, Andrew; Sellers, Thomas A; Cramer, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a well-described hallmark of cancer. In a previous ovarian cancer case control study that examined polymorphisms in 26 glycosylation-associated genes, we found strong statistical evidence (P = 0.00017) that women who inherited two copies of a single-nucleotide polymorphism...... in the UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, GALNT1, had decreased ovarian cancer risk. The current study attempted to replicate this observation. The GALNT1 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17647532 was genotyped in 6,965 cases and 8,377 controls from 14 studies...... forming the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. The fixed effects estimate per rs17647532 allele was null (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.07). When a recessive model was fit, the results were unchanged. Test for heterogeneity of the odds ratios revealed consistency across the 14...

  8. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the breast cancer association consortium: a combined case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Gaudet, Mia M; Spurdle, Amanda B;

    2010-01-01

    Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the...... Breast Cancer Association Consortium....

  9. Characteristics, therapy and outcome in an unselected and prospectively registered cohort of pancreatic cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, J K; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Schønnemann, K R;

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is associated with a dismal prognosis. Few studies have examined characteristics and outcome in an unselected population-based cohort of PC patients. Therefore, we investigated patient baseline characteristics, therapy choices and survival in a complete cohort of patients...

  10. Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R

    2005-01-17

    To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35-80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (kappa = 0.74). Most questionnaire data had kappa > 0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (kappa = 0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality. PMID:15597107

  11. Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; R. A. Goldbohm

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer ...

  12. Genome-wide analysis identifies novel loci associated with ovarian cancer outcomes: findings from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnatty, Sharon E.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Kar, Siddhartha; Beesley, Jonathan; Lu, Yi; Gao, Bo; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Lambrechts, Diether; Nieuwenhuysen, Els Van; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Levine, Douglas A.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubiński, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Brinton, Louise; Lissowska, Jolanta; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Song, Honglin; Rhenius, Valerie; Campbell, Ian; Eccles, Diana; Sieh, Weiva; Whittemore, Alice S.; McGuire, Valerie; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Sutphen, Rebecca; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Ramus, Susan J.; Pearce, Celeste L; Pike, Malcolm C; Stram, Daniel O.; Wu, Anna H.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Goodman, Marc T.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Carney, Michael E.; Thompson, Pamela J; Heitz, Florian; du Bois, Andreas; Schwaab, Ira; Harter, Philipp; Pisterer, Jacobus; Hillemanns, Peter; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Winham, Stacey J; Earp, Madalene; Larson, Melissa C.; Fogarty, Zachary C.; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Fridley, Brooke L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Iversen, Edwin S.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Orlow, Irene; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Høgdall, Claus; Lundvall, Lene; McNeish, Ian; Paul, James; Carty, Karen; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Glasspool, Rosalind; Sellers, Thomas; Kennedy, Catherine; Chiew, Yoke-Eng; Berchuck, Andrew; MacGregor, Stuart; deFazio, Anna; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Goode, Ellen L.; deFazio, Anna; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Chemotherapy resistance remains a major challenge in the treatment of ovarian cancer. We hypothesize that germline polymorphisms might be associated with clinical outcome. Experimental Design We analyzed ~2.8 million genotyped and imputed SNPs from the iCOGS experiment for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in 2,901 European epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients who underwent firstline treatment of cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy regardless of regimen, and in a subset of 1,098 patients treated with ≥4 cycles of paclitaxel and carboplatin at standard doses. We evaluated the top SNPs in 4,434 EOC patients including patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Additionally we conducted pathway analysis of all intragenic SNPs and tested their association with PFS and OS using gene set enrichment analysis. Results Five SNPs were significantly associated (p≤1.0x10−5) with poorer outcomes in at least one of the four analyses, three of which, rs4910232 (11p15.3), rs2549714 (16q23) and rs6674079 (1q22) were located in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) RP11–179A10.1, RP11–314O13.1 and RP11–284F21.8 respectively (p≤7.1x10−6). ENCODE ChIP-seq data at 1q22 for normal ovary shows evidence of histone modification around RP11–284F21.8, and rs6674079 is perfectly correlated with another SNP within the super-enhancer MEF2D, expression levels of which were reportedly associated with prognosis in another solid tumor. YAP1- and WWTR1 (TAZ)-stimulated gene expression, and HDL-mediated lipid transport pathways were associated with PFS and OS, respectively, in the cohort who had standard chemotherapy (pGSEA≤6x10−3). Conclusion We have identified SNPs in three lncRNAs that might be important targets for novel EOC therapies. PMID:26152742

  13. Cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers: extended follow up

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, L; Mikoczy, Z; Hagmar, L; Edling, C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers. An increased incidence of cancer of the stomach, the kidney and the nervous system in this cohort was previously reported. This new analysis reports on 9 more years of follow up. METHODS: The study is an analysis of a cohort of all 711 employees at 17 Swedish sewage plants employed for at least for 1 year during the years 1965-86. Assessment of exposures was performed by classification of work tasks. Standa...

  14. Cancer Patient and Survivor Research from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium: A Preview of Three Large Randomized Trials and Initial Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARCUS, ALFRED C.; DIEFENBACH, MICHAEL A.; STANTON, ANNETTE L.; MILLER-HALEGOUA, SUZANNE N.; FLEISHER, LINDA; RAICH, PETER C.; MORRA, MARION E.; PEROCCHIA, ROSEMARIE SLEVIN; TRAN, ZUNG VU; BRIGHT, MARY ANNE

    2014-01-01

    Three large randomized trials are described from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium (CISRC). Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 is also testing a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the two-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1 = 208, Project 2 = 340, Project 3 = 792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52% and 67% for Projects 1–3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most or some) was 90%, 85% and 83% for Projects 1–3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the CISRC interventions, perceived utility and benefit was high, and more than 90% would recommend them to other cancer patients. Five initial lessons learned are presented that may help inform future cancer communications research. PMID:23448232

  15. Tobacco chewing and female oral cavity cancer risk in Karunagappally cohort, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalekshmi, P A; Gangadharan, P.; Akiba, S; Nair, R R K; Tsuji, M.; Rajan, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined oral cancer in a cohort of 78 140 women aged 30–84 years in Karunagappally, Kerala, India, on whom baseline information was collected on lifestyle, including tobacco chewing, and sociodemographic factors during the period 1990–1997. By the end of 2005, 92 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagappally Cancer Registry. Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, taking into account age and income, showed that oral cancer incidence was strongly related to daily fre...

  16. Menopausal hormone therapy in relation to breast cancer characteristics and prognosis: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lena U; Granath, Fredrik; Dickman, Paul W.; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Wedrén, Sara; Persson, Ingemar; Hall, Per

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Menopausal hormone therapy has been reported to increase the risk of certain subtypes of breast cancer and to be associated with a favorable survival. These associations could either be due to an increased mammographic surveillance or to a biological effect. We assessed these associations in a Swedish cohort of postmenopausal breast cancer patients holding information on mammographic examinations, menopausal hormone therapy use, other breast cancer risk factors, and cancer treatm...

  17. Childhood cancer and nuclear power plants in Switzerland: a census-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Spycher, Ben D.; Feller, Martin; Zwahlen, Marcel; Röösli, Martin; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Hengartner, Heinz; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on childhood cancer and nuclear power plants (NPPs) produced conflicting results. We used a cohort approach to examine whether residence near NPPs was associated with leukaemia or any childhood cancer in Switzerland. METHODS: We computed person-years at risk for children aged 0-15 years born in Switzerland from 1985 to 2009, based on the Swiss censuses 1990 and 2000 and identified cancer cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We geo-coded place...

  18. Statin use and breast cancer survival: a nationwide cohort study in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    McMenamin, Una C.; Murray, Liam J; Hughes, Carmel M.; Cardwell, Chris R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preclinical evidence suggests that statins could delay cancer progression. Previous epidemiological findings have been inconsistent and some have been limited by small sample sizes, as well as certain time-related biases. This study aimed to investigate whether breast cancer patients who were exposed to statins had reduced breast cancer-specific mortality. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 15,140 newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer patients diagnosed from 20...

  19. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer survival: a prospective cohort-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Toriola, A T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R; Dalidowitz, L; Linehan, D; Colditz, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer but its association with survival from pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the association of diabetes with survival among pancreatic cancer patients in a prospective cohort-based study where diabetes history was ascertained before pancreatic cancer diagnosis. Methods: We evaluated survival by baseline (1993–2001) self-reported diabetes history (n=62) among 504 participants that developed exocrine...

  20. Brief Report: Family cancer history affecting risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gwen; Shu, Xiao Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Cook, Michael Blaise; YANG, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2009-01-01

    An elevated risk of colorectal cancer has been associated with sporadic colorectal cancer in first degree relatives, mostly in Western populations. Limited data exists from traditionally low-risk areas, such as Asia, where the prevalence of risk factors may differ. We examined the association of family history of cancer and subsequent colorectal cancer risk in a cohort of traditionally low-risk Chinese women.

  1. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Hou, Tao; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E; Berndt, Sonja I; van den Brandt, Piet A; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Alexandra Goldbohm, R; Goodman, Gary G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Håkansson, Niclas; Inoue, Manami; Key, Timothy J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Park, Yikyung; Platz, Elizabeth A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Sinha, Rashmi; Stampfer, Meir J; Stevens, Victoria L; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2016-05-15

    Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52,683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842,149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing ≥45 vs. red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. PMID:26685908

  2. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Hou, Tao; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Goodman, Gary G.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Håkansson, Niclas; Inoue, Manami; Key, Timothy J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Park, Yikyung; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52, 683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842, 149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing ≥45 vs. meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. PMID:26685908

  3. A Novel Cross-Disciplinary Multi-Institute Approach to Translational Cancer Research: Lessons Learned from Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashokkumar A. Patel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC, http://www.pcabc.upmc.edu is one of the first major project-based initiatives stemming from the Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance that was funded for four years by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The objective of this was to initiate a prototype biorepository and bioinformatics infrastructure with a robust data warehouse by developing a statewide data model (1 for bioinformatics and a repository of serum and tissue samples; (2 a data model for biomarker data storage; and (3 a public access website for disseminating research results and bioinformatics tools. The members of the Consortium cooperate closely, exploring the opportunity for sharing clinical, genomic and other bioinformatics data on patient samples in oncology, for the purpose of developing collaborative research programs across cancer research institutions in Pennsylvania. The Consortium’s intention was to establish a virtual repository of many clinical specimens residing in various centers across the state, in order to make them available for research. One of our primary goals was to facilitate the identification of cancer specific biomarkers and encourage collaborative research efforts among the participating centers.Methods: The PCABC has developed unique partnerships so that every region of the state can effectively contribute and participate. It includes over 80 individuals from 14 organizations, and plans to expand to partners outside the State. This has created a network of researchers, clinicians, bioinformaticians, cancer registrars, program directors, and executives from academic and community health systems, as well as external corporate partners - all working together to accomplish a common mission. The various sub-committees have developed a common IRB protocol template, common data elements for standardizing data collections for three organ sites, intellectual

  4. A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age- an

  5. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  6. Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Kristensen, Mette; Würtz, Anne M L; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its anti-oestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study in...

  7. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  8. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for c

  9. Physical activity and risk of ovarian cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesma, R.G.; Schouten, L.J.; Dirx, M.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between nonoccupational physical activity and the risk of ovarian cancer among post-menopausal women. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer consists of 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Information regarding baseline nonoccupation

  10. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal c

  11. Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Smits, K.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Energy-adjusted magnesium intake was nonsignificantly inversely related to risk of colorectal cancer (n=2328) in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer that started in 1986 (n=58 279 men and 62 573 women). Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects

  12. Evaluation of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this dissertation was to re-analyze existing data to explore methodologic approaches that may determine whether excess cancer mortality in the ORNL cohort can be explained by time-related factors not previously considered; grouping of cancer outcomes; selection bias due to choice of method selected to incorporate an empirical induction period; or the type of statistical model chosen

  13. Evaluation of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to re-analyze existing data to explore methodologic approaches that may determine whether excess cancer mortality in the ORNL cohort can be explained by time-related factors not previously considered; grouping of cancer outcomes; selection bias due to choice of method selected to incorporate an empirical induction period; or the type of statistical model chosen.

  14. The impact of breast cancer-specific birth cohort effects among younger and older Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyuna; Rosenberg, Philip S; Chen, Wan-Qing; Hartman, Mikael; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chia, Kee Seng; Wai-Kong Mang, Oscar; Tse, Lapah; Anderson, William F; Yang, Xiaohong R

    2016-08-01

    Historically low breast cancer incidence rates among Asian women have risen worldwide; purportedly due to the adoption of a "Western" life style among younger generations (i.e., the more recent birth cohorts). However, no study has simultaneously compared birth cohort effects between both younger and older women in different Asian and Western populations. Using cancer registry data from rural and urban China, Singapore and the United States (1990-2008), we estimated age-standardized incidence rates (ASR), annual percentage change (EAPC) in the ASR, net drifts, birth cohort specific incidence rates and cohort rate ratios (CRR). Younger (30-49 years, 1943-1977 birth cohorts) and older women (50-79 years; 1913-1957 birth cohorts) were assessed separately. CRRs among Chinese populations were estimated using birth cohort specific rates with US non-Hispanic white women (NHW) serving as the reference population with an assigned CRR of 1.0. We observed higher EAPCs and net drifts among those Chinese populations with lower ASRs. Similarly, we observed the most rapidly increasing cohort-specific incidence rates among those Chinese populations with the lowest baseline CRRs. Both trends were more significant among older than younger women. Average CRRs were 0.06-0.44 among older and 0.18-0.81 among younger women. Rapidly rising cohort specific rates have narrowed the historic disparity between Chinese and US NHW breast cancer populations particularly in regions with the lowest baseline rates and among older women. Future analytic studies are needed to investigate risk factors accounting for the rapid increase of breast cancer among older and younger women separately in Asian populations. PMID:26992019

  15. Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cust, Anne E.; Slimani, Nadia; Kaaks, Rudolf; van Bakel, Marit; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Laville, Martine; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Lajous, Martin; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Noethlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Skeie, Guri; Engeset, Dagrun; Gram, Inger Torhild; Quiros, J. Ramon; Jakszyn, Paula; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Berglund, Goran; Lundin, Eva; Hallmans, Goeran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Du, Huaidong; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bingham, Shelia; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Key, Timothy J.; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), inc

  16. Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, Mirjam E., E-mail: m.mast@mchaaglanden.nl [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, Mark W. [Department of Radiology, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Petoukhova, Anna L. [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, Astrid N. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, Joop H.M. [Department of Cardiology, Medical Center Haaglanden, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, Henk [Radiotherapy Centre West, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55-64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55-64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55-64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

  17. Preradiotherapy Calcium Scores of the Coronary Arteries in a Cohort of Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Comparison With a Cohort of Healthy Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Breast cancer radiotherapy has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac toxicity. However, no data are available on the probability of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in breast cancer patients when compared with healthy women. Therefore, baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores, as an accepted tool to predict CAD, were determined and compared with the CAC scores of a healthy, asymptomatic cohort, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods and Materials: Eighty consecutive patients with ductal carcinoma in situ or infiltrative breast cancer referred for radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery were included in our study. Their cardiovascular risk profile was registered, and a 64 multislice CT scan was performed. The CAC scores of an unselected (Caucasian only) Radiotherapy Centre West (RCWEST) cohort, as well as of those of a selected (comorbidity and race adjusted) RCWEST cohort, were determined. The scores of both cohorts were compared with those of the female (Caucasian only) MESA cohort. Results: For the unselected RCWEST cohort (n = 62) we found significant (p < .01) higher scores for women in the 55–64 age category compared with those of the MESA cohort. In the selected cohort (n = 55) the CAC scores of the women in the age category 55–64 were significantly (p = .02) higher compared with the MESA cohort. No significant differences were noted in the other age categories. Conclusion: Both cohorts revealed that CAC scores in the 55–64 age category were significantly higher than the CAC scores in the asymptomatic (female) MESA population. These data suggest that breast cancer patients bear a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease before the start of radiotherapy. Therefore, measures to decrease cardiac dose further in breast cancer radiotherapy are even more important.

  18. Natural vitamin C intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: A pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Turati, Federica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2015-07-15

    Evidence of associations between single nutrients and head and neck cancer (HNC) is still more limited and less consistent than that for fruit and vegetables. However, clarification of the protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables is important to our understanding of HNC etiology. We investigated the association between vitamin C intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx using individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5,959 cases and 12,248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. After harmonization of study-specific exposure information via the residual method, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models on quintile categories of 'non-alcohol energy-adjusted' vitamin C intake. In the presence of heterogeneity of the estimated ORs among studies, we derived those estimates from generalized linear mixed models. Higher intakes of vitamin C were inversely related to oral and pharyngeal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.45-0.65, for the fifth quintile category versus the first one, p for trendconsistently observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer, and across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, tobacco, and alcohol, for both cancer sites. The inverse association of vitamin C intake from foods with HNC may reflect a protective effect on these cancers; however, we cannot rule out other explanations. PMID:25627906

  19. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob;

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  20. Cohort study examining tamoxifen adherence and its relationship to mortality in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, C.; Shearer, J.; Donnan, P T; Dewar, J.A.; Crilly, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Fahey, T P

    2008-01-01

    Increasing duration of tamoxifen therapy improves survival in women with breast cancer but the impact of adherence to tamoxifen on mortality is unclear. This study investigated whether women prescribed tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer adhered to their prescription and whether adherence influenced survival. A retrospective cohort study of all women with incident breast cancer in the Tayside region of Scotland between 1993 and 2002 was linked to encashed prescription records to calcula...

  1. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

    OpenAIRE

    LW Figgs

    2013-01-01

    Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants.Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers.Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP) was ass...

  2. Diet and ovarian cancer : A population-based cohort of 60 000 women

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Susanna C.

    2005-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in Western countries. Hence, identification of risk factors amenable to modification, such as diet, is of considerable public health relevance as it could provide means for primary prevention of this malignancy. The purpose of this thesis was to prospectively examine the potential role of diet in the etiology of ovarian cancer, using data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC). The ...

  3. Mouthwash use and cancer of the head and neck: a pooled analysis from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo; Hayes, Richard B; Sartori, Samantha; Lee, Yuan-Chin A; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew; Winn, Deborah M; Castellsagué, Xavier; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Purdue, Mark; Koifman, Sergio; Curado, Maria P; Vilensky, Marta; Gillison, Maura; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Daudt, Alexander W; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guopei; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Haddad, Robert I; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hashibe, Mia

    2016-07-01

    Most mouthwashes contain alcohol, a known cause of head and neck cancer (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx), likely through the carcinogenic activity of acetaldehyde, formed in the oral cavity from alcohol. We carried out a pooled analysis of 8981 cases of head and neck cancer and 10 090 controls from 12 case-control studies with comparable information on mouthwash use in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of mouthwash use with cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, adjusting for study, age, sex, pack-years of tobacco smoking, number of alcoholic drinks/day, and education. Compared with never users of mouthwash, the odds ratio (OR) of all head and neck cancers was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94-1.08] for ever users, based on 12 studies. The corresponding ORs of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00-1.23) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.06-1.56), respectively. OR for all head and neck cancer was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01-1.30) for use for more than 35 years, based on seven studies (P for linear trend=0.01), and OR 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09-1.58) for use more than one per day, based on five studies (P for linear trend <0.001). Although limited by the retrospective nature of the study and the limited ability to assess risks of mouthwash use in nonusers of tobacco and alcohol, this large investigation shows potential risks for head and neck cancer subsites and in long-term and frequent users of mouthwash. This pooled analysis provides the most precise estimate of the association between mouthwash use and head and neck cancer. PMID:26275006

  4. Dairy consumption and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort: The Norwegian Women and Cancer study

    OpenAIRE

    Hjartaker, A; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv; Thoresen, Magne

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the association between consumption of dairy products and calcium intake and risk of breast cancer risk according to menopausal status. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study of 64,904 Norwegian women followed from 1996/1999 through 2006, we examined total dairy consumption and consumption of various dairy products in relation to pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. We also examined breast cancer in relation to calcium intake and to milk consumption d...

  5. Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk : A pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D. J.; Spiegelman, D; Anderson, K. E.; Buring, J. E.; Freudenheim, J. L.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Harnack, L.; Hankinson, S E; Larsson, S C; Leitzmann, M; McCullough, M.L.; Marshall, J.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from ten prospective cohort studies. The analysis included 5...

  6. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Anne M. J. Gilsing; Schouten, Leo J.; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Weijenberg, Matty P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), ...

  7. Colorectal cancer risk and dyslipidemia: a case-cohort study nested in an Italian multicentre cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnoli, C.; Grioni, S.; Sieri, S.; Sacerdote, C.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Giurdanella, M.C.; Pala, V.; Mattiello, A.; Chiodini, P.; Iacoviello, L.; Curtis, de A.; Cattaneo, L.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemia is an established risk factor for many diseases, but its effect on colorectal cancer risk is less clear. We investigated the association of colorectal cancer risk with plasma triglycerides, total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol in four Italian EPIC centers. Methods: We conducted a

  8. Reproductive Factors and Kidney Cancer Risk in 2 US Cohort Studies, 1993–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Sara; Daugherty, Sarah E.; Schonfeld, Sara J.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995–2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993–2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:23624999

  9. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish Population Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241...

  10. IPD-Work consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna;

    2015-01-01

    of countries. The aim of the consortium is to estimate reliably the associations of work-related psychosocial factors with chronic diseases, disability, and mortality. Our findings are highly cited by the occupational health, epidemiology, and clinical medicine research community. However, some of......Established in 2008 and comprising over 60 researchers, the IPD-Work (individual-participant data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium is a collaborative research project that uses pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data from multiple cohort studies representing a range...... the IPD-Work's findings have also generated disagreement as they challenge the importance of job strain as a major target for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention, this is reflected in the critical discussion paper by Choi et al (1). In this invited reply to Choi et al, we aim to (i) describe how...

  11. Whole grain, dietary fiber, and incidence of endometrial cancer in a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Christensen, Jane;

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and dietary fiber might be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk through their effects on sex hormone metabolism and body fat. We investigated whether a higher intake of whole grains and dietary fiber was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in the Diet...... included as cohort members, 217 had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. No clear associations were found between intake of whole grains or dietary fiber and the incidence of endometrial cancer......., Cancer and Health cohort of 29,875 women aged 50-64 years at enrollment in 1993-1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was derived from self-administered questionnaires. The incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated based on a Cox proportional hazards model. Of the 24,418 women...

  12. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, E.; Boffetta, P.; Lagiou, P.; Ferrari, P.; Buckland, G.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V.; Trichopoulos, D.; Naska, A.; Benetou, V.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; von Ruesten, A.; Panico, S.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; May, A.; Peeters, P. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Buchner, F. L.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M-J; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Hallmans, G.; Johansson, I.; Manjer, J.; Wirfart, E.; Allen, N. E.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N.; Moskal, A.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Romaguera, D.; Mouw, T.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk

  13. Alcohol and breast cancer tumor subtypes in a Spanish Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Castelao, J Esteban; Gude, Francisco; Fernandez, Maite Peña; Aguado-Barrera, Miguel E; Ponte, Sara Miranda; Redondo, Carmen M; Castelo, Manuel Enguix; Dominguez, Alejandro Novo; Garzón, Víctor Muñoz; Carracedo, Angel; Martínez, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although alcohol intake is an established risk factor for overall breast cancer, few studies have looked at the relationship between alcohol use and breast cancer risk by the four major subtypes of breast cancer and very few data exist in the alcohol-breast cancer relationship in Spanish women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Galicia, Spain. A total of 1766 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2014 and 833 controls participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics were collected. We examined the alcohol-breast cancer association according to the major breast cancer subtypes [hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative (luminal A); hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-positive (luminal B); hormone-receptor-negative, HER2-negative (TNBC); and hormone-receptor-negative, HER2-positive (HER2 overexpressing)] as well as grade and morphology in Spanish women. With the exception of HER2 overexpressing, the risk of all subtypes of breast cancer significantly increased with increasing alcohol intake. The association was similar for hormonal receptor positive breast cancer, i.e., luminal A and luminal B breast cancer (odds ratio, OR 2.16, 95 % confidence interval, CI 1.55-3.02; and OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.11-3.53, respectively), and for TNBC (TNBC: OR 1.93, 95 % CI 1.07-3.47). The alcohol-breast cancer association was slightly more pronounced among lobular breast cancer (OR 2.76, 95 % CI 1.62-4.69) than among ductal type breast cancers (OR 2.21, 95 % CI 1.61-3.03). In addition, significant associations were shown for all grades, I, II and III breast cancer (OR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.26-3.10; OR 2.34, 95 % CI 1.66-3.31; and OR 2.16, 95 % CI 1.44-3.25 for Grades I, II and III, respectively). To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association of breast cancer subtypes and alcohol intake in Spanish women. Our findings indicate that breast cancer risk increased

  14. Assessing interactions between the associations of common genetic susceptibility variants, reproductive history and body mass index with breast cancer risk in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium: a combined case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Couch, Fergus J.; Benitez, Javier; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Maria Pilar; Malats, Nuria; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Gibson, Lorna J.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Methods We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of liv...

  15. Alcohol and breast cancer tumor subtypes in a Spanish Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Castelao, J.Esteban; Gude, Francisco; Fernandez, Maite Peña; Miguel E. Aguado-Barrera; Ponte, Sara Miranda; Carmen M Redondo; Castelo, Manuel Enguix; Dominguez, Alejandro Novo; Garzón, Víctor Muñoz; Carracedo, Angel; Martínez, María Elena

    2016-01-01

    Although alcohol intake is an established risk factor for overall breast cancer, few studies have looked at the relationship between alcohol use and breast cancer risk by the four major subtypes of breast cancer and very few data exist in the alcohol-breast cancer relationship in Spanish women. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Galicia, Spain. A total of 1766 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2014 and 833 controls participated in the study. Data...

  16. Efficacy of pazopanib in progressive, radioiodine-refractory, metastatic differentiated thyroid cancers: results of a phase 2 consortium study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Keith C; Suman, Vera J; Molina, Julian R; Smallridge, Robert C; Maples, William J; Menefee, Michael E; Rubin, Joseph; Sideras, Kostandinos; Morris, John C; McIver, Bryan; Burton, Jill K; Webster, Kevin P; Bieber, Carolyn; Traynor, Anne M; Flynn, Patrick J; Goh, Boon Cher; Tang, Hui; Ivy, Susan Percy; Erlichman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    . Interpretation Pazopanib seems to represent a promising therapeutic option for patients with advanced differentiated thyroid cancers. The correlation of the patient’s response and pazopanib concentration during the first cycle might indicate that treatment can be individualised to achieve optimum outcomes. Assessment of pazopanib in an expanded cohort of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, as well as in cohorts of patients with medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancers, is presently being done. Funding National Cancer Institute, supported in part by NCI CA15083 and CM62205. PMID:20851682

  17. Cancer and autoimmunity: Harnessing longitudinal cohorts to probe the link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egiziano, Giordano; Bernatsky, Sasha; Shah, Ami A

    2016-02-01

    In many autoimmune rheumatic diseases, there is an increased risk of cancer compared to the general population. While reasons for this increased risk have not been elucidated, it has been hypothesized that the link between cancer and autoimmunity may be bidirectional. For instance, chronic inflammation and damage from the rheumatic disease or its therapies may trigger malignant transformation; conversely, antitumor immune responses targeting cancers may become cross-reactive resulting in autoimmunity. In rare rheumatic diseases, longitudinal observational studies can play a critical role in studying these complex relationships, thereby enabling investigators to quantify the extent of cancer risk, identify unique clinical phenotypes associated with cancer, investigate the biological link between these conditions, and define optimal strategies for screening and treatment of the underlying cancer. In this review, we discuss recent data on cancer in the rheumatic diseases and suggest a research agenda to address several gaps in our current knowledge base. PMID:27421216

  18. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.;

    2016-01-01

    associated with 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval 1.12-2.29) increase in female breast cancer risk independently of age, socioeconomic position, shift- and night-time work and lifestyle factors, but this observation may have been influenced by residual confounding from parity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings......BACKGROUND: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. METHODS: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......: 393; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working ⩾55 h per week was...

  19. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Kelemen Linda E; Bandera Elisa V; Terry Kathryn L; Rossing Mary Anne; Brinton Louise A; Doherty Jennifer A; Ness Roberta B; Kjær Susanne Krüger; Chang-Claude Jenny; Köbel Martin; Lurie Galina; Thompson Pamela J; Carney Michael E; Moysich Kirsten; Edwards Robert

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. Methods We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcoh...

  20. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H;

    2001-01-01

    The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening into acco...... been exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects.......The Nordic countries have experienced a steady increase in breast cancer incidence throughout the past 35 years. We analysed the incidence in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during the period 1958 to 1992 using age-period-cohort models and taking the systematic mammography screening into...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have...

  1. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro;

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors.This study generated a...... healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European...... Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier...

  2. UNIVERSITY CONSORTIUM

    OpenAIRE

    RALUCA-OLGUTA PACURARU

    2011-01-01

    Human resource is considered to be the most valuable resource in the knowledge society. Therefore the whole education system acquires an increased importance because of its task of forming this kind of resource. On the other hand, a characteristic of these times is globalization. A possible response of universities around the world to this requirement may be found in the form of university consortiums.

  3. Pathways to the diagnosis of lung cancer in the UK: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Jacqueline

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in the UK. Patients generally present to their general practitioner, but the pathway of diagnosis from first symptom to diagnosis has not been mapped. We performed a cohort study of 246 patients with lung cancer in Exeter, Devon UK. All patients had their cancer symptoms, referrals and diagnoses identified and dated using their doctors' records. Results Three main routes to diagnosis emerged. The first was the expected route of outpatient referral; 150 (61% of the cohort of patients took this route, although only 110 (45% of the whole cohort, 73% of those referred to outpatients were referred to a respiratory department. 56 (23% were admitted as an emergency, having previously described a lung cancer symptom to their doctor. 26 patients (11% had no symptom of lung cancer reported before their diagnosis. The interval from first symptom to referral was similar across the different pathways. However, the referral to diagnosis interval was longer in patients misdirected to other outpatient departments (66 days, interquartile range 37,110 than those sent to respiratory clinics (29 days, 17,61 or admitted as an emergency (16 days 8,40; p Conclusion Only a minority of lung cancer patients follow the traditional route to diagnosis. Clinical and research efforts need to consider the alternative routes if they are to maximise their impact on speed of diagnosis.

  4. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Yeonju; Park, Sue K.; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the low mortality rate of breast cancer among women in Korea, the breast cancer mortality rate has increased. The aim of this study was to examine trends in breast cancer mortality from 1983 to 2012 in Korea, assessing the importance of age, period, and birth cohort as risk factors. Materials and Methods Data on the annual number of deaths due to female breast cancer and on female population statistics from 1983 to 2012 were obtained from Statistics Korea. A log-linear Poisson...

  5. Occupation and stomach cancer in a cohort of Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, W H; McLaughlin, J K; Malker, H S; Weiner, J A; Ericsson, J L; Stone, B J; Blot, W J

    1994-10-01

    Using the Cancer-Environment Registry of Sweden, which links the 1960 census information on employment with cancer incidence data from 1961-1979, we conducted a systematic, population-based assessment of stomach cancer incidence by industry and occupation for men in Sweden. Nearly 17,000 stomach cancer cases were diagnosed during the 19 years of follow-up. Stomach cancer incidence was elevated among miners and quarrymen, farmers and fishermen, and craftsmen and production workers. Men who held white collar jobs, including professional and technical, administrative and management, clerical, and sales jobs, had a reduction in stomach cancer incidence. Examination of specific jobs revealed generally elevated rates of stomach cancer among men who may be exposed to dusty work environments, such as quarry workers, stone cutters, circular and plane operators, construction workers, crane operators, heavy laborers, and shop and construction metal workers. These occupational associations mostly were observed for stomach cancers of noncardia origin, and no significant associations were found with cardia cancers. We had no information on dietary or other potential confounding factors and cannot make inferences about the role of occupation per se, but the current findings support those of earlier investigations and add to the evidence of a small but significant occupational role in stomach carcinogenesis. PMID:7810549

  6. Risk of skin cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus: A nationwide retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hui-Wen; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Tang, Pei-Ling; Lam, Hing-Chung

    2016-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to investigate the risk of skin cancer in patients with DM in Taiwan. In this retrospective cohort study using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, the risk of developing overall skin cancer, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, was compared by Poisson regression analysis and Cox regression analysis between the DM and non-DM cohorts. The DM cohort with newly diagnosed DM (n = 41,898) and a non-DM cohort were one-to-one matched by age, sex, index date, and comorbidities (coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and obesity). Compared with non-DM cohort statistically, for the people with DM aged ≥60 years, the incidence rates of overall skin cancer and NMSC were significantly higher (overall: DM/non-DM: number [n] = 99/76, incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.44, P = 0.02; NMSC: DM/non-DM: n = 94/66, IRR = 1.57, P = 0.005). By Cox regression analysis, the risk of developing overall skin cancer or NMSC was significantly higher after adjusting for sex, comorbidities, and overall diseases with immunosuppression status (overall: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.46, P = 0.01; NMSC: AHR = 1.6, P = 0.003). Other significant risk factors were older males for skin cancer (overall: AHR = 1.68, P = 0.001; NMSC: AHR = 1.59, P = 0.004; melanoma: AHR = 3.25, P = 0.04), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for NMSC (AHR = 1.44, P = 0.04), and coronary artery disease for melanoma (AHR = 4.22, P = 0.01). The risk of developing melanoma was lower in the DM cohort than in the non-DM cohort, but without significance (AHR = 0.56, P = 0.28; DM/non-DM: n = 5/10). The incidence rate and risk of developing overall skin cancer, including NMSC, was significantly higher in older adults with DM. Other significant risk factors for older adults

  7. Association between Sleep Duration and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Lu; Nong Tian; Jie Yin; Yuhua Shi; Zhenping Huang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep duration has been shown to play an important role in the development of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis with prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the association between short or long sleep duration and cancer risk. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible publications. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random- or fixed- model. RESULTS: A total of 10 pros...

  8. Meat Consumption, Heterocyclic Amines, and Colorectal Cancer Risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Greater consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in several recent meta-analyses. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) have been hypothesized to underlie this association. In this prospective analysis conducted within the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we examined whether greater consumption of total, red, or processed meat was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer among 165,717 participants who completed a detailed food frequency question...

  9. Intake of whole grains and incidence of oesophageal cancer in the HELGA Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Guri; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Landberg, Rikard; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Wennberg, Maria; Overvad, Kim; Åsli, Lene Angell; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv

    2016-04-01

    Few prospective studies have investigated the association between whole-grain consumption and incidence of oesophageal cancer. In the Scandinavian countries, consumption of whole grains is high and the incidence of oesophageal cancer comparably low. The aim of this paper was to study the associations between consumption of whole grains, whole-grain products and oesophageal cancer, including its two major histological subtypes. The HELGA cohort is a prospective cohort study consisting of three sub-cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Information regarding whole-grain consumption was collected through country-specific food frequency questionnaires. Cancer cases were identified through national cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards ratios were calculated in order to assess the associations between whole grains and oesophageal cancer risk. The analytical cohort had 113,993 members, including 112 cases, and median follow-up time was 11 years. When comparing the highest tertile of intake with the lowest, the oesophageal cancer risk was approximately 45 % lower (adjusted HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31-0.97 for whole grains, HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.30-0.88 for whole-grain products). Inverse associations were also found in continuous analyses. Whole-grain wheat was the only grain associated with lower risk (HR 0.32, 95 % CI 0.16-0.63 highest vs. lowest tertile). Among whole-grain products, the results were less clear, but protective associations were seen for the sum of whole-grain products, and whole-grain bread. Lower risk was seen in both histological subtypes, but particularly for squamous cell carcinomas. In this study, whole-grain consumption, particularly whole-grain wheat, was inversely associated with risk of oesophageal cancer. PMID:26092139

  10. Dietary isoflavone intake is not statistically significantly associated with breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Yukiko; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Park, Song-Yi; Ettienne, Reynolette; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Long, Camonia; Steffen, Alana D.; Brian E Henderson; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R.

    2014-01-01

    Given high soy intake and low incidence rates in Asian countries, isoflavones, substances with an estrogen-like structure occurring principally in soybeans, are postulated to be cancer-protective. We examined the association of dietary isoflavone intake with breast cancer risk in 84,450 women (896 in situ and 3,873 invasive cases) who were part of the Multiethnic Cohort (Japanese Americans, whites, Latinos, African Americans, and Native Hawaiians) with wide ranges of soy intake. The absolute ...

  11. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: Danish Cancer in Primary Care cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen H.; Tørring ML; Larsen MB; Vedsted P

    2014-01-01

    Henry Jensen,1,2 Marie Louise Tørring,1 Mette Bach Larsen,3 Peter Vedsted11Research Unit for General Practice, Research Centre for Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care, 2Section for General Medical Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, 3Department of Public Health Programs, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers NOE, Denmark Background: In this paper, we describe the settings, content, and possibilities of the Danish Cancer in Primary Care (CaP) cohort as wel...

  12. General practitioner characteristics and delay in cancer diagnosis. a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Vedsted Peter; Hansen Rikke P; Sokolowski Ineta; Søndergaard Jens; Olesen Frede

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Delay in cancer diagnosis may have serious prognostic consequences, and some patients experience delays lasting several months. However, we have no knowledge whether such delays are associated with general practitioner (GP) characteristics. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether GP and practice characteristics are associated with the length of delay in cancer diagnosis. Methods The study was designed as a population-based cohort study. The setting was the Coun...

  13. Cancer Risk in Children and Adolescents with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Ar...

  14. Risk Analysis of Prostate Cancer in PRACTICAL, a Multinational Consortium, Using 25 Known Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with prostate cancer risk which explain a substantial proportion of familial relative risk. These variants can be used to stratify individuals by their risk of prostate cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 2...

  15. Associations of breast cancer risk factors with tumor subtypes: a pooled analysis from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L;

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors.......Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors....

  16. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes : A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Heikkilae, Paeivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J.; Van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M. S.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Doerk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menendez Rodriguez, Primitiva; Zamora, Pilar; Bentez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yang, Show-Lin; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collee, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkaes, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Paeivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Orsted, David Dynnes; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P. E. A.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients f

  17. A pilot case-cohort study of brain cancer in poultry and control workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, S; Felini, M J; Ndetan, H; Cardarelli, K; Jadhav, S; Faramawi, M; Johnson, E S

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory study to investigate which exposures (including poultry oncogenic viruses) are associated with brain cancer in poultry workers. A total of 46,819 workers in poultry and nonpoultry plants from the same union were initially followed for mortality. Brain cancer was observed to be in excess among poultry workers. Here we report on a pilot case-cohort study with cases consisting of 26 (55%) of the 47 brain cancer deaths recorded in the cohort, and controls consisting of a random sample of the cohort (n = 124). Exposure information was obtained from telephone interviews, and brain cancer mortality risk estimated by odds ratios. Increased risk of brain cancer was associated with killing chickens, odds ratio (OR) = 5.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-28.3); working in a shell-fish farm, OR = 13.0 (95% CI, 1.9-84.2); and eating uncooked fish, OR = 8.2 (95% CI, 1.8-37.0). Decreased risks were observed for chicken pox illness, OR = 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6), and measles vaccination, OR = 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Killing chickens, an activity associated with the highest occupational exposure to poultry oncogenic viruses, was associated with brain cancer mortality, as were occupational and dietary shellfish exposures. These findings are novel. PMID:24564367

  18. Salt intake, cured meat consumption, refrigerator use and stomach cancer incidence: A prospective cohort study (Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Many case-control studies have reported that salt and cured meat intake are positively, and refrigerator use is inversely, associated with stomach cancer risk. In the current prospective study these associations were evaluated. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study consisted of 120,852 me

  19. K-ras oncogene mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Weijenberg, M.P.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Pachen, M.M.M.; Smits, K.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2003-01-01

    Activation of K-ras oncogene has been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis, being mutated in 30-60% of the adenocarcinomas. In this study, 737 incident colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, originating from 120 852 men and women (55-69 years at baseline) participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study

  20. Vegetable and fruit consumption and prostate cancer risk: A cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were avai

  1. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer survival: a prospective patient cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Benner, A.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Study results on the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival are inconsistent, partly due to the use of different survival outcomes. We assessed the association of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption with survival and recurrence in a prospective cohort study in Germany includin

  2. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: Danish Cancer in Primary Care cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Henry Jensen,1,2 Marie Louise Tørring,1 Mette Bach Larsen,3 Peter Vedsted11Research Unit for General Practice, Research Centre for Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care, 2Section for General Medical Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, 3Department of Public Health Programs, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers NOE, Denmark Background: In this paper, we describe the settings, content, and possibilities of the Danish Cancer in Primary Care (CaP cohort as well as some of the key findings so far. Further, we describe the future potential of the cohort as an international resource for epidemiological and health services research studies. Methods: The CaP cohort comprises information from three Danish subcohorts set up in 2004–2005, 2007–2008, and 2010 on newly diagnosed cancer patients aged 18 years or older. General practitioner (GP-reported and patient-reported data from six questionnaires generated information on causes and consequences of delayed diagnosis of cancer, and these data were supplemented with complete information on, eg, death, migration, health care utilization, medication use, and socioeconomic data from Denmark's comprehensive health and administrative registers. The cohort is followed up in terms of emigration, death, hospitalization, medication, and socioeconomics, and data are updated regularly. Results: In total, we identified 22,169 verified incident cancer cases. Completed GP questionnaires were returned for 17,566 (79% of the verified cases, and patient questionnaires were completed by 8,937 (40% respondents. Patients with participating GPs did not differ from patients with nonparticipating GPs in regard to one-year survival, comorbidity, or educational level. However, compared with nonparticipating GPs, patients listed with participating GPs were more likely to be women, younger, to have a higher disposable income, to have more regional or distant spread of tumors, were also more likely to have

  3. Effect of glycemic control on the risk of pancreatic cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Kian-Ching; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Yi-Kung; Huang, Ming-Yuan; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Although the relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer has been studied, the effects of glycemic control on pancreatic cancer have never been evaluated. This study investigates the relationship between glycemic control and pancreatic cancer.Data from 1 million National Health Insurance beneficiaries were screened. The study cohort consisted of 46,973 diabetic patients and 652,142 nondiabetic subjects. Of the patients with diabetes, 1114 who had been admitted for hyperglycemic crisis episodes were defined as having poorly controlled diabetes. All adult beneficiaries were followed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013, to determine whether pancreatic cancer was diagnosed. The Cox regression model was applied to compare the adjusted hazards for potential confounders.After controlling for age, sex, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, chronic liver disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, malignancies, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, history of alcohol intoxication, chronic renal insufficiency, biliary tract disease, chronic pancreatitis, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and high-dimensional propensity score, the adjusted hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was 2.53 (95% confidence interval 1.96-3.26) in patients with diabetes. In diabetic patients with poor glycemic control, the hazard ratio of pancreatic cancer was significantly higher (hazard ratio 3.61, 95% confidence interval 1.34-9.78).This cohort study reveals a possible relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer. Moreover, poorly controlled diabetes may be associated with a higher possibility of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27311001

  4. Risk of venous thromboembolism in people with lung cancer: a cohort study using linked UK healthcare data

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Alex J.; Baldwin, David R; Card, Tim R; Powell, Helen A; Hubbard, Richard B.; Grainge, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Venous thromboembolism is a potentially preventable cause of death in people with lung cancer. Identification of those most at risk and high risk periods may provide the opportunity for better targeted intervention. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics and Cancer Registry data. Our cohort comprised 10,598 people with lung cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 2006 with follow-up continuing to the ...

  5. Association between urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite and breast cancer risk: a prospective, case-cohort study of postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sangmi; Taylor, Jack A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight or obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated aromatase activation and estrogen biosynthesis in breast tissues. We hypothesized that increased production of PGE2 would contribute to elevated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We carried out a case-cohort study with 307 incident breast cancer cases and 300 subcohort members from the Sister Study cohort. Hazard ratio...

  6. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  7. No association between typical European mitochondrial variation and prostate cancer risk in a Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachal, Laura; Gómez-Caamaño, Antonio; Alvarez Iglesias, Vanesa; Gómez Carballa, Alberto; Calvo, Patricia; Salas, Antonio; Vega, Ana

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial common variants (mtSNPs) and the haplogroups defined by them have been inconsistently correlated with increased prostate cancer risk. Here we aimed to investigate the influence of the mitochondrial genetic background on prostate cancer. A total of 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) representing the common European branches of the mtDNA phylogeny were analyzed in a cohort of 620 Spanish prostate cancer patients and 616 matched population-based controls. Association tests were computed on mtSNPs and haplogroups. None of the evaluated mtSNPs or haplogroups were statistically associated with prostate cancer risk in our Spanish cohort. We show that previous association findings do not rest on solid grounds given that all of them (i) were based on underpowered studies, (ii) did not control for population stratification, (iii) lacked replication/confirmation cohorts, and (iv) and did not control for multiple test corrections. Taken together, a critical reassessment of the previous literature and the results obtained in the present study suggest that mtDNA common European variants are not correlated with increases in the risk for prostate cancer. PMID:24898828

  8. Estimated Phytanic Acid Intake and Prostate Cancer Risk: a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Margaret E.; Bowen, Phyllis; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Gann, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Phytanic acid is a saturated fatty acid found predominantly in red meat and dairy products and may contribute to increases in prostate cancer risk that are observed with higher intakes of these foods. We constructed a novel summary measure of phytanic acid intake and prospectively examined its association with prostate cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study – a cohort of Finnish male smokers ages 50–69 years. Diet was assessed at baseline in 27,111 particip...

  9. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and subsequent risk of solid cancer-A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ida; Basit, Saima; Jensen, Allan; Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Melbye, Mads; Boyd, Heather Allison

    2016-07-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) have higher levels of antiangiogenic growth factors during pregnancy than women with normotensive pregnancies. Since angiogenesis is necessary for solid cancer growth and spread, we hypothesized that women with a history of HDP might have a reduced risk of solid cancers (cancers other than lymphomas, hematologic cancers and nonmelanoma skin cancers) later in life. In a register-based cohort study of 1.08 million women giving birth at least once between 1978 and 2011, we used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) comparing solid cancer rates for women with and without a history of HDP. In this cohort, 68,236 women (6.3%) had ≥1 pregnancy complicated by HDP and 42,236 women (3.9%) developed solid tumors during follow-up. A history of HDP was not associated with a clinically meaningful reduction in the overall rate of solid cancer (HR 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.92-1.00), regardless of HDP severity or time since HDP, nor was there a general tendency toward reduced solid cancer rates across organ sites. A history of HDP was only significantly associated with decreased rates of breast and lung cancers and with increased rates of endometrial and urinary tract cancers. Overall, our results do not support the hypothesis that women with a history of HDP have a reduced overall risk of solid cancer due to a persistent post-HDP antiangiogenic state or an innate tendency toward antiangiogenesis. Observed associations with specific cancers may instead be due to other pregnancy-related mechanisms or to residual/unmeasured confounding. PMID:26919086

  10. Cancer Attributable to Asbestos Exposure in Shipbreaking Workers: A Matched-Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    Full Text Available Long-term follow-up studies of asbestos-related cancer in shipbreaking workers are lacking. This study examines the relationship between cancer incidence and asbestos exposure among former Taiwan shipbreaking workers.A total of 4,427 shipbreaking workers and 22,135 population-based matched controls were successfully followed in this study. The study cohort was linked to the Taiwan Cancer Registry for new cancer cases. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR for cancer was calculated for the shipbreaking workers with Total Exposure Potential Scores (TEP for asbestos.Follow-up generated 109,932 person-years, with 940 deaths and 436 cancer cases, among 4,427 shipbreaking workers from 1985 to 2008. The high asbestos exposure group also had a statistically significant increase in the risk of overall cancer (aHR= 1.71; 95% CI: 1.42-2.05, esophagus cancer (aHR= 2.31; 95% CI: 1.00-5.41, liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (aHR= 1.60; 95% CI: 1.08-2.36, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer (aHR= 3.08; 95% CI: 1.80-5.25. Mesothelioma cases were found in the high asbestos exposure group. Moreover, overall cancer, esophagus cancer, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer were seen in a dose-dependent relationship with asbestos exposure.This study presented the elevated trend of asbestos exposure with cancer incidence for overall cancer, esophagus cancer, and trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer among shipbreaking workers. Those workers previously exposed to asbestos should receive persistent monitoring in order to early detect adverse health outcomes.

  11. Analysis of the lung cancer mortality in Mayak worker cohort with a model of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer mortality in the Mayak worker cohort is analysed with the two stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis. Reactor workers in Mayak facilities were exposed to external γ-ray and neutron exposures, and workers in the radiochemical and plutonium facilities additionally to internal exposures due to plutonium inhalation. The cohort used in this study involves male nuclear workers for whom plutonium measurements and smoking information (smoker/non-smoker) exists and with health follow-up to the end of 1999. A subcohort with 5421 workers and 274 lung cancer deaths is analysed. Specific emphasis was given to the distinction of the effects of external and internal exposures. Within the TSCE model, an action of radiation was assumed both in initiation and promotion. The baseline lung cancer mortality rate was derived from the cohort itself. The model which gives the best fit of the data has a linear dose dependence in TSCE-model parameters for both external and internal radiation. Using the smoking information significantly increased the quality of the fit. Analysis showed no effect of radiation on transformation. It is found that most of the lung cancer cases are due to plutonium inhalation. The estimated excess relative risk per unit dose due to the plutonium αparticles is 0.13/Sv. For the γ-ray component, the present analysis gives an excess relative risk for lung cancer mortality of 0.05/Sv. Lung cancer mortality among Mayak workers is analysed within two step clonal expansion model. Models of carcinogenesis are well suited for analysing data with complex exposure scenario. Resulting risk for plutonium exposures is compatible with the radiation weighting factor 20. In general no strong dose or dose-rate effects were observed within the cohort

  12. Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, E F; Burley, V J; Greenwood, D C; Cade, J E

    2007-01-01

    We performed a survival analysis to assess the effect of meat consumption and meat type on the risk of breast cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study. Between 1995 and 1998 a cohort of 35 372 women was recruited, aged between 35 and 69 years with a wide range of dietary intakes, assessed by a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for known confounders. High consumption of total meat compared with none was associated with premenop...

  13. Mortality and cancer morbidity in cohorts of asbestos cement workers and referents.

    OpenAIRE

    Albin, M; Jakobsson, K; Attewell, R; L. Johansson; Welinder, H

    1990-01-01

    Total and cause specific mortality and cancer morbidity were studied among 1929 asbestos cement workers with an estimated median cumulative exposure of 2.3 fibre (f)-years/ml (median intensity 1.2 f/ml, predominantly chrysotile). A local reference cohort of 1233 industrial workers and non-case referents from the exposed cohort were used for comparisons. The risk for pleural mesothelioma was significantly increased (13 cases out of 592 deaths in workers with at least 20 years latency). No case...

  14. Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Botterweck, A.A.M.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brants, H.A.M.; van Klaveren, J.D.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated from a randomly selected subcohort (1688 men and 1812 ...

  15. Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Milne, Roger L; Burwinkel, Barbara; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Arias-Perez, Jose-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Men?ndez-Rodr?guez, Primitiva; Hardisson, David; Mendiola, Marta; Gonz?lez-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Dennis, Joe; WANG, QIN; Bolla, Manjeet K; Swerdlow, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    BCAC is funded by Cancer Research UK (C1287/A10118, C1287/A12014) and by the European Community?s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement n8 223175 (HEALTH-F2?2009-223175) (COGS). Meetings of the BCAC have been funded by the European Union COST programme (BM0606). Genotyping of the iCOGS array was funded by the European Union (HEALTH-F2-2009-223175), Cancer Research UK (C1287/A10710), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research for the ?CIHR Team in Familial Risks of Breast Can...

  16. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960–2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  17. Blood lipid levels and prostate cancer risk; a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Roermund, van J.G.H.; Aben, K.K.H.; Heijer, den M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that blood lipid levels might be associated with prostate cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and prost

  18. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.;

    2009-01-01

    Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample cons...

  19. Polymorphisms in stromal genes and susceptibility to serous epithelial ovarian cancer: a report from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Wang, Qinggang; Schildkraut, Joellen M;

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in stromal tissue components can inhibit or promote epithelial tumorigenesis. Decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) show reduced stromal expression in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (sEOC). We hypothesized that common variants in these genes associate with risk. Associations with sEOC among...

  20. ESR1/SYNE1 polymorphism and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk: an Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, Jennifer A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L;

    2010-01-01

    , respectively. A SNP 19 kb downstream of ESR1 (rs2295190, G-to-T change) was associated with invasive ovarian cancer risk, with a per-T-allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.44, P = 0.006]. rs2295190 is a nonsynonymous coding SNP in a neighboring gene called spectrin repeat...

  1. Flavonoid and lignan intake and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Montes, Esther; Sánchez, María-José; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Wark, Petra A; Obon-Santacana, Mireia; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Travis, Ruth C; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Krogh, Vittorio; Martorana, Caterina; Masala, Giovanna; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Quirós, José-Ramón; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Angell Åsli, Lene; Skeie, Guri; Ericson, Ulrika; Sonestedt, Emily; Peeters, Petra H; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Overvad, Kim; Clemens, Matthias; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Peppa, Eleni; Vidalis, Pavlos; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutroun-Rualt, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Cross, Amanda J; Lu, Yunxia; Riboli, Elio; Duell, Eric J

    2016-10-01

    Despite the potential cancer preventive effects of flavonoids and lignans, their ability to reduce pancreatic cancer risk has not been demonstrated in epidemiological studies. Our aim was to examine the association between dietary intakes of flavonoids and lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 865 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases occurred after 11.3 years of follow-up of 477,309 cohort members. Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake was estimated through validated dietary questionnaires and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Phenol Explorer databases. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using age, sex and center-stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for energy intake, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol and diabetes status. Our results showed that neither overall dietary intake of flavonoids nor of lignans were associated with pancreatic cancer risk (multivariable-adjusted HR for a doubling of intake = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.95-1.11 and 1.02; 95% CI: 0.89-1.17, respectively). Statistically significant associations were also not observed by flavonoid subclasses. An inverse association between intake of flavanones and pancreatic cancer risk was apparent, without reaching statistical significance, in microscopically confirmed cases (HR for a doubling of intake = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.91-1.00). In conclusion, we did not observe an association between intake of flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses or lignans and pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC cohort. PMID:27184434

  2. Cancer and the risk for taking early retirement pension: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for taking early retirement pension (ERP) in cancer survivors who were working at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide and population based cohort study including 44,905 persons aged 30-60 years diagnosed with selected...... that cancer patients has an excess risk of ERP compared to cancer-free controls (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.55-1.65 and RR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.46-1.65 for women and men, respectively). The observed risk factors for taking ERP were late age, dissimilated disease, manual job, sickness leave the year before taking ERP...... and the risk remained increased with up to 8 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significantly increased risk for taking early retirement up to 8 years after the cancer diagnosis and that the magnitude of the risk was dependent of cancer sites....

  3. Self reported stress and risk of breast cancer: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Kristensen, Tage S;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between self reported intensity and frequency of stress and first time incidence of primary breast cancer. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with 18 years of follow-up. SETTING: Copenhagen City heart study, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: The 6689 women participating in the...... Copenhagen City heart study were asked about their perceived level of stress at baseline in 1981-3. These women were followed until 1999 in the Danish nationwide cancer registry, with < 0.1% loss to follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: First time incidence of primary breast cancer. RESULTS: During follow-up 251...... women were diagnosed with breast cancer. After adjustment for confounders, women with high levels of stress had a hazard ratio of 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.97) for breast cancer compared with women with low levels of stress. Furthermore, for each increase in stress level on a six point...

  4. Physical activity and risk for breast cancer a prospective cohort study among Swedish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tahereh; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ekbom, Anders; Wedrén, Sara; Terry, Paul; Floderus, Birgitta; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2002-07-01

    The epidemiologic association between physical activity and breast cancer has been corroborated in many studies. Some inconsistencies remain, possibly due to variation in life periods for exposure assessment, confounding and undetected effect modification. In our cohort study, we address some of these questions by taking into account physical activity in different periods of life and by investigating effect modification by birth cohort and body mass index (BMI). Altogether 9,539 same-sex twin women aged 42-70 years who answered a questionnaire about their work and leisure-time physical exercise from ages 25 to 50 during 1967 and 1970 were included in our cohort. During follow-up, 506 breast cancer cases occurred through 1997. We used multivariate Cox models to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We found no associations between physical activity and breast cancer overall. Women born between 1901 and 1917 (aged 51-70 at baseline) who reported regular leisure-time activity had a borderline significant 40% lower risk compared with those who reported no activity (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4-1.0; test for trend, p = 0.07). This association appeared to be confined to women with a low BMI after the age of 50 and to women with a high BMI during the premenopausal period. We found no evidence that work activity reduces risk for breast cancer. The importance of physical activity for breast cancer risk seems to depend on birth cohort. The association may be limited to normal-weight postmenopausal women and overweight premenopausal women. PMID:12115590

  5. Analysis of the lung cancer mortality in Mayak worker cohort with a model of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer mortality in the Mayak worker cohort is analysed with the two stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis. Mayak production association includes a nuclear reactor, radiochemical plant and plutonium production plant. Reactor workers were exposed to external g-ray and neutron exposures, and workers in the radiochemical and plutonium facilities additionally to internal exposures due to plutonium inhalant ion. the cohort used in this study involves male nuclear workers for whom plutonium measurements and smoking information (smoker/non-smoker) exists and with health follow-up to the end of 1999. A Subcohort with 5421 workers and 274 lung cancer deaths is analysed. Within the TSCE model, an action of radiation was assumed both in initiation and promotion. specific emphasis was given to the distinction of the effects of external and internal exposures. The baseline lung cancer mortality rate was derived from the cohort itself. Using the smoking information significantly increased the quality of the fit. Analysis showed no effect of radiation on transformation. Two models are found to five equally good fit of the data. Both models have a linear dose dependence in TSCE-model parameters for external and internal radiation. Both models have linear dependence either initiation or promotion on birth year effect. It is found that most of the lung cancer cases are due to plutonium inhalation. The estimated excess relative risk per unit dose due to the plutonium a particles is 0.13/Sv, in both models. For the g-ray component, the present analysis gives an excess relative risk for lung cancer mortality of 0.02/Sv, in both models. Resulting risk for plutonium exposures is compatible with the radiation weighting factor 20. In general no strong dose or dose-rate effects were observed within the cohort. (Author)

  6. Crowdsourcing as a Novel Technique for Retinal Fundus Photography Classification: Analysis of Images in the EPIC Norfolk Cohort on Behalf of the UKBiobank Eye and Vision Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Mitry, D; Peto, T; Hayat, S.; Morgan, J. E.; Khaw, K T; Foster, P J

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Crowdsourcing is the process of outsourcing numerous tasks to many untrained individuals. Our aim was to assess the performance and repeatability of crowdsourcing for the classification of retinal fundus photography. Methods: One hundred retinal fundus photograph images with pre-determined disease criteria were selected by experts from a large cohort study. After reading brief instructions and an example classification, we requested that knowledge workers (KWs) from a crowdsourc...

  7. Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results

    OpenAIRE

    Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; M Nouraie; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N.; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; S. Semnani; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M.; Fahimi, S.; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35–80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum ...

  8. Genetic Polymorphisms Associated With Breast Cancer in Malaysian Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chahil, Jagdish Kaur; Munretnam, Khamsigan; Samsudin, Nurulhafizah; Lye, Say Hean; Hashim, Nikman Adli Nor; Ramzi, Nurul Hanis; Velapasamy, Sharmila; Wee, Ler Lian; Alex, Livy

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have discovered multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of common diseases. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the replication of previously published SNPs that showed statistical significance for breast cancer in the Malaysian population. In this case–control study, 80 subjects for each group were recruited from various hospitals in Malaysia. A total of 768 SNPs were genotyped and analyzed to distinguish risk and pr...

  9. Polymorphisms in stromal genes and susceptibility to serous epithelial ovarian cancer: a report from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Amankwah, E.K.; Wang, Q; Schildkraut, J.M.; Tsai, Y.Y.; Ramus, S.J.; Fridley, B L; Beesley, J.; Johnatty, S E; Webb, P. M.; Chenevix-Trench, G; Dale, L.C.; D. Lambrechts; Amant, F.; Despierre, E.; Vergote, I.

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in stromal tissue components can inhibit or promote epithelial tumorigenesis. Decorin (DCN) and lumican (LUM) show reduced stromal expression in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (sEOC). We hypothesized that common variants in these genes associate with risk. Associations with sEOC among Caucasians were estimated with odds ratios (OR) among 397 cases and 920 controls in two U.S.-based studies (discovery set), 436 cases and 1,098 controls in Australia (replication set 1) and a conso...

  10. Dairy intake and the risk of bladder cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszei, András P; Schouten, Leo J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2010-02-15

    The authors examined the association between the intake of different dairy products and the risk of bladder cancer in 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. Dairy product intake was assessed in 1986 by using a 150-item food frequency questionnaire. The cohort was followed for 16.3 years, and 1,549 incident cases of bladder cancer were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards analysis was applied with a case-cohort approach by using the follow-up data of a random subcohort (n = 5,000). Multivariate hazard ratio estimates comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of total dairy intake were 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.27; P(trend) = 0.68). A statistically significant association for fermented milk products was found only for the second quintile (median, 12 g/day) (hazard ratio = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91). Compared with nonconsumers, women with 25-75 g/day of butter consumption had a hazard ratio of 1.61 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.50; P(trend) cheese, calcium, lactose, or nonfermented dairy intake. These results provide weak evidence that bladder cancer risk is inversely associated with low intake of fermented dairy products and suggest a positive association with butter intake in women. PMID:20042437

  11. ESR1/SYNE1 polymorphism and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk: an Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, Jennifer A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Cushing-Haugen, Kara L; Chen, Chu; Van Den Berg, David J; Wu, Anna H; Pike, Malcolm C; Ness, Roberta B; Moysich, Kirsten; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Webb, Penelope M; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Lurie, Galina; Thompson, Pamela J; Carney, Michael E; Hogdall, Estrid; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Hogdall, Claus; Goode, Ellen L; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Vierkant, Robert A; Berchuck, Andrew; Moorman, Patricia G; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Palmieri, Rachel T; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L; Yang, Hannah P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen; Lissowska, Jolanta; Song, Honglin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S; Di Cioccio, Richard A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Ziogas, Argyrios; Brewster, Wendy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Pearce, Celeste Leigh

    2010-01-01

    We genotyped 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) region in three population-based case-control studies of epithelial ovarian cancer conducted in the United States, comprising a total of 1,128 and 1,866 non-Hispanic white invasive cases and controls......, respectively. A SNP 19 kb downstream of ESR1 (rs2295190, G-to-T change) was associated with invasive ovarian cancer risk, with a per-T-allele odds ratio (OR) of 1.24 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.44, P = 0.006]. rs2295190 is a nonsynonymous coding SNP in a neighboring gene called spectrin repeat...... containing, nuclear envelope 1 (SYNE1), which is involved in nuclear organization and structural integrity, function of the Golgi apparatus, and cytokinesis. An isoform encoded by SYNE1 has been reported to be downregulated in ovarian and other cancers. rs2295190 was genotyped in an additional 12 studies...

  12. 9q31.2-rs865686 as a Susceptibility Locus for Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: Evidence from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Helen; Dudbridge, Frank; Fletcher, Olivia; Orr, Nick; Johnson, Nichola; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Mahmoodi, Maryam; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cornelissen, Sten; Braaf, Linda M.; Muir, Kenneth R.; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Chaiwerawattana, Arkom; Wiangnon, Surapon; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Bojesen, Stig E; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Milne, Roger L.; Benítez, Javier; Arias-Pérez, José-Ignacio; Zamora, M. Pilar; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Dur, Christina Clarke; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Langheinz, Anne; Meindl, Alfons; Golatta, Michael; Bartram, Claus R.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Eilber, Ursula; Dörk, Thilo; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Hillemanns, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Rogov, Yuriy; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofyeva, Darya; Zinnatullina, Guzel; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Ann; Paridaens, Robert; Weltens, Caroline; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bernard, Loris; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo; Couch, Fergus J.; Vachon, Celine; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet; Giles, Graham; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Cariona A.; Severi, Gianluca; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Martens, John W.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Jager, Agnes; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M.A.; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Pharoah, Paul; Blows, Fiona M.; Dunning, Alison M.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk; Easton, Douglas F.; Humphreys, Manjeet; Wang, Qin; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Background Our recent genome-wide association study identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2 (rs865686). Methods To further investigate the rs865686–breast cancer association, we conducted a replication study within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, which comprises 37 case–control studies (48,394 cases, 50,836 controls). Results This replication study provides additional strong evidence of an inverse association between rs865686 and breast cancer risk [study-adjusted per G-allele OR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88; 0.91, P = 2.01 × 10–29] among women of European ancestry. There were ethnic differences in the estimated minor (G)-allele frequency among controls [0.09, 0.30, and 0.38 among, respectively, Asians, Eastern Europeans, and other Europeans; P for heterogeneity (Phet) = 1.3 × 10–143], but no evidence of ethnic differences in per allele OR (Phet = 0.43). rs865686 was associated with estrogen receptor–positive (ER+) disease (per G-allele OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86–0.91; P = 3.13 × 10–22) but less strongly, if at all, with ER-negative (ER–) disease (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.94–1.02; P = 0.26; Phet = 1.16 × 10–6), with no evidence of independent heterogeneity by progesterone receptor or HER2 status. The strength of the breast cancer association decreased with increasing age at diagnosis, with case-only analysis showing a trend in the number of copies of the G allele with increasing age at diagnosis (P for linear trend = 0.0095), but only among women with ER+ tumors. Conclusions This study is the first to show that rs865686 is a susceptibility marker for ER+ breast cancer. Impact The findings further support the view that genetic susceptibility varies according to tumor subtype. PMID:22859399

  13. Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Esophageal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Esther; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Duell, Eric J.; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.; Scalbert, Augustin; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; Touillaud, Marina; Fagherazzi, Guy; Perquier, Florence; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Vicente Argüelles, Marcial; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Saieva, Calogero; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Vasilopoulou, Effie; Ziara, Gianna; Crowe, Francesca L.; Khaw, Kay-Thee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Grote, Verena A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Bredsdorff, Lea; Overvad, Kim; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Hjartåker, Anette; Landberg, Rikard; Johansson, Ingegerd; Sonestedt, Emily; Ericson, Ulrika; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    We prospectively investigated dietary flavonoid intake and esophageal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The study included 477,312 adult subjects from 10 European countries. At baseline, country-specific validated dietary questionnaires...... flavonoid intake was inversely associated with esophageal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) (log2) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 0.98) but not in multivariable models (HR (log2) = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.10). After covariate adjustment, no statistically significant association was found between any...... flavonoid subclass and esophageal cancer, EAC, or ESCC. However, among current smokers, flavonols were statistically significantly associated with a reduced esophageal cancer risk (HR (log2) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94), whereas total flavonoids, flavanols, and flavan-3-ol monomers tended to be inversely...

  14. The Anyang Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study: Study Design, Implementation of Fieldwork, and Use of Computer-Aided Survey System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fangfang; Guo, Fangcen; Zhou, Yue; He, Zhonghu; Tian, Xiuyun; Guo, Chuanhai; Ning, Tao; Pan, Yaqi; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been observed repeatedly in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. However, the causal relationship between HPV infection and the onset of ESCC remains unknown. A large cohort study focusing on this topic is being carried out in rural Anyang, China. Methodology/Principal Findings The Anyang Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study (AECCS) is a population-based prospective endoscopic cohort study designed to investigate the association of HPV infecti...

  15. Estimated risk of radiation-induced cancer from paediatric chest CT: two-year cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Tilo [Cantonal Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Colas, Lucie; Santangelo, Teresa; Faivre, Jean Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Roser, Hans W.; Bremerich, Jens [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    The increasing absolute number of paediatric CT scans raises concern about the safety and efficacy and the effects of consecutive diagnostic ionising radiation. To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single low-dose helical chest CT in a two-year patient cohort. A two-year cohort of 522 paediatric helical chest CT scans acquired using a dedicated low-dose protocol were analysed retrospectively. Patient-specific estimations of radiation doses were modelled using three different mathematical phantoms. Per-organ attributable cancer risk was then estimated using epidemiological models. Additional comparison was provided for naturally occurring risks. Total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence remains low for all age and sex categories, being highest in female neonates (0.34%). Summation of all cancer sites analysed raised the relative lifetime attributable risk of organ cancer incidence up to 3.6% in female neonates and 2.1% in male neonates. Using dedicated scan protocols, total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality for chest CT is estimated low for paediatric chest CT, being highest for female neonates. (orig.)

  16. Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Roock, Wendy; Claes, Bart; Bernasconi, David;

    2010-01-01

    with KRAS wild-type tumours still do not respond. We studied the effect of other downstream mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab in, to our knowledge, the largest cohort to date of patients with chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab plus chemotherapy in the pre...

  17. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk : results from analyses in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)

  18. Lung cancer among asbestos cement workers. A Swedish cohort study and a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlson, C G; Hogstedt, C

    1985-01-01

    A cohort study of 1176 Swedish asbestos cement workers did not indicate any asbestos related excess mortality. Possible explanations of the negative outcome are relatively low exposure levels and the predominant use of chrysotile in production. Such a tentative conclusion is supported by a review of five mortality studies of workers exposed to asbestos cement that report considerable differences in relative risks for lung cancer. These differences could be explained by various degrees of cumu...

  19. Risk of colorectal cancer after initiation of orlistat: matched cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jin-Liern; Christoph R Meier; Sandler, Robert S.; Jick, Susan S; Stürmer, Til

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the risk of colorectal cancer after orlistat initiation in the UK population. Design Retrospective matched cohort study. Setting Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from September 1998 to December 2008. Participants 33 625 adults aged 18 years or over who started treatment with orlistat; each orlistat initiator was matched to up to five non-initiators (n=160 347) on age, sex, body mass index, and calendar time. Main outcome measures Associations between o...

  20. Gestational diabetes as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is known to be associated with cancer of the pancreas, though there is some debate as to whether it is a cause or a consequence of the disease. We investigated the incidence of pancreatic cancer in a cohort of 37926 Israeli women followed for 28–40 years for whom information on diabetes had been collected at the time they gave birth, in 1964–1976, in Jerusalem. There were 54 cases of pancreatic cancer ascertained from the Israel Cancer Registry during follow-up. Methods We used Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for age at baseline and explore effects of other risk factors, including ethnic groups, preeclampsia, birth order and birth weight of offspring. Results We observed no cases of pancreatic cancer in the women with insulin dependent diabetes; however, there were five cases in the women with gestational diabetes. The interval between the record of diabetes in pregnancy and the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer ranged from 14–35 years. Women with a history of gestational diabetes showed a relative risk of pancreatic cancer of 7.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.8–18.0. Conclusion We conclude that gestational diabetes is strongly related to the risk of cancer of the pancreas in women in this population, and that gestational diabetes can precede cancer diagnosis by many years.

  1. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    intake of vitamin C, E, folate, and beta-carotene and prostate cancer risk, focusing on possible different effects of dietary, supplemental, or total intake and on potential effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI. Methods: Danish prospective cohort study of 26,856 men aged 50-64 years with...... association was confined to supplemental folic acid and non-aggressive prostate cancer and may thus be a chance finding. Further studies are warranted to evaluate our findings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht....

  2. Dietary iron and haem iron intake and risk of endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabat, G C; Miller, A B; M Jain; Rohan, T E

    2007-01-01

    We used data from a large cohort study of Canadian women to assess the association of meat intake and dietary intake of iron and haem iron with risk of endometrial cancer. Among 34 148 women with an intact uterus at baseline and followed for a mean of 16.4 years, we identified 426 incident endometrial cancer cases. Data from a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline were used to calculate intake of all meats, red meat, total dietary iron, iron from meat, haem iron, and non-haem ...

  3. Reproductive history and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Richard J.; Roddam, Andrew W; Green, Jane; Pirie, Kirstin; Bull, Diana; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    There is inconsistent evidence about the effect of reproductive history on women’s risk of pancreatic cancer. In the Million Women Study, a prospective cohort of middle-aged women in the UK, we examined associations between reproductive history and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality, controlling for age, socioeconomic status, geographic region, body mass index, smoking and history of diabetes. During 7.1 million person-years of follow-up in 995,192 post-menopausal women there were 1,18...

  4. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik Kronholm; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...... diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk of...... conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease. © 2011 by The American Society of Hematology....

  5. Preliminary Results of Noninvasive Detection of TMPRSS2:ERG Gene Fusion in a Cohort of Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tavukcu, Hasan Huseyin; Mangir, Naside; Ozyurek, Mustafa; Turkeri, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate TMPRSS2:ERG fusion rates in tissue, urine, blood, and pubic hair samples in a cohort of patients with localized prostate cancer and to correlate these findings with various clinicopathological parameters. Materials and Methods A cohort of 40 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer (RRP group) and 10 control patients undergoing prostate biopsy were enrolled between 2006 and 2008. Urine, pubic hair, and peripheral blo...

  6. Tea and coffee drinking and ovarian cancer risk: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study and a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steevens, J; Schouten, L J; Verhage, B.A.; Goldbohm, R. A.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    In a cohort study, ovarian cancer (280 cases) showed no significant association with tea or coffee, the multivariable rate ratios being 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.00) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.12) per cup per day, respectively. A meta-analysis also produced no significant findings overall, though the cohort studies showed a significant inverse association for tea. © 2007 Cancer Research UK.

  7. Diabetes mellitus and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is associated with increased risk of cancer at several sites, but its association with risk of bladder cancer is still controversial. We examined this association by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: Studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane register, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases through April 29, 2012. Summary relative risks (SRRs with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of fifteen cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of all studies showed that diabetes was associated with a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.23; p<0.001 for heterogeneity; I(2 = 84%. When restricting the analysis to studies that had adjusted for cigarette smoking (n = 6 or more than three confounders (n = 7, the RRs were 1.32 (95% CI 1.18-1.49 and 1.20 (95% CI 1.02-1.42, respectively. There was no significant publication bias (p = 0.62 for Egger's regression asymmetry test. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support that diabetes was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. More future studies are warranted to get a better understanding of the association and to provide convincing evidence for clinical practice in bladder cancer prevention.

  8. Record linkage to correct under-ascertainment of cancers in HIV cohorts: The Sinikithemba HIV clinic linkage project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengayi, Mazvita; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kielkowski, Danuta; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Cloete, Christie; Giddy, Janet; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-09-15

    The surveillance of HIV-related cancers in South Africa is hampered by the lack of systematic collection of cancer diagnoses in HIV cohorts and the absence of HIV status in cancer registries. To improve cancer ascertainment and estimate cancer incidence, we linked records of adults (aged ≥ 16 years) on antiretroviral treatment (ART) enrolled at Sinikithemba HIV clinic, McCord Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with the cancer records of public laboratories in KZN province using probabilistic record linkage (PRL) methods. We calculated incidence rates for all cancers, Kaposi sarcoma (KS), cervix, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) before and after inclusion of linkage-identified cancers with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 8,721 records of HIV-positive patients were linked with 35,536 cancer records. Between 2004 and 2010, we identified 448 cancers, 82% (n = 367) were recorded in the cancer registry only, 10% (n = 43) in the HIV cohort only and 8% (n = 38) both in the HIV cohort and the cancer registry. The overall cancer incidence rate in patients starting ART increased from 134 (95% CI 91-212) to 877 (95% CI 744-1,041) per 100,000 person-years after inclusion of linkage-identified cancers. Incidence rates were highest for KS (432, 95% CI 341-555), followed by cervix (259, 95% CI 179-390) and NADCs (294, 95% CI 223-395) per 100,000 person-years. Ascertainment of cancer in HIV cohorts is incomplete, PRL is both feasible and essential for cancer ascertainment. PMID:27098265

  9. The International Testicular Cancer Linkage Consortium : A clinicopathologic descriptive analysis of 461 familial malignant testicular germ cell tumor kindred

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mai, Phuong L.; Friedlander, Michael; Tucker, Kathy; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Hogg, David; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Lohynska, Radka; Daugaard, Gedske; Richard, Stephane; Bonaiti-Pellie, Catherine; Heidenreich, Axel; Albers, Peter; Bodrogi, Istvan; Geczi, Lajos; Olah, Edith; Daly, Peter A.; Guilford, Parry; Fossa, Sophie D.; Heimdal, Ketil; Liubchenko, Ludmila; Tjulandin, Sergei A.; Stoll, Hans; Weber, Walter; Easton, Douglas F.; Dudakia, Darshna; Huddart, Robert; Stratton, Michael R.; Einhorn, Lawrence; Korde, Larissa; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Bishop, Timothy; Rapley, Elizabeth A.; Greene, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Familial aggregation of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) has been reported, but it is unclear if familial TGCT represents a unique entity with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics. Here we describe a collection of familial TGCT cases from an international consortium, in an effort

  10. Prediagnostic body size and breast cancer survival in the E3N cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    His, Mathilde; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has been associated with poor breast cancer prognosis, however most studies have focused on body mass index (BMI) and few have considered the distribution of adipose tissue. We investigated associations between prediagnostic adiposity and breast cancer survival, considering BMI, waist and hip circumferences (WC and HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Analyses included 3,006 women from the French E3N prospective cohort study diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1995 and 2008. We investigated overall, breast cancer-specific, and disease-free survival, overall and according to stage, menopausal and hormonal status and year of diagnosis, using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for tumor characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Women with a prediagnostic HC > 100 cm were at increased risk of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR)>100 vs breast cancer (HR>100 vs cancer event (HR>100 vs survival after breast cancer. Our study underlines the importance of going beyond BMI when studying the association between adiposity and breast cancer survival. Further studies should be conducted to confirm our results on hip circumference. PMID:27106037

  11. Comparison of 6q25 breast cancer hits from Asian and European Genome Wide Association Studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hein

    Full Text Available The 6q25.1 locus was first identified via a genome-wide association study (GWAS in Chinese women and marked by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2046210, approximately 180 Kb upstream of ESR1. There have been conflicting reports about the association of this locus with breast cancer in Europeans, and a GWAS in Europeans identified a different SNP, tagged here by rs12662670. We examined the associations of both SNPs in up to 61,689 cases and 58,822 controls from forty-four studies collaborating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, of which four studies were of Asian and 39 of European descent. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Case-only analyses were used to compare SNP effects in Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+ versus negative (ER- tumours. Models including both SNPs were fitted to investigate whether the SNP effects were independent. Both SNPs are significantly associated with breast cancer risk in both ethnic groups. Per-allele ORs are higher in Asian than in European studies [rs2046210: OR (A/G = 1.36 (95% CI 1.26-1.48, p = 7.6 × 10(-14 in Asians and 1.09 (95% CI 1.07-1.11, p = 6.8 × 10(-18 in Europeans. rs12662670: OR (G/T = 1.29 (95% CI 1.19-1.41, p = 1.2 × 10(-9 in Asians and 1.12 (95% CI 1.08-1.17, p = 3.8 × 10(-9 in Europeans]. SNP rs2046210 is associated with a significantly greater risk of ER- than ER+ tumours in Europeans [OR (ER- = 1.20 (95% CI 1.15-1.25, p = 1.8 × 10(-17 versus OR (ER+ = 1.07 (95% CI 1.04-1.1, p = 1.3 × 10(-7, p(heterogeneity = 5.1 × 10(-6]. In these Asian studies, by contrast, there is no clear evidence of a differential association by tumour receptor status. Each SNP is associated with risk after adjustment for the other SNP. These results suggest the presence of two variants at 6q25.1 each independently associated with breast cancer risk in Asians and in Europeans. Of these two, the one tagged by rs2046210 is associated with a greater

  12. Increasing thyroid cancer incidence in Canada, 1970–1996: time trends and age-period-cohort effects

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, S; Semenciw, R; Ugnat, A-M; Mao, Y.(State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, China)

    2001-01-01

    We examined time trends in thyroid cancer incidence in Canada by age, time period and birth cohort between 1970 and 1996. Age-specific incidence rates by time period and birth cohort were calculated and age-period-cohort modelling used to estimate effects underlying the observed trends. Overall age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancer doubled, from 3.3 and 1.1 per 100 000 in 1970–72 to 6.8 and 2.2 per 100 000 in 1994–96, among females and males respectively. Almost all the increase betw...

  13. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C.; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men. PMID:27100409

  14. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer inci...

  15. When are breast cancer patients at highest risk of venous thromboembolism: a cohort study using English healthcare data

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Alex J.; West, Joe; Card, Timothy R; Crooks, Colin J; Kirwan, Cliona C; Grainge, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer patients are at increased risk of VTE, particularly in the peri-diagnosis period. However, no previous epidemiological studies have investigated the relative impact of breast cancer treatments in a time-dependent manner. We aimed to determine the impact of breast cancer stage, biology and treatment on the absolute and relative risks of VTE, using several recently linked data sources from England. Our cohort comprised 13,202 breast cancer patients from the Clinical Practice Resea...

  16. Risk Analysis of Prostate Cancer in PRACTICAL, a Multinational Consortium, Using 25 Known Prostate Cancer Susceptibility Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Benlloch, Sara; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Zeigler-Johnson, Charnita; Stephenson, Robert; Cox, Angela; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; FitzGerald, Liesel; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Saunders, Edward; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Guy, Michelle; Dadaev, Tokhir; Little, Sarah J.; Govindasami, Koveela; Sawyer, Emma; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Herkommer, Kathleen; Hopper, John L.; Lophatonanon, Aritaya; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genetic variants associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) risk which explain a substantial proportion of familial relative risk. These variants can be used to stratify individuals by their risk of PrCa. Methods We genotyped 25 PrCa susceptibility loci in 40,414 individuals and derived a polygenic risk score (PRS). We estimated empirical Odds Ratios for PrCa associated with different risk strata defined by PRS and derived age-specific absolute risks of developing PrCa by PRS stratum and family history. Results The PrCa risk for men in the top 1% of the PRS distribution was 30.6 (95% CI 16.4-57.3) fold compared with men in the bottom 1%, and 4.2 (95% CI 3.2-5.5) fold compared with the median risk. The absolute risk of PrCa by age 85 was 65.8% for a man with family history in the top 1% of the PRS distribution, compared with 3.7% for a man in the bottom 1%. The PRS was only weakly correlated with serum PSA level (correlation=0.09). Conclusions Risk profiling can identify men at substantially increased or reduced risk of PrCa. The effect size, measured by OR per unit PRS, was higher in men at younger ages and in men with family history of PrCa. Incorporating additional newly identified loci into a PRS should improve the predictive value of risk profiles. Impact We demonstrate that the risk profiling based on SNPs can identify men at substantially increased or reduced risk that could have useful implications for targeted prevention and screening programs. PMID:25837820

  17. Airborne exposures and risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödahl, Krister; Jansson, Catarina; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Adami, Johanna; Boffetta, Paolo; Lagergren, Jesper

    2007-05-01

    There is an unexplained male predominance among patients with gastric cancer, and many carcinogens are found in male-dominated dusty occupations. However, the relation between occupational exposures and risk of gastric cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether airborne occupational exposures might influence the risk of noncardia gastric cancer, we used a large, prospective cohort study of male Swedish construction workers. These workers were, during the period 1971-1993, regularly invited to health examinations by a nationwide occupational health service organization. Data on job titles and other variables were collected through self-administered questionnaires and forms completed by the health organization's staff. Industrial hygienists assessed 12 specific airborne occupational exposures for 200 job titles. Gastric cancer, death or emigration occurring during follow-up in 1971-2002 were identified by linkage to the Swedish registers of Cancer, Causes of Death and Total Population, respectively. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for attained age, tobacco smoking, calendar period and body mass, were derived from Cox regression. Among 256,357 cohort members, contributing 5,378,012 person-years at risk, 948 noncardia gastric cancers were identified. Increased risk of this tumor was found among workers exposed to cement dust (IRR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), quartz dust (IRR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]) and diesel exhaust (IRR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.9]). Dose-response relations were observed for these exposures. No consistent positive associations were found regarding exposure to asbestos, asphalt fumes, concrete dust, epoxy resins, isocyanates, metal fumes, mineral fibers, organic solvents or wood dust. In conclusion, this study provides some support to the hypothesis that specific airborne exposures increase the risk of noncardia gastric cancer. PMID:17266028

  18. A Novel Approach for Analysis of the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model: Application to Lung Cancer Incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengiz Mdzinarishvili

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, computationally efficient procedure for analyses of the time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of cancers is proposed. Assuming that cohort effects for neighboring cohorts are almost equal and using the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model, this procedure allows one to evaluate temporal trends and birth cohort variations of any type of cancer without prior knowledge of the hazard function. This procedure was used to estimate the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of the age-specific incidence rates of first primary, microscopically confirmed lung cancer (LC cases from the SEER9 database. It was shown that since 1975, the time period effect coefficients for men increase up to 1980 and then decrease until 2004. For women, these coefficients increase from 1975 up to 1990 and then remain nearly constant. The LC birth cohort effect coefficients for men and women increase from the cohort of 1890–94 until the cohort of 1925–29, then decrease until the cohort of 1950–54 and then remain almost unchanged. Overall, LC incidence rates, adjusted by period and cohort effects, increase up to the age of about 72–75, turn over, and then fall after the age of 75–78. The peak of the adjusted rates in men is around the age of 77–78, while in women, it is around the age of 72–73. Therefore, these results suggest that the age distribution of the incidence rates in men and women fall at old ages.

  19. Radon progeny exposure and lung cancer risk: Analyses of a cohort of Newfoundland fluorspar miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1990) of 1744 underground miners and 321 millers or surface workers has been conducted. Excess mortality among underground miners was noted for cancers of the lung, buccal cavity, pharynx and mouth, urinary tract and for silicosis and pneumoconioses. A highly statistically significant relationship was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of buccal cavity/pharynx cancers (n = 6) precluded meaningful analysis of exposure-response. No statistically significant excess was found for any cause of death among surface workers. The exposure-response data for lung cancer were fitted to various mathematical models. The model selected included terms for attained age, cumulative dose, dose rate and time since last exposure. Because risk varies according to each of these factors, a single summary risk estimate was felt to be misleading. The joint effects of radon and smoking could not be adequately assessed using this cohort. (author). 46 refs., 16 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Coffee Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: An Update Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Heng-Quan; Wang, Jun-Zhou; Sun, Chang-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: The results of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between the coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk were inconsistent. Thus, we performed an update meta-analysis of cohort studies to quantitatively summarize the association between coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods: We searched CBM (China Biology Medicine disc) and MEDLINE for studies of coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk up to June 2015. A total of 20 cohort studies were identified in this meta-analysis, and we analyzed these studies using random effects model. The dose-response analysis was conducted too. Results: The overall relative risk (RR) for highest coffee consumption versus lowest coffee consumption was 0.75 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.63-0.86). Statistic significant heterogeneity was found among these studies (I2 =37.8%, P for heterogeneity =0.045). The pooled RR for increment of 1 cup/day of coffee consumption was 0.99 (95%CI, 0.96-1.03) for the nine studies, without statistically significant. Conclusions: High coffee consumption is associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. However, the result should be accepted with caution, due to the potential confounder and bias could not be excluded. Further well designed studies are needed to confirm the finding. PMID:27022386

  1. Breast Cancer Biology and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in New Zealand: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Scott, Nina; Kim, Boa; Shirley, Rachel; Campbell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women. Materials and Methods Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biologica...

  2. Association between sleep duration and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep duration has been shown to play an important role in the development of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis with prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the association between short or long sleep duration and cancer risk. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible publications. Pooled relative risk (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI was calculated using random- or fixed- model. RESULTS: A total of 10 prospective studies (8392 incident cases and 555678 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Neither short nor long sleep duration was statistically associated with increased risk of cancer (short sleep duration: RR=1.05, 95%CI=0.90-1.24, p=0.523; long sleep duration: RR=0.92, 95%CI=0.76-1.12, p=0.415. In the subgroup by cancer type, long sleep duration was positively associated with colorectal cancer (RR=1.29, 95%CI=1.09-1.52, p=0.003. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis suggested that neither short nor long sleep duration was significantly associated with risk of cancer, although long sleep duration increased risk of with colorectal cancer. Large-scale well-design prospective studies are required to be conducted to further investigate the observed association.

  3. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Figgs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants.Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers.Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP was assembled. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine likely toxic metal exposure categories. In addition, radiation film badge dosimeters were used to monitor cumulative external ionizing radiation exposure. International Classification for Disease (ICD codes 9 and 10 were used to identify 147 lung cancer deaths. Logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to estimate lung cancer mortality risk.Results: Lung cancer mortality risk was elevated among workers who experienced external radiation >3.5 mrem and employment duration >12 years.Conclusion: Employees of uranium gaseous diffusion plants carry a higher risk of lung cancer mortality; the mortality is associated with increased radiation exposure and duration of employment.

  4. Asthma and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Case-Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Li; Chou, Ching-Lan; Rau, Kun-Ming; Lee, Charles Tzu-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Several epidemiologic studies in Western countries have examined the association between asthma and prostate cancer risk, but the results have been inconclusive. We investigated this association in a large, nationwide, population-based case-cohort study. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from 1997 to 2008, we collected data from 12,372 men, including 4124 with asthma and 8248 age-, residence-, and insurance premium-matched control subjects, who were never diagnosed with asthma. Competing risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for determining the association between prostate cancer and asthma. During a mean follow-up of 5.05 years (standard deviation, 2.10), there were 74 cases of prostate cancer. The incidence of prostate cancer was 163.0/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 113.0-228.0) in the asthma patients. Asthma was significantly associated with prostate cancer (HR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.22-4.57; P = 0.011) after adjusting for age, residential area, insurance premium, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, duration of hospitalization, and mortality. In the subgroup analysis, independent risk factors for prostate cancer among men with asthma were age (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.05-1.21; P risk of prostate cancer. PMID:26356691

  5. Association between atherosclerosis and female lung cancer--a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Lene; Prescott, Eva; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2003-01-01

    Patients suffering from atherosclerotic diseases are prone to repeated episodes of ischemia/reperfusion that has been demonstrated to induce oxidative stress by formation of oxygen free radicals. It might therefore be expected that such endogenously exposure to free radicals increases the individ...... hypothesize that oxidative stress due to episodes of ischemia/reperfusion increases the risk of lung cancer in atherosclerotic females because of a gender specific susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage....... individual cancer risk in patients with atherosclerotic diseases. We therefore studied the sex-specific risk of lung cancer and other cancers in atherosclerotic patients in a prospective study conducted in the Copenhagen area. The study cohort was linked to the Danish Hospital Discharge Register and we...... risk of male lung cancer, RR=1.12 (95% CI: 0.77-1.64), or other smoking-related cancers in either sex was observed after multivariate adjustment. Atherosclerosis did not predict non-smoking-related cancers in general in either men, RR=0.91 (95% CI 0.69-1.20), or women, RR=0.93 (95% CI: 0.64-1.35). We...

  6. TP53 gene polymorphism: Importance to cancer, ethnicity and birth weight in a Brazilian cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Helena S Thurow; Ricardo Haack; Fernando P Hartwig; Isabel Ode Oliveira; Odir A Dellagostin; Denise P Gigante; Bernardo L Horta; Tiago Collares; Fabiana K Seixas

    2011-12-01

    Arg72Pro SNP of p53 has been associated with many types of cancer as well as with survival and longevity. We evaluated the Arg72Pro SNP frequencies of a Brazilian birth cohort and their association with current, demographic and birth epidemiological parameters available. In 1982, all hospital births of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and studied prospectively. In 2004–5, blood samples were collected and DNA extracted. PCR-RFLP was used to genotype the Arg72Pro SNP in 3794 individual samples of the Brazil birth cohort and DNA sequencing was performed to confirm the genotypes. The genotype distribution, which was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, showed a predominance of the arginine amino acid with a frequency of 46.9% Arg/Arg, 42.2% Arg/Pro and 10.9% Pro/Pro. The allele frequency was 0.68 of Arginine and 0.32 of Proline. The Arg72Pro SNP genotype and allelic frequency were related to skin colour where proline amino acid was observed more among black subjects, while arginine amino acid was observed more among white subjects. The individuals without family history of cancer and those with low birth weight were associated with arginine amino acid. The Arg72Pro SNP was strongly associated with important epidemiological variables confirming that genetic profiles on cohort studies can improve our understanding of the susceptibility of diseases and its risk factors.

  7. Stress and survival after cancer: A prospective study of a Finnish population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito-Nakaya, K.; Bidstrup, P. E.; Nakaya, N.;

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been suggested to reduce survival after cancer, but the results of previous studies have been contradictory. We investigated the hypothesis in a national cohort of adults in Finland. Of those who completed the Stressful Life Events scale and the Stress of Daily Activities scale, 1470 and...... score was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.95-1.03). Further, the HR was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.69-1.22) for severe daily stress. Overall, the results of the current study do not support the hypothesis that stress reduces cancer survival. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... 1882, respectively, later had cancer and were included in the analysis, covering 23 years of follow-up between 1982 and 2004. In Cox regression analysis, the multivariate hazard ratio (HR) was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.01) for total number of life events and the HR for the life change...

  8. Long-term cancer risk after hysterectomy on benign indications: Population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel; Yin, Li; Falconer, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    Hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for adverse health effects. However, little is known about the association between hysterectomy and subsequent cancer occurrence later in life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hysterectomy on the incidence of cancer. In this population-based cohort study, we used data on 111,595 hysterectomized and 537,9843 nonhysterectomized women from nationwide Swedish Health Care registers including the Inpatient Register, the Cancer Register and the Cause of Death Register between 1973 and 2009. Hysterectomy with or without concomitant bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy (BSO) performed on benign indications was considered as exposure and incidence of primary cancers was used as outcome measure. Rare primary cancers (cancer was observed for women with previous hysterectomy and for those with hysterectomy and concurrent BSO (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.96, respectively). Compared to nonhysterectomized women, significant risks were observed for thyroid cancer (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.45-2.14). For both hysterectomy and hysterectomy with BSO, an association with brain cancer was observed (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.32-1.65 and HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.15-1.83, respectively). Hysterectomy, with or without BSO, was not associated with breast, lung or gastrointestinal cancer. We conclude that hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for thyroid and brain cancer later in life. Further research efforts are needed to identify patient groups at risk of malignancy following hysterectomy. PMID:26800386

  9. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  10. Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, M; Weijenberg, M P; de Goeij, A.F.P.M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M H F M; de Bruïne, A. P.; R. A. Goldbohm; P.A. van den Brandt

    2005-01-01

    Case–cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed for colon and rectal cancer and for K-ras mutation status subgroups. Total fresh meat, most types of fresh meat and fish were not associ...

  11. Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, M; Weijenberg, M P; de Goeij, A.F.P.M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M H F M; de Bruïne, A. P.; R. A. Goldbohm; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Case-cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed for colon and rectal cancer and for K-ras mutation status subgroups. Total fresh meat, most types of fresh meat and fish were not associ...

  12. A retrospective cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence among chemist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoar, S K; Pell, S

    1981-07-01

    This retrospective cohort study examines mortality and cancer incidence among 3,686 men and 75 women who were employed as chemists in 1959. During the period 1964 to 1977, the male chemists experienced lower overall mortality than other salaried employees of the chemical company (198 deaths observed, 241.0 expected, SMR = 82). Large deficits are seen in lung cancer and arteriosclerotic heart disease death. The chemist appear to be at slightly higher risk for death from malignancies of the colon (12 observed, 6.7 expected, SMR = 178) and from cerebrovascular disease (15 observed, 10.8 expected, SMR = 138). The low overall mortality resulted in a larger than expected proportion of deaths due to cancer. Fewer than expected cases were diagnosed of cancer of all sited combined (61 observed, 86.5 expected, SIR = 71) and of the lung (8 observed, 20.0 expected, SIR = 40). The incidence rates of melanoma and of cancer of the prostate are slightly higher than expected, relative to the Third National Cancer Survey and the experience of nonchemists, respectively. Among female chemists, deaths due to all causes and suicide occurred more frequently than expected. Possible explanations for the lack of anticipated excess risks and for the observed deficits are presented. PMID:7252610

  13. Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension in Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy H. Fraeman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate incidence rates of new-onset hypertension in adult cancer patients identified from the Varian Medical Oncology outpatient database. Incidence rates of increasing levels of hypertension severity were calculated overall and for periods of chemotherapy exposure and nonexposure. Cox models sought predictors of new-onset hypertension severity among baseline and chemotherapy exposure variables. New-onset hypertension was observed in about one-third of 25,090 patients with various cancer types. The incidence rates (IR of severe and crisis-level hypertension, respectively, were the highest in patients with gastric (18.5 cases per 100 person-years (PY, 5.6 per 100 PY and ovarian cancer (20.2 per 100 PY, 4.8 per 100 PY. The highest IR of moderate hypertension was observed in patients with renal cancer (46.7 per 100 PY. Across all cancers, chemotherapy exposure was associated with a 2–3.5-fold increase in risk of any degree of hypertension compared to periods of no chemotherapy; higher hypertension levels showed greater variability in relative risks by type and line of therapy but indicated an overall increase associated with chemotherapy exposure. These results help to elucidate the factors influencing HTN among cancer patients and the incidence of HTN relative to chemotherapy exposure.

  14. Perceived stress and risk of colorectal cancer in men and women: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Kristensen, T S; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the relationship between stress and risk of primary colorectal cancer in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 6488 women and 5426 men were included in the study. The participants were...... asked about intensity and frequency of stress at baseline in 1981-1983 and were followed until the end of 2000 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Less than 0.1% was lost to follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First time incidence of primary colorectal cancer. RESULTS: During follow-up 162 women and 166 men...... were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Women with moderate and high stress intensity had a hazard ratio of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.37-0.98) and 0.52 (0.23-1.14) for colorectal cancer, respectively, compared to women with no stress. For colon cancer, a one-unit increase on a seven-point stress-score was...

  15. Dietary intake of vitamin K and risk of prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg).

    OpenAIRE

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anticarcinogenic activities of vitamin K have been observed in various cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer cells. Epidemiologic studies linking dietary intake of vitamin K with the development of prostate cancer have not yet been conducted. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between dietary intake of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2) and total and advanced prostate cancer in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into C...

  16. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohet, Richard M; Goldgar, David E; Easton, Douglas F;

    2007-01-01

    oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 carriers. PATIENTS AND METHODS In the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort study (IBCCS), a retrospective cohort of 1,593 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was analyzed with a weighted Cox regression analysis. Results We found an increased risk of...... breast cancer for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who ever used oral contraceptives (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.87). HRs did not vary according to time since stopping use, age at start, or calendar year at start. However, a longer duration of use, especially before first full...... found among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers that current use of oral contraceptives is associated with risk of breast cancer more strongly than is past use, as is found in the general population. However, duration of use, especially before first full-term pregnancy, may be associated with an increasing risk...

  17. Intake of coffee and tea and risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Stephanie A N; Jain, Meera; Howe, Geoffrey R; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    There is some evidence from case-control studies that coffee consumption might be positively associated with ovarian cancer risk, whereas the epidemiologic evidence regarding tea consumption and ovarian cancer is inconsistent. To date, there have been few prospective studies of these associations. Therefore, we examined ovarian cancer risk in association with both coffee and tea intake in a prospective cohort study of 49,613 Canadian women enrolled in the National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) who completed a self-administered food frequency questionnaire between 1980 and 1985. Linkages to national mortality and cancer databases yielded data on deaths and cancer incidence, with follow-up ending between 1998 and 2000. Data from the food frequency questionnaire were used to estimate daily intake of coffee and tea. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between categories of coffee and tea intake and ovarian cancer risk. During a mean 16.4 years of follow-up, we observed 264 incident ovarian cancer cases. Tea intake was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in our study population. In contrast, a borderline positive association was observed among women who drank > 4 cups coffee/day compared to women who did not drink coffee (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.95-2.75, P(trend) = 0.06). Given the pervasive use of these beverages, the associations between coffee and tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk warrant investigation in further prospective studies. PMID:17571963

  18. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsing, Anne M J; Schouten, Leo J; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study - Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including 1040 self-defined vegetarians), subjects completed a baseline questionnaire in 1986, based on which they were classified into vegetarians (n = 635), pescetarians (n = 360), 1 day/week- (n = 1259), 2-5 day/week- (n = 2703), and 6-7 day/week meat consumers (n = 5253). After 20.3 years of follow-up, 437 colorectal cancer cases (307 colon, 92 rectal) were available. A non-significantly decreased risk of CRC for vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers was observed (age/sex adjusted Hazard Ratios (HR): 0.73(0.47-1.13), 0.80(0.47-1.39), and 0.72(0.52-1.00), respectively). Most of the differences in HR between these groups could be explained by intake of dietary fiber and soy products. Other (non-)dietary factors characteristic for a vegetarian or low meat diet had negligible individual effects, but attenuated the HRs towards the null when combined. Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat eaters showed a non-significantly decreased risk of colorectal cancer compared to 6-7 day/week meat consumers, mainly due to differences in dietary pattern other than meat intake. PMID:26316135

  19. Model linear absolute and relative risk estimates for cancer induced by ionizing radiation in Mexican cohort of occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the rate of natural mortality ms cancer (t) for every 100 thousand habitants, modeled by a fourth-degree polynomial function of the age data of the Mexican population (2008), and assuming: a) a relationship 1: 5 of cancer induced radiation respect to presented spontaneously, b) a size of initial cohort No = 100 k SOPs, c) a speed of HE = (2 ± 1) mSv / received by the SOPs from 18 to 65 years, d) a latency of 8 years for cancer induction after irradiation, e) a time tracking cohort to 75 years, f) and taking the coefficients absolute and relative risk BEIRs induction of cancer models II and VII (excluding leukemia); It determined: BEIR II for a total of 125 and 400 deaths from cancer for absolute and relative linear models respectively. For BEIR VII has a number of fatal cases of 345 and 927 deaths respectively for absolute and relative linear model cancer.

  20. Younger age as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer: A cohort study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A.H.

    2011-08-28

    Abstract Background The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Methods Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. Results The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Conclusion Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population.

  1. Low prevalence of CHEK2 gene mutations in multiethnic cohorts of breast cancer patients in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriati Mohamad

    Full Text Available CHEK2 is a protein kinase that is involved in cell-cycle checkpoint control after DNA damage. Germline mutations in CHEK2 gene have been associated with increase in breast cancer risk. The aim of this study is to identify the CHEK2 gene germline mutations among high-risk breast cancer patients and its contribution to the multiethnic population in Malaysia. We screened the entire coding region of CHEK2 gene on 59 high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for BRCA1/2 germline mutations from UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL and Hospital Putrajaya (HPJ. Sequence variants identified were screened further in case-control cohorts consisting of 878 unselected invasive breast cancer patients (180 Malays, 526 Chinese and 172 Indian and 270 healthy individuals (90 Malays, 90 Chinese and 90 Indian. By screening the entire coding region of the CHEK2 gene, two missense mutations, c.480A>G (p.I160M and c.538C>T (p.R180C were identified in two unrelated patients (3.4%. Further screening of these missense mutations on the case-control cohorts unveiled the variant p.I160M in 2/172 (1.1% Indian cases and 1/90 (1.1% Indian control, variant p.R180C in 2/526 (0.38% Chinese cases and 0/90 Chinese control, and in 2/180 (1.1% of Malay cases and 1/90 (1.1% of Malay control. The results of this study suggest that CHEK2 mutations are rare among high-risk breast cancer patients and may play a minor contributing role in breast carcinogenesis among Malaysian population.

  2. Younger age as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer: A cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate continues as to whether younger women who present with breast cancer have a more aggressive form of disease and a worse prognosis. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of breast cancer in women under 40 years old and to analyse the clinicopathological characteristics and outcome compared to an older patient cohort. Data was acquired from a review of charts and the prospectively reviewed GUH Department of Surgery database. Included in the study were 276 women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty and 2869 women over forty. For survival analysis each women less than 40 was matched with two women over forty for both disease stage and grade. The proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of forty in our cohort was 8.8%. In comparison to their older counterparts, those under forty had a higher tumour grade (p = 0.044) and stage (p = 0.046), a lower incidence of lobular tumours (p < 0.001), higher estrogen receptor negativity (p < 0.001) and higher HER2 over-expression (p = 0.002); there was no statistical difference as regards tumour size (p = 0.477). There was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) for both groups; and factors like tumour size (p = 0.026), invasion (p = 0.026) and histological type (p = 0.027), PR (p = 0.031) and HER2 (p = 0.002) status and treatment received were independent predictors of OS Breast cancer in younger women has distinct histopathological characteristics; however, this does not result in a reduced survival in this population

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: evidence fron a retrospective cohort study and nested case-control study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Tian Wang; Chou-Wen Zhu; Hai Yu; Yu-Jun Cong; Sbu Zheng; Bing-Quan Wu; Tao Wang; Kun Chen; Ji-Yao Wang; Jie-Ping Zhang; San-Ren Lin; Yi-Min Zhu; Wen-Ming Zhang; Yu-Xin Cao

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the association between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and risk of gastric cancer in China. METHODS: Utilizing gastroendoscopic biospsy tissue banks accumulated from1980 to1988 in Shandong, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu, where stomach cancer incidence was high, during stomach cancer screening conducted by Health Science Center of Peking University, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, and Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Warthin Starry silver staining method was applied to determine H. pyloriinfection status of biopsies collected during gastroendoscopic examination. In the retrospective study, the subjects were divided into two cohorts, the exposure cohort was positive H. pyloriinfection, and the non-exposure cohort was negative. Death from stomach cancer was determined as the outcome of the study. Logistic regression and Cox regression were applied to analyze the association between Helicobacterpyloriinfection and gastric cancer risk. In the nested case-control study, there were 28 deaths from gastric cancer in the fields of Muping, Shandong province, and Zhoushan, Zhejiang provinces. 4 controls were matched to each case on the basis of age (±5 years old), sex, residential place at the same time entered into the study. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.RESULTS: There were a total of 2 719 subjects (male 1 399,female 1 320) with gastroendoscopic biopsies stored available treated as a cohort. H. pyloripositive cohort included 1 671 subjects (61.5 %) and H. pylorinegative cohort 1 048 subjects(38.5 %). These subjects were followed up for 1-19 years, averaged 10.88 years. The outcome of death from stomach cancer in the exposure cohort was 33, and in the non-exposure cohort 11. After adjustment for age and sex, RR=1.9850 (P=0.0491), 95 % CI was 1.0026, and 3.9301. The results of conditional logistic regression showed an OR of 4.467 and 95 % CI of 1.161, and 17.190 for the nested case control study

  4. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047

  5. Anthropometric measures, endogenous sex steroids and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: a study within the EPIC cohort.

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Sabina; Key, Timothy J; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Lahmann, Petra H; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Dossus, Laure; Biessy, Carine; Vineis, Paolo; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Nagel, Gabriele; Linseisen, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In a large case-control study on breast cancer risk and serum hormone concentrations, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we examined to what extent the relationship of excess body weight with breast cancer risk may be explained by changes in sex steroids. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and serum measurements of testosterone [T], androstenedione [Delta4], dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate [DHEAS], estradiol [E2], estrone [...

  6. Adherence to the WHO’s Healthy Diet Indicator and Overall Cancer Risk in the EPIC-NL Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Berentzen, Nina E.; Beulens, Joline W.; Marieke P Hoevenaar-Blom; Ellen Kampman; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.; Dora Romaguera-Bosch; Peeters, Petra H.M.; May, Anne M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A healthy dietary pattern defined by international recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO) has been shown to reduce overall mortality risk. It is unknown whether this healthy dietary pattern is associated with overall cancer incidence. DESIGN: In total 35,355 men and women within the Dutch European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-cohort were followed for cancer occurrence. Diet was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. We com...

  7. Cancer Risk Associated with Insulin Glargine among Adult Type 2 Diabetes Patients – A Nationwide Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Toh, Sengwee; Lin, Jou-Wei; Chen, Shu-Ting; Kuo, Chuei-Wen; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Lai, Mei-Shu

    2011-01-01

    Background Preclinical and observational studies raise the concern about the safety of insulin glargine in terms of cancer initiation and promotion. This study is designed to examine cancer incidence associated with use of insulin glargine vs. intermediate/long-acting human insulin (HI). Methodology A retrospective cohort study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database was conducted to identify adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without a history of cancer who i...

  8. The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC): design and methods of a three-year prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Machalek, Dorothy A; Grulich, Andrew E; Hillman, Richard J; Jin, Fengyi; Templeton, David J; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Garland, Suzanne M; Prestage, Garrett; McCaffery, Kirsten; Howard, Kirsten; Tong, Winnie; Fairley, Christopher K.; Roberts, Jennifer; Farnsworth, Annabelle; Poynten, I Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anal cancer is increasing in men who have sex with men (MSM). Screening for the presumed cancer precursor, high-grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) in a manner analogous to cervical cancer screening has been proposed. Uncertainty remains regarding anal HPV natural history and the role of anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) as screening tests. Well-designed cohort studies are required to address these...

  9. Calcium intake and breast cancer risk: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Khemayanto; Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Ru; Du, Xuan; Zou, Sheng-Yi; Shi, Bi-Min; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Findings from observational studies have suggested a possible relation between Ca and breast cancer risk. However, the results of these studies are inconclusive, and the dose-response relationship between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer remains to be determined. A meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to address these issues. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies concerning the association between Ca intake and breast cancer up to March 2016. The summary relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated with a random-effects model. The final analysis included eleven prospective cohort studies involving 26 606 cases and 872 895 participants. The overall RR of breast cancer for high v. low intake of Ca was 0·92 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·99), with moderate heterogeneity (P=0·026, I 2=44·2 %). In the subgroup analysis, the inverse association appeared stronger for premenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·75; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·96) than for postmenopausal breast cancer (RR 0·94; 95 % CI 0·87, 1·01). Dose-response analysis revealed that each 300 mg/d increase in Ca intake was associated with 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 0·99), 8 % (RR 0·92; 95 % CI 0·87, 0·98) and 2 % (RR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·97, 0·99) reduction in the risk of total, premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, respectively. Our findings suggest an inverse dose-response association between Ca intake and risk of breast cancer. PMID:27170091

  10. Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkinger, J M; Wang, M; Li, R; Albanes, D; Anderson, K E; Bernstein, L; van den Brandt, P A; English, D R; Freudenheim, J L; Fuchs, C S; Gapstur, S M; Giles, G G; Goldbohm, R A; Håkansson, N; Horn-Ross, P L; Koushik, A; Marshall, J R; McCullough, M L; Miller, A B; Robien, K; Rohan, T E; Schairer, C; Silverman, D T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R Z; Virtamo, J; Willett, W C; Wolk, A; Ziegler, R G; Smith-Warner, S A

    2014-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy products and constituents, may play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. In this pooled analysis of the primary data from 14 prospective cohort studies, 2212 incident pancreatic cancer cases were identified during follow-up among 862 680 individuals. Adjusting for smoking habits, personal history of diabetes, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake, multivariable study-specific hazard ratios (MVHR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards models and then pooled using a random effects model. There was no association between total milk intake and pancreatic cancer risk (MVHR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.82-1.18 comparing ≥500 with 1-69.9 g/day). Similarly, intakes of low-fat milk, whole milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, and ice-cream were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary (MVHR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.77-1.19) and total calcium (MVHR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.71-1.12) intake and pancreatic cancer risk overall when comparing intakes ≥1300 with vitamin D intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Findings were consistent within sex, smoking status, and BMI strata or when the case definition was limited to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Overall, these findings do not support the hypothesis that consumption of dairy foods, calcium, or vitamin D during adulthood is associated with pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:24631943

  11. Common dietary patterns and risk of breast cancer: analysis from the United Kingdom Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Janet E; Taylor, E Faye; Burley, Victoria J; Greenwood, Darren C

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between diet and breast cancer is uncertain. We assessed the relationship of 4 common dietary patterns to the risk of breast cancer using the UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS). A total of 35,372 women aged between 35 to 69 yr were recruited from 1995 to 1998. The UKWCS was selected to have a wide range of dietary intakes; 28% were self-reported vegetarian. Diet was assessed at baseline by a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. Four dietary patterns were defined based on a hierarchy of consumption of fish and meat to reflect commonly consumed dietary patterns. Hazards ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for known confounders. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 9 yr, and 330 premenopausal and 453 postmenopausal women developed invasive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, there was a strong inverse association between the fish eating dietary pattern 0.60 (95% CI = 0.38-0.96) but not for a vegetarian pattern 0.85 (95% CI = 0.58-1.25) compared to red meat eaters. There were no statistically significant associations with dietary pattern and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A fish eating dietary pattern that excludes meat from the diet may confer some benefit with regard to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. PMID:20358467

  12. Early dissemination of bevacizumab for advanced colorectal cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Mona N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe early dissemination patterns for first-line bevacizumab given for metastatic colorectal cancer treatment. Methods We analyzed patient surveys and medical records for a population-based cohort with metastatic colorectal cancer treated in multiple regions and health systems in the United States (US. Eligible patients were diagnosed with metastatic colorectal cancer and initiated first-line chemotherapy after US Food & Drug Administration (FDA bevacizumab approval in February 2004. First-line bevacizumab therapy was defined as receiving bevacizumab within 8 weeks of starting chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. We evaluated factors associated with first-line bevacizumab treatment using logistic regression. Results Among 355 patients, 31% received first-line bevacizumab in the two years after FDA approval, including 26% of men, 41% of women, and 16% of those ≥ 75 years. Use rose sharply within 6 months after FDA approval, then plateaued. 20% of patients received bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan; 53% received it with oxaliplatin. Men were less likely than women to receive bevacizumab (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.32-0.93; p = 0.026. Patients ≥ 75 years were less likely to receive bevacizumab than patients Conclusions One-third of eligible metastatic colorectal cancer patients received first-line bevacizumab shortly after FDA approval. Most patients did not receive bevacizumab as part of the regimen used in the pivotal study leading to FDA approval.

  13. [Genome-cohort studies for the development of personalized cancer prevention programs in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideo

    2015-05-01

    One of the most important roles of molecular epidemiology is to investigate gene-environment interactions in order to provide data for personalized risk modification. A case-control study conducted in Aichi showed that an aldehyde dehydrogenase- 2(ALDH2)polymorphism together with cigarette smoking significantly affects the risk of lung cancer. The main purpose of this large-scale genome-cohort study of healthy individuals is to confirm that these factors are associated with the development of diseases and to set optimal thresholds for the environmental factors. The Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort(J-MICC)Study was launched in 2005. It has recruited 100,600 healthy participants up to the end of 2014, and plans to follow them until 2025. Although Japanese genome-cohort studies, including the J-MICC Study, the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective(JPHC)Study, and the Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization Study, consist of different research teams with different financial resources, collaboration to standardize the data collection format for successful pooled analysis is being discussed. PMID:25981648

  14. An expanded cohort study of cancer among benzene-exposed workers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song-Nian Yin; Gui-Lan Li; Zhi-Nan Zhang [Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Bejing (China)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    An expanded cohort study of 74,828 benzene-exposed and 35,805 unexposed workers were followed during 1972 to 1987, based on a previous study in 12 cities in China. A small increase was observed in total cancer mortality among benzene-exposed compared with unexposed Workers (relative risk [RR] = 1-2). Statistically significant excesses were noted for leukemia (RR = 2.3), malignant lymphoma (RR = 4.5), and lung cancer (RR = 1.4). When risks were evaluated by leukemia subtype, only acute myelogenous leukemia was significantly elevated (RR = 3.1), although nonsignificant excesses were also noted for chronic myelogenous leukemia (RR = 2.6) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (RR = 2.3). A significant excess was also found for aplastic anemia. 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Modelling breast cancer in a TB fluoroscopy cohort: Implications for the Dutch mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer incidence in a tuberculosis fluoroscopy cohort has been modelled with a two-stage carcinogenesis model. The relatively simple model, in which hormonal influences only affect the number of sensitive target cells, fits the data very well. Under the assumption that individual hormonal differences average out, and with a relative biological effectiveness for mammographic X rays of 1, the model yields ∼10 fatal breast cancer cases induced by the entire Dutch screening programme over a period of 25 y. This is much lower than derived from standard ICRP risk estimates and should be compared with the number of lives saved, which is estimated at ∼350 y-1. As the extent of screening is currently being reconsidered in the Netherlands and elsewhere, this is an important result. (authors)

  16. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...... and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of...... exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes....

  17. Cancer-Related Fatigue in Women With Breast Cancer: Outcomes of a 5-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Goldstein, David

    2012-04-16

    PURPOSEProlonged and disabling fatigue is prevalent after cancer treatment, but the early natural history of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) has not been systematically examined to document consistent presence of symptoms. Hence, relationships to cancer, surgery, and adjuvant therapy are unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODSA prospective cohort study of women receiving adjuvant treatment for early-stage breast cancer was conducted. Women (n = 218) were enrolled after surgery and observed at end treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months as well as 5 years. Structured interviews and self-report questionnaires were used to record physical and psychologic health as well as disability and health care utilization. Patients with CRF persisting for 6 months were assessed to exclude alternative medical and psychiatric causes of fatigue. Predictors of persistent fatigue, mood disturbance, and health care utilization were sought by logistic regression.ResultsThe case rate for CRF was 24% (n = 51) postsurgery and 31% (n = 69) at end of treatment; it became persistent in 11% (n = 24) at 6 months and 6% (n = 12) at 12 months. At each time point, approximately one third of the patients had comorbid mood disturbance. Persistent CRF was predicted by tumor size but not demographic, psychologic, surgical, or hematologic parameters. CRF was associated with significant disability and health care utilization. CONCLUSIONCRF is common but generally runs a self-limiting course. Much of the previously reported high rates of persistent CRF may be attributable to factors unrelated to the cancer or its treatment.

  18. Lifestyle influences on the association between pre-diagnostic hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer prognosis - results from The Danish 'Diet, Cancer and Health' prospective cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Marianne; Olsen, Anja; Kroman, Niels; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-01-01

    1064 were included. Of these, 105 women died from breast cancer during a median follow-up of 6.3 years (range 0.2-14.3 years). In multivariate analyses women who used HRT at enrolment into the cohort study had 47% lower risk of dying from breast cancer as compared to women who had previously or never...

  19. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Mu [Taipei Medical University - Shuang Ho Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Doyle, Pat [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London (United Kingdom); Tsan, Yu-Tse [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung (China); Chung Shan Medical University, School of Medicine, Taichung (China); Lee, Chang-Hsing [Ton Yen General Hospital, Department of Occupational Medicine, Hsinchu County (China); Wang, Jung-Der [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Cheng Kung University College of Medicine, Department of Public Health, Tainan (China); Chen, Pau-Chung [National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Department of Public Health, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine and Hospital, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Taipei (China); Collaboration: Health Data Analysis in Taiwan (hDATa) Research Group

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the association between {sup 131}I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 10{sup 5} person-years. {sup 131}I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative {sup 131}I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing {sup 131}I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between {sup 131}I dose and age (p = 0.94) or {sup 131}I dose and sex (p = 0.99). {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  20. 131I treatment for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the association between 131I therapy for thyroid cancer and risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of patients with thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1997-2008. The data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research dataset. The cumulative 131I dose in each patient was calculated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of 131I therapy on the risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism in the cohort. A total of 8,946 patients with thyroid cancer were eligible for the final analysis. Among these patients, 8 developed primary hyperparathyroidism during the follow-up period that represented 38,248 person-years giving an incidence rate of 20.9 per 105 person-years. 131I was used in the treatment of 6,153 patients (68.8 %) with a median cumulative dose of 3.7 GBq. The adjusted HRs were 0.21 (95% CI 0.02-1.86) and 0.46 (95% CI 0.10-2.10) for those receiving a cumulative 131I dose of 0.1-3.6 GBq and ≥3.7 GBq, respectively, compared to no therapy. The risk of developing primary hyperparathyroidism did not increase with increasing 131I dose (test for trend p = 0.51). No interaction was found between 131I dose and age (p = 0.94) or 131I dose and sex (p = 0.99). 131I treatment for thyroid cancer did not increase risk of primary hyperparathyroidism during a 10-year follow-up in this study population. Further research with a longer follow-up period is needed to assess late adverse effects beyond 10 years. (orig.)

  1. Association between adult otitis media and nasopharyngeal cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the diagnosis of otitis media (OM) in adults is associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) using a nationwide population-based retrospective study. Methods and materials: We selected 13,513 adult patients that had been previously diagnosed with OM between 2000 and 2005 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort, and randomly extracted the data of 135,130 participants matched by sex, age, and baseline year for the comparison cohort. The follow-up period was terminated upon developing NPC, withdrawal from the national health insurance system, or the end of 2009. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) of NPC development were determined. Results: The subsequent NPC incidence rates in the OM and comparison cohorts were 6.41 and 0.58 per 10 000 person-years, respectively (adjusted HR, 11.04; 95% CI, 7.68–5.87; P < 0.0001). The NPC risk for males was significantly higher than that for females (adjusted HR = 3.24; 95% CI, 2.16–4.85). In both female and male patients, the diagnosis of OM was associated with a significantly increased risk for NPC (adjusted HR, 11.91 vs. 10.78, respectively). Among the OM cohort, 62 participants were subsequently diagnosed with NPC, with 71% of them occurring within 1 year following the diagnosis of OM. However, even after 5-year follow-up, the OM cohort still displayed a higher risk for NPC (adjusted HR = 2.50). Stratified by the frequency of OM episodes, more than one episode per year had a significantly greater risk of developing NPC, compared with the comparison cohort (HR = 29.22; 95% CI, 20.19–42.27). Conclusion: We found that adult OM is a warning sign for the development of NPC in Taiwan, with approximately an 11-fold higher risk for adult OM patients. We recommend that OM patients undergo follow-up examinations for at least 5 years. To extrapolate our findings, further studies are warranted in other

  2. Coffee drinking and pancreatic cancer risk: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Dong; Jian Zou; Xiao-Feng Yu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To quantitatively assess the relationship between coffee consumption and incidence of pancreatic cancer in a meta-analysis of cohort studies.METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% CIs of pancreatic cancer with respect to frequency of coffee intake. We performed random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with a 1 cup/d increment in coffee consumption.RESULTS: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, which included 671 080 individuals (1496 cancer events) with an average follow-up of 14.9 years. Compared with individuals who did not drink or seldom drank coffee per day, the pooled RR of pancreatic cancer was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69-0.95) for regular coffee drinkers, 0.86 (0.76-0.96) for low to moderate coffee drinkers, and 0.68 (0.51-0.84) for high drinkers. In subgroup analy-ses, we noted that, coffee drinking was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in men, while this association was not seen in women. These associations were also similar in studies from North America, Europe, and the Asia-Pacific region.CONCLUSION: Findings from this meta-analysis sug-gest that there is an inverse relationship between coffee drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer.. 2011 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast density and mode of detection in relation to breast cancer specific survival: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine breast density in relation to breast cancer specific survival and to assess if this potential association was modified by mode of detection. An additional aim was to study whether the established association between mode of detection and survival is modified by breast density. The study included 619 cases from a prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Breast density estimated qualitatively, was analyzed in relation to breast cancer death, in non-symptomatic and symptomatic women, using Cox regression calculating hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Adjustments were made in several steps for; diagnostic age, tumour size, axillary lymph node involvement, grade, hormone receptor status, body mass index (baseline), diagnostic period, use of hormone replacement therapy at diagnosis and mode of detection. Detection mode in relation to survival was analyzed stratified for breast density. Differences in HR following different adjustments were analyzed by Freedmans%. After adjustment for age and other prognostic factors, women with dense, as compared to fatty breasts, had an increased risk of breast cancer death, HR 2.56:1.07-6.11, with a statistically significant trend over density categories, p = 0.04. In the stratified analysis, the effect was less pronounced in non-symptomatic women, HR 2.04:0.49-8.49 as compared to symptomatic, HR 3.40:1.06-10.90. In the unadjusted model, symptomatic women had a higher risk of breast cancer death, regardless of breast density. Analyzed by Freedmans%, age, tumour size, lymph nodes, grade, diagnostic period, ER and PgR explained 55.5% of the observed differences in mortality between non-symptomatic and symptomatic cases. Additional adjustment for breast density caused only a minor change. High breast density at diagnosis may be associated with decreased breast cancer survival. This association appears to be stronger in women with symptomatic cancers but breast density could

  4. Breast cancer biology and ethnic disparities in breast cancer mortality in new zealand: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeewa Seneviratne

    Full Text Available Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women.Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biological characteristics between Māori and NZ European women were explored adjusting for age and socioeconomic deprivation in logistic regression models. Impacts of socioeconomic deprivation, stage and cancer biological characteristics on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women were explored in Cox regression models.Compared with NZ European women (n=2304, Māori women (n=429 had significantly higher rates of advanced and higher grade cancers. Māori women also had non-significantly higher rates of ER/PR negative and HER-2 positive breast cancers. Higher odds of advanced stage and higher grade remained significant for Māori after adjusting for age and deprivation. Māori women had almost a 100% higher age and deprivation adjusted breast cancer mortality hazard compared with NZ European women (HR=1.98, 1.55-2.54. Advanced stage and lower proportion of screen detected cancer in Māori explained a greater portion of the excess breast cancer mortality (HR reduction from 1.98 to 1.38, while the additional contribution through biological differences were minimal (HR reduction from 1.38 to 1.35.More advanced cancer stage at diagnosis has the greatest impact while differences in biological characteristics appear to be a minor contributor for inequities in breast cancer mortality between Māori and NZ European women. Strategies aimed at reducing breast cancer mortality in Māori should focus on earlier diagnosis, which will likely have a greater impact on reducing breast

  5. Parental cancer in an unselected cohort of children with cancer referred to a single centre.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, E. N.; Dallimore, N S; Brook, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A study of parental cancer in 326 children referred to a single Paediatric Oncology Unit found a significant increase in breast cancer in mothers of children with solid tumours. The 5 tumours found were 8.9 times the expected number. This increase could not be accounted for by any of the known risk factors for breast cancer. The incidence of cancer in mothers of leukaemic children and in all groups of fathers was not significantly raised. Further prospective studies in the mothers of young ch...

  6. Liver cancer and non-hodgkin lymphoma in hepatitis C virus-infected patients: results from the danvir cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Jepsen, Peter; Krarup, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and most likely non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). No studies have compared the risk of these cancers between patients with chronic and cleared HCV-infection. The aim of this study was to estimate the 10-year risk of HCC and NHL...... in HCV-infected patients and to compare the risk of these cancers between HCV-infected patients and the general population in Denmark and between patients with chronic and cleared HCV-infection. Nationwide cohorts were used: 11,975 HCV-infected patients in the DANVIR cohort and 71,850 individuals from...

  7. Lung cancer stage at diagnosis: Individual associations in the prospective VITamins and lifestyle (VITAL cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Au David H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Identifying factors associated with stage of diagnosis can improve our understanding of biologic and behavioral pathways of lung cancer development and detection. We used data from a prospective cohort study to evaluate associations of demographic, health history, and health behaviors with early versus late stage at diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods We calculated odds ratios (ORs for the association of patient-level characteristics with advanced stage of diagnosis for NSCLC. The OR's were then adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking status, income, education, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a comorbidity index. Results We identified 612 cases of NSCLC among 77,719 adults, aged 50 to 76 years from Washington State recruited in 2000-2002, with followup through December 2007. In univariate analyses, subjects who quit smoking Conclusions Smoking status, education, and a screening activity were associated with stage at diagnosis of NSCLC. These results may guide future studies of the underlying mechanisms that influence how NSCLC is detected and diagnosed.

  8. Five year colorectal cancer outcomes in a large negative CT colonography screening cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, David H.; Pooler, B.D.; Pickhardt, Perry J. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Weiss, Jennifer M. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To assess the 5-year incidence of clinically presenting colorectal cancers following a negative CT colonography (CTC) screening examination, as few patient outcome data regarding a negative CTC screening result exist. Negative CTC screening patients (n = 1,050) in the University of Wisconsin Health system over a 14-month period were included. An electronic medical record (EMR) review was undertaken, encompassing provider, colonoscopy, imaging and histopathology reports. Incident colorectal cancers and other important GI tumours were recorded. Of the 1,050 cohort (mean [{+-}SD] age 56.9 {+-} 7.4 years), 39 (3.7%) patients were excluded owing to lack of follow-up within our system beyond the initial screening CTC. The remaining 1,011 patients were followed for an average of 4.73 {+-} 1.15 years. One incident colorectal adenocarcinoma represented a crude cancer incidence of 0.2 cancers per 1,000 patient years. EMR revealed 14 additional patients with clinically important GI tumours including: advanced adenomas (n = 11), appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (n = 1), appendiceal mucinous adenoma (n = 1) and metastatic ileocolonic carcinoid (n = 1). All positive patients including the incident carcinoma are alive at the time of review. Clinically presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma is rare in the 5 years following negative screening CTC, suggesting that current strategies, including non-reporting of diminutive lesions, are appropriate. (orig.)

  9. Five year colorectal cancer outcomes in a large negative CT colonography screening cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the 5-year incidence of clinically presenting colorectal cancers following a negative CT colonography (CTC) screening examination, as few patient outcome data regarding a negative CTC screening result exist. Negative CTC screening patients (n = 1,050) in the University of Wisconsin Health system over a 14-month period were included. An electronic medical record (EMR) review was undertaken, encompassing provider, colonoscopy, imaging and histopathology reports. Incident colorectal cancers and other important GI tumours were recorded. Of the 1,050 cohort (mean [±SD] age 56.9 ± 7.4 years), 39 (3.7%) patients were excluded owing to lack of follow-up within our system beyond the initial screening CTC. The remaining 1,011 patients were followed for an average of 4.73 ± 1.15 years. One incident colorectal adenocarcinoma represented a crude cancer incidence of 0.2 cancers per 1,000 patient years. EMR revealed 14 additional patients with clinically important GI tumours including: advanced adenomas (n = 11), appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (n = 1), appendiceal mucinous adenoma (n = 1) and metastatic ileocolonic carcinoid (n = 1). All positive patients including the incident carcinoma are alive at the time of review. Clinically presenting colorectal adenocarcinoma is rare in the 5 years following negative screening CTC, suggesting that current strategies, including non-reporting of diminutive lesions, are appropriate. (orig.)

  10. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  11. Impact of route to diagnosis on treatment intent and 1-year survival in patients diagnosed with oesophagogastric cancer in England: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Palser, Thomas R; Cromwell, David A; Hardwick, Richard H; Riley, Stuart A; Greenaway, Kimberley; van der Meulen, Jan H P; ,

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the route to diagnosis, patient characteristics, treatment intent and 1 -year survival among patients with oesophagogastric (O-G) cancer. Setting Cohort study in 142 English NHS trusts and 30 cancer networks. Participants Patients diagnosed with O-G cancer between October 2007 and June 2009. Design Prospective cohort study. Route to diagnosis defined as general practitioner (GP) referral—urgent (suspected cancer) or non-urgent, hospital consul...

  12. The 13th Annual Meeting of the Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3); Immune Suppression and the Tumor Microenvironment, Columbus, Ohio; March 1–2, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lesinski, Gregory B.; Carson, William E.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Wei, Weizen; Kalinski, Pawel; Lotze, Michael T; June, Carl H.; Petros, William; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Olencki, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3) is a cancer immunotherapy network, established to promote biologic therapeutics in the Midwestern and Northeastern regions of The United States. The 13th Annual Meeting of the TrC3 was hosted by The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center—Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and took place at The Blackwell Hotel and Conference Center in Columbus, OH on March 1–2, 2010 (http://www.osuccc.o...

  13. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia : a report from the female lung cancer consortium in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by exam

  14. Factors modifying the risk of lung cancer associated to radon in the french cohort of uranium miners; Facteurs modifiants du risque de cancer du poumon associe au radon au sein de la cohorte francaise des mineurs d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vacquier, B.; Rogel, A.; Laurier, D. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Caer, S.; Acker, A. [Areva NC, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-09-15

    The radon is classified lung carcinogen for man, but questions stay about the effects for low doses irradiation.The results of the analysis radon-lung cancer and the factors modifying on this relationship in the French cohort of miners followed until to 1999 is reported. This analysis confirms that the risk lung cancer is different according the period of exposure. A best precision in the measurement of exposure after 1956 could explain this difference. (N.C.)

  15. "Cancer 2015": A Prospective, Population-Based Cancer Cohort-Phase 1: Feasibility of Genomics-Guided Precision Medicine in the Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisot, John P; Thorne, Heather; Fellowes, Andrew; Doig, Ken; Lucas, Mark; McNeil, John J; Doble, Brett; Dobrovic, Alexander; John, Thomas; James, Paul A; Lipton, Lara; Ashley, David; Hayes, Theresa; McMurrick, Paul; Richardson, Gary; Lorgelly, Paula; Fox, Stephen B; Thomas, David M

    2015-01-01

    "Cancer 2015" is a longitudinal and prospective cohort. It is a phased study whose aim was to pilot recruiting 1000 patients during phase 1 to establish the feasibility of providing a population-based genomics cohort. Newly diagnosed adult patients with solid cancers, with residual tumour material for molecular genomics testing, were recruited into the cohort for the collection of a dataset containing clinical, molecular pathology, health resource use and outcomes data. 1685 patients have been recruited over almost 3 years from five hospitals. Thirty-two percent are aged between 61-70 years old, with a median age of 63 years. Diagnostic tumour samples were obtained for 90% of these patients for multiple parallel sequencing. Patients identified with somatic mutations of potentially "actionable" variants represented almost 10% of those tumours sequenced, while 42% of the cohort had no mutations identified. These genomic data were annotated with information such as cancer site, stage, morphology, treatment and patient outcomes and health resource use and cost. This cohort has delivered its main objective of establishing an upscalable genomics cohort within a clinical setting and in phase 2 aims to develop a protocol for how genomics testing can be used in real-time clinical decision-making, providing evidence on the value of precision medicine to clinical practice. PMID:26529019

  16. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake prostate cancers. PMID:26830232

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with human insulin: a cohort study in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjuan Gu

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to investigate the association between human insulin and cancer incidence and mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We recruited 8,774 insulin-naïve diabetes patients from the Shanghai Diabetes Registry (SDR. The follow-up rate was 85.4%. All subjects were divided into the insulin use cohort (n = 3,639 and the non-insulin use cohort (n = 5,135. The primary outcome was the first diagnosis of any cancer. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR of cancer and mortality. RESULTS: We observed 98 cancer events in the insulin use cohort and 170 in the non-insulin use cohort. Cancer incidence rates were 78.6 and 74.3 per 10,000 patients per year in the insulin users and the non-insulin users, respectively. No significant difference in cancer risk was observed between the two cohorts (adjusted RR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.89-1.62, P = 0.228. Regarding site-specific cancers, only the risk of liver cancer was significantly higher in the insulin users compared to that in the non-insulin users (adjusted RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.12-7.17, P = 0.028. The risks of overall mortality (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.47-2.43, P<0.0001 and death from cancer (adjusted RR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.39-3.35, P = 0.001 were all significantly higher in the insulin users than in the non-insulin users. CONCLUSION: There was no excess risk of overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with human insulin. However, a significantly higher risk of liver cancer was found in these patients. Moreover, insulin users showed higher risks of overall and cancer mortality. Considering that individuals treated with insulin were more likely to be advanced diabetic patients, caution should be used in interpreting these results.

  18. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Human Insulin: A Cohort Study in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Hou, Xuhong; Mo, Yifei; Yu, Weihui; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Cheng; Nan, Hairong; Chen, Lei; Li, Jie; Liu, Yuxiang; Huang, Zhezhou; Han, Ming; Bao, Yuqian; Zhong, Weijian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim was to investigate the association between human insulin and cancer incidence and mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We recruited 8,774 insulin-naïve diabetes patients from the Shanghai Diabetes Registry (SDR). The follow-up rate was 85.4%. All subjects were divided into the insulin use cohort (n = 3,639) and the non-insulin use cohort (n = 5,135). The primary outcome was the first diagnosis of any cancer. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of cancer and mortality. Results We observed 98 cancer events in the insulin use cohort and 170 in the non-insulin use cohort. Cancer incidence rates were 78.6 and 74.3 per 10,000 patients per year in the insulin users and the non-insulin users, respectively. No significant difference in cancer risk was observed between the two cohorts (adjusted RR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.89–1.62, P = 0.228). Regarding site-specific cancers, only the risk of liver cancer was significantly higher in the insulin users compared to that in the non-insulin users (adjusted RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.12–7.17, P = 0.028). The risks of overall mortality (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.47–2.43, P<0.0001) and death from cancer (adjusted RR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.39–3.35, P = 0.001) were all significantly higher in the insulin users than in the non-insulin users. Conclusion There was no excess risk of overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with human insulin. However, a significantly higher risk of liver cancer was found in these patients. Moreover, insulin users showed higher risks of overall and cancer mortality. Considering that individuals treated with insulin were more likely to be advanced diabetic patients, caution should be used in interpreting these results. PMID:23308218

  19. The varying role of the GP in the pathway between colonoscopy and surgery for colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsbury, David; Harris, Mark; Pascoe, Shane; Barton, Michael; Olver, Ian; Spigelman, Allan; Beilby, Justin; Veitch, Craig; Weller, David; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe general practitioner (GP) involvement in the treatment referral pathway for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients.Design A retrospective cohort analysis of linked data.Setting A population-based sample of CRC patients diagnosed from August 2004 to December 2007 in New South Wales, Australia, using the 45 and Up Study, cancer registry diagnosis records, inpatient hospital records and Medicare claims records.Participants 407 CRC patients who had a colonoscopy followed by surge...

  20. Plasma enterolactone and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a case–cohort study of Danish men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Olsen, Anja Viendahl; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke Riegels;

    2010-01-01

    prescriptions of antibiotics were obtained from the Danish Prescription Registry. Cases diagnosed during 5.9 years of follow-up and a randomly selected sample of the cohort had a plasma sample analyzed for enterolactone by time-resolved fluoro-immuno assay. Associations were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards...... of antibiotics users strengthened the results slightly. In conclusion, with higher enterolactone levels, we found lower risk of colon cancer among women and higher risk of rectal cancer among men....

  1. Burn injury, gender and cancer risk: population-based cohort study using data from Scotland and Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Janine M; Bauer, Jacqui; Fear, Mark W.; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona M; Boyd, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of cancer and potential gender effects in persons hospitalised with burn injury. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study using record-linkage systems in Scotland and Western Australia. Participants Records of 37 890 and 23 450 persons admitted with a burn injury in Scotland and Western Australia, respectively, from 1983 to 2008. Deidentified extraction of all linked hospital morbidity records, mortality and cancer records were provided by the Infor...

  2. Risk factors for self-reported arm lymphedema among female breast cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Togawa, Kayo; Ma, Huiyan; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Imayama, Ikuyo; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Alfano, Catherine M.; McTiernan, Anne; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is a potentially debilitating condition that occurs among breast cancer survivors. This study examines the incidence of self-reported lymphedema, timing of lymphedema onset, and associations between sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle factors and lymphedema risk across racial-ethnic groups using data from a multicenter, multiethnic prospective cohort study of breast cancer survivors, the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle Study. Methods A total of 666 women di...

  3. Dietary components and risk of total, cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials cohort in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Bing Wang; Jin-Hu Fan; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Rashmi Sinha; Freedman, Neal D.; Taylor, Philip R.; You-Lin Qiao; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that dietary consumption of certain food groups is associated with a lower risk of cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality in western populations, limited prospective data are available from China. We prospectively examined the association between dietary intake of different food groups at baseline and risk of total, cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality outcomes in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials(NIT) cohort. In 1984–1991, 2445 subjects ...

  4. Factors modifying the risk of lung cancer associated to radon in the french cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon is classified lung carcinogen for man, but questions stay about the effects for low doses irradiation.The results of the analysis radon-lung cancer and the factors modifying on this relationship in the French cohort of miners followed until to 1999 is reported. This analysis confirms that the risk lung cancer is different according the period of exposure. A best precision in the measurement of exposure after 1956 could explain this difference. (N.C.)

  5. An open cohort study of bone metastasis incidence following surgery in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimoto Masataka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To help design clinical trials of adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy for breast cancer, the temporal incidence of bone metastasis was investigated in a cohort of patients. We have tried to draw the criteria to use adjuvant bisphosphonate. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 (5459 patients were followed up regarding bone metastasis until December 2006. Patients' characteristics at the time of surgery were analyzed by Cox's method, with bone metastasis as events. Patient groups were assigned according to Cox's analysis, and were judged either to require the adjuvant bisphosphonate or not, using the tentative criteria: high risk (>3% person-year, medium risk (1-3%, and low risk ( Results Bone metastasis incidence was constant between 1.0 and 2.8% per person-year more than 10 years. Non-invasive cancer was associated with a very low incidence of bone metastasis (1/436. Multivariate Cox's analysis indicated important factors for bone metastasis were tumor grade (T, nodal grade (pN, and histology. Because T and pN were important factors for bone metastasis prediction, subgroups were made by pTNM stage. Patients at stages IIIA, IIIB and IV had an incidence of >3% per person-year, patients with stage I Conclusions Bone metastasis incidence remained constant for many years. Using pN, T, and histopathology, patients could be classified into high, medium, and low risk groups.

  6. Cigarette smoking and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Lynge, Elsebeth; Vejborg, Ilse; Tjønneland, Anne; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Andersen, Zorana J

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Smoking before first childbirth increases breast cancer risk, but the biological mechanism remains unknown and may involve mammographic density (MD), one of the strongest biomarkers of breast cancer risk. We aimed to examine whether active smoking and passive smoking were associated with...... intensity) and passive smoking were assessed at cohort baseline (1993-1997) via questionnaire, together with other breast cancer risk factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations (odds ratios, 95 % confidence intervals) between smoking and MD, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Two...... between smoking and MD was strongest in women who initiated smoking before age of 16 years (0.79, 0.64-0.96), smoked ≥15 cigarettes/day (0.83, 0.71-0.98), smoked ≥5 pack-years (0.62, 0.43-0.89), smoked >30 years (0.86, 0.75-0.99), and smoked ≥11 years before first childbirth (0.70, 0.51-0.96). Association...

  7. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990–2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985–2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia

  8. International Radical Cystectomy Consortium: A way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Syed Johar; Field, Erinn; Kibel, Adam S.; Mottrie, Alex; Weizer, Alon Z; Wagner, Andrew; Hemal, Ashok K.; Scherr, Douglas S.; Schanne, Francis; Gaboardi, Franco; Wu, Guan; Peabody, James O.; Koauk, Jihad; Redorta, Joan Palou; Pattaras, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) is an emerging operative alternative to open surgery for the management of invasive bladder cancer. Studies from single institutions provide limited data due to the small number of patients. In order to better understand the related outcomes, a world-wide consortium was established in 2006 of patients undergoing RARC, called the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC). Thus far, the IRCC has reported its findings on various areas of operativ...

  9. Socioeconomic patient characteristics predict delay in cancer diagnosis: a Danish cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolowski Ineta

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in cancer diagnosis may be important for cancer prognosis. Large individual variations in the duration of delay have been observed. This study examines whether patients' socioeconomic characteristics are predictors of long patient-, doctor- and system-related delay in cancer diagnosis. Methods Danish population-based cohort study. From September 2004 to September 2005, newly diagnosed cancer patients were enrolled from administrative registries. A total of 467 general practitioners in the County of Aarhus, Denmark, completed questionnaires on 2,212 cancer patients' diagnostic pathways. A total of 1,252 cancer patients filled in questionnaires on their socioeconomic characteristics (e.g. marital status, education, occupation, household income and fortune. Delay was categorised as short or long based on quartiles. Predictors of long delay were assessed in a logistic regression model using odds ratios (ORs as a proxy of relative risks. Results In regard to patient delay, retired female patients experienced shorter delays (OR 0.35, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 0.13 to 0.98 than employed female patients, while female smokers experienced longer delays (OR 2.42, 95%CI 1.21 to 4.85 than female non-smokers. In regard to doctor delay, female patients with a large household fortune experienced shorter delays (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.45 than economically less privileged female patients. Well-educated men experienced shorter delays (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.16 to 1.00 than men with short education. Male patients experienced longer doctor delays (OR 2.11, 95%CI 1.11 to 4.02 than women when gender-specific cancers were excluded. In regard to system delay, female patients with a large household fortune experienced shorter delays (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.21 to 0.99 than economically less privileged women, while female patients with a high alcohol intake experienced longer delays (OR 2.82, 95%CI 1.18 to 6.72 than women with an average intake

  10. Retrospective cohort study of an enhanced recovery programme in oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, P A C; Shaw, C; Hine, C; Scholtes, S; Koutra, M; Andrew, H; Hacking, M; Allum, W H

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Enhanced recovery programmes have been established in some areas of elective surgery. This study applied enhanced recovery principles to elective oesophageal and gastric cancer surgery. Methods An enhanced recovery programme for patients undergoing open oesophagogastrectomy, total and subtotal gastrectomy for oesophageal and gastric malignancy was designed. A retrospective cohort study compared length of stay on the critical care unit (CCU), total length of inpatient stay, rates of complications and in-hospital mortality prior to (35 patients) and following (27 patients) implementation. Results In the cohort study, the median total length of stay was reduced by 3 days following oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy. The median length of stay on the CCU remained the same for all patients. The rates of complications and mortality were the same. Conclusions The standardised protocol reduced the median overall length of stay but did not reduce CCU stay. Enhanced recovery principles can be applied to patients undergoing major oesophagogastrectomy and total gastrectomy as long as they have minimal or reversible co-morbidity. PMID:26414360

  11. Clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA mutations in a Central European gastric cancer cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Christoph; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Böger, Christine; Krüger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Genomically stable gastric cancers (GCs) are enriched for the diffuse phenotype and hotspot mutations of RHOA. Here we aimed to validate the occurrence, phenotype and clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA mutant GCs in an independent Central European GC cohort consisting of 415 patients. The RHOA genotype (exon 2 and 3) was correlated with various genotypic, phenotypic and clinicopathological patient characteristics. Sixteen (3.9%) tumours had a RHOA mutation including four hitherto unreported mutations, that is, p.G17Efs*24, p.V24F, p.T37A and p.L69R. RHOA mutation was more prevalent in women (5.4% vs 2.8%), distal GCs (4.5% vs 2.4%), in poorly differentiated GCs (G3/G4; 4.8% vs 1.1%), T1/T2 tumours (6.2% vs 3.1%) and lacked distant metastases. Nine RHOA mutant GCs had a diffuse, four an intestinal, two an unclassified and one a mixed Laurén phenotype. KRAS and RHOA mutations were mutually exclusive. A single case showed both a RHOA and a PIK3CA mutation. No significant difference was found in the overall survival between RHOA mutant and wildtype GCs. Our study confirms the occurrence and clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA hotspot mutations in an independent patient cohort. However, we found no evidence for a prognostic or growth advantageous effect of RHOA mutations in GC. PMID:26251521

  12. Cohort Studies on Cancer Mortality Among Workers Exposed Only to Chrysotile Asbestos:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU LI; TONG-DA SUN; XING ZHANG; RUI-NAN LAI; XIU-YANG LI; XUE-JIN FAN; KENJI MORINAGA

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there was excessive risk of cancer among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone by applying a meta-analysis technique. Methods All data meeting the criteria of cohort studies on cancer mortality among workers exposed only to chrysotile were incorporated into meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for main cancer sites were calculated using two approaches of unweighted ratio and random effect model. The heterogeneity and its sources of the results were examined with a Q-statistic and Z-score test. The dose-response effect as reflected in the percentage of all deaths due to mesothelioma served as a proxy measure of chrysotile exposure. Results A cohort of twenty six workers exposed to chrysotile alone was summarized. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for all deaths (1.27), all cancers (1.28), cancers of respiratory organs (2.51), cancers of lung (2.35) and cancers of stomach (1.24) were observed. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for lung cancer within occupational strata were observed among textile workers (3.55), asbestos product manufacturers (3.30), miners and millers (2.24), cement product workers (1.22), and for stomach cancer among asbestos product manufacturers (1.49). Meta-SMRs for cancers at other sites were not significant. Meta-SMR for lung cancer showed an increasing trend with an elevated percentage of all deaths from mesothelioma, but no such trend for stomach cancer. Conclusion There are excessive risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone, and likely no convincing indication of an etiological association between chrysotile exposure and cancers at other sites.

  13. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong; van der A, Daphne L; Halkjaer, Jytte; Schulze, Matthias B; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Feskens, Edith J M; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake...

  14. Tea and coffee drinking and ovarian cancer risk : Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study and a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    In a cohort study, ovarian cancer (280 cases) showed no significant association with tea or coffee, the multivariable rate ratios being 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.00) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.12) per cup per day, respectively. A meta-analysis also produced no significant findings o

  15. Risk of prostate cancer in low-dose aspirin users: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, F; Levi, M; Simonetti, M; Cancian, M; Parretti, D; Cricelli, I; Sobrero, A; Cricelli, C

    2016-07-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that use of low-dose aspirin (LDA) reduces the risk of certain adenocarcinomas. While there are several and consistent findings on the protective effect of LDA on colorectal and other cancers, few and conflicting evidence is available on prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of this study was to assess whether LDA reduces the incidence rate of PCa. We conducted a nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study by using Health Search IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database (HSD). Patients with ischemic cardio- or cerebrovascular disease (index date) were identified. Time-dependent multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were adopted to estimate Hazard Ratios (HRs) and related 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of PCa associated with use of LDA. The exposure was lagged by one year to consider the latency of drug effect on the outcome onset. Within a cohort 13,453 patients, the overall incidence rate of PCa was 2.5 per 1,000 person-years. Use of LDA was associated with a decreased incidence rate of PCa (HR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86), which was primarily driven by a frequency of LDA use equal to or higher than twice per week (HR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.43-0.83). Such an association was more pronounced (HR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21-0.91) when LDA was used for five or more years. Our findings indicate that LDA use might be associated with a reduction of risk of PCa in patients with cardio- or cerebrovascular diseases. PMID:26915905

  16. Genetic susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and its functional characterisation: The PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campa, D.; Rizzato, C.; Capurso, G.; Giese, N.; Funel, N.; Greenhalf, W.; Souček, P.; Gazouli, M.; Pezzilli, R.; Pasquali, C.; Talar-Wojnarowska, R.; Cantore, M.; Andriulli, A.; Scarpa, A.; Jamroziak, K.; Delle Fave, G.; Costello, E.; Khaw, K. T.; Heller, A.; Key, T. K.; Theodoropoulos, G.; Malecka-Panas, E.; Mambrini, A.; Bambi, F.; Landi, S.; Pedrazzoli, S.; Bassi, C.; Pacetti, P.; Piepoli, A.; Tavano, F.; di Sebastiano, P.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Basso, D.; Plebani, M.; Fogar, P.; Buechler, M. W.; Bugert, P.; Vodička, Pavel; Boggi, U.; Neoptolemos, J. P.; Werner, J.; Canzian, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2013), s. 95-99. ISSN 1590-8658 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * genetic polymorphisms * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.889, year: 2013

  17. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  18. Birthweight and Childhood Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltiel, Ora; Tikellis, Gabriella; Linet, Martha; Golding, Jean; Lemeshow, Stanley; Phillips, Gary; Lamb, Karen; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E; Strøm, Marin; Granstrøm, Charlotta; Northstone, Kate; Klebanoff, Mark; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Milne, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Marie; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ha, Eunhee; Dwyer, Terence

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case-control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from...... the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA......). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort...

  19. Cellular Telephones, Magnetic Field Exposure, Risk of Brain Tumours and Cancer at Other Sites: A Cohort Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether exposure to electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones is associated with brain tumours and cancer at other sites. Key information has been obtained on all cellular telephone subscribers in Denmark from 1 January 1982 to 31 December 1995. The overall subscriber cohort will include approximately 500,000 individuals. Collected information includes name of subscriber, address, telephone number, system used (analogue or digital), and annual use of the telephone. The name and address of the subscribers will be linked to the Central Population Register, and the personal identification number will be supplied in addition to information on vital status and migration. Finally, all members of the cohort will be linked to the Danish Cancer Registry, and the observed number of tumours will be compared with those expected on the basis of national cancer incidence rates stratified by sex, age, and calendar time. (author)

  20. Cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study in Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hui-Lin; Fang, Hong; Xu, Wang-Hong; Qin, Guo-You; Yan, Yu-Jie; Yao, Bao-Dong; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Liu, Yi-Nan; Zhang, Fen; Li, Wei-Xi; Wang, Na; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Jin-Ling; Zhao, Li-Yun; Li, Lun-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been suggested to increase the risk of cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of common cancers in Chinese patients with T2DM. Methods A population-based retrospective cohort study including 36,379 T2DM patients was conducted in Minhang District of Shanghai, China, during 2004 to 2010. All T2DM patients were enrolled from the standardized management system based on local electronic information system. Newly-diagnosed cancer ca...

  1. Screening for vulnerability in older cancer patients: the ONCODAGE Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Soubeyran

    Full Text Available Geriatric Assessment is an appropriate method for identifying older cancer patients at risk of life-threatening events during therapy. Yet, it is underused in practice, mainly because it is time- and resource-consuming. This study aims to identify the best screening tool to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment by comparing the performance of two short assessment tools the G8 and the Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13.The diagnostic accuracy of the G8 and the (VES-13 were evaluated in a prospective cohort study of 1674 cancer patients accrued before treatment in 23 health care facilities. 1435 were eligible and evaluable. Outcome measures were multidimensional geriatric assessment (MGA, sensitivity (primary, specificity, negative and positive predictive values and likelihood ratios of the G8 and VES-13, and predictive factors of 1-year survival rate.Patient median age was 78.2 years (70-98 with a majority of females (69.8%, various types of cancer including 53.9% breast, and 75.8% Performance Status 0-1. Impaired MGA, G8, and VES-13 were 80.2%, 68.4%, and 60.2%, respectively. Mean time to complete G8 or VES-13 was about five minutes. Reproducibility of the two questionnaires was good. G8 appeared more sensitive (76.5% versus 68.7%, P =  0.0046 whereas VES-13 was more specific (74.3% versus 64.4%, P<0.0001. Abnormal G8 score (HR = 2.72, advanced stage (HR = 3.30, male sex (HR = 2.69 and poor Performance Status (HR = 3.28 were independent prognostic factors of 1-year survival.With good sensitivity and independent prognostic value on 1-year survival, the G8 questionnaire is currently one of the best screening tools available to identify older cancer patients requiring geriatric assessment, and we believe it should be implemented broadly in daily practice. Continuous research efforts should be pursued to refine the selection process of older cancer patients before potentially life-threatening therapy.

  2. Risk factors for metachronous colorectal cancer following a primary colorectal cancer: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Harindra; Reece, Jeanette C; Buchanan, Daniel D; Rosty, Christophe; Dashti, S Ghazaleh; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Winship, Ingrid M; Macrae, Finlay A; Boussioutas, Alex; Giles, Graham G; Ahnen, Dennis J; Lowery, Jan; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John L; Parry, Susan; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-09-01

    Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) are at risk of developing a metachronous CRC. We examined the associations between personal, tumour-related and lifestyle risk factors, and risk of metachronous CRC. A total of 7,863 participants with incident colon or rectal cancer who were recruited in the USA, Canada and Australia to the Colon Cancer Family Registry during 1997-2012, except those identified as high-risk, for example, Lynch syndrome, were followed up approximately every 5 years. We estimated the risk of metachronous CRC, defined as the first new primary CRC following an interval of at least one year after the initial CRC diagnosis. Observation time started at the age at diagnosis of the initial CRC and ended at the age at diagnosis of the metachronous CRC, last contact or death whichever occurred earliest, or were censored at the age at diagnosis of any metachronous colorectal adenoma. Cox regression was used to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, 142 (1.81%) metachronous CRCs were diagnosed (mean age at diagnosis 59.8; incidence 2.7/1,000 person-years). An increased risk of metachronous CRC was associated with the presence of a synchronous CRC (HR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.30-5.72) and the location of cancer in the proximal colon at initial diagnosis (compared with distal colon or rectum, HR = 4.16; 95% CI: 2.80-6.18). The presence of a synchronous CRC and the location of the initial CRC might be useful for deciding the intensity of surveillance colonoscopy for individuals diagnosed with CRC. PMID:27098183

  3. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Ben D; Feller, Martin; Röösli, Martin; Ammann, Roland A; Diezi, Manuel; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2015-12-01

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia. PMID:26520639

  4. Sensitization of (colon) cancer cells to death receptor related therapies A report from the FP6-ONCODEATH research consortium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pintzas, A.; Zhivotovsky, B.; Workman, P.; Clarke, P.A.; Linardopoulos, S.; Martinou, J.C.; Lacal, J.C.; Robine, S.; Nasioulas, G.; Anděra, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2012), s. 458-466. ISSN 1538-4047 Grant ostatní: EK(XE) LSHC-CT-2006-037278 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cancer * death receptors * kinase inhibitors * mitochondria * targeted therapies Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.287, year: 2012

  5. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations ≥40 ng/ml Are Associated with >65% Lower Cancer Risk: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trial and Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L McDonnell

    Full Text Available Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations have been associated with a lower risk of multiple cancer types across a range of 25(OHD concentrations.To investigate whether the previously reported inverse association between 25(OHD and cancer risk could be replicated, and if a 25(OHD response region could be identified among women aged 55 years and older across a broad range of 25(OHD concentrations.Data from two cohorts representing different median 25(OHD concentrations were pooled to afford a broader range of 25(OHD concentrations than either cohort alone: the Lappe cohort (N = 1,169, a randomized clinical trial cohort (median 25(OHD = 30 ng/ml and the GrassrootsHealth cohort (N = 1,135, a prospective cohort (median 25(OHD = 48 ng/ml. Cancer incidence over a multi-year period (median: 3.9 years was compared according to 25(OHD concentration. Kaplan-Meier plots were developed and the association between 25(OHD and cancer risk was examined with multivariate Cox regression using multiple 25(OHD measurements and spline functions. The study included all invasive cancers excluding skin cancer.Age-adjusted cancer incidence across the combined cohort (N = 2,304 was 840 cases per 100,000 person-years (1,020 per 100,000 person-years in the Lappe cohort and 722 per 100,000 person-years in the GrassrootsHealth cohort. Incidence was lower at higher concentrations of 25(OHD. Women with 25(OHD concentrations ≥40 ng/ml had a 67% lower risk of cancer than women with concentrations <20 ng/ml (HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12-0.90.25(OHD concentrations ≥40 ng/ml were associated with substantial reduction in risk of all invasive cancers combined.

  6. Cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A population-based cohort study in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Andrea; Bidoli, Ettore; Zanier, Loris; Clagnan, Elena; Zanette, Giorgio; Gobbato, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo; Serraino, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an elevated risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess cancer risk and survival in individuals with type 2 DM (T2DM) in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. A retrospective population-based cohort study of 32,247 T2DM patients aged 40-84 years was conducted through a record linkage of local healthcare databases and cancer registry for the period 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) and 5-year survival probabilities after T2DM and cancer diagnosis were computed. The SIRs for all cancers (n=2069) was 1.28 (95%CI: 1.23-1.34). The highest SIRs were observed for cancers of the liver, female genital organs, small intestine, and pancreas. After 3 years from T2DM diagnosis, a reduced risk of prostate cancer (SIR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.54-0.96) was found in men aged 65-74 years, and a higher risk for breast cancer (SIR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.00-1.52) was found among T2DM female patients. The overall 5-year survival after T2DM was 88.7%. Furthermore, T2DM appeared to have a negative effect on survival of women with breast cancer. This population-based study confirmed that T2DM patients are at increased risk of several cancers, and of premature death in women with breast cancer. PMID:26851751

  7. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, T. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)], e-mail: tilo.niemann@usb.ch; Zbinden, I.; Bremerich, J.; Bongartz, G. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Roser, H. W. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Remy-Jardin, M. [Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE.

  8. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE

  9. Safety of bevacizumab in clinical practice for recurrent ovarian cancer: A retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELLE, FRÉDÉRIC; EMILE, GEORGE; PAUTIER, PATRICIA; ASMANE, IRÈNE; SOARES, DANIELE G.; KHALIL, AHMED; ALEXANDRE, JEROME; LHOMMÉ, CATHERINE; RAY-COQUARD, ISABELLE; LOTZ, JEAN-PIERRE; GOLDWASSER, FRANÇOIS; TAZI, YOUSSEF; HEUDEL, PIERRE; PUJADE-LAURAINE, ERIC; GOUY, SÉBASTIEN; TREDAN, OLIVIER; BARBAZA, MARIE O.; ADY-VAGO, NORA; DUBOT, CORALINE

    2016-01-01

    The poor outcome of patients with recurrent ovarian cancer constitutes a continuous challenge for decision-making in clinical practice. In this setting, molecular targets have recently been identified, and novel compounds are now available. Bevacizumab has been introduced for the treatment of patients with ovarian cancer and is, to date, the most extensively investigated targeted therapy in this setting. However, potential toxicities are associated with the use of this monoclonal antibody. These toxicities have been reported in clinical trials, and can also be observed outside of trials. As limited data is currently available regarding the safety of bevacizumab treatment in daily clinical practice, the current retrospective study was designed to evaluate this. Data from 156 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who had received bevacizumab treatment between January 2006 and June 2009 were retrospectively identified from the institutional records of five French centers. In contrast to clinical trials, the patients in the present study were not selected and had a heterogeneous profile according to their prior medical history, lines of treatment prior to bevacizumab introduction and number of relapses. The results first confirm the effect of heavy pretreatment on the occurrence of serious and fatal adverse events in clinical practice, as previously reported for clinical trials and for other retrospective cohort studies. Importantly, the data also demonstrates, for the first time, that medical history of hypertension is an independent predictive risk factor for the development of high-grade hypertension during bevacizumab treatment. These results thus suggest that treating physicians must consider all risk factors for managing bevacizumab toxicity prior to its introduction. Such risk factors include the time of bevacizumab introduction, a patient's history of hypertension and a low incidence of pre-existing obstructive disease. PMID:26998090

  10. Reproductive factors and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR- (n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR- tumors (≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] ptrend < 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; ≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] ptrend = 0.96 for ER-PR- tumors; Phet = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors were in the similar direction with risk of ER+PR+ tumors (phet = 0.50), although weaker in magnitude and statistically only borderline significant. Other parity related factors such as ever a full-term birth, number of births, age- and time since last birth were associated only with ER+PR+ malignancies, however no statistical heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes was observed. Breastfeeding and OC use were generally not associated with breast cancer subtype risk. Our study provides possible evidence that age at menarche, and time between menarche and first full-term childbirth may be associated with the etiology of both HR-negative and HR-positive malignancies, although the associations with HR-negative breast cancer were only borderline significant

  11. Genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes and breast cancer susceptibility: a pooled analysis of 42,510 cases and 40,577 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jieping; Rudolph, Anja; Moysich, Kirsten B; Behrens, Sabine; Goode, Ellen L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Wang, Qin; Benitez, Javier; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmé, Frederik; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Flyger, Henrik; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; González-Neira, Anna; Menéndez, Primitiva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Van Dijck, Laurien; Smeets, Ann; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Eilber, Ursula; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Winqvist, Robert; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Czene, Kamila; Brand, Judith S; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Pharoah, Paul D P; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Ambrosone, Christine B; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression plays a pivotal role in assisting tumors to evade immune destruction and promoting tumor development. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the immunosuppression pathway genes may be implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. We included 42,510 female breast cancer cases and 40,577 controls of European ancestry from 37 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (2015) with available genotype data for 3595 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 133 candidate genes. Associations between genotyped SNPs and overall breast cancer risk, and secondarily according to estrogen receptor (ER) status, were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Gene-level associations were assessed based on principal component analysis. Gene expression analyses were conducted using RNA sequencing level 3 data from The Cancer Genome Atlas for 989 breast tumor samples and 113 matched normal tissue samples. SNP rs1905339 (A>G) in the STAT3 region was associated with an increased breast cancer risk (per allele odds ratio 1.05, 95 % confidence interval 1.03-1.08; p value = 1.4 × 10(-6)). The association did not differ significantly by ER status. On the gene level, in addition to TGFBR2 and CCND1, IL5 and GM-CSF showed the strongest associations with overall breast cancer risk (p value = 1.0 × 10(-3) and 7.0 × 10(-3), respectively). Furthermore, STAT3 and IL5 but not GM-CSF were differentially expressed between breast tumor tissue and normal tissue (p value = 2.5 × 10(-3), 4.5 × 10(-4) and 0.63, respectively). Our data provide evidence that the immunosuppression pathway genes STAT3, IL5, and GM-CSF may be novel susceptibility loci for breast cancer in women of European ancestry. PMID:26621531

  12. Actividad laboral en una cohorte de pacientes con carcinoma de pulmón Employment in a cohort of lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Molina Villaverde

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La actividad laboral en el cáncer de pulmón es un aspecto psicosocial que ha recibido poca atención hasta el momento actual por distintos motivos, a pesar de considerarse una dimensión de la calidad de vida para todo paciente oncológico. Objetivos: Analizar la reinserción y adaptación al entorno laboral en una cohorte de pacientes con un carcinoma de pulmón para describir los factores que influyen en la vuelta al trabajo de estos enfermos. Pacientes y métodos: El estudio incluyó 35 pacientes consecutivos diagnosticados de un cáncer de pulmón y que estaban empleados en el momento del diagnóstico. El cuestionario incluyó aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos y laborales (32 variables en total que se relacionaron con la reincorporación al mundo laboral. También se incluyeron percepciones subjetivas de los enfermos respecto a este tema. Resultados: El 96,9% de los pacientes pasaron a inactivos tras comenzar el tratamiento de la enfermedad y un 85,7% lo seguían estando tras éste. La presencia de secuelas fue la variable con mayor influencia en la inactividad laboral. Conclusiones: Éste es el primer estudio exploratorio en nuestro país acerca de la reinserción laboral de los pacientes diagnosticados de un carcinoma de pulmón.Background: Cancer affects many dimensions determining quality of life, including work. However, the importance of work to cancer survivors has received little attention. Aim: Employment and work-related disability were investigated in a cohort of lung cancer patients to describe a possible discrimination and other work issues. Patients and Methods: The study included consecutively 35 lung cancer patients who were employed at diagnosis. The questionnaire included cancer-related symptoms and work-related factors. Clinical details were obtained from the medical record. Patients were interviewed face to face and 32 variables were recorded. Results: 96,9 per cent of patients were unable to work

  13. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia: A report from the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of 7 telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from a...

  14. Cancer incidence in type 2 diabetes patients - first results from a feasibility study of the D2C cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hense Hans-Werner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large prospective study in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, the German D2C cohort, is presently being enumerated to investigate risk factors of incident cancer in diabetic patients. Study setting A disease management program was offered, on a voluntary basis, to all T2D patients who were members of a statutory health insurance fund in Germany. This first feasibility report uses data from 26.742 T2D patients, who were 40 to 79 years old, resided in the Muenster District, and who were enrolled between June 2003 and July 2008. Cancer cases were identified through the regional Cancer Registry. Methods Invasive cancer cases were identified using probabilistic record linkage procedures and pseudonymised personal identifiers. Censoring date was December 31, 2008. We included only first cancers, leaving 12.650 male and 14.092 female T2D with a total of 88.778 person-years (py. We computed standardised incidence ratios (SIR for external comparisons and we employed Cox regression models and hazard ratios (HR within the cohort. Results We identified 759 first cancers among male T2D patients (18.7 per 1,000 py and 605 among females (12.7 per 1,000 py. The risk of any incident cancer in T2D was raised (SIR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [1.10 - 1.21], in particular for cancer of the liver (SIR = 1.94 [1.15 - 2.94] and pancreas (SIR = 1.45 [1.07-1.92]. SIRs decreased markedly with time after T2D diagnosis. In Cox models, adjusting for diabetes duration, body mass index and sex, insulin therapy was related to higher cancer risk (HR = 1.25 [1.17 - 1.33]. No effect was seen for metformin. Discussion Our study demonstrates feasibility of record linkage between DMP and cancer registries. These first cohort results confirm previous reports. It is envisaged to enhance this cohort by inclusion of further regions of the state, expansion of the follow-up times, and collection of a more detailed medication history.

  15. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8 oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08). This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02), although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09). Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community

  16. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma: a pooled analysis of 5,342 cases and 10,358 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelemen Linda E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations. Methods We pooled data from 12 case-control studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium comprising 5,342 OC cases, 1,455 borderline tumors and 10,358 controls with quantitative information on recent alcohol intake to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI according to frequencies of average daily intakes of beer, wine, liquor and total alcohol. Results Total alcohol intake was not associated with all OC: consumption of >3 drinks per day compared to none, OR=0.92, 95% CI=0.76-1.10, P trend=0.27. Among beverage types, a statistically non-significant decreased risk was observed among women who consumed >8 oz/d of wine compared to none (OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.68-1.01, P trend=0.08. This association was more apparent among women with clear cell OC (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.83; P trend=0.02, although based on only 10 cases and not statistically different from the other histologic types (P value for statistical heterogeneity between histologic types = 0.09. Statistical heterogeneity of the alcohol- and wine-OC associations was seen among three European studies, but not among eight North American studies. No statistically significant associations were observed in separate analyses evaluating risk with borderline tumors of serous or mucinous histology. Smoking status did not significantly modify any of the associations. Conclusions We found no evidence that recent moderate alcohol drinking is associated with increased risk for overall OC, or that variation in risk is associated strongly with specific histologic types. Understanding modifiable causes of these elusive and deadly cancers remains a priority for the research community.

  17. Prospective cohort study of general and central obesity, weight change trajectory and risk of major cancers among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    General obesity, typically measured using body mass index (BMI), has been associated with an increased risk of several cancers. However, few prospective studies have been conducted in Asian populations. Although central obesity, often measured using waist-hip ratio (WHR), is more predictive for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk than BMI, knowledge of its association with cancer incidence is limited. In a cohort of 68,253 eligible Chinese women, we prospectively investigated the association of BMI, WHR and weight change during adulthood with risk of overall cancer and major site-specific cancers using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Compared to the BMI group of 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2) , obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ) women were at an increased risk of developing overall cancer (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.52), postmenopausal breast cancer (HR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.73-3.40), endometrial cancer (HR: 5.34, 95% CI: 3.48-8.18), liver cancer (HR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.14-3.27) and epithelial ovarian cancer (HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.37-4.35). Weight gain during adulthood (per 5 kg gain) was associated with increased risk of all cancers combined (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.08), postmenopausal breast cancer (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.24) and endometrial cancer (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.27-1.48). On the other hand, WHR was not associated with cancer risk after adjustment for baseline BMI. These findings suggest that obesity may be associated with cancer risk through different mechanisms from those for type 2 diabetes and CVD and support measures of maintaining health body weight to reduce cancer risk in Chinese women. PMID:27177094

  18. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teras, Lauren R; Diver, W Ryan; Turner, Michelle C; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148Bq/m(3)) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74Bq/m(3)) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23-2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HRcontinuous=1.38, 95% CI:1.15-1.65 per 100Bq/m(3); p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27015563

  19. Comparison of breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns in a common cohort of South Asian women in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumber Anil K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequalities in uptake of cancer screening by ethnic minority populations are well documented in a number of international studies. However, most studies to date have explored screening uptake for a single cancer only. This paper compares breast and bowel cancer screening uptake for a cohort of South Asian women invited to undertake both, and similarly investigates these women's breast cancer screening behaviour over a period of fifteen years. Methods Screening data for rounds 1, 2 and 5 (1989-2004 of the NHS breast cancer screening programme and for round 1 of the NHS bowel screening pilot (2000-2002 were obtained for women aged 50-69 resident in the English bowel screening pilot site, Coventry and Warwickshire, who had been invited to undertake breast and bowel cancer screening in the period 2000-2002. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake levels were calculated and compared using the chi-squared test. Results 72,566 women were invited to breast and bowel cancer screening after exclusions. Of these, 3,539 were South Asian and 69,027 non-Asian; 18,730 had been invited to mammography over the previous fifteen years (rounds 1 to 5. South Asian women were significantly less likely to undertake both breast and bowel cancer screening; 29.9% (n = 1,057 compared to 59.4% (n = 40,969 for non-Asians (p Conclusions Culturally appropriate targeted interventions are required to reduce observed disparities in cancer screening uptakes.

  20. A national cohort study of long-course preoperative radiotherapy in primary fixed rectal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, S; Jensen, L H; Altaf, R; Harling, H; Jensen, M; Laurberg, S; Lindegaard, J C; Muhic, A; Weber Vestermark, Lene

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Preoperative radiotherapy has been shown to enable a fixed rectal cancer to become resectable which in turn may result in long-time survival. In this study, we analysed the outcome of long-course preoperative radiotherapy in fixed rectal cancer in a national cohort including all Danish......-course radiotherapy in a large unselected patient group with clinically fixed rectal cancer. Most patients could be resected with the intention of cure and one in three was alive after 5 years.......OBJECTIVE: Preoperative radiotherapy has been shown to enable a fixed rectal cancer to become resectable which in turn may result in long-time survival. In this study, we analysed the outcome of long-course preoperative radiotherapy in fixed rectal cancer in a national cohort including all Danish...... patients registered with primary inoperable rectal cancer and treated in the period May 2001 to December 2005. METHOD: The study was based on surgical and demographic data from a continuously updated and validated national database. In addition, retrospective data were retrieved from all departments of...

  1. A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46 450 cases and 42 461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Roger L.; Herranz, Jesús; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias-Perez, José Ignacio; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Wang, Qin; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Czene, Kamila; Eriksson, Mikael; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Clarke, Christina A.; Hopper, John L.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Sanchez, Marie; Mulot, Claire; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Cox, Angela; Brock, Ian W.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Soucy, Penny; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Fasching, Peter A.; Häberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Mariani, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federik; Burwinkel, Barbara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Lambrechts, Diether; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Kristensen, Vessela; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; García-Closas, Montserrat; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Couch, Fergus J.; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Hall, Per; Benítez, Javier; Malats, Núria; Easton, Douglas F.

    2014-01-01

    Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70 917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P 10−10). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome. PMID:24242184

  2. Metformin effect on a cohort of non-diabetic patients with early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanambar Sadighi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metformin has been suggested as anti-cancer in retrospective studies. We design a prospective controlled study about metformin efficacy in the window time between biopsy and definite surgery with changes of Ki-67 as the primary endpoint. Methods: The primary cohort had composed of 50 pathologically diagnosed invasive breast cancers, accrued in Medical Oncology Department of Iran Cancer Institute from February to November 2014. Patients neither had indication of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, nor involved with diabetes mellitus. They followed during the time period of biopsy and definitive surgery with taking tests on pathology specimens for ER, PgR, HER-2/neu and Ki-67 index. We checked fasting insulin and glucose level as well as quality of life and adverse effects in both times in the intervention group. Metformin (1500 mg/day was prescribed to intervention group from pathology report to the night before surgery. Results: From 45 patients, 25 had been received metformin for median time of 2.8 weeks. Controlled group included 20 patients who followed in the window time. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups regarding baseline clinical and tumor characteristics such as age, stage, grade, ER, PgR, HER2 status, time and type of surgery. However, immunohistochemistry study showed decrease of median Ki-67 from 35.14 to 29.6% in the intervention group and increase from 24.5 to 30.6 in the control group. Both of these results were statistically significant. Patients tolerated metformin very well, but mild gastrointestinal symptoms were seen in 30% of cases. There was a correlation between metabolic factor of HOMA score (fasting insulin level fasting blood sugar/405 and changes in Ki-67. Conclusion: In the present study metformin prescription in the short period of time between Biopsy and definite surgery had shown inhibition of breast cancer cell growth. We found relationship between metformin anti

  3. General practitioner characteristics and delay in cancer diagnosis. a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedsted Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in cancer diagnosis may have serious prognostic consequences, and some patients experience delays lasting several months. However, we have no knowledge whether such delays are associated with general practitioner (GP characteristics. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether GP and practice characteristics are associated with the length of delay in cancer diagnosis. Methods The study was designed as a population-based cohort study. The setting was the County of Aarhus, Denmark (640,000 inhabitants. Participants include 334 GPs and their 1,525 consecutive, newly diagnosed cancer patients. During one year (September 2004 to August 2005, patients with incident cancer were enrolled from administrative registries. GPs completed questionnaires on the patients' diagnostic pathways and on GP and practice characteristics. Delay was categorised as patient-related (more than 60 days, doctor-related (more than 30 days and system-related (more than 90 days. The associations between delay and characteristics were assessed in a logistic regression model using odds ratios (ORs. Results No GP characteristics (seniority, practice organization, list size, participation in continuing medical education, job satisfaction and level of burnout were associated with doctor delay. Patients of female GPs more often had a short patient delay than patients of male GPs (OR 0.44, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 0.28 to 0.71. Patients whose GPs provided many services (OR 0.66, 95%CI 0.44 to 0.95 and patients attending GPs with little former knowledge of their patients (OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.47 to 0.99 more often experienced a short system delay than patients attending GPs with less activity and more knowledge of their patients. Patients listed with a female GP more often experienced a long system delay than patients of male GPs (OR 1.50, 95%CI 1.02 to 2.21. Finally, patients with low GP-reported compliance more often experienced a long system delay

  4. Study protocol of KLIMOP: a cohort study on the wellbeing of older cancer patients in Belgium and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verniest Thessa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is mainly a disease of older patients. In older cancer patients, additional endpoints such as quality of survival and daily functioning might be considered equally relevant as overall or disease free survival. However, these factors have been understudied using prospective designs focussing on older cancer patients. Therefore, this study will focus on the impact of cancer, ageing, and their interaction on the long-term wellbeing of older cancer patients. Methods/Design This study is an observational cohort study. We aim to recruit 720 cancer patients above 70 years with a new diagnosis of breast, prostate, lung or gastrointestinal cancer and two control groups: one control group of 720 patients above 70 years without a previous diagnosis of cancer and one control group of 720 cancer patients between 50 - 69 years newly diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung or gastrointestinal cancer. Data collection will take place at inclusion, after six months, after one year and every subsequent year until death or end of the study. Data will be collected through personal interviews (consisting of socio-demographic information, general health information, a comprehensive geriatric assessment, quality of life, health locus of control and a loneliness scale, a handgrip test, assessment of medical records, two buccal swabs and a blood sample from cancer patients (at baseline. As an annex study, caregivers of the participants will be recruited as well. Data collection for caregivers will consist of a self-administered questionnaire examining depression, coping, and burden. Discussion This extensive data collection will increase insight on how wellbeing of older cancer patients is affected by cancer (diagnosis and treatment, ageing, and their interaction. Results may provide new insights, which might contribute to the improvement of care for older cancer patients.

  5. Baseline serum C-reactive protein and death from colorectal cancer in the NHANES III cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swede, Helen; Hajduk, Alexandra M; Sharma, Jyoti; Rawal, Shristi; Rasool, Homaira; Vella, Anthony T; Tobet, Rebecca E; Stevens, Richard G

    2014-04-15

    Several prospective studies suggest that C-reactive protein (CRP), a nonspecific serologic marker of inflammation, might be linked to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), whereas others have reported null or protective effects. We analyzed data from 7,072 participants (50-85 years) in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994), a nationally representative cohort (n = 33,994; 2 months-85 years) with vital status follow-up to 2000. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality associated with baseline clinically raised (≥1.00 mg/dL) and intermediate (≥0.22-0.99 mg/dL) CRP levels were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression controlling for CRC risk factors. There were 59 deaths from CRC, 106 from other obesity-related cancers (other-ORCs) and 1,130 from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Participants with clinically raised CRP at baseline were found to have a statistically significant greater risk of CRC death (HRs = 2.36-2.47) in comparison to persons with undetected levels. HRs were lower for death from other-ORC and CVD (1.82, 95% CI 1.05-3.15; 1.53, 95% CI 1.29-1.81, respectively). Intermediate CRP level was associated with a nonsignificant 10-21% increased risk for CRC death. HR for CRC death was higher among persons with a normal BMI (2.16, 95% 0.96-4.87, p = 0.06) compared to those who were overweight (1.22, 95% CI 0.53-2.78) or obese (1.23, 95% CI, 0.37-4.08). A similar pattern was observed for waist circumference. This effect modification suggests that the impact of chronic inflammation may be independent of excess body fat. Future research is recommended to confirm emerging data that elevated serologic CRP might reflect underlying colonic inflammation. PMID:24122448

  6. Mismatch repair status and synchronous metastases in colorectal cancer: A nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Morton, Dion; Harling, Henrik

    2015-11-01

    The causality between the metastatic potential, mismatch repair status (MMR) and survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) is complex. This study aimed to investigate the impact of MMR in CRC on the occurrence of synchronous metastases (SCCM) and survival in patients with SCCM on a national basis. A nationwide cohort study of 6,692 patients diagnosed with CRC between 2010 and 2012 was conducted. Data were prospectively entered into the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database and merged with data from the Danish Pathology Registry and the National Patient Registry. Multivariable and multinomial logistic- and Cox-regression and proportional excess hazards analyses were used for confounder adjustment and to adjust for the general population mortality. In total, 983 of 6,692 patients (14.7%) had dMMR and 935 (14.0%) had SCCM. dMMR was associated with a decreased risk of SCCM, adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 0.54 (95% confidence interval (CI):0.40-0.70, p Hazard Ratio (aHR) = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.54-1.06, p = 0.101; Proportional excess hazards: aHR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.07, p = 0.111) when adjusting for other prognostic factors. The metastatic pattern varied according to MMR status. MMR had no impact on survival in patients with UICC Stage IV CRC. These findings may be important for the understanding of the metastatic processes and thus for optimizing staging and treatment in CRC patients. PMID:25921209

  7. Weekday of oesophageal cancer surgery in relation to early postoperative outcomes in a nationwide Swedish cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Lagergren, Jesper; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives:Later weekday of surgery for oesophageal cancer seems to increase 5-year mortality, but the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesised that early postoperative reoperations and mortality might explain this association, since reoperation after oesophagectomy decreases long-term prognosis, and later weekday of elective surgery increases 30-day mortality.Design:This was a population-based cohort study during the study period 1987–2014.Setting:All Swedish hospitals conducting elective sur...

  8. Reproductive factors and risk of mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Kadi, Mai; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fortner, Renée T.; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive events are associated with important physiologic changes, yet little is known about how reproductive factors influence long-term health in women. Our objective was to assess the relation of reproductive characteristics with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Methods: The analysis was performed within the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective cohort study, which enrolled >500,000 women and men from 1992 to 2000, who were residing in a g...

  9. Skipping Breakfast and Risk of Mortality from Cancer, Circulatory Diseases and All Causes: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Yae; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Amano, Hiroki; Otani, Shinji; KUROZAWA, Youichi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Breakfast eating habits are a dietary pattern marker and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Many studies have reported the unhealthy effects of skipping breakfast. However, there are few studies on the association between skipping breakfast and mortality. In the present study, we examined the association between skipping breakfast and mortality from cancer, circulatory diseases and all causes using data from a large-scale cohort study, the Japan Collaborative C...

  10. Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankner, Rachel; Boffetta, Paolo; Balicer, Ran D; Boker, Lital Keinan; Sadeh, Maya; Berlin, Alla; Olmer, Liraz; Goldfracht, Margalit; Freedman, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21-89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence using Cox regression separately for participants with prevalent and incident diabetes; the latter was further divided by time since diabetes diagnosis. Of the 2,186,196 individuals included in the analysis, 159,104 were classified as having prevalent diabetes, 408,243 as having incident diabetes, and 1,618,849 as free of diabetes. In both men and women, diabetes posed an increased risk of cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, endometrium, stomach, kidney, brain (benign), brain (malignant), colon/rectum, lung (all, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), ovary, and bladder, as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. No excess risk was observed for breast cancer in premenopausal women or for thyroid cancer. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratios for all-site and site-specific cancers were particularly elevated during the first year following diabetes diagnosis. The findings of this large study with a time-dependent approach are consistent with those of previous studies that have observed associations between diabetes and cancer incidence. PMID:27257115

  11. Racial/Ethnic Patterns in Prostate Cancer Outcomes in an Active Surveillance Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cullen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Concern regarding overtreatment of prostate cancer (CaP is leading to increased attention on active surveillance (AS. This study examined CaP survivors on AS and compared secondary treatment patterns and overall survival by race/ethnicity. Methods. The study population consisted of CaP patients self-classified as black or white followed on AS in the Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR multicenter national database between 1989 and 2008. Secondary treatment included radical prostatectomy (RP, external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy (EBRT-Br, and hormone therapy (HT. Secondary treatment patterns and overall survival were compared by race/ethnicity. Results. Among 886 eligible patients, 21% were black. Despite racial differences in risk characteristics and secondary treatment patterns, overall survival was comparable across race. RP following AS was associated with the longest overall survival. Conclusion. Racial disparity in overall survival was not observed in this military health care beneficiary cohort with an equal access to health care.

  12. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: Pooled analysis from a multi-institutional consortium of prospective phase II trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The effectiveness of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for localized prostate cancer is tested. Methods and materials: A total of 1100 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were enrolled in separate prospective phase 2 clinical trials of SBRT from 8 institutions during 2003–11 and pooled for analysis. SBRT using the CyberKnife delivered a median dose of 36.25 Gy in 4–5 fractions. Patients were low-risk (58%), intermediate-risk (30%) and high-risk (11%). A short-course of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was given to 14%. PSA relapse defined as a rise >2 ng/ml above nadir was analyzed with the Kaplan Meier method. Results: With a median follow-up of 36 months there were 49 patients with PSA failure (4.5%), 9 of whom were subsequently determined to be benign PSA bounces. The 5-year biochemical relapse free survival (bRFS) rate was 93% for all patients; 95%, 83% and 78% for GS ⩽6, 7 and ⩾8, respectively (p = 0.001), and 95%, 84% and 81% for low-, intermediate- and high-risk patients, respectively (p 0.2 ng/ml was noted among 16% of patients. For 135 patients possessing a minimum of 5 years follow-up, the 5-year bRFS rate for low- and intermediate-risk patients was 99% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: PSA relapse-free survival rates after SBRT compare favorably with other definitive treatments for low and intermediate risk patients. The current evidence supports consideration of SBRT among the therapeutic options for these patients

  13. Pioglitazone and risk of bladder cancer among diabetic patients in France: a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, A.; Weill, A.; Ricordeau, P.; Fagot, J. P.; Alla, F.; Allemand, H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Previous studies have suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with pioglitazone exposure. We aimed to investigate the association between pioglitazone exposure and bladder cancer in France. Methods This cohort study involved use of data from the French national health insurance information system (Système National d'Information Inter-régimes de l'Assurance Maladie; SNIIRAM) linked with the French hospital discharge database (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Inf...

  14. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of colorectal cancer: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Poulsen, Aslak H; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    2009-01-01

    The optimal duration and dose of aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the potential prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been established. We examined this issue in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Self-reported NSAID use at entry (January...... 1995-May 1997) was updated through June 2006, using a nationwide prescription database. CRC incidence was ascertained from nationwide registers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). From 51,053 cohort...

  15. Fish intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 15 case-control and cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-yue Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies have shown that fish consumption may modify the risk of ovarian cancer. However, these studies yielded controversial results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between fish intake and ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central database for all relevant studies up to August 2013. We pooled the relative risks (RR from individual studies using fixed-effect or random-effect model, and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. RESULTS: A total of 15 (ten case-control, and five cohort studies were included in the present meta-analysis, representing data for 889,033 female subjects and 6,087 ovarian cancer cases. We found that total fish intake was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 1.04 95% CI [0.89, 1.22] as well as case-control studies (RR = 0.90, 95% CI [0.73,1.12]. There was no evidence of publication bias as suggested by Begg's test (P = 0.55 and Egger's test(P = 0.29. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis showed that total fish consumption was not significantly associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Further analysis on different fish species and food preparation methods should be conducted in future studies.

  16. Non-participation in breast cancer screening for persons with chronic diseases and multimorbidity: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases and multimorbidity are common in western countries and associated with increased breast cancer mortality. This study aims to investigate non-participation in breast cancer screening among women with chronic diseases and multimorbidity and the role of time in this...... association. Method This population-based cohort study used regional and national registries. Women who were invited to the first breast cancer screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09 were included (n = 149,234). Selected chronic diseases and multimorbidity were assessed up to 10 years before...... the screening date. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used as an association measure. Results The results indicated that women with at least one chronic condition were significantly more likely not to participate in breast cancer screening. In adjusted analysis, a significantly higher likelihood of non...

  17. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked with...... = 38.6 years), 171 women and 64 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Both height and BMI were positively associated with thyroid cancer risk, and these associations were similar by age at measurement. Using age 10 as an example, HRs per 1 unit increase in SDS for height (~6-7 cm) and BMI (~1.5-2 kg...

  18. The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Lung Cancer Prognosis: A PRISMA-compliant Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Tiehong; Shen, Hongchang; Dong, Wei; Wang, Liguang; Du, Jiajun

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) was associated with risk and mortality of cancer, but studies investigating the correlation between DM and lung cancer prognosis remain controversial. Herein, a meta-analysis was performed to derive a more precise estimate of the prognostic role of DM in lung cancer.Medline and Embase were searched for eligible articles from inception to October 25, 2015. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated to evaluate the correlation between DM and lung cancer prognosis. Subgroup meta-analysis was performed based on the histology and the treatment methods.A total of 20 cohort studies from 12 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Also, 16 studies investigated the overall survival (OS) and 4 studies investigated the progression-free survival (PFS). DM was significantly associated with the inferior OS of lung cancer with the pooled HR 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10-1.49, P = 0.001). The association was prominent in the nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subgroup (HR 1.35, 95%CI: 1.14-1.60, P = 0.002), whereas the association was not significant in the small cell lung cancer (SCLC) subgroup (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 0.87-2.03, P = 0.18). When NSCLC patients were further stratified by treatment methods, DM had more influence on the surgically treated subgroup than the nonsurgically treated subgroup. There was no obvious evidence for publication bias by Begg's and Egger's test.The results of this meta-analysis exhibit an association of DM with inferior prognosis amongst lung cancer patients, especially the surgically treated NSCLC patients. Given the small number of studies included in this meta-analysis, the present conclusion should be consolidated with more high-quality prospective cohort studies or randomized controlled trials. PMID:27124062

  19. Progesterone receptor variation and risk of ovarian cancer is limited to the invasive endometrioid subtype: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C.L.; Wu, A.H.; Gayther, S.A.;

    2008-01-01

    included in this analysis. Unconditional logistic regression was used to model the association between each SNP and ovarian cancer risk and two-sided P-values are reported. Overall, risk of ovarian cancer was not associated with any of the three variants studied. However, in histopathological subtype...

  20. Diabetes, glucose control, glucose lowering medications, and cancer risk: A 10-year population-based historical cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dankner Rachel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both diabetes and glucose-lowering medications have been associated with an increased risk of cancer incidence. This study will compare cancer incidence rates in individuals with and without diabetes; and will investigate, in individuals with diabetes, an association between glucose control and cancer incidence; and between the use of specific glucose-lowering medications, as well as no drug exposure, and cancer incidence. Methods/design This is a population based historical cohort study of all individuals aged 21 years or older (about 2,300,000 who were insured by Clalit Health Services, the largest health maintenance organization in Israel during a ten-year study period. Four study groups will be established according to the status of diabetes and cancer at study entry, Jan 1, 2002: cancer free, diabetes free; cancer free, diabetes prevalent; cancer prevalent, diabetes free; and cancer prevalent, diabetes prevalent. Individuals without diabetes at study entry will be followed for diabetes incidence, and all four groups will be followed for specific cancer incidence, including second primary neoplasms. Glucose control will be assessed by HbA1c and by fasting plasma glucose levels. Time dependent regression models for cancer incidence will account for glucose-lowering medications as they are added and changed over the follow-up period. A large number of demographic and clinical variables will be considered, including: age, gender, BMI, smoking status, concomitant medications, glucose control (assessed by HbA1c and by fasting plasma glucose and cancer screening tests. Discussion Strengths of this study include the large population; high quality comprehensive data; comparison to individuals without diabetes, and to those with diabetes but not treated with glucose-lowering medications; and the extensive range of variables available for analysis. The great increases in diabetes prevalence and in treatment options render this

  1. Imputation of the rare HOXB13 G84E mutation and cancer risk in a large population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach to characterizing the disease burden of rare genetic variants is to impute them into large well-phenotyped cohorts with existing genome-wide genotype data using large sequenced referenced panels. The success of this approach hinges on the accuracy of rare variant imputation, which remains controversial. For example, a recent study suggested that one cannot adequately impute the HOXB13 G84E mutation associated with prostate cancer risk (carrier frequency of 0.0034 in European ancestry participants in the 1000 Genomes Project. We show that by utilizing the 1000 Genomes Project data plus an enriched reference panel of mutation carriers we were able to accurately impute the G84E mutation into a large cohort of 83,285 non-Hispanic White participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort. Imputation authenticity was confirmed via a novel classification and regression tree method, and then empirically validated analyzing a subset of these subjects plus an additional 1,789 men from Kaiser specifically genotyped for the G84E mutation (r2 = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.77. We then show the value of this approach by using the imputed data to investigate the impact of the G84E mutation on age-specific prostate cancer risk and on risk of fourteen other cancers in the cohort. The age-specific risk of prostate cancer among G84E mutation carriers was higher than among non-carriers. Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves were 36.7% versus 13.6% by age 72, and 64.2% versus 24.2% by age 80, for G84E mutation carriers and non-carriers, respectively (p = 3.4x10-12. The G84E mutation was also associated with an increase in risk for the fourteen other most common cancers considered collectively (p = 5.8x10-4 and more so in cases diagnosed with multiple cancer types, both those including and not including prostate cancer, strongly suggesting

  2. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Pasaniuc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.

  3. Evaluation of chemotherapy response with serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen level in cervical cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Yin

    Full Text Available MRI does not always reflect tumor response after chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to explore additional parameters to more accurately evaluate tumor response for the subsequent clinical determination about radiotherapy or radical surgery. A training cohort and an external validation cohort were used to examine the predictive performance of SCC-ag to evaluate tumor response from teaching hospital of Harbin Medical University. The study included 397 women with SCC (age: 28-73 years. Patients consecutively enrolled between August 2008 and January 2010 (n = 205 were used as training cohort. Patients consecutively enrolled between February 2010 and May 2011 (n = 192 were used as validation cohort. A multivariate regression analysis of the data from the training cohort indicated that serum SCC-ag level is an independent factor for neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT response. Analysis of the data from the validation cohort suggested that chemotherapy response could be more accurately predicted by SCC-ag than by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI (sensitivity (Se: 0.944 vs. 0.794; specificity (Sp: 0.727 vs. 0.636; positive predictive value (PPV: 0.869 vs. 0.806; negative predictive value (NPV: 0.873 vs. 0.618; the area under ROC curve (AUC: 0.898 vs. 0.734. Combining SCC-ag with MRI was more powerful than MRI alone (Se: 0.952 vs. 0.794; Sp: 0.833 vs. 0.636; PPV: 0.916 vs. 0.806; NPV: 0.902 vs. 0.618; AUC: 0.950 vs. 0.734. Our study indicates that serum SCC-ag level is a sensitive and reliable measure to evaluate cervical cancer response to chemotherapy. Using SCC-ag in combination with MRI findings further improves the predictive power.

  4. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status:a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Rank Fritz; Jørgensen Torben; Høyer Annette P; Grandjean Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. Methods The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78). The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort...

  5. Socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer incidence and survival among parous women: findings from a population-based cohort, 1964–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Mandy; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Paltiel, Ora; Abu Ahmad, Wiessam; Friedlander, Yechiel; Harlap, Susan; Manor, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic position (SEP) has been associated with breast cancer incidence and survival. We examined the associations between two socioeconomic indicators and long-term breast cancer incidence and survival in a population-based cohort of parous women. Methods Residents of Jerusalem who gave birth between 1964–1976 (n = 40,586) were linked to the Israel Cancer Registry and Israel Population Registry to determine breast cancer incidence and vital status through mid-2008. SEP was a...

  6. LINE1 methylation levels associated with increased bladder cancer risk in pre-diagnostic blood DNA among US (PLCO) and European (ATBC) cohort study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Karami, Sara; Ruth M Pfeiffer; Hurwitz, Lauren; Liao, Linda M; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2013-01-01

    Global methylation in blood DNA has been associated with bladder cancer risk in case-control studies, but has not been examined prospectively. We examined the association between LINE1 total percent 5-methylcytosine and bladder cancer risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (299 cases/676 controls), and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) cohort of Finnish male smokers (391 cas...

  7. Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and incidence of breast cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the association between residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and breast cancer incidence among members of the California Teachers Study cohort, a large study of professional school employees with extensive information on breast cancer risk factors, followed for cancer incidence since 1995. We identified 1552 invasive breast cancer cases, diagnosed between 1996 and 1999, among 114,835 cohort members. We used California Pesticide Use Reporting data to select pesticides for analysis based on use volume, carcinogenic potential, and exposure potential; a Geographic Information System was used to estimate pesticide applications within a half-mile radius of subjects' residences. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard rate ratios (HR) for selected pesticides, adjusting for age, race, and socioeconomic status. We saw no association between residential proximity to recent agricultural pesticide use and invasive breast cancer incidence. HR estimates for the highest compared to the lowest exposure categories for groups of agents were as follows: probable or likely carcinogens (1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.32), possible or suggestive carcinogens (1.06, 95% CI: 0.87-1.29), mammary carcinogens (1.15, 95% CI: 0.90-1.48), and endocrine disruptors (1.03, 95% CI: 0.86-1.25). HR estimates for other groups and individual pesticides did not differ from unity, nor was there a trend for any groupings of or individual pesticides examined. Stratifying by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer did not substantially affect our results. Our analyses suggest that breast cancer incidence is not elevated in areas of recent, high agricultural pesticide use in California

  8. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA and lung cancer: a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Cawthon, Richard M; Purdue, Mark P; Hu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Yi; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Ji, Bu-Tian; Virtamo, Jarmo; Hosgood, H Dean; Bassig, Bryan A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Min, Shen; Chow, Wong-Ho; Berndt, Sonja I; Kim, Christopher; Lim, Unhee; Albanes, Demetrius; Caporaso, Neil E; Chanock, Stephen; Zheng, Wei; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between telomere length and lung cancer in a pooled analysis from three prospective cohort studies: the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, conducted among men and women in the United States, and previously published data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Trial conducted among male smokers in Finland, and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), which is comprised primarily of never-smokers. The pooled population included 847 cases and 847 controls matched by study, age, and sex. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by a monochrome multiplex qPCR assay. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between telomere length and lung cancer risk, adjusted for age and pack-years of smoking. Longer telomere length was associated with increased lung cancer risk in the pooled analysis [OR (95% CI) by quartile: 1.00; 1.24 (0.90-1.71); 1.27 (0.91-1.78); and 1.86 (1.33-2.62); P trend = 0.000022]. Findings were consistent across the three cohorts and strongest for subjects with very long telomere length, i.e., lung cancer risks for telomere length [OR (95% CI)] in the upper half of the fourth quartile were 2.41 (1.28-4.52), 2.16 (1.11-4.23), and 3.02(1.39-6.58) for the PLCO trial, the ATBC trial, and the SWHS, respectively. In addition, the association persisted among cases diagnosed more than 6 years after blood collection and was particularly evident for female adenocarcinoma cases. Telomere length in white blood cell DNA may be a biomarker of future increased risk of lung cancer in diverse populations. PMID:24853549

  9. Surgical Management of the Primary Tumor in Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: A Confirmatory Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shahid; Leis, Anne; Chandra-Kanthan, Selliah; Fields, Anthony; Reeder, Bruce; Iqbal, Nayyer; Haider, Kamal; Le, Duc; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who undergo surgical resection of the primary tumor (SRPT) have better survival. Yet the results are not confirmed in the setting of a randomized controlled trial. Lack of randomization and failure to control prognostic variables such as performance status are major critiques to the findings of the observational studies. We previously have shown that SRPT, independent of chemotherapy and performance status, improves survival of stage IV CRC patients. The current study aims to validate our findings in patients with stage IV CRC who were diagnosed during the period of modern chemotherapy. Methods: A cohort of 569 patients with stage IV CRC diagnosed during 2006-2010 in the province of Saskatchewan was evaluated. Cox regression model was used for the adjustment of prognostic variables. Results: Median age was 69 years (59-95) and M: F was 1.4:1. Fifty-seven percent received chemotherapy, 91.4% received FOLFIRI or FOLFOX & 67% received a biologic agent. Median overall survival (OS) of patients who underwent SRPT and received chemotherapy was 27 months compared with 14 months of the non-resection group (p<0.0001). Median OS of patients who received all active agents and had SRPT was 39 months (95%CI: 25.1-52.9). On multivariate analysis, SRPT, hazard ratio (HR):0.44 (95%CI: 0.35-0.56), use of chemotherapy, HR: 0.33 (95%CI: 0.26-0.43), metastasectomy, HR: 0.43 (95%CI: 0.31-0.58), second line therapy, HR: 0.50 (95%CI: 0.35-0.70), and third line therapy, HR: 0.58 (95%CI: 0.41-0.83) were correlated with superior survival. Conclusions: This study confirms our findings and supports a favorable association between SRPT and survival in patients with stage IV CRC who are treated with modern therapy. PMID:27162543

  10. ABO blood types and cancer risk—A cohort study of 339,432 subjects in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Chi-Pang; Lin, Jie; Wen, Christopher; Pu, Xia; Huang, Maosheng; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The associations of laboratory-based ABO phenotypes with cancer risks and mortality have not been systematically determined. Methods The study subjects were 339,432 healthy individuals with laboratory-based blood types from a Taiwan cohort. Results Compared to blood type O, blood type A was significantly associated with an elevated risk of stomach cancer incidence (Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.38 [95% CI, 1.11–1.72]) and mortality (HR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.02–1.86]) compared with blood type O, after adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and body mass index. Non-O blood types were associated with an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, with blood type B reaching statistical significance for incidence (HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.02–2.48]) and mortality (HR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.02–2.60]). In contrast, kidney cancer risk was inversely associated with blood type AB (HR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.18–0.93]) compared to type O. Conclusion Cancer risks vary in people with different ABO blood types, with elevated risks of stomach cancer associated with blood type A and pancreatic cancer associated with non-O blood types (A, B, and AB). PMID:25600007

  11. Nulliparity enhances the risk of second primary malignancy of the breast in a cohort of women treated for thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milazzo Francesca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported an increased risk of developing a second primary malignancy (SPM of the breast in women treated for thyroid cancer. In this study, we investigated several potential risk factors for this association. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify a subgroup of women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer that may benefit from more careful breast cancer screening. Methods A total of 101 women surgically treated for papillary thyroid cancer from 1996 to 2009 with subsequent follow-up were interviewed by phone regarding personal risk factors and lifestyle habits. Only 75 questionnaires could be evaluated due to a 25.7% rate of patients not retrieved or refusing the interview. Data analysis was performed using a multivariate logistic model. Results The standardised incidence ratio (SIR for breast cancer was 3.58 (95% IC 1.14 - 8.37. Our data suggest a protective effect of multiparity on the development of a SPM of the breast (O.R. 0.15; 95% IC 0.25 - 0.86. Significant associations were not found with other known risk factors including Body Mass Index (BMI, age at first tumour, concurrent metabolic diseases, smoking, physical activity and familiarity. Conclusions This study confirms that a higher incidence of SPM of the breast is observed in women treated for papillary thyroid cancer. Additionally, this risk is increased by nulliparity, thus a strict breast screening program for nulliparous women treated for thyroid cancer may be advisable.

  12. Cohort studies on cancer mortality among nuclear workers exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for low-dose ionising radiation exposure. Published papers referring to 20 low-dose ionising radiation-exposed cohorts among nuclear industry workers with Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) were recta-analyzed in fixed and random effect models. The significantly deficient Meta-SMRs for all deaths (0.73; 95% CI: 0.66-0.80), all cancers (0.83; 95% CI: 0.77- 0.91), lung cancer (0.93; 95% CI: 0.90-0.95), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.88; 95% CI: 0.78- 0.99), esophagus cancer (0.83; 95% CI:0.76-0.91), colorectal cancer (0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.94), stomach cancer (0.81; 95% CI: 0.76-0.86) were observed. The Meta-SMRs for leukemia, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's disease were found to be no significant difference with normal populations. There was no excessive risk of cancers among nuclear workers exposed to low-doses and low-dose rates ionizing radiation. (authors)

  13. Primary cervical cancer screening with an HPV mRNA test: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fismen, Silje; Gutteberg, Tore Jarl; Mortensen, Elin Synnøve; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the performance of a 5-type human papillomavirus (HPV) messenger RNA (mRNA) test in primary screening within the framework of the Norwegian population-based screening programme. Design Nationwide register-based cohort study. Setting In 2003–2004, general practitioners and gynaecologists recruited 18 852 women for participation in a primary screening study with a 5-type HPV mRNA test. Participants After excluding women with a history of abnormal smears and with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2+) before or until 3 months after screening, 11 220 women aged 25–69 years were eligible for study participation. The Norwegian Cancer Registry completed follow-up of CIN2+ through 31 December 2009. Interventions Follow-up according to the algorithm for cytology outcomes in the population-based Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme. Main outcome measures We estimated cumulative incidence of CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) 72 months after the 5-type HPV mRNA test. Results 3.6% of the women were HPV mRNA-positive at baseline. The overall cumulative rate of CIN3+ was 1.3% (95% CI 1.1% to 1.5%) through 72 months of follow-up, 2.3% for women aged 25–33 years (n=3277) and 0.9% for women aged 34–69 years (n=7943). Cumulative CIN3+ rates by baseline status for HPV mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women aged 25–33 years were 22.2% (95% CI 14.5% to 29.8%) and 0.9% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.4%), respectively, and 16.6% (95% CI 10.7% to 22.5%) and 0.5% (95% CI 0.4% to 0.7%), respectively, in women aged 34–69 years. Conclusions The present cumulative incidence of CIN3+ is similar to rates reported in screening studies via HPV DNA tests. Owing to differences in biological rationale and test characteristics, there is a trade-off between sensitivity and specificity that must be balanced when decisions on HPV tests in primary screening are taken. HPV mRNA testing may be used as primary screening for women aged 25–33 years and

  14. Gastric cancer risk in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in Kerala, India - Karunagappally cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Hassani, Soroush; Nandakumar, Athira; Koriyama, Chihaya; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in the Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, South India. METHODS: This study examined the association of tobacco use and alcohol drinking with GC incidence among 65553 men aged 30-84 in the Karunagappally cohort. During the period from 1990-2009, 116 GC cases in the cohort were identified as incident cancers. These cases were identified from the population-based cancer registry. Information regarding risk factors such as socioeconomic factors and tobacco and alcohol habits of cohort members were collected from the database of the baseline survey conducted during 1990-1997. The relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for tobacco use were obtained from Poisson regression analysis of grouped survival data, considering age, follow-up period, occupation and education. RESULTS: Bidi smoking was associated with GC risk (P = 0.042). The RR comparing current versus never smokers was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.0-2.5). GC risk was associated with the number of bidis smoked daily (P = 0.012) and with the duration of bidi smoking (P = 0.036). Those who started bidi smoking at younger ages were at an elevated GC risk; the RRs for those starting bidi smoking under the age of 18 and ages 18-22 were 2.0 (95%CI: 1.0-3.9) and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively, when their risks were compared with lifetime non-smokers of bidis. Bidi smoking increased the risk of GC among never cigarette smokers more evidently (RR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-4.0). GC risk increased with the cumulative amount of bidi smoking, which was calculated as the number of bidis smoked per day x years of smoking (bidi-year; P = 0.017). Cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing or alcohol drinking was not significantly associated with GC risk. CONCLUSION: Among a male cohort in South India, gastric cancer risk increased with the number and duration of bidi smoking. PMID:26640345

  15. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  16. Identification of a functional genetic variant at 16q12.1 for breast cancer risk: results from the Asia Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirong Long

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. We carried out a multi-stage genome-wide association (GWA study in over 28,000 cases and controls recruited from 12 studies conducted in Asian and European American women to identify genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. After analyzing 684,457 SNPs in 2,073 cases and 2,084 controls in Chinese women, we evaluated 53 SNPs for fast-track replication in an independent set of 4,425 cases and 1,915 controls of Chinese origin. Four replicated SNPs were further investigated in an independent set of 6,173 cases and 6,340 controls from seven other studies conducted in Asian women. SNP rs4784227 was consistently associated with breast cancer risk across all studies with adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals of 1.25 (1.20-1.31 per allele (P = 3.2 x 10(-25 in the pooled analysis of samples from all Asian samples. This SNP was also associated with breast cancer risk among European Americans (per allele OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.09-1.31, P = 1.3 x 10(-4, 2,797 cases and 2,662 controls. SNP rs4784227 is located at 16q12.1, a region identified previously for breast cancer risk among Europeans. The association of this SNP with breast cancer risk remained highly statistically significant in Asians after adjusting for previously-reported SNPs in this region. In vitro experiments using both luciferase reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated functional significance of this SNP. These results provide strong evidence implicating rs4784227 as a functional causal variant for breast cancer in the locus 16q12.1 and demonstrate the utility of conducting genetic association studies in populations with different genetic architectures.

  17. Occupational exposure to radio frequencies in the development of head and neck cancer: a systematic review of cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Mannocci

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review aimed to summarize published data on cohort studies investigating the association between the occupational exposure to radio frequencies and clinical outcome of head and neck cancers.We retrieved the relevant articles from PubMed and SCOPUS databases. Studies were selected using specific inclusion and exclusioncriteria: study design, professional exposure and type of head and neck cancers.Twenty-nine articles were included in the present analysis.Occupational exposure to radio frequencies might be associated with the development to head and neck cancer. No consistentevidences generally were found in the review. An interesting, even if weak, association with incidence of larynx tumor was found inthree studies: RR=1.46 (95%CI: 1.05-2.43 for all electronic workers; RR=1.4 (95%CI: 1.2-1.6 for male electrical workers; and asignificant SIR for electrical workers =1.39 (95%CI: 1.08-1.76.

  18. Evidence for cervical cancer mortality with screening program in Taiwan, 1981–2010: age-period-cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Shih-Yung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer experienced by women worldwide; however, screening techniques are very effective for reducing the risk of death. The national cervical cancer screening program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995. The objective of this study was to examine and provide evidence of the cervical cancer mortality trends for the periods before and after the screening program was implemented. Methods Data from 1981 to 2010 of the causes of death registered were obtained from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Age-standardized mortality rates, age-specific rates, and age-period-cohort models that employed the sequential method were used to assess temporal changes that occurred between 1981 and 2010, with 1995 used as the separating year. Results The results showed that for both time periods of 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010, age and period had significant effects, whereas the birth cohort effects were insignificant. For patients between 80 and 84 years of age, the mortality rate for 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010 was 48.34 and 68.08. The cervical cancer mortality rate for 1996 to 2010 was 1.0 for patients between 75 and 79 years of age and 1.4 for patients between 80 and 84 years of age compared to that for 1981 to 1995. Regarding the period effect, the mortality trend decreased 2-fold from 1996 to 2010. Conclusions The results of this study indicate a decline in cervical cancer mortality trends after the screening program involving Papanicolaou tests was implemented in 1995. However, the positive effects of the screening program were not observed in elderly women because of treatment delays during the initial implementation of the screening program.

  19. Association between urinary prostaglandin E2 metabolite and breast cancer risk: a prospective, case-cohort study of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmi; Taylor, Jack A; Milne, Ginger L; Sandler, Dale P

    2013-06-01

    Overweight or obese women are at increased risk of developing and dying from breast cancer. Obesity-driven inflammation may stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated aromatase activation and estrogen biosynthesis in breast tissues. We hypothesized that increased production of PGE2 would contribute to elevated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We carried out a case-cohort study with 307 incident breast cancer cases and 300 subcohort members from the Sister Study cohort. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the association between urinary levels of a major PGE2 metabolite (PGE-M) and breast cancer risk using Prentice's pseudo-likelihood approach. Several lifestyle factors were associated with urinary levels of PGE-M: smoking, high-saturated fat diet, and obesity increased urinary PGE-M, and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) decreased urinary PGE-M. Although there was no association between urinary PGE-M and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the overall analysis or among regular users of NSAIDs, there was a positive association among postmenopausal women who did not regularly use NSAIDs with HRs of 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0-4.3]; 2.0 (95% CI: 1.0-3.9); and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.3) for the second, third, and highest quartiles of PGE-M. Our findings suggest a link between systemic PGE2 formation and postmenopausal breast cancer, and a possible modification of the association by lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions. If confirmed in larger studies, these results may have useful implications for the development of preventive strategies. PMID:23636050

  20. Screening mammography. A missed clinical opportunity? Results of the NCI [National Cancer Institute] Breast Cancer Screening Consortium and national health interview survey studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from seven studies sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) were used to determine current rates of breast cancer screening and to identify the characteristics of and reasons for women not being screened. All seven studies were population-based surveys of women aged 50 to 74 years without breast cancer. While over 90% of non-Hispanic white respondents had regular sources of medical care, 46% to 76% had a clinical breast examination within the previous year, and only 25% to 41% had a mammogram. Less educated and poorer women had fewer mammograms. The two most common reasons women gave for never having had a mammogram were that they did not known they needed it and that their physician had not recommended it. Many physicians may have overlooked the opportunity to recommend mammography for older women when performing a clinical breast examination and to educate their patients about the benefit of screening mammography

  1. Time series analysis supporting the hypothesis that enhanced cosmic radiation during germ cell formation can increase breast cancer mortality in germ cell cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, D. A.; Rosenberg, Barnett

    Techniques from cancer epidemiology and time series analysis were used to explore the hypothesis that cosmic radiation can induce germ cell changes leading to increases in future breast cancer mortality. A birth cohort time series for female breast cancer mortality was obtained using a model-independent, age-period-cohort analysis on age-specific mortality data for 1940-1990. The birth cohort series contained several oscillatory components, which were isolated and compared to the corresponding frequency components of a cosmic ray surrogate time series - Greenland ice-core 10Be concentrations. A technique, referred to as component wave-train alignment, was used to show that the breast cancer and cosmic ray oscillations were phase-locked approx. 25 years before the time of birth. This is consistent with the time of germ cell formation, which occurs during the fetal development stage of the preceding generation. Evidence is presented that the observable oscillations in the birth cohort series were residues of oscillations of much larger amplitude in the germ cell cohort, which were attenuated by the effect of the broad maternal age distribution. It is predicted that a minimum of 50% of breast cancer risk is associated with germ cell damage by cosmic radiation (priming event), which leads to the development of individuals with a higher risk of breast cancer. It is proposed that the priming event, by preceding other steps of carcinogenesis, works in concert with risk factor exposure during life. The priming event is consistent with epigenetic changes such as imprinting.

  2. Meat and fish consumption, APC gene mutations and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer: A prospective cohort study (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lüchtenborg, M.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Wark, P.A.; Brink, M.; Roemen, G.M.J.M.; Lentjes, M.H.F.M.; Bruïne, A.P. de; Goldbohm, R.A.; Veer, P. van 't; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between meat and fish consumption and APC mutation status and hMLH1 expression in colon and rectal cancer. Methods: The associations were investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study, and included 434 colon and 154 rectal cancer pa

  3. Cancer risk and key components of metabolic syndrome:a population-based prospective cohort study in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; SHEN Hong-bing; LU Feng; LIU Si-jun; DU Jiang-bo; WANG Jian-ming; QIAN Yun; SHEN Chong; JIN Guang-fu; HU Zhi-bin

    2012-01-01

    Background The key components of metabolic syndrome (MS) are waist circumference,blood pressure,fast blood glucose,high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides (TG).These components have,separately and jointly,been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.In this study,we aimed to explore the association between MS components and cancer risk in a population-based cohort in China.Methods We established a population-based cohort with 17 779 individuals aged 35 and above at baseline in 2004 and 2005 in Changzhou,Jiangsu Province,China.All participants were face-to-face interviewed to complete a questionnaire and were accepted physical examinations including blood tests for glucose and lipids and physical measurements for obesity and blood pressure.In 2009,a total of 16 284 subjects (6886 men and 9398 women,91.6%) attended the flow-up interviews and the participants or their family members reported all the hospitalizations and diseases including cancer occurred during the follow-up period.Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of metabolic syndrome components and cancer incidence.Results There was a dose-response association between cancer risk and the number of MS components presented at baseline (P for trend=0.012) and the HR (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 2.63 (1.27-5.45) for subjects carrying 3 or more metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for possible confounding factors.Specifically,the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for cancer risk in subjects with central obesity,high fasting glucose,low HDL-c were 1.94 (1.01-3.74),2.04 (1.10-3.77) and 2.05 (1.09-3.88),respectively.Conclusions In this population-based,prospective cohort study in China,we found MS components,e.g.,central obesity,high fasting glucose,low HDL-c were risk factors for cancer development.Early intervention of MS components may be also beneficial to reduce cancer burden.

  4. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  5. External validation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer risk calculators in a Chinese cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Ding-Wei Ye; Jin-You Wang; Yi-Jun Shen; Bo Dai; Chun-Guang Ma; Wen-Jun Xiao; Guo-Wen Lin; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Several prediction models have been developed to estimate the outcomes of prostate biopsies.Most of these teels were designed for use with Western populations and have not been validated across different ethnic groups.Therefore,we evaluated the predictive value of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculators in a Chinese cohort.Clinicopathological information was obtained from 495 Chinese men who had undergone extended prostate biopsies between January 2009 and March 2011.The estimated probabilities of prostate cancer and high-grade disease (Gleason >6) were calculated using the PCPT and ERSPC risk calculators.Overall measures,discrimination,calibration and clinical usefulness were assessed for the model evaluation.Of these patients,28.7% were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 19.4% had high-grade disease.Compared to the PCPT model and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) threshold of 4 ng ml-1,the ERSPC risk calculator exhibited better discriminative ability for predicting positive biopsies and high-grade disease (the area under the curve was 0.831 and 0.852,respectively,P<0.01 for both).Decision curve analysis also suggested the favourable clinical utility of the ERSPC calculator in the validation dataset.Both prediction models demonstrated miscalibration:the risk of prostate cancer and high-grade disease was overestimated by approximately 20% for a wide range of predicted probabilities.In conclusion,the ERSPC risk calculator outperformed both the PCPT model and the PSA threshold of 4 ng ml-1 in predicting prostate cancer and high-grade disease in Chinese patients.However,the prediction tools derived from Western men significantly overestimated the probability of prostate cancer and high-grade disease compared to the outcomes of biopsies in a Chinese cohort.

  6. Skipping Breakfast and Risk of Mortality from Cancer, Circulatory Diseases and All Causes: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yae; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Amano, Hiroki; Otani, Shinji; Kurozawa, Youichi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Breakfast eating habits are a dietary pattern marker and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Many studies have reported the unhealthy effects of skipping breakfast. However, there are few studies on the association between skipping breakfast and mortality. In the present study, we examined the association between skipping breakfast and mortality from cancer, circulatory diseases and all causes using data from a large-scale cohort study, the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) Study. Methods A cohort study of 34,128 men and 49,282 women aged 40–79 years was conducted, to explore the association between lifestyle and cancer in Japan. Participants completed a baseline survey during 1988 to 1990 and were followed until the end of 2009. We classified participants into two groups according to dietary habits with respect to eating or skipping breakfast and carried out intergroup comparisons of lifestyle. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results There were 5,768 deaths from cancer and 5,133 cases of death owing to circulatory diseases and 17,112 cases for all causes of mortality during the median 19.4 years follow-up. Skipping breakfast was related to unhealthy lifestyle habits. After adjusting for confounding factors, skipping breakfast significantly increased the risk of mortality from circulatory diseases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42] and all causes (HR = 1.43) in men and all causes mortality (HR = 1.34) in women. Conclusion Our findings showed that skipping breakfast is associated with increasing risk of mortality from circulatory diseases and all causes among men and all causes mortality among women in Japan. PMID:27046951

  7. Bayesian bias adjustments of the lung cancer SMR in a cohort of German carbon black production workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morfeld Peter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A German cohort study on 1,528 carbon black production workers estimated an elevated lung cancer SMR ranging from 1.8-2.2 depending on the reference population. No positive trends with carbon black exposures were noted in the analyses. A nested case control study, however, identified smoking and previous exposures to known carcinogens, such as crystalline silica, received prior to work in the carbon black industry as important risk factors. We used a Bayesian procedure to adjust the SMR, based on a prior of seven independent parameter distributions describing smoking behaviour and crystalline silica dust exposure (as indicator of a group of correlated carcinogen exposures received previously in the cohort and population as well as the strength of the relationship of these factors with lung cancer mortality. We implemented the approach by Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods (MCMC programmed in R, a statistical computing system freely available on the internet, and we provide the program code. Results When putting a flat prior to the SMR a Markov chain of length 1,000,000 returned a median posterior SMR estimate (that is, the adjusted SMR in the range between 1.32 (95% posterior interval: 0.7, 2.1 and 1.00 (0.2, 3.3 depending on the method of assessing previous exposures. Conclusions Bayesian bias adjustment is an excellent tool to effectively combine data about confounders from different sources. The usually calculated lung cancer SMR statistic in a cohort of carbon black workers overestimated effect and precision when compared with the Bayesian results. Quantitative bias adjustment should become a regular tool in occupational epidemiology to address narrative discussions of potential distortions.

  8. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations ≥40 ng/ml Are Associated with >65% Lower Cancer Risk: Pooled Analysis of Randomized Trial and Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Sharon L.; Baggerly, Carole; French, Christine B.; Baggerly, Leo L.; Garland, Cedric F.; Gorham, Edward D.; Lappe, Joan M.; Heaney, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with a lower risk of multiple cancer types across a range of 25(OH)D concentrations. Objectives To investigate whether the previously reported inverse association between 25(OH)D and cancer risk could be replicated, and if a 25(OH)D response region could be identified among women aged 55 years and older across a broad range of 25(OH)D concentrations. Methods Data from two cohorts representing different median 25(OH)D concentrations were pooled to afford a broader range of 25(OH)D concentrations than either cohort alone: the Lappe cohort (N = 1,169), a randomized clinical trial cohort (median 25(OH)D = 30 ng/ml) and the GrassrootsHealth cohort (N = 1,135), a prospective cohort (median 25(OH)D = 48 ng/ml). Cancer incidence over a multi-year period (median: 3.9 years) was compared according to 25(OH)D concentration. Kaplan-Meier plots were developed and the association between 25(OH)D and cancer risk was examined with multivariate Cox regression using multiple 25(OH)D measurements and spline functions. The study included all invasive cancers excluding skin cancer. Results Age-adjusted cancer incidence across the combined cohort (N = 2,304) was 840 cases per 100,000 person-years (1,020 per 100,000 person-years in the Lappe cohort and 722 per 100,000 person-years in the GrassrootsHealth cohort). Incidence was lower at higher concentrations of 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D concentrations ≥40 ng/ml had a 67% lower risk of cancer than women with concentrations <20 ng/ml (HR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12–0.90). Conclusions 25(OH)D concentrations ≥40 ng/ml were associated with substantial reduction in risk of all invasive cancers combined. PMID:27049526

  9. Risk of regional recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer patients: a Dutch cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, van Lori M.; Smit, Leonie H.M.; Duijsens, Gaston H.N.M.; Vries, de Bart; Siesling, Sabine; Lobbes, Marc B.I.; Boer, de Maaike; Wilt, de Johannes H.W.; Smidt, Marjolein L.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is associated with early recurrence and low survival rates. Several trials investigate the safety of a more conservative approach of axillary treatment in clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer comprises only 15 % of newly diagnosed breast cancer

  10. Access to Cancer Screening in People with Learning Disabilities in the UK: Cohort Study in the Health Improvement Network, a Primary Care Research Database

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, D. P.; Horsfall, L.; Hassiotis, A.; Petersen, I.; Walters, K; Nazareth, I

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether people with learning disability in the UK have poorer access to cancer screening. Design Four cohort studies comparing people with and without learning disability, within the recommended age ranges for cancer screening in the UK. We used Poisson regression to determine relative incidence rates of cancer screening. Setting The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care database with over 450 General practices. Participants Individuals with a...

  11. Behavioural and metabolic risk factors for mortality from colon and rectum cancer: analysis of data from the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, D S; Parr, C.L.; Lam, T. H.; Ueshima, H; Kim, H. C.; Jee, S.H.; Murakami, Y.; Giles, G; Fang, X.; Barzi, F; Batty, G D; Huxley, R. R.; Woodward, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has several modifiable behavioural risk factors but their relationship to the risk of colon and rectum cancer separately and between countries with high and low incidence is not clear. METHODS: Data from participants in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) were used to estimate mortality from colon (International Classification of Diseases, revision 9 (ICD-9) 153, ICD-10 C18) and rectum (ICD-9 154, ICD-10 C19-20) cancers. Data on age, body mass i...

  12. Plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study: a nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Epplein, Meira; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Franke, Adrian A.; Cooney, Robert V.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Brian E Henderson; Kolonel, Laurence N; Goodman, Marc T.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Assessments by the handful of prospective studies of the association of serum antioxidants and breast cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This multiethnic nested case-control study sought to examine the association of plasma carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherols with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Methods From the biospecimen subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort Study, 286 incident postmenopausal breast cancer cases were matched to 535 controls on age, sex, ethnicit...

  13. Increased risk of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective cohort study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Pian-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM might be associated with the risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between T2DM and the risk of developing common cancers in a Chinese population. Methods A population-based retrospective cohort study was carried out in the Nan-Hu district of Jiaxing city, Zhejiang province, China. The incidence of cancer cases among type 2 diabetic patients were identified through record-linkage of the Diabetic Surveillance and Registry Database with the Cancer Database from January 2002 to June 2008. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR and 95% confidence interval (CI were estimated for the risk of cancer among the patients with type 2 diabetes. Results The overall incidence of cancer was 1083.6 per 105 subjects in male T2DM patients and 870.2 per 105 in females. Increased risk of developing cancer was found in both male and female T2DM patients with an SIR of 1.331 (95% CI = 1.143-1.518 and 1.737 (1.478-1.997, respectively. As for cancer subtypes, both male and female T2DM patients had a significantly increased risk of pancreatic cancer with the SIRs of 2.973 (1.73-4.21 and 2.687 (1.445-3.928, respectively. Elevated risk of liver and kidney cancers was only found in male T2DM patients with SIRs of 1.538 (1.005-2.072 and 4.091 (1.418-6.764, respectively. Increased risks of developing breast cancer [2.209 (1.487-2.93] and leukemia SIR: [4.167 (1.584- 6.749 ] were found in female patients. Conclusions These findings indicated that patients with T2DM have an increased risk of developing cancer. Additional cancer screening should be employed in the management of patients with T2DM.

  14. Analysis of the results for the AECL cohort in the IARC study on the radiogenic cancer risk among nuclear industry workers in fifteen countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashmore, J.P. [Ponsonby and Associates, Manotick, Ontario (Canada); Gentner, N.E. [Consultant, Petawawa, Ontario (Canada); Osborne, R.V. [Ranasara Consultants Inc., Deep River, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-31

    Over the last two decades there have been attempts to estimate the risks from occupational exposure in the nuclear industry by epidemiological assessments on cohorts of workers. However, generally low doses and relatively small worker populations have limited the precision of such studies. In 1995 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) completed a study that involved workers from facilities in the USA, UK and AECL. In 2005, IARC completed a further study involving nuclear workers from 15 countries including Canada. Surprisingly, the risk ascribed to the Canadian cohort for all cancers excluding leukaemia, driven by the AECL component, was significantly higher than the cohort as a whole. The work described in this report is an attempt to unravel what might have accounted for the divergence between the results for the AECL cohort and the others.

  15. Analysis of the results for the AECL cohort in the IARC study on the radiogenic cancer risk among nuclear industry workers in fifteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last two decades there have been attempts to estimate the risks from occupational exposure in the nuclear industry by epidemiological assessments on cohorts of workers. However, generally low doses and relatively small worker populations have limited the precision of such studies. In 1995 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) completed a study that involved workers from facilities in the USA, UK and AECL. In 2005, IARC completed a further study involving nuclear workers from 15 countries including Canada. Surprisingly, the risk ascribed to the Canadian cohort for all cancers excluding leukaemia, driven by the AECL component, was significantly higher than the cohort as a whole. The work described in this report is an attempt to unravel what might have accounted for the divergence between the results for the AECL cohort and the others

  16. Dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Colorectal Cancer in the Italian EPIC Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Vece, Marilena Monica; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Pala, Valeria; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Frasca, Graziella; Tumino, Rosario; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Masala, Giovanna; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. Diet has been hypothesized as involved in colorectal cancer etiology, but few studies on the influence of total dietary antioxidant intake on colorectal cancer risk have been performed. Methods We investigated the association between colorectal cancer risk and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, and also of intake of selected antioxidants, in 45,194 persons enrolled in 5 centers (Florence, Naples, Ragusa, Tu...

  17. The risk of cancer in patients with congenital heart disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Lee

    Full Text Available The relationship between congenital heart disease (CHD and malignancies has not been determined. This study aimed to explore the association of CHD with malignancies and examine the risk factors for the development of cancer after a diagnosis of CHD.This nationwide, population-based cohort study on cancer risk evaluated 31,961 patients with newly diagnosed CHD using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD between 1998 and 2006. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for all and specific cancer types were analyzed, while the Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate risk factors of cancer occurrence.Among patients with newly diagnosed CHD regardless of ages, 187 (0.6% subsequently developed cancers after a diagnosis of CHD. Patients with CHD had increased risk of cancer (SIR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.25-1.67, as well as significantly elevated risks of hematologic (SIR, 4.04; 95% CI, 2.76-5.70, central nervous system (CNS (SIR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.92-5.89, and head and neck (SIR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.03-2.94 malignancies. Age (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.06 and co-morbid chronic liver disease (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.27-2.87 were independent risk factors for cancer occurrence among CHD patients.Patients with CHD have significantly increased cancer risk, particularly hematologic, CNS, and head and neck malignancies. Physicians who care for patients with CHD should be aware of their predisposition to malignancy after the diagnosis of CHD. Further studies are warranted to clarify the association between CHD and malignancies.

  18. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Anderson, Harald [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Hawkins, Mike [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Garwicz, Stanislaw [Childhood Cancer Research Center, University Children' s Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Sankila, Risto [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); El Fayech, Chiraz [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Winter, Dave [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rubino, Carole [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Curie Institute, Paris (France); Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Moller, Torgil [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Langmark, Froydis [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); and others

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose-response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7-16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6-35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  19. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose–response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7–16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6–35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  20. Do adipokines underlie the association between known risk factors and breast cancer among a cohort of U.S. women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M.; Falk, Roni T.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Lacey, James V.; Graubard, Barry I.; Dorgan, Joanne F.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, but mechanisms underlying the association are unclear. Adipocyte-derived, cytokine-like adipokines have been suggested as contributory factors. To evaluate their association with breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study of 234 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 234 controls in a cohort of U.S. women with prospectively-collected serum samples obtained in the mid 1970’s and followed for up to 25 years. Adiponectin, absolute plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (aPAI-1), and resistin were measured by a multiplex immunoassay. Sex hormones were available for 67 cases and 67 controls. Among controls, we found that lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of aPAI-1 were correlated with increasing levels of estradiol (Spearman r=−0.26, p-value=0.033; r=0.42, p=0.0003), decreasing levels of sex hormone binding globulin (r=0.38, p=0.0013; r=−0.32, p=0.0076), and increasing body mass index (BMI) (r=−0.31, p=0.05). The lack of association with risk may be due to measurement error of the laboratory assays. In conclusion, lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of aPAI-1 measured in prospectively-collected serum from postmenopausal women were associated with increasing BMI but not breast cancer risk. PMID:20579950

  1. Long-term exposure to air pollution and mammographic density in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Stephanie; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    investigated the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and MD in a prospective cohort of women 50 years and older. METHODS: For the 4,769 women (3,930 postmenopausal) participants in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (1993-1997) who attended mammographic screening in...... Copenhagen (1993-2001), we used MD assessed at the first screening after cohort entry. MD was defined as mixed/dense or fatty. Traffic-related air pollution at residence was assessed by modeled levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The association between mean NOx and NO2 levels since...... mixed/dense MD in our fully adjusted model (OR; 95% CI: 0.96; 0.93-1.01 per 20 μg/m(3) of NOx and 0.89; 0.80- 0.98 per 10 μg/m(3) of NO2). There was no interaction with menopause, smoking, or obesity. CONCLUSION: Traffic-related air pollution exposure does not increase MD, indicating that if air...

  2. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia: a report from the female lung cancer consortium in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-07-15

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of seven telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from a previously reported genome-wide association study. Using a group of 1,536 individuals with phenotypically measured telomere length in WBCs in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health study, we demonstrated the utility of a genetic risk score (GRS) of seven telomere-length associated variants to predict telomere length in an Asian population. We then found that GRSs used as instrumental variables to predict longer telomere length were associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.34-1.69) for upper vs. lower quartile of the weighted GRS, p value = 4.54 × 10(-14) ) even after removing rs2736100 (p value = 4.81 × 10(-3) ), a SNP in the TERT locus robustly associated with lung cancer risk in prior association studies. Stratified analyses suggested the effect of the telomere-associated GRS is strongest among younger individuals. We found no difference in GRS effect between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell subtypes. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase lung cancer risk, which is consistent with earlier prospective studies relating longer telomere length with increased lung cancer risk. PMID:25516442

  3. Genetic variants associated with longer telomere length are associated with increased lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in Asia: A report from the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Seow, Wei Jie; Wang, Zhaoming; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hong, Yun-Chul; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Chen; Hosgood, H Dean; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Wen, Wanqing; Cawthon, Richard; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil E; Park, Jae Yong; Chen, Chien-Jen; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young Tae; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Chang, I-Shou; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Kim, Hee Nam; Chang, Gee-Chen; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Fusheng; Yin, Zhihua; An, She-Juan; Qian, Biyun; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Kim, Jin Hee; Gao, Yu-Tang; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Wen-Chang; Klein, Robert J; Chung, Charles C; Oh, In-Jae; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Berndt, Sonja I; Wu, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Zheng, Hong; Wang, Junwen; Zhao, Xueying; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Su, Wu-Chou; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Pao, William; Kim, Young-Chul; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Su, Jian; Wang, Chih-Liang; Li, Haixin; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Zhao, Zhenhong; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Kohno, Takashi; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Yokota, Jun; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yu, Chong-Jen; Kunitoh, Hideo; Wu, Guoping; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Shiraishi, Kouya; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Wu, Tangchun; Wong, Maria Pik; Wu, Yi-Long; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Zhou, Baosen; Shin, Min-Ho; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Zheng, Wei; Lin, Dongxin; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence from several relatively small nested case-control studies in prospective cohorts shows an association between longer telomere length measured phenotypically in peripheral white blood cell (WBC) DNA and increased lung cancer risk. We sought to further explore this relationship by examining a panel of 7 telomere-length associated genetic variants in a large study of 5,457 never-smoking female Asian lung cancer cases and 4,493 never-smoking female Asian controls using data from a previously reported genome-wide association study. Using a group of 1,536 individuals with phenotypically measured telomere length in WBCs in the prospective Shanghai Women’s Health study, we demonstrated the utility of a genetic risk score (GRS) of 7 telomere-length associated variants to predict telomere length in an Asian population. We then found that GRSs used as instrumental variables to predict longer telomere length were associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.51 (95% CI=1.34–1.69) for upper vs. lower quartile of the weighted GRS, P-value=4.54×10−14) even after removing rs2736100 (P-value=4.81×10−3), a SNP in the TERT locus robustly associated with lung cancer risk in prior association studies. Stratified analyses suggested the effect of the telomere-associated GRS is strongest among younger individuals. We found no difference in GRS effect between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell subtypes. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase lung cancer risk, which is consistent with earlier prospective studies relating longer telomere length with increased lung cancer risk. PMID:25516442

  4. Radiation effects on mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone cancer in the Mayak worker cohort: 1948-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Sokolnikov

    Full Text Available Radiation effects on mortality from solid cancers other than lung, liver, and bone cancer in the Mayak worker cohort: 1948-2008. The cohort of Mayak Production Association (PA workers in Russia offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of prolonged low dose rate external gamma exposures and exposure to plutonium in a working age population. We examined radiation effects on the risk of mortality from solid cancers excluding sites of primary plutonium deposition (lung, liver, and bone surface among 25,757 workers who were first employed in 1948-1982. During the period 1948-2008, there were 1,825 deaths from cancers other than lung, liver and bone. Using colon dose as a representative external dose, a linear dose response model described the data well. The excess relative risk per Gray for external gamma exposure was 0.16 (95% CI: 0.07 - 0.26 when unadjusted for plutonium exposure and 0.12 (95% CI 0.03 - 0.21 when adjusted for plutonium dose and monitoring status. There was no significant effect modification by sex or attained age. Plutonium exposure was not significantly associated with the group of cancers analyzed after adjusting for monitoring status. Site-specific risks were uncertainly estimated but positive for 13 of the 15 sites evaluated with a statistically significant estimate only for esophageal cancer. Comparison with estimates based on the acute exposures in atomic bomb survivors suggests that the excess relative risk per Gray for prolonged external exposure in Mayak workers may be lower than that for acute exposure but, given the uncertainties, the possibility of equal effects cannot be dismissed.

  5. Risk of breast cancer recurrence in patients receiving manual lymphatic drainage: a hospital-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao PC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pei-Chi Hsiao,1,2 Jung-Tai Liu,3 Chien-Liang Lin,4 Willy Chou,1,2 Shiang-Ru Lu5 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan; 2Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center Liouying Campus, Tainan, Taiwan; 4Department of Hematology and Oncology, Chi-Mei Medical Center Liouying Campus, Tainan, Taiwan; 5Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Background: This retrospective cohort study evaluated whether manual lymphatic drainage (MLD therapy increases the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. Methods: We analyzed 1,106 women who were diagnosed with stage 0­–3 breast cancer between 2007 and 2011 and experienced remission after surgery and adjuvant therapy. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (n=996, in which patients did not participate in any MLD therapy, regardless of whether they developed breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL after cancer treatment; and group B (n=110, in which patients participated in MLD therapy for BCRL. All patients were monitored until October 2013 to determine whether breast cancer recurrence developed, including local or regional recurrence and distant metastasis. Patients who developed cancer recurrence prior to MLD therapy were excluded from analysis. Risk factors associated with cancer recurrence were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: During the monitoring period, 166 patients (15.0% developed cancer recurrence, including 154 (15.5% in group A and 12 (10.9% in group B. The median period from surgery to cancer recurrence was 1.85 (interquartile range 1.18–2.93 years. Independent risk factors for cancer recurrence were tumor histological grading of grade 3, high number (≥3 of axillary lymph node invasion, and a large tumor size (>5 cm. Factors

  6. MTHFR Glu429Ala and ERCC5 His46His polymorphisms are associated with prognosis in colorectal cancer patients: analysis of two independent cohorts from Newfoundland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit A Negandhi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study, 27 genetic polymorphisms that were previously reported to be associated with clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients were investigated in relation to overall survival (OS and disease free survival (DFS in colorectal cancer patients from Newfoundland. METHODS: The discovery and validation cohorts comprised of 532 and 252 patients, respectively. Genotypes of 27 polymorphisms were first obtained in the discovery cohort and survival analyses were performed assuming the co-dominant genetic model. Polymorphisms associated with disease outcomes in the discovery cohort were then investigated in the validation cohort. RESULTS: When adjusted for sex, age, tumor stage and microsatellite instability (MSI status, four polymorphisms were independent predictors of OS in the discovery cohort MTHFR Glu429Ala (HR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.04-2.84, p = 0.036, ERCC5 His46His (HR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.15-2.76, p = 0.01, SERPINE1 -675indelG (HR: 0.52, 95%CI: 0.32-0.84, p = 0.008, and the homozygous deletion of GSTM1 gene (HR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.03-1.92, p = 0.033. In the validation cohort, the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism was associated with shorter OS (HR: 1.71, 95%CI: 1.18-2.49, p = 0.005, although with a different genotype than the discovery cohort (CC genotype in the discovery cohort and AC genotype in the validation cohort. When stratified based on treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU-based regimens, this polymorphism was associated with reduced OS only in patients not treated with 5-FU. In the DFS analysis, when adjusted for other variables, the TT genotype of the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism was associated with shorter DFS in both cohorts (discovery cohort: HR: 1.54, 95%CI: 1.04-2.29, p = 0.032 and replication cohort: HR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.11-2.94, p = 0.018. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, associations of the MTHFR Glu429Ala polymorphism with OS and the ERCC5 His46His polymorphism with DFS were identified in two colorectal

  7. The Alberta moving beyond breast cancer (AMBER cohort study: a prospective study of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courneya Kerry S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited research has examined the association between physical activity, health-related fitness, and disease outcomes in breast cancer survivors. Here, we present the rationale and design of the Alberta Moving Beyond Breast Cancer (AMBER Study, a prospective cohort study designed specifically to examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivorship from the time of diagnosis and for the balance of life. The AMBER Study will examine the role of physical activity and health-related fitness in facilitating treatment completion, alleviating treatment side effects, hastening recovery after treatments, improving long term quality of life, and reducing the risks of disease recurrence, other chronic diseases, and premature death. Methods/Design The AMBER Study will enroll 1500 newly diagnosed, incident, stage I-IIIc breast cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada over a 5 year period. Assessments will be made at baseline (within 90 days of surgery, 1 year, and 3 years consisting of objective and self-reported measurements of physical activity, health-related fitness, blood collection, lymphedema, patient-reported outcomes, and determinants of physical activity. A final assessment at 5 years will measure patient-reported data only. The cohort members will be followed for an additional 5 years for disease outcomes. Discussion The AMBER cohort will answer key questions related to physical activity and health-related fitness in breast cancer survivors including: (1 the independent and interactive associations of physical activity and health-related fitness with disease outcomes (e.g., recurrence, breast cancer-specific mortality, overall survival, treatment completion rates, symptoms and side effects (e.g., pain, lymphedema, fatigue, neuropathy, quality of life, and psychosocial functioning (e.g., anxiety, depression, self-esteem, happiness, (2 the determinants of physical activity and

  8. Cohort Profile Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    of Causes of Death, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Attainment Register and the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research to get information on vital status, migration, cancer, hospital contacts, causes of death, dispensed prescriptions, education and employment. Using this design, rates...... to extract an age- and sex-matched comparison cohort from the general population, as well as cohorts of family members of the HIV-infected patients and of the comparison cohort. The combined cohort is linked with CRS, the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish National Hospital Registry, the Danish Registry...

  9. Re-examination of the Natural History of High-grade T1 Bladder Cancer using a Large Contemporary Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Canter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHigh-grade T1 (HGT1 bladder cancer represents a clinical challenge in that the urologist must balance the risk of disease progression against the morbidity and potential mortality of early radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Using two non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC databases, we re-examined the rate of progression of HG T1 bladder cancer in our bladder cancer populations.Materials and MethodsWe queried the NMIBC databases that have been established independently at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center (AVAMC and the University of Pennsylvania to identify patients initially diagnosed with HGT1 bladder cancer. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were examined as well as rates of recurrence and progression.ResultsA total of 222 patients were identified; 198 (89.1% and 199 (89.6% of whom were male and non-African American, respectively. Mean patient age was 66.5 years. 191 (86.0% of the patients presented with isolated HG T1 disease while 31 (14.0% patients presented with HGT1 disease and CIS. Induction BCG was utilized in 175 (78.8% patients. Recurrence occurred in 112 (50.5% patients with progression occurring in only 19 (8.6% patients. At a mean follow-up of 51 months, overall survival was 76.6%. Fifty two patients died, of whom only 13 (25% patient deaths were bladder cancer related.ConclusionsIn our large cohort of patients, we found that the risk of progression at approximately four years was only 8.6%. While limited by its retrospective nature, this study could potentially serve as a starting point in re-examining the treatment algorithm for patients with HG T1 bladder cancer.

  10. Inverse associations of dietary fiber and menopausal hormone therapy with colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2016-09-15

    In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we previously reported that dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men only. In women, the inverse relationship was weaker and appeared to be confounded by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). We re-examined this observation with a greatly increased power. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed data from 187,674 participants with 4,692 cases identified during a mean follow-up period of 16 years. In multivariable-adjusted models, dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in both sexes: HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61-0.89 for highest vs. lowest quintile, ptrend  = 0.0020 in men and HR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91, ptrend  = 0.0067 in women. Postmenopausal women who ever used MHT had a 19% lower risk of colorectal cancer (95% CI: 0.74-0.89) compared with MHT never users. In a joint analysis of dietary fiber and MHT, dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk in MHT never users (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.95, ptrend  = 0.045), but did not appear to further decrease the colorectal cancer risk of MHT ever users (ptrend  = 0.11). Our results support the overall protective roles of dietary fiber and MHT against colorectal cancer and suggest that dietary fiber may not lower risk further among women who ever used MHT. If confirmed, these results would suggest that MHT and dietary fiber may share overlapping mechanisms in protecting against colorectal cancer. PMID:27137137

  11. Short-Term Outcomes of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection in Patients with Early Gastric Cancer: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Il Ju; Lee, Na Rae; Kim, Sang Gyun; Lee, Wan Sik; Park, Seun Ja; Kim, Jae J.; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kwon, Jin-Won; Park, Seung-Hee; You, Ji Hye; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Gwang Ha; Lee, Yong Chan; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Ji Young; Chun, Hoon Jai; Seol, Sang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an effective treatment for early gastric cancer (EGC) that has demonstrated a minimal risk of lymph node metastasis in retrospective studies. We sought to prospectively evaluate the short-term outcomes of ESD treatment in EGCs. Methods A prospective multicenter cohort study of neoplasms 3 cm or less in diameter at endoscopic size evaluation was performed in 12 Korean ESD study group-related university hospitals and the National Cancer Center. Resected specimens were evaluated by the central pathologic review board. Results A patient cohort (n=712) with a total of 737 EGCs was analyzed. The margin-freeen bloc resection rate was 97.3%, and curative resection of 640 lesions (86.8%) was achieved. Lower curative resection rates were associated with lesions 2 to 3 cm in size prior to ESD compared with lesions 2 cm or less in size (78.6% vs 88.1%, respectively, p=0.009). Significant factors associated with noncurative resection were moderately or poorly differentiated histological type, posterior wall tumor location, tumor size larger than 3 cm, ulceration, and submucosal invasion. Delayed bleeding occurred in 49 patients (6.9%), and 12 patients (1.7%) exhibited perforations. Conclusions ESD is an effective treatment with a high curative resection rate for EGCs that meets relatively conservative pre-ESD indications. Long-term survival outcomes should be evaluated in follow-up studies. PMID:27172929

  12. Increase in mammography detected breast cancer over time at a community based regional cancer center: a longitudinal cohort study 1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmgren Judith A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coincident with the advent of mammography screening, breast carcinoma in situ has increased in the US population. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of all women presenting with primary breast cancer, aged 21–94, and biopsy confirmed Stage 0-IV from 1990–2005 identified and tracked by our registry. Clinical presentation characteristics including age, race, TNM stage, family and pregnancy history, histologic type and method of detection by patient (PtD, physician (PhysD or mammography (MgD were chart abstracted at time of diagnosis. Cases with unknown or other method of detection (n = 84, or unusual cell types (n = 26 were removed (n = 6074. Results From 1990 to 1998 the percentage of PtD and MgD cases was roughly equivalent. In 1999 the percentage of MgD cases increased to 56% and PtD dropped to 37%, a significant 20% differential, constant to 2005 (Pearson chi square = 120.99, p Conclusion In our cohort the relative proportion of mammography detected breast cancer increased over time with a higher increase among women age 50+ and an increase of breast carcinoma in situ exclusively among MgD cases. The increase among women currently targeted by mammography screening programs (age ≥ 50 combined with an increase of breast carcinoma in situ most often detected by mammography screening indicates a possible incidence shift to lower stage breast cancer as a result of mammographic detection.

  13. Prospective cohort study of soy food intake and colorectal cancer risk in women123

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Li, Honglan; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background: Soy and some of its constituents, such as isoflavones, have been shown to have cancer-inhibitory activities in experimental studies. Data from epidemiologic studies linking usual soy food intake with colorectal cancer are limited and inconsistent.

  14. Implications of Type1/2 Diabetes Mellitus in Breast Cancer Development: A General Female Population-based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Yung-Po; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Jan, Shiou-Rung; Huang, Jing-Yang; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Lung, Chia-Chi; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Yeh, Liang-Tsai; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tsai, Horng-Der; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    significantly associated with diabetes and breast cancer risk (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Our results demonstrated different implications of diabetes type for the risk of breast cancer with type 2 posing a higher risk than type 1. This is the largest cohort study that assesses the possible correlation between both type 1 and 2 diabetes with breast cancer, and also is the largest cohort study showing that diabetes are associated with age, insurance, and region, which further suggest that living condition and life style may significantly associated with diabetes and breast cancer. PMID:26185535

  15. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and breast cancer risk: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren; Thomassen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik T;

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies investigating the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on breast cancer have yielded conflicting results. We examined the association between use of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs and breast cancer risk among 28 695 women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and...

  16. Computed tomography in children: multicenter cohort study design for the evaluation of cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer. Cancer risk is highest after exposure in childhood. The computed tomography is the major contributor to the average, individual radiation exposure. Until now the association has been addressed only in statistical modeling. We present the first feasible study design on childhood cancer risk after exposure to computed tomography.

  17. Pre-existing type 2 diabetes and risk of lung cancer: a report from two prospective cohort studies of 133 024 Chinese adults in urban Shanghai

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wan-Shui; Yang, Yang; YANG, Gong; Chow, Wong-Ho; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nat; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Observational studies of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lung cancer risk are limited and controversial. We thus examined the association between T2D and risk of incident lung cancer using a cohort design. Setting Data from two ongoing population-based cohorts (the Shanghai Men's Health Study, SMHS, 2002–2006 and the Shanghai Women's Health Study, SWHS, 1996–2000) were used. Cox proportional-hazards regression models with T2D as a time-varying exposure were modelled to estimate HRs and 9...

  18. Dietary habits and risk of urothelial cancer death in a large-scale cohort study (JACC Study) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakauchi, Fumio; Mori, Mitsuru; Washio, Masakazu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ozasa, Kotaro; Hayashi, Kyohei; Miki, Tsuneharu; Nakao, Masahiro; Mikami, Kazuya; Ito, Yoshinori; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the associations of dietary habits with the risk of urothelial cancer death were evaluated taking into consideration sex, age, and smoking habits. The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study was established in 1988-1990 and consisted of 47,997 men and 66,520 women observed until the end of 1999. A self-administered food-frequency questionnaire was used as a baseline survey. Hazard ratios for dietary factors were calculated by Cox's proportional hazards model. During the observation period, 63 men and 25 women died of urothelial cancer. Increasing age, male gender, and history of smoking were all significantly associated with increased risk of urothelial cancer death. A high intake of milk and fruits other than oranges reduced the risk significantly and dose dependently, in particular among subjects with smoking history. However, consumption of butter and yogurt had no associations with the risk. Intakes of cabbage, lettuce, green leafy vegetables, carrots, squash, tomatoes, and oranges were not significantly associated with the risk. It was suggested that urothelial cancer death could be potentially preventable by smoking cessation and regular intake of milk and fruit. PMID:15572295

  19. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad A. Al-Amri; Mohammed Y. Saeedi; Fatina M. Al-Tahan; Ali, Arwa M.; Shaker A. Alomary; Mostafa Arafa; Ibrahim, Ahmed K.; Kassim A. Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the br...

  20. Time intervals from first symptom to treatment of cancer: a cohort study of 2,212 newly diagnosed cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke P; Vedsted, Peter; Sokolowski, Ineta; Søndergaard, Jens; Olesen, Frede

    Delay in diagnosis of cancer may worsen prognosis. The aim of this study is to explore patient-, general practitioner (GP)- and system-related delay in the interval from first cancer symptom to diagnosis and treatment, and to analyse the extent to which delays differ by cancer type....

  1. Development of a semi-conductor sequencing-based panel for genotyping of colon and lung cancer by the Onconetwork consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Tops, Bastiaan BJ; Normanno, Nicola; Kurth, Henriette; Amato, Eliana; Mafficini, Andrea; Rieber, Nora; Le Corre, Delphine; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; Reiman, Anne; Sheils, Orla; Noppen, Christoph; Lacroix, Ludovic; Cree, Ian A; Scarpa, Aldo; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn JL

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of predictive biomarkers that will be necessary to assess in clinical practice will increase with the availability of drugs that target specific molecular alterations. Therefore, diagnostic laboratories are confronted with new challenges: costs, turn-around-time and the amount of material required for testing will increase with the number of tests performed on a sample. Our consortium of European clinical research laboratories set out to test if semi-conductor sequencing...

  2. Development of a semi-conductor sequencing-based panel for genotyping of colon and lung cancer by the Onconetwork consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Tops, B. B. J.; Normanno, N.; Kurth, H.; Amato, E.; Mafficini, A.; Rieber, N; Corre, D. Le; Rachiglio, A.M.; Reiman, A.; Sheils, O; Noppen, C.; Lacroix, L.; Cree, I A; Scarpa, A; Ligtenberg, M J L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of predictive biomarkers that will be necessary to assess in clinical practice will increase with the availability of drugs that target specific molecular alterations. Therefore, diagnostic laboratories are confronted with new challenges: costs, turn-around-time and the amount of material required for testing will increase with the number of tests performed on a sample. Our consortium of European clinical research laboratories set out to test if semi-conductor sequencin...

  3. Decline in CA19-9 during chemotherapy predicts survival in four independent cohorts of patients with inoperable bile duct cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Mie; Christensen, Ib J; Lassen, Ulrik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate associated antigen (CA19-9) has been approved by the FDA as a biomarker for monitoring treatment effect in pancreatic cancer. However, the value of serum CA19-9 as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy in bile duct cancer is unclear. The aim of this study was to determi...... confirmed in all three validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: CA19-9 response is a robust predictor of survival in patients with inoperable bile duct cancer in four independent data sets....... if a decline in CA19-9 (CA19-9 response) during chemotherapy is predictive of survival in patients with inoperable bile duct cancer. METHODS: Consecutive patients with inoperable bile duct cancer treated at a University Hospital were retrospectively included in an investigational cohort (n = 212......). Three validation cohorts were established including patients 1) participating in phase I/II trials at a Danish Hospital (n = 71), 2) identified retrospectively in a Canadian cohort (n = 196) and 3) randomized in the ABC-02 trial (n = 410). Patients with a baseline CA19-9 and at least one CA19-9 value...

  4. Stillbirth and neonatal death among female cancer survivors: A national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-09-01

    The number of cancer survivors continues to increase worldwide. Many of these survivors have had children of their own. It is less well-known whether radiation therapy or chemotherapy could affect the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death for these children. To explore this research questions, we identified all women diagnosed with cancer between 1958 and 2012 from the Swedish Cancer Register and they were further linked to the Swedish Medical Birth Register to identify their subsequent child birth between 1973 and 2012. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between stillbirth and neonatal death and maternal cancer diagnosis. As compared to the children without maternal cancer, the risk of stillbirth was significantly higher among children of female cancer survivors born within three years after cancer diagnosis with an OR of 1.92 (95% CI 1.03-3.57). The incidence of neonatal death did not show a significant change. For women with more than one pregnancy after cancer diagnosis, the risk of stillbirth and neonatal death was lower for the second child birth compared to the first child birth. Our study suggested that the risk of stillbirth was negatively associated with the time after cancer diagnosis, providing evidence that the adverse effect associated with cancer treatment may diminish with time. PMID:27101797

  5. The French cohort of uranium miners: Analysis of lung cancer risk linked to radon exposure in a population exposed to relatively low concentration over a long duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, about 5,000 miners have been employed in uranium mining industry since 1946. Most of these miners have experienced relatively low annual exposures in comparison to other cohorts of miners. Consequently, the hypothesis to be tested in our study was the potential risk of cancer in a relatively low exposed population, characterised by a long period of underground work. A first analysis of the ''oldest'' cohort (1,785 miners having worked underground before 1972) has been published in 1993, based on a follow-up to December 1985. Recently, this follow-up has been extended up to 1994. Compared to the first analysis, the size of the cohort has increased by 24 %, and the number of lung cancer deaths has increased by about 90 % (from 45 to 85 deaths). Mean cumulated exposure to radon is of 71.5 WML, protracted over more than 15 years. After 1956, radon exposure is lower than 2 WLM/year for 50 % of the miners. The Standardised Mortality Ratio for lung cancer is 1.65, with confidence interval CI95% = [1.3-2.0]. The Excess Relative Risk coefficient for lung cancer with cumulated exposure to radon is ERR/WLM 0.40 % (p = 0.05). This estimate is very similar to the one obtained in the first analysis. The contribution of this population to the estimation of the risk coefficient of lung cancer, in relation to low dose-rates and low cumulative exposure is far from negligible. Enlargement of the French cohort exposed after 1956 is ongoing. Moreover a European joint analysis of cohorts with low levels of exposure rates (French, Czech and German cohorts) will be performed in a near future. (author)

  6. Risk for cancer in a cohort of patients hospitalized for schizophrenia in Denmark, 1969-1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Mellemkjær, Lene; Thomassen, L.;

    2005-01-01

    national incidence rates, adjusted for sex, age and calendar time. The risk for cancer was increased for both men and women during the first year of follow-up. When the first year of follow-up was excluded, the risk for all tobacco-associated cancers and for prostate and rectal cancers was reduced for male...... patients with schizophrenia. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lung cancer was marginally reduced (SIR, 0.86; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.02) for male patients with schizophrenia; this was due, however, to a reduction in risk for older patients. An increased risk for breast cancer found for female patients...... with schizophrenia (SIR, 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.38) should be interpreted with caution, given the high proportion of nulliparous women with schizophrenia in Denmark. The data might support reduced risks for prostate and rectal cancer among male patients with schizophrenia, whereas a changing smoking...

  7. Are cancer survivors at an increased risk for divorce? A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Diderichsen, Finn; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    survivors of cervix cancer, who had an increased risk for divorce, we found that cancer survivors were not at greater risk for divorce than the general population (rate ratios (RR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0;1.1 and RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.9;1.0 for women and men, respectively). This finding shows......The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for divorce among cancer survivors. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study of 46,303 persons aged 30-60 years in whom selected cancers were diagnosed in 1981-2000 and 221,028 randomly sampled, cancer-free controls. Information on...... that cancer survivors need not have unnecessary fears for their marriage....

  8. Sociodemographic status, stress, and risk of prostate cancer. A prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Kristensen, Tage S; Zhang, Zuo-Feng;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The social gradient in prostate cancer incidence observed in several studies may be a result of differential access to prostate cancer screening. We aim to assess if socioeconomic status, stress, and marital status are associated with prostate cancer risk in a population with free access...... to health care. METHODS: The 5,496 men who participated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their income, educational level, stress level, and marital status during 1981-1983. These men were prospectively followed up in the Danish Cancer Registry until the end of 2002 and fewer than 0...... prostate cancer risk according to stress (HR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.90-1.09) or marital status. CONCLUSION: In a racially homogeneous population of Caucasians with free access to health care, we found no evidence of a relation between sociodemographic variables or stress and subsequent risk of prostate cancer....

  9. Survival in Danish patients with breast cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Pedersen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Incidences of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and of breast cancer have increased over the last decades. The influence of IBD on breast cancer prognosis, however, is unknown. We therefore examined the impact of IBD on treatment receipt and survival in breast cancer patients...... colitis (UC). Patients with CD had more advanced stage and received radiotherapy less, and chemotherapy more, frequently than patients without IBD. In the adjusted analyses there was no substantial survival difference in breast cancer patients with and without IBD (MRR(CD) = 1.22; 95% confidence interval...... [CI] = 0.85-1.75; MRR(UC) = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.86-1.38). In a stratified analysis, chemotherapy was associated with poorer survival in patients with CD (MRR(CD) = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.00-3.72).Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with UC receive the same treatment and have similar survival to breast cancer...

  10. Breast cancer survival experiences at a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Galukande, Moses; Wabinga, Henry; Mirembe, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer of the breast is a major health burden and the most common cancer among women worldwide. Though its incidence is fourfold greater in high-income countries, in sharp contrast, mortality rates are greatest among the low-income countries. Early detection linked to appropriate treatment is the most effective strategy to improve survival. The purpose of this study therefore was to establish the survival experiences of women with breast cancer at a Ugandan hospital. Methods This s...

  11. Subsite-Specific Dietary Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer: A Review of Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Anette Hjartåker; Bjarte Aagnes; Trude Eid Robsahm; Hilde Langseth; Freddie Bray; Inger Kristin Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. A shift in the total incidence from left- to right-sided colon cancer has been reported and raises the question as to whether lifestyle risk factors are responsible for the changing subsite distribution of colon cancer. The present study provides a review of the subsite-specific risk estimates for the dietary components presently regarded as convincing or probable risk factors for colorectal cancer: red meat, processed meat, fiber, garlic, milk, calcium, and alcohol. Methods. Studi...

  12. Prediagnostic selenium status and hepatobiliary cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David J; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Hybsier, Sandra;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium status is suboptimal in many Europeans and may be a risk factor for the development of various cancers, including those of the liver and biliary tract. OBJECTIVE: We wished to examine whether selenium status in advance of cancer onset is associated with hepatobiliary cancers...... in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. DESIGN: We assessed prediagnostic selenium status by measuring serum concentrations of selenium and selenoprotein P (SePP; the major circulating selenium transfer protein) and examined the association with hepatocellular...... carcinoma (HCC; n = 121), gallbladder and biliary tract cancers (GBTCs; n = 100), and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBC; n = 40) risk in a nested case-control design within the EPIC study. Selenium was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence, and SePP was determined by a colorimetric sandwich...

  13. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  14. Early detection and prediction of cardiotoxicity after radiation therapy for breast cancer: the BACCARAT prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer presents a benefit in terms of reducing local recurrence and deaths resulting from breast cancer but it can lead to secondary effects due to the presence of neighboring cardiac normal tissues within the irradiation field. Breast RT has been shown to be associated with long-term increased risk of heart failure, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and finally cardiovascular death more than 10 years after RT. However, there is still a lack of knowledge for early cardiotoxicity induced by breast RT that can appear long before the onset of clinically significant cardiac events. Based on a 2-year follow-up prospective cohort of patients treated with breast RT, the BACCARAT (BreAst Cancer and CArdiotoxicity Induced by RAdioTherapy) study aims to enhance knowledge on detection and prediction of early subclinical cardiac dysfunction and lesions induced by breast RT and on biological mechanisms potentially involved, based on functional and anatomical cardiac imaging combined with simultaneous assessment of multiple circulating biomarkers and accurate heart dosimetry. BACCARAT study consists in a monocentric prospective cohort study that will finally include 120 women treated with adjuvant 3D CRT for breast cancer, and followed for 2 years after RT. Women aged 50 to 70 years, treated for breast cancer and for whom adjuvant 3D CRT is indicated, without chemotherapy are eligible for the study. Baseline (before RT) and follow-up data include measurements of functional myocardial dysfunction including strain and strain rate based on 2D-speckle tracking echocardiography, anatomical coronary lesions including description of plaques in segments of coronary arteries based on Coronary computed tomography angiography, and a wide panel of circulating biomarkers. The absorbed dose is evaluated for the whole heart and its substructures, in particular the coronary arteries. Analysis on occurrence and evolution of subclinical cardiac lesions

  15. Gastrointestinal and liver disease in Adult Life After Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdahl, Peter Haubjerg; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Bonnesen, Trine Gade; De Fine Licht, Sofie; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Malila, Nea; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Olsen, Jørgen Helge; Hasle, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Survival after childhood cancer diagnosis has remarkably improved, but emerging evidence suggests that cancer-directed therapy may have adverse gastrointestinal late effects. We aimed to comprehensively assess the frequency of gastrointestinal and liver late effects among childhood cancer survivors and compare this frequency with the general population. Our population-based cohort study included all 1-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden diagnosed from the 1940s and 1950s. Our outcomes of interest were hospitalization rates for gastrointestinal and liver diseases, which were ascertained from national patient registries. We calculated standardized hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) and absolute excess rates comparing hospitalizations of any gastrointestinal or liver disease and for specific disease entities between survivors and the general population. The study included 31,132 survivors and 207,041 comparison subjects. The median follow-up in the hospital registries were 10 years (range: 0-42) with 23% of the survivors being followed at least to the age of 40 years. Overall, survivors had a 60% relative excess of gastrointestinal or liver diseases [RR: 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.7], which corresponds to an absolute excess of 360 (95% CI: 330-390) hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years. Survivors of hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and leukemia had the highest excess of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. In addition, we observed a relative excess of several specific diseases such as esophageal stricture (RR: 13; 95% CI: 9.2-20) and liver cirrhosis (RR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.0-4.1). Our findings provide useful information about the breadth and magnitude of late complications among childhood cancer survivors and can be used for generating hypotheses about potential exposures related to these gastrointestinal and liver late effects. PMID:27194488

  16. Serum vitamin D levels and survival of patients with colorectal cancer: Post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels were shown to be associated with the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. However, 25OHD levels were measured a median of 6 years before diagnosis or were predicted levels. In this study, we directly measured serum 25OHD levels at surgery and examined the association with survival among patients with colorectal cancer. We started a prospective cohort study to find prognostic factors in patients with colorectal cancer from 2003 to 2008 and stored serum samples and clinical data. As part of a post-hoc analysis, serum 25OHD levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Association between overall survival and serum 25OHD levels were computed using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for month of serum sampling as well as age at diagnosis, gender, cancer stage, residual tumor after surgery, time period of surgery, location of tumor, adjuvant chemotherapy and number of lymph nodes with metastasis at surgery. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined. Serum 25OHD levels were measured in 257 patients. Only 3% had sufficient levels (30 ng/ml and greater). Based on month of blood sampling, an annual oscillation of 25OHD levels was seen, with levels being lower in spring and higher in late summer. Higher 25OHD levels were associated with better overall survival under multi-variate analysis (HR, 0.91: 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99, P = 0.027). These results suggest that higher 25OHD levels at surgery may be associated with a better survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer

  17. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, David B.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O’Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B.; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; MOISSONNIER, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K.; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 ...

  18. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2 (sVEGFR-2) and 3 (sVEGFR-3) and breast cancer risk in the Swedish Mammography Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Holly; Wolk, Alicja; Larsson, Anders; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Basu, Samar

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signalling protein that has been established as a contributor to tumor angiogenesis, and expression of VEGF and its soluble receptors (sVEGFR2 and sVEGFR3) have been demonstrated in breast cancer cells. However, no prospective studies have examined the association between prediagnostic sVEGFR levels and breast cancer risk. We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the Swedish Mammography Cohort examining the association between ...

  19. Risk of cancer following primary total hip replacement or primary resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip: a retrospective cohort study in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Brewster, D H; Stockton, D L; Reekie, A; Ashcroft, G. P.; Howie, C R; Porter, D E; Black, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Release and dispersion of particles arising from corrosion and wear of total hip arthroplasty (THA) components has raised concerns about a possible increased risk of cancer. Concerns have been heightened by a recent revival in the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses. Methods: From a linked database of hospital discharge, cancer registration, and mortality records, we selected a cohort of patients who underwent primary THA (1990–2009) or primary resurfacing arthroplasty (mai...

  20. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Hartman, A.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Kato, I.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Inconsistent findings from observational studies have continued the controversy over the effects of dietary fiber on colorectal cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: From 13 prospective c

  1. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  2. Cause-Specific Colostomy Rates After Radiotherapy for Anal Cancer: A Danish Multicentre Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kåre G; Nørgaard, Mette; Lundby, Lilli;

    2011-01-01

    In anal cancer, colostomy-free survival is a measure of anal sphincter preservation after treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Failure to control anal cancer and complications of treatment are alternative indications for colostomy. However, no data exist on cause-specific colostomy...

  3. Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk: A pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Wang, M.; Li, R.; Albanes, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Bernstein, L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; English, D.R.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Gapstur, S.M.; Giles, G.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Håkansson, N.; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Koushik, A.; Marshal, J.R.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Robien, K.; Rohan, T.E.; Schairer, C.; Silverman, D.T.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R.Z.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Ziegler, R.G.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has few early symptoms, is usually diagnosed at late stages, and has a high case-fatality rate. Identifying modifiable risk factors is crucial to reducing pancreatic cancer morbidity and mortality. Prior studies have suggested that specific foods and nutrients, such as dairy produc

  4. Prospective cohort study of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy: CSPOR-BC FN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Narui, Kazutaka; Kaise, Hiroshi; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for treating early breast cancer, febrile neutropenia management has become crucial. Guidelines for febrile neutropenia management are mostly based on a Caucasian population survey although ethnic differences are reported in terms of adverse events. We survey the current status of febrile neutropenia and risk factors in Japanese female breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens potential for febrile neutropenia. Subsequently, we plan to conduct a multicenter prospective cohort study involving 1000 patients with operable breast cancer. With the current state of oral antibiotics being routinely prescribed without hematology tests, we survey febrile neutropenia based on two different definitions, namely, true febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and Grade 4 neutropenia, and surrogate febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and oral antibiotic and antipyretic intake. The comparison of true febrile neutropenia and surrogate febrile neutropenia incidences is anticipated to provide information on the safety and feasibility of chemotherapy management without performing blood tests. PMID:27162322

  5. Risk of Prostate Cancer after Trans Urethral Resection of BPH: A Cohort and Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that inflammation plays a role in both prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study evaluates the risk of PC after transurethral resection (TURP) for BPH and estimates the PCa risk related to presence of inflammation in the resected material. The Pathology Department at the University Hospital of Umeå (Umeå, Sweden) identified BPH cases (n = 7,901) that underwent TURP between 1982 and 1997. Using these pathological specimens, we compared the incidence of PCa in the cohort to the population and calculated the standardized incidence and mortality ratios (SIR and SMR). Inflammation, the androgen receptor (AR), and p53 were evaluated in a nested case-control study of 201 cases and controls. Inflammation was graded severe or mild-moderate. In the follow-up period after TURP, cases developed prostate cancer and the controls did not. After TURP, SIR for prostate cancer increased [1.26, CI 95% (1.17–1.35) ], whereas SMR decreased [0.59, CI 95% (0.47–0.73) ]. Presence of inflammation at the time of TURP did not differ between cases and controls nor were there differences in p53 or AR staining. The data suggest a small increased risk of PCa after TURP and decreased PCa mortality. Inflammation at the time of TURP is not associated with PCa risk in this material. The increased PCa risk may be attributed to increased surveillance and PSA screening

  6. Self-reported stress and risk of endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess a possible relationship between perceived stress and first-time incidence of primary endometrial cancer. Psychological stress may affect the synthesis and metabolism of estrogens and thereby be related to risk of endometrial cancer. METHODS: The 6760 women participating in the...... Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their stress level at baseline from 1981 to 1983. These women were prospectively followed up in the Danish nationwide cancer registry until 2000 and <0.1% were lost to follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze data. RESULTS: During follow......-up, 72 women were diagnosed with endometrial cancer. For each increase in stress level on a 7-point stress scale, there was a lower risk of primary endometrial cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-1.01). This inverse association was particularly strong in women who...

  7. A prospective evaluation of early detection biomarkers for ovarian cancer in the European EPIC cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terry, Kathryn L; Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Hüsing, Anika; Fichorova, Raina N; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Vitonis, Allison F; Johnson, Theron; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Severi, Gianluca; Dossus, Laure; Rinaldi, Sabina; Boeing, Heiner; Benetou, Vassiliki; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Krogh, Vittorio; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peeters, Petra H; Gram, Inger Torhild; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Duell, Eric J; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Jirström, Karin; Manjer, Jonas; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Smith Byrne, Karl; Travis, Ruth C; Gunter, Marc J; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Cramer, Daniel; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    source of information to evaluate early detection biomarkers. Here we evaluate the most promising ovarian cancer screening biomarkers in prospectively collected samples from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We measured CA125, HE4, CA72......PURPOSE: About 60% of ovarian cancers are diagnosed at late stage, when 5-year survival is less than 30% in contrast to 90% for local disease. This has prompted search for early detection biomarkers. For initial testing, specimens taken months or years before ovarian cancer diagnosis are the best.......4 and CA15.3 in 810 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 1,939 controls. We calculated the sensitivity at 95% and 98% specificity as well as Area under the Receiver Operator Curve (C-statistic) for each marker individually and in combination. Additionally, we evaluated marker performance by...

  8. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainsbury Richard

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. Methods 35,354 women resident in South East England and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2001 who received radiotherapy within six months of diagnosis were identified from the Thames Cancer Registry. Time to radiotherapy was measured from either the date of diagnosis or the start of the previous treatment, whichever was shorter. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to examine whether patients received radiotherapy within 60 days of their diagnosis or previous treatment. Results The adjusted proportions of patients receiving radiotherapy within 60 days varied significantly between different cancer networks (range: 43% to 81%, and decreased from 68% in 1992 to 33% in 2001. After adjustment there was no association between deprivation of area of residence, age or stage and radiotherapy wait. Median time waited to radiotherapy increased over the study period whether measured from the start of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery or the date of diagnosis. Conclusion This study covered a period of time before the investment following the Cancer Plan of 2000. Results are consistent with other findings suggesting variation between cancer networks and increasing waits over time. Further studies should examine different methods of measuring waiting time, the causes and consequences of waits for radiotherapy and the effect of current initiatives and investments.

  9. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. 35,354 women resident in South East England and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2001 who received radiotherapy within six months of diagnosis were identified from the Thames Cancer Registry. Time to radiotherapy was measured from either the date of diagnosis or the start of the previous treatment, whichever was shorter. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to examine whether patients received radiotherapy within 60 days of their diagnosis or previous treatment. The adjusted proportions of patients receiving radiotherapy within 60 days varied significantly between different cancer networks (range: 43% to 81%), and decreased from 68% in 1992 to 33% in 2001. After adjustment there was no association between deprivation of area of residence, age or stage and radiotherapy wait. Median time waited to radiotherapy increased over the study period whether measured from the start of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery or the date of diagnosis. This study covered a period of time before the investment following the Cancer Plan of 2000. Results are consistent with other findings suggesting variation between cancer networks and increasing waits over time. Further studies should examine different methods of measuring waiting time, the causes and consequences of waits for radiotherapy and the effect of current initiatives and investments

  10. Exposure to diagnostic radiation and risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations : retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Andrieu, Nadine; Easton, Douglas F.; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Cardis, Elisabeth; Nogues, Catherine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Paterson, Joan; Manders, Peggy; van Asperen, Christi J.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Hauptmann, Michael; Goldgar, David; Rookus, Matti A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with diagnostic radiation in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. Design Retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK). Setting Three nationwide studies (GENEPSO, EMBRACE, HEBON) in France, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, Participants 1993 femal

  11. Are retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and carotenoids intake associated with bladder cancer risk? : results from the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120 852 subjects aged 55-69 years at baseline (1986), the association between vitamins and carotenoids intake, vitamin supplement use, and bladder cancer incidence was examined. Exposure status was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of

  12. Nuclear Technology Education Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reinforce the government efforts toward the restoration of nuclear education health, a new concept in post-graduate level training for the nuclear sector has been developed by a strong consortium of UK universities and HE institutions under the title Nuclear Technology Education Consortium (NTEC). The basis of this consortium were designed to meet the UK projected nuclear skills requirements in decommissioning and cleanup, reactor technology, fusion and nuclear medicine. The structure and content of the programme, which leads to qualifications up to master's level in nuclear science and technology, was established following extensive consultations with the UK nuclear sector, including industry, regulators, MoD, NDA, Government Departments and the Cogent Sector Skills Council. The programme is coordinated by the Dalton Nuclear Institute at The University of Manchester. This programme has been approved by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Following are the key features of this consortium: - It was only designed to fulfil the needs nuclear sector; - It offers subjects in broad spectrum, from reactor theory through decommissioning to waste disposal and storage, the subject matter being presented by leading specialists in their field; - Each topic is presented in short course format which is ideal for employees within the industry; - It offers part-time basis over a period of three years as well as full-time in one year post-graduate courses in nuclear science and technology; - This programme also covers the Post-graduate Diploma or Post-graduate Certificate opportunity for students; - Individual subjects are presented in 'short course' modular format, providing excellent access to the programme for engineers and managers in full-time employment who wish to advance their skill and knowledge base; - The core of each module is one week of direct teaching at the relevant institution, minimizing the time away from the workplace for an employee whilst maximizing

  13. Radiation effects on cancer risks in the life span study cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine late health effects of radiation in atomic bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has been conducting studies on the Life Span Study (LSS) population, which consists of 93 000 atomic bomb survivors and 27.000 controls. A recent report on the incidence of solid cancers estimates that at the age of 70 y, after exposure at the age of 30 y, solid-cancer rates increase by about 35 % per Gy for men and 58 % per Gy for women. The age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. Furthermore, it seems that radiation-associated increases in cancer rates persist throughout life. In addition, radiation has similar effects upon first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. A recent report on leukemia mortality suggested that the effect of radiation on leukemia mortality persisted for more than five decades. In addition, a significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome is found in Nagasaki LSS members 40-60 y after radiation exposure. In view of the nature of the continuing increase in solid cancers, the LSS should continue to provide important new information on cancer risks, as most survivors still alive today were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation under the age of 20 y and are now entering their cancer-prone years. (authors)

  14. Dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies: the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilda L Bongers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is present in many everyday foods. Since the finding of its presence in foods in 2002, epidemiological studies have found some suggestive associations between dietary acrylamide exposure and the risk of various cancers. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate for the first time the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of several histological subtypes of lymphatic malignancies. METHODS: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer includes 120,852 men and women followed-up since September 1986. The number of person years at risk was estimated by using a random sample of participants from the total cohort that was chosen at baseline (n =5,000. Acrylamide intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire combined with acrylamide data for Dutch foods. Hazard ratios (HRs were calculated for acrylamide intake as a continuous variable as well as in categories (quintiles and tertiles, for men and women separately and for never-smokers, using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After 16.3 years of follow-up, 1,233 microscopically confirmed cases of lymphatic malignancies were available for multivariable-adjusted analysis. For multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma, HRs for men were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.27 and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.61 per 10 µg acrylamide/day increment, respectively. For never-smoking men, the HR for multiple myeloma was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.85. No associations were observed for women. CONCLUSION: We found indications that acrylamide may increase the risk of multiple myeloma and follicular lymphoma in men. This is the first epidemiological study to investigate the association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of lymphatic malignancies, and more research into these observed associations is warranted.

  15. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization in patients with breast cancer: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-jing HE; Li, Mi; CHEN Jing; Jin-chong DUAN; Wang, Dong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization (PORC) in patients with breast cancer after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with vecuronium. Methods  Two hundred and fifty-seven female patients with breast cancer undergoing breast-cancer surgery were enrolled into the present study. Anesthesia was induced with target-controlled infusion of propofol (Cp 3-4μg/ml) and remifentanil (2-3 ng/ml). A bolus of vecuronium 0.1mg/ kg was administered int...

  16. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A. Al-Amri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ⩾50 years and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause <50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  17. Limited family structure and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype as predictors of BRCA mutations in a genetic counseling cohort of early-onset sporadic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazagoitia, Jon; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Manzano, Arancha; Blanco, Ignacio; Vega, Ana; Custodio, Ana; Teulé, Alex; Fachal, Laura; Martínez, Beatriz; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Cruz-Hernández, Juan Jesús; Chirivella, Isabel; Garcés, Vicente; Garre, Pilar; Romero, Atocha; Caldés, Trinidad; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; de la Hoya, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Early-onset diagnosis is an eligibility criterion for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) testing in sporadic breast cancer patients. Limited family structure has been proposed as a predictor of BRCA mutation status in this group of patients. An overwhelming amount of data supports a strong association between BRCA1 mutations and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we analyze the feasibility of using limited family structure and TNBC as predictors of BRCA mutation status in early-onset breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. We have conducted the study in a cohort of sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients (N = 341) previously selected for BRCA genetic testing in Academic Hereditary Cancer Clinics from Spain. A retrospective review of medical records available at the time of risk assessment allowed us classifying patients according to family structure and TNBC. In addition, BRCAPRO score was calculated for all patients. Association between categorical variables was investigated using the Fisher's exact test. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Limited family structure (OR 3.61, p = 0.013) and TNBC (OR 3.14, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of BRCA mutation status. Mutation prevalence in the subgroup of patients with at least one positive predictor was 14%, whereas it dropped to 3% in non-TNBCs with adequate family history (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.38-23.89, p = 0.006). BRCAPRO correctly discerned between limited and adequate family structures. Limited family structure and TNBC are feasible predictors of BRCA mutation status in sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. The low prevalence of mutations observed in non-TNBCs with adequate family structure suggests that this subgroup of patients might be excluded from genetic testing. PMID:25342642

  18. Alcohol drinking, consumption patterns and breast cancer among Danish nurses: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina S; Johansen, Ditte; Thygesen, Lau C;

    2007-01-01

    -related factors. Data were analysed using Cox's proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During follow-up 457 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer was 2.30 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.56-3.39] for alcohol intake of 22-27 drinks per week, compared to 1-3 drinks per week. Among...... alcohol consumers, weekly alcohol intake increased the risk of breast cancer with 2% for each additional drink consumed. Weekend consumption increased the risk with 4% for each additional drink consumed friday through sunday. Binge drinking of 4-5 drinks the latest weekday increased risk with 55...... each additional drink consumed during the week. Weekend consumption and binge drinking imply an additional increase in breast cancer risk....

  19. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Brown (David); R.F. Anda (Robert); V.J. Felitti (Vincent); V.J. Edwards (Valerie); A.M. Malarcher (Ann Marie); J.B. Croft (Janet); W.H. Giles (Wayne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods. Baseline survey data on health

  20. Breast Cancer Laterality Does Not Influence Survival in a Large Modern Cohort: Implications for Radiation-Related Cardiac Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutter, Charles E., E-mail: charles.rutter@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Chagpar, Anees B. [Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Evans, Suzanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Objectives: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality, based on studies predating treatment planning based on computed tomography. This study assessed the impact of tumor laterality on overall survival (OS) in a large cohort treated with modern techniques, to indirectly determine whether left-sided treatment remains associated with increased cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: Patients treated for breast cancer with breast conserving surgery and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy were identified in the National Cancer Database, and OS was compared based on tumor laterality using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Separate analyses were performed for noninvasive and invasive carcinoma and for breast-only and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy. Multivariate regression analysis of OS was performed with demographic, pathologic, and treatment variables as covariates to adjust for factors associated with breast cancer–specific survival. Results: We identified 344,831 patients whose cancer was diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 with a median follow-up time of 6.04 years (range, 0-14.17 years). Clinical, tumor, and treatment characteristics were similar between laterality groups. Regional nodal radiation was used in 14.2% of invasive cancers. No OS difference was noted based on tumor laterality for patients treated with breast-only (hazard ratio [HR] 0.984, P=.132) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 1.001, P=.957). In multivariate analysis including potential confounders, OS was identical between left and right sided cancers (HR 1.002, P=.874). No significant OS difference by laterality was observed when analyses were restricted to patients with at least 10 years of follow-up (n=27,725), both in patients treated with breast-only (HR 0.955, P=.368) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 0.859, P=.155). Conclusions: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer does

  1. Breast Cancer Laterality Does Not Influence Survival in a Large Modern Cohort: Implications for Radiation-Related Cardiac Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality, based on studies predating treatment planning based on computed tomography. This study assessed the impact of tumor laterality on overall survival (OS) in a large cohort treated with modern techniques, to indirectly determine whether left-sided treatment remains associated with increased cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: Patients treated for breast cancer with breast conserving surgery and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy were identified in the National Cancer Database, and OS was compared based on tumor laterality using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Separate analyses were performed for noninvasive and invasive carcinoma and for breast-only and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy. Multivariate regression analysis of OS was performed with demographic, pathologic, and treatment variables as covariates to adjust for factors associated with breast cancer–specific survival. Results: We identified 344,831 patients whose cancer was diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 with a median follow-up time of 6.04 years (range, 0-14.17 years). Clinical, tumor, and treatment characteristics were similar between laterality groups. Regional nodal radiation was used in 14.2% of invasive cancers. No OS difference was noted based on tumor laterality for patients treated with breast-only (hazard ratio [HR] 0.984, P=.132) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 1.001, P=.957). In multivariate analysis including potential confounders, OS was identical between left and right sided cancers (HR 1.002, P=.874). No significant OS difference by laterality was observed when analyses were restricted to patients with at least 10 years of follow-up (n=27,725), both in patients treated with breast-only (HR 0.955, P=.368) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 0.859, P=.155). Conclusions: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer does

  2. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods Baseline survey data on health behaviours, health status and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs were collected from 17,337 adults during 1995-1997. ACEs included abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation or divorce, or growing up in a household where members with mentally ill, substance abusers, or sent to prison. We used the ACE score (an integer count of the 8 categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. Two methods of case ascertainment were used to identify incident lung cancer through 2005 follow-up: 1 hospital discharge records and 2 mortality records obtained from the National Death Index. Results The ACE score showed a graded relationship to smoking behaviors. We identified 64 cases of lung cancer through hospital discharge records (age-standardized risk = 201 × 100,000-1 population and 111 cases of lung cancer through mortality records (age-standardized mortality rate = 31.1 × 100,000-1 person-years. The ACE score also showed a graded relationship to the incidence of lung cancer for cases identified through hospital discharge (P = 0.0004, mortality (P = 0.025, and both methods combined (P = 0.001. Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold (hospital records: RR = 3.18, 95%CI = 0.71-14.15; mortality records: RR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.25-10.09; hospital or mortality records: RR = 2.70, 95%CI = 0.94-7.72. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs → smoking → lung cancer, risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital

  3. Habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses and risk of colorectal cancer in 2 large prospective cohorts12

    OpenAIRE

    Nimptsch, K; Zhang, X; CASSIDY, A; Song, M; O'Reilly, EJ; Lin, JH; Pischon, T.; Rimm, EB; Willett, WC; Fuchs, CS; Ogino, S; Chan, AT; Giovannucci, EL; Wu, K

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flavonoids inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells in vitro. In a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Polyp Prevention Trial, a higher intake of one subclass, flavonols, was statistically significantly associated with a reduced risk of recurrent advanced adenoma. Most previous prospective studies on colorectal cancer evaluated only a limited number of flavonoid subclasses and intake ranges, yielding inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined...

  4. A prospective cohort study on poor oral hygiene and pancreatic cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaqi; Roosaar, Ann; Axéll, Tony; Ye, Weimin

    2016-01-15

    Poor oral hygiene has been proposed to increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. We aim to assess this hypothesis, using number of teeth, dental plaque and oral mucosal lesions examined at baseline as a proxy for oral hygiene. During 1973-74 a population-based prevalence study of oral mucosal lesions was carried out in Uppsala County in central Sweden. We followed the study population through linkages with the Swedish Cancer and Total Population registers. A total of 19,924 participants were included, and 126 pancreatic cancer cases were identified during an average of 28.7 years of follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pancreatic cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Overall, subjects with fewer teeth at baseline tended to have an increased risk for pancreatic cancer, although the estimates were not statistically significant. Among subjects with more than 10 teeth, those with unacceptable dental plaque had an HR of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.7), compared with those without dental plaque after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Individuals with Candida-related or denture-related oral mucosal lesions, or tongue lesions, compared with those without any of the three studied lesions, had a 70, 30 and 80% excess risk of developing pancreatic cancer, respectively. Presence of more than one type of studied lesions further increased the risk for pancreatic cancer. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence to support the hypothesis that poor oral hygiene plays an important role in the development of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26235255

  5. Dietary cadmium intake and risk of prostate cancer: a Danish prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Halkjær, Jytte; Jaymie R. Meliker; McElroy, Jane A.; Sørensen, Mette; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Cadmium is classified as a human lung carcinogen based on evidence from high-exposure occupational settings. Though cadmium has no physiological role, increasing evidence suggests cadmium may mimic steroid hormones. This dual ability of being carcinogenic and hormone-like makes cadmium a concern for hormone-related cancers. Causes of prostate cancer are not clear, but steroid hormones, particularly androgens and probably estrogens, may be involved. Cadmium has been positively assoc...

  6. Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid and Oral Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-An Liu; Fun-Jou Chen; Shang-Heng Wu; Rong-San Jiang; Wen-Jiun Lin

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between smoking, alcoholic consumption, and betel quid chewing with oral cancer in a prospective manner. All male patients age ≥18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosa inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 10,657 participants were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings we...

  7. Caffeinated Coffee, Decaffeinated Coffee and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study among US Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Katherine W.; Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson; Nicole Luisi; Raji Balasubramanian; Ayush Giri; Sturgeon, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    There is plausible biological evidence as well as epidemiologic evidence to suggest coffee consumption may lower endometrial cancer risk. We evaluated the associations between self-reported total coffee, caffeinated coffee and decaffeinated coffee, and endometrial cancer risk using the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study Research Materials obtained from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Biological Specimen and Data Repository Coordinating Center. Our primary analyses inc...

  8. Depression and demoralization as distinct syndromes: Preliminary data from a cohort of advanced cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen Juliet; Vanderwerker Lauren; Block Susan; Friedlander Robert; Maciejewski Paul; Prigerson Holly

    2006-01-01

    The term demoralization has been used to describe existential distress and despair of patients with advanced disease. Aim: This study sought to determine whether a cluster of symptoms interpreted as demoralization could be identified and distinguished from a cluster of depressive symptoms. Materials and Methods: As part of the Coping with Cancer Study, a federally funded multi-site study of advanced cancer patients, 242 patients were interviewed on a broad range of mental health parameter...

  9. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin; Skovgaard, L.T.; de Bruijne, Marleen; Pedersen, Jesper H.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed....... CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with...

  10. ABO blood groups and pancreatic cancer risk and survival: Results from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rizzato, C.; Campa, D.; Pezzilli, R.; Souček, P.; Greenhalf, W.; Capurso, G.; Talar-Wojnarowska, R.; Heller, A.; Jamroziak, K.; Khaw, K. T.; Key, T.; Bambi, F.; Landi, S.; Mohelníková-Duchoňová, B.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buechler, M. W.; Bugert, P.; Vodička, Pavel; Neoptolemos, J. P.; Werner, J.; Hoheisel, J. D.; Bauer, A. S.; Giese, N.; Canzian, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2013), s. 1637-1644. ISSN 1021-335X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : pancreatic cancer * genetic susceptibility * cancer risk Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.191, year: 2013

  11. Changes in vitamin and mineral supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in the Pathways Study: a prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitamin and mineral supplement use after a breast cancer diagnosis is common and controversial. Dosages used and the timing of initiation and/or discontinuation of supplements have not been clearly described. We prospectively examined changes in use of 17 vitamin/mineral supplements in the first six months following breast cancer diagnosis among 2,596 members (28% non-white) of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine demographic, clinical, and lifestyle predictors of initiation and discontinuation. Most women used vitamin/mineral supplements before (84%) and after (82%) diagnosis, with average doses far in excess of Institute of Medicine reference intakes. Over half (60.2%) reported initiating a vitamin/mineral following diagnosis, 46.3% discontinuing a vitamin/mineral, 65.6% using a vitamin/mineral continuously, and only 7.2% not using any vitamin/mineral supplement before or after diagnosis. The most commonly initiated supplements were calcium (38.2%), vitamin D (32.01%), vitamin B6 (12.3%) and magnesium (11.31%); the most commonly discontinued supplements were multivitamins (17.14%), vitamin C (15.97%) and vitamin E (45.62%). Higher education, higher intake of fruits/vegetables, and receipt of chemotherapy were associated with initiation (p-values <0.05). Younger age and breast-conserving surgery were associated with discontinuation (p-values <0.05). In this large cohort of ethnically diverse breast cancer patients, high numbers of women used vitamin/mineral supplements in the 6 months following breast cancer diagnosis, often at high doses and in combination with other supplements. The immediate period after diagnosis is a critical time for clinicians to counsel women on supplement use

  12. Excess body weight and cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes who were registered in Swedish National Diabetes Register--register-based cohort study in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmei Miao Jonasson

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the association between excess body weight and cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D who were registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR. METHODS: This is a cohort study based on 25,268 patients with T2D and baseline BMI≥18.5 kg/m(2 from NDR 1997-1999. Subjects were grouped according to BMI into normal weight (18.5 to 24.9, overweight (25 to 29.9 or obesity (30 or more. All subjects were followed until the first occurrence of cancer, or death, or the end of follow-up (December 31, 2009. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence interval (CI for cancer risks were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: In men with T2D, overweight was associated with increased risks of all cancer [1.13 (1.02-1.27], gastrointestinal cancer [1.34 (1.07-1.72] and colorectal cancer [1.59 (1.18-2.13]; obesity was related to higher risks of all cancer [1.17 (1.04-1.33], gastrointestinal cancer [1.40 (1.08-1.82] and colorectal cancer [1.62 (1.17-2.24]. In women with T2D, obesity was associated with increased risk of all cancer [1.30 (1.12-1.51], gastrointestinal cancer [1.40 (1.03-1.91] and postmenopausal breast cancer [1.39 (1.00-1.91]. CONCLUSIONS: Excess body weight was associated with increased risks of all cancer, gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer in men with T2D. Obesity was related with elevated risks of all cancer, gestational cancer and postmenopausal breast cancer in women with T2D.

  13. Hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Sofie; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark...... were linked to the national hospital registries, and observed numbers of first-time hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood cancer were compared with the expected numbers derived from the population comparison cohort. We calculated the absolute excess risks attributable...... to status as a childhood cancer survivor and standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (SHRRs). FINDINGS: Of the childhood cancer survivors, 3292 had contact with a hospital for an endocrine disorder, yielding a SHRR of 4·8 (95% CI 4·6-5·0); the highest risks were in survivors of leukaemia (SHRR 7·3 [95% CI...

  14. Cancer risk in patients aged 30 years and above with type 2 diabetes receiving antidiabetic monotherapy: a cohort study using metformin as the comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Kok, Victor C; Chien, Ching-Hsuan; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Tsai, Jeffrey J P

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin reduces incident cancer development. Few cohort studies have evaluated the risk of subsequent cancer development in diabetic cohorts receiving antidiabetic monotherapy. We conducted a population-based study in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic monotherapy. Methods We identified a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetics aged ≥30 years receiving hypoglycemic monotherapy (n=7,325) from the 1998–2007 Longitudinal Health Insurance Dataset. Patients were grouped according to the antidiabetic therapy they received into metformin (n=2,223), sulfonylurea (n=3,965), glitazone (n=53), meglitinide (n=128), acarbose (n=150), and insulin (n=806) groups. Patients with preexisting cancer were excluded. All patients were followed up until cancer development, dropout, death, or until December 31, 2008. Cox’s model was used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, smoking-related comorbidities, alcohol use disorders, morbid obesity, pancreatitis, hypertension, monthly income, and urbanization level. The log-rank test was used to compare cumulative cancer incidence. Two-sided P-values 0.25 of metformin when compared to lower dose will contribute to a reduction of 80% risk. PMID:26357479

  15. Lack of an association between passive smoking and incidence of female breast cancer in non-smokers: evidence from 10 prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several case-control studies have suggested that passive smoking may increase the incidence of female breast cancer. However, the results of cohort studies have been inconsistent in establishing an association. The present study evaluated the association between passive smoking and incidence of female breast cancer through a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Relevant articles published before August 2012 were identified by searching the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Pooled relative risks (RRs were determined with either a fixed or random effects model and were used to assess the strength of the association. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses according to ethnicity, menopausal status, and the period and place of exposure to passive smoking were also performed. RESULTS: Ten prospective cohort studies involving 782 534 female non-smokers were included in the meta-analysis and 14 831 breast cancer cases were detected. Compared with the women without exposure to passive smoking, the overall combined RR of breast cancer was 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 1.06, P = 0.73 among women with exposure to passive smoking. Similar results were achieved through the subgroup analyses. No evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that passive smoking may not be associated with increased incidence of breast cancer. However, the present conclusion should be considered carefully and confirmed with further studies.

  16. Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children--a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane;

    2015-01-01

    and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood......Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been...... evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins...

  17. Vitamins C and E, retinol, beta-carotene and dietary fibre in relation to breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeven, D. T.; Assen, N.; Goldbohm, R. A.; Dorant, E.; van't Veer, P; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R. J.; van den Brandt, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Association between breast cancer risk and the intake of vitamins C and E, retinol, beta (beta)-carotene, dietary fibre, vegetables, fruit and potatoes was examined in The Netherlands Cohort Study, for 62,573 women aged 55-69 years. After 4.3 years of follow-up, 650 incident breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for traditional risk factors, breast cancer risk was not influenced by the intake of beta-carotene, vitamin E, dietary fibre, supplements with vitamin C, vegetables or ...

  18. Intakes of fruits and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamins A, E, C in relation to the risk of bladder cancer in the ATBC cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, D S; Pietinen, P.; Taylor, P R; Virtanen, M; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2002-01-01

    We examined the relation between dietary fruit and vegetables, carotenoids and vitamin intakes and the risk of bladder cancer among male smokers in a prospective cohort study. Over a median of 11 years, we followed 27 111 male smokers aged 50–69 years who were initially enrolled in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. During this period, 344 men developed bladder cancer. All of these men had completed a 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline. Cox proportional h...

  19. Alteration of amino acid and biogenic amine metabolism in hepatobiliary cancers: Findings from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Magdalena; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Floegel, Anne; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar; Rinaldi, Sabina; Achaintre, David; Assi, Nada; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Bastide, Nadia; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Saieva, Calogero; Agnoli, Claudia; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Gavrila, Diana; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Werner, Mårten; Sund, Malin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Schmidt, Julie A; Gunter, Marc; Cross, Amanda; Vineis, Paolo; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Jenab, Mazda

    2016-01-15

    Perturbations in levels of amino acids (AA) and their derivatives are observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Yet, it is unclear whether these alterations precede or are a consequence of the disease, nor whether they pertain to anatomically related cancers of the intrahepatic bile duct (IHBC), and gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tract (GBTC). Circulating standard AA, biogenic amines and hexoses were measured (Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ-p180Kit) in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort (147 HCC, 43 IHBC and 134 GBTC cases). Liver function and hepatitis status biomarkers were determined separately. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95%CI) for log-transformed standardised (mean = 0, SD = 1) serum metabolite levels and relevant ratios in relation to HCC, IHBC or GBTC risk. Fourteen metabolites were significantly associated with HCC risk, of which seven metabolites and four ratios were the strongest predictors in continuous models. Leucine, lysine, glutamine and the ratio of branched chain to aromatic AA (Fischer's ratio) were inversely, while phenylalanine, tyrosine and their ratio, glutamate, glutamate/glutamine ratio, kynurenine and its ratio to tryptophan were positively associated with HCC risk. Confounding by hepatitis status and liver enzyme levels was observed. For the other cancers no significant associations were observed. In conclusion, imbalances of specific AA and biogenic amines may be involved in HCC development. PMID:26238458

  20. No Association between HMOX1 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and No Interaction with Diet and Lifestyle Factors in a Prospective Danish Case-Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Red meat is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC. We wanted to evaluate whether a functional polymorphism in the HMOX1 gene encoding heme oxygenase modifies risk of CRC or interacts with diet or lifestyle factors because this would identify heme or heme iron as a risk factor of CRC. The HMOX1 A-413T (rs2071746 was assessed in relation to risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and interactions with diet (red meat, fish, fiber, cereals, fruit and vegetables and lifestyle (use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and smoking status were assessed in a case-cohort study of 928 CRC cases and a comparison group of 1726 randomly selected participants from a prospective study of 57,053 persons. No association between HMOX1 A-413T and CRC risk was found (TT vs. AA + TA; IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.98–1.36, p = 0.10 for the adjusted estimate. No interactions were found between diet or lifestyle and HMOX1 A-413T. HMOX1 A-413T was not associated with CRC risk and no interactions with diet or lifestyle were identified in this large, prospective cohort with high meat intake. The results reproduced the previous findings from the same cohort and did not support a link between heme or heme iron and colorectal cancer. These results should be sought and replicated in other well-characterized cohorts with high meat intake.

  1. Cardiac comorbidity in head and neck cancer patients and its influence on cancer treatment selection and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, Roland; Breitenstein, Kerstin; Eßer, Dirk; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    Comorbidity assessment and a profound cardiac examination were implemented into pre-treatment diagnostics to analyze their influence on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) therapy selection and short-term mortality. Comorbidity was measured prospectively in 49 HNSCC patients using standard indices between 2012 and 2013. Cardiac examinations included electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and bicycle ergometry. Most patients had stage IV tumors (61 %), smoked (61 %), and showed alcohol abuse (57 %); 38 patients (78 %) received a multimodal therapy; 65 % had an adult comorbidity evaluation 27 index ≥2, 59 % a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) ≥4, and 12 % a revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) ≥2. Additional cardiac examinations revealed moderate to severe cardiovascular pathologies in 32 % of the patients and led to recommendations for additional therapy in 4 patients (8 %) necessary only after cancer treatment. RCRI was associated with CCI and cardiac examinations (p = 0.009, p = 0.030). Chemotherapy, stroke history, and RCRI ≥2 were risk factors for early mortality within first 2 years after cancer therapy (p = 0.037; p = 0.012; p = 0.015). Although one-third of a strongly smoking and drinking patient cohort had relevant cardiac morbidity, extended unselected cardiac diagnostics had only low impact on HNSCC therapy selection. The risk of early mortality after HNSCC cancer treatment seems to be sufficiently reflected by the RCRI. PMID:26581475

  2. Occurrence of cancer in a cohort of 183 persons with constitutional chromosome 7 abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, H; Olsen, J H; Hansen, J;

    1998-01-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities in human malignancies frequently involve chromosome 7. The existence of several tumor suppressor genes on the long arm of chromosome 7 has been suggested in both epithelial and hematologic malignancies. From the Danish Cytogenetic Register, we identified 183 persons with...... constitutional abnormalities involving chromosome 7, including 16 patients with Williams syndrome. By linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, we found five persons with cancer, including one thyroid carcinoma, three carcinomas of the digestive tract, and one malignant melanoma. There were no cases of leukemia...

  3. Dairy consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    Yi Yu,1,* Hui Li,1,* Kaiwu Xu,2,* Xin Li,1 Chunlin Hu,1 Hongyan Wei,1 Xiaoyun Zeng,1 Xiaoli Jing1 1Emergency Department, 2Gastrointestinal Surgery Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Lung cancer risk is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relation...

  4. Dairy consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Y; Li H.; Xu K; Li X.; Hu C; Wei H; Zeng X; Jing X

    2015-01-01

    Yi Yu,1,* Hui Li,1,* Kaiwu Xu,2,* Xin Li,1 Chunlin Hu,1 Hongyan Wei,1 Xiaoyun Zeng,1 Xiaoli Jing1 1Emergency Department, 2Gastrointestinal Surgery Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Lung cancer risk is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between dai...

  5. A High Diet Quality Based on Dietary Recommendations Is Not Associated with Lower Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Mandalazi; Isabel Drake; Elisabet Wirfält; Marju Orho-Melander; Emily Sonestedt

    2016-01-01

    A high diet quality index based on Swedish nutrition recommendations has previously been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) cohort. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this diet quality index was associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes. Of 26,868 participants (44–74 years) in the MDC cohort study, 3838 type 2 diabetes cases were identified from registers during 17 years of follow-up. A diet quality i...

  6. Are retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, folate and carotenoids intake associated with bladder cancer risk? : results from the Netherlands cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Zeegers, M P A; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P A van den

    2001-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120 852 subjects aged 55–69 years at baseline (1986), the association between vitamins and carotenoids intake, vitamin supplement use, and bladder cancer incidence was examined. Exposure status was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up, data from 569 cases and 3123 subcohort members were available for case-cohort analyses. The age-, sex-, and smoking-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for retinol, vitamin E, folate, a-carot...

  7. Dietary Carotenoids and Risk of Lung Cancer in a Pooled Analysis of Seven Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Männistö, S.; Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Albanes, D.; Anderson, K.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.; Feskanich, D.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Miller, A.B.; Rohan, T.E.; Virtamo, J.; Willett, W.C.; Hunter, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intervention trials with supplemental β-carotene have observed either no effect or a harmful effect on lung cancer risk. Because food composition databases for specific carotenoids have only become available recently, epidemiological evidence relating usual dietary levels of these carotenoids with l

  8. Distinguishing Symptoms of Grief and Depression in a Cohort of Advanced Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Juliet C.; Zhang, Baohui; Block, Susan D.; Maciejewski, Paul K.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that the symptoms of grief are different from symptoms of depression among bereaved family members. This study is an attempt to replicate this finding among advanced cancer patients and examine clinical correlates of patient grief and depression. Analyses were conducted on data from interviews with 123 advanced cancer…

  9. Social ties and risk for cancer--a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites...

  10. Risk of colorectal and endometrial cancers in EPCAM deletion-positive Lynch syndrome : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, Marlies J. E.; Kuiper, Roland P.; Ockeloen, Charlotte W.; Chappuis, Pierre O.; Hutter, Pierre; Rahner, Nils; Schackert, Hans K.; Steinke, Verena; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Morak, Monika; Kloor, Matthias; Buettner, Reinhard; Verwiel, Eugene T. P.; van Krieken, J. Han; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Goossens, Monique; van der Post, Rachel S.; Niessen, Renee C.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Kluijt, Irma; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Leter, Edward M.; Gille, Johan J. P.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Redeker, Egbert J. W.; Hes, Frederik J.; Tops, Carli M. J.; van Nesselrooij, Bernadette P. M.; van Gijn, Marielle E.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Eccles, Diana M.; Bunyan, David J.; Syngal, Sapna; Stoffel, Elena M.; Culver, Julie O.; Palomares, Melanie R.; Graham, Tracy; Velsher, Lea; Papp, Janos; Olah, Edith; Chan, Tsun L.; Leung, Suet Y.; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 mismatch-repair genes and leads to a high risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer. We previously showed that constitutional 3' end deletions of EPCAM can cause Lynch syndrome through epigenetic silencing of MSH

  11. The transition between work, sickness absence and pension in a cohort of Danish colorectal cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Harling, Henrik; Pedersen, Jacob; Christensen, Karl Bang; Osler, Merete

    2013-01-01

    : Population-based study with use of administrative health-related and socioeconomic registers. Participants: All persons (N=4343) diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Denmark during the years 2001-2009 while they were in their working age (18-63 years) and who were part of the labour force 1 year postdiagnosis...

  12. Ten-Year Mortality after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Women with Severe Mental Illness: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laurberg, Tinne; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Charles, Morten; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether higher mortality after breast cancer contributes to the life-expectancy gap of 15 years in women with severe mental illness (SMI). Methods We estimated all-cause mortality rate ratios (MRRs) of women with SMI, women with breast cancer and women with both disorders compared to women with neither disorder using data from nationwide registers in Denmark for 1980–2012. Results The cohort included 2.7 million women, hereof 31,421 women with SMI (12,852 deaths), 104,342 with breast cancer (52,732 deaths), and 1,106 with SMI and breast cancer (656 deaths). Compared to women with neither disorder, the mortality was 118% higher for women with SMI (MRR: 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.14–2.22), 144% higher for women with breast cancer (MRR: 2.44, 95% CI: 2.42–2.47) and 327% higher for women with SMI and breast cancer (MRR: 4.27, 95% CI: 3.98–4.57). Among women with both disorders, 15% of deaths could be attributed to interaction. In a sub-cohort of women with breast cancer, the ten-year all-cause-mortality was 59% higher after taking tumor stage into account (MRR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.47–1.72) for women with versus without SMI. Conclusions The mortality among women with SMI and breast cancer was markedly increased. More information is needed to determine which factors might explain this excess mortality, such as differences between women with and without SMI in access to diagnostics, provision of care for breast cancer or physical comorbidity, health-seeking-behavior, and adherence to treatment. PMID:27462907

  13. The Impact of Radiation Therapy on the Risk of Lymphedema After Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Laura E.G.; Miller, Cynthia L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Horick, Nora [Department of Biostatistics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Skolny, Melissa N.; Jammallo, Lauren S.; Sadek, Betro T.; Shenouda, Mina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); O' Toole, Jean A. [Department of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle C. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose/Objective: Lymphedema after breast cancer treatment can be an irreversible condition with a negative impact on quality of life. The goal of this study was to identify radiation therapy-related risk factors for lymphedema. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2012, we prospectively performed arm volume measurements on 1476 breast cancer patients at our institution using a Perometer. Treating each breast individually, 1099 of 1501 patients (73%) received radiation therapy. Arm measurements were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Lymphedema was defined as ≥10% arm volume increase occurring >3 months postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate risk factors for lymphedema. Results: At a median follow-up time of 25.4 months (range, 3.4-82.6 months), the 2-year cumulative incidence of lymphedema was 6.8%. Cumulative incidence by radiation therapy type was as follows: 3.0% no radiation therapy, 3.1% breast or chest wall alone, 21.9% supraclavicular (SC), and 21.1% SC and posterior axillary boost (PAB). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for regional lymph node radiation (RLNR) (SC ± PAB) was 1.7 (P=.025) compared with breast/chest wall radiation alone. There was no difference in lymphedema risk between SC and SC + PAB (P=.96). Other independent risk factors included early postoperative swelling (P<.0001), higher body mass index (P<.0001), greater number of lymph nodes dissected (P=.018), and axillary lymph node dissection (P=.0001). Conclusions: In a large cohort of breast cancer patients prospectively screened for lymphedema, RLNR significantly increased the risk of lymphedema compared with breast/chest wall radiation alone. When considering use of RLNR, clinicians should weigh the potential benefit of RLNR for control of disease against the increased risk of lymphedema.

  14. Impact of integrated PET/CT in the staging of oesophageal cancer-a UK population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To document the impact of integrated positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) on the management of a cohort of UK patients undergoing PET/CT as part of their staging investigations for potentially curable oesophageal cancer. Materials and methods: A multicentre, prospective study of newly diagnosed patients with oesophageal cancer undergoing PET/CT was set up across five cancer networks covering a total population of 6.6 million. Data were prospectively collected for cases diagnosed between 1 November 2006 and 31 October 2007. Results: One hundred and ninety-one patients underwent PET/CT, with 31 (16%) positive for possible metastatic disease. Amongst the 31 positive examinations, 18 (9.4%) were confirmed to have metastatic disease, and 13 (6.5%) patients had no subsequent evidence of metastatic disease, although in three (1.6%) of these a second previously unsuspected pathology was diagnosed. Two patients had false-negative PET/CT and were found to have metastatic disease. The results of the PET/CT examination down-staged 10 (5%) patients thought to have coeliac/M1a node involvement on CT. Fifteen of 110 (13%) patients with stage 3 or 4 disease at CT and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) had confirmed metastatic disease at PET/CT, compared with none of 18 with stage 2b, three of 52 (6%) with stage 2a, and none of 10 with stage 1 disease. Conclusion: This study confirms the role of PET/CT in a multicentre UK setting in the management of patients with potentially curable carcinoma of the oesophagus, improving the accuracy of pre-treatment staging compared with CT and EUS alone. Early tumours infrequently show evidence of metastasis on PET/CT, although further data are required to confidently determine the stage of tumours where PET/CT has no additional value.

  15. The Impact of Radiation Therapy on the Risk of Lymphedema After Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Lymphedema after breast cancer treatment can be an irreversible condition with a negative impact on quality of life. The goal of this study was to identify radiation therapy-related risk factors for lymphedema. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2012, we prospectively performed arm volume measurements on 1476 breast cancer patients at our institution using a Perometer. Treating each breast individually, 1099 of 1501 patients (73%) received radiation therapy. Arm measurements were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. Lymphedema was defined as ≥10% arm volume increase occurring >3 months postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate risk factors for lymphedema. Results: At a median follow-up time of 25.4 months (range, 3.4-82.6 months), the 2-year cumulative incidence of lymphedema was 6.8%. Cumulative incidence by radiation therapy type was as follows: 3.0% no radiation therapy, 3.1% breast or chest wall alone, 21.9% supraclavicular (SC), and 21.1% SC and posterior axillary boost (PAB). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for regional lymph node radiation (RLNR) (SC ± PAB) was 1.7 (P=.025) compared with breast/chest wall radiation alone. There was no difference in lymphedema risk between SC and SC + PAB (P=.96). Other independent risk factors included early postoperative swelling (P<.0001), higher body mass index (P<.0001), greater number of lymph nodes dissected (P=.018), and axillary lymph node dissection (P=.0001). Conclusions: In a large cohort of breast cancer patients prospectively screened for lymphedema, RLNR significantly increased the risk of lymphedema compared with breast/chest wall radiation alone. When considering use of RLNR, clinicians should weigh the potential benefit of RLNR for control of disease against the increased risk of lymphedema

  16. A prospective cohort study on postoperative radiotherapy with TomoDirect using simultaneous integrated boost technique in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and toxicity of TomoDirect in breast cancer patients who received radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. 155 consecutive patients with breast carcinoma in situ or T1-2 breast cancer with negative lymph node received breast irradiation with TomoDirect using simultaneous integrated boost technique in the prospective cohort study. A radiation dose of 50.4 Gy and 57.4 Gy in 28 fractions was prescribed to the ipsilateral breast and tumor bed, respectively. Dosimetric parameters of target and organ at risk and acute complication were assessed prospectively. The mean dose for the tumor bed is 58.90 Gy. The mean values of V54.53Gy (95% of the prescribed dose), V63.14Gy (110% of the prescribed dose), and V66.01Gy (115% of the prescribed dose) were 99.97%, 1.26%, and 0%, respectively. The mean value of radiation conformality index was 1.01. The mean value of radical dose homogeneity index was 0.89. The average dose irradiated to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and contralateral breast was 4.72 Gy, 1.09 Gy, and 0.19 Gy, respectively. The most common toxicity was dermatitis. During breast irradiation, grade 2 and 3 dermatitis occurred in 41 (26.5%) and 6 (3.9%) of the 155 patients, respectively. Two patients had arm lymphedema during breast irradiation. Two patients had grade 2 pneumonitis 1 month after breast irradiation. Radiotherapy using TomoDirect in early breast cancer patients showed acceptable toxicities and optimal results in terms of target coverage and organ at risk sparing

  17. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Roura

    Full Text Available In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC. However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3/carcinoma in situ (CIS and invasive cervical cancer (ICC.We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR, odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03. Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥ 15 years versus never use. Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8. A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6. Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7.Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening

  18. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T.; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Quirós, J. Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Methods and Findings We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4–0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7). Conclusions Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to

  19. Does chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus influence the risk of lung cancer? Result from a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chun Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. There are some evidence that people with diabetes are at a risk of developing many forms of cancer, but inconclusive with regard to lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether COPD with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM influences the risk of developing lung cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 20,730 subjects newly diagnosed with COPD ("cases". Their data was collected from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan from 1998 to 2010. Among these patients, 5,820 patients had T2DM and 14,910 patients did not have T2DM. The retrospective matched control group consisted of 20,729 subjects without either COPD or T2DM. The control group was matched with the cases for sex, age, and index year (the year that the patient was diagnosed with COPD. The subjects were followed until the end of 2011. RESULTS: The findings of our study showed that the risk of lung cancer was higher in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 5.02 [95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23-5.94] among total case group, adjusted HR was 5.38 (95% CI = 4.52-6.40 in the cohort without T2DM and adjusted HR was 4.05 (95% CI = 3.26-5.03 in the cohort with T2DM. We observed a significantly protective effect from lung cancer (adjusted HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63-0.90 of diabetic cohort than non-diabetic cohort among patients with COPD. CONCLUSION: Patients with COPD had a significantly higher risk of developing lung cancer than healthy people. However, there was a protective effect of T2DM for lung cancer among patients with COPD. Further investigation may be needed to corroborate the mechanism or bring up reliable reasons.

  20. Trends in Clinically Significant Pain Prevalence Among Hospitalized Cancer Patients at an Academic Hospital in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Yun; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Chun-Sung; Wang, Kwua-Yun; Liang, Chun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Clinically significant pain (CSP) is one of the most common complaints among cancer patients during repeated hospitalizations, and the prevalence ranges from 24% to 86%. This study aimed to characterize the trends in CSP among cancer patients and examine the differences in the prevalence of CSP across repeated hospitalizations. A hospital-based, retrospective cohort study was conducted at an academic hospital. Patient-reported pain intensity was assessed and recorded in a nursing information system. We examined the differences in the prevalence of worst pain intensity (WPI) and last evaluated pain intensity (LPI) of ≥ 4 or ≥ 7 points among cancer inpatients from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. Linear mixed models were used to determine the significant difference in the WPI and LPI (≥ 4 or ≥ 7 points) at each hospitalization. We examined 88,133 pain scores from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization among cancer patients. The prevalence of the 4 CSP types showed a trend toward a reduction from the 1st to the 18th hospitalization. There was a robust reduction in the CSP prevalence from the 1st to the 5th hospitalization, except in the case of LPI ≥ 7 points. The prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points was significantly higher (0.240-fold increase) during the 1st hospitalization than during the 5th hospitalization. For the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th hospitalizations, there was a significantly higher prevalence of a WPI ≥ 4 points compared with the 5th hospitalization. We also observed significant reductions in the prevalence of a WPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 4th hospitalizations, an LPI ≥ 4 points during the 1st to the 3rd hospitalizations, and an LPI ≥ 7 points during the 1st to the 2nd hospitalization. Although the prevalence of the 4 CSP types decreased gradually, it is impossible to state the causative factors on the basis of this observational and descriptive study. The next step will examine the factors that determine the CSP prevalence among cancer

  1. Gender, anthropometric factors and risk of colorectal cancer with particular reference to tumour location and TNM stage: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brändstedt Jenny

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC associated with obesity differs by gender, distribution of fat, tumour location and clinical (TNM stage. The primary aim of this study was to examine these associations in 584 incident colorectal cancer cases from a Swedish prospective population-based cohort including 28098 men and women. Methods Seven anthropometric factors; height, weight, bodyfat percentage, hip circumference, waist circumference, BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were categorized into quartiles of baseline anthropometric measurements. Relative risks of CRC, total risk as well as risk of different TNM stages, and risk of tumours located to the colon or rectum, were calculated for all cases, women and men, respectively, using multivariate Cox regression models. Results Obesity, as defined by all anthropometric variables, was significantly associated with an overall increased risk of CRC in both women and men. While none of the anthropometric measures was significantly associated with risk of tumour (T-stage 1 and 2 tumours, all anthropometric variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of T-stage 3 and 4, in particular in men. In men, increasing quartiles of weight, hip, waist, BMI and WHR were significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node positive (N1 and N2 disease, and risk of both non-metastatic (M0 and metastatic (M1 disease. In women, there were no or weak associations between obesity and risk of node-positive disease, but statistically significant associations between increased weight, bodyfat percentage, hip, BMI and M0 disease. Interestingly, there was an increased risk of colon but not rectal cancer in men, and rectal but not colon cancer in women, by increased measures of weight, hip-, waist circumference and bodyfat percentage. Conclusions This study is the first to show a relationship between obesity, measured as several different

  2. Are meat and heme iron intake associated with pancreatic cancer? Results from the NIH-AARP diet and health cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taunk, Pulkit; Hecht, Eric; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2016-05-01

    Several studies on pancreatic cancer have reported significant positive associations for intake of red meat but null associations for heme iron. We assessed total, red, white and processed meat intake, meat cooking methods and doneness and heme iron and mutagen intake in relation to pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. A total of 322,846 participants (187,265 men and 135,581 women) successfully completed and returned the food frequency questionnaire between 1995 and 1996. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (up to 10.17 years), 1,417 individuals (895 men and 522 women) developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and trends were calculated using the median value of each quantile. Models incorporated age as the time metric and were adjusted for smoking history, body mass index, self-reported diabetes and energy-adjusted saturated fat. Pancreatic cancer risk significantly increased with intake of total meat (Q5 vs. Q1: HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.42, p-trend = 0.03), red meat (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48, p-trend = 0.02), high-temperature cooked meat (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.45, p-trend = 0.02), grilled/barbequed meat (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50, p-trend = 0.007), well/very well done meat (HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.58, p-trend = 0.005) and heme iron from red meat (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45, p-trend = 0.04). When stratified by sex, these associations remained significant in men but not women except for white meat intake in women (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.74, p-trend = 0.04). Additional studies should confirm our findings that consuming heme iron from red meat increases pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:26666579

  3. Metachronous Second Primary Malignancies after Head and Neck Cancer in a Korean Cohort (1993-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-S Jung

    Full Text Available Second primary malignancy (SPM is the major long-term cause of patient mortality with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. As the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV-related HNSCC is increasing globally, we analyzed the patterns of SPM occurrence, the effect of the index tumor site along with attributes to HPV, and the effect of SPM on survival in South Korean patients with head and neck cancer (HNC. Data were retrieved from the Korea Central Cancer Registry, a nationwide population-based cancer registry, from 1993 to 2010. Standardized incidence ratios were analyzed and compared between index tumor sites, particularly oropharyngeal vs. non-oropharyngeal sites. After adjustment for competing risks, 3- and 5-year SPM rates were calculated using the cumulative incidence function. The effects of SPM occurrence on overall survival (OS were then analyzed. SPM rates were significantly lower for HPV-attributable oropharyngeal sites than for non-oropharyngeal sites, such as the larynx and hypopharynx (p<0.001. SPM rates were also lower for oral cavity first primary sites than for non-oropharyngeal first primary sites (p<0.001. SPMs typically occurred in the esophagus, lungs and the head and neck. Uterine cervical cancers occurred significantly more frequently after index oropharyngeal cancer in women. The 5-year and 10-year OS rates were 57.8 and 45.7% in all HNC patients, respectively. The OS after SPM occurrence was poor (5-year, 31.8%; 10-year, 20.8% compared to after index HNC occurrence (5-year, 68.4%; 10-year, 41.2%. SPM occurrence in the esophagus and lung/bronchus showed a worse OS than SPM localized to the head and neck. South Korean HNC patient, the first primary cancer site affected SPM risk and distribution. The 5- and 10-year OS rates deteriorated after SPM occurrence, particularly in the esophagus and lungs. Further optimization of follow-up strategies for effective surveillance of SPM, particularly in the esophagus

  4. Risk of a second primary cancer after non-melanoma skin cancer in white men and women: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengju Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest a positive association between history of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC and risk of subsequent cancer at other sites. The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine the risk of primary cancer according to personal history of NMSC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In two large US cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, we prospectively investigated this association in self-identified white men and women. In the HPFS, we followed 46,237 men from June 1986 to June 2008 (833,496 person-years. In the NHS, we followed 107,339 women from June 1984 to June 2008 (2,116,178 person-years. We documented 29,447 incident cancer cases other than NMSC. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. A personal history of NMSC was significantly associated with a higher risk of other primary cancers excluding melanoma in men (RR=1.11; 95% CI 1.05-1.18, and in women (RR=1.20; 95% CI 1.15-1.25. Age-standardized absolute risk (AR was 176 in men and 182 in women per 100,000 person-years. For individual cancer sites, after the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (n=28, in men, a personal history of NMSC was significantly associated with an increased risk of melanoma (RR=1.99, AR=116 per 100,000 person-years. In women, a personal history of NMSC was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast (RR=1.19, AR=87 per 100,000 person-years, lung (RR=1.32, AR=22 per 100,000 person-years, and melanoma (RR=2.58, AR=79 per 100,000 person-years. CONCLUSION: This prospective study found a modestly increased risk of subsequent malignancies among individuals with a history of NMSC, specifically breast and lung cancer in women and melanoma in both men and women.

  5. Prevalence and risk of depressive symptoms 3-4 months post-surgery in a nationwide cohort study of Danish women treated for early stage breast-cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2009-01-01

    breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group......BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of depressive symptoms are generally found among cancer patients, but results from existing studies vary considerably with respect to prevalence and proposed risk factors. PURPOSE: To study the prevalence of depressive symptoms and major depression 3-4 months following...... surgery for breast cancer, and to identify clinical risk factors while adjusting for pre-cancer sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and psychiatric history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort consists of 4917 Danish women, aged 18-70 years, receiving standardized treatment for early stage invasive...

  6. Reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women treated with an oral bisphosphonate-Danish National Register Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, M; Abrahamsen, B; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, R; Russell, R Graham G

    2012-01-01

    whether alendronate acts as chemopreventive. INTRODUCTION: When bisphosphonates are given by mouth, around 99% remains non-absorbed in the intestine. Based on their biochemical actions, we predicted that oral bisphosphonates might prevent colon cancers. METHODS: This is a Danish national register...... incidence and post-diagnosis survival in patients taking oral alendronate for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Cox proportional hazards analysis of death due to colon cancer showed lower risk in alendronate users, crude hazard ratio (HR) 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.81) with an adjusted HR of 0.62 (95% CI 0.52-0.72). The......In this Danish national register-based cohort study, we examined the effects of alendronate on the development of colon cancers and survival. The incidence of colon cancer and mortality rate, once colon cancer had been diagnosed, were lower in patients treated with alendronate, posing the question...

  7. A prospective cohort study of early discontinuation of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer: the breast cancer quality of care study (BQUAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugut, Alfred I; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lamerato, Lois; Buono, Donna L; Nathanson, S David; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Jacobson, Judith S; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-07-01

    For many women with non-metastatic breast cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy prevents recurrence and extends survival. Women who discontinue chemotherapy early may reduce those benefits, but little is known about what predicts early discontinuation. We sought to determine prospectively the rate and reasons for early discontinuation of adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective cohort study among three U.S. health care organizations. Of 1158 women with newly diagnosed non-metastatic breast cancer, 2006-2010, we analyzed 445 (38.4 %) patients who initiated standard adjuvant chemotherapy as defined by accepted guidelines. We interviewed patients at baseline and twice during treatment regarding sociodemographic/psychosocial factors and treatment decision-making and collected clinical data. They were categorized according to the number of cycles required by the chemotherapy regimen they had initiated. The outcome was early discontinuation (4 cycles of therapy (18.1 % for longer regimens, 7.4 % for 4 cycles) (odds ratio [OR] 2.59, 95 % CI 1.32-5.08), controlling for race, age, stage, hormone receptor status, social support, optimism, spirituality, stress, and physical symptoms. Higher levels of psychological symptoms on the Memorial symptom assessment scale also increased the odds of early discontinuation (OR 1.92, 95 % CI 0.998-3.68). The large majority of patients who initiated adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer completed their prescribed regimens, but early discontinuation was associated with lengthier regimens and, with borderline statistical significance, for those with psychological side effects. PMID:27287779

  8. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunsell John HR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

  9. Measurement properties of PROMIS Sleep Disturbance short forms in a large, ethnically diverse cancer cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Roxanne E.; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L.; Eithne Sexton; Reeve, Bryce B.; Moinpour, Carol M.; Potosky, Arnold L.; Tania Lobo; Teresi, Jeanne A.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate model fit, differential item function (DIF), and construct validity of select short forms from the PROMIS® Sleep Disturbance item bank. METHODS: We recruited cancer survivors who were between 6 - 13 months post diagnosis (n = 4,956), as part of the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health) study. We measured sleep disturbance using 10 items commonly found in PROMIS Sleep Disturbance short forms (Sleep 4a, Sleep 6a, Sleep 8b), and which are frequently administered in computerized ...

  10. Surgical Management of the Primary Tumor in Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: A Confirmatory Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Shahid; Leis, Anne; Chandra-Kanthan, Selliah; Fields, Anthony; Reeder, Bruce; Iqbal, Nayyer; Haider, Kamal; Le, Duc; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that patients with stage IV colorectal cancer who undergo surgical resection of the primary tumor (SRPT) have better survival. Yet the results are not confirmed in the setting of a randomized controlled trial. Lack of randomization and failure to control prognostic variables such as performance status are major critiques to the findings of the observational studies. We previously have shown that SRPT, independent of chemotherapy and performance...

  11. Mitochondrial DNA copy number and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hosgood, H Dean; Liu, Chin-San; Rothman, Nathaniel; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Bonner, Matthew R; Shen, Min; Lim, Unhee; Virtamo, Jarmo; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Albanes, Demetrius; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles responsible for energy production. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lack introns and protective histones, have limited DNA repair capacity and compensate for damage by increasing the number of mtDNA copies. As a consequence, mitochondria are more susceptible to reactive oxygen species, an important determinant of cancer risk, and it is hypothesized that increased mtDNA copy number may be associated with carcinogenesis. We assessed the association of mtDNA copy ...

  12. Endogenous estrogens and breast cancer risk: the case for prospective cohort studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Toniolo, P G

    1997-01-01

    It is generally agreed that estrogens, and possibly androgens, are important in the etiology of breast cancer, but no consensus exists as to the precise estrogenic or androgenic environment that characterizes risk, or the exogenous factors that influence the hormonal milieu. Nearly all the epidemiological studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s were hospital-based case-control studies in which specimen sampling was performed well after the clinical appearance of the disease. Early prospectiv...

  13. Do eating habits differ according to alcohol consumption? Results of a study of the French cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (E3N-EPIC).

    OpenAIRE

    Kesse, Emmanuelle; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Slimani, Nadia; Van Liere, Marti,

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential of dietary habits to confound the association between alcohol consumption and health needs further study. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether eating habits differed according to alcohol consumption in a large cohort of French women. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of the French cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (E3N-EPIC). The cohort was established in 1990 and includes 100000 women born between 1925 and 1950. Dietary data...

  14. Rationale for an international consortium to study inherited genetic susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherborne, Amy L.; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv; Bartram, Claus R.; Stanulla, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Petridou, Eleni; Semsei, Ágnes F.; Szalai, Csaba; Sinnett, Daniel; Krajinovic, Maja; Healy, Jasmine; Lanciotti, Marina; Dufour, Carlo; Indaco, Stefania; El-Ghouroury, Eman A; Sawangpanich, Ruchchadol; Hongeng, Suradej; Pakakasama, Samart; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Ugarte, Evelia L.; Leal, Valeria P.; Espinoza, Juan P.M.; Kamel, Azza M.; Ebid, Gamal T.A.; Radwan, Eman R.; Yalin, Serap; Yalin, Erdinc; Berkoz, Mehmet; Simpson, Jill; Roman, Eve; Lightfoot, Tracy; Hosking, Fay J.; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Greaves, Mel; Houlston, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the major pediatric cancer in developed countries. To date most association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been based on the candidate gene approach and have evaluated a restricted number of polymorphisms. Such studies have served to highlight difficulties in conducting statistically and methodologically rigorous investigations into acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Recent genome-wide association studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have provided robust evidence that common variation at four genetic loci confers a modest increase in risk. The accumulated experience to date and relative lack of success of initial efforts to identify novel acute lymphoblastic leukemia predisposition loci emphasize the need for alternative study designs and methods. The International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Genetics Consortium includes 12 research groups in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Americas engaged in studying the genetics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The initial goal of this consortium is to identify and characterize low-penetrance susceptibility variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia through association-based analyses. Efforts to develop genome-wide association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in terms of both sample size and single nucleotide polymorphism coverage, and to increase the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms taken forward to large-scale replication should lead to the identification of additional novel risk variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ethnic differences in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are well recognized and thus in assessing the interplay between inherited and non-genetic risk factors, analyses using different population cohorts with different incidence rates are likely to be highly informative. Given that the frequency of many acute lymphoblastic leukemia subgroups is small, identifying differential effects will realistically only be

  15. A population-based cohort study of chest x-ray screening in smokers: lung cancer detection findings and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case-control studies of mass screening for lung cancer (LC) by chest x-rays (CXR) performed in the 1990s in scarcely defined Japanese target populations indicated significant mortality reductions, but these results are yet to be confirmed in western countries. To ascertain whether CXR screening decreases LC mortality at community level, we studied a clearly defined population-based cohort of smokers invited to screening. We present here the LC detection results and the 10-year survival rates. The cohort of all smokers of > 10 pack-years resident in 50 communities of Varese, screening-eligible (n = 5,815), in July 1997 was invited to nonrandomized CXR screening. Self-selected participants (21% of cohort) underwent screening in addition to usual care; nonparticipants received usual care. The cohort was followed-up until December 2010. Kaplan-Meier LC-specific survival was estimated in participants, in nonparticipants, in the whole cohort, and in an uninvited, unscreened population (control group). Over the initial 9.5 years of study, 67 LCs were diagnosed in screening participants (51% were screen-detected) and 178 in nonparticipants. The rates of stage I LC, resectability and 5-year survival were nearly twice as high in participants (32% stage I; 48% resected; 30.5% 5-year survival) as in nonparticipants (17% stage I; 27% resected; 13.5% 5-year survival). There were no bronchioloalveolar carcinomas among screen-detected cancers, and median volume doubling time of incidence screen-detected LCs was 80 days (range, 44-318), suggesting that screening overdiagnosis was minimal. The 10-year LC-specific survival was greater in screening participants than in nonparticipants (log-rank, p = 0.005), and greater in the whole cohort invited to screening than in the control group (log-rank, p = 0.001). This favourable long-term effect was independently related to CXR screening exposure. In the setting of CXR screening offered to a population-based cohort of smokers, screening

  16. Advanced Lab Consortium ``Conspiracy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Jonathan F.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced Laboratory instruction is a time-honored and essential element of an undergraduate physics education. But, from my vantage point, it has been neglected by the two major professional societies, APS and AAPT. At some schools, it has been replaced by ``research experiences,'' but I contend that very few of these experiences in the research lab, particularly in the junior year, deliver what they promise. It is time to focus the attention of APS, AAPT, and the NSF on the advanced lab. We need to create an Advanced Lab Consortium (ALC) of faculty and staff to share experiments, suppliers, materials, pedagogy, ideas, in short to build a professional network for those committed to advanced lab instruction. The AAPT is currently in serious discussions on this topic and my company stands ready with both financial and personnel resources to support the effort. This talk is a plea for co-conspirators.

  17. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  18. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  19. Impact of Palliative Care Consultation Service on Terminally Ill Cancer Patients: A 9-Year Observational Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ching-Yi; Shen, Wen-Chi; Kao, Chen-Yi; Wang, Hung-Ming; Tang, Shu-Chuan; Chin, Tsu-Ling; Chi, Chuan-Chuan; Yang, Jin-Mei; Chang, Chih-Wen; Lai, Ying-Fen; Yeh, Ya-Chi; Hung, Yu-Shin; Chou, Wen-Chi

    2016-03-01

    The palliative care consultation service (PCCS) that has been enthusiastically promoted in Taiwan since 2005 was designed to provide comprehensive end-of-life care for terminally ill patients with qualified interdisciplinary specialists in acute care ward setting. This study aims to evaluate the impact of PCCS on terminally ill cancer patients.A total of 10,594 terminal cancer patients who were referred to PCCS from a single medical center in Taiwan between 2006 and 2014 were enrolled. The percentages of patients' and their families' disease awareness, do-not-resuscitate (DNR) designation, refusal and acceptance of palliative care among terminally ill cancer patients were analyzed retrospectively.At the beginning of PCCS, the percentages of disease awareness among patients and their family were increased from 25.4% to 37.9% (P = 0.007) and from 61.2% to 84.7% between 2006 and 2014 (P = 0.001), respectively. Patients' disease awareness after PCCS referral between 2006 and 2014 was increased from 47.1% to 64.5% (P = 0.016). Family's awareness of diagnosis and prognosis after PCCS referral researched to a steady plateau, 94.1% to 97.8% in different year cohort (P = 0.34). The percentage of DNR designation rate at the beginning of PCCS (in 2006) was 15.5%, and the designation rate was increased annually and finally reached to 42.0% in 2014 (P = 0.004). The percentage of DNR consents after PCCS was also improved from 44.0% in 2006 up to 80.0% in 2014 (P = 0.005). PCCS refusal rate decreased gradually and dropped to 1.6% in 2014 (P = 0.005). The percentage of PCCS utilization was increased 5-fold during the 9-year period after the promotion of PCCSIn the program of PCCS promotion, an increasing trend of PCCS utilization, better patients' and their families' awareness of diagnosis and prognosis, more consent to DNR, more patients were discharged with stable condition at the end of PCCS and a decrease refusal rate of end-of-life palliative care

  20. Insulin glargine and risk of cancer: a cohort study in the French National Healthcare Insurance Database

    OpenAIRE

    Blin, P.; Lassalle, R.; Dureau-Pournin, C.; Ambrosino, B.; Bernard, M. A.; Abouelfath, A.; Gin, H; Le Jeunne, C; Pariente, A.; Droz, C.; Moore, N

    2012-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Using the Echantillon Généraliste de Bénéficiaires: random 1/97 permanent sample of the French national healthcare insurance system database (EGB), we investigated whether, as previously suspected, the risk of cancer in insulin glargine (A21Gly,B31Arg,B32Arg human insulin) users is higher than in human insulin users. The investigation period was from 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2010. Methods We used Cox proportional hazards time-dependent models that were stratified on propensit...